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Power Plant Instrumentation

Power Plant Instrumentation

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Published by Saurabh Singh
Power-plant control
and instrumentation
The control of boilers
and HRSG systems
Power-plant control
and instrumentation
The control of boilers
and HRSG systems

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Published by: Saurabh Singh on Feb 27, 2013
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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07/20/2014

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In comparison with coal, oil involves the use of much less capital plant.
On the face of it, it would appear that all that is required is to extract the
oil from its storage tank and pump it to the burners. But in reality life is

more complicated than that!
Proper ignition of oil depends on the fuel being broken into small
droplets (atomised) and mixed with air. The atomisation may be achieved

The fuel, air and flue-gas circuits 39

Hot alr

Feeder

Raw coal and ho

Warm air

Ambient
air

Figure 3.11 Suction mill air supply system

by expelling the oil through a small nozzle (a 'pressure jet'), or it may be
achieved by the use of compressed air or steam.
The fuel oil itself may be light (such as diesel oil or gas oil), or it may
be extremely viscous and tar-like (heavy fuel oil, commonly 'Bunker C').
The handling system must therefore be designed to be appropriate to the
nature of the liquid. With the heavier grades of oil, prewarming is
necessary, and to prevent it cooling and thickening the fuel is continually
circulated to the burners via a recirculation system (shown schematically
in Figure 3.12). The latter process is sometimes referred to as 'spill-back'.
When a burner is not firing, the oil circulates through the pipework right
up to the shut-off valve, which is mounted as close to the oil gun as
possible.

From the point of the C&I engineer, the control systems involved with
oil firing may include any or all of the following: controlling the tempera-
ture of the fuel, the pressure of the atomising medium, and the
equalisation of the fuel pressures at various levels on the burner front.

40 Power-plant control and instrumentation

Lp C,

pump

F-G

Oil
heater

HP
pump

Recirculation

J

Burner 1

-%

-~

Burner 2

Figure 3.12 Simplified oil pumping, heating and recirculation system

~*

Burner 3

~.

Burner 4

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