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. There are four different viruses that can cause denguefever, all of which spread by a certain type of mosquito. Dengue can vary from mild to severe; the more severe forms include dengue shock syndrome and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF). Patients who develop the more serious forms of dengue fever usually need to be hospitalized. There are currently no vaccines for Dengue fever. The best way to prevent the disease is to avoid being bitten by mosquitoes altogether. Although there is no certain treatment for Dengue, it can be treated as long as it is caught before developing into dengue shock syndrome or dengue hemorrhagic fever. There are up to 100 million cases of dengue fever worldwide every year; the most common occurrences are in urban parts of subtropical and tropical areas.
What are the signs and symptoms of Dengue Fever? A symptom is something the patient feels or reports, while a sign is something that other people, including the doctor detects. A headache may be an example of a symptom, while a rash may be an example of a sign. As there are different severities of dengue fever, the symptoms can vary. Mild Dengue Fever - symptoms can appear up to seven days after the mosquito carrying the virus bites, and usually disappear after a week. This form of the disease hardly ever results in serious or fatal complications. The symptoms of mild dengue fever are:
Aching muscles and joints Body rash that can disappear and then reappear High fever Intense headache Pain behind the eyes Vomiting and feeling nauseous Dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) - symptoms during onset may be mild, but gradually worsen after a number of days. DHF can result in death if not treated in time. Mild dengue fever symptoms may occur in DHF, as well as the ones listed below:
Bleeding from your mouth/gums Nosebleeds Clammy skin Considerably damaged lymph and blood vessels Internal bleeding, which can result in black vomit and feces (stools) Lower number of platelets in blood - these are the cells that help clot your blood Sensitive stomach Small blood spots under your skin Weak pulse Dengue shock syndrome - This is the worst form of dengue which can also result in death, again mild dengue fever symptoms may appear, but others likely to appear are:
Intense stomach pain Disorientation
Guyana. Paraguay. Micronesia. such as typhoid fever or malaria. In order for a doctor to properly diagnose dengue fever they will: Assess the symptoms . Honduras. and more rarely by the Aedes albopictus mosquito. Cambodia. If the dengue virus is detected diagnosis is straightforward. Malaysia. Barbados. Indonesia. Sudden hypotension (fast drop in blood pressure) Heavy bleeding Regular vomiting Blood vessels leaking fluid Death What are the Causes of Dengue? There are four Dengue viruses (DENV) that cause Dengue fever. India. Philippines. all of which are spread by a species of mosquito known as the Aedes aegypti mosquito. If you have suffered from dengue fever previously it is still possible to contract it again. Guatemala.the doctor will take into account all your symptoms to properly diagnose whether you have dengue. The high risk regions for catching dengue fever are Central America. but nowadays is found in all the tropical areas around the world and prospers in and close to areas of human population. Costa Rica. some individuals can suffer fatigue and depression for months after the infection. or some other. which can sometimes complicate the chances of a prompt and accurate diagnosis. Venezuela and Vietnam. Sri Lanka. Taiwan. Some tests may be ordered to determine whether it is a dengue infection. Brazil. such as dengue hemorrhagic fever (particularly in children). including: o o o -ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) -HI assay (hemagglutination inhibition assay) -RT-PCR (reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction) . Blood sample . there is a greater risk of developing a harsher form of the disease. normally. Dengue hemorrhagic fever and Dengue shock syndrome. Diagnosis of Dengue fever The signs symptoms of Dengue fever are similar to some other diseases. South America. Panama. Singapore.northern Argentina. antigens and nucleic acids. What are the Complications of Dengue? The majority of people suffering from dengue fever get better within 2 weeks. This is unusual because. Laos. Samoa. Bolivia. Thailand. Pakistan. Dengue fever can develop to harsher forms of the disease i. the entirety of Bangladesh. because of the number of different types of viruses that cause the fever. Puerto Rico. The virus is transmitted from an infected mosquito to human.e. The process begins when a person who is infected with the Dengue virus is bitten by a mosquito. more specifically . Suriname. the virus is then passed on when someone else is then bitten by the infected mosquito. if this fails there are other blood tests which can identify antibodies. the Caribbean and tropical Asia. and increasingly in southern China. Aedes aegypti originated in Africa. Trinidad. If you were infected again and became ill. previous exposure to a virus causes the body to carry antibodies that allow the body to fight off the virus more easily the second time. Jamaica. Dominican Republic.this sample can be tested in a laboratory in a number of ways to find signs of the dengue virus. northern Australia. However. Mexico.
and socks. Wear a hat. The following treatment options are designed for the more severe forms of dengue fever: Intravenous fluid supplementation (IV drip) . long sleeved shirts. depending on the severity of the disease. such as window screens or netting. Assess your medical history . one is currently in development. developing a vaccine to protect against four closely related viruses that can cause the disease will not be easy. lives can be saved.this can help lower fever and ease pain. Not only does the insecticide kill the mosquito and other insects. Hospital care .it is important that you be treated by medical professionals.use structural barriers.if you are camping. For milder forms of dengue the treatment methods are: Prevent dehydration . Use mosquito traps and nets . If the patient is cared for by physicians and nurses experienced with the effects and complications of hemorrhagic fever.a blood transfusion may be recommended for patients with severedehydration. dusk and early evening. Nets that have been treated with insecticide are much more protective.Avoid wearing heavily scented soaps and perfumes. there a number of ways to avoid being bitten: Clothing . Mosquito repellants .fewer mosquitoes are likely to enter the room(s). Painkillers . What are the treatment options for dengue fever? Because dengue is a virus there is no specific treatment or cure. this way you can be properly monitored (e. For further protection. Rehydration salts can also help replace fluids and minerals. tuck your pant legs into your shoes or socks. Prevention of dengue fever At present there is no dengue vaccine.try to avoid being outside at dawn. If you live or travel to an area where dengue exists.your chances of being bitten are significantly reduced if you expose as little skin as possible. The best method of prevention is to avoid being bitten by mosquitoes. shoes and camping gear with permethrin.be sure to use one with at least 10% concentration of DEET.The doctor will need to know your travel history and medical history. treat clothes. . patients are advised to use Tylenol (paracetamol) instead. avoid using DEET on young children. Windows . be sure to wear long trousers/pants. it is also a repellent . Bloood transfusion . As some NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs). however there are things the patient or the doctor can do to help. There are clothes which have been treated with permethrin. Certain times of day . Make sure you drink clean (ideally bottled) water rather than tap water. blood pressure) in case your symptoms worsen. you will need a higher concentration the longer you need the protection. such as aspirin or ibuprofen can increase the risk of internal bleeding. Even so. Smell .high fever and vomiting can dehydrate the body. When in an area with mosquitoes.in some harsher cases of dengue the patient is unable to take fluids orally (via the mouth) and will need to receive an IV drip. even tiny holes in the netting are usually enough for the mosquito to find a way in.studies have shown that the risk of being bitten by mosquitoes is considerably reduced if you use a mosquito net when you go to sleep. especially if it involves mosquito exposure. Untreated nets are significantly less effective because the mosquito can bite the host through the net if the person is standing next to it. Camping . Also.g. fluid levels.
 During this phase. The course of infection is divided into three phases: febrile. Shock (dengue shock syndrome) and hemorrhage (dengue hemorrhagic fever) occur in less than 5% of all cases of dengue. To remove mosquito eggs. Vomiting may also occur. grade III is the clinical evidence of shock. Loosen soil from potted plants. During this phase there may be significant fluid accumulation in the chest and abdominal cavity due to increased capillary permeability and leakage. and dengue hemorrhagic fever. stagnant water. the disease proceeds to a critical phase around the time fever resolves and typically lasts one to two days. Gully traps that are rarely used should be covered. Make sure scupper drains are not blocked. Ideally. breaking and then returning for one or two days. Do not place receptacles under or on top of any air-conditioning unit. critical. "breakbone fever". as may some mild bleeding from the mucous membranesof the mouth and nose. muscle and joint pains. store them under shelter so water cannot accumulate in them.the Aedes mosquito prefers to breed in clean. This replaces the 1997 WHO classification. o o o o o o o o Turn pails (buckets) and watering cans over.Some petechiae (small red spots that do not disappear when the skin is pressed. dengue fever. often over 40 °C (104 °F). this usually lasts two to seven days. and install anti-mosquito valves. clean and scrub them thoroughly. however those who have previously been infected with other serotypes of dengue virus ("secondary infection") are at an increased risk. severe organ dysfunction. In some people. The characteristic symptoms of dengue are sudden-onset fever. headache (typically located behind the eyes). though the older classification is still widely used. Leaves . Grades III and IV are referred to as "dengue shock syndrome". scrub the inside of the vase thoroughly and rinse it out. and is associated with generalized pain and a headache. may occur. and recovery. This will prevent puddles from developing on the surface of hard soil. which needed to be simplified as it had been found to be too restrictive. It is important to frequently check and remove stagnant water in your home/premises. as a measles-like rash. Severe dengue is defined as that associated with severe bleeding. although there is wide variation in how often this pattern actually happens. typically from the gastrointestinal tract.change the water every other day. The 1997 classification divided dengue into undifferentiated fever. This leads to depletion of fluid from the circulation and decreased blood supply to vital organs. and a rash. Grade I is the presence only of easy bruising or a positive tourniquet test in someone with fever. The febrile phase involves high fever. comes from the associated muscle and joint pains. and grade IV is shock so severe that blood pressure and pulse cannot be detected. Remove the water from plant pot plates.make sure leaves are not blocking anything which may result in the accumulation of puddles or stagnant water. or severe plasma leakage while all other cases are uncomplicated. Classification The World Health Organization's 2009 classification divides dengue fever into two groups: uncomplicated and severe. do not use plant pot plates. which are caused by broken capillaries) can appear at this point. The fever itself is classically biphasic in nature. Dengue hemorrhagic fever was subdivided further into grades I–IV. grade II is the presence of spontaneous bleeding into the skin and elsewhere. or later in the course of illness (days 4–7). replace gully traps with non-perforated ones. The alternative name for dengue. A rash occurs in 50–80% of those with symptoms in the first or second day of symptoms as flushed skin. . When you do so. do not place potted plants and other objects over the scupper drains. organ dysfunction and severe bleeding. Flower vases . Stagnant water .
Blood tests Laboratory blood tests are used to confirm the diagnosis of dengue fever. Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR): RT-PCR is a sensitive technique for the diagnosis of dengue by detecting messenger ribonucleic acid or RNA. it may cause a reduced level of consciousness or seizures. antibodies or nucleic acids in the blood. The collected sample is then sent to a laboratory in an air-tight tube. The test procedure consists of two parts: Synthesis of complementary deoxyribonucleic acid or DNA from RNA by the mechanism of reverse transcription. A feeling of fatigue may last for weeks in adults. This usually lasts two to three days. In case the sample has the targeted substance it turns to a different colour. Blood tests help in monitoring the platelets count during a bout of dengue fever. where the targeted antibody is linked to enzymes. These tests must be started from the fifth day of the onset of fever.The recovery phase occurs next. the incubation period ranges from three to 15 (usually five to eight) days before the signs and symptoms of dengue appear in stages. dengue fever requires regular blood testing. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) ELISA is the most widely used diagnostic tool for dengue. During this stage. Another rash may occur with either amaculopapular or a vasculitic appearance. In its severe form. with resorption of the leaked fluid into the bloodstream. a fluid overload state may occur. The blood sample for ELISA is usually taken from vein. . if it affects the brain. either from inside the elbow or from the back of the hand. Amplification of specific complementary DNA by the polymerase chain reaction. After being bitten by a mosquito carrying the virus. This test is however. The improvement is often striking. but there may be severe itching and a slow heart rate. which is followed by peeling of the skin. antigens. not conclusive in nature as it requires paired serum samples for effective diagnosis and it is also in most cases unable to identify the exact virus serotype that has infected the patient. This test is mostly used to detect the antibodies in the blood. [Read: Dengue Fever Diagnostic Test] Hemagglutination Inhibition (HI) Hemagglutination inhibition is a serological test that is primarily used to distinguish between the primary and secondary dengue virus infections. These tests can effectively detect the presence of parasites. Blood tests for dengue are widely performed and can be relied for quick and efficient results.
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