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Report on the Conditions and Sufferings of the Rakhaings in Maungdaw

Report on the Conditions and Sufferings of the Rakhaings in Maungdaw

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A number of Bengalis from Chittagong were found setting in the western coast of the Naf River. Before the time of U Maung Nyo, there were guards only and all the area were inhabited by Rakhaings (Buddhists) who had built Buddhist religious temples and pagodas there.
A number of Bengalis from Chittagong were found setting in the western coast of the Naf River. Before the time of U Maung Nyo, there were guards only and all the area were inhabited by Rakhaings (Buddhists) who had built Buddhist religious temples and pagodas there.

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01/29/2013

Report on the conditions and sufferings of the Rakhaings in Maungdaw Rakhine Security Association, Maungdaw 12/28/2008

(Published by: Rakhine Security Association, Maungdaw, Rakhine State. dated 9th October 1988- in Burmese language.) |

Background During the time of British rule, the first chance for governing Maungdaw was given to Maung Nyo, grandson of a Rakhaing king. He happened to join in the force as Jamadar (equivalent to the rank of a Captain) during the year 1825-26 till the period of signing Randabo agreement. He had to rule a portion of the area on the western side of Naf River. From his grandfather, in recognition of his activities in the war, he was also given the rule of big area on the eastern side of the Naf River. A number of Bengalis from Chittagong were found setting in the western coast of the Naf River. Before the time of U Maung Nyo, there were guards only and all the area were inhabited by Rakhaings (Buddhists) who had built Buddhist religious temples and pagodas there. Then, on the December 4, 1853, Jamader Aung Phroo, son of U Maung Nyo, was appointed chief of the area. He could manage to pay taxes of Rs. 71,953 to the British Govt. and was given much honour for it. He could collect taxes from the Bengali-dwellers of the area. According to historians, Chittagonian Bengali villages were found to be established during the year 1853. 1. Muslims of Maungdaw are illegal intruders from Chittagong and from other sides. 2. Muslims are given preference, to their religion. 3. Attempt for getting separate area. 4. Statement falsely made in the history. 5. Statements on urgent demands 6. Conclusion 1. Muslims of Maungdaw are illegal intruders from Chittagong and from other sides. (a) They came as labours (coolie) to work. In the year 1856, Swiss Canal was open. In order to increase the production of paddy on the land, the Govt. encouraged the local Rakhaings to work side by side with foreigners to make the land cultivable without any taxes for a period of 3 years. The production increased from 1000 to 3000 tons. In order to increase the production of paddy, the authority of the East India Company needed a huge number of labourers (coolies) from Chittagong area as cheap labour. In the year 1880, Bengalis came as seasonal labours. And they would return to Chittagong when the harvest was over. But, some landowners of the area kept them permanently even after the completion of the gardening, growing of crops like chilly, onion, mustard seeds, peas, beans etc. In this way, they could settle in Maungdaw area permanently. As reported in the Directorate of Health, 1930-31, 40,000 labours from Chittagong area came in Maungdaw annually for working in the area. (b) They entered as labourers for road construction.

During the last part of 1850, a large number of Bengali Muslims came to Butheedaung through Maungdaw in various groups. The local Rakhaings had to watch their movements by turns for the security of their lives and properties. Such movements were known to be like marching of Bengali soldiers, as told by old people from Maungdaw and Butheedaung. Seeing the importance of the roads, the authority of the East India Company also constructed a railroad from Maungdaw to Buthidaung. In these works the Chittagonian Bengali were engaged as labourers during the year 1916 to 1918. Hence they began to settle here permanently. (c) Intrusion of Chittagonian Bengali during the time of communal riots during 2nd World War. During the year 1942, while there was strong administration, communal riots took place between Muslims and Rakhaings. In these riots, Rakhaings suffered much and their belongings, Buddhist temples, pagodas and houses were snatched away by the Muslims in their absence. Most of the villagers of northern and southern sides of Maungdaw were killed by them. Their villages were converted into Muslim villages and religious temples were turned into mosques and madrashas. The villagers had to flee to safer places. Survivors had to take shelter in the Rakhaing villages of Kyauktaw Township. Some of the Rakhaings were brutally killed while they were fleeing away. A small number of Rakhaings saved their lives as they crossed the Naf River. They were sent to Dinapur by the British Govt. for their safety. Thus Muslims became owners of their deserted lands, buildings and other properties. In Maungdaw, a "Peace Committee" was formed under the leadership of a N.A.B.L. Muslim. Later the said Peace Committee converted into a religious party known as "Jamiatul Uloom Association" when Japanese forces reached Maungdaw and the true history of the area was changed completely showing the area in the hands of their Muslims ancestors since immemorial times. This was falsely in the history of the area, in the absence of the Rakhaings. Real facts will be revealed if impartial research is made on ancient religious monuments, inscriptions etc. by any archaeologist. The Muslims changed the real facts as they were very powerful at that time and no one could raise objection against such activities. In many years everything could disappear. So, all the real facts should be known by the Rakhaing people. (d) Intrusion of Bengali during democracy period. More than 5,000 Rakhaings who had been relocated to Dinajpur by British Govt. during the riots in 1942, returned to their homeland in the month of December 1945. But, they could not reintegrate their original places due to illegal occupation of their land by the Muslims. So they were compelled to leave Maungdaw. Some of their villages at the northern side of Maungdaw could be rehabilitated, but they could not return to the villages at the southern side of the town because their lands were taken by the Muslims during their absence. Moreover, in 1949, when the Mujahid Revolution started, the Muslims made a 10-year plan to annihilate the Rakhaings completely from these places. In cooperation with Jameatul Ulum Party, they drove out all the Rakhaings from their hearths and homes and Rakhaings were not allowed to re-establish their villages in their original places. So, they were compelled to take shelter in the inner part of Rakhaing State for their security. In the year 1960 (on July 4) Meyu District came into existence with Maungdaw, Butheedaung and Ratheedaung where all possible preferences were given to Muslims by the AFPFL Govt. for getting votes from the Bengali Muslim voters. All rights and privileges were given to them as other Burmese nationals. All of them were provided with NRCs (National Registration Cards). Between 1960 and 1974, only Muslim candidates could be elected as MPs. from Maungdaw constituency and they could easily be registered as Burmese citizens. Thus the AFPFL

government got sufficient funds from the Bengali Muslims and their population increased to 20,000. Their MPs were U Khin Maung Let (Abdul latif) and U Rashid. U Khin Maung Let was one of the members of Dept. of justice and he could do and undo anything in respects of immigration purposes. Both of them were most powerful and influential. (e) Intrusion of Chittagonian Muslims under "Hain Tha Plan" Hain Tha operation started on 5.5.78 Muslims of various places of Rakhaing State did not dare to face it and persons without any NRC or FRC. Residing Rakhaing state began to flee away group by group, as they were not legal citizens of Rakhaing State. Later on, agreement between Burma and Bangladesh was signed for accepting them again on the 1st August 1978 till January 5, 1979. The Burmese Govt. had to accept 30,000 more Bengali than the number of persons who fled away from Rakhaing State under this agreement. Persons, who fled away from Maungdaw and could only say the name of their home village, were accepted, but most of them were original Bangladeshi nationals. They are still suspected by Burmese Govt. They are failing to identify the real citizen of the area till now. It is heavy burden to a state like Rakhaing. Lists of such persons are shown below: Dist. of Maungdaw No. of family Male Outgoing 12,496 54,945 No. of family Female 54,71 3 Total 76,823

Incoming 17,674 109,667 It is revealed from the above-mentioned reasons that huge number of Bengali Muslims entered from Chittagong area. 2. Muslims are given preference, to their religion. It had been stated in their programme that, for the security of Islam as well as Holy book Quran and Health that, the enemy of Islam need to be resisted. They will declare "Jihad" for fighting against the enemy of Islam. All this was made by the Chittagonian Bengali Muslims of Maungdaw township area. A conference of 30 Islamic countries was held in Lahore of Pakistan on the 22nd February, 1947 where they decided to fight against the enemies of Islam and where a decision was made to collect funds by way of forming an organization like Islamic Funds Organization (IFO) with a view to build mosques in every corner of the villages everywhere in the world, which they already started to implement. Branches of Olema Association were formed by the Bengali Muslims of Rakhaing State and had began to a. From Organizations for managing the mosques. b. Organize groups for political movement. c. Give help and assistance to their people. They started to give subscriptions regularly for funds especially for Muslims, who could convert others to their religion with sufficient money, as well as those who could make harm to other faith.

Leaflets in Urdu and Bengali are found to be distributed among the people of Bangladesh where it is clearly stated that, your country is not sufficient in food where as your neighbouring country Myanmar is rich in food grains and paddy. Heaps of paddy and food grains exist and the country is full of tanks with water and beauties are regularly fetching water. You may easily go there for collecting food grains, preaching Islam by marrying such beauties and do something for the cause of your religion. In this way they are gradually spreading all over the world, their population is increasing day by day and they begun to make claims for their separate homeland. In this way, the only Islam can exist over the world forever; it is their only motto. Others will be crushed for their greater interests. Rich Muslim countries are helping people of similar aims and objects, if you have a house, then you should have a mosque in your area and Arabic Language education be imparted of Muslim students in government schools is very low, the number of students in their private run madrashas is much in all those madrasas. In the past, for the economic development of Muslims in Maungdaw under the instruction and guidance of Jameyatul Olema Party, they have done much like Rohingya Liberation Party, Mujahid Party, etc. came into existence. It is also found that they have procured huge stocks of arms and ammunitions by the funds collected through the local people, foreigners, taxes from lands (illegally collected) and madrasha in the year 1942. Beside these, ex-MP. Sultan Ahmad, Daw Aye Nyunt, ex-O/o Abdul Khair did never make any work for the development and welfare of the country. They have done only for the existence of Islam, preaching of Islam and bringing of Chittagonian Bengali Muslims in. By heinous ways, they made the BDF to withdraw from the place in 1955, who were looking after the peace and security of the Rakhaings of the area. It will be revealed if necessary research is made. Chittagonian Bengalis are doing only for the cause of their motherland, Bangladesh, taking away the peace and prosperity of the local Rakhaing people. They are traitors of our nation. During the year 1947 to 1950, Abul Khaiz (MP.) with his supporters and followers in body hoisted the Pakistani flag, chanting "Pakistan-Zindabad" in processions on many occasions on the streets. During the time of Nagaman Operation in 1978, they fled away leaving hearts and homes for fear of facing the said operation. During the time of their fleeing away, bridges and Rakhaing villages were destroyed by fire. They have no love for Myanmar. But, they have love and regards for Bangladesh, taking it to be most powerful and strong in power. During their movement, they would chant Pakistan Zindabab, Bangladesh Zindabad. They have no faith, respect and loyalty to Myanmar. They are traitors, they are found to be great traitors of the nation. Beside, the Muslims of Maungdaw and Butheedaung, were neither fighters of liberation war against the British nor the Japanese. They attempted to kill Major U Kyaw Khaine, I.C.S. Deputy Commissioner of Akyab in 1942 near Gukaprun village of Buthidaung. During the year 1942 Burmese Independence Army marched from Rangoon to Akyab without any loss of life though they had to fight against a number of enemy forces on the way, but one officer and 2 sepoys died while they were given dinner by Mr. Ohn Mow, B.A.B.L. president of the peace committee in the mosque near the high school of Kanyantan village. Bo Ran Aung occupied Butheedaung and Maungdaw, in order to make disturbances stopped by the Army of Bengali soldiers. A dinner was arranged by the Maungdaw administration authority and, during the dinner, suddenly the Chittagonian Muslims attacked with guns they have already stocked. Moreover in 1940, Mr. Tun Oo, S.D.O. Maungdaw was killed by Muslims at Tharaikoon village. Such killings are still going on till now. After the independence in 1948, Chittagonian Bengalis in the name of Mujaheeds tried to join various activities in cooperation with the M.Ps of AFPFL. They have shown to be falsely doing various development activities in

nation building. They have also falsely shown to have come to Rakhaing state in 980 A.D. in the name of Rohingya. Among them, Kassim, leader of the Mujaheed party, was most powerful at the time and from the peak of Manglagree mountain range as reported by a Bengali sepoy of Mujaheed Party, he later fled away with valuable gold and money to the country outside Rakhaing state. All of his activities were encouraged by the Muslims and were headed by himself. It was nothing by an attempt to kill the Rakhaing people of Maungdaw by a sudden attack. The immigrants from Bangladesh were never loyal to the Burmese Govt. They are only seeking opportunity to create troubles. (3) Attempt for getting separate area. At present weak nations are usually oppressed by the rich powerful and imperialist nations by various ways. They would forcibly violate the law and encroach on the weak countries and nations on various occasions. Afghanistan and Cambodia were suffered in these ways. Sweden was attacked by Czechoslovakia. Germans forcibly entered and began to settle there at the beginning of the war and tried to make the land to be their own by nazi Japan by declaring it. In that way, the Chittagonian Bengalis are trying toi. To have recognition of Rohingya as a nation within Burma by changing the real history of Rakhaing state. ii. After becoming as a nation of the country, a Muslim state will be created with 90% of Maungdaw, 80% of Butheedaung as per its geographical position and population condition etc. iii. After successful completion of above plans, with the help of outside, a separate state with sovereign power will be established. Later, it will be made a confederation state with Bangladesh. In order to implement above plans, Bengali writers began to contribute features in dailies and magazines since the year 1947 stating that they are the Rohingya nation with its own created history. On 2nd April, 1960 in a peace conference, Mr. Abdus Guffur, MP expressed the following statement. If the Rakhaing nation have autonomy under the Union of Burma as a separate state, then we should also have a separate state in order to save ourselves from the oppressions or they can't but to demand to create a separate district for them. If only a separate state is created for Rakhaing, then we shall have no security of lives and properties under the Rakhaings. In respect of land, a letter to the leaders of Govt. and leaders of democracy from the Muslim Conference held at ALaethankyaw during the month of June, 1951 was found. In this letter, it was noted that the population of Rakhaing is much higher and Muslims are less numerous than Rakhaing in Rakhaing state. Muslims are much developed in respect of economic, political and defense services since time immemorial. Their 14 points demand is also found in English. Some of the important points are: i. Northern portion of Rakhaing state should be recognised as separate Muslim state like Chin, Karen, Kayah under the Union of Burma, with its power for creating its defence force. ii. Akyab should be declared as southern part of Rakhaing State and Akyab part should be divided equally between the Rakhaing and the Muslims. The mayor and the DVI. Commissioner should be nominated from Muslims. iii. A Muslim should be included in the cabinet.

iv. Northern part of Rakhaing State be declared as a Muslim state and they should be given equal rights and privileges as order. v. In the army and civil service, sufficient number of Muslims be included. vi. Assurance be given for getting rights and privileges in respect of cultural and political activities. vii. Establishment of primary schools and middle school for Muslims be allowed and Muslims Council be constituted for trial of cases under the Muslim Law. In these ways, they are demanding the area of Maungdaw and Butheedaung to be declared as a Muslim state. As per above reference, weekly News Magazine, Friday dd. 2.9.88 Chittagong "The Rohingya Muslims are in Arakan can be divided into two states, one for Muslims and another for Mog and the northern part should go to Muslims." Their demand is similar to the occupation of Czechoslovakia by Germany. (4) Statement falsely made in the history. History can't be changed or altered. But, such alterations are found in the history. Heroes and traitors are found side by side. Some of the literate Muslims of Rakhaing State are claiming northern portion of the Rakhaing State to be a Muslim state. It was observed by the Govt. too. According to them persons without the knowledge of Rakhaing history can be influenced. They are trying to alter the history as much as they can to achieve their illegal claims. But, we like to make some of the necessary statements asI, along with U San Tha Aung, a political leader of Butheedaung and Maungdaw observe in the report Meyu: During the time of 17 decades, the Rakhaing Kings were most powerful and slavery business was going on. Rakhaing would collect slaves from various places. So Rakhaing State was dangerous place for the people of Bangladesh at that time. Rakhaings were in the habit of catching slaves for sale and Bengalis were afraid of Rakhaings as Rakhas of monsters. It was stated in the book "A land of Great Image, Page No.9", it was mentioned that, Dainga, a place of Chittagong was the selling centre of slaves. They catch 3,400 slaves from Bengla annually. During the month of February 1627, a total number of 1,800 slaves were caught from different parts of Bengla. In the book of Dr. Khin Maung Nyint, Portuguese, Page No. 145-150, it was stated that such business of selling slaves was not only earning of money but also helpful to the political affairs of the country. It was believed that once Mero (Portuguese) occupied Chittagong. So the catching of slaves by the Portuguese were encouraged by the Rakhaing King with a view to decrease the population of the area. On the page No. 350 of Moris Corlice's "The Land of the Great Image" translated by U Hla Din, "Ratana Shwe Mray" (Page No. 350), it was stated that Portuguese were engaged for guarding the border against the war of Moros. The Portuguese lived in Hughlee, by the bank of river Ganga. They would sell their caught slaves at high prices then without sending them to Mrauk Oo. If the matter is observed, the Bengali Muslims could not enter into Rakhaing State while it was a most powerful country. So, these statements are nothing but false statements, same as Rohingya Muslims are aborigines in Arakan. The word aborigine is the original people of land. This land had been possessed by the

Rakhaing Buddhists only. It is proved from the ancient monuments, images of lord Buddha, inscriptions and other sculptures discovered from the lands of Rakhaing state. Nothing had been so far found in support of their statements among all these discovered ancient monuments, inscriptions etc. as yet. But they are trying to show that this country had been ruled by their 24 kings from the time of Mong Saw Mwan up to Mrauk Oo era one after another. It had been stated in the Rohingya R-Daak (Quarterly) Vol.2, page No. 5: - "As many as 48 kings successfully ruled in Mrauk Oo who with the exception of 2 were directly of lineage at king Solaiman Shah (Saumen) the founder of the Muslim dynasty of Mrauk Oo as many as 19 kings of last dynasty having Muslims names with conventional Magh (Buddhist) names which goes to prove irreparably, that this dynasty arose from those of the Muslims with utter matter lineal interruptions due to intercede chaos. It has been found that the Rakhaing history has been altered and changed and real happenings were omitted from the real history. If the Rakhaing kingdom was ruled by 48 Muslims kings from the period of Mong Saw Mwan, then it will be quite impossible to sell Bengali slaves in the western countries in cooperation with Portuguese. But, as per above mentioned statements the kings after king Mong Saw Mwan could sell similar slaves in a greater extent at the times of their ruling of the country. A nation cannot sell their own men as slaves. Moreover nobody will dare to come to any places when they will be caught for selling them as slaves. Though the 48 successors of King Mong Saw Mwan were said to be Muslims, the discovered monuments are found to be belonging to the Buddhists. Nothing had been found in support of their statements in all those discovered ancient monuments and inscriptions. Briefly speaking, Ran Aung Zeya Shrine was constructed by the King Mong Ba Gree in the year of 1536 AD. To commemorate the conquest of the Portuguese forces. All the people of the country professed Buddhism as their religion. It was not possible to be a Muslim king after the dynasty of King Mong Saw Mwan, as also mentioned in the Rakhaing Tansong of Rangoon University under the title of Dynasty of Mrauk Oo by Maung Aye Shan. Nirolo de Gonti's also remarked in his report during the time of ascending of Arakan by King Mong Saw Mwan, there was arrangement for the Rakhaing forces to march to attack Ramoo. If the fact were so, the successors of that king would not be a Muslim at all. There were no necessities of such attack by the Rakhaing kings. Again, during the time of king Ba Saw Phru (Kalim Shah), 1,400 Rakhaings occupied up to Chittagong coast. Moreover, during the time of King Mong Ba Gree, they occupied up to Dacca and it was known that they had to accept the Muslims title given by the Muslims of the area in honour of their acceptance as rulers. During the time of coronation of king (1622-1638) Thiri Thudhamma Raza had been made according to the rules of Buddhist kings and a Maha Kyeen Buddha statue was build and an oath had been sworn on the condition to rule over the country according to the established law of the Buddhist country, it has been learnt. But no such conditions were seen in the name of Islam. The kings of the Rakhaing country were learnt to have made much for the security of the towns of Bengal, occupied by the Rakhaings at that time. Especially arrangements were made for peaceful running of businesses between Bengal and Rakhaing Kingdom. It was also learnt from the report of Portuguese Mannara; travelers had to use permission from the Rakhaing king to go out from one place to another between Bengal and Arakan. Though a small number of businessmen, who were regularly paying taxes to the Rakhaing kings including a small number of Bengali slaves, some Muslims from Chittagong were learnt to have settled in Rakhaing kingdom. As per Rakhaing Tanzong of Rangoon University, an article "Problems of western country, by Maung Aye Shan, 1977-78". If the Bengalis were recognised to be citizens of the country, then they would have been noted as foreigners. But such statements were not available

anywhere. Besides, in the Guardian, Vol. 1. No. 5, an article of Ba Saw, B.A., B.L., B.Ed., as herewith ref. Rohingya history. i. Early Muslim from Arabia and India entered Arakan firstly through its coastal parts and secondly through its mountain passes and found Arakan a suitable land for many purposes. ii. Mohammed Hamid who came from Arabia to Arakan in 680 AD. and later he and his followers settled in Maungdaw township. According to a good number of reports and accounts Maros king's governors entered in groups into Arakan since the year 1660. But no mention of groups of Bengalis. Moreover in a peace Conference held at Rangoon on the 21st April, 1960 M.P. Abdul Gaffur said that Rohingya is a group of people, whose bloods are mixed with Arabs and local people. They speak in a mixed language of Bengali, Urdu, Farsi and Arabic. These facts were also stated by the Sittwe Maung Thu in Moris Carl's Rakhaing Hill Tracts (1960-61) Magazine. Rakhaing Tazong Vol.II No. 9 stated in English as: "Arakan people in the civilization of the Bay and Mong Ben established Mrauk Oo with its greatest temple and pagodas at the architecture of the term is neither Mohammedan nor Buddhist. It is Hindu of 80 unique designs as alamat to constitute a particular style. In the same time Maungdaw and Butheedaung are compared with Czechoslovakia and Sweden and also wrote as; - "It is quite clear why Ba Tha and his comrades are trying to create these Chittagonian settlers as an indigenous separate race. Attempts also had been made during the 2nd world war when Muslims Butheedaung and Maungdaw area sealed with retreating British to create this area as a part of Chittagong district. Certain Chittagonians have already started to turn this area into their own just like a Sudeland of Czechoslovakia which at the beginning of the 2nd world war became a part of Germany", has been mentioned. According to the above statements it will be revealed that -non of the local people have ever married with the 95% Bengali settlers of Maungdaw. It is a real fact in the history. Beside, 90% of Bengalis do not know how to read and speak in Burmese and Rakhaing languages well. It is strange that a new language has been created by mixing Bengali Burmese and Rakhaing languages. The word Rohingya is newly created by Bengalis. This was done by a group of so-called young literate Muslims. Whatever they may be, originality cannot be changed or erased. They introduced themselves to be Bengalis. Thus it proved that they have come from Bengal. They have been introducing the word "Arakan Muslim" since the year 1956. Similarly, Burma Muslim. Though they are a group of mixed blood people, they are different from the original Muslims of Arakan and they are a group of men permanently settling in Arakan. They are trying to get facility and privileges equally with the Karen, as the Kaman Muslims have been getting according to the citizenship Act. 1948 section 2 and 5. As prescribed for the Kaman Muslims of Burma with their object, they named themselves as Rohingya, meaning of which is an inhabitant of old place. Differences among them happened in the year 1961 in respect of recognising them as Arakan Muslims or Rohingyas. According to Mr. Sultan Ahmed, ex-minister of health, Govt. of union of Burma, Arakan Muslims are acceptable to get rights and privileges from the government. The word Rohingya was accepted by the AFPFL Govt. for getting votes from the intruded Bengali Chittagionian Muslims when the party AFPFL was divided into two groups. It never existed before the division of the party AFPFL. Simply speaking, the magazine

"Rohingya" R-Dhaka vol. II, No. 2 page No. 11 mentioned that U Nu in his radio broadcasting categorically recognised the Muslims especially those of Maungdaw and Butheedaung as Rohingyas, similarly U Ba Shwe, also one of the celebrated history researchers of Burma, in his mass meeting openly admitted the Muslims of Arakan, particularly those of the above to be an indigenous race like Shans, Kachins, Karens, Mons, Shins and Kayah. These are well known to the researchers and connected individuals. In continuation to this in the same page, the then Burmese minister Brig. Sein Lwin in his above quoted new citizenship law, 1981 returned the Rohingyas of Maungdaw and Butheedaung to be Bengali descendants. U Sein Lwin and U Ne Win Govt. commented that they are descendants of Chittagonian Bengalis only. They quoted it in Anachronistic Burmese policy, suspending their acceptances. According to the report of the Muslims Conference, held at Alae Than Kyaw during the month of June, 1951, charter of the constitutional demands of the Arakan Muslims 9 June, 1951 (Alaethandyaw) the word "Rohingya" was not used but the word Arakan Muslim was used. The word was introduced in the year 1951. They are trying to be recognised as a separate race within the country as they have illegally occupied the properties of the local national Buddhists by various ways and seeking helps from various countries of the world misrepresenting the facts. As per instances, weekly magazine Friday, Rohingya issue calls for early solution, the heading stated that there are about 4.5 lakh Rohingya Muslims in Bangladesh who are now eager to go back to their homeland and anxiously awaiting for possible conciliation between the national Democratic Front and Govt. of Burma which might ensure the citizenship rights of the ethnic Muslims of Arakan. About 4.5 lakh Rohingya Muslims in Bangladesh side are awaiting to go back to their motherland as stated. Such false statements made by them before the people of the world are nothing but to enter more Bengalis to Arakan. It will be possible on their part to attain their demands if the conciliation between the Govt. and NDF is possible. Misrepresentation before the world will make harm to the real and actual nations of the country. One of such events were that they attempted to kill all the Buddhists of Maungdaw town on 135-1988. Taking opportunity of absence of the administration authority, about 10,000 Chittagonian Bengali Muslims assembled in the village of Kanyantan Roa raised their voices to kill the Rakhaings if they don't embrace Islam etc. throughout the villages. More than 40,000 Chittagonian Bengali Muslims of east south and north sides of Maungdaw town were ready to enter into the town in order to crush the Rakhaing Buddhists and their properties, armed with deadly weapons. Telephone connection between the town and the administration H.Q. of Maungdaw was cut off by them and more and more Muslims were approaching them from all sides to join their heinous activities. Fortunately, due to the timely action of the local police in collaboration with young people, the innocent people of the town were saved from the attack of Chittagonian Bengali Muslims. The people of the town were saved after firing about 100 rounds of blank fire and at last the Chittagonian Muslims were dispersed and their heinous attempts foiled. Two Chittagonian settlers were killed, some of the Buddhist houses were completely damaged and the signboard of Buddhist temple of U Sendima, in Quarter No. 4 was damaged. If their attempt of 13-5-88 had been successful, then 45,000 Chittagonian Bengali Muslims would have suddenly entered into the town and occupied the dwellings and other properties of the Buddhists and it will be declared as a part of Bangladesh. Moreover, a huge number of Bengali Muslims of nearby areas were waiting to crush the smaller villages surrounding Maungdaw town in the night as soon as they would see the flames from Maungdaw town, it was learnt later from some Chittagonian Bengali Muslims. It was one of the greatest attempts of Bengali Muslims since the time of Muslim

Buddhist riots in 1942. Such information was not completely expressed by the administration authority. But about 300 persons were detained in this case. Leading persons of their attempts fled away for fear of action taken against them in this matter. But, no action could be taken against 40,000 young Chittagonian Bengali Muslims aged 20, due to lack of necessary proofs. Taking advantage of the situation, movements were demanding the release of Chittagonian Bengali Muslims from detention and the authorities were compelled to release 240 Bengali detainees from the jail. While the leaders of the Democratic Parties from Akyab were delivering speech in a meeting held at the village Kanyantan Roa of Maungdaw, a rally under the leadership of Bengali Muslim leader Dr. Tun Aung (Abdul Hoq) with huge number of Bengali Muslims on 13-5-88 demanding their rights and privileges took place. Moreover, in that meeting, Shwe Maung of Akyab also said that the Muslims are Rohingya and they arrived in the country about 680 AD. And they are entitled to get equal rights and privileges as other citizens of the country. The aims and objects of such talks were to live there along with Muslims side by side peacefully. But, the Bengali Muslims wanted to get the privileges creating a new history of their own. It is nothing but their illegal and heinous attempts and imaginations came out. On the 26-8-88 a rally for democracy at Maungdaw, during decreased administrative power, a huge number of Chittagonian Bengali Muslims coming from other sides were found. Having the highest number of population, highest economic positions and highest number of administration authorities, they will do and undo everything as they like, Maungdaw town will be declared as a town of Bangladesh, frankly speaking. In the year 1961, Mr. Sultan, Minister of Health, gave a Mercedes car to P.M U Nu to influence him in this matter. According to the history of Maungdaw, their illegal entrance from outside and false statements, everything will be revealed easily. Table of population in Maungdaw Year 1921 1931 1956 1973 1976 1981 1986 Rakhaing 34,700 41,484 5,808 11,908 13,376 13,326 19,139 Total Bengali 68,035 104,408 124,452 187,792 211,394 212,070 249,571 264,507 Total 65,724 136,087 165,936 198,600 223, 302 222,549 263,899 283,649 (Akyab District of ACB) Burma gazetteer Remark

In respect of increasing of population, the rate of increase annually, 1st Feb 1960, the Pakistan Gazette on action now plan system population. At present the rate of increase of its population is 2.17% only. According to the above table the rate of population increase in Maungdaw during the year 1931 to 1941 (10 years) is 1.71% then upto 1956 (15 years) the rate became 3.455 in Pakistan (now Bangladesh) the rate of increase of population was 2% to 3.43% thus annually 2,798 persons are entering illegally, then the other people of the area will disappear from the place due to rapid increase of the Bengali Muslims in our country. According to the Gazette

Notification of the immigration department, 1947, during the census of 1947 up to June, population of Maungdaw subdivision was 19,789 and was found increased. Besides, from 1947 to June, 1956, illegal Chittagonian Bengali intruders numbering 28,181 persons were found. Report of U Hla Tun Rhroo, illegal intruders of West Country dt. 17-9-76 was mentioned. There are 41,414 Buddhists in Maungdaw in 1941. But, during the time of Muslim-Buddhists riots in 1942, as a good number of Rakhaing Buddhists lost their lives as per census of 1956, the total population of Rakhaing Buddhists was only 5,808. These were no race of Rohingya in the census before. In the year 1983, the Bengali Muslims demanded to note them as "Rohingya" in place of Bengali or Chittagonian Muslims in the column of nationality. It had been found that after completion of census in some villages out of 102 villages, where they were noted as Bengali, they demanded to use the word Rohingya in place of Chittagonian Bengali in the census lists. It is revealed that the persons, who had entered into Arakan, will be concealed their original identity of Bengali. (5) Statements on urgent demands (a) Action as per law of citizenship, 1982. According to the above mentioned facts, Chittagonian Bengalis, who have been living in Maungdaw and Butheedaung (Kula) started entering into our country since the year 1852. And it revealed that they have been settled here for the last 180 years only. Observing the history of a country, they should not have equal rights with the original people of the origin. So, the foreigners Act, 1982 should be welcomed and accepted. In that law, every person coming from outside will be treated as foreigner. As per Sec. 3 of that law, those who have been settling in any part of the country before 1923 (ie. 1185 R.E.) along with Kachin, kayah, karen, Chin, Mon, Shan, Rakhaing be treated as the national of the country. Accordingly this law should be enforced strictly failing which, the country will surely be turned into a Muslim country without any doubt. If we accept them, then they will suck our blood and our properties will be taken by all those Chittagonian Bengalis (Kula). Moreover, in some occasions, all those Bengalis would marry Burmese girls by way of introducing themselves as Rakhaing Buddhists of Arakan. Moreover some of them using the Burmese wife occupied all the facility of business to earn much money to build large mosques. There is no Rakhaing-Muslim at all anywhere till now. The one who introduces himself as Rakhaing Muslims is a Chittagonian Muslim only, and it is nothing but getting equal rights and privileges only. During the time of Democracy Parliament, these Bengali were not accepted as "Rohingya" as per the law. During that time, as there were huge number of Muslims as high ranking officers, they tried to do anything to influence the other high ranking officials, but without any success as the law of the country did not permit to do so. Then there were 2 Muslim ministers in the cabinet namely U Khin Maung Let (Abdul Khair), Minister of Religious Affairs and U Rashid, Minister of Industry. U Khin Maung Let could arrange to issue NRCs to the Chittagonian Bengali Muslims as he was a most powerful minister of the cabinet. So, the Muslim lawyers of Rakhaing State in cooperation with the said minister could make the illegally entered Chittagonian Bengali Muslims as a national of the country. He could issue innumerable NRCs to the illegally entered Chittagonian Bengali Muslims. In 1958, checking and detecting illegal immigrants was suspended because they could get a receipt 1 Kyat from AFPFL with signature of U Khin Maung Let. The officers who managed to detect such persons were immediately transferred to other places without any other fault. Moreover, the Muslim companies were easily allowed to import their requirements from abroad without any difficulty. Moreover, the said minister collected lakhs of Kyats from the rich Muslim merchants of Rangoon, Moulmein,

Mandalay, Bassein etc. for their election campaigns. As they are not the real citizens of the state, they have no right to have nomination or be elected as per section 155 of the concerning law of the country. Briefly speaking, under the law of 1982, such Bengali from Chittagong who arrived from the western side of Rakhaing State, were foreigners. It was possible to identify correctly as foreigners those residing in this town, Butheedaung, Ratheedaung, Akyab, Pouktaw, Mongbra. S, during identification in the year 1979 under the plan, a number of 109,667 Khawtaw Kula (Chittagonian Bengalis) were properly identified to be non nationals by the government and internationally. (b) Rights under other section of laws. None of the Chittagonian Bengali were well-wishers and were loyal to the country, but they were demanding separate Muslim area with the help of outsides. So, if they were given such facility, they would for sure join with Bangladesh and Malaysia as per their great plans. In order to convert Burma and Thailand into Muslim countries in the near future, which are required to be resisted under1. Identifying the real citizen of the country. 2. Foreigners should be identified properly and they should hold their FRCs with them. 3. Each citizen of the country should be given traveling facilities throughout the country as per law of foreigners Act, 1868. 4. Existing encroached constructions should be removed after necessary action under proper law. 5. To fix regulations for the quantity of properties by the foreigners can hold individually. 6. To give preference to higher education as well as to employment according to the needs. 7. To frame laws to authorize construction of Mosques and Madrasha. 8. Observation of marriage law, polygamy i.e. taking of single wife to a person. 9. To manage under proper rules and laws for peaceful existence. 10. Administration of Maungdaw and Butheedaung as a separate subdivision or district. Above mentioned rules should be enforced. Every facility and privilege have been given to them without making any difference between a citizen and a foreigner in the past, though they have violated most of the above mentioned rules. In enjoying the rights and privileges of democracy, persons who are not actual citizen or national should not be given such facility equally. In Australia, in order to live peacefully with neighbouring countries, to be accepted, foreigners are to abide by the laws as stated by Mr. Alexendor, Minister of Immigration and Passports. In accepting foreigners in Singapore, only well-educated Malaysians were accepted. So, the Chittagonian Bengali (C-Kula) should be identified as: 1. Guest citizens (i.e. temporary citizen or foreigner). 2. Guest citizen/person applying for citizenship/ Citizen etc. separately. After that they should be given their entitled rights as fixed by the proper authority. Then, they should be given chance to take part in election, if the circumstances allow. 3. Failing to identify in such manner, the election of Maungdaw-Butheedaung should be postponed after completion of the work of identification etc.

Conclusion
As per above-mentioned demands, as per the existing position, sufferings of the Rakhaings are prevailing to a great extent. If these problems are not solved, then the western gateway of Maungdaw and its Rakhaing population will go under the occupation of western people, i.e. Chittagonian Bengali-Muslims. Moreover they will march ahead upto central Burma gradually, no doubt. In future, the existence of Maungdaw and Butheedaung, the northern portion of Rakhaing state, as a part of Union of Burma is imperative. Watchful eyes should be kept on their activities in respect of their imperialism, politics, religious affairs, etc, so that we save ourselves from their heinous activities like oppressions, attacks etc. In these works, everybody should be given necessary co-operation and assistance as much as possible for the cause of our nation and country as well. Translated from Burmese by U. T. Sein Associate B. Green Ref: 1. 1981 History of Maungdaw. 2. ill Rangees of Naf River By U Sakkinda 3. Island of Naf River (Manuscript). Opinion of the member of British Commission for administration, historian and Researcher, how Chittagonian lobourers entered into Rakhaing State. "R.B.Sonant M. "Akyab District", Page No. 87. The mahamadans Kho. in ref. No. 88255 by the year 194 Disen to 178647 Many men who came dawn for the work seasonally from Chittagong and included in the lense and returns but are not zeropesly speaking inhabitants of the country were stated in the page. It has been noted as remarks.

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