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Journal of Food Engineering
journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/jfoodeng
Effect of different treatments for the destabilization of coconut milk emulsion
S.N. Raghavendra, K.S.M.S. Raghavarao *
Department of Food Engineering, Central Food Technological Research Institute, Council of Scientiﬁc and Industrial Research, India
a r t i c l e
i n f o
a b s t r a c t
Coconut milk is an emulsion which is stabilized by naturally occurring proteins. The main objective of the present work is to explore different methods employing thermal, pH, chilling, enzyme treatments and combination of enzyme treatments followed by chilling and thawing for effective destabilization of the coconut milk emulsion. Stability of emulsion is evaluated by measuring the creaming index and observed for the changes in structure of oil droplets, using phase contrast microscope. Combination of treatments (enzyme treatment at 37 °C followed by chilling and thawing) of coconut milk emulsion has resulted in highest yield of 94.5%. Physico-chemical properties and fatty acid compositions are evaluated for coconut oil obtained by combination of treatments and compared with that of commercial coconut oil. It is found that the oil obtained by combination of treatments is low with respect to free fatty acids and peroxide value and high in lauric acid content. Ó 2009 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Article history: Received 23 March 2009 Received in revised form 15 October 2009 Accepted 25 October 2009 Available online 29 October 2009 Keywords: Coconut milk Oil-in-water emulsion Destabilization Coalescence Protease Chilling Thawing Coconut oil
1. Introduction Coconut milk is the natural oil-in-water emulsion extracted from the endosperm of mature coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) (Seow and Gwee, 1997) and it plays an important role in many traditional foods of Asian and Paciﬁc regions (Chiewchan et al., 2006). Coconut milk contains about 54% moisture, 35% fat and 11% solid non-fat (Simuang et al., 2004; Tansakul and Chaisawang, 2006). Freshly extracted coconut milk is a stable emulsion, which requires extra energy to destabilize this emulsion (McGlone et al., 1986). It is naturally stabilized by coconut proteins such as globulins and albumins as well as phospholipids (Tangsuphoom and Coupland, 2008). Some of the proteins present in the aqueous phase of the coconut milk interact with fat globules and act as emulsiﬁer by surrounding its surface (Peamprasart and Chiewchan, 2006). Conventionally, coconut oil is produced by expelling dry copra, followed by reﬁning during which oil is exposed to high temperatures. Oil obtained from fresh and mature coconuts without any reﬁning is known as virgin coconut oil (VCO) (Shilhavy and Shilhavy, 2004; Marina et al., 2009a). It is colourless with characteristic coconut ﬂavour and ﬁnds several applications in medicinal, cosmetics and cooking purposes. VCO retains the fresh aroma
* Corresponding author. Address: Department of Food Engineering, CFTRI, Mysore 570020, India. Tel.: +91 821 2513910; fax: +91 821 2517233. E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org (K.S.M.S. Raghavarao). 0260-8774/$ - see front matter Ó 2009 Published by Elsevier Ltd. doi:10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2009.10.027
and taste of coconuts whereas, the copra-based reﬁned coconut oil will have a bland taste due to the reﬁning process. It has more beneﬁcial effects than copra pressed oil, since it retains most of the nutraceutical components (Nevin and Rajamohan, 2004). The natural antioxidants present in oil makes it very stable having long shelf life. The health beneﬁts of coconut oil are mainly from the medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs). These MCFAs are similar to that of human milk and have corresponding nutraceutical beneﬁts. The most predominant MCFA is lauric acid (45– 53%). German and Dillard (2004) cited the virtues of lauric acid of having antiviral, antibacterial, and antifungal functions. Traditionally, virgin coconut oil is produced by fermentation method, where coconut milk expelled from freshly harvested coconuts is fermented for 24–36 h during this period, the oil phase gets separated from aqueous phase. Further, oil is slightly heated for a short time to remove the moisture and ﬁnally ﬁltered (Madhavan et al., 2005). The main disadvantages of this process are low oil recovery and fermented odour, which masks the characteristic coconut ﬂavour of the oil. Systematic research has been in progress at CFTRI for the production of value added products from coconut (Raghavarao et al., 2008; Raghavendra et al., 2004, 2006, 2007, 2009; Rastogi and Raghavarao, 2006). The present work is one such attempt in that direction. The main objective of the present work is to explore different methods for effective destabilization of coconut milk emulsion based on thermal, pH, chilling, enzyme treatments and also combination of enzyme treatment followed by chilling and thawing.
polenske value. Then it was centrifuged at 3585g for 10 min to separate coconut cream and aqueous phases. Fatty acid composition Analysis of fatty acid composition was done by gas chromatography (GC) (Model: GC-15A.S. Combination of enzyme and chilling treatments The coconut milk emulsion was treated with enzyme protease of 0. Eltectrocraft. 80 and 90 °C) for 20 min to destabilize the coconut milk emulsion. Coconut milk emulsion subjected to different treatments (thermal. pH treatment Freshly extracted coconut milk has a pH 6 (control). chilling.3. All chemicals of analytical grade were procured from Merck Chemicals.4.S.1 N HCl and pH 7 and 10 using 0.1 N NaOH. The total height of the emulsion in the test tube (HE) and the height of the aqueous layer (HS) were measured. an indicator of emulsion stability.5. 50.M. pH. peroxide value according to standard methods (AOAC. 1. was measured according to method reported by White et al. India. hexane (HPLC grade) was procured from Ranbaxy Fine Chemicals Ltd. saponiﬁcation value.1.5. The coconut oil yield was found to increase with an increase in temperature. 60. Destabilization of coconut milk emulsion is due to denaturation of heat labile proteins during heating. cream was centrifuged at 4880g for 15 min to obtain oil.3. USA) equipped with camera. Physico-chemical properties The coconut oil obtained by combination of treatments was evaluated for moisture. Shimadzu) as per the AOCS method Ce1-62 (AOCS.N. Finally. The fat content of coconut milk (39 ± 1%) was determined by Rose– Gottlieb method (AOAC. 2. India) at 3585g for 10 min to separate coconut cream and aqueous phases. respectively. Thermal treatment Freshly extracted coconut milk was heated in a constant temperature stirred water bath at different temperatures (40. Effect of thermal treatment The effect of thermal treatment on the stability of the coconut milk emulsion (quantiﬁed by oil yield) is shown in Fig. 2. which results in the aggrega- . Fatty acids present in oil were ﬁrst converted to fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) before injecting into GC column to obtain the fatty acid proﬁle. Then they were subjected to centrifugation at 3585g for 10 min to separate coconut cream and aqueous phases. Mumbai. iodine value. Signiﬁcant differences between means were determined by t test (independent samples for mean) using statistical package for social science (SPSS). Coconut cream was subjected to centrifugation at 4880g for 15 min to obtain oil. Statistical analysis All the physico-chemical analysis and fatty acid composition was carried out in triplicates for oil obtained from combination of treatments and commercial sample. 2. Enzyme aspartic protease [EC 3. speciﬁc gravity. Finally coconut cream was centrifuged at 4880g for 15 min to obtain oil.3. coconut cream was centrifuged at 4880g for 15 min to obtain oil. acid value.. Then cream was chilled at Creaming index. K.7. India. Emulsion stability measurements Fresh and mature coconuts (10–12 months old) were procured from the local market. Raghavarao / Journal of Food Engineering 97 (2010) 341–347 2. Raghavendra.3. Commercial coconut oil sample is procured from the market (Departmental Store.342 S.1% concentration and incubated at 25 and 37 °C for 2 h. 15 and 20 °C) for 6 h and thawed to ambient conditions (29 ± 2 °C). The samples were allowed to stand for 2 h at ambient temperature (29 ± 2 °C) to destabilize the coconut emulsion. paring and removal of water. For GC analysis. 70.23] (Activity: 2500 tyrosine units/g) of commercial grade was procured from Kaypeeyes Biotech Private Ltd. enzyme and combination of enzyme and chilling treatments) was allowed to stand for 6 h at ambient temperature (29 ± 2 °C). 2. Finally.05. Materials and methods 2. 2.3.3. Further.3. Enzyme treated emulsion was centrifuged at 3585g for 10 min to obtain coconut cream and aqueous phase. The pH of coconut milk emulsion was varied between 3 and 5 using 0. Significance of differences was deﬁned at p < 0. Emulsion samples were placed on a glass slide. Destabilization of coconut milk emulsion 2. A commercial oil sample was also evaluated for the purpose of comparison.2. The white coconut kernel was disintegrated using rotary wedge cutter (Krauss Maffei. 2. Mumbai. Results and discussion 3. Then each sample was subjected to centrifugation (Model: TC-4100 D. Free fatty acids were analyzed according to AOCS method Ca 5a-40 (AOCS. The grating was subjected to expelling in a screw press to extract coconut milk. 3. 1998) and expressed as percentage FFA as lauric acid. 2.6. Finally cream was centrifuged at 4880g for 15 min to obtain clear oil. unsaponiﬁable matter.2. covered with cover slip and observed at 45Â magniﬁcation using a phase contrast microscope. (2007) with a little modiﬁcation. 1990). Microstructure of oil droplets Coconut milk emulsion destabilized by different treatments was observed under phase contrast microscope (Olympus BX-40. The maximum oil yield of 86% was observed at 90 °C. The column temperature was 220 °C and nitrogen was used as a carrier gas at a ﬂow rate of 1 ml/min.4. 2000). 2. All samples were separated into the cream (top) and the transparent aqueous (bottom) phases. India. Mysore. Mysore). thawed coconut milk emulsion was centrifuged at 3585g for 10 min to obtain coconut cream and aqueous phases. 1998).1. Germany). Chilling treatment The coconut milk emulsion were chilled at different temperatures (5.1. 10. Enzyme treatment The coconut milk emulsion was treated with aspartic protease (Activity: 2500 tyrosine units/g) of 0. refractive index. 2.8. The extent of creaming was characterized by a creaming index = 100 Ã (HS/HE). 2.1% concentration and incubated at 25 and 37 °C for 3 h.4. The injector and detector temperatures were 230 and 240 °C. Extraction of coconut milk The mature coconuts were subjected to deshelling. 2. Materials 5 °C for 6 h and then thawed to ambient temperature (29 ± 2 °C).
Coconut milk chilled at 20 °C showed a yield of 65% and 74% at 15 °C. Effect of thermal treatment on the stability of coconut milk emulsion quantiﬁed by oil yield. 2. Hence. 3. 2009a). forming a highly turbid layer at the bottom and an opaque creamed layer at the top (Onsaard et al. yield has increased from 65% to 92%. K. tion of oil droplets. Effect of chilling temperature The effect of chilling temperature on the stability of the coconut milk emulsion (quantiﬁed by oil yield) is presented in Fig. Further. 1. it was observed that complete separation of oil from cream was not possible at that temperature.3. The coconut milk emulsions were highly unstable to creaming at pH 3–6. these proteins/peptide fragments move towards aqueous phase facilitating the phase separation. 3. Proteins present in coconut milk play an important role on the stability of the emulsion and heating the coconut milk at higher temperature causes protein denaturation.S. complete separation of oil could be achieved only at 5 °C. Thus it can be observed that with a decrease in the chilling temperature from 20 to 5 °C. Gunetileke and Laurentius (1974) reported that 17 °C as the optimum temperature for the separation of oil from coconut milk emulsion. Droplets with lower surface charge interact with each other and coalesce into larger ones. Coconut milk emulsion can be separated by adjusting pH of the coconut milk emulsion between pH 3 and 5. whereas at 37 °C. Seow and Gwee. most of the enzymes show optimum activity at 37 °C. 3. 83% yield was observed (at same enzyme concentration). 1996). resulting in the higher destabilization of the emulsion and in turn higher yield. When pH was decreased from 6 to 3. Effect of enzyme treatment It was observed that coconut milk treated with 0. destabilization of emulsion increased with corresponding increase in yield (89%).. the yield was higher at that temperature. Freshly extracted coconut milk has pH 6 and at this pH. Finally. Tangsuphoom and Coupland (2008) reported that coconut milk proteins easily coagulated and precipitated at pH 4. Aggregation of oil droplets occur due to thermal denaturation of proteins stabilizing coconut milk emulsion which in turn affect the surface charge of oil droplets. 3. Fig. and also at pH 7 and 8. 3. Since. Much higher yield of 86% was observed in sample chilled at 10 °C while the highest yield of 92% was obtained at 5 °C. However. 3. In order to destabilize the coconut milk emulsion Fig.5. 1997). 2006). Coconut proteins have been shown to denature and coagulate at 80 °C and higher (Kwon et al. Effect of chilling temperature on the stability of coconut milk emulsion quantiﬁed by oil yield..N. resulting in the phase separation and formation of oil and aqueous layers (Peamprasart and Chiewchan. Effect of pH The effect of pH on the stability of the coconut milk emulsion (quantiﬁed by oil yield) is presented in Fig. The coconut oil yield was found to increase with a decrease in chilling temperature from 20 to 5 °C.. Aspartic protease (endoprotease) was selected to destabilize the coconut milk emulsion. The decrease in temperature up to 5 °C resulted in 92% recovery of oil upon thawing and centrifugation. 4. which hydrolyzes peptide bonds in the interior of the polypeptide chain. Effect of pH on the stability of coconut milk emulsion quantiﬁed by oil yield. there by resulting in complete destabilization of coconut milk emulsion. Thereby these exposed shorter fragments of protein/peptides decrease the emulsifying property which leads to aggregation of oil droplets. Effect of combination of enzyme and chilling treatments The effect of combination treatments (enzyme and chilling treatment) along with other treatments (quantiﬁed by oil yield) is shown in Fig. heating coconut milk above 80 °C is prone to denature most of the proteins. the solidiﬁcation of oil takes place and during thawing (29 ± 2 °C) oil globules loose their spherical structure and coalesce to form large droplets. An increase in pH from 6 to 10 also resulted in higher 100 90 Coconut oil yield (%) 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 5 10 15 20 Temperature (°C) Fig.S. Raghavarao / Journal of Food Engineering 97 (2010) 341–347 343 destabilization of emulsion and 83% yield was obtained.M.6 (Marina et al. Raghavendra.S. the close contact among large droplets (higher interaction time) and applied force during centrifugation lead to destabilization of emulsion. resulting in coconut oil yield of only 62%.2. 2. As a result of lowering the temperature.1% concentration of enzyme at 25 °C has resulted in 76% yield. the stability is high. Even though the critical temperature for oil separation is 17 °C. .4. 2006.
Creaming index provides the indirect information of droplet aggregation. combination of treatments (enzyme treated at 37 °C followed by chilling and thawing) was found to be most effective for destabilization of coconut milk emulsion when compared to all other treatments. Milk sample treated at pH 3 and 10 showed 55% and 54% creaming index. It can be observed that milk heating to higher temperature promoted the aggregation of small oil droplets to form bigger droplets. 5E and 5F. Fig.6 ± 0.58 52. Hence the differences in the former (creaming index) are relatively less when compared to the latter (oil yield) for different methods. 1974). Chilling (5 °C) and thawing showed 53% creaming index. Combination of treatments (enzyme assisted at 37 °C followed by chilling and thawing) showed creaming index of 58%. protein denatures and undergoes conformational changes. Chilling and thawing is also important for complete destabilization of the enzyme treated emulsion. respectively. emulsion was centrifuged before chilling which allowed better packing of the coconut oil globules. complete destabilization of milk emulsion is occurred.6 ± 0. Here. The microscopic structure of coconut milk emulsion treated with combination of enzyme treatment (25 and 37 °C) followed by chilling (5 °C) and thawing is shown in Fig.59 56. quantiﬁed by creaming index of coconut milk samples subjected to different treatments (thermal. It indicates that enzymatic action plays an important role on destabilization of coconut milk emulsion. It was observed that coconut milk treated with 0. From the table. pH.3%. which are non-uniformly dispersed.00 55. 2009a).7 ± 0.3 ± 0.7 ± 1.S. 5D shows the microstructure of coconut milk emulsion subjected to chilling (5 °C) and thawing to ambient conditions. Fatty acid composition The fatty acid composition for two oil samples (oil obtained from combination of treatments and commercial oil) is shown in Table 2. 3. faster the droplets move and therefore more droplet aggregation occurs during combination of treatments.3 ± 0..1% of protease at 37 °C followed by chilling and thawing to ambient conditions. Coconut oil yield of different treatments. Fig.344 100 90 80 S. 5A. enzyme and combination of enzyme and chilling treatments) was studied and presented in Table 1. can be seen when compared to all other treatments. It can be observed that short chain fatty acids are higher in oil obtained by combination of treatments compared to commercial sample. 5C) tended to move closer and formed stronger structure of aggregates. it can be observed that aggregation of bigger droplets taking place when compared to other treatments. 5H. Peamprasart and Chiewchan (2006) reported that some proteins denature during heating at 80 °C resulting in the aggregation of oil droplets. on thawing the structure breaks and forms bigger droplets (Gunetileke and Laurentius. the oil coalesced due to loss of spherical shape and formed large droplets of varying sizes (Marina et al. This provides the evidence for oil droplets aggregation taking place to a higher extent during the thermal treatment. Optimum activity of enzyme was observed at 37 °C hence. Microscopic structure of coconut milk emulsion treated by enzyme protease at 25 and 37 °C is shown in Fig. respectively. as packing of globules during chilling is necessary to facilitate oil separation (Gunetileke and Laurentius.0 ± 1. where it can be observed that the oil droplets are in uniform shape as well as size and distributed evenly. chilling. the highest yield of 94. . 3.N.52 58.M. Coconut milk treated with enzyme protease Table 1 Emulsion stability of different treatments. During heating. Whereas.5% was observed in the coconut milk sample treated with 0. Onsaard et al.4% and 6. Thus it may be noted that combination of treatments (enzyme followed by chilling and thawing) was more effective for the destabilization of coconut milk emulsion compared to all other treatments. it can be observed that coconut milk treated at 90 °C shows 49% creaming index whereas. indicating a stable emulsion.8. enzyme shows optimum activity at 37 °C.6.60 Means of the same column of different treatments are signiﬁcantly different at p < 0. Treatments Control Thermal treatment at 90 °C pH 3 pH 10 Enzyme treatment at 25 °C Enzyme treatment at 37 °C Chilling at 5 °C Enzyme treatment at 25 °C followed by chilling Enzyme treatment at 37 °C followed by chilling Creaming index (%) 27. These conformational changes increase the attractive forces between oil droplets which in turn lead to aggregation of oil droplets (Jirapeangtong et al.58 53. in the oil obtained from present work when (to increase the coconut oil yield). Raghavendra. It can be observed that the oil droplets coalesced and formed bigger droplets. in control sample it was observed to be only 27%. Thus.. destabilization of coconut milk emulsion was highest at this temperature. Since. Here..7. more precisely of the ﬂocculation while the destabilization (after centrifugation) indicates the degree of coalescence.00 49. 5. showed 52% creaming index.1% of protease at 25 °C followed by chilling and thawing yielded 91%. 5B shows the microstructure of coconut milk emulsion treated at 90 °C. combination of treatments (enzyme treatment followed by chilling at 5 °C and thawing to ambient temperature) was employed. 4. the biggest size of oil droplets.0 ± 1. 3. During chilling the structure of fat globules becomes crystal like formation. It can be observed that enzymatic treatment (37 °C) resulted in aggregation of big oil droplets compared to thermal and pH treatments. Microscopic structure of treated coconut milk Microscopic structure of coconut milk emulsion subjected to different treatments is shown in Fig. The microstructure of untreated coconut milk (control) is shown in Fig. This clearly shows that pH can inﬂuence the oil droplet aggregation and helps in destabilization of stable coconut milk emulsion. respectively. 1974). In Fig.15 55. During thawing. The microscopic structure of coconut milk emulsion adjusted to pH 3 (Fig. (2006) reported that higher the creaming index. 2008). Caprylic (C8:0) and Capric (C10:0) showed 9. respectively. which is the highest among all the treatments.58 49.3 ± 0. K. Raghavarao / Journal of Food Engineering 97 (2010) 341–347 Oil yield (%) 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Control Thermal pH Enzyme Chilling Combined Treatments Fig.05. Emulsion stability Emulsion stability.S. 5G and H.
respectively.9 ± 0. Out of which.9 ± 1. (D) chilling and thawing.M. compared to 4. Fatty acids Coconut oil (present work) (%) 9.7 ± 1.7 ± 0.7 ± 1.06 4.05.47 Coconut oil (commercial sample) (%) 4.4 ± 1.3 ± 0.S.55 0. Table 2 Fatty acids composition. in the production of commercial oil heat treatment and reﬁning process are involved hence it contains lesser amount of short chain fatty acids.0–10 5.8% in commercial oil. (G) and (H) combination of treatments (enzyme assisted at 25 °C and 37 °C.26 6. corresponds to more health beneﬁts.21 3. Microscopic structure (magniﬁcation 45Â) of coconut milk emulsion treated at different conditions: (A) control. respectively. respectively) which was slightly higher than reported by Marina et al.5 ± 0.0–2.2 9. In combination of treatments. 5. for commercial sample. (2009b).0–21 7. respectively.0 ± 1. (B) thermal treatment at 90 °C.0–10 1. Raghavarao / Journal of Food Engineering 97 (2010) 341–347 345 Fig.5–10 2. Raghavendra.7% and 68% in oil obtained by combination of treatments and commercial oil. The values obtained in the present work were comparable to those reported by Marina et al. Lauric acid is about 50.5 ± 4.6 APCC standards (%) 5. As a result.8 43–53 16.57 50. (C) pH 3.4%.3 ± 0. (E) and (F) enzyme assisted at 25 and 37 °C. Whereas.5–5. followed by chilling and thawing).6 ± 0. Higher amount of short chain fatty acids. the oil .4 ± 0.9 22.5 C8:0 (caprylic) C10:0 (capric) C12:0 (lauric) C14:0 (myristic) C16:0 (palmitic) C18:0 (stearic) C18:1 (oleic) C18:2 (linoleic) Means between two columns of different fatty acid composition are not signiﬁcantly different at p < 0.85 6.27 18.9 3.2 46.7% in oil obtained by combination of treatments and 46.8 7.S.2 ± 2. the oil was not subjected to heat treatment and any reﬁning process (chemical) for puriﬁcation. From the table it is observed that most predominant fatty acids are medium chain (69.N.5 ± 0.8 ± 1.S.6 1. K.5% and 4.0–10 4.35 2. (2009b).
K.40%.B. Director. J. N. The low degree of unsaturation leads to high resistance to oxidative rancidity (Onyeike and Acheru. 27–31.02a 0. Moisture content in the oil obtained from our work was found to be 0.03a 1. C18:1 and C18:2 showed 6. Similar range of values for VCO samples obtained from different processes was reported by Marina et al. respectively.92 ± 0.2–0. Prakash.M. 2003). Government of India for providing the CSIR-SRF fellowship. S. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Parameters Moisture (%) Speciﬁc gravity @ (30 °C) Refractive index (40 °C) Iodine value (g of I 100 g of oilÀ1) Polenske value Acid value Saponiﬁcation value Unsaponiﬁable matter (%) Peroxide value Free fatty acid (%) Coconut oil (present work) 0.02a 259 ± 1. S.N.0 13 min 6 max 250–260 min 0.N.T. 2004. Raghavendra. The fatty acid compositions of both the samples (present work and commercial) are within the limits of Asian and Paciﬁc Coconut Community (APCC) standards for VCO. respectively.46 meq O2/kg in oil obtained in present work and in commercial oil samples. The peroxide value of both sample were relatively low. Peroxide value was found to be 0.B. Short and medium chain fatty acids are found to be in the higher range which gives more stability to the oil obtained in the present method when compared to commercial sample.17 ± 0. in the oil obtained in present work when compared to 9. Free fatty acids in oil obtained from our work were found to be 0. USA. German. unlike the long chain fatty acids are not deposited in adipose tissue and do not require to be transported by chylomicrons (Enig. and are within the limits of APCC (1994) standards for VCO. USA. Conclusions Destabilization of coconut milk emulsion was achieved by employing different treatments like thermal. Very high yield of 94. 2008).. APCC. Extraction of coconut oil with Lactobacillus plantarum 1041 IAM.. Jakarta.9. (2009b). for ﬁnancial support (F.05a 265 ± 1.915–0. AOCS. IL. enzyme. Acid value of oil obtained from our work was found to be 0.4 ± 0.9% and 0.7 ± 0.0% and 1.82 ± 0. Journal of Food Engineering 73. indicating their higher stability against oxidation. 2007).. Kochi. Association of Ofﬁcial Analytical Chemists.. 2nd Draft.S. Authors greatly acknowledge Coconut Development Board (CDB).1–0. Thanks are also due to Dr... The low content of Iodine value indicated high degree of saturation. Siriwattanayothin. 1990. 550–559. Asian and Paciﬁc Coconut Community.53b 0.46 ± 0. 1998. obtained by combination of treatments will have higher oxidative stability in comparison with the commercial oil. 2002). The long chain fatty acids like C16:0. DC. Enig.. References AOAC. These values are comparable to the results reported by Marina et al. Iodine value of oil obtained from present work was found to be 4.02a 0. CFTRI. DC.47%).01c 1. USA. Physico-chemical properties Physico-chemical properties of coconut oil obtained by combination of treatments was compared with commercial coconut oil is shown in Table 3. Washington. Y. 1994. Polenske values of both samples were not signiﬁcantly different. . C. (2009b) for VCO sample obtained by different processes. ﬁfth ed. 3. Standards Task Force.5%.5 Means between two columns of different parameters with same superscript are signiﬁcantly different at p < 0.01b 1.. C. Raghavarao / Journal of Food Engineering 97 (2010) 341–347 Table 3 Comparison of physico-chemical properties of the coconut oil. 38–44. N.5%. Phungamngoen. for oil obtained in present work and in commercial sample. Washington.53a 0.02a a Coconut oil (commercial sample) 0.346 S. Che Man et al.45 ± 0. due to the higher resistance of saturated fatty acids to oxidation (Maduko et al. Association of Ofﬁcial Analytical Chemists.38c 0. 1997. 15th ed.27 ± 0. FFA is responsible for undesirable ﬂavour in oils and fats. International Codes and Standard for Aqueous Coconut Products. K.4480–1. (2009b).40 ± 0. Moisture content of the oil is one of the parameter which affects the shelf life. M.No: 1345/2006 Tech). Che Man. respectively. Raghavendra acknowledges CSIR. hydrolysis gets accelerated by high temperatures and excessive amount of moisture.50b 14. 1990).72 in commercial sample.72 ± 0. in commercial sample it was 0. in commercial sample it was 0.S.50c 13.7%. V. Philippine Journal of Coconut Studies 15 (1).63 meq O2/kg.53a 0. Ofﬁcial Methods of Analysis. Effect of homogenizing pressure and sterilizing condition on quality of canned high fat coconut milk.5 <3 meq O2/kg 0. Kerala. 4.06 0.I. pH.5 0.5% oil was obtained in the present work when compared to other methods reported in literature..27 ± 0. Out of these the most effective method for destabilization of milk emulsion was found to be combination treatments. 1990. Rastogi for the valuable suggestions. The observed results were supported by micrographs and creaming index values.93 ± 0. Saturated fats: what dietary intake? American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 80. for the constant encouragement and keen interest in the area of coconut processing. FFA is formed during hydrolytic rancidity. Hence FFA is high in commercial oil sample when compared to the oil obtained in the present work. AOCS Press Champaign. respectively..J. Higher the moisture content adversely inﬂuences the oxidation process promoting rancidity.B. in the commercial sample. no.0c 4. M. 2. Ofﬁcial Method of Analysis.93 ± 0.14%. 7.91 ± 0. 2000. chilling and combination of enzyme and chilling.4%. The quality of oil is very much determined by its physico-chemical properties.17 and 4. These values are comparable to the results reported by Marina et al.27% whereas.4492 4. 2006. Abdul Karim.14 ± 0.82 and 1. C18:0. Chiewchan.2–0. (2009b) were in the range 0.0b 4. which is the hydrolysis of an ester by lipase or moisture (Osawa et al.920 1.4499 ± 0.06a 0. (2009b).1–11. 1115–1119. 3. Ofﬁcial Methods and Recommended Practices of American Oil Chemists Society. 3.91%. which is 3 times lower (Indicating good quality of oil) when compared to the commercial sample (0..4489 ± 0.05.. 17th ed. Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society 74. Lauric acid is the major component of tropical oils such as coconut oil and palm kernel fat (Mensink et al. C. Similar results for FFA of VCO produced by different methods were reported by Marina et al. AOAC. Teng.27% whereas.G. Unsaponiﬁable matter in both samples was signiﬁcantly different.02 0..6%.3%. Dillard.47 ± 0. The peroxide values reported by Marina et al. Sl. Speciﬁc gravity and refractive index values of both coconut oil samples were not signiﬁcantly different. Saponiﬁcation values were found to be 265 and 259 mg KOH/g oil. (1997) reported that free fatty acids were higher in coconut oil having higher moisture content.03a a APCC standards 0. Acknowledgements Authors wish to thank Dr. According to Lawson (1985). These fatty acids. Fats and oils: understanding the functions and properties of partially hydrogenated fats and oils and their relationship to unhydrogenated fats and oils. Government of India.
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