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# CHAPTER 2 REVIEW Common Power Units

Standar Metric

Engineer Notation

SI base and supplementary Units

Derive SI Units

Sumary Chapter 2 Sumary

A coulomb is a quantity measurement of electrons. An ampere (A) is 1 coulomb per second. The letter I, which stands for intensity of current flow, is normally used in Ohm’s law formulas. Voltage is referred to as electric pressure, potential difference, or electro motive force. An E or a V can be used to represent voltage in Ohm’s law formulas. A volt is the amount of potential necessary to cause 1 coulomb to produce 1 joule of work. An ohm (Ω) is a measurement of resistance (R) in an electric circuit. The watt (W) is a measurement of power in an electric circuit. It is represented by either a W or a P (power) in Ohm’s law formulas.

Electric measurements are generally expressed in engineering notation. Engineering notation differs from scientific notation in that it uses steps of 1000 instead of steps of 10. Before current can flow, there must be a complete circuit. A short circuit has little or no resistance.

Chapter 2 Review

1.What is a coulomb? A quantity measurement for electrons. Named by a French scientist in the 1700s Augustin de coulomb. 2. What is an ampere? The ampere (A) is equal to 1 coulomb per second. The ampere is a measurement of the amount of electricity that is flowing through a circuit. Named by Andre Ampere who lived from the late 1700s to early 1800s. 3. Define voltage? Electromotive force, electrical pressure, potential difference. 4. Define ohm: A measurement of electrical power. It was named after the German scientist Georg S. Ohm. It take one volt to push one amp through one ohm. 5. Define watt: Wattage is a measure of the amount of power that is being used in a circuit. The watt was named in honor of the English scientist James Watt 6. An electric heating element has a resistance of 16 Ω and is connected to a voltage of 120 V. How much current will flow in this circuit? E÷R= I 120V÷16= 7.5Amp. 7. How many watts of heat are being produced by the heating element in Question 6? I x E = P. 7.5 Amps. x 120V. = 900 watts. 8. A 240-V circuit has a current flow of 20 A. How much resistance is connected in the circuit? E÷I=R. 240 V.÷ 20A. = 12 Ω. 9. An electric motor has an apparent resistance of 15Ω. If 8 A of current are flowing through the motor, what is the connected voltage? I x R = E 8A. X 15 = 120 V. 10. A 240-V air-conditioning compressor has an apparent resistance of 8 Ω . How much current will flow in the circuit? E÷R = I. 240V. x 8 Ω= 30 Amps. 11. How much power is being used by the motor in Question 10? I x E = P 7200 watts. 30 Amp. X 240v. =

12. A 5-kW electric heating unit is connected to a 240-V line. What is the current flow in the circuit? 5KW= 1000. 5000 W/240 V = 20.83 A. 13. If the voltage in Question 12 is reduced to 120 V, how much current would be needed to produce the same amount of power? 5000 W/120 V = 41.67 A.

14. Is it less expensive to operate the electric heating unit in Question 12 on 240 V or 120 V? Since the power consumption is the same, it will cost the same to operate the heating element regardless of which voltage is used.

Chapter 3 Summary

■ The word static means not moving. ■ An object can be positively charged by removing electrons from it. ■ An object can be negatively charged by adding electrons to it. ■ An electroscope is a device used to determine the polarity of an object. ■ Static charges accumulate on insulator materials. ■ Lightning is an example of a natural static charge.

Chapter 3 Review

1. Why is static electricity considered to be a charge and not a current? static means not moving or sitting still. Static electricity refers to electrons that are sitting still and not moving. 2. If electrons are removed from an object, is the object positively or negatively charged? positively charged. 3. Why do static charges accumulate on insulator materials only? Because insulators hold the electrons in position.and do not let them move to a different position 4. What is an electroscope? An early electric instrument that can be used to determine the polarity of the electrostatic charge of material. 5. An electroscope has been charged with a negative charge. positive charge. 6. Can one thundercloud contain both positive and negative charges? Yes (Contains both). 7. A thundercloud has a negative charge, and an object on the ground has a positive charge. Will the lightning discharge be from the cloud to the ground or from the ground to the cloud? 8. Name two devices used for lightning protection. Lighting Rod , Lighting arrestor 9. What type of material is used to coat the aluminum drum of a copy machine? Selenium ( is a semiconductor material that changes its conductivity with a change of light intensity). 10. What special property does this material have that makes it useful in a copy machine? Its

conductivity changes with a change in light intensity.

chapter 4 Summary

■ Early natural magnets were known as lodestones. ■ The earth has a north and a south magnetic pole. ■ The magnetic poles of the earth and the axes poles are not the same. ■ Like poles of a magnet repel each other, and unlike poles attract each other. ■ Some materials have the ability to become better magnets than others. ■ Three basic types of magnetic material are a. Ferromagnetic b. Paramagnetic c. Diamagnetic ■ When current flows through a wire, a magnetic field is created around the wire. ■ The direction of current flow through the wire determines the polarity of the magnetic field. ■ The strength of an electromagnet is determined by the ampere-turns. ■ The type of core material used in an electromagnet can increase its strength. ■ Three different systems are used to measure magnetic values: a. The English system b. The CGS system c. The SI system ■ An object can be demagnetized by placing it in an AC magnetic field and pulling it away, by striking, and by heating.

Chapter 4 Review

1. Is the north magnetic pole of the earth a north polarity or a south polarity? South Polarity. 2. What were early natural magnets known as? Lodestones. 3. The south pole of one magnet is brought close to the south pole of another magnet. Will the magnets repel or attract each other? Repel each other. 4. How can the polarity of an electromagnet be determined if the direction of current flow is known? Left hand rule 5. Define the following terms:

Flux density : Magnetic lines of force are called flux.The strength of a magnet is determined by its flux

density.

**Permeability: The measure of a material’s. (is a measure of a materials willingness to become
**

magnetized).

Reluctance: resistance to magnetism. (is the measure of materials resistance to being magnetized). Saturation: the maximum line of magnetic force a material can hold. (occurs when all the molecules of

the material are lined up. If the current is continually increased to an electromagnet it will eventually reach a point where its strength will only slightly increase with more current).

Coercive force: force required to reduce residual magnetism zero. Residual magnetism: the amount of magnetic force remaining in a piece of material after the

magnetizing force has been removed (This is the amount of magnetism left in a magnet after the magnetizing force has stopped. Other terms for residual magnetism are Retentivity and Coercive). 6. A force of 1 ounce is equal to how many dynes? 27800 dynes or 0.225 Newtons

Summary chapter 14

■ When current fl ows through a conductor, a magnetic fi eld is created around the conductor. ■ When a conductor is cut by a magnetic fi eld, a voltage is induced in the conductor. ■ The polarity of the induced voltage is determined by the polarity of the magnetic field in relation to the direction of motion. ■ Three factors that determine the amount of induced voltage are a. the number of turns of wire. b. the strength of the magnetic field. c. the speed of the cutting action. ■ One volt is induced in a conductor when magnetic lines of flux are cut at a rate of 1 weber per second. ■ Induced voltage is always opposite in polarity to the applied voltage. ■ Inductors oppose a change of current. ■ Current rises in an inductor at an exponential rate. ■ An exponential curve is divided into five time constants. ■ Each time constant is equal to 63.2% of some value. ■ Inductance is measured in units called henrys (H). ■ A coil has an inductance of 1 henry when a current change of 1 ampere per second results in an induced voltage of 1 volt. ■ Air-core inductors are inductors wound on cores of nonmagnetic material. ■ Iron-core inductors are wound on cores of magnetic material. ■ The amount of inductance an inductor will have is determined by the number of turns of wire and the physical construction of the coil. ■ Inductors can produce extremely high voltages when the current fl owing through them is stopped. ■ Two devices used to help prevent large spike voltages are the resistor and the diode.

Chapter 14 Review

1. What determines the polarity of magnetism when current flows through a conductor? Direction current flow. 2. What determines the strength of the magnetic field when current flows through a conductor? Amount current flow. 3. Name three factors that determine the amount of induced voltage in a coil. a. the number of turns of wire. b. the strength of the magnetic field. c. the speed of the cutting action. 4. How many lines of magnetic flux must be cut in 1 s to induce a voltage of 1 V? 100,000,000. 5. What is the effect on induced voltage of adding more turns of wire to a coil? It has the effect of adding turns in series causing the induced voltage in each to add. 6. Into how many time constants is an exponential curve divided? 5 7. Each time constant of an exponential curve is equal to what percentage of the maximum amount of charge? 63.2 %.