Unit2, module 3


Industry and the Environment
Locating industrial plants; benefits and risk
Industrial location is an increasingly important decision facing both national and international firms. The general critical factors of industrial location are transportation, labor, raw materials, markets, industrial sites, utilities, government attitude, tax structure, climate, and community. In addition, for international location considerations, four general factors are identified: political situation of foreign countries, global competition and survival, government regulations, and economic factors. Some factors which influence a plant site 1. Proximity to raw materials 2. Easily accessible to the workforce 3. Proximity to good infrastructure (seaport, railway, airport, roads) 4. Type of terrain (flat, rugged or slightly rolling hills) 5. Distance from general populace Checkpoint A Think of the cement factory in Rockfort, which of the factors listed above would be the most important in relation to the location of the plant site and give reasons why. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………… All industrial plants have general safety requirements. These requirements include head covering, eye protection, feet protection, and ears as well. Industrial plants can be very hazardous; falling objects, loud noises as well as fire protection and toxic fumes alerts. However not all safety requirements have the same level of emphasis placed upon them Checkpoint B Compare a cement plant to a petroleum refinery plant. Which safety requirements would be the most critical for each and why? ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………
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Risk Of Accidents And / Or Harmful Exposures : Areas of Concern
Dangerous Materials ii) Hazards of Pressure Vessels iii) Hazardous Chemical Reactions iv) Hazardous of Unit Operations v) Flammable Gases, Vapours And Dust Hazards vi) Health Hazards vii) Hazards due to corrosion viii) Entry in To Confined Spaces ix) Working with Pipelines x) Plant Alteration and modification xi) Sampling and Gauging xii) Hazards due to Instrument Failures. Dangerous Materials i)Explosives ii) Gases iii) Inflammable Liquids iv) Inflammable Solids v) Oxidising substances vi) Toxic and Infectious substances vii)Radio Active Substances viii)Corrosive Substances ix)Miscellaneous Dangerous Substances Hazards Due To Corrosion Weakening and falling of structures and sheds. Falling of workers from height due to breaking of raised platforms, hand rails, toe boards, stairs and ladders. Spills and toxic releases from pipelines due to corrosion. Leakages and bursting of vessels due to corrosion.

Entry into Confined Spaces 1.Oxygen Deficiency 2. Toxic Contamination 3. Flammable Environment4.Possibility of Electrocutions through electric equipments5.Possibility of Toxic gas generation during the work 6.Lack of

Hazards Of Pressure Vessels 1.Leakage or Bursting of Pressure Vessels 2.Design defects 3.Failure of Relief Systems 4.Lack of hydraulic testing. 5. Lack of Proper Instrumentation or Instrumentation Failure 6.Lack of N.D.Tests 7.Corrosion of Vessels. 8. Lack of routine inspections 9. Attempt of Pneumatic testing

Ventilation 7.Difficulty in welfare monitoring 8.Failure to escape on emergency 9.Combustible Substances

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Hazardous Chemical Reactions Understanding about the behaviours of reactions and adopting precautionary and emergency measures Hazards of Unit operations Understanding the hazards inherent in each unit operation and adopting precautionary and emergency measures. Flammable Gases, Vapours And Dust Hazards • Identification of potential areas, where possibility of flammable mixture are possible. • Efforts to avoid hazardous mixtures, by inert gas purging and other methods. • Declaring hazard zones and providing flame proof electrical fittings and equipments. • Providing Explosion Vents in spaces with possibility of air-vapour mixtures. • Explosive meter testing. • Providing adequate fire control devices. • Providing arrangements to avoid static sparks. Etc. • • Corrosion monitoring and control. Testing and inspection of vessels and structures to ensure safety Safety While Entry into Confined Spaces  Thorough cleaning and purging before hot work.  Safety belt with one end outside.  Life line to monitor welfare.  On going ventilation.  A person to watch the welfare.  Low voltage electric appliances.  Self contained breathing apparatus.  Environmental monitoring for oxygen, toxic gases and flammable gases before entry.  Pipeline isolation before entry  Electric isolation before entry.  Proper ladder for entry. Health Hazards • Identification of potential health hazards. • Assessment of levels of physical and chemical health hazards. • Control of hazards by various techniques • Adequate awareness among the workers. • Periodic medical examination of the workers. • Personal protection for occasional exposures. • Proper hygiene and decontamination facilities. etc.

Extracting aluminium from bauxite
Aluminium is too high in the electrochemical series (reactivity series) to extract it from its ore using carbon reduction. The temperatures needed are too high to be economic. Instead, it is extracted by electrolysis. The ore is first converted into pure aluminium oxide by the Bayer Process, and this is then electrolysed in solution in molten cryolite - another aluminium compound. The aluminium oxide has too high a melting point to electrolyse on its own. Purifiying the aluminium oxide - the Bayer Process Reaction with sodium hydroxide solution Crushed bauxite is treated with moderately concentrated sodium hydroxide solution. The concentration, temperature and pressure used depend on the source of the bauxite and exactly what form of aluminium oxide it contains. Temperatures are typically from 140°C to 240°C; pressures can be up to about 35 atmospheres. High pressures are necessary to keep the water in the sodium hydroxide solution liquid at temperatures above 100°C. The higher the temperature, the higher the pressure needed. Aluminium ore The usual aluminium ore is bauxite. Bauxite is essentially an impure aluminium oxide. The major impurities include iron oxides, silicon dioxide and titanium dioxide.

and "seeded" with some previously produced aluminium hydroxide. For example. Economic considerations  Oxygen is produced initially at the anode.  The high cost of the process because of the huge amounts of electricity it uses. Na3AlF6. at the temperature of the cell. Precipitation of aluminium hydroxide The sodium tetrahydroxoaluminate solution is cooled. Page | 3 Formation of pure aluminium oxide Aluminium oxide (sometimes known as alumina) is made by heating the aluminium hydroxide to a temperature of about 1100 . All of these solids are separated from the sodium tetrahydroxoaluminate solution by filtration. The impurities in the bauxite remain as solids. and new aluminium oxide added at the top. Although the carbon lining of the cell is labelled as the cathode. However. Energy and material costs in constantly replacing . but goes on to form a sodium aluminosilicate which precipitates out. The cell operates at a low voltage of about 5 . Molten aluminium is syphoned out of the cell from time to time. This provides something for the new aluminium hydroxide to precipitate around. Aluminium ions are reduced by gaining 3 electrons. Conversion of the aluminium oxide into aluminium by electrolysis The aluminium oxide is electrolysed in solution in molten cryolite. The heating effect of these large currents keeps the cell at a temperature of about 1000°C. Continual replacement of the anodes is a major expense. The electrolysis cell The diagram shows a very simplified version of an electrolysis cell.1200°C. the carbon anodes burn in this oxygen to give carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide. the other metal oxides present tend not to react with the sodium hydroxide solution and so remain unchanged. and most is now made chemically. Cryolite is another aluminium ore. This is so high because to produce 1 mole of aluminium which only weighs 27 g you need 3 moles of electrons. aluminium oxide reacts to give a solution of sodium tetrahydroxoaluminate. Some of the silicon dioxide reacts. You are having to add a lot of electrons (because of the high charge on the ion) to produce a small mass of aluminium (because of its low relative atomic mass). but is rare and expensive. The electrode reactions This is the simplification: Aluminium is released at the cathode.000 amps or more. the effective cathode is mainly the molten aluminium that forms on the bottom of the cell. They form a "red mud" which is just stored in huge lagoons (mud lakes). but at huge currents of 100.6 volts.With hot concentrated sodium hydroxide solution.

(It is further treated to make it completely non-porous afterwards. For example: carbon dioxide from the burning of the anodes (greenhouse effect). acid rain) involved in these operations Page | 4 Recycling  Saving of raw materials and particularly electrical energy by not having to extract the aluminium from the bauxite. resists corrosion because of the strong thin layer of aluminium oxide on its surface. This layer can be strengthened further by anodising the aluminium. resists corrosion. is a good conductor of electricity. (Offsetting these to a minor extent) Energy and pollution costs in collecting and transporting the recycled aluminium. Atmospheric pollution from the various stages of extraction. Avoiding the environmental problems in the extraction of aluminium from the bauxite.) That means that you can make aluminium articles with the colour built into the surface. some of which gets lost during the electrolysis. Loss of landscape due to mining. good appearance. container vehicle bodies. resists corrosion light. has a good appearance. resists corrosion. Not having to find space to dump the unwanted aluminium if it wasn't recycled.) Disposal of red mud into unsightly lagoons. good conductor of heat High reflective nature . Energy and material costs in producing the cryolite.  the anodes. Some uses include: aluminium is used for aircraft other transport such as ships' superstructures. Anodising essentially involves etching the aluminium with sodium hydroxide solution to remove the existing oxide layer. Transport of the finished aluminium. fluorine (and fluorine compounds) lost from the cryolite during the electrolysis process (poisonous). is strong when alloyed. Noise. As well as increasing the corrosion resistance of the aluminium. and alloying it adds to it strength. strong. and then making the aluminium article the anode in an electrolysis of dilute sulphuric acid. Recycling aluminium uses only about 5% of the energy used to extract it from bauxite. Noise and air pollution (greenhouse effect. Pure aluminium isn't very strong. to build up a film of oxide up to about 0.    Uses of aluminium Aluminium is usually alloyed with other elements such as silicon. this film is porous at this stage and will also take up dyes. and in the production and transport of the electricity. The oxygen given off at the anode reacts with the aluminium surface. strong. processing and transporting the bauxite. copper or magnesium. tube trains (metro trains) overhead power cables (with a steel core to strengthen them) saucepans firefighter suits because light. Pollution caused by power generation (varying depending on how the electricity is generated. good conductor of electricity light.02 mm thick. carbon monoxide (poisonous). Aluminium is especially useful because it      has a low density. Environmental problems in mining and transporting the bauxite   Extracting aluminium from the bauxite      Loss of landscape due to the size of the chemical plant needed. resists corrosion light.

Checkpoint C Page | 5 CRUDE OIL Fractional distillation of crude oil is the first step in the production of many of the materials we have come to rely on in modern life. All our fossil fuels. virtually all our plastics. . detergents and commercial alcohols are made from products of this process.

it is heated to a very high temperature. which is composed of only the heavier fractions.000 different petrochemical products. The results of these processes are the products we use in everyday life. This has the effect of making the heavy Hydrocarbon fractions more likely to evaporate. All the Hydrocarbon fractions start off in gas form. The temperature is set so that all those fractions with a Carbon chain length of 20 and below are evaporated from the crude mix. Treatment of the initial products of the fractional distillation of crude oil also occurs in the refinery. The remaining gas continues its journey up the tower until it reaches another barrier. Page | 6 How the Distillation Tower Works The way the Distillation Tower works is by becoming progressively cooler from the base to the top. as they have been heated to that point. The gases then rise up the tower. Here the bubble cap process is repeated but at a lower temperature than before. This process continues until only the very lightest fractions. passes to a second location where it is heated to a similar temperature. but at lower pressure. The gas mixture is then forced to go through a liquid before continuing upwards. After their initial separation the fractions require further processing and purification. The temperature cannot be set higher than this as there is a risk that the lighter fractions will ignite. those of 1 to 4 Carbon atoms. The gas mixture then encounters a barrier through which there are are only openings into the bubble caps. In this way the heaviest hydrocarbon fractions are separated out from the mixed gas. which then filters out the next lightest set of fractions. Uses of Crude Oil In reality. There are more than 4. . while the lighter fractions stay gaseous. The separation of the heavier elements in the second tower follows exactly the same process but at lower pressure. The remaining liquid. After the Fractional Distillation of Crude Oil The separated fractions still contain a mixture of different hydrocarbons. crude oil is a much larger part of our lives than many of us realize. These stay in gas form and are collected at the top of the tower. These products are manufactured by refining crude oil.Fractional Distillation of Crude Oil In order to separate the different length chains in the crude mix. are left. The liquid in the first tray is at a cool enough temperature to get the heaviest gas fractions to condense into liquid form.

It clogs the feeding and breathing with water and oxygen to form a very dilute solution mechanisms of filter-feeders. * e. which is the low pH causes plant damage. Jet fuel Fertilizers/pesticides nylon. with the oxygen in air But catalytic converters* can significantly reduced nitrogen monoxide + oxygen ==> nitrogen these three unwanted emissions (see above for CO and dioxide (acidic gas) NO removal. particularly trees.Thick oil smothers animals such as birds an acidic gas and dissolves in rainwater. and kills certain life forms and so damages eco cycles and are also involved in the chemistry of 'photochemical food chains in rivers or lakes harming wildlife like smog' .acid rain and the overall change is represented by the OTHER POLLUTANTS: High equation below. respiration. AMMONIA MANUFACTURE OF AMMONIA -THE HABER PROCESS .which produces chemicals harmful to trout. stone (particularly limestone). acrylic) Bunker fuel Dyes Make-up Page | Paint Detergent Candles Fertilizers/pesticides Photographic film 7 The Impact Of The Petroleum Industry On The Environment ACCIDENTS: Oil rig accidents. This is depots etc. contributing further to acid rain (above). It can also poison of sulphuric acid. This is formed by inefficient combustion nitrogen + oxygen ==> nitrogen monoxide Unburned hydrocarbons. The overall process is summarised in the There are other indirect pollution problems to do equation below. This produces lead compound emissions into the environment. and also combustion situations e. Many of the reactions are initiated by sunlight. animals who swallow it.g. The formation of acid rain has several bad effects on Nitrogen oxides collectively denoted by NOx: NO is the environment e. power station involved in the chemistry of 'photochemical smog'. rainwater. There ACID RAIN: Fossil fuels contain compounds of the is also the risk to humans from fires and explosions on element sulphur When the fuel is burned the sulphur rigs or at oil refinery installations and fuel storage compounds also burn to form sulphur dioxide. oil can sulphur + oxygen ==>sulphur dioxide cause cancer in marine life.Here are some common products that are made from oil: Gasoline Plastics Food additives (canned food) Diesel fuel Synthetic rubber Medicine Heating oil Synthetic fibers Synthetic fibers (such as polyester. temperature combustion also SO2(g-air) + O2(g-air) + 2H2O(l-rain) ==> 2H2SO4(aq-rain) produces other pollutants including . CxHy. and disrupt Sulphur dioxide is a harmful gas and lung irritant and the chemical receptors in lobsters and fish that are contributed to 5000 extra deaths in the great 'London necessary for attracting mates. Over the long term. destroy the skin and gill S(in fuel molecules) + O2(g) ==> SO2(g) tissues of fishes. and CxHy gets oxidised to CO2 and 2NO(g) + O2(g) ==> 2NO2(g) H2O). which can be N2(g) + O2(g) ==> 2NO(g) carcinogenic and are also involved in photochemical and in air the nitrogen monoxide rapidly combines smog chemistry. Smog' in the 1950's as well as being a major acid-rain RISING CARBON DIOXIDE LEVELS: gas. these are dispersed on ceramic bed to give a reaction with oxygen from air when it dissolves in big surface area for the best reaction rate.g. which is toxic. broken pipelines. acidic. Lead compounds are nerve toxins so it is fortunate they are being phased out in many countries. all have terrible effects on the plant atmosphere below) and animal life of the locality as we see from the horrible TV pictures of seabirds coated in oil. formed in car engines and changes to NO2. irritating to eyes and contributes to acid increases the 'weathering' corrosion rates of building rain. it then reacts and sea otters. It reacts with oxygen (in air) and water (rain) and gets oxidised to form very dilute sulphuric acid . furnace burning coal.g. oil or natural gas. and toxic oil slicks covering the beaches and sands. nitrogen monoxide is formed in high temperature Carbon monoxide CO. car engines.. oil THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT: (see notes on the tanker wrecks etc. using platinum-rhodium transition metal The nitrogen dioxide is oxidised to nitric acid by the catalysts. with burning fossil fuels: 4NO2(g-air) + O2(g-air) + 2H2O(l-rain) ==> 4HNO3(aq-rain) Lead compounds are added to petrol to improve engine performance.. upset their equilibrium.

3. up to 200 pounds of ammonia per acre may be applied for each growing season. a lower temperature and a higher pressure would increase the yield of ammonia. 1. 2. 4. causing the bacterial levels in nearby water bodies to increase substantially. This large increase in bacteria robs the water body of adequate oxygen causing other aquatic life to die. It also contributes to the formation of haze in the atmosphere which reduces visibility and the formation of particulate matter which can cause respiratory problems.e. where the temperature is not too low nor too high and the pressure also not too high but high enough to shift the equilibrium position to the right.The Haber Process combines nitrogen from the air with hydrogen derived mainly from natural gas (methane) into ammonia. Eutrophication Over-use of ammonium fertilisers. A flow scheme for the Haber Process looks like this: Page | 8 Hydrogen gas is obtained by reacting methane with steam over a nickel catalyst. This is called steam reforming: CH4 + H2O → CO + 3 H2 Nitrogen gas is obtained via fractional distillation of liquid air According to Le Chatelier’s Principle. drugs and various textiles Used in water treatment for control of pH used by the leather industry as a curing agent widely used as commercial and household cleaners and detergents. Ammonia is easily liquefied under pressure as long as it isn't too hot. and can be recycled. The reaction is reversible and the production of ammonia is exothermic. the enrichment of nitrogen content on land. Manufacture of fertilisers and/or used as a fertiliser itself Ammonia used as a source of protein for livestock Used in the manufacture of nitric acid. 6. Acid soils The overuse of fertilisers causes the soil to become acidic. These fertilisers are water soluble and excess is leached from the soil during rainfall or irrigation. Ammonia is a very valuable source of nitrogen that is essential for plant growth. the conversion rate to ammonia is 15%. However. This ultimately causes the disruption of plant ecosystems. However it occurs quickly and unreacted gases are recycled to improve efficiency. Depending on the particular crop being grown. too low a temperature would slow the rate of the reaction and high pressures are costly as materials must be strengthened to withstand the pressure to resist to risk of explosion. 5. This neutralisation must be done on a continuous basis to ensure the viability of the soil. Acidic soils cannot support several crops needed today and the soil must be neutralised before anymore crops are planted. The nitrogen and hydrogen remain as gases even under these high pressures. Checkpoint B . Separating the ammonia: When the gases leave the reactor they are hot and at a very high pressure. with a few common fast growing species to dominate over greater variety of plants often of conversation value. and so the temperature of the mixture is lowered enough for the ammonia to turn to a liquid. Air pollution High concentrations of ammonia in air can damage vegetation such as lichen and moss. The impact of the ammonia industry on the environment Atmospheric deposition Ammonia gas which is emitted falls to the ground over land. Uses of Ammonia in Agriculture and the Chemical Industry Agricultural industries are the major users of ammonia. Under these conditions. This results in terrestrial eutrophication i. Thus a compromise is reached. often during rainfall.

Conversion of sulphur trioxide to sulphuric acid Stage1: Making the sulphur dioxide This can either be made by burning sulphur in an excess of air: . or by heating sulphide ores like pyrite in an excess of air: Purification of air and SO2 (using an electrostatic precipitator) is necessary to avoid catalyst poisoning. Oleum is reacted with water to form concentrated H2SO4. high temperatures (450 °C). . The average percentage yield of this reaction is around 30%.THE CONTACT PROCESS The process can be divided into three stages: 1. Acidic vapour or mists are formed instead of a liquid. . the mixture is heated by exhaust gases from the catalytic converter by heat exchangers. medium pressures (1-2 atm).Page | 9 SULPHURIC ACID THE MANUFACTURE OF SULPHURIC ACID . H2S2O7(l) + H2O(l) → 2 H2SO4(l) . Stage3: Conversion of sulphur trioxide to sulphuric acid Hot sulfur trioxide passes through the heat exchanger and is dissolved in concentrated H2SO4 in the absorption tower to form oleum: H2SO4(l) + SO3(g) → H2S2O7(l) Note that directly dissolving SO3 in water is impractical due to the highly exothermic nature of the reaction. Preparation and purification of sulphur dioxide 2. Catalytic oxidation (using vanadium pentoxide catalyst) of sulphur dioxide to sulphur trioxide 3. The gas is then washed with water and dried by sulphuric acid. To conserve energy. and vanadium(V) oxide (V2O5) are used to ensure a 96% conversion. Stage 2: Catalytic oxidation Sulphur dioxide and oxygen then react in the manner as follows: 2 SO2(g) + O2(g) ⇌ 2 SO3(g) : ΔH = −197 kJ mol−1 To increase the reaction rate.

there are essentially two processes that must occur: fermentation to produce the alcohol and then distillation to purify and increase the alcohol content. but many commercial applications of rubber require it to be hard and resistant to wear and tear caused through friction. You can't make any other alcohol this way. It might well be said that the industrial progress of a nation is directly proportional to the amount of sulphuric acid that it consumes. In the vulcanization of rubber Raw rubber is soft. wool. . etc. Calcium bisulphite : Used for bleaching wood pulp Phosphorus trisulphide : Used in safety matches Carbon disulphide : Used as an industrial solvent etc. For e. Page | Other important compounds of sulphur produced are: Sulphur dioxide : Used in bleaching straw. The process: To manufacture alcoholic beverages. fireworks and fire crackers.. In chemical industries Sulphuric acid is by far.Uses of Sulphur in Industries Microfined sulphur. that attack them. like gunpowder. 10 In explosive industry Sulphur is an important constituent of explosives. the most important chemical produced from sulphur. bacteria etc. Practice Questions ETHANOL: Making ethanol by fermentation This method only applies to ethanol. insects. and derivatives of sulphur are sprayed on plants and trees to destroy the fungus. Vulcanization is the process where raw rubber is boiled with sulphur to make it hard. It is named after Vulcan. Sulphuric acid is used as a basic reagent in almost all the chemical preparations and in many industrial processes.g. the rubber of automobile and aeroplane tyres is very hard. the Roman god of "fire".

4. and the social security system. 4. Methanol is poisonous. This is not only due to the amount spent on drinks. to spend more time away from home. Drinking can lead a person to often difficult. drinking. Sugar is first broken down into glucose and fructose by the enzyme sucrase. and to medical and other expenses. C6H12O6 → 2C2H5OH + 2CO2 The ethanol content rises as high as 12% before the yeast cells are killed. and lower increases the opportunities for violence. In the work environment alcohol can lead to violence towards others. particularly for the poor. As a fuel (gasohol) 10 . and society as a whole. and so the industrial methylated spirits is unfit to drink. 5. or to national estimates that have been made so far cause them anxiety. 3. However. Drinking can impair how a person performs as a costs on society as a whole. work accidents. but it can help improve policies be violent. . fear and depression. in many perfumes and cosmetics. both during pregnancy and after birth.g. Alcohol consumption imposes economic and social 2. Eventually glucose molecules are respired anaerobically to produce ethanol and carbon dioxide gas by the enzyme zymase. and can be used to dissolve many organic compounds which are insoluble in water.20% ethanol Alcoholic beverages Antiseptic use Base chemical for petro-chemical industry Manufacture pharmaceutical drugs The social and economic impact of alcohol production and consumption Violence between husbands and wives often occurs in situations when one or both partners have been drinking. molasses. it is impossible to remove the last 4% of water by fractional distillation. in turn. Estimating these costs is parent or partner. The ethanol is separated from the mixture by fractional distillation to give 96% pure ethanol. sugarcane. of alcohol in such incidents. grapes etc with various nutrients and the correct temperature and pH and in the absence of oxygen. 1. This has a cost for the employee. Parental indicate the significant cost of alcohol use to society. Industrial methylated spirits (meths): Ethanol is usually sold as industrial methylated spirits which is ethanol with a small quantity of methanol added and possibly some colour. It is used. Heavy drinking has been strongly linked to violence between partners and to a lesser extent to 1. aiming to reduce harm from alcohol.Yeast is added to a sugar source e. may lead to further data is needed to clarify the complex role unemployment. 2. For theoretical reasons. which. The social and economic problems of alcohol use not only affect those who drink but also those around them. It is relatively safe. employer. possibly because proximity absences. The few to leave other family members destitute. Yeast is killed by ethanol concentrations in excess of about 15%. Page | 11 Uses of ethanol As a solvent: Ethanol is widely used as a solvent. 3. Physiological effects of alcohol consumption can have lasting physical or psychological effects on children. for example. and that limits the purity of the ethanol that can be produced. but also to lost wages. The economic consequences of alcohol consumption can be severe. performance. 5.

As the hydrogen ions are converted into hydrogen gas. Therefore. chloride and hydroxide.also known as sodium hypochlorite. sodium hydroxide solution is being formed around the cathode. However. The H+(aq)ions could be better shown as hydroxonium ions. The simplification is fine for this topic. far more chloride ions arriving at the anode than hydroxide ions. it produces a mixture which will explode violently on exposure to sunlight or heat. get attracted towards the positively charged anode. It is actually easier to liberate hydroxide ions (to give oxygen) than chloride ions (to give chlorine). hydroxide ions (from the water). Obviously. So this reaction happens: Two chloride ions each give up an electron to the anode. the water equilibrium tips to the right to replace them. chloride ions. At any one time. this is a simplification. chlorine also reacts with sodium hydroxide solution to produce a mixture of sodium chloride and sodium chlorate (I) . Hydrogen chloride gas would be produced. you have to keep the chlorine and sodium hydroxide apart as well. sodium hydroxide and hydrogen. At the cathode: Sodium ions and hydrogen ions (from the water) are attracted to the negative cathode. In other words.the position of equilibrium lies well to the left-hand side. if you are trying to manufacture chlorine and sodium hydroxide rather than bleach. The diaphragm and membrane cells are designed so that all the products are kept separate. It is much easier for a hydrogen ion to pick up an electron than for a sodium ion. hydrogen ions (from the water). That would need two water molecules on the lefthand side of the equilibrium. H3O+. but there are far. The need to keep all the products separate If chlorine comes into contact with hydrogen.CHLORINE (a major product of the chlor-alkali industry) MANUFACTURING CHLORINE USING A DIAPHRAGM CELL Background chemistry: Chlorine is manufactured by electrolyzing brine (concentrated sodium chloride solution). This mixture is commonly sold as bleach. The net effect of this is that there is a build up of sodium ions and these newly-produced hydroxide ions around the cathode. the concentration of hydrogen ions or hydroxide ions will be very small . and the atoms produced combine to give chlorine gas. The major reaction at the anode is therefore: The chemistry of the electrolysis process Sodium chloride solution contains:     sodium ions. The chlorine is. . Page | 12 The hydrogen and hydroxide ions come from the equilibrium: Note: Strictly speaking. The electrolysis of sodium chloride solution can be used to make three useful substances chlorine. contaminated with small amounts of oxygen because of a reaction involving hydroxide ions giving up electrons as well. The chlorine has to be purified to remove this oxygen. the two gases need to be kept apart. At the anode: The negative ions. however.

That makes sure that the flow of liquid is always from left to right . potassium iodide Environmental issues within the chlor/alkali industry There are several environmental concerns that have made a significant impact on the growth of the chlor-alkali industry over the past twenty years and will dictate the future growth as well. PVC. most of the sodium chloride crystallises out as solid salt. These issues are highly debated. The sodium hydroxide solution leaving the cell is concentrated by evaporation. The oxygen stays as a gas when it is compressed at ordinary temperatures. dyes. Industrial importance of the halogens and their compounds fluorine Used in the making of non-stick coatings for saucepans. If you are interested. refrigerants. the electrodes are not a single block of metal. and the associated "chemophobia" is likely to adversely affect the chlorine consumption profile in the future. antiseptics (eg. in a real diaphragm cell. Production of the hydrogen Production of the chlorine: Chlorine is produced at the titanium anode according to the equation: It is contaminated with some oxygen because of the reaction: The chlorine is purified by liquifying it under pressure. you can find pictures and Page | descriptions of real 13 electrodes by doing a Google search on diaphragm cell and looking for manufacturers' websites. photographic chemicals iodine Antiseptics.The diaphragm cell Note: This is a simplification of a real cell. TCP and Dettol). Sodium hypochlorite NaClO). dissolved in water. insecticides(eg. The salt can be separated. Chlorine dioxide). Notice that there is a higher level of liquid on the anode side. For example. and passed through the cell again. It is highly contaminated with unchanged sodium cathode: chloride solution. Production of the sodium hydroxide: A dilute solution of sodium hydroxide solution is also produced at the cathode The hydrogen is produced at the steel (see above for the explanation of what happens at the cathode). glass etching chlorine Used in the making of bleaches(eg. photographic film. DDT). disinfectants (eg. Chlorofluorocarbons). textiles bromine Pesticides. the sodium hydroxide will still contain a small percentage of sodium chloride.preventing any of the sodium hydroxide solution formed finding its way back to where chlorine is being produced. The diaphragm: The diaphragm is made of a porous mixture of asbestos and polymers. anaethestics. hydrochloric acid. aerosol propellants. aerosol propellants (eg. Even after concentration. During this process. solvents for dry cleaning and degreasing. refrigerants. The solution can seep through it from the anode compartment into the cathode side. flame retardants. .

. hydrogen peroxide and oxygen. and mesothelioma. carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). However.1.1trichloroethane was banned in 1997 following the Montreal Accord. describes the continuous movement of water on. decreased from 15% in 1987 to 7% in 1998. Thousands of people living around the bay developed methyl mercury poisoning through the consumption of contaminated fish. Page | 14 Practice Question What is the ratio of moles of NaCl used to moles of Cl2 produced? Use this ratio to determine mass of NaCl in kg required to produce 2. and ice at various places in the water cycle. in 2007. Hydrochloric acid formation during the thermal decomposition of PVC is another issue that environmentalists are strongly invoking for the substitution of chlorine-free products for PVC. which went into effect in April 2001. vapour. Polyvinyl chloride plastic There are two major environmental issues with PVC. which later became known as Minamata Disease. and 1. lowered the chlorine utilization in the North American pulp and paper bleaching operations in favor of sodium chlorate.S. The victims suffered from severe neurological damage. in paper and paper based products and chlorinated organics in pulp mill effluents led to decreased chlorine demand. asbestos is a toxic material. Thousands were afflicted and more than 900 died. mandating the use of elemental chlorine-free bleaching. In the U. The U. Asbestos Asbestos is used as a separator material in diaphragm cells. production of chlorinated fluorocarbons (CFC's).5 x 1010 kg of Cl2 WATER The water cycle. chlorine consumption in the pulp and paper industry.. asbestosis. also known as the hydrologic cycle or H2O cycle. at parts per trillion (ppt) levels. Mercury emissions Between 1930 and 1960. above and below the surface of the Earth. causing lung cancer. Chlor-Alkali plants were exempt because few cost effective alternatives exist for this technology. These rules.Chlorine bleaching of wood pulp and dioxin emissions to the environment Presence of dioxin. Ozone layer depletion Because of their contribution to the ozone layer depletion. As a result. several tons of mercury waste was dumped in Minamata Bay in Japan. a bill was adopted to ban most uses of asbestos in the United States. Environmental protection agency promulgated "Cluster Rules" in late 1998. which include their lack of biodegradability and generation of dioxins when they are incinerated for energy recovery and for controlled waste recycling.S. Water can change states among liquid.

materials. Sedimentation The water. takes up energy from the surroundings and cools the environment 7. releases energy to its surroundings. Through the process of evaporation. This material is removed and then the water is treated with flocculants such aluminium sulphate which form a floc that precipitates and carriers with it microorganisms on the surface. Through the process of condensation. Suspended organic matter settle onto the bottom of the tanks/basins. This recycling: 1. through such processes as erosion and sedimentation 6. 5. Purifies water. and biological contaminants from contaminated water.Page | 15 Importance of the water cycle Water is continually being recycled in nature. In this ways most substances that impart turbidity to water get coagulated. Ensures a constant supply of water is available to all living organisms to keep their cells hydrated and to act as a solvent. Ensures a constant supply of water is available to plants for photosynthesis. The goal is to produce water fit for a specific purpose. and transports minerals to different parts of the globe. including meeting the requirements of medical. 2. 4. . 3. chemical and industrial applications. Sedimentation however considerably reduces microbial population of the water aside from removing most of the suspended particles. Helps to reshape the geological features of the Earth. warming the environment. after coagulation. Ensures aquatic organisms have a constant environment in which to live. pharmacology. Methods of Water purification Water purification is the process of removing undesirable chemicals. Most water is purified for human consumption (drinking water) but water purification may also be designed for a variety of other purposes. Please note that desalination can also be considered a process of water purification via the use of reverse osmosis Flocculation Water from raw water reservoirs (natural sources) is collected in large tanks/basins for a sufficient time period to permit large particulate matter to settle down at the bottom. is left in settling basin further for sufficient period to allow sedimentation of remaining materials. replenishes the land with freshwater.

lead and mercury) Cyanides Trace metals Pesticides and herbicides Manmade fertilisers and detergents Use of lead pipes causes dissolved lead ions to form in the water.Filtration After sedimentation. covers wide area in fine dust Phosphates Heavy metals (e. Eutrophication Lead affects the nervous system and can ultimately lead to death. DO can also be related indirectly to biological oxygen demand (BOD). improper disposal of mercury from industrial processes Improper disposal after used in making fabrics mining waste and tailings.g. cement manufacture Petroleum residues Suspended particles Tests for pollutants in water NO3– Add NaOH(aq) Add Devarda’s alloy (powdered Zn. Al) Heat & hold moist red litmus at mouth of test tube NH3 evolved. the lower the BOD. Importance of Dissolved Oxygen All aquatic life depend on the amount of dissolved oxygen (DO) present. For water supplies of small towns and localities sodium or calcium hypochlorite (NaOCl or CaOCl2 respectively) may be used to disinfect water. cyanide and lead in water Practice Questions Nitrate 1. but for larger cities. farms and golf courses From underground storage tanks Industrial processes e. Once DO levels begin to drop. This allows all aquatic life to conduct their metabolic processes essential to life. Sources of water pollution Pollutant Nitrates Source Manmade fertilisers Effect on environment Drinking water that gets contaminated with nitrates can prove fatal especially to infants that drink formula milk as it restricts the amount of oxygen that reaches the brain causing the ‘blue baby’ syndrome as well as eutrophication. High levels of DO (above 90%) indicate “healthy” water bodies. landfills.g. Disinfection Page | Disinfection is the final step is municipal water purification and it ensures that no pathogenic microorganisms 16 are carried through water. or hazardous waste dumps. litmus paper red  blue Find out about the tests for phosphates. chloroamine (as opposed to chlorine) is now the method for disinfection. the higher the DO. however. The water may also be filtered through activated charcoal to remove potentially toxic organic compounds and organic compounds that impart undesirable colour and/or taste to the water. . this usually indicates some form of pollution is present in the water body. The process of filtration is highly critical and important as it can remove protozoan cysts and also about 98-99% of bacteria from water. Run off from backyards. Mercury stunts physical development of organisms Acts as a poison Hazardous effects on nervous systems and physical development Accumulate up the food chain and cause impairment of physical development of aquatic life Similar to pesticides Respiratory problems. water is subjected to sand filters to remove flocks of living organisms.

ozone absorbs a significant portion of the ultraviolet light known as the UV-B. The natural ozone levels in the atmosphere allow most harmful solar radiation to be absorbed before it can reach the Earth's surface. a gas with molecules consisting of three oxygen atoms bound together.a process called photodissociation. it would form a band ~3 mm thick.Page | 17 2. it plays a vital role in supporting life on Earth. O3. there are about 3 molecules of ozone for every ten million air molecules. Even though it is present in such small quantities. The ozone concentration varies due to . and the reaction can be represented by O2 + O + M  O3 + M* The over all reaction between oxygen and ozone formation is: 3 O2  2 O3 The absorption of UV B and C leads to the destruction of ozone O3 + h v  O + O2 O3 + O  2 O2 A dynamic equilibrium is established in these reactions. which has been linked to various types of skin cancer. instead of the two which form the normal oxygen molecule (O2) that makes up 21% of the air we breathe. cataracts and damage to the human immune How the concentration of ozone in the atmosphere is maintained? When an oxygen molecule receive a photon (h v). O2 + h v  O + O O2 + O  O3 The last reaction requires a third molecule to take away the energy associated with the free radical O and O2. These atoms attack an oxygen molecule to form ozone. Most of it (~90%) is contained in the stratosphere about 15 . it dissociates into monoatomic (reactive) atoms . THE ATMOSPHERE Ozone: The atmosphere surrounding the Earth contains a small amount of ozone (O3). If all the ozone in the atmosphere were compressed to atmospheric pressure. The average concentration of ozone in the atmosphere is about 300 parts per billion by volume (ppbv) that is.30 km above the Earth's surface where it is present at levels of several parts per million by volume (ppmv).

It readily attacks organic materials with C=C bonds. fluorine. In the stratosphere. James Lovelock demonstrated that all the CFCs produced up to that time have not been destroyed. The protective role of the ozone layer in the upper atmosphere is so vital that scientists believe life on land probably would not have evolved . 3. and dry cleaning liquid. but spread globally throughout the troposphere. They agreed to reduce the manufacturing of CFCs by half in 1998. 80s and early 90s. 2. Ozone in the Troposphere The other 10% of the ozone in the earth's atmosphere is found in the troposphere.. Jekyll or Mr. CFCl3  CFCl2 + Cl CF2Cl3  CF2Cl + Cl. because ozone damages lung tissue.g. While both oxygen and ozone together absorb 95 to 99. In the troposphere. which causes biological damage. Any changes in the amount of radiation that penetrates to the Earth's surface as a result of the thinning of the ozone layer can have potentially serious implications for human health and ecological systems. A Page | major source of chlorine is Freons: CFCl3 (Freon 11). which is the portion of the atmosphere from the earth's surface to about 12 km or 7 miles up. it leads to a decreased resistance to infectious disease. The net result or reaction is 2 O3  3 O2 Thus. foam blowing agents. only ozone effectively absorbs the most energetic ultraviolet light.9% of the sun's ultraviolet radiation. hydrogen. UV-B is also known to be harmful to some crops and some forms of marine life. we find the "good" ozone that protects life on earth from the harmful effects of the sun's ultraviolet rays. C2F3Cl3 (Freon 113). The chlorine atoms catalyze the decomposition of ozone. His continued research led to the usage of chlorofluorohydrocarbons known as CFCs or freon as refrigerants. What are CFCs? Chemist Roy J. In the troposphere. Where we find ozone in the atmosphere determines whether we consider it to be Dr. Tires of garaged vehicles last longer. one hundred and forty nine (149) nations signed the Montreal Protocol. Cl + O3  ClO + O2 andClO molecules further react with O generated due to photochemical decomposition of ozone: O3 + h v  O + O2. for example in the lungs. the amount of radiation received from the sun.and could not exist today .02 to Effects of ozone on human life When enough ozone molecules are present. the ground-level or "bad" ozone is an air pollutant that damages human health. in aerosol spray. vegetation. and many common materials. and chlorine. Plunkett's discovery was found to be extremely heat-tolerant and stick-resistant. Ozone may be the most harmful air pollutant. Ozone produces harmful irritation in the respiratory system. How do CFCs help depleting ozone? A relatively recent concern is the depletion of ozone. After ten years of research. It is believed that. 1. CFCs are made up of carbon. The nontoxic and nonflammable CFCs have been widely used as refrigerants. it forms a pale blue gas. For example. rubber tires). Freons decompose in the troposphere. Ozone in the Stratosphere Ozone and oxygen molecules in the stratosphere absorb ultraviolet light from the sun. One abiological effect of ozone is to attack rubber (e. . cleansers for electronic components in the 70s. This effect is noticeable in the cracking of the sidewalls of tires. In 1973. In 1987. providing a shield that prevents this radiation from passing to the earth's surface. Hyde. Plunkett discovered tetrafluoroethylene resin while researching refrigerants at DuPont. 18 CF2Cl2 (Freon 12). Ozone is even more scarce in the troposphere than the stratosphere with concentrations of about 0. the use of CFCs is now a world wide concern. and eventually their migration to the stratosphere. C2F4Cl2 (Freon 114). O3 due to the presence of chlorine in the troposphere. Known by its trade name.without it. known as UV-C and UV-B. They also agree to phase out CFCs. Ozone has the same chemical structure whether it is found in thestratosphere or the troposphere. ClO + O  Cl + O2 O + O3  O2 + O2. Teflon was introduced in 1949. Teflon. and also for global climate. It is a key ingredient of urban smog. ozone is not wanted.system. It is an unstable molecule that readily combines with other atoms.

Different paths of the carbon cycle recycle the element at varying rates.000 parts of oxygen per 1 19 million parts of air. As anywhere else. as is shown in the following reversible reactions: .0 is alkaline). carbon will precipitate out as sediment such as calcium carbonate (limestone). The slowest part of the cycle involves carbon that resides in sedimentary rocks. Carbon dioxide from the atmosphere becomes dissolved in water (H2O). But scientists are very concerned about the compared with about 210. which further dissociate into hydrogen and carbonate ions (CO32-). with which it reacts to form carbonic acid (H2CO3). which dissociates into hydrogen ions (H+) and bicarbonate ions (HCO3-). where most of the Earth's carbon is stored. About 90% of the ozone in the earth's atmosphere lies in the region called the stratosphere between 16 and 48 kilometers (10 and 30 miles) above the earth's surface. this molecule can do a lot of damage. When in contact with water that is acidic (pH is low). accelerated ozone levels deal us a double whammy . but even there it is relatively scarce.3 parts per million. Maintaining the Balance of Carbon Dioxide Concentration in the Atmosphere The carbon cycle Life is built on the conversion of carbon dioxide into the carbon-based organic compounds of living organisms. So. know it. discussed in the Greenhouse Effect section. Ozone forms a kind of layer in the And just to confuse things even further.as a key ingredient in smog and as a powerful greenhouse gas. carbon will dissolve from bedrock. But even in such small doses. in the troposphere. under neutral conditions.0. ozone in stratosphere. This cycling between solution and precipitation is the background against which more rapid parts of the cycle occur. The carbon cycle illustrates the central importance of carbon in the biosphere. Short-term cycling of carbon occurs in the continual physical exchange of carbon dioxide (CO2) between the atmosphere and hydrosphere. the more carbon is present in the form of carbonate. warming effects of increased greenhouse gases caused by human activity. where it is more concentrated than the troposphere is one of the greenhouse gases. The more alkaline the water (pH above 7. the Its concentrations in the ozone layer are typically only naturally occurring greenhouse gases (including Page | ozone) are what make earth habitable for life as we 1 to 10 parts of ozone per 1 million parts of air.

3. more energy in the global weather system leads to more frequent violent weather patterns etc.g. Coarse particles (10 microns) are inhaled into your windpipe and settle there. Why? Oxygen is carried around the body by a complicated protein molecule in red blood cells called haemoglobin. rather like a greenhouse allows the sunlight in but not out. and further moves up the food chain. digestion and metabolism plants and animals result in some transfer of carbon back to the atmosphere. rising sea levels as polar ice melts causing flooding in low lying land. The most common partially burned products are likely to be carbon C (soot) and deadly carbon monoxide CO. 2. Some of this atmospheric carbon gets dissolved in the oceans and thus completes the cycle. atmospheric carbon is absorbed by plants. The Earth's land-water surfaces absorbs the Sun's radiation in the form of infra-red (main heating effect) and visible/ultraviolet sunlight. a fine black powder-dust is potentially harmful and readily formed in fires i. o This is referred to as incomplete combustion. causing irritation and more coughing. and nose blowing. o methane + oxygen ==> water + carbon dioxide o CH4(g) + 2O2(g) ==> CO2(g) + 2H2O(l) If there is not enough oxygen present to completely burn the fuel to carbon dioxide and water other products may form causing pollution and fuel inefficiency. PHOTOCHEMICAL SMOG: air pollution produced by the action of light on oxygen. the bonding between carbon monoxide and haemoglobin is stronger. In the process of photosynthesis. 1. 4. Some of these living beings buried millions of years ago have been converted to fossil fuels. The bonding between oxygen and haemoglobin is quite weak to allow easy oxygen transfer for cell respiration. As mentioned already. The soot.g. though catalytic converters help reduce this by converting nitrogen monoxide (another pollutant) and carbon monoxide into harmless nitrogen and  When fossil fuels burn efficiently in an excess of air/oxygen the only products are carbon dioxide and water e. Soot deposits cause coughing and sore throat and are ejected from your body through sneezing. using photovoltaic cells to harness solar energy to produce electricity. Even very low concentrations of carbon monoxide can be fatal. so oxygen is replaced by carbon monoxide and blocks normal cell respiration.Here is the exact flow of events. Mining and burning of fossil fuels cause this carbon to move from the lithosphere to the atmosphere. water vapour and CFC's absorb the re-radiated lower frequency infrared energy from the Earth's surface and so warming the atmosphere. The consequences are reduced blood oxygen concentration leading to unconsciousness and . throat and lungs. as carbon flows from one layer to another as shown in the diagram above. nitrogen oxides. Some carbon also moves to the lithosphere when these living organisms die or when wood and leaves decay or when animals excrete. 5. coughing.e. and unburned fuel from automobile exhaust to form ozone and other pollutants. soot is obviously a 'dirty' pollutant coating any surface (including your lungs!) that the soot particles settle on and they contain unburned carcinogenic hydrocarbons AND carbon monoxide is involved in the chemistry of photochemical smogs . like any fine solid 'dust' is harmful when absorbed on the sensitive tissue of the linings of the nose. 6. The effects are predicted to be dramatic e.so all in all. Using solar power indirectly in this way to run electric cars is potentially a good partial solution to the problem  Effects of the Products of Combustion of Hydrocarbon-Based Fuels      The equations for incomplete combustion below show the formation of carbon-soot and 'deadly' carbon monoxide when there is a lack of oxygen for complete combustion.g. Carbon dioxide and other gases including methane. The reduction of fossil fuel burning is the only way to reduce photochemical smog e. Respiration. Soot is also a 'carrier' of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's) on it which are carcinogenic. its classically produced by smoky yellow flames. Carbon-soot. Question: Explain the importance of maintaining the balance of carbon dioxide concentration in the atmosphere THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT: The burning of Page | 20 oil and other fossil fuels is contributing to the 'Greenhouse Effect' or global warming. Unfortunately. GLOBAL WARMING is the increase in the average temperature of Earth's near-surface air and oceans since the mid-20th century and its projected continuation. This carbon is transferred form plants to the animals feeding on them. inefficient combustion of fossil-hydrocarbon fuels is very undesirable! Carbon monoxide is unfortunately emitted by all car exhausts.

 NOX contributes to the nitrification (overfertilization) of bays and wetlands. eventually death! Effects of urban smog . Human activities such as fossil fuel combustion. . However. The majority of Earth's atmosphere (approximately 78%) is nitrogen.NOX       2NO(g) + 2CO(g) ==> N2(g) + 2CO2(g) Transition metals like platinum and rhodium are used in the catalytic converter. is formed by the combination of nitrogen and oxygen at high temperature in automobile engines (cars. Important processes in the nitrogen cycle include nitrogen fixation. use of artificial nitrogen fertilizers. ammonification.carbon dioxide. The atmospheric concentrations of the oxides of nitrogen may be altered via the following processes: o Nitrogen monoxide. along with nitrogen Page | monoxide. and release of nitrogen in wastewater have dramatically altered the global nitrogen cycle. leading to a scarcity of usable nitrogen in many types of ecosystems. How the atmospheric concentrations of the oxides of nitrogen may be altered The nitrogen cycle is the process by which nitrogen is converted between its various chemical forms. and. NO.[1] making it the largest pool of nitrogen. leading to algal blooms.They can exacerbate asthma. 2NO(g) + O2(g) ==> 2NO2(g) o NO2 has a brown color. NO. nitrogen assimilation. . buses etc. it is involved in the complex chemistry of photochemical smogs which can 21 also produce ozone and other harmful chemicals in the air.NOX compounds can lead to chronic lung damage. buses etc. Nitrogen dioxide is a lung and eye irritant. lorries. This transformation can be carried out via both biological and non-biological processes. nitrification. it makes our smoggy skies brownish-yellow.its all the same!) N2(g) + O2(g) ==> 2NO(g) Nitrogen monoxide readily forms nitrogen dioxide by combining with oxygen in air on exit from the engine exhaust. Nitrogen monoxide.its all the same!) N2(g) + O2(g) ==> 2NO(g) o Nitrogen monoxide readily forms nitrogen dioxide by combining with oxygen in air on exit from the engine exhaust. They increase the susceptibility of the very young and the very old to respiratory infections. lorries. and can lead to fish kills. and denitrification. atmospheric nitrogen is unavailable for biological use. . is formed by the combination of nitrogen and oxygen at high temperature in automobile engines (cars.

preventing air pollution by cutting down the use of fossil fuels. There are certain ways that one can help to reduce the emission of air pollutants in the atmosphere. help to prevent air pollution. Vehicle Care: Timely servicing of the car helps to keep it in a good condition and also minimizes fuel exhaust. Nowadays. Make sure to use unleaded petrol and opt for regular pollution checking of your car. televisions. so that people understand the potential health hazards of air pollution. They help to either remove pollutants from a stream of exhaust before they are emitted into the air or destroy them. You can also share a room with others when the air conditioner or fan is on. If you are going to a nearby place.g. sophisticated technologies such as wind turbine. Alternative Energy Source: Another effective way to prevent air pollution is to use alternative energy sources such as solar energy. instead of burning them. air. Public Transport: Whenever possible. go by walking or use bicycle. While buying the products. fertilizer plants. Improvement of transport facilities and proper use of land for the sake of social benefits are equally important for controlling air pollution. Switch off the lights.2NO(g) + O2(g) ==> 2NO2(g) o o Nitrogen oxides dissolve in rainwater to form an acidic solution of nitric acid which contributes to acid rain. Saving Energy: Saving energy will. solar water heaters are introduced to generate electricity and other energy forms for the household use. The pollutants are removed by the polluted gas stream being forced through a scrubbing liquid or by using some other method of bringing it into contact with the liquid. when not in use. hydroelectric energy and wind energy. Air Pollution Control Equipment Here are a few air pollution control systems that are being used by vehicles and industries. These filtration devices are highly efficient and are very effective in removing fine particles like smoke and dust from the air stream. of course. always choose air-friendly and recyclable products that will minimize the emission of pollutants. Minimize Air Pollutants: Always try to minimize smoke emission. Wet scrubbers are used in a number of industries like large power plants. prevents air pollution and increases public income. and oil and coal fired utilities that . Air Pollution Control Systems To Reduce Particulate Matter Wet Scrubbers: These include a number of devices that remove pollutants from furnace flue gas as well as other gas streams. Electrostatic Precipitator (ESP): Also known as Electrostatic Air Cleaners. Driving the car at an average speed and turning off in traffic is a key to saving fuel. e. as it can contribute to air pollution. One way is to compost dried leaves and kitchen waste. it will help in the sustainable use of fossil fuel and its conservation for the future generations. Considering the harmful effects of air pollution. Awareness programs and/or advertisements should be encouraged. and other appliances. instead of switching them on in every room. asphalt plants. pulp mills. as far as possible. air conditioners. ESPs are used for controlling particulate emissions in various industries like oil refineries. Following are some tips for preventing air pollution: Car Pool: Forming and implementing a car pool will reduce the number of cars. thereby. This helps in two ways. Social awareness about air pollution is the most essential step to be taken for the prevention of air pollution. steel plants. fans. The conversion of nitrogen oxides to non-toxic products in the catalytic convertors of cars. try to travel by public transports. and acid plants. this air pollution control system is a particulate collecting device which uses the force created by an induced electrostatic charge to remove particulate matter from any flowing gas. This way. The objective is to minimize the use of fuels. now it is very essential that everyone should contribute a bit to prevent air pollution. 2NO(g) + 2CO(g) ==> N2(g) + 2CO2(g) Page | 22 Methods of control/prevention of atmospheric pollution The fact is that human activities contribute the most to air pollution. Composting will also give you organic fertilizer for your garden. instead of using your vehicle.

toxic fumes when heated. it results in diluting the mixture with inert gas.generate electricity which produce smoke. when it is applied in the filtration and purification of air. Waste treatment Incineration: Solidification: solid waste are melted or evaporated • • Characteristics of wastes • Corrosive: these are wastes that include acids or bases that are capable of corroding mental containers. EGR helps in limiting NOx from being generated. waste oils and solvents Reactive: these are unstable in nature. this device is used to burn them off. Solid Waste What is Solid Waste? Solid waste is defined as any garbage. such as fungi and bacteria that are embedded in a biofilm. including solid.g. radioactive heavy metals. The peak combustion temperature is also lowered because the specific heat capacity of the mix is increased by the exhaust gas. contained gaseous resulting from industrials. and refineries. tanks Ignitability: this is waste that can create fires under certain condition. pesticides. Types of waste • • • Non Hazardous waste: refuse. Some of the other places they are use in are: trains. In air pollution control. municipal trash. sludge. A part of the exhaust of an engine is recirculated back into its cylinders. mining equipment. generator sets.g. chemical plants. the pollutants in the air are subjected to microbiotic oxidation. sludge from waste treatment plant. heavy metals. commercials. mining and agricultural operations from community activities. catalytic converters are still used most commonly in the exhaust systems of motor vehicles. When the incoming air is intermixed with the recirculated exhaust gas. semisolid. and other machines equipped with engines. First introduced in 1975 in the US in order to comply with the tightening regulations by the Environmental Protection Agency. e. Air Pollution Control Systems To Decrease Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC): Page | 23 Gas Flare: Also called a flare stack. garbage. Catalytic Converter: This is a device that is used to diminish the toxicity of emissions that are produced by internal combustion engines. In other words. using vortex separation instead. Underground injection wells: waste are . Hazardous waste: solvents acid. reducing the adiabatic flame temperature and also lowering the excessive oxygen in diesel engines. This device is also used in landfills to burn and/or vent the waste gas that is produced by the decomposing materials. Air Pollution Control Systems To Reduce NOx (Nitrogen Dioxide and Nitrogen Oxide) Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR): This is a technique used for reducing NOx that is used in most diesel and gasoline engines. Toxicity: waste which are harmful or fatal when ingested or absorb • • • • • • Waste disposal Landfills: waste is placed into or onto the land in disposal facilities. liquid. When flammable gas or unusable waste gas plus liquids are discharged by pressure relief valves. and chemical sludges Radioactive: high and low-level radioactive waste Mixed waste: Radioactive organic liquids. Nox is produced when a mixture of oxygen and nitrogen is subjected to high temperatures. this is a chimney that is erected on oil rigs or oil wells. as well as landfills. microorganisms. refuse. they cause explosions. or air pollution control facility and other materials. without using filters. e. water supply treatment plant. There is large scale use of cyclones in oil refineries as well as the cement industry wherein they form a part of the kiln preheaters. are used to degrade the air pollutant. Dust Cyclones: These are used to remove particulate matter from a gas or air stream. Biofilters: This is a technique for pollution control which uses living matter to trap and biologically degrade pollutants. Mixtures of fluids and solids are separated by using gravity and rotational effects. Since high temperatures cause Nox to form much faster. forklifts.

Chemical treatment: is the application of chemical treatment in the treatment of corrosive solid. such as sludge from wastes is applied onto or incorporated into the soil surface. Degrades water and soil quality Waste breaks down in landfills to form methane. due to waste pollutions. Impacts of solid waste on Environment What is Solid Waste Management? Solid Waste Management is the process of reducing. which reduces the impact of chemical wastes on the environment to the greatest extent. Page | 24 Effects of Solid Waste on Animals and Aquatics life • • • Increase in mercury level in fish due to disposal of mercury in the rivers. Waste Minimization is a process of reducing waste produce by individuals. Good solid waste management improves our standard of living. the economic and social cost of waste disposal will continue to increase and communities large and small will face increasingly harder decisions about managing their trash. In fact if we do not reduce waste. Choose cloth diapers over disposable ones . banana skins  Plastics Process involved in waste reduction • • • • • • • Helpful Tips on Managing Solid Waste in the Home 1. Process and product substitution e. reusing and recycling waste products. Recycling on the other hand is the process of producing goods from waste products or where possible. Household level of proper segregation of waste. illegal dumping. finding other uses for them. a potent greenhouse gas Change in climate and destruction of ozone layer due to waste biodegradable Littering. for example. • • • Impacts of solid waste on Terrestrial environment • • • • • • • • • Chemical poisoning through chemical inhalation Uncollected waste can obstruct the storm water runoff resulting in flood Low birth weight Cancer Congenital malformations Neurological disease Nausea and vomiting Increase in hospitalization of diabetic residents living near hazard waste sites. Leaching: is a process by which solid waste enter soil and ground water and contaminating them. Precycling & Recycling Precycling is making purchasing decisions that will reduce waste. is used in treating volatile solvents. non flowing hazard waste. recycling and reuse. Waste piles: is accumulations of insoluble solid. Piles serves as temporary or final disposal. • • Heat treatment: Heat applied at moderate temperature. including the risks and maintain formal communication with public Educate people on different ways of handling waste. communities and companies. Proper management of solid waste Involving public in plans for waste treatment and disposal Provide the public accurate. Mercury toxicity from eating fish with high levels of mercury • • • • injected under pressure into a steel and concrete-encased shafts placed deep in the earth. use paper bag instead of plastic bags. Waste are disposed in flowing rivers in less developed countries.to produce a sand like residue. Plastic found in oceans ingested by birds Resulted in high algal population in rivers and sea.) land treatment: is a process in which solid waste. It requires a change in our habits but does not necessarily mean a return to a more difficult lifestyle. We need to start re-using  Paper  Glass Bottles  Aluminum Wrapping  Organic Waste such as spoilt or unwanted portions of food items.g. Use sheets of used writing paper to make a message pad 2. useful information about the whole projects.

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