Refrigeration Piping Design | Gas Compressor | Refrigeration

Application Guide

AG 31-011

Refrigerant Piping Design Guide
TX Valve Mounted in Vertical Line Sight Glass Solenoid Valve

Liquid Line

Distributor

External Equalization Line Slope In Direction Of Refrigerant Flow Bulb Filter-Drier

Suction Line

Engineered for flexibility and performance.™

Contents
Introduction..................................................................................................................3
Audience ............................................................................................................................................3 Using This Manual.............................................................................................................................3 Refrigerant Piping..............................................................................................................................4 Refrigerant Piping Design Check List ...............................................................................................5

Typical Refrigerant Piping Layouts .............................................................................6 Piping Design Basics ...................................................................................................9
Liquid Lines .....................................................................................................................................10 Suction Lines ...................................................................................................................................12 Discharge Lines ...............................................................................................................................13 Multiple Refrigeration Circuits ........................................................................................................16

Sizing Refrigerant Lines ............................................................................................18
Refrigerant Capacity Tables .............................................................................................................18 Equivalent Length for Refrigerant Lines .........................................................................................18 Refrigerant Oil .................................................................................................................................22 Suction Line Sizing..........................................................................................................................22 Oil Return in Suction and Discharge Risers ....................................................................................23

Thermal Expansion Valves ........................................................................................33
Hot Gas Bypass................................................................................................................................35 Hot Gas Bypass Valves ....................................................................................................................36

Installation Details .....................................................................................................40
Pump Down .....................................................................................................................................40 Piping Insulation ..............................................................................................................................40 Refrigerant Line Installation ............................................................................................................41

Low Ambient Operation ............................................................................................42
Fan Cycling and Fan Speed Control ................................................................................................42 Condenser Flood Back Design.........................................................................................................42

Safety and the Environment.......................................................................................44 Appendix 1 - Glossary ...............................................................................................45 Appendix 2 – Refrigerant Piping Tables (Inch-Pound) .............................................49 Appendix 3 – Refrigerant Piping Tables (SI) ............................................................70

THE INFORMATION CONTAINED WITHIN THIS GUIDE REPRESENTS THE OPINIONS AND SUGGESTIONS OF McQUAY INTERNATIONAL. EQUIPMENT, AND THE APPLICATION OF THE EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEM SUGGESTIONS ARE OFFERED BY McQUAY INTERNATIONAL AS SUGGESTIONS AND GUIDELINES ONLY, AND McQUAY INTERNATIONAL DOES NOT ASSUME RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE PERFORMANCE OF ANY SYSTEM AS A RESULT OF THESE SUGGESTIONS. THE SYSTEM ENGINEER IS RESPONSIBLE FOR SYSTEM DESIGN AND PERFORMANCE.

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Application Guide AG 31-011

Introduction
Audience
This Application Guide was created for design engineers and service technicians to demonstrate how to size refrigerant piping.

Using This Guide
This Guide covers R-22, R-407C, R-410A, and R-134a used in commercial air conditioning systems. It does not apply to industrial refrigeration and/or Variable Refrigerant Volume (VRV) systems. Illustrations and figures are not to scale. Examples showing how to perform an analysis appear in shaded outlined boxes. How to Determine Equivalent Length Calculate the equivalent length of the liquid line for the following condensing unit with DX air-handling unit.

The liquid line is composed of the following elements: • 30 ft (9.14 m) of 1-3/8 inch (35 mm) piping • 4 long radius elbows • 1 filter drier • 1 sight glass • 1 globe type isolating valve To determine the equivalent length for the refrigerant accessories use Table 4 and Table 5 (page 50). Item Long radius elbow Filter drier Sight glass Globe valve Piping Total Quantity 4 1 1 1 1 Dimension (ft) 2.3 (0.7m) 35 (10.7m) 2.5 (0.76m) 38 (11.6m) 30 (9.1m) Total (ft) 9.2 (2.8m) 35 (10.7m) 2.5 (0.76m) 38 (11.6m) 30 (9.1m) 117.7 (34.96m)

Application Guide AG 31-011

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Examples include: • • • • Condensing units Direct expansion (DX) coil in air handlers Remote evaporators with air-cooled chillers (Figure 1) Chiller with a remote air-cooled condensers Figure 1 .Refrigerant Piping Several HVAC systems require field refrigeration piping to be designed and installed on-site. using practical refrigerant line sizes that limit pressure drop Avoid trapping excessive oil so that the compressor has enough oil to operate properly at all times Avoid liquid refrigerant slugging Be clean and dry 4 Application Guide AG 31-011 . A properly designed and installed refrigerant piping system should: • • • • Provide adequate refrigerant flow to the evaporators.Typical Field Piping Application The information contained in this Application Guide is based on Chapter 2 of ASHRAE's Refrigeration Handbook and McQuay's experience with this type of equipment.

) ☺Tip: Use this list to gather the information required to design your refrigerant piping system Application Guide AG 31-011 5 . etc.Refrigerant Piping Design Check List The first step in refrigerant piping design is to gather product and jobsite information. etc. A checklist for each is provided below. including: o o o o o • • • • Distances Elevation changes Equipment layout Fittings Specific details for evaporator piping connections Ambient conditions where piping will be run Ambient operating range (will the system operate during the winter?) Type of cooling load (comfort or process) Unit isolation (spring isolators. Product Information • • • • • • • • • Model number of unit components (condensing section. evaporator. rubber-in-shear. How this information is used will be explained throughout the rest of this guide.) Maximum capacity per refrigeration circuit Minimum capacity per refrigeration circuit Unit operating charge Unit pump down capacity Refrigerant type Unit options (Hot Gas Bypass. etc.) Does equipment include isolation valves and charging ports Does the unit have pump down? Jobsite Information • Sketch of how piping will be run.

2. Figure 2 shows a condensing unit mounted on grade connected to a DX coil installed in a roofmounted air-handling unit. 1. A liquid line supplies liquid refrigerant from the condenser to a thermal expansion (TX) valve adjacent to the coil.Typical Refrigerant Piping Layouts This section shows several typical refrigerant piping layouts for commercial air conditioning. Figure 2 – Condensing Unit with DX Air Handling Unit TX Valve DX Air Handling Unit Suction Riser Inverted Trap Not Required With Air Cooled Condensing Unit Pumpdown Sight Glass Suction Line Solenoid Valve Filter-Drier Liquid Line 6 Application Guide AG 31-011 . They will be used throughout this guide to illustrate piping design requirements. A suction line provides refrigerant gas to the suction connection of the compressor.

1 2. Figure 3 .Air-cooled Chiller with Remote Evaporator Air Cooled Chiller With Remote Evaporator Remote Evaporator Liquid Line Liquid Line Riser Suction Line Riser Double Suction Riser TX Valve Sight Glass Solenoid Valve Filter-Drier Application Guide AG 31-011 7 . Double suction risers are covered in more detail in the Oil Return in Suction and Discharge Risers section of this guide (page 23). 1. each with a liquid line supplying liquid refrigerant from the condenser to a TX valve adjacent to the evaporator. and a suction line returning refrigerant gas from the evaporator to the suction connections of the compressor. There is a double suction riser on one of the circuits. There are two refrigeration circuits.Figure 3 shows a roof-mounted air-cooled chiller with a remote evaporator inside the building.

Figure 4 shows an indoor chiller with a remote air-cooled condenser on the roof. 1. The discharge gas line runs from the discharge side of the compressor to the inlet of the condenser.Indoor Chiller with Remote Air-cooled Condenser Air Cooled Condenser Discharge Line Inverted Trap (Can be Replaced With Check Valve) Discharge Line Liquid Line Riser Discharge Riser Trap Only At Base Hot Gas Bypass Top Connection To Avoid Liquid Refrigerant Collection Chiller Sight Glass TX Valve Solenoid Valve Filter-Drier 8 Application Guide AG 31-011 . The liquid line connects the outlet of the condenser to a TX valve at the evaporator. The hot gas bypass line on the circuit runs from the discharge line of the compressor to the liquid line connection at the evaporator. Figure 4 . 2. 3.

such as elbows and tees. charged with nitrogen. 1-1/8 inch. Because almost all field-piped systems have compressor oil passing through the refrigeration circuit and back to the compressor. and system reliability. refrigerant line sizes are selected to balance pressure drop with initial cost. 7/8 inch. The initial cost is impacted by the diameter and layout of the piping. in this case of the copper tubing while also maintaining enough refrigerant velocity to carry oil back to the compressor. A good rule of thumb is a minimum of: • • • 500 feet per minute (fpm) or 2. All joints are brazed with oxy-acetylene torches by a qualified technician.Refrigerant Grade Copper Tubing Copper tubing intended for ACR applications is dehydrated. are used with the hard drawn copper tubing.54 meters per second (mps) for horizontal suction and hot gas lines 1000 fpm (5. Type M is not used because the wall is too thin. This is then converted to PSI (kPa). and plugged by the manufacturer (see Figure 5). pressure drop. Typical sizes include 5/8 inch. Formed fittings.08 mps) for suction and hot gas risers Less than 300 fpm (1. etc. Types L and K are approved for air conditioning and refrigeration (ACR) applications. The pressure drop in the piping must be minimized to avoid adversely affecting performance and capacity. As mentioned before.Piping Design Basics Good piping design results in a balance between the initial cost.54 mps) to avoid liquid hammering from occurring when the solenoid closes on liquid lines Hard drawn copper tubing is used for halocarbon refrigeration systems. Figure 5 . a minimum velocity must be maintained in the piping so that sufficient oil is returned to the compressor sump at full and part load conditions. The nominal size is based on the outside diameter (OD). Application Guide AG 31-011 9 . Pressure drops are calculated by adding the length of tubing required to the equivalent feet (meters) of all fittings in the line.

Refer Table 2 to for specific refrigerants.3 (22.1) 4. Different refrigerants will have different pressure changes based on elevation.7°C) change in temperature.56) 1 (0.50 (11. it is common to hear pressure drop referred to as “2°F” versus PSI (kPa) when matching refrigeration system components.56) PSI (kPa) 3.1°C) or about 3 PSI (20.2) °F (°C) 1 (0. If the refrigerant in the liquid line flashes to a gas because the pressure drops too low or because of an increase in elevation.75 (32. If the condenser had been installed above the evaporator.9 kW) cooling at 47°F (7.8) 2.1) 4.8) 2.92 (20.1°C) per line.1) 2 (1. the evaporator would have to be sized to deliver 25 tons (87. Liquid Lines Liquid lines connect the condenser to the evaporator and carry liquid refrigerant to the TX valve.1) 2 (1.1°C) line loss.0) 3. Assuming a 2°F (1.2) Note Suction and discharge pressure drops based on 100 equivalent feet (30. For example.73) 0.05 (21.93 (13.2 (15. Table 1.3) Discharge Pressure Drop °F (°C) 1 (0.5 m) and 40°F (4. Liquid sub-cooling is the only method that prevents refrigerant flashing to gas due to pressure drops in the line. many documents refer to acceptable pressure drop being 2°F (1.4°C) saturated temperature.5 (31.05 (21. Oversizing liquid lines is discouraged because it will significantly increase the system refrigerant charge. in turn.91 (20.63) 0. plus the weight of the liquid refrigerant column in the riser. the refrigerant pressure is lowered. Table 1 compares pressure drops in temperatures and pressures for several common refrigerants. Note that the refrigerants have different pressure drops for the same change in temperature.7 kPa) for R-22.0) 1. For example. results in a 1. The actual line size should provide no more than a 2 to 3°F (1.2°F (0.56) 1 (0. Table 2 .9 kW) of cooling at 45°F (7. This.5 (24. The actual pressure drop in PSI (kPa) will depend on the refrigerant.56) 1 (0.56) 1 (0. Figure 2 (page 6) shows the condenser below the evaporator. The same 3 PSI change in R-410A.7°C) Application Guide AG 31-011 10 .56) Liquid Pressure Drop PSI (kPa) 3.0) 3.1 to 1.Pressure Drop and Temperature Change As refrigerant flows through pipes the pressure drops and changes the refrigerant saturation temperature. As the liquid refrigerant is lifted from the condenser to the evaporator.50 (11. 1 Based on saturated liquid refrigerant at 100°F (37.31) Only sub-cooled liquid refrigerant will avoid flashing at the TX valve in this situation. affects the oil charge. Proper refrigeration system design attempts to minimize this change to less than 2°F (1.2°C) saturated suction temperature.43 (9. the pressure increase from the weight of the liquid refrigerant in the line would have prevented the refrigerant from flashing in a properly sized line without sub-cooling.2°C) saturated suction temperature.47 (10. Decreases in both pressure and saturation temperature adversely affect compressor performance.7°C) pressure drop.1) PSI (kPa) 2.Pressure Drop In Liquid Lines By Refrigerant 1 Refrigerant R-22 R-407C R-410A R-134a Pressure Drop PSI/ft (kPa/m) Riser 0. Therefore.75 (32. then the refrigeration system will operate poorly.31) 0.1) 2 (1.2 (15.1) 2.Temperature versus Pressure Drop Refrigerant Suction Pressure Drop °F (°C) R-22 R-407C R-410A R-134a 2 (1. a condensing unit may produce 25 tons (87.8) 4. The total pressure drop in the liquid line is the sum of the friction loss.56) 1 (0.56) 1 (0.

such as a condensing unit or condenser. Liquid lines should be sloped 1/8 inch per foot (10. so be sure to check what is included. the solenoid valve will be located just before the TX valve. Next there is a sight glass that allows technicians to view the condition of the refrigerant in the liquid line. Filter driers are either disposable or a permanent with replaceable cores. 2 Photos courtesy of Sporlan Division – Parker Hannifin Corporation 11 Application Guide AG 31-011 . If none are available.4 mm/m) in the direction of refrigerant flow. page 33. (More information about TX valves is available under Thermal Expansion Valves. If a pump down is utilized. Liquid lines require several refrigerant line components and/or accessories to be field selected and installed (Figure 6). there is a liquid line filter-drier. manufacturers supply isolating valves with their product. Receivers in the liquid line. it is desirable to have isolation valves for servicing the basic system components. Isolation valves and charging ports are required. page 42). then provide 4 to 6°F (2. In many cases.It is important to have some sub-cooling at the TX valve so that the valve will operate properly and not fail prematurely. Follow the manufacturer’s recommendations. and increase the refrigerant charge. Following the sight glass is the TX valve. Isolating valves come in several types and shapes. Figure 6 .3°C) of sub-cooling at the TX valve. or as part of a flooded low ambient control approach (More information about flooded low ambient control approach is available under Condenser Flood Back Design. A pump down solenoid valve. This is a specialty fitting that integrates with the distributor – an auxiliary side connector (ASC). as close to the evaporator as possible. Receivers are usually avoided because they remove sub-cooling from the condenser. 3. increase the initial cost. Generally. The filter drier removes debris from the liquid refrigerant and contains a desiccant to absorb moisture in the system.) 2. Working from the condenser. These are used to store excess refrigerant for either pump down or service (if the condenser has inadequate volume to hold the system charge). Trapping is unnecessary.Refrigerant Accessories 2 Aux Side Connector Distributor Sight Glass Solenoid Valve TX Valve Filter-Drier Referring to Figure 2 (page 6): 1. Possible accessories for this system include: • • • A hot gas bypass port. Many sight glasses include a moisture indicator that changes color if moisture is present in the refrigerant.2 to 3.

Suction Line Piping Details While operating. Intermediate traps are unnecessary in a properly sized riser as they contribute to pressure drop. Traps may be used at the bottom of risers to catch condensed refrigerant before it flows to the compressor. the evaporators should be isolated from the suction line with an inverted trap as shown in Figure 7 and Figure 8: The trap should extend above the top of the evaporator before leading to the compressor. The oil flows on the bottom of the pipe and is moved along by the refrigerant gas flowing above it. Undersizing the suction line reduces compressor capacity by forcing it to operate at a lower suction pressure to maintain the desired evaporator temperature.1 to 1. 1. the suction filter drier is often removed after the break-in period for the replacement compressor. the suction line is filled with superheated refrigerant vapor and oil. This may result in slugging if the liquid refrigerant is drawn into the compressor when the system restarts. such as after compressor burnout. The actual pressure drop in PSI (kPa) will depend on the refrigerant. they should only be added if circumstances require them. 3. 12 Application Guide AG 31-011 . To minimize slugging of condensed refrigerant. Because they represent a significant pressure drop. 2. so they should be installed per the manufacturer’s specifications to promote oil drainage. Usually with commercially produced air conditioning equipment. the suction piping should be designed so that the pressure drops are equal and the refrigerant and oil from one coil cannot flow into another coil. (More information about designing vertical suction risers is covered in more detail in Suction Line Sizing.4 mm/m) in the direction of refrigerant flow. page 22) Suction lines should be sized for a maximum of 2 to 3°F (1. With multiple evaporators. In this instance. When the system stops.Suction Lines Suction gas lines allow refrigerant gas from the evaporator to flow into the inlet of the compressor. To promote good oil return. Suction line filter driers are available to help clean the refrigerant before it enters the compressor. Suction filter driers catch significant amounts of oil. the compressors are “prepiped” to a common connection on the side of the unit.7°C) pressure loss. 4. suction lines should be pitched 1/8 inch per foot (10. This is particularly important when vertical suction risers are used. Oversizing the suction line increases initial project costs and may result in insufficient refrigerant gas velocity to move oil from the evaporator to the compressor. Evaporator connections require special care because the evaporator has the potential to contain a large volume of condensed refrigerant during off cycles. the refrigerant may condense in the pipe depending on the ambient conditions.

Suction Piping Details Compressor Above Coil Slope In Direction Of Refrigerant Flow Trap to Protect TX Valve Bulb From Liquid refrigerant Compressor Above Coil No Inverted Trap Required If Properly Sloped Compressor Below Coil Trap Above Coil Height Not required with Pumpdown Systems Slope In Direction Of Refrigerant Flow Trap to Protect TX Valve Bulb From Liquid Refrigerant Slope In Direction Of Refrigerant Flow Compressor Below Coil Application Guide AG 31-011 13 .Figure 7 .Remote Evaporator Piping Detail Slope In Direction of Refrigerant Flow Inverted Trap Only Required If There Are Evaporators Upstream Trap to Protect TX Valve Bulb From Liquid Refrigerant Figure 8 .

Figure 9-Capacity and Performances versus Pressure Drop Approx. Undersizing discharge lines will reduce compressor capacity and increase compressor work. oF 2. The actual pressure drop in PSI will depend upon the refrigerant. Effect of Gas Line Pressure Drops on R-22 Compressor Capacity & Power – Suction Line 110 108 106 Power 104 102 % 100 98 Capacity 96 94 92 0 0.5 3 3.5 2 Line Loss. Effect of Gas Line Pressure Drops on R-22 Compressor Capacity & Power – Discharge Line 108 106 104 Power 102 % 100 Capacity 98 96 0 0.Discharge Lines Discharge gas lines (often referred to as hot gas lines) allow refrigerant to flow from the discharge of the compressor to the inlet of the condenser. Figure 9 illustrates how capacity and power consumption are affected by increasing pressure drop for both discharge and suction lines. Discharge lines should be sized for no more than 2 to 3°F (1.5 2 Line Loss.5 1 1. Over sizing discharge lines increases the initial cost of the project and may result in insufficient refrigerant gas velocity to carry oil back to the compressor.7°C) pressure loss. Although these curves are based on an R-22 system. similar affects occur with other refrigerants.5 3 3.5 4 14 Application Guide AG 31-011 . oF 2.1 to 1.5 1 1.5 4 Approx.

Since refrigerant may condense during the off cycle. so it should be placed in the horizontal or downflow portion of the piping. Traps can be added to the bottom of risers to catch oil and condensed refrigerant during off cycles.4 mm/m) in the direction of refrigerant flow towards the condenser (Figure 10). an inverted trap or check valve should be installed at the condenser inlet to prevent liquid refrigerant from flowing backwards into the compressor during off cycles. as close to the compressor as possible. Discharge lines should be pitched 1/8 inch per foot (10. In some cases (i. before it flows backward into the compressor.Discharge Line Piping Details Discharge lines carry both refrigerant vapor and oil.e. with reciprocating compressors). Figure 10 . a discharge muffler is installed in the discharge line to minimize pulsations (that cause vibration). Oil is easily trapped in a discharge muffler. Intermediate traps in the risers are unnecessary in a properly sized riser as they increase the pressure drop. Whenever a condenser is located above the compressor. the piping should be designed to avoid liquid refrigerant and oil from flowing back into the compressor.Discharge Line Piping Details Slope In Direction Of Refrigerant Flow Trap at Bottom of Riser Keep Small as Possible Application Guide AG 31-011 15 .

Individual solenoids should be used if the evaporators will be operated independently (i. 16 Application Guide AG 31-011 . installed in the same system and connected to a dedicated refrigeration circuit. In some cases. for capacity control). then a single solenoid valve in a common pipe may be used. but multiple refrigeration circuits should never be connected to a single evaporator. If both evaporators will operate at the same time. A common mistake is to install a two circuit condensing units with a single circuit evaporator coil. Note that each coil has its own solenoid and thermal expansion valve. many refrigeration systems include two or more refrigeration circuits. it is possible to connect multiple evaporators to a single refrigeration circuit. There should be one TX valve for each distributor. Figure 12 shows a single refrigeration circuit serving two DX coils. Figure 11 . Interlaced is the most common. Figure 11 shows common DX coils that include multiple circuits. It is possible to have individual coils. Each circuit must be kept separate and designed as if it were a single system. each with a single circuit. a single refrigeration circuit serves multiple evaporators.e.DX Coils with Multiple Circuits While most common air conditioning applications have one evaporator for each circuit.Multiple Refrigeration Circuits For control and redundancy.

Figure 12 . Close to Coil Avoid Mounting in Traps Slope In Direction Of Refrigerant Flow Trap to Protect TX Valve Bulb From Liquid Refrigerant Application Guide AG 31-011 17 .Multiple Evaporators on a Common Refrigeration Circuit Filter-Drier Liquid Line Solenoid Valve Sight Glass TX Valve Suction Line External Equalization Line Bulb mounted on Horizontal Pipe.

The actual equivalent length is estimated by calculating the path length in feet (meters) that the piping will follow and adding the pressure drops of the fittings and/or accessories along that length.5. and 1. 18 Application Guide AG 31-011 .43 m) of straight copper pipe. For example.7°C) changes in saturated suction temperature (SST).6°C) condensing temperature (common for water-cooled equipment) and must be corrected for other condensing temperatures (air-cooled equipment is typically 120 to 125°F (48. and 2°F (0.Sizing Refrigerant Lines Refrigerant Capacity Tables Appendix 2 (page 49) and Appendix 3 (page 70) provide refrigerant line sizes for commonly used refrigerants. The difference between the two temperatures is called superheat.5 m) of equivalent length. The tables provide pressure drops in equivalent feet of straight pipe for fittings and accessories.28. and liquid lines. Equivalent Length for Refrigerant Lines Table 4 and Table 5 in Appendix 2 (page 50) provide information for estimating equivalent lengths. ☺Tip: Saturated suction temperature is based upon the pressure leaving the evaporator and represents the refrigerant temperature as a gas without superheat. we see that a 7/8-inch (22 mm) long radius elbow has a pressure drop equivalent to 1. Liquid lines are based on 1°F (0. 1. There is data for suction.56. in Table 4. discharge.4 feet (0.7°C)). Suction and discharge lines have data for 0.56°C) changes in saturation temperature. The data is based on 105°F (40. The actual refrigerant temperature leaving the evaporator will be higher than this. The actual pressure drop is estimated based on the actual equivalent length of the application using equations in the footnotes of the refrigerant capacity tables. 0.9 to 51. The tables are also based on 100 feet (30.

70m) Total (ft) 16.5 (0.7 m) of 1-3/8 inch (35 mm) piping • 7 long radius elbows • 1 filter drier • 1 sight glass • 1 globe type isolating valve To determine the equivalent length for the refrigerant accessories use Table 4 and Table 5 (page 50).64m) Application Guide AG 31-011 19 .76m) 38 (11.76m) 38 (11.70m) 2. Item Long radius elbow Filter drier Sight glass Globe valve Piping Total Quantity 7 1 1 1 1 Dimension (ft) 2.How to Determine Equivalent Length Calculate the equivalent length of the liquid line for the following condensing unit with DX air-handling unit: Liquid Line The liquid line is composed of the following elements: • 22 ft (6.70m) 113.58m) 22 (6.58m) 22 (6.70m) 2.6 (34.5 (0.90m) 35 (10.70m) 35 (10.3 (0.1 (4.

68o F 1.39 o C ⎞ ⎜ Pressure Drop Actual = 32.6 ft ⎤ ⎡ 60 tons ⎤ ΔTActual = 1°F ⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 100 ft ⎦ ⎣ 79. Step 2 – Calculate Actual ΔT Using Note 5 in the table.48m ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎝ ⎠ Step 3 – Calculate Actual Piping Pressure Drop According to Table 8.9˚C) • Capacity is 60 tons (211 kW) • Liquid line equivalent is 113.81 kPa ⎟ ⎜ 0.How to Size Liquid Lines Size the refrigerant liquid lines and determine the sub-cooling required to avoid flashing at the TX valve for the condensing unit with DX air-handling unit shown in the previous example.64 m) • Has a 20 ft (6.4˚C) • Condenser operates at 120˚F (48. the pressure drop for 1˚F (0.39 C ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎣ 30.1 m) riser with the evaporator above the condenser Step 1 – Estimate Pipe Size To determine the liquid line pipe size for a 60 ton unit.75 kPa ⎜ ⎟ = 22.56oC) saturation temperature drop with a 100 ft equivalent length is 4.7 ton (280 kW) unit. According to the table.7 tons ⎦ = 0. we can calculate the saturation temperature difference based upon the design conditions: ΔTActual ⎡ Actual length ⎤ ⎡ Actual capacity ⎤ = ΔTTable ⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥ ⎣ Table length ⎦ ⎣ Table capacity ⎦ 1.8 ⎡ 113. the table conditions (equivalent length and condensing temperature) are different than the design conditions. a 1-3/8 inch (35 mm) pipe will work for a 79.23 PSI ⎝ 1F ⎠ ⎛ ⎞ ⎛ 0.68o F ⎞ Pressure Drop Actual = 4.8 1.75 kPa). Note.64m ⎤ ⎡ 211kW ⎤ o ⎜ ΔTActual = 0. use Table 8 in Appendix 2.6 ft (34. The system: • Uses R-410A • Has copper pipes • Evaporator operates at 40˚F (4.56 o C ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ Step 4 – Calculate Total Pressure Drop 20 Application Guide AG 31-011 . The actual piping pressure drop is determined using the equation ⎛ ΔTActual ⎞ ⎟ Pressure Drop Actual = Pressure Drop Table ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ΔT Table ⎠ ⎝ ⎛ 0.56°C ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 280kW ⎥ = 0.75 PSI (32.8 ⎛ ⎞ ⎡ 34.75PSI ⎜ o ⎟ = 3.

and the refrigerant will start to flash and the TX valve will not operate properly.Next to determine the Total pressure drop. we use Table 2 (page 10).23 PSI + 8. see www. To calculate the saturation pressure at the TX valve. For R-410A the pressure drop is 0.73kPa ⎞ ⎛ = 59.8˚F Step 7.1m × m ⎠ ⎝ Total pressure drop = Actual pressure drop + Riser pressure drop Total pressure drop = 3.17PSIA (Saturated pressure TX Valve = 2985 kPa − 82. we take the saturated pressure of R-410A at 120˚F and subtract the total pressure drop. there should be an additional 4˚F of sub-cooling at the TX Valve.85 kPa ) Step 6 – Determine the Saturation Temperature at the TX Valve Referring back to the Refrigeration property Tables in Application Guide 31-007.8 o F = 2. Pressure drop from the riser = Riser height × Refrigerant pressure drop ft 0.6 PSI = 11. Saturated Pressure TX Valve = Saturated pressure120F − Total pressure drop Saturated pressureTX Valve = 433 PSIA − 11.15 kPa = 2902.com) the saturated pressure for R-410A at 120˚F is 433 PSIA (absolute) (2985 kPaA). the saturation temperature at the TX valve can be interpolated using the saturation pressure at the TX valve (421 PSIA).2 o F Application Guide AG 31-011 21 .83 PSIA = 421.Determine The Sub-cooling Required for Saturated Liquid at the TX Valve The sub-cooling require to have saturated liquid at the TX valve can be found by: Subcooling = Actual saturation temperature − saturation temperature TX Valve Subcooling = 120 o F − 117.Determine the Required Sub-cooling for Proper Operation 2. and recall that the riser is 20 ft.6 PSI ft 9.73 kPa/m).2 o F + 4 o F = 6.2˚F is the amount of sub-cooling required to have saturated liquid refrigerant at the TX valve.16 kPa ) Step 5 – Determine the Saturated Pressure of R-410A at the TX Valve Using refrigerant property tables which can be found in Appendix 2 of McQuay’s Refrigerant Application Guide (AG 31-007.81 kPa = 82.35 kPa + 22.43 PSI Pressure drop from the riser = 20 ft × = 8.43 PSI per ft (9. Subcooling requirement = TX valve temperature + Minimum system temperature Subcooling requirement = 2. For TX valves to operate properly and avoid diaphragm fluttering.2 o F Step 8.35 kPa ⎟ ⎜ Pressure drop from the riser = 6. The saturation temperature at the TX valve is found to be 117.mcquay. Anything less.83 PSI (Total pressure drop = 59.

The required oil that needs to be added is the calculated total oil requirement less the oil shipped in the equipment. There can be • • Always check the manufacturer’s information to determine circuit unloading. Refer to the manufacturer’s instructions for the correct type of oil to use. a screw compressor may reduce refrigerant flow (unload) down to 25%. the system refrigerant charge must be calculated. 22 Application Guide AG 31-011 . Fittings and piping layout that traps and retains oil must be avoided. The circuit can unload to the smallest compressor size. Examples of compressors that unload include: • Scroll compressors often have multiple compressors on a common refrigeration circuit. Suction Line Sizing Suction lines contain gaseous refrigerant that moves oil along the piping and back to the compressor. The system design must promote oil return or the compressor sump will run dry and damage the compressor. Consult the manufacturer for the correct volume of oil in the system and the amount of oil shipped in the compressor sump. Required oil = Total oil required − oil shipped in equipment HFC refrigerants use synthetic POE oils. This is particularly true for long liquid lines.5 m) length for various refrigerants. To confirm if more oil is required. More piping typically requires more oil. the oil charge should be 2 to 3% of the liquid line charge. Individual reciprocating compressors unload down to as low as 33%. The refrigerant and oil charge is then provided in the field. refrigerant piping should be pitched to promote adequate oil return. At this reduced refrigerant flow rate.Refrigerant Oil In the DX refrigeration systems covered by this guide. Table 18 (page 60) through Table 21 (page 61) provide the charge per 100 feet (30. For example. under-sizing suction pipes reduces system capacity. 4 equally sized compressors can unload down to 25%. multiple compressors on a common circuit allowing even more unloading. Recall. some amount of compressor lubricating oil travels with the refrigerant throughout the piping system. the refrigerant velocity is reduced to the point that the oil may not be pushed through the piping system and back to the compressor. Compressor capacity reduction contributes to the challenge of designing the system. because gravity prevents oil from returning to the compressor. For commercial split systems. Generally. Screw compressors may unload down to 25%. For example. the equipment may come pre-charged or it may be provided with either nitrogen or a small holding charge. Oil movement is also impacted negatively by risers. Residential split systems are often pre-charged at the factory with enough oil and refrigerant for a specified line distance. additional refrigerant and oil will be required. These oils cannot be mixed with mineral oils. When that distance is exceeded. Recall. Over-sizing suction pipes increases the initial costs and may reduce the refrigerant gas velocity to the point where oil is not returned to the compressor.

it may be necessary to undersize the riser pipe by one pipe size to provide better oil management. Install Expander in Horizontal Pipe Install Reducers In Vertical Pipe Application Guide AG 31-011 23 . This approach will prevent oil from being trapped in the horizontal portion of the pipe. In this case.Proper Reduction Fittings for Risers Figure 13 shows the proper method for reducing the pipe diameter for suction and discharge risers. Figure 13 . a properly sized riser should be found. a larger diameter pipe may be used for horizontal runs to minimize the total pressure drop. a single pipe riser will work. for optimal oil movement.Oil Return in Suction and Discharge Risers Table 10 (page 55) through Table 17 (page 59) show minimum capacity oil return for suction and discharge risers.5 m) of piping and no more than 33% capacity reduction per circuit. To compensate. For air conditioning applications that contain less than 100 feet (30. It may be necessary to use a smaller pipe diameter for the riser. ☺Tip: For most air conditioning applications. which creates a higher than desired pressure drop at full capacity. When unloading capability exists. risers should be checked to verify that the minimum capacity allows for acceptable oil return.

Although the operation and design of a double suction riser is included in this guide. it is strongly recommended that systems be designed without a double suction riser. so the oil lost to the trap is less problematic for refrigeration than commercial compressors. the refrigerant flow passes through both risers with enough velocity to move the oil. The smaller diameter riser is sized for minimum capacity. Once the trap is full of oil. oil in the riser flows backward and fills the trap at the bottom.Double Suction Riser Detail Small Diameter Pipe Inverted Trap Not Required If Pipe Properly Sloped Small Diameter Riser Slope In Direction Of Refrigerant Flow Large Diameter Riser Minimize Trap Volume Figure 14 shows a double suction riser arrangement that is more common in refrigeration applications where suction pressure drops are more critical. even if the pressure drop in the suction or discharge line is higher than desired. a large amount of oil is “blown” through the piping system back to the compressor. Either an oil separator or a suction accumulator (both common in refrigeration systems) may be required for a double suction riser to operate properly without causing damage to the compressor. when the capacity increases in a double suction riser. At minimum capacity. One of the challenges of double suction risers is that they hold a significant amount of oil within the trap. The sum of the two risers is sized for full capacity. Refrigeration compressors often have larger sumps than commercial compressors. In a double suction riser at full capacity. Most modern air conditioning applications can be met without requiring a double suction riser. 24 Application Guide AG 31-011 . In addition.Figure 14 . refrigerant flow through the large diameter riser is cut off and only refrigerant gas flows through the smaller diameter riser.

1 tons (200.6˚C) • Condenser operates at 120˚F (48.Estimate Suction Line Size To determine the correct suction line size to operate the system at minimum capacity with a single pipe riser use Table 7 in Appendix 2. Actual capacity = Table capacity × 0.8m) Step 1.7m) • Suction line equivalent length for a single pipe riser is 42 ft (12.5 tons Application Guide AG 31-011 25 .How to Size Suction Lines Size the suction line with a single pipe riser and determine the pressure drop for the following air-cooled chiller with remote evaporator: Single Pipe Suction Riser The system: • Uses R-134a • Has type L copper pipe • Evaporator operates at 40˚F (4. Referring to the correction factors at the bottom of Table 7. According to the table.902 = 51.4˚C) Saturated Suction Temperature (SST) • Superheat is 10˚F (5.1tons × 0.8kW) unit.902 Actual capacity = 57.9˚C) • Capacity is two 50 tons (176 kW) circuits with up to 20% turn down • Suction line equivalent length for the horizontal runs is: o Bottom 10 ft (30m) o Top 12 ft (3. the table conditions (equivalent length and condensing temperature) are different than the design conditions. Step 2 – Correct for Actual Operating Conditions Sizing the pipe for full load requires a correction for the 120˚F actual condenser temperature. a 3-1/8 inch (79mm) pipe will work for 57. Note.

2 kW).16 PSI pressure drop which is acceptable for suction pipe.8 ⎛ ⎞ ⎡ 19.1o C ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎠ A 3-1/8” pipe has 1.5m ⎦ ⎣ 181 kW ⎦ ⎝ ⎠ Step 4 – Calculate the Actual Pressure Drop The top of Table 7 shows the pressure drop for 40˚F (4.Step 3 – Calculate the Actual ΔT Using Note 5 in the Table 7. Step 5 – Confirm Oil Return At Minimum Load in The Riser Calculate the minimum capacity Min Capacity = capacity Full × Turn down Min Capacity = 50 tons × 0.2 = 10 tons Acutal refrigerant temperature = SST temperature + Superheat temperature Acutal refrigerant temperature = 40 o F + 10 o F = 50 o F Using Table 11 (page 56). 3-1/8” (79 mm) pipe and 50˚F (10oC) refrigerant temperature the minimum allowable capacity is 15.3 kPa).5m) equivalent length is 1.5 tons ⎥ ⎦⎣ 1.2˚F temperature drop and a 1.16 PSI ⎜ 2 F ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ ⎜ Pressure Drop Actual = 13.4oC) saturation temperature change with a 100 ft (30.1 kPa ⎟ ⎜ 1.7 tons × (0.67 o C ⎟ ⎥ ⎥⎢ ⎜ Actual ⎟ ⎣ 30.8) = 12. The table is based on 90˚F (32.7 tons (55.2 o F 1.3 kPa ⎜ ⎝ ⎞ ⎛ 0.93 PSI ⎜ o ⎟ = 1.6 tons 26 Application Guide AG 31-011 .8 = 1. ⎛ ΔTActual ⎞ ⎟ Pressure Drop Actual = Pressure Drop Table ⎜ ⎜ ΔT ⎟ Table ⎠ ⎝ Pressure Drop Actual ⎛ 1. calculate the saturation temperature difference based upon the actual design conditions: ΔTActual ⎡ Actual length ⎤ ⎡ Actual capacity ⎤ = ΔTTable ⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥ ⎣ Table length ⎦ ⎣ Table capacity ⎦ 1.2 o F ⎞ = 1.1°C ⎢ = 0.8 ΔTActual ⎡ 64 ft ⎤ ⎡ 50 tons ⎤ = 2°F⎢ ⎦ ⎣100 ft ⎥ ⎢ 51. The bottom of Table 11 has correction factors for other condensing temperatures.93 PSI (13. Min Allowable Capacity Actual = Min Allowable Capacity Table × Correction Factor Min Allowable Capacity Actual = 15.67 o C ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ = 8.2oC) condensing temperature.5m ⎤ ⎡176 kW ⎤ ⎜ ΔT = 1.

the minimum allowable capacity is 10.3 kPa). Corrected vertical suction line capacity = Table capacity × 0.93 PSI (13.6 kW ⎦ ⎦ ⎠ ⎝ The top of Table 7 shows the pressure drop for 40˚F saturation temperature change with a 100 ft equivalent length is 1.(Min Allowable Capacity Actual = 55.8 tons × 0.3 tons ⎦ o 1. According to the table.84 o F 1.5m ⎥ ⎣113.902 Corrected vertical suction line capacity = 35. To calculate the vertical pipe suction line temperature drop use Note 3 in Table 7. According to Table 7 (page 52). The equivalent length of the vertical pipe is given at 42 ft (12.1 tons (35. two tandem scroll compressors) would have worked with this riser.902 = 32.9 kW ⎤ o ⎜ ΔT = 1.87 kW).8 tons (125.2oC) condenser temperature. ⎛ ΔTActual Vertical ⎞ ⎟ Pressure Drop Actual Vertical = Pressure Drop Table ⎜ ⎜ ΔT ⎟ Table ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ 1.1 C ⎢ = 1.8) = 44. Step 6 – Calculate the Suction Line Pressure Drop With the New Riser Size Suction line pressure drop is the sum of the 3-1/8 inch (79 mm) horizontal piping and the 25/8 inch (97mm) vertical piping.8 = 1.01o C ⎟ ⎢ ⎥ ⎟ ⎜ Actual Vertical ⎣ 30. a 3-1/8 inch (79 mm) suction pipe is too big for minimum flow in a riser.8) = 8.8 1.3 tons ΔTActual Vertical ΔTActual Vertical ⎡ Actual length ⎤ ⎡ Actual capacity ⎤ = ΔTTable ⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥ ⎣ Table length ⎦ ⎣ Table capacity ⎦ ⎡ 42 ft ⎤ ⎡ 50 tons ⎤ = 2 F⎢ ⎥ ⎥⎢ ⎣100 ft ⎦ ⎣ 32.8m ⎤ ⎡175. Using Table 11 we check the minimum capacity of a 2-5/8 inch (67 mm) riser. Min Allowable Capacity Actual = Min Allowable Capacity Table × Correction Factor Min Allowable Capacity Actual = 10.1tons × (0.2 kW × (0.16 kW ) Since the Min allowable capacity (12.8m). The solution is to reduce the riser pipe one size and repeat Step 5 to confirm minimum condition is met.84o F ⎞ Pressure Drop Actual Vertical = 1.5 kW) at 90˚F (32.93PSI ⎜ o ⎟ = 1. A minimum capacity of 25 tons (88 kW) (for example. We decrease the riser pipe to 2-5/8 inches (67mm) while leaving the horizontal pipes at 31/8 inches.6 tons) is greater than the minimum capacity (10 tons). the capacity for a 2-5/8 inch (97mm) line is 35.78PSI ⎝ 2 F ⎠ Application Guide AG 31-011 27 .8 ⎞ ⎛ ⎡ 12.1tons The minimum allowable capacity is now less than the minimum capacity so a 2-5/8 inch (97 mm) riser is sufficient for this system.

01o C ⎞ ⎜ Pressure Drop Actual Vertical = 13.2.99 kPa 28 Application Guide AG 31-011 .78 kPa ⎟ ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ 1.5 tons ⎦ 1.42°F ⎞ Pressure Drop Actual Hor = 1.5m ⎦ ⎣ 181kW ⎦ ⎞ = 0. In this case the equivalent length of horizontal piping was 22 ft (6.93 PSI⎜ ⎟ = 0.7m). ΔTActual Hor ⎡ 22 ft ⎤ ⎡ 50 tons ⎤ = 2°F ⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥ ⎣100 ft ⎦ ⎣ 51.21 kPa ⎟ ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ The same approach is used again to calculate the horizontal 3-1/8” piping.41PSI ⎝ 2°F ⎠ ⎞ ⎛ ⎛ 0.42o F 1.1°C ⎠ ⎠ ⎝ Pressure drop Total = Pressure drop Vertical + Pressure drop Hor Pressure dropTotal = 1.3 kPa ⎜ ⎟ = 0.1°C ⎢ ⎥ ⎥⎢ ⎣ 30.7m ⎤ ⎡176kW ⎤ = 1.3 kPa ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 1.8 = 0.23o C ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ ⎛ 0.1o C ⎟ = 12.19PSI Pressure drop Total = 12.⎛ ⎞ ⎛ 1.21 kPa + 2.8 ⎛ ⎜ ΔT ⎜ Actual ⎝ Hor ⎡ 6.41PSI = 2.78PSI + 0.23°C ⎞ ⎜ Pressure Drop Actual Hor = 13.78 kPa = 14.

2 kW ) Step 2 – Estimate Small Riser Size To determine the small riser line size to operate the system at minimum capacity use Table 7 in Appendix 2.5m) • Horizontal pipe size is 3-1/8 inch (79mm) (from previous example) Step 1 – Estimate Minimum Capacity Minimum Capacity = 50 tons × 20% = 10 tons (Minimum Capacity = 176 kW × 20% = 35. a 2-1/8 inch (54mm) pipe will work for a 20.How to Size a Suction Line Double Riser Size a double suction riser for the following air-cooled chiller with remote evaporator: Double Suction Riser The system: • Uses R-134a • Has type L copper pipe • Evaporator operates at 40˚F (4.9˚C) • Capacity is two 50 ton (176 kW) circuits with up to 20% turn down • Suction line equivalent length for the horizontal runs is: o Bottom 10 ft (3.0 kW) unit.4˚C) Saturated Suction Temperature (SST) • Superheat is 10˚F (5. Application Guide AG 31-011 29 . Note.0m) o Top 12 ft (3.6˚C) • Condenser operates at 120˚F (48. the table conditions (equivalent length and condensing temperature) are different than the design conditions.2 ton (71. According to the table.7m) • Equivalent Length is 64 ft (19.

812 in 2 − 3.97 cm 2 = 23. Use Table 11 (page 56) to determine the area of the pipes. 30 Application Guide AG 31-011 .0 kW ) Step 4 – Size Large Riser At full capacity the cross sectional area of the two risers should equal the original riser area (in this example a 3-1/8 inch pipe).Step 3 – Correct for Actual Operating Conditions Sizing the pipe for full load requires a correction for the 120˚F (48. Actual capacity = Table capacity × 0.717 in 2 (Large diameter riser = 43.98 cm 2 ) Using Table 11 we see that 3.0 kW × 0.095 in 2 = 3.717 square inches is between a 2-1/8 inch (54mm) riser and a 2-5/8 inch (67mm) riser.9˚C) actual condenser temperature.2 tons × 0. Large diameter riser = Area original pipe − Area small pipe Large diameter riser = Area 3-1/8 inch pipe − Area 2 -1/8 inch pipe Large diameter riser = 6.902 Actual capacity = 20. So the small riser should be 2-1/8 inches and the large riser should be 2-5/8 inches.95 cm 2 − 19. Referring to the correction factors at the bottom of Table 7.902 = 18.2 tons (Actual capacity = 71.902 = 64. Using a 2-5/8 inch riser will reduce the pressure drop.

Oversized discharge lines increase the initial cost and can reduce the refrigerant gas velocity to a point where oil is not returned to the compressor.Discharge Line Sizing Discharge lines contain gaseous refrigerant that moves the oil along the piping back towards the compressor.5m) Step 1 – Estimate the Discharge Line Size To determine the discharge line pipe size for a 250 ton (211 kW) unit use Table 6 in Appendix 2.7oC) Saturated Suction Temperature.6˚C) • Condenser operates at 110˚F (48.9˚C) • Discharges at 140˚F (60˚C) • Capacity is 250 tons (176 kW) circuits with up to 33% turn down • Discharge line equivalent length for the horizontal runs is: o Bottom 15 ft (4. Note. Application Guide AG 31-011 31 .7˚C) Saturated Suction Temperature • Superheat is 15˚F (5.6m) o Top 10 ft (3.1 ton (970 kW) unit with 20˚F (-6. Oil movement in discharge lines is further complicated by risers. where gravity is working against oil return. a 4-1/8 inch (105mm) pipe will work for a 276. According to the table. Undersized discharge lines reduce system capacity. How to Size a Discharge Line Size minimum capacity discharge line for a single riser and the pressure drop for the following indoor process chiller with remote air-cooled condenser: Discharge Line The system: • Uses R-22 • Has type L copper pipe • Evaporator operates at 20˚F (-6. the table conditions (equivalent length and condensing temperature) are different than the design conditions.0m) • Single pipe riser discharge line equivalent is 110 ft (33.

05 PSI⎜ ⎟ = 2. Actual capacity = Table capacity × 1.56°C⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎝ 30. Had the riser been too large for the minimum system capacity. the discharge riser should have been decreased one pipe size and Step 5 repeated until an acceptable size was found. Using Table 14 (page 57) with the above given conditions.48 o C ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ Step 4 – Calculate the Actual Pressure Drop The top of Table 6 shows the pressure drop for 1˚F (0.03 kPa⎜ ⎜ 0. The actual SST and superheat are given as 20˚F and 15˚F respectively.5m ⎠⎝ 1009 kW ⎝ ⎞ = 0.8 1.86˚F temperature drop and a 2.04 Actual capacity = 276.Step 2 – Correct For Actual Operating Conditions Sizing the pipe for full load requires a correction for the 110˚F (43.5m ⎞⎛ 879 kW ⎜ ΔT ⎟⎜ Actual = 0.5 tons) is greater than the minimum riser capacity (62 tons) the riser is acceptable as designed.86 o F ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 1. Step 5 – Confirm Oil Return At Minimum Load In Riser Next we evaluate whether the riser size will provide acceptable oil return at minimum load.8 = 0. ⎛ ΔTActual ⎞ ⎟ Pressure Drop Actual = Pressure Drop Table ⎜ ⎜ ΔT ⎟ Table ⎠ ⎝ ⎛ 0. Referring to the correction factors at the bottom of Table 6.56 o C ⎟ = 18.62 PSI ⎝ 1°F ⎠ ⎛ 0.33 = 290 kW ) The actual discharge refrigerant temperature and condensing temperature are given as 140˚F and 110˚F respectively.5 tons (Minimum capacity = 879 kW × 0. the minimum allowable capacity is 62 tons (218 kW).56oC) saturation temperature change with a 100 ft equivalent length is 3.61 PSI pressure drop which is acceptable for discharge pipe. Minimum capacity = Actual unit capacity × Turn down Minimum capacity = 250 tons × 0.04 = 287 tons (Actual capacity = 970 kW × 1. 32 Application Guide AG 31-011 . Since the minimum system capacity (82.1tons × 1.48 o C ⎞ Pressure Drop Actual = 21.3˚C) actual condenser temperature.86°F ⎞ Pressure Drop Actual = 3.33 = 82.04 = 1009 kW ) Step 3 – Calculate the Actual ΔT Using Note 5 in the table. we can calculate the saturation temperature difference based upon the actual design conditions: ΔTActual ΔTActual ⎡ Actual length ⎤ ⎡ Actual capacity ⎤ = ΔTTable ⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥ ⎣ Table length ⎦ ⎣ Table capacity ⎦ ⎡110 ft ⎤ ⎡ 250 tons ⎤ = 1°F⎢ ⎣100 ft ⎥ ⎢ 287 tons ⎥ ⎦⎣ ⎦ 1.03 kPa ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ A 4-1/8” pipe has 0.05 PSI.8 ⎛ ⎛ 33.

or if a distributor is used) an externally equalized TX valve is recommended. the TX and electronic types are commonly used.Thermal Expansion Valves Expansion valves are used to modulate refrigerant flow to the evaporator. Figure 15 . There are several types of expansion valves including: • • • • Fixed area restrictor (capillary and orifice types) Automatic (constant pressure) Thermal expansion (TX) Electronic For field-piped systems. the TX valve opens allowing more refrigerant to flow. As superheat drops.8kPa) pressure drop across the evaporator. An external line accounts for the pressure drop through the evaporator which becomes an issue on larger evaporator coils. there is a possibility that the liquid portion of the two-phase flow downstream of the TX valve will fill the distributor tubes on the bottom. This is not an issue with nozzles (common with chillers). so horizontal installations are acceptable. For larger systems (greater than 2 PSI (13. TX valves are sized by: • • • • Refrigerant type Refrigeration circuit capacity Pressure drop across the valve Equalization (internal or external) For smaller systems. an internally equalized TX valve is acceptable. the valve closes to maintain superheat. Electronic valves require significant controls to operate and normally are used if they were included as part of the original equipment.Thermal Expansion Valve 3 TX valves (Figure 15) are excellent for DX systems because they modulate refrigerant flow and maintain constant superheat at the evaporator. leading to different refrigerant flow rates in the individual tubes. If a TX valve with a distributor is installed in a horizontal pipe. 3 Photos courtesy of Sporlan Division – Parker Hannifin Corporation 33 Application Guide AG 31-011 . As superheat climbs. TX valves and distributors (common with air coils) should be installed in vertical pipes.

separate TX valves and solenoid valves are required for each evaporator. The equalization line should be downstream of the bulb. Refer to manufacturer’s 2. and TX valve. Figure 16 shows a typical TX valve installation. Use of nominal TX valve capacity is discouraged. The bulb should be tightly strapped to a straight portion of the suction line and insulated unless it is in the leaving air stream. Neither the bulb nor the equalization line should be installed in a trap. The sensing bulb is strapped to the suction line on the top (12 o’clock) for line sizes under 7/8 inch (22 mm) and at 4 or 8 o’clock for larger line sizes. face split. 3. 1. Under-sizing up to 10% is acceptable if there will be significant part load operation. For large DX field applications there are often multiple refrigeration circuits. Follow the manufacturer’s selection procedures and select the valve for the actual operating conditions. installation instructions for specific details. On occasions where there are multiple evaporators on a common refrigeration circuit. Figure 16 .TX valves should be sized as close to capacity as possible. Evaporator circuits may be in a common evaporator coil such as interlaced. evaporator circuit.Typical TX Valve Installation TX Valve In Vertical Pipe Sight Glass Solenoid Valve Liquid Line Distributor External Equalization Line Bulb Suction Line Filter-Drier 34 Application Guide AG 31-011 . Higher superheat conditions at full load are allowable. each with its own compressor. There must be one TX valve for each distributor. page 16). or row split type (For more information about evaporator circuits see Multiple Refrigeration Circuits.

keeping them as short as possible. This has the affect of modulating compressor capacity below the minimum unloading point without cycling the compressor. During off cycles. Figure 17 .Typical Hot Gas By-pass Piping Arrangement Hot Gas Routed Liquid Line Above Evaporator Hot Gas Bypass Solenoid Valve Installed Close To Discharge Line Hot Gas Bypass Valve Installed Close To TX Valve Suction Line Auxiliary Side Connector (ASC) Introduces Hot Gas Into Distributor Evaporator Discharge Line Hot gas bypass lines include a solenoid valve and a hot gas bypass valve. Some manufacturers provide a single device that provides the functions of both a solenoid and control valve. to limit the line volume. It is best to undersize hot gas bypass lines. It is accomplished by returning hot (discharge) gas from the leaving side of the compressor back to a point on the low-pressure side of the refrigeration circuit. The hot gas bypass valve modulates the refrigerant flow through the line to maintain the suction pressure. Figure 17 shows the preferred method for piping hot gas bypass. a standard copper tee fitting may be used to introduce the hot gas. the distributor may need a different nozzle. Hot gas is introduced into the inlet of the evaporator and is given ample time to distribute its energy into the main flow of refrigerant prior to returning it to the compressor. A special fitting called an Auxiliary Side Connector (ASC) should be used to introduce the hot gas into the distributor. DX coils that use a venturi introduce hot gas bypass using a standard tee fitting. In addition. The solenoid valve is energized when hot gas bypass is required. ☺Tip: McQuay DX coils use distributors that require an ASC and the nozzle in the distributor needs to be changed. Hot Gas Bypass Line Sizing Hot gas piping should be sized using the discharge gas line sizing tables found in Appendix 2 (page 49). On DX coils that have a venturi.Hot Gas Bypass Hot gas bypass is a method of maintaining compressor suction pressure (creating a false load) during light loads. the vapor refrigerant will condense and may create a slug of refrigerant Application Guide AG 31-011 35 .

This will minimize the amount of hot gas that may condense upstream of the valve and solenoid. The line should be pitched 1/8 inch per foot (10. The hot gas bypass valve and solenoid should be located as close to the discharge line as possible. always layout and size the condenser piping before selecting the HGBP valve. Hot Gas Bypass Valves Hot gas bypass (HGBP) valves used with distributor-type DX coils should be externally equalized.7°C). The hot gas bypass line should be routed above the evaporator and introduced to the ASC from the side to reduce oil scavenging. For air conditioning applications. A rule of thumb is use one line size smaller than the recommended discharge table line size because hot gas bypass lines are short. 4 Photos courtesy of Sporlan Division – Parker Hannifin Corporation Application Guide AG 31-011 36 . Once the line size is selected. Figure 18 . Their purpose is to maintain minimum suction pressure to the compressor. Some process applications will require unloading down to zero • Condensing temperature at minimum load – typically 80°F (26. When remote condensers are used. Sporlan valves begin to open at approximately 6°F (3. The line should be insulated and a check valve added if the ambient temperature is lower than the saturated suction temperature.0 to 1. minimum load with hot gas bypass use should be limited to approximately 10% of a system's capacity. The actual pressure which the valve will open at depends on the refrigerant. the actual temperature and pressure drop should be checked. the remaining velocity in the discharge line may be so low that oil becomes trapped. • Refrigerant type • Minimum allowable evaporating temperature at reduced load – typically 32 to 34°F (0. The line pressure drop should be small relative to the pressure drop across the valve.Hot Gas By Pass Accessories 4 Hot gas bypass valves must be sized for the difference between the minimum compressor capacity and the minimum system capacity.3°C) above the minimum evaporator temperature and remain open at the rated capacity of the minimum evaporator temperature. refer to their installation and application guides.4 mm/m) in the direction of refrigerant flow.3 to -2.2°C) for air conditioners • Minimum compressor capacity • Minimum system capacity. If the minimum system capacity is zero. This is best done when the valve is responding to suction pressure. For other manufacturers. then the hot gas bypass valve should be sized for the minimum compressor capacity. Over sizing the HGBP valve may cause: • System inversion • Loss of oil management • Prevent the compressor from cycling off (overheating) • Poor efficiency Hot gas valve selection is based on. when the HGBP valve is open.1°C) for chillers and 26 to 28°F (-3.when the hot gas bypass valve opens. The example provided here is based on Sporlan products. During light loads.

24 1.Figure 19 .59 0.54 0.66 0.55 0.90 0. 37 Application Guide AG 31-011 .63 4.48 0.40 3.40 0.55 0.85 3.0 14.60 0.9 10.5 0.9 0.61 0.34 0.57 9.71 10.75 20.5 16.5 10.30 3.50 0.86 9.85 3.75 3.77 7.32 5.74 7.29 0.044 0.50 0.32 0.24 - 0.36 15.8 10.97 0.84 10.49 0.67 4.21 1.53 0.71 12. Range (psig) Valve Type Adjustment Refrigerant Minimum Allowable Evaporator Temperature At The Reduced Load (oF) 40 26 20 0 -20 -40 Condensing Temperature (oF) 80 100 120 80 100 120 80 100 120 80 100 120 80 100 120 80 100 120 Adjustable Models ADRI-1-1/4 ADRIE-1-1/4 ADRS-2 22 ADRSE-2 ADRP-3 ADRPE-3 ADRHE-6 ADRI-1-1/4 ADRIE-1-1/4 ADRS-2 134a ADRSE-2 ADRP-3 ADRPE-3 ADRHE-6 ADRI-1-1/4 ADRIE-1-1/4 ADRS-2 407C 0/55 0/75 0/100 0/30 0/80 0/30 0/80 0/30 0/80 0/55 0/75 0/100 0/30 0/80 0/30 0/80 0/30 0/80 0/55 0/75 0/100 0/30 0/80 0/30 0/80 0/30 0/80 0.5 8.09 5.6 - 0.81 0.43 9.1 0.53 0. regardless of whether the liquid is fed through the system thermostatic expansion valves or an auxiliary desuperheating thermostatic expansion valve.39 5.31 12.86 9.58 0.39 0.74 6.6 13.53 0.67 4.61 17.90 3.41 5.30 9.49 3.50 12.10 12.9 8.30 6.69 0.65 4.64 0.36 15.2 10.55 10.6 13.44 10.68 0.81 5.50 13.92 7.63 0.24 10.51 0.74 6.09 5.36 6.71 16.90 9.43 0.48 0.9 8.44 0. 10oF sub-cooling. Please refer to manufacturers data for sizing and application.8 9.54 3.44 4.64 7.02 3.63 7.81 0.66 4.43 6.54 0.3 13.62 4.65 0.30 0.86 0.0 0.76 3.43 0.38 5.44 3.50 0.97 0.81 16.83 10.56 4.53 12.66 13.18 6.5 8.38 0.36 7.56 0.60 17.61 0.1 11.62 5.74 0.77 0.94 9.50 12.42 9.45 0.70 5.1 0.33 0.38 3.95 9.1 13.33 5.41 0.41 3.1 13.41 0.68 0.9 17.95 4.79 5.50 0.44 3.52 3.31 8.81 2.30 0.69 7.5 11.67 0.7 10.6 13.8 0.32 2.43 0.8 8.1 9.52 0.56 0.63 20.8 12.47 0.74 4.62 4.42 2.50 4.12 0.75 0.43 .79 7.41 0.2 0.02 2.15 6.1 0.63 3.51 4.60 2.41 2.4 0.24 1.28 2.53 0.42 17.0 0.69 0.97 1.28 0.42 11.53 3.85 0.3 16.53 0.70 7.56 4.41 0.5 0.76 0.5 - ADRSE-2 ADRP-3 ADRPE-3 ADRHE-6 5 This table courtesy of Sporlan Division – Parker Hannifin Corporation. 25oF superheat at the compressor.34 2.51 3.9 10.12 0.65 14.37 0.50 12.1 0.36 0.70 12.48 3.40 3.25 7.34 0.27 7.31 2.61 0.87 3.33 4.1 0.49 0.41 2.78 0.77 5.36 3.51 9.07 0.26 2.9 0.31 0.02 12.85 0.36 7.53 3.58 0.35 7.7 17.59 10.1 0.31 0.38 10.38 3.5 10.37 12.37 7.93 0.HGBP Valve Sizing Chart 5 Direct Acting Discharge Bypass Valve Capacities (tons) Capacities based on discharge temperatures 50oF above isentropic compression.50 3.92 0. and includes both the hot gas bypassed and liquid refrigerant for desuperheating.28 10.5 0.56 0.5 12.63 5.70 0.50 15.1 0.58 4.5 17.15 6.61 12.31 0.8 13.39 0.96 4.2 0.0 0.41 0.32 5.1 0.32 9.46 0.7 0.1 11.69 0.63 0.89 9.8 13.75 3.73 7.23 0.8 9.44 3.78 0.77 0.67 4.96 0.39 3.56 2.31 2.79 0.43 0.73 0.40 0.91 2.46 4.50 0.44 4.31 0.8 8.23 8.34 3.1 9.94 1.16 0.60 0.9 0.16 9.30 9. It is only included for the example.9 13.42 0.12 7.91 4.25 7.34 2.5 12.50 4.26 0.

The equivalent length of this application is only 10% of the table rating condition. 80˚F condensing temperature we can see a ADRHE-6 can deliver 9.6 kW) • Minimum compressor capacity of 15 tons (52. Given a 10 ton capacity. For 10 tons 1-1/8 inch line delivers 8. A 1-1/8-inch (29mm) pipe will deliver much more capacity at such a short length.8 kW .2 kW ) Step 2 – Select a HGBP Valve Figure 19 (page 37) shows the Sporlan Rating table for ADRHE series of HGBP valves.6 kW = 35.7 kW).0m) Step 1 – Estimate HGBP Valve Capacity HGBP valve = Minimum compressor capacity − Minimum system capacity HGBP valve = 15 tons − 5 tons = 10 tons (HGBP valve = 52. 7/8.17. 26˚F evaporator temperature. 38 Application Guide AG 31-011 . or 1-1/8 inch solder connection. Let’s consider a 7/8-inch (22mm) line which delivers 4.8 kW) or one compressor • Evaporator operates at 26˚F (-3.67˚C) SST and table rating conditions.3˚C) • Condenser operates at 120˚F (48.1 kW) and can use a 5/8.2 tons (14.How to Size a Hot Gas Bypass Line Size the hot gas bypass line and valve for the following air conditioner: The system: • Uses R-407C • Capacity is a 30 ton air conditioner with tandem scroll compressors • Minimum capacity is 5 tons (17.9˚C) that drops to 80˚F (26.43 tons (33.8 kW) at 20˚F (-6.5 tons (29. Step 3 – Estimate HGBP Piping Size Table 9 (page 54) can be used to determine the hot gas bypass line size for R-407C.7˚C) during minimum load • Equivalent length is 10 ft (3.

1 kPa) drop and the refrigerant velocity would have caused excessive noise.Sizing the pipe for full load requires a correction for the 80˚F (26.5m ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎦ ⎝ ⎠ Step 5 – Calculate the Actual Pressure Drop The top of Table 9 shows the pressure drop for 1˚F (0. Actual capacity = Table capacity × 0.7 kW ⎥ = 0. we can calculate the saturation temperature difference based upon the actual design conditions: ΔTActual ⎡ Actual length ⎤ ⎡ Actual capacity ⎤ = ΔTTable ⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥ ⎣ Table length ⎦ ⎣ Table capacity ⎦ 1.8 kW × 0.8 ⎡ 10 ft ⎤ ⎡ 10 tons ⎤ ΔTActual = 1°F⎢ ⎣100 ft ⎥ ⎢ 3. Application Guide AG 31-011 39 .7˚C) actual condenser temperature.65 PSI (4. This would have been an acceptable pressure drop. For point of comparison.40 C ⎟ ⎜ ⎣ 30. By the time SST is 26˚F (-3.787 = 11. Referring to the correction factors at the bottom of Table 9.3oC) the HGBP valve will be passing the equivalent of 10 tons (35. ⎛ ΔTActual ⎞ ⎟ Pressure Drop Actual = Pressure Drop Table ⎜ ⎜ ΔT ⎟ Table ⎠ ⎝ ⎛ 0.2 tons × 0. a 1-1/8 inch (29mm) line would have provided a pressure drop of 0.0m ⎤ ⎡ 35.31 tons (Actual capacity = 14.8 ⎛ ⎞ ⎡ 3. but the volume would have been greater.732°F ⎞ Pressure Drop Actual = 3.65 kW ) Step 4 – Calculate the Actual ΔT Using Note 5 in the table.787 Actual capacity = 4.787 = 3.3 PSI ⎜ ⎟ = 2.2 kW ⎤ o ⎜ ΔT ⎟ Actual = 0.56 o C ⎟ = 16.8 kPa ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 0. In addition to the HGBP valve we require: • • • A 7/8 inch (22mm) solenoid An ASC for the distributor A new nozzle for the distributor Recall that the HGBP valve begins to open at 6˚F (3.3˚C) above SST.8 1.3 kPa ⎟ ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ A 7/8-inch (22mm) line provides a satisfactory pressure drop and keeps the line volume to a minimum.42 PSI ⎝ 1°F ⎠ ⎛ ⎞ ⎛ 0.40 o C ⎞ ⎜ Pressure Drop Actual = 22.56oC) saturation temperature change with a 100 ft equivalent length is 3. or in this case 32˚F (0oC).31 tons ⎥ ⎦⎣ ⎦ = 0.48 kPa).3 PSI.732 o F 1.5 PSI (93. A 5/8-inch (16mm) line would have had a 13.2 kW) of R-407C refrigerant from the discharge line to the inlet of the evaporator.56°C ⎢ ⎢11.

Installation Details Pump Down Some air conditioning systems are designed with either recycling or a one-time pump down cycle. especially if the runs are long or if the piping is exposed to cold temperatures. When cooling is no longer required. Rubratex is the most common form of refrigerant line insulation. the condenser must be able to hold the system charge. condense and cause flooded starts. They may be very hot.e. A receiver may be added to store the refrigerant. Hot gas bypass lines should be insulated. Liquid lines generally are insulated. a solenoid valve will be required in the liquid line as shown in Figure 16 (page 34). so insulation may be warranted as a safety consideration. In addition. refrigerant throughout the circuit may migrate to the compressor crankcase. the roof of a building at roof level). If the casing of the compressor is allowed to get colder than the rest of the circuit. If liquid lines pass through a space that is warmer than the refrigerant (i. Recycling pump down allows the compressor to restart if the suction pressure switch closes. These systems have a condenser sized large enough to hold the refrigerant charge. 40 Application Guide AG 31-011 . the liquid refrigerant may be drawn into the compressor and cause slugging.4°C) SST – and cause condensation. Discharge lines are generally uninsulated. For these reasons. It should be installed as close to the evaporator as possible. Systems that do not have pump down may still have a solenoid that closes while the compressor is off to limit refrigerant migration. any heat that enters the refrigerant adds to the superheat and reduces system efficiency. The compressor continues operating until the suction pressure drops below the suction pressure cutout switch. or if the heat loss from the discharge gas line would be considered objectionable to the space. Once the suction pressure switch opens. This is a requirement of many building codes. When pump down is part of the equipment design. Piping Insulation Suction lines are cold – 40°F (4. during the off cycle. even in conditioned spaces. They are warm to hot (110°F (43. the refrigerant may migrate to the evaporator and/or suction line. The advantage of pump down is that most of the refrigerant in the evaporator is removed. Consult the manufacturer if a receiver is required. Crankcase heaters may also be added to help raise the compressor temperature and avoid refrigerant condensation. One-time pump down systems stay off until there is a need for cooling.3°C) for air-cooled). even if cooling is unnecessary. then insulation should be added. Without pump down. a solenoid valve in the liquid line closes. the compressor stops. An example of this is the McQuay RPS C-vintage Applied Rooftop System. Long field refrigerant piping arrangements may increase the refrigerant volume above the capacity of the condenser and limit service pump down. With pump down. or if they could be considered hot enough to pose a safety risk. The solenoid is still closed (no cooling required) so the compressor will quickly lower the suction pressure to where the pressure switch opens again. On start up. suction lines should be insulated with a vapor proof insulation. in excess of 150°F (66°C). just before the TX valve.

which is then secured within a bracket. There are several commercially available pipe clamping systems that allow pipes to be held rigid without causing damage to them. Where piping is exposed to possible damage. the line should pass through sleeved openings in such a manner that the lines do not touch. Refrigerant lines that rub against solid objects wear holes through copper and create a leak.Refrigerant Line Installation Refrigerant lines need to be securely installed to minimize vibration that causes noise and damages piping. Discharge mufflers are also occasionally used on discharge lines to minimize gas pulsations. cause vibration. Piping should also be protected from mechanical damage. Many building codes specify minimum support spacing. Steel braided flexible refrigerant lines (a must for spring isolated reciprocating compressors) minimize this vibration. Application Guide AG 31-011 41 . Reciprocating compressors. when refrigerant lines pass through walls. For this reason. Most include some form of rubber grommet around the pipe. Burying refrigerant lines should be avoided. Follow manufacturer’s instructions when using steel braided lines. the lines should be routed out of the way or be protected in some form of chase. in particular.

Water-cooled systems typically use some form of condenser water bypass line to maintain head pressure. there are three common approaches to design for low ambient operation. Fan speed is usually based on head pressure. some form of low ambient control is required. As the ambient temperature drops. The issue here is the condenser becomes “too efficient” and lowers the liquid temperature and pressure beyond the range that the TX valve compensates for. As the tubes in the condenser flood. Fan cycling entails staging condenser fans on and off based on the ambient temperature or the head pressure. Ambient-based control is cost-effective. Process loads must use pressure-based controls. In these applications. they reduce the surface area available for condensation and reduce the heat rejection capacity. other than requiring a port for the head pressure sensor. For air-cooled systems. Many systems are required to operate properly when the ambient temperature is much lower. Fan speed control entails using some form of fan speed controller to modulate air-flow through the condenser. • • • Fan cycling Fan speed control Condenser flood back Fan Cycling and Fan Speed Control Fan cycling and fan speed control are the most common forms of low ambient operation for commercial air conditioning systems. but should only be used with air conditioning applications. the head pressure climbs until it reaches the setting of the head pressure control valve. A head pressure control valve (refrigerant flow regulator) controlled by head pressure begins to close. the head pressure drops. Condenser Flood Back Design Figure 20 shows a typical condenser flood back arrangement. Both of these approaches are options provided by the equipment manufacturer and have minimal impact upon the piping system design. As the condenser floods. This is typically when the ambient temperature is high and the evaporator temperature is low. Liquid refrigerant “floods” the condenser. 42 Application Guide AG 31-011 .Low Ambient Operation Refrigeration circuit components are sized for the most demanding application point. restricting flow of liquid refrigerant from the condenser.

add complexity to the refrigeration system. Another aspect of receivers is that they contain both liquid and gaseous refrigerant at the same time. but they increase initial cost. assistance before installing. consult the manufacturer prior to installation. A receiver is required to store refrigerant during warmer weather. and increase the refrigerant charge. The loss of sub-cooling should be recognized. The receiver should be sized so it is at 80% of capacity while containing the entire system charge.Figure 20 . If a flooded system is required. increase installation time. ☺Tip: Flooded systems with receivers are complex. By their design. Refer to the manufacturers instructions for sizing and applications. Without liquid sub-cooling the capacity of the system is reduced and care must be taken in the design of the liquid line to avoid flashing at the TX valve. Flooded systems are an excellent method of providing head pressure control in cold climates. receivers prohibit liquid sub-cooling from occurring. Consult the manufacturer for Application Guide AG 31-011 43 .Typical Condenser Flood Back Arrangement Condenser Coil Head Pressure Control Valve Discharge Line Receiver Liquid Line Single head pressure control valve arrangements are available from several manufacturers.

ASHRAE Standard 15. Technicians should also be EPA or other government agency certified to handle refrigerants.5. Proper safety procedures must be followed to provide a system that is acceptable.Safety and the Environment Refrigeration systems contain fluids under pressure at dangerous temperatures and pressures. Safety Code for Mechanical Refrigeration and ASME Standard B31. 44 Application Guide AG 31-011 . Refrigeration Piping should be followed. Most building codes require adherence to these Standards.

It is measured in pounds per cubic foot (lb/ft³) or kilograms per meter cubed (kg/m³). This heat may be used in a heat recovery application such as hot water heating. They are typically installed in discharge lines near the compressor. Entropy (s) The measure of molecular disorder of a substance. COP (Coefficient of Performance) The measure of the refrigeration system efficiency. They are common in heat pumps and industrial refrigeration applications. Carnot Cycle The ideal. Check Valve A valve that only allows flow in one direction.Appendix 1 . Above the critical point. Economizer (refrigerant) A form of two stage refrigeration cycle where the compressor has a port that allows refrigerant at an intermediate pressure to be injected into the compression process. Measured in British thermal units per pound (Btu/lb). high pressure refrigerant from the compressor to the condenser. Adiabatic Process A process where energy gain to the surroundings is zero. Enthalpy remains constant for the fluid. A process without change in entropy is considered ideal and reversible. ASC (Auxiliary Side Connector) A fitting used in conjunction with a distributor to introduce hot gas refrigerant into the distributor for hot gas bypass.Glossary Accumulator (suction) A device installed just before a compressor in the suction line that is used to separate vapor refrigerant from liquid refrigerant and oil. Desuperheater A device that removes super heat from either the suction or discharge gas line. Density (d) The mass of a substance divided by the volume that substance occupies. Used in refrigeration systems to stop refrigerant migration when the system is off. EER (Energy Efficiency Ratio) Refrigeration effect in British thermal units per hour per power input in watts (Btu/hr•W). Condenser A component in a refrigeration system where refrigerant is condensed from a gas to a liquid and heat is rejected to the surroundings. Defined as refrigeration effect per compressor power. Critical Point The point on a P-H Diagram where the saturated liquid and saturated vapor lines meet. Enthalpy (h) The measure of energy content in a fluid. It is usually part of the coil and is directly down stream of the TX valve. Compressor A component in a refrigeration system that compresses refrigerant vapor to a higher pressure and temperature and consumes power to do so. condensation cannot occur. Measured in British Thermal Units per pound –degree Rankin (Btu/lb°R) Application Guide AG 31-011 45 . An example is the refrigeration expansion process. Distributor A device that feeds two phase refrigerant evenly to each tube of a DX evaporator. Used for either refrigerant to air coils or chillers. Discharge muffler Used to reduce sound and pulsations in refrigerant lines. Discharge (hot gas) Line A refrigerant line that carries superheated. reversible heat cycle between two infinite heat sinks. Azeotropic Refrigerants Refrigerant blends that behave as a single substance. Direct Expansion (DX) Evaporator An evaporator where the refrigerant is in the tubes. An example is R410A.

Expansion Device A component that reduces the pressure and temperature adiabatically in a refrigeration system. An example is evaporation in the evaporator. 46 Application Guide AG 31-011 . When unplanned for. Isentropic Efficiency (ŋs) Measure of compressor efficiency defined as Δhisnetropic / Δhactual. It also contains a desiccant that removes moisture from the refrigerant. Flash Tank A component in a refrigeration system used to separate liquid refrigerant from vapor at an intermediate pressure. Liquid Line A refrigerant line that moves liquid high pressure refrigerant from the condenser to an expansion device. the refrigerant is outside the tubes and all the tubes are submersed in liquid refrigerant. Compressor isolators are rubber in shear (RIS) or spring. Head Pressure Control Valve A pressure regulating valve that diverts flow around the condenser as the pressure drops. Such a process is said to be reversible and cannot be more efficient. Isentropic Process A process where the entropy remains constant. There are isolators for compressors and refrigerant piping. Hot Gas Bypass A method of maintaining suction pressure to the compressor during periods of light load by recirculating discharge gas from the leaving side of the compressor back to either the inlet of the evaporator or the suction line. Installed on liquid and/or suction lines. Refrigerant piping isolators are usually rubber grommets used with a clamping system. floodback is detrimental to the operation of the refrigeration system. An example is isentropic compression (which cannot actually occur but is used as a benchmark to measure actual compressor performance against – See isentropic efficiency. Filter-Drier A device used to filter refrigerant to remove contaminants. It is the component that performs the cooling effect. Hot Gas Reheat A method of reheating supply air after it has been cooled by using a second coil down stream of the evaporator and passing discharge gas from the compressor through it. Glide The change in volumetric composition and saturation temperature experienced by Zeotropic refrigerants during boiling. Isolators Components used to stop vibration and noise from passing beyond the source. Liquid Floodback head pressure control A method of maintaining proper head pressure during low ambient operation by flooding the condenser with liquid refrigerant and reducing the effective heat transfer surface of the condenser. An example is evaporation in the evaporator.) Isobaric Process A process that occurs at constant pressure. Floodback A process where liquid refrigerant forms and moves to the lowest or coldest part of the refrigerant circuit. Commonly used in two stage refrigeration cycles. Flooded Evaporator For chiller evaporators. This is used as part of liquid flood back head pressure control system. Commonly used in two stage refrigeration cycles to cool refrigeration from the booster compressor. There are several types but a thermal expansion (TX) valve is most common for air conditioning applications. The device is located in the liquid line as close to the evaporator as possible. Intercooler A component in a refrigeration system used to desuperheat compressed refrigerant with cool liquid refrigerant. Flashing Partial or total vaporization obtained by sudden reduction of pressure.Evaporator A component in a refrigeration system where refrigerant is boiled from a liquid to gas and heat is absorbed from the surroundings. Isothermal Process A process that occurs at constant temperature.

Receiver A container used to store liquid refrigerant. Rubatex A brand name for a moisture proof expanded rubber insulation commonly used on refrigerant piping for thermal insulation. Application Guide AG 31-011 47 . Oil Separator A vessel in a refrigeration circuit used to separate oil from refrigerant.Liquid overfeed system An evaporator where the refrigerant is mechanically pumped faster than it is boiled so liquid refrigerant exits the evaporator. The mixture leaving the evaporator enters a low pressure receiver where the vapor is drawn off to the compressor and the liquid is returned to the evaporator. Sight Glass A refrigerant piping fitting that has a window to allow viewing of the refrigerant. Riser A refrigerant pipe that runs vertically. This is used to offset pressure losses in liquid lines that lead to flashing and to increase the capacity of the refrigeration circuit. They are usually in the discharge line. Suction Line A refrigerant line that carries low pressure refrigerant vapor from the evaporator to the compressor. Liquid Sub-cooling Reheat A method of reheating supply air after it has been cooled by using a second coil down stream of the evaporator and passing liquid refrigerant from the condenser through it. Service Valve A refrigerant valve that can be manually closed to isolate part of a refrigeration circuit for servicing. Mass (m) The quantity of a substance present. Some sight glasses include a moisture indicator used to mark the presences of moisture in the refrigeration system. Quality (χ) The ratio of vapor mass to liquid mass refrigerant during evaporation and/or condensation. The oil is returned to the compressor sump. When a refrigerant is in saturation condition there can be only one temperature for a given pressure and visa versa. They are used in the liquid line as close to the TX valve as possible to visualize vapor bubbles. It is measured in pounds per square inch (PSI) or Pascals (Pa). Saturated Suction Temperature The saturation condition that exists in the evaporator. closed without power) commonly used in refrigerant piping systems to isolate a section of the refrigerant circuit. Measured in Btu/lbm°F or (kJ/(kg°C)) Sub-cooled Liquid A liquid that has been cooled below the saturation condition resulting in lower temperature and enthalpy. fan cycling. Examples include. Saturation Condition A state where liquid and vapor refrigerant are in direct contact with each other and all properties remain unchanged overtime. Bursts pipes or expands balloons. Specific Heat (cp) The energy needed to raise the temperature of a unit of mass one degree of temperature. Saturated Condensing Temperature The saturation condition that exists in the condenser. It is measured in pounds or lbm or kilograms ( kg). Also used in pump down and hot gas bypass arrangements. When powered. Reversing Valve A device in a refrigeration circuit used to convert an air conditioner into a heat pump. Low Ambient Control A control process that maintains condenser pressure at an acceptable level during periods of low ambient temperature and/or load. and liquid flood back control. Typically used when the condenser cannot hold the refrigerant charge or for liquid flood back low ambient control. fan speed control. Pressure (p) Force over unit area. This arrangement is common in industrial applications. Solenoid Valve A two position valve (open with power. the reversing valve will switch the evaporator and condenser to reverse the rejection of heat.

Superheated Vapor A vapor that has been heated beyond the saturation condition resulting in increased temperature and enthalpy. Temperature (T) Represents the average motion of the molecules in the fluid. An example is R-407C. Zeotropic Refrigerants Refrigerant blends where the components do not behave asone substance. This is done to make sure the refrigerant in the suction line entering the compressor is truly a vapor. Venturi An alternative device to a distributor for feeding two phase refrigerant flow into each tube of a DX evaporator. It is usually part of the coil and is directly down stream of the TX valve. Volume (V) The geometrical space occupied by a fluid. Zeotropic refrigerants experience glide. Trap A “P” shaped piping fitting that holds either liquid refrigerant or oil. 48 Application Guide AG 31-011 . It is measured in cubic feet or ft³ (cubic meters or m³) Volumetric Efficiency (ŋva) Measure of compressor performance defined as actual volume flow rate/ideal volume flow rate. It is measured in °F (Fahrenheit) (Celsius or °C). Thermal expansion valves modulate refrigerant flow based on superheat in the suction line. Thermal Expansion (TX) Valve A pressure regulating valve used in refrigeration systems to lower the liquid refrigerant pressure from the condensing pressure to the evaporation pressure.

276 1.687 4..265 1.387 2.200 25.125 3.089 0.845 7.503 1.206 0.640 1.666 0.818 0.125 6.779 3.022 1.625 3.268 0. Inc.949 0.875 1.140 0.481 1.500 0.268 0.545 0.014 3.342 1.652 0.295 0.120 4.065 0. © American Society of Heating.725 Surface Area Outside (ft²/ft) 0.196 0.069 0.196 0.125 0.818 0.216 0.812 8.291 6.583 7.985 2.496 1.195 0.109 0.625 0.680 1.750 0.125 1.125 5.771 0.385 3.125 2.095 4.090 0.110 0.858 1.388 0.741 5.857 3.160 0.926 2. 2004.055 0.995 1.505 1.911 19.905 4.258 1.010 1.331 0.959 1.832 45.907 2.360 0.775 0.425 0.985 2.022 Cross Section Meta l Area (in²) 0.326 0.125 1.295 Working Pressure ASTM B88 To 250°F Draw n Annealed (PSIG (PSIG) ) 894 638 715 584 596 511 677 469 527 405 431 365 404 337 356 300 330 278 318 263 302 252 296 243 285 222 286 208 304 224 1676 1197 1341 1094 1117 958 1270 879 988 760 808 684 758 631 668 573 619 521 596 492 566 472 555 456 534 417 536 391 570 421 1/2 5/8 3/4 7/8 1 1/8 1 3/8 1 5/8 2 1/8 2 5/8 3 1/8 3 5/8 4 1/8 5 1/8 6 1/8 8 1/8 K L K L K L K L K L K L K L K L K L K L K L K L K L K L K L 0.609 13.625 3.325 5.125 5.360 0.Appendix 2 – Refrigerant Piping Tables (Inch-Pound) Table 3 .org.095 0.430 0.897 1.375 1.295 0.143 0. (in) Diameter Outside D.603 2.886 26.063 1.945 3.637 0.452 0.579 2. 49 Application Guide AG 31-011 . Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers.125 8.625 0.674 7.229 0.125 Inside D (in) 0.867 10.171 0.127 Inside (ft²/ft) 0.625 2.436 0.002 3.125 6.285 0.271 0.074 0.127 0.049 0. Type Wall Dia.134 0.344 0.875 0.050 0.527 0.ashrae.963 3.143 2.687 0.051 0.093 0.785 0.949 1.556 0.107 1.164 0.625 4.Copper Tube Data 6 Nominal Dia.233 0.520 0.772 6.033 0.745 0.484 0.162 46.025 1.165 0.108 0.200 6 ASHRAE Handbook HVAC Systems And Equipment.120 0.260 0.869 Weight Tube (lb/ft) 0.125 4.778 0.875 5.761 0.625 1.839 0.479 4.083 0.125 3.394 0.045 0.723 1.513 0.435 2.070 0.825 1.065 0.042 0.080 0.556 0.603 1.198 0.377 9.465 2.425 0.229 0.217 1.105 0.113 0.040 0.402 0.805 4.637 0.049 0.035 0.138 0.131 0.218 0.295 0.532 0.348 0.641 0.684 11.192 0.455 0.687 0.654 1.117 0.342 1.625 2.072 0. www.125 8.884 1.500 0.886 0.751 2.269 0.632 6.510 5.131 0.334 0.125 2.174 0.133 18.060 0.213 11.080 1.169 0.637 6.665 25.657 4.037 0.080 1.351 0.362 0. (in) 0.530 1.999 9.375 1.418 0.257 1.127 2.977 18. Chapter 41.049 0.145 0.100 0.361 1.245 1.425 3.750 0.065 0.979 Flow Area (in²) 0.228 0.321 1.164 0.

Table 4 - Equivalent Length for Fittings (feet) 7
Smooth Elbows Nominal Dia. 90° Std 1/2 5/8 7/8 1 1/8 1 3/8 1 5/8 2 1/8 2 5/8 3 1/8 3 5/8 4 1/8 5 1/8 6 1/8 8 1/8 1.4 1.6 2.0 2.6 3.3 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.5 9.0 10.0 13.0 16.0 20.0 90° Long Radius 0.9 1.0 1.4 1.7 2.3 2.6 3.3 4.1 5.0 5.9 6.7 8.2 10.0 13.0 90° Street 2.3 2.5 3.2 4.1 5.6 6.3 8.2 10.0 12.0 15.0 17.0 21.0 25.0 45° Std 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.3 1.7 2.1 2.6 3.2 4.0 4.7 5.2 6.5 7.9 10.0 45° Street 1.1 1.3 1.6 2.1 3.0 3.4 4.5 5.2 6.4 7.3 8.5 11.0 13.0 180° Std 2.3 2.5 3.2 4.1 5.6 6.3 8.2 10.0 12.0 15.0 17.0 21.0 25.0 33.0 Tee Branch Flow 2.7 3.0 4.0 5.0 7.0 8.0 10.0 12.0 15.0 18.0 21.0 25.0 30.0 40.0 Smooth Bend Tee Connections Straight Through Flow No Reduction 0.9 1.0 1.4 1.7 2.3 2.6 3.3 4.1 5.0 5.9 6.7 8.2 10.0 13.0 Reduced 25% 1.2 1.4 1.9 2.2 3.1 3.7 4.7 5.6 7.0 8.0 9.0 12.0 14.0 18.0 Reduced 50% 1.4 1.6 2.0 2.6 3.3 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.5 9.0 10.0 13.0 16.0 20.0

Table 5 - Equivalent Length For Valves And Refrigeration Devices (feet) 8
Nominal Diameter 1/2 5/8 7/8 1 1/8 1 3/8 1 5/8 2 1/8 2 5/8 3 1/8 3 5/8 4 1/8 5 1/8 6 1/8 8 1/8 Globe Or Solenoid 17 18 22 29 38 43 55 69 84 100 120 140 170 220 60° Wye Valve 8 9 11 15 20 24 30 35 43 50 58 71 88 115 45° Wye Valve 6 7 9 12 15 18 24 29 35 41 47 58 70 85 Angle Valve 6 7 9 12 15 18 24 29 35 41 47 58 70 85 Gate Valve 0.6 0.7 0.9 1.0 1.5 1.8 2.3 2.8 3.2 4.0 4.5 6.0 7.0 9.0 Swing Check 5 6 8 10 14 16 20 25 30 35 40 50 60 80 Sight Glass 1.0 1.2 1.6 2.0 2.5 2.6 Filter Drier 12 15 21 26 35 Suction Filter 15 17 22 25 36 40

7

ASHRAE Handbook Refrigeration, Chapter 2, 2006. © American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc., www.ashrae.org. 8 ASHRAE Handbook Refrigeration, Chapter 2, 2006. © American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc., www.ashrae.org.
50 Application Guide AG 31-011

Table 6 - R-22 Refrigerant Line Sizing Table (tons) 9
Suction SST ΔT Δp (PSI) OD (in) 1/2 5/8 7/8 1 1/8 1 3/8 1 5/8 2 1/8 2 5/8 3 1/8 3 5/8 4 1/8 2oF 1.60 0F 1oF 0.813 0.5oF 0.406 2oF 2.22
o

Discharge 40 F 0.5oF 0.552 2oF 2.91 1oF 1.455 0.5oF 0.727
o

Liquid 40 F 1oF 3.05 vel = 100fpm 1oF 3.05
o

20 F 1oF 1.104

o

0F 1oF 3.05

o

20 F 1oF 3.05

o

0.51 1.3 2.7 4.7 7.5 15.6 27.5 44.0 65.4 92.2

0.18 0.34 0.91 1.86 3.25 5.16 10.71 18.97 30.31 45.09 63.71

0.12 0.23 0.62 1.27 2.22 3.53 7.35 13.04 20.85 31.03 43.85

0.40 0.76 2.0 4.0 7.0 11.1 23.1 40.8 65.0 96.6 136.3

0.27 0.52 1.37 2.77 4.84 7.67 15.92 28.19 44.93 66.81 94.25

0.19 0.35 0.93 1.90 3.32 5.26 10.96 19.40 31.00 46.11 65.12

0.6 1.1 2.9 5.8 10.1 16.0 33.1 58.3 92.9 137.8 194.3

0.40 0.75 1.97 3.99 6.96 11.00 22.81 40.38 64.30 95.68 134.81

0.27 0.51 1.35 2.74 4.78 7.57 15.73 27.84 44.44 66.09 93.22

0.8 1.5 4.0 8.0 14.0 22.1 45.7 80.4 128.2 190.3 267.8

0.8 1.6 4.1 8.3 14.4 22.7 47.1 82.9 132.2 196.2 276.1

0.8 1.6 4.2 8.5 14.8 23.4 48.5 85.4 136.2 202.1 284.4

2.3 3.7 7.8 13.2 20.2 28.5 49.6 76.5 109.2 147.8 192.1

3.6 6.7 18.2 37.0 64.7 102.5 213.0 376.9 601.5 895.7 1263.2

Values in Table 6 are based on 105°F condensing temperature. Multiply table capacities by the following factors for other condensing temperatures.
Condensing Temperature (°F) 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 Suction Line 1.11 1.07 1.03 0.97 0.90 0.86 0.80 Discharge Line 0.79 0.88 0.95 1.04 1.10 1.18 1.26

Notes for Table 6: 1. 2. 3. 4. Table capacities are in tons of refrigeration. Δp = pressure drop due to line friction, psi per 100 ft of equivalent line length Δt = corresponding change in saturation temperature, °F per 100 ft Line capacity for other saturation temperatures Δt and equivalent lengths Le

⎛ Table Le Actual Δt ⎞ ⎟ × Line Capacity = Table Capacity⎜ ⎜ Acutal L Table Δt ⎟ e ⎝ ⎠
5. Saturation temperatures Δt for other capacities and equivalent lengths Le

0.55

⎛ Actual Le Δt = Table Δt ⎜ ⎜ Table L e ⎝

⎞⎛ Actual Capacity ⎞ ⎟⎜ ⎟ ⎟⎜ Table Capacity ⎟ ⎠ ⎠⎝

1.8

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Application Guide AG 31-011

Table 7 - R-134a Refrigerant Line Size Table (tons) 10
Suction SST ΔT Δp (PSI) OD (in) 1/2 5/8 7/8 1 1/8 1 3/8 1 5/8 2 1/8 2 5/8 3 1/8 3 5/8 4 1/8 5 1/8 6 1/8 2oF 1.00 0oF 1oF 0.50 0.5oF 0.25 2oF 1.41 20oF 1oF 0.71 0.5oF 0.35 2oF 1.93 40oF 1oF 0.97 0.5oF 0.48 0oF 1oF 2.20 Discharge 20oF 1oF 2.20 40oF 1oF 2.20 vel = 100fpm 1oF 2.20 Liquid

0.14 0.27 0.71 1.45 2.53 4.02 8.34 14.80 23.70 35.10 49.60 88.90 143.0

0.10 0.18 0.48 0.99 1.73 2.75 5.73 10.2 16.2 24.2 34.2 61.3 98.8

0.07 0.12 0.33 0.67 1.18 1.88 3.92 6.97 11.1 16.6 23.5 42.2 68.0

0.23 0.43 1.14 2.32 4.04 6.39 13.3 23.5 37.5 55.8 78.7 141.0 226.0

0.16 0.29 0.78 1.59 2.77 4.40 9.14 16.2 25.9 38.5 54.3 97.2 157.

0.11 0.20 0.53 1.08 1.89 3.01 6.27 11.1 17.8 26.5 37.4 67.1 108.

0.35 0.66 1.75 3.54 6.17 9.77 20.20 35.80 57.10 84.80 119.4 213.0 342.0

0.24 0.45 1.20 2.43 4.25 6.72 14.0 24.7 39.4 58.7 82.6 148. 237.

0.16 0.31 0.82 1.66 2.91 4.61 9.59 17.0 27.2 40.4 57.1 102. 165.

0.5 1.0 2.7 5.4 9.4 14.9 30.8 54.4 86.7 129.0 181.0 323.0 518.0

0.6 1.1 2.8 5.7 9.9 15.7 32.4 57.2 91.2 135. 191. 340. 545.

0.6 1.1 2.9 6.0 10.4 16.4 34.0 59.9 95.5 142.0 200.0 356.0 571.0

2.13 3.42 7.09 12.1 18.4 26.1 45.3 69.9 100 135 175 -

2.79 5.27 14 28.4 50 78.6 163 290 462 688 971 -

Values in Table 7 are based on 105°F condensing temperature. Multiply table capacities by the following factors for other condensing temperatures.

Condensing Temperature (°F) 80 90 100 110 120 130

Suction Line 1.158 1.095 1.032 0.968 0.902 0.834

Discharge Line 0.804 0.882 0.961 1.026 1.078 1.156

Notes for Table 7: 1. 2. 3. 4. Table capacities are in tons of refrigeration. Δp = pressure drop due to line friction, psi per 100 ft of equivalent line length Δt = corresponding change in saturation temperature, °F per 100 ft Line capacity for other saturation temperatures Δt and equivalent lengths Le

⎛ Table Le Actual Δt ⎞ Line Capacity = Table Capacity⎜ ⎜ Acutal L × Table Δt ⎟ ⎟ e ⎝ ⎠
5. Saturation temperatures Δt for other capacities and equivalent lengths Le

0.55

⎛ Actual Le Δt = Table Δt ⎜ ⎜ Table L e ⎝

⎞⎛ Actual Capacity ⎞ ⎟⎜ ⎟ ⎟⎜ Table Capacity ⎟ ⎠ ⎠⎝

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52 Application Guide AG 31-011

10

9 776.8 407. 3.46 20oF 1oF 1.1 2.5 1.2 32.0 16.9 1.0 100.1 102.6 185.6 1.8 2.9 413.1 42. psi per 100 ft of equivalent line length Δt = corresponding change in saturation temperature.5 62.8 20.7 0.1 67.6 24.4 0.5 2491.8 124.889 0.5 3.1 4.6 24.6 8.75 Discharge 20oF 1oF 4.3 0.9 1.3 11.6 42.2 16.889 0.3 2.5oF 0.035 0.1 4.5 141.6 29.25 0.7 10.2 370.032 1.8 4383. °F per 100 ft Line capacity for other saturation temperatures Δt and equivalent lengths Le ⎛ Table Le Actual Δt ⎞ Line Capacity = Table Capacity⎜ ⎜ Acutal L × Table Δt ⎟ ⎟ e ⎝ ⎠ 5.5 11.8 737.1 405.8 24.2 88.3 175.7 144. Inc.R-410A Refrigerant Line Size Table (tons) 11 Suction SST ΔT Δp (PSI) OD (in) 1/2 5/8 7/8 1 1/8 1 3/8 1 5/8 2 1/8 2 5/8 3 1/8 3 5/8 4 1/8 5 1/8 6 1/8 2oF 2.9 36.2 6.7 1244.9 145.2 127.5 5.2 3.5 198.2 2729.3 72.8 0.6 1. Saturation temperatures Δt for other capacities and equivalent lengths Le 0.9 0. 2.7 523.1 0.8 ASHRAE Handbook Refrigeration.9 5.7 98.8 594.5 67.7 208.4 35.4 0.2 287.50 40oF 1oF 2.4 282.815 0.808 Discharge Line 0.8 61.4 6.2 7.3 204.3 1216. www.2 8.7 258.7 426.8 66.0 309.57 0oF 1oF 1.8 128.6 1.9 106.5 147.5 43.0 586.3 0.5 11.0 2.2 22.4 20.2 7.3 2.1 10.7 293.6 1.0 94.1 6.4 24. 2006.8 0.4 12.4 293.3 70.9 15. Chapter 2.7 459.7 4. Multiply table capacities by the following factors for other condensing temperatures.8 208.9 260.1 4.1 4.9 100.87 2oF 4.9 17.8 2.8 365.7 11.5 6.org.13 0oF 1oF 4.7 125.1 8.4 24.7 258.2 209. Application Guide AG 31-011 53 11 .4 2.964 0.0 1087.6 435.8 0.4 Values in Table 8 are based on 105°F condensing temperature.160 Notes for Table 8: 1.0 414.096 1.4 9980.75 5oF 23.2 371.7 733. 4.9 22. Condensing Temperature (°F) 80 90 100 110 120 130 Suction Line 1.104 1.4 140.2 10.3 204.4 6.8 79.0 6.2 839.3 302.4 17.4 165.0 3500.0 3.8 100.0 291.7 34..0 47.3 69.9 6228.8 142.6 45.2 1.1 35.3 50.5 21.3 11.5 0.4 46.8 69.0 3.5 1530. © American Society of Heating.5 13.3 7.0 5.5 99.1 1056.4 1680.1 759.ashrae.5oF 0.3 1180.8 2.3 0.64 2oF 3.1 74. Δp = pressure drop due to line friction.4 1.75 vel = 100fpm 1oF 4.5 601.6 131.29 0.8 71.7 16.2 12.5 195.2 52.6 22.170 1.4 0.5 67. Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers.9 121.75 40oF 1oF 4.4 97.73 0.4 8.7 34.30 Liquid 0.55 ⎛ Actual Le Δt = Table Δt ⎜ ⎜ Table L e ⎝ ⎞⎛ Actual Capacity ⎞ ⎟⎜ ⎟ ⎟⎜ Table Capacity ⎟ ⎠ ⎠⎝ 1.Table 8 .963 1.1 42.1 253.3 2.5oF 1. Table capacities are in tons of refrigeration.6 253.2 179.9 30.4 48.2 0.2 3.

Table 9 - R-407C Refrigerant Line Size Table 12
Suction SST ΔT Δp (PSI) OD (in) 1/2 5/8 7/8 1 1/8 1 3/8 1 5/8 2 1/8 2 5/8 3 1/8 3 5/8 4 1/8 5 1/8 6 1/8 2oF 1.55 0F 1oF 0.78 0.5oF 0.39 2oF 2.16
o

Discharge 40 F 0.5oF 0.54 2oF 2.92 1oF 1.46 0.5oF 0.73
o

Liquid 40 F 1oF 3.30 vel = 100fpm 1oF 3.30 5oF 16.90
o

20 F 1oF 1.08

o

0F 1oF 3.30

o

20 F 1oF 3.30

o

0.2 0.4 1.2 2.3 4.1 6.4 13.4 23.6 37.8 56.2 79.2 141.6 227.9

0.2 0.3 0.8 1.6 2.8 4.4 9.2 16.3 26.1 38.8 54.7 97.9 157.6

0.1 0.2 0.5 1.1 1.9 3.0 6.3 11.2 17.9 26.7 37.7 67.6 109.0

0.4 0.7 1.8 3.6 6.3 10.0 20.7 36.6 58.3 86.6 122.1 218.1 350.4

0.3 0.5 1.2 2.5 4.4 6.9 14.3 25.3 40.3 60.0 84.6 151.2 243.2

0.2 0.3 0.8 1.7 3.0 4.7 9.8 17.4 27.8 41.4 58.5 104.7 168.4

0.5 1.0 2.7 5.4 9.5 14.9 30.9 54.5 86.9 128.9 181.3 323.5 519.6

0.4 0.7 1.8 3.7 6.5 10.3 21.4 37.8 60.2 89.5 126.1 225.1 361.7

0.3 0.5 1.3 2.6 4.5 7.1 14.7 26.1 41.6 61.8 87.3 156.1 251.1

0.8 1.5 4.1 8.2 14.2 22.5 46.5 82.0 130.5 193.3 272.6 485.5 779.0

0.9 1.6 4.2 8.5 14.8 23.4 48.4 85.4 136.0 201.4 284.0 505.8 811.6

0.9 1.7 4.4 8.9 15.4 24.3 50.3 88.7 141.2 209.2 295.0 525.3 843.0

2.1 3.4 6.9 11.8 18.0 25.5 44.4 68.5 97.7 132.0 171.8 267.8 385.0

3.8 7.1 18.7 37.9 66.2 104.7 217.1 383.7 611.3 907.9 1281.5 2288.8 3676.9

8.9 16.7 43.7 88.2 153.5 241.9 499.2 879.9 1401.5 2076.6 2923.4 5209.1 8344.1

Values in Table 9 are based on 105°F condensing temperature. Multiply table capacities by the following factors for other condensing temperatures.
Condensing Temperature (°F) 80 90 100 110 120 130 Suction Line 1.163 1.099 1.033 0.966 0.896 0.824 Discharge Line 0.787 0.872 0.957 1.036 1.109 1.182

Notes for Table 9: 1. 2. 3. 4. Table capacities are in tons of refrigeration. Δp = pressure drop due to line friction, psi per 100 ft of equivalent line length Δt = corresponding change in saturation temperature, °F per 100 ft Line capacity for other saturation temperatures Δt and equivalent lengths Le

⎛ Table Le Actual Δt ⎞ Line Capacity = Table Capacity⎜ ⎜ Acutal L × Table Δt ⎟ ⎟ e ⎝ ⎠
5. Saturation temperatures Δt for other capacities and equivalent lengths Le

0.55

⎛ Actual Le Δt = Table Δt ⎜ ⎜ Table L e ⎝

⎞⎛ Actual Capacity ⎞ ⎟⎜ ⎟ ⎟⎜ Table Capacity ⎟ ⎠ ⎠⎝

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54 Application Guide AG 31-011

12

Table 10 - R-22 Minimum Capacity For Suction Riser (tons) 13
Saturated Suction Temp (°F) Suction Gas Temp 1/2 (°F) 0.146 -30 -40 -10 10 -10 -20 10 30 10 0 30 50 30 20 50 70 50 40 70 90 0.067 0.065 0.066 0.087 0.085 0.086 0.111 0.108 0.109 0.136 0.135 0.135 0.167 0.165 0.165 0.233 0.119 0.117 0.118 0.156 0.153 0.154 0.199 0.194 0.195 0.244 0.242 0.242 0.300 0.296 0.296 0.348 0.197 0.194 0.195 0.258 0.253 0.254 0.328 0.320 0.322 0.403 0.399 0.400 0.495 0.488 0.488 0.484 0.298 0.292 0.295 0.389 0.362 0.383 0.496 0.484 0.486 0.608 0.603 0.605 0.748 0.737 0.738 0.825 0.580 0.570 0.575 0.758 0.744 0.747 0.986 0.842 0.946 1.18 1.17 1.18 1.46 1.44 1.44 5/8 3/4 7/8 1 1/8 1 3/8 Pipe O.D. (inches) 1 5/8 Area (in2) 1.256 0.981 0.963 0.972 1.28 1.26 1.26 1.63 1.59 1.60 2.00 1.99 1.99 2.46 2.43 2.43 1.780 1.52 1.49 1.50 1.98 1.95 1.95 2.53 2.46 2.47 3.10 3.07 3.08 3.81 3.75 3.76 3.094 3.03 2.97 3.00 3.96 3.88 3.90 5.04 4.92 4.94 6.18 6.13 6.15 7.6 7.49 7.50 4.770 5.20 5.11 5.15 6.80 6.67 6.69 8.66 8.45 8.48 10.6 10.5 10.6 13.1 12.9 12.9 6.812 8.12 7.97 8.04 10.6 10.4 10.4 13.5 13.2 13.2 16.6 16.4 16.5 20.4 20.1 20.1 9.213 11.8 11.6 11.7 15.5 15.2 15.2 19.7 19.2 19.3 24.2 24.0 24.0 29.7 29.3 29.3 11.970 16.4 16.1 16.3 21.5 21.1 21.1 27.4 26.7 26.8 33.5 33.3 33.3 41.3 40.7 40.7 2 1/8 2 5/8 3 1/8 3 5/8 4 1/8

Refrigeration capacity in tons is based on 90°F liquid temperature and superheat as indicated by the listed temperature. Multiply table capacities by the following factors for other liquid line temperatures.
Liquid Temperature (°F) 50 1.17 60 1.14 70 1.10 80 1.06 100 0.98 110 0.94 120 0.89 130 0.85 140 0.80

ASHRAE Handbook Refrigeration, Chapter 2, 2006. © American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc., www.ashrae.org.
Application Guide AG 31-011 55

13

Table 11 - R-134a Minimum Capacity For Suction Riser (tons) 14
Saturated Suction Temp (°F) Suction Gas Temp 1/2 (°F) 0.146 -30 -40 -10 10 -10 -20 10 30 10 0 30 50 30 20 50 70 50 40 70 90 0.089 0.075 0.072 0.101 0.084 0.081 0.113 0.095 0.092 0.115 0.107 0.103 0.128 0.117 0.114 0.233 0.161 0.135 0.130 0.182 0.152 0.147 0.205 0.172 0.166 0.207 0.193 0.187 0.232 0.212 0.206 0.348 0.259 0.218 0.209 0.294 0.246 0.237 0.331 0.277 0.268 0.335 0.311 0.301 0.374 0.342 0.332 0.484 0.400 0.336 0.323 0.453 0.379 0.366 0.510 0.427 0.413 0.517 0.480 0.465 0.577 0.528 0.512 0.825 0.78 0.66 0.63 0.88 0.74 0.71 0.99 0.83 0.81 1.01 0.94 0.91 1.12 1.03 1.00 5/8 3/4 7/8 1 1/8 1 3/8 Pipe O.D. (inches) 1 5/8 Area (in2) 1.256 1.32 1.11 1.07 1.49 1.25 1.21 1.68 1.41 1.36 1.7 1.58 1.53 1.9 1.74 1.69 1.780 2.03 1.71 1.64 2.31 1.93 1.87 2.6 2.17 2.1 2.63 2.44 2.37 2.94 2.69 2.61 3.094 4.06 3.24 3.28 4.61 3.86 3.73 5.19 4.34 4.20 5.25 4.88 4.72 5.87 5.37 5.21 4.770 7.0 5.9 5.6 7.9 6.6 6.4 8.9 7.5 7.2 9.0 8.4 8.1 10.1 9.2 8.9 6.812 10.9 9.2 8.8 12.4 10.3 10.0 13.9 11.6 11.3 14.1 13.1 12.7 15.7 14.4 14.0 9.213 15.9 13.4 12.8 18.0 15.1 14.6 20.3 17.0 16.4 20.5 19.1 18.5 22.9 21.0 20.4 11.970 22.1 18.5 17.8 25.0 20.9 20.2 28.2 23.6 22.8 28.5 26.5 25.6 31.8 29.1 28.3 2 1/8 2 5/8 3 1/8 3 5/8 4 1/8

Refrigeration capacity in tons is based on 90°F liquid temperature and superheat as indicated by the listed temperature. Multiply table capacities by the following factors for other liquid line temperatures.
Liquid Temperature (°F) 50 1.26 60 1.20 70 1.13 80 1.07 100 0.94 110 0.87 120 0.80 130 0.74 140 0.67

Table 12 - R-410A Minimum Capacity For Suction Riser (tons)
Saturated Suction Temp (°F) Suction Gas Temp 1/2 (°F) 0.146 0 20 40 10 10 10 0.167 0.192 0.213 0.233 0.317 0.363 0.400 0.348 0.542 0.667 0.683 0.484 0.833 0.958 1.067 0.83 1.67 1.96 2.17 5/8 3/4 7/8 1 1/8 Pipe O.D. (inches) 1 3/8 1 5/8 2 1/8 2 5/8 3 1/8 3 5/8 4 1/8

Area (in2) 1.26 2.92 3.42 3.75 1.78 4.58 5.33 6.00 3.094 9.58 11.08 12.42 4.770 17.17 19.58 21.67 6.812 26.67 30.83 35.00 9.213 40.00 45.83 51.67 11.97 55.83 64.17 71.67

Refrigeration capacity in tons is based on 90°F liquid temperature and superheat as indicated by the listed temperature. Multiply table capacities by the following factors for other liquid line temperatures. (Table data based on line size pressure drop formula shown on page 2.17 of ASHRAE Handbook Refrigeration 2006.)
Liquid Temperature (°F) 80 1.05 90 1.00 100 0.94 110 0.90 120 0.83 130 0.77 140 0.72

ASHRAE Handbook Refrigeration, Chapter 2, 2006. © American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc., www.ashrae.org.
56 Application Guide AG 31-011

14

5 Refrigeration capacity in tons based on saturated suction temperature of 20 F with 15 F superheat at indicated o o saturated condensing temperature with 15 F sub-cooling.95 0 0.8 39.658 0.223 0.6 28.26 2.5 27.6 38.42 8.3 17.050 0.960 1.404 0.8 18.D.6 27. (inches) 1 3/8 1 5/8 2 1/8 2 5/8 3 1/8 3 5/8 4 1/8 Area (in2) 1.251 0.442 0.387 0.85 5.9 52.78 3.150 0.80 140 0.3 30.15 2.50 9.010 0.00 10.34 3.05 1.010 0.35 5.216 0.635 0.716 0.54 1.62 5.226 0.812 26.406 0. use correction factors in the following table.970 57.4 20.82 11.67 41.9 54.460 0.20 o 2 1/8 2 5/8 4.483 0.235 0.9 41.7 41.884 0.3 58..10 11.42 17.094 7.094 10.213 30.171 0.05 4.0 57.7 42.484 1.2 29.348 0.70 3.) Liquid Temperature (°F) 80 1.89 5.74 Table 14 .707 0.239 0.83 3.6 55.92 -20 0.00 100 0.0 17.90 120 0.758 0.24 3.Table 13 .31 1.19 2.1 39.D.00 5. Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers.00 4.9 54.3 29.1 44.58 4.283 0. © American Society of Heating.44 5.220 0.671 0.94 1.2 43.213 41.100 1.20 10.242 0.4 43.80 10.3 18.659 0.83 1.120 1.385 0.26 3.50 5.67 3.956 1.R-22 Minimum Capacity For Discharge Riser (tons) 15 Saturated Temp (°F) Discharge Gas Temp 1/2 (°F) 0.650 0.40 3.235 0.2 19.92 5.242 0.75 5/8 3/4 7/8 1 1/8 Pipe O.08 1.51 3.666 0.982 1.28 3.6 18.770 18.46 3.94 2.97 +40 1.9 17.414 0.231 0.58 27.35 5.8 57.540 0.413 0.85 130 0.760 0.642 0.9 69.0 54.994 1.060 1.744 0.8 39.770 13.83 9.225 0.03 1.2 26.2 62.0 40.02 ASHRAE Handbook Refrigeration.06 5.11 1.825 2.9 53.4 40.75 10.96 11.146 110 80 140 170 120 90 150 180 130 100 160 190 140 110 170 200 150 120 180 210 0.257 0.91 2.3 60.8 63.30 9. (Table data based on line size pressure drop formula shown on page 2.78 3.247 0.40 10.95 110 0.56 3.399 0.83 58. Inc.10 9.348 0.433 0.9 55.28 3. Saturated Suction Temperature (°F) -40 0.150 1.46 3.428 0.421 0.996 0.0 18.4 3 5/8 9.33 50.6 26.08 15.87 2.05 90 1.73 3.394 0.67 11.070 1.050 0. (in) 1 3/8 1.780 5.25 4.76 11.70 10.127 0. 2006.8 30.233 0.R-407C Minimum Capacity For Suction Riser (tons) Saturated Suction Temp (°F) Suction Gas Temp 1/2 (°F) 0.1 28.3 38.ashrae.0 4 1/8 11.24 2.550 0.693 0.70 10.01 1.16 3.730 0.31 1 5/8 Area (in2) 1.97 1.17 of ASHRAE Handbook Refrigeration 2006.325 0.3 17.256 3.233 0.50 6.695 0.33 Refrigeration capacity in tons is based on 90°F liquid temperature and superheat as indicated by the listed temperature. Application Guide AG 31-011 57 15 . Chapter 2.867 0.83 24.29 2.97 43. Multiply table capacities by the following factors for other liquid line temperatures.146 0 20 40 10 10 10 0.4 16.18 3.6 17.96 5/8 3/4 7/8 1 1/8 Pipe O.421 0.1 31.6 o 3 1/8 6. For other saturated suction temperatures with 15 F superheat.8 27.451 0.16 4.812 20.88 2.222 0.08 1.7 16.5 45. www.030 0.1 27.12 3.399 0.215 0.org.83 36.1 26.484 0.9 19.83 3.70 10.

85 4.88 1.74 1 5/8 Area (in2) 1.99 2. Chapter 2.79 2.383 0.060 1.68 Refrigeration capacity in tons based on saturated suction temperature of 40 F with 15 F superheat at indicated o o saturated condensing temperature with 15 F sub-cooling.8 Refrigeration capacity in tons based on saturated suction temperature of 20 F with 15 F superheat at indicated o o saturated condensing temperature with 15 F sub-cooling.2 14.13 4.1 46.770 24.15 86.02 4. (in) 1 3/8 1.) Saturated Suction Temperature (°F) 0 0.092 1.39 8.D..36 0.5 15.61 1.311 0.825 1.13 25.61 4.7 33.10 2.6 50.58 1.96 +40 1.125 0.4 16.31 4.8 43.88 8.484 1.9 16. Saturated Suction Temperature (°F) -40 -20 0 0.8 14.71 5.484 0.72 2.72 0.780 4.34 0. Suction Temp (°F) Discharge Temp 1/2 (°F) 0.4 34.8 37. use correction factors in the following table.84 2.209 0.8 1.538 0. (inches) 1 3/8 1 5/8 2 1/8 2 5/8 3 1/8 3 5/8 4 1/8 Area (in2) 1.647 0.38 9.7 15.38 4.7 32.146 80 100 120 140 160 180 0.75 1.07 41.184 0.1 22.811 0.7 23.42 8.26 5.212 0.6 3 5/8 9.590 1.32 11. Inc.861 0.76 8.628 0.558 0.8 44.791 0.00 60 1.R-134a Minimum Capacity For Discharge Riser (tons) 16 Saturated Temp (°F) Discharge Gas Temp 1/2 (°F) 0.334 0.094 13.2 45.8 14.80 14.180 0.44 4.770 15.512 0.6 21.206 0.83 3.09 9.176 0.538 0.21 8.75 9.146 110 80 140 170 120 90 150 180 130 100 160 190 140 110 170 200 150 120 180 210 0.830 0.4 13.581 0.19 3.970 49.6 36.7 32.54 5.14 2.12 8.191 0.5 52.0 31.610 0.0 45.54 1.549 0.33 0.29 3.65 1.213 35.5 21.618 0.25 9.8 33.04 Table 16 – R-410A Minimum Capacity For Discharge Riser (tons) Sat.94 40 1.256 2.71 4.55 1.364 0.6 24.89 o 6.20 4.19 4.5 45.2 16.906 0.516 0.0 4 1/8 11.0 47.812 24. (Table data based on line size pressure drop formula shown on page 2.5 26 23.873 0.194 0.897 0.76 1.72 3.094 9.96 2.62 5/8 3/4 7/8 1 1/8 Pipe O.06 ASHRAE Handbook Refrigeration.201 0.5 45.6 43. 58 Application Guide AG 31-011 16 .953 0.44 o 2 1/8 2 5/8 4.57 8.610 0.177 0.5 22.9 34.233 0.21 14.83 1.01 9.3 14.535 0.2 23.61 1.942 0.6 48. www.27 9.org.38 5/8 3/4 7/8 1 1/8 Pipe O.8 22.28 3.40 25.35 0.04 9.188 0.8 31. For other saturated suction temperatures with 15 F superheat.926 0.587 0.17 of ASHRAE Handbook Refrigeration 2006.638 1.796 0.8 52.351 0.62 8.378 0.Table 15 .68 1.1 25.830 0. use correction factors in the following table.ashrae.2 32.61 2.D.0 33.346 0.64 o 4.534 0.69 8.05 4.333 0.824 0.05 2.7 22.183 0.74 2.526 0.86 1.848 0.62 1.32 0.566 0.184 0.53 61.233 0.88 2.70 84.4 22.687 0.8 15.9 51. 2006.90 20 0.199 0.90 40.0 14.62 3.7 14.23 3.56 4.348 1.67 3. For other saturated suction temperatures with 15 F superheat.825 0. Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers.34 0.213 57.78 8.348 0.7 25.97 81.600 0.44 8.2 37.318 0.7 1.80 59.22 4.183 0.4 36. © American Society of Heating.326 0.79 4.812 38.5 13.5 o 3 1/8 6.331 0.

(Table data based on line size pressure drop formula shown on page 2.99 35.60 o 6.233 0.) Saturated Suction Temperature (°F) 0 0.094 12.67 7.87 2.484 1.97 71.75 Refrigeration capacity in tons based on saturated suction temperature of 40 F with 30 F superheat at indicated o o saturated condensing temperature with 10 F sub-cooling.40 73.78 7.940 0.475 0.969 0.00 5.30 0.770 21.530 0.98 40 1.79 2.83 2.01 36.85 5.00 60 1.22 53.06 9.348 0.70 52.90 8.31 0.14 3. use correction factors in the following table.562 0.94 22.79 11.54 75.R-407C Minimum Capacity For Discharge Riser (tons) Sat.812 33.146 80 100 120 140 160 180 0. (inches) 1 3/8 1 5/8 2 1/8 2 5/8 3 1/8 3 5/8 4 1/8 Area (in2) 1.17 of ASHRAE Handbook Refrigeration 2006.96 20 0.213 50.30 21.432 1.26 4.390 1.29 0.546 0.96 5/8 3/4 7/8 1 1/8 Pipe O.913 0.02 Application Guide AG 31-011 59 .10 12. For other saturated suction temperatures with 30 F superheat.46 12.D.84 o 4.Table 17 .15 1. Suction Temp (°F) Discharge Temp 1/2 (°F) 0.

35 0.60 19.85 226.779 3.74 1280.50 40.81 3 o 0.13 4.905 4.832 46.96 90.233 0.76 6. 140°F discharge temperature.63 906.32 23.42 1303.96 6.04 86.52 lb./ft 0.74 12.72 28.87 1. and 40°F saturated suction temperature.60 0.34 3.665 26.257 1.04 11.57 890.08 3 o Discharge Line 140 F 5.56 34.30 2.08 439./ft 7.257 1.79 18.213 11.81 447./ft 0.48 2236.61 18.64 231.69 3 o Discharge Line 140 F 6.74 14.772 6.70 1.72 lb.09 32.13 2.145 0.977 18.39 189.57 3 o 0./ft 0.71 101.233 0.46 lb.05 lb.55 0.35 49.85 3.88 1. and 40°F saturated suction temperature.93 lb. Per 100 Feet of Pipe) Line Size OD inches 1/2 5/8 7/8 1 1/8 1 3/8 1 5/8 2 1/8 2 5/8 3 1/8 3 5/8 4 1/8 5 1/8 6 1/8 8 1/8 Flow Area in 2 Suction Line 40 F 1.38 70.R-134a Refrigerant Charge (lbs.88 4.03 2276. Table 19 .825 1.213 11.65 177.16 3 o Liquid Line 105 F 69.90 23.08 25.73 325.81 34.15 0.12 23.11 0./ft 6.484 0.83 3.13 5.73 13.99 6.97 44.869 Refrigerant weight per 100 feet of pipe is based on 105°F condensing temperature and 10°F sub-cooling.20 9.90 45.905 4.08 8.71 8.779 3.977 18.33 1. Per 100 Feet of Pipe) Line Size OD inches 1/2 5/8 7/8 1 1/8 1 3/8 1 5/8 2 1/8 2 5/8 3 1/8 3 5/8 4 1/8 5 1/8 6 1/8 8 1/8 Flow Area in 2 Suction Line 40 F 1.41 581.36 227.10 39.484 0.825 1.48 4.812 9.869 Refrigerant weight per 100 feet of pipe is based on 105°F condensing temperature and 10°F sub-cooling./ft 0.772 6.04 7.97 lb.92 11.Table 18 .665 26.66 571.58 57.74 330.33 129.66 19.06 61.17 0.51 0.53 3 o Liquid Line 105 F 68.812 9.25 0. 140°F discharge temperature.832 46.99 84.R-22 Refrigerant Charge (lbs. 60 Application Guide AG 31-011 .90 186.145 0.37 59.92 1.

10 71.04 161.82 3 o Discharge Line 140 F 12.812 9.53 34.72 5.772 6.27 2.779 3./ft 0.665 26.12 3 o 0.11 158.83 413. Per 100 Feet of Pipe) Line Size OD inches 1/2 5/8 7/8 1 1/8 1 3/8 1 5/8 2 1/8 2 5/8 3 1/8 3 5/8 4 1/8 5 1/8 6 1/8 8 1/8 Flow Area in 2 Suction Line 40 F 2.213 11.869 Refrigerant weight per 100 feet of pipe is based on 105°F condensing temperature and 10°F sub-cooling.869 Refrigerant weight per 100 feet of pipe is based on 105°F condensing temperature and 10°F sub-cooling.43 276.36 0.93 234.17 0.825 1. 140°F discharge temperature.55 10.779 3.57 lb.48 2.832 46.905 4.90 112. Per 100 Feet of Pipe) Line Size OD inches 1/2 5/8 7/8 1 1/8 1 3/8 1 5/8 2 1/8 2 5/8 3 1/8 3 5/8 4 1/8 5 1/8 6 1/8 8 1/8 Flow Area in 2 Suction Line 40 F 1.42 104.233 0.09 41.98 7.825 1.213 11.977 18. Table 21 .91 4.65 lb.233 0.484 0.66 59.44 28./ft 1.61 8.30 71.43 79.32 214.07 281.40 2.43 14.68 23. and 40°F saturated suction temperature.59 5.24 305.37 lb.45 485.977 18.56 55.01 10.145 0.79 3 o Liquid Line 105 F 58.22 7.73 37.44 19.55 162.22 0./ft 0.51 10.48 756./ft 0.69 lb./ft 6.145 0.95 7.03 4.R-410A Refrigerant Charge (lbs.34 3 o 0.64 lb.46 80.22 3 o Discharge Line 140 F 8.12 3 o Liquid Line 105 F 64.04 56.74 1.44 50.65 2104.63 1899.31 10.57 0.665 26.257 1.R-407C Refrigerant Charge (lbs.772 6./ft 5.27 0.832 46.09 21.87 175.26 1. Application Guide AG 31-011 61 .484 0.21 lb.95 72.83 14.812 9.97 15.97 1.09 4.95 31.89 55.98 1204. 140°F discharge temperature.93 2.63 537.58 1087.11 18.29 193.12 373.905 4. and 40°F saturated suction temperature.46 21.22 409.59 41.87 1.Table 20 .257 1.62 33.88 9.34 28.65 40.20 10.72 837.

86 0. For other conditions.87 0.19 2.84 1.46 1.52 1.24 1.47 1.27 15 1.88 0.18 1.61 1.40 1.34 1.25 1.12 2.25 45 0.76 0.37 40 0.98 1.82 0.14 50 0.63 1.10 1.83 0.97 2.R-22 Suction Gas Velocity Correction Factors Cond Temp (°F) 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 120 125 130 135 140 145 Suction Temperature (°F) 10 1.05 1.67 1.48 1.98 1.43 1.84 25 1.66 1.13 1.50 1.21 1.80 0.84 0.70 1.29 1. apply correction factors from Table 22.00 1.33 1.67 1.04 1. Table 22 .96 0.38 1.62 1.43 1.15 1.05 2.11 1.85 0.01 1.51 1.73 1.91 0.27 1.07 1.12 1.21 1.15 1.04 20 1.17 1.80 1.00 1.89 1.05 1.10 1.02 1.94 1.22 1.56 1.Figure 21 .46 1.08 1.33 1.94 0.93 0.04 62 Application Guide AG 31-011 .30 1.75 1.02 1.90 0.42 1.18 1.91 1.99 2.R-22 Suction Gas Velocity Figure 21 is based on 40°F Suction temperature and 105°F condensing temperature.92 0.71 1.58 1.14 1.78 0.34 1.98 1.51 35 1.58 1.63 1.20 1.95 0.30 1.78 1.01 1.54 1.75 1.95 0.54 1.85 1.89 0.07 1.39 1.92 0.67 30 1.27 1.10 1.36 1.24 1.37 1.79 1.

81 1.00 2.10 1.52 1.47 1.00 1.96 0.78 1.86 30 1.56 1.28 1.47 1.75 1.18 1.91 0.87 0.85 1.92 2.98 1.99 1.33 45 0.15 1.97 2.18 2.27 1.66 35 1.87 1.92 0.25 1.23 1.53 1.77 0.53 1. Table 23 .35 1.86 0. apply correction factors from Table 23.26 2.65 1.06 1.96 0.04 2.00 1.23 1.19 1.55 2.33 1.35 2.66 15 1.95 0.29 1.86 1.43 1.76 0.40 1.88 0.27 1.21 1.39 1.99 1.37 1.84 0.93 0.56 1.Figure 22 .91 1. For other conditions.61 1.44 1.03 1.90 0.07 Application Guide AG 31-011 63 .84 0.09 1.15 1.25 1.93 2.70 1.18 1.82 0.09 25 1.00 2.10 2.48 1.12 1.12 1.03 1.03 1.10 1.65 1.48 40 0.37 1.80 0.71 1.07 1.81 1.14 1.42 1.R-134a Suction Gas Velocity Correction Factors Cond Temp (°F) 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 120 125 130 135 140 145 Suction Temperature (°F) 10 1.59 1.74 0.66 1.36 20 1.32 1.16 2.26 2.32 1.44 2.R-134a Suction Gas Velocity Figure 22 is based on 40°F Suction temperature and 105°F condensing temperature.06 1.42 1.61 1.76 1.08 2.04 1.19 50 0.78 1.14 1.90 0.59 1.72 1.93 0.82 0.

29 1.90 0.98 2.33 1.07 1.13 1.24 1.42 1.31 1.42 1.89 0.75 0. Table 24 .19 1.38 1.46 1.Figure 23 .52 1.74 1.38 1.24 2.56 1.08 1.21 1.86 0.34 1.03 1.06 2.07 1.35 2.84 0.22 1.01 1.91 2.75 1.85 1.68 1.R-410A Suction Gas Velocity Figure 23 is based on 40°F Suction temperature and 105°F condensing temperature.26 1.08 1.50 1.31 1.13 1.19 1.48 15 1.91 0.91 1.57 1.79 0.12 2.11 1.83 0.67 1.17 1.30 1.04 1.79 1.95 0.44 1.18 1.21 1.73 1.60 1.73 1.37 1.36 45 0.50 40 0.24 50 0.92 0.92 0.93 2. For other conditions.62 1.69 1.82 30 1.97 1.14 1.04 1.48 1.02 2.14 1.17 1.65 35 0.01 1.36 1.97 1.79 1.58 1.24 1.R-410A Suction Gas Velocity Correction Factors Cond Temp (°F) 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 120 125 130 135 140 145 Suction Temperature (°F) 10 1.81 0.43 1.94 0.25 1.51 1.86 1.95 0.23 20 1.33 1.14 2.82 1.65 1.08 1.13 64 Application Guide AG 31-011 .99 1.82 0.64 1.00 1.57 1.98 1.47 1.29 1.53 1.10 1.45 1. apply correction factors from Table 24.01 25 1.62 1.03 1.89 0.10 1.77 0.86 0.

97 2.80 0.08 Application Guide AG 31-011 65 .82 1.02 1.03 1.53 1.15 1.26 1.04 1.09 1.26 1.78 1.R-407C Suction Gas Velocity Figure 24 is based on 40°F Suction temperature and 105°F condensing temperature.91 0.62 1.97 1.83 1.49 1.78 1.15 1.85 0.13 2.07 1.20 2.06 1.84 1.72 1.93 0.59 1.17 1.90 1.91 2.00 25 1.31 1.12 2.72 1.75 0.06 1.29 2.82 0.75 1.13 1.29 1.10 1.88 0.83 0.Figure 24 .49 15 1.29 1.98 2.12 1.21 1.22 1.46 40 0.90 0.90 0.19 1.75 1.84 0.38 2.34 1.96 0.76 1.49 1.25 1. apply correction factors from Table 25.50 1.79 30 1.86 0.10 1.00 1.21 1.48 1.91 1.R-407C Suction Gas Velocity Correction Factors Cond Temp (°F) 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 120 125 130 135 140 145 Suction Temperature (°F) 10 1.93 0.24 1.80 1.10 1.43 1.72 35 0.22 1.57 1.04 2. For other conditions.99 1.77 1.38 1.19 50 0.96 1.14 1.32 45 0.00 1.03 1.43 1.35 1.34 1.92 0.42 1.87 0.38 1.04 1.39 1.81 1. Table 25 .76 0.95 0.53 1.78 0.23 20 1.99 1.54 1.17 1.77 1.05 2.46 1.55 1.86 1.59 1.35 1.40 1.28 1.

91 0.10 1.72 0.74 0.67 0.76 0.13 1.84 0.97 0.79 0.17 1.77 0.75 0.10 1.91 0.37 1.06 1.20 1.63 190 1.67 0.07 1.31 1.71 220 1.81 0.79 0.31 1.78 0.94 0.76 0.70 0.84 0.93 0.98 0.06 1.15 1.63 0.26 1.81 0.89 0.98 0.86 0.74 0.96 0.73 230 1.69 0.14 1. For other conditions.R-22 Discharge Gas Velocity Figure 25 is based on 40°F Suction temperature and 105°F condensing temperature.74 0.00 0.04 0.95 0. apply correction factors from Table 26.62 0.01 0.04 0.58 170 1.86 0.96 0.23 1.23 1.92 0.33 1.92 0.59 0.65 0.19 1.99 0.84 0.70 0.66 200 1.81 0.05 0.93 0.89 0.82 0.Figure 25 .21 1.12 1.77 0.28 1.34 1.16 1.08 1.76 66 Application Guide AG 31-011 .11 1.01 0.16 1.79 0.55 160 1.39 1.80 0.88 0.42 1.09 1.87 0.86 0.97 0.12 1.26 1. Table 26 R-22 Discharge Gas Velocity Correction Factors Cond Temp (°F) 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 120 125 130 135 140 145 Suction Temperature (°F) 150 1.82 0.60 180 1.73 0.05 0.72 0.68 0.91 0.23 1.28 1.26 1.79 0.20 1.84 0.01 0.03 0.64 0.86 0.88 0.72 0.18 1.68 210 1.

02 0.88 0.53 160 1.59 0.96 0.26 1.40 1.84 0.61 0.87 0.09 1.85 0.26 1.02 0.72 0.98 0.14 1.46 1.92 0.74 0.31 1.35 1.28 1.64 0.70 0.12 1.65 0.05 0.19 1.91 0. Table 27 .55 170 1. apply correction factors from Table 27.29 1.64 210 1.75 0.72 0.81 0.75 0.82 0.09 1.72 0.23 1.04 0.99 0.68 0.77 0.12 1.70 0.68 0.57 180 1.79 0.12 1.14 1.61 0.88 0.86 0.70 0.60 190 1.02 0.76 0.81 0.25 1.92 0.34 1.89 0.36 1.20 1.69 230 1.68 0.75 0.70 0.83 0.79 0.80 0.07 0.37 1.74 0.93 0.57 0.79 0.83 0.94 0.66 0.32 1.97 0.R-134a Discharge Gas Velocity Figure 26 is based on 40°F Suction temperature and 105°F condensing temperature.19 1.72 0.43 1.00 0.66 220 1.62 200 1.07 1.83 0.22 1.63 0.79 0.95 0.86 0.07 1.27 1.93 0.95 0.17 1.88 0.17 1.76 0.77 0.00 0.91 0.R-134a Suction Gas Velocity Correction Factors Cond Temp (°F) 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 120 125 130 135 140 145 Suction Temperature (°F) 150 1. For other conditions.65 0.Figure 26 .04 0.23 1.15 1.99 0.71 Application Guide AG 31-011 67 .09 1.86 0.17 1.

29 1.39 1.74 0.75 0.90 0.01 0.81 0.10 1.19 1.17 1.13 1.10 1.87 0.03 1.78 0.77 0.96 0.99 0.25 1.25 1.91 0.87 0.02 0.08 1.85 0.16 1.87 210 1.01 0.01 0.10 1.64 0.04 0.20 1.70 0.84 0.84 0.32 1.01 0.R-410A Suction Gas Velocity Correction Factors Cond Temp (°F) 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 120 125 130 135 140 145 Suction Temperature (°F) 150 1.91 0.95 0. Table 28 .11 1.04 1.83 0.22 1.91 0.16 1.00 0.13 1.88 0.R-410A Discharge Gas Velocity Figure 27 is based on 40°F Suction temperature and 105°F condensing temperature.94 0.96 0.82 200 1.07 1.88 0.98 0.06 1.87 0.87 0.69 0.77 0.80 0.23 1.71 0.17 1.15 1.90 0.91 0.77 0.20 1.94 0.79 0.84 0.97 0.67 170 1.13 1.73 0.26 1.81 0.22 1.00 0.93 0.86 0.98 230 1.Figure 27 .61 160 1. apply correction factors from Table 28.03 1.95 0.29 1.73 0.07 1.67 0.98 0.10 1.93 0.13 1.95 0.99 0.77 190 1.35 1.95 0. For other conditions.82 0.05 1.07 1.92 0.97 0.32 1.00 1.72 180 1.85 0.97 0.19 1.80 0.04 0.03 68 Application Guide AG 31-011 .93 220 1.07 1.99 1.91 0.

22 1.69 0.24 1.20 1.76 0.74 0.20 1.86 0.85 0.77 0.73 0.91 0.17 1.38 1.62 180 1.95 0.05 1.76 0.02 0.70 0.14 1.86 0.94 0. apply correction factors from Table 29 Table 29 .82 0.76 0.16 1.14 1.79 0.82 0.88 0.R-407C Discharge Gas Velocity Figure 28 is based on 40°F Suction temperature and 105°F condensing temperature.88 0.69 200 1.92 0.66 0.29 1.12 1.17 1.08 1.11 1.63 0.08 1.94 0.03 0.85 0.89 0.79 0.82 0.90 0.R-407C Suction Gas Velocity Correction Factors Suction Temperature (°F) Cond Temp (°F) 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 120 125 130 135 140 145 150 1.91 0.00 0.06 1.08 1.77 220 1.99 0.19 1.55 160 1.84 0.83 0.10 1.02 0.02 0.62 0.72 0.83 0.81 0.88 0.66 190 1.80 0.11 1.27 1.91 0.84 Application Guide AG 31-011 69 .99 0.93 0.17 1.13 1.35 1.87 0.58 170 1.59 0.32 1.09 1.73 0.67 0.20 1.97 0.97 0.96 0.80 230 1.89 0.86 0.23 1.85 0.05 0.69 0.41 1.33 1.66 0.99 0.80 0.26 1.71 0.92 0.26 1.96 0.73 210 1.95 0.30 1.76 0.15 1.Figure 28 . For other conditions.23 1.03 0.79 0.79 0.97 0.05 0.00 0.

05 19.62 6.76 50..061 6.0436 0. 70 Application Guide AG 31-011 17 .6050 0. (mm) 12.96 4.58 206.83 145.23 28.58 28.668 3.246 7.3889 0.070 0.62 38.80 85.40 2.22 Surface Area Outside (m²/m) 0.38 79.648 0.812 5.110 0.18 130.025 1.539 0.249 0.Appendix 3 – Refrigerant Piping Tables (SI) Table 30 .1966 0.786 2.2701 0.79 4.060 0.Copper Tube Data 17 Nominal Dia.39 9.556 8.082 1.0421 0.254 3.130 0.58 155.144 3.109 3.3078 0.2733 0.39 13.org.648 Inside (m²/m) 0.2320 0.08 92.0594 0.409 0.21 10.634 2.19 122.193 1.571 4.84 16.0628 0.65 1.972 1.050 0.041 1.027 4.32 20.682 2.234 3.592 4.702 6.94 25.289 0. Chapter 41.ashrae.83 1.253 9.38 206.29 3.738 2.875 3. 2004.0320 0.606 4.13 37. Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers.65 1.400 0.88 15.93 41.92 13.56 28.2350 0.54 3.35 3.42 61.792 2.00 97.69 8.060 0.434 2.543 1.62 32.18 38.70 12.324 2.41 2. Inc.78 2.05 2.544 Drawn (MPa) 11.903 3.289 0.090 0.06 3.090 0.392 3.11 1.409 0.84 74.930 2.040 0.954 0.85 62.98 87.04 31.517 2.249 0.050 0.1009 0.82 148.489 0.88 5.98 53.08 Diameter Outside D.88 3.316 2.096 1.98 66.675 1.3834 0.03 2.040 0.249 0.1564 0.972 2.170 0.209 0. (mm) 12 15 18 22 28 35 42 54 67 79 92 105 130 156 206 K L K L K L K L K L K L K L K L K L K L K L K L K L K L K L 1.07 1.399 4.39 11.24 1.23 22.78 130.78 107.424 0.0817 0.58 34.97 99.05 22.070 0.18 155.68 66.23 49.523 4.02 1.18 4.28 53.08 104.56 16.240 5.903 ASHRAE Handbook HVAC Systems And Equipment.0344 0. Type Wall Dia.05 123.110 0.00 14.95 7.677 1.827 3.89 1.109 3.070 2.92 18.757 6.93 34.0530 0.069 2.164 4.61 73.24 0.3115 0.329 0.930 4.351 4.52 2.965 1.70 15.56 6.28 41.813 2.512 0.46 192.531 1.622 0.01942 0.24 1.226 4.27 26.605 8.696 3.4663 0.0792 0.973 1.6163 Cross Section Flow Metal Area Area (mm²) (mm²) 45 33 57 48 70 60 106 75 139 109 173 147 226 190 343 292 487 413 666 554 852 714 1084 895 1610 1266 2309 1698 4314 3212 82 94 141 151 215 225 281 312 502 532 785 811 1111 1148 1945 1997 3004 3079 4282 4395 5806 5944 7538 7727 11699 12042 16701 17311 29137 30238 Weight Tube (kg/m) 0.716 5.696 2.61 196.0994 0.27 1.38 92.68 79.917 2.92 19.295 0.701 3.69 5.1183 0.170 0.275 1.14 1.209 0.455 2.0521 0.71 Working Pressure ASTM B88 To 120°C Annealed (MPa) 6.1585 .38 Inside d (mm) 10.4581 0.88 19.268 3.77 2.606 3.329 0.543 7.489 0. www.951 4.40 1. © American Society of Heating.65 1.130 0.64 15.1201 0.

1 2.0 3.0 Swing Check 1.1 2.2 1.8 1.8 1.2 2. © American Society of Heating.2 1.7 0.2 1. 2006.5 3.6 9.0 4.9 6.1 2.9 5.4 0.7 0.4 3.0 4.8 2.2 6. Chapter 2.8 2.4 7.2 0.5 1.0 180° Std 0.6 5.7 0.9 6.5 3.6 2.org..2 0.8 1.3 0.0 1.3 0.5 0.6 9.4 0.0 4.Table 31 .6 45° Std 0.1 3. Chapter 2.6 3.6 5.5 6.3 2.0 1.2 1.6 0.6 2.5 7.2 1.5 0.7 3.7 3.0 4. 2006.8 2.3 0.2 1.3 8.2 1.7 3.5 1.1 7.0 1.8 90° Street 0. Inc.0 1.6 9 12 15 18 Smooth Bend Tee Connections Straight Through Flow No Reduction 0.2 1.ashrae.1 1.5 2.7 4.3 0.7 8.0 1.0 4.0 4.0 4.7 3.6 6.1 Table 32 .5 0.6 0.8 2.8 0.8 11 13 14 18 21 26 32 40 Angle Valve 1.8 1.3 0.2 0.8 2.4 0. Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers. © American Society of Heating.8 1.6 9.0 1.0 4.1 7.4 7.3 0.2 5.7 4.0 1.6 10 13 15 Tee Branch Flow 0.2 0.5 1.Equivalent Length For Fittings (meters) 18 Smooth Elbows 90° Nominal Dia.org. www.3 8.4 2.6 0.1 Long Radius 0.2 6.1 10 12 15 18 24 30 37 Sight Glass Filter Drier Suction Filter ASHRAE Handbook Refrigeration.8 2.4 0.4 4.4 2.3 4.2 1.3 9. www.6 5.1 3.5 0.7 1.0 3.3 2.4 1.4 1.4 0.0 7.9 1.4 7.5 7.8 Reduced 25% 0.9 5.7 4.5 0.5 1.7 4. Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers.5 3.0 2.5 6.9 45° Street 0.8 12 13 17 21 26 30 37 43 52 62 85 98 60° Wye Valve 2.4 4.7 4..7 4.9 1.9 2.8 2.4 3.8 2.5 0.7 3.0 4.7 2.2 3. Application Guide AG 31-011 71 18 .1 7.0 1. Inc.6 5.9 2.73 0.5 7.1 7.4 0.8 1.ashrae.9 Reduced 50% 0.6 0.9 1. 12 15 22 28 35 42 54 67 79 90 105 130 156 206 257 300 90° Std 0.Equivalent Length For Valves And Refrigeration Devices (meters) 19 Nominal Dia. 19 ASHRAE Handbook Refrigeration.5 1.7 0.1 2.7 4.4 0.9 1.3 5.4 1.1 11 13 15 18 22 27 35 44 50 45° Wye Valve 1.6 5.5 0.1 2.8 1. 12 15 22 28 35 42 54 67 79 90 105 130 156 206 257 300 Globe Or Solenoid 5.0 1.7 0.6 0.0 3.5 0.7 1.9 6.0 2.4 1.0 2.5 3.0 4.8 11 13 14 18 21 26 32 40 Gate Valve 0.0 2.0 4.3 0.3 0.4 0.

95 8. 4.52 103.9 1.1 316.00 0.49 17.51 0. Pa/m Δt = corresponding change in saturation temperature.92 1.60 150.59 1.56 499.95 12.56 52.02 749 Liquid Values in Table 33 are based on 40°C condensing temperature. Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers. Condensing Temperature (°C) 20 30 40 50 Suction Line 1.04 378 -20oC 0.06 7.90 vel = 0.90 Discharge -20oC 0.15 2.46 24.32 26.34 0.16 0.88 1.75 1. 2006.00 178.27 42.64 365.68 117.0 11.20 36.08 233.96 18.51 14.98 3.59 84.04 366 5oC 0.05 170.26 7.23 103.49 66.3 919.2 1415.76 3.39 251.83 27.41 26.02 74.79 110.01 183 -40oC 0.11 Notes for Table 33: 1.25 2.52 167.37 90.49 4.9 721.66 42.39 0.50 157.00 1.56 17.00 7.71 15.org.59 15.51 215.2 1041.82 9.59 29.7 54. Inc.43 75.02 189 0.Table 33 .26 64.1 269.24 48.4 174.6 2. Saturation temperatures ΔT for other capacities and equivalent lengths Le 0.01 94.4 431.00 5.18 1.07 13.3 279.16 18.05 84.ashrae.80 161.66 44.67 2.69 159.3 794.0 7.08 145. K/m Line capacity for other saturation temperatures Δt and equivalent lengths Le ⎛ Table Le Actual Δt ⎞ ⎟ × Line Capacity = Table Capacity⎜ ⎜ Acutal L Table Δt ⎟ e ⎝ ⎠ 5.57 70.04 572 -5oC 0.2 527. Table Capacities are in kilowatts of refrigeration.14 1.54 37.0 0.34 37.45 4.9 376.88 44.85 10.39 8.5 977.9 4697.6 0.17 89.60 4.01 143 0.0 2190. Δp = pressure drop per unit equivalent length of line.08 0.56 2.31 61.91 5.07 29.91 Discharge Line 0.66 1.73 4.5 247.24 21.0 458.04 148.84 122.50 6.15 27.20 2.22 45.89 51.69 31. www.10 344.8 21.31 20.10 1.30 4.30 4.44 4.02 189 0.21 58.99 26.81 94.8 0.89 2. © American Society of Heating.06 15.48 69.02 74.34 1.5 m/s 0.7 2.80 0.9 312.79 100. 2.3 337.3 488.2 297.59 13.02 74.18 131.7 399.0 240.90 5oC 0.37 5.48 12.R-22 Refrigerant Line Sizing Table (kW) 20 Suction SST ΔT (K/m) Δp (Pa/m) OD (mm) 12 15 18 22 28 35 42 54 67 79 105 0.14 10. 72 Application Guide AG 31-011 20 .70 3. 3.37 7.03 79.98 25.43 2. Chapter 2.5 672.65 8.2 0. Multiply table capacities by the following factors for other condensing temperatures.97 1..87 1.55 ⎛ Actual Le Δt = Table Δt ⎜ ⎜ Table L e ⎝ ⎞⎛ Actual Capacity ⎞ ⎟⎜ ⎟ ⎟⎜ Table Capacity ⎟ ⎠ ⎠⎝ 1.03 61.95 10.82 1.8 ASHRAE Handbook Refrigeration.04 4.08 11.7 218.02 286 0.

02 243 0.74 3.3 20.org.0 6.92 1.1 99.6 122.0 715.11 2.0 213.02 278 0. Multiply table capacities by the following factors for other condensing temperatures.02 538 10oC 0.61 9.3 22.62 1.46 8.5 m/s 0. Condensing Temperature (°C) 20 30 40 50 Suction Line 1.04 6.0 226.31 13.0 1.Table 34 .0 321.69 3.7 64.01 9.7 19.42 7.1 38.0 253. Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers.0 3580.81 16.07 3.20 2.43 2.682 0.55 ⎛ Actual Le Δt = Table Δt ⎜ ⎜ Table L e ⎝ ⎞⎛ Actual Capacity ⎞ ⎟⎜ ⎟ ⎟⎜ Table Capacity ⎟ ⎠ ⎠⎝ 1.5 35.02 538 Discharge 0oC 0.01 136 -10oC 0.43 0.5 183.0 541.0 0.50 16.0 262.84 3.120 1.60 5.0 618.51 10.0 1080.0 217.30 28.04 487 5oC 0.63 1.19 2.0 8.0 176.0 1.0 208.0 686.72 3.0 122.4 64. 2.8 23.4 79.21 15.91 1.0 454.77 15.0 1.0 1.4 95.33 2.4 84.4 22.2 61.0 1670.5 54.4 36.0 379.0 335.0 Values in Table 34 are based on 40°C condensing temperature. Chapter 2.0 346.82 1.50 12.888 Discharge Line 0.6 59.0 0.03 5.9 95.23 5.51 6.1 44.5 32.0 177.69 7.0 375. Application Guide AG 31-011 73 21 .0 0.01 106 0.5 41.69 6.0 0.04 425 0oC 0.2 26.02 538 vel = 0.0 0. Table Capacities are in kilowatts of refrigeration.54 4..99 1.52 5.0 147.09 10.02 212 0.34 10.3 37.0 117.ashrae.3 44.8 113.09 3.3 30.0 248.51 0.77 3.9 53.53 4.2 164. 2006.0 1. © American Society of Heating.37 5.6 16.110 Notes for Table 34: 1.0 78. Pa/m Δt = corresponding change in saturation temperature.7 21.0 744.04 555 10oC 0.4 101.87 19.12 3.8 ASHRAE Handbook Refrigeration.0 24.0 77.02 538 Liquid 0.1 46.0 260.6 19.01 121 0. Inc.5 92.24 13.40 10.0 64.85 10.3 181.0 1.0 605.239 1. Saturation temperatures ΔT for other capacities and equivalent lengths Le 0. www. 3.76 1.1 18.0 304.0 217.1 63.0 0.3 122.66 7.7 65. K/m Line capacity for other saturation temperatures Δt and equivalent lengths Le ⎛ Table Le Actual Δt ⎞ Line Capacity = Table Capacity⎜ ⎜ Acutal L × Table Δt ⎟ ⎟ e ⎝ ⎠ 5. Δp = pressure drop per unit equivalent length of line.0 315.3 28.R-134a Refrigerant Line Size Table (kW) 21 Suction SST ΔT (K/m) Δp (Pa/m) OD (mm) 12 15 18 22 28 35 42 54 67 79 105 0.02 11. 4.856 1.4 115.5 39.2 160.0 0.1 127.4 32.76 3.40 50.0 349.45 2.3 138.

98 137.16 384.9 14.31 12.20 2.57 2.41 92.78 267.2 91.40 2.42 82.82 25.22 4. 2.61 11.55 70.1 Discharge -5oC 0.02 1172.0 1746.01 223.37 9.000 0.5 m/s 2 1179 Liquid 1. 4.07 7.62 139.6 495.28 27.37 1519.28 133.48 102.45 4.96 1.3 83.15 29. 74 Application Guide AG 31-011 22 .8 ASHRAE Handbook Refrigeration.40 756.26 147.19 16.8 0.26 22.org.657 0.4 23.6 5oC 0.73 4.69 6.65 8.00 7.50 184.89 23.75 13.70 79.84 7.59 1119.38 33.0 163.03 97.99 46.00 13.84 131.867 Discharge Line 0.1 5oC 0. 3.68 4.6 0.05 3.15 3.83 0.02 1172.02 1172.5 39. © American Society of Heating.000 1.20 2.09 20.82 1.10 119.74 15.2 332.34 158.53 109.2 5744.1 0.20 43.19 5.238 1.39 7.02 568.16 23.65 820.75 97.83 5.83 3.11 58. Chapter 2.89 140.98 7.91 253.33 234.32 2.7 299.R-410A Refrigerant Line Size Table 22 Suction SST ΔT (K/m) Δp (Pa/m) OD (mm) 12 15 18 22 28 35 42 54 67 79 105 -20oC 0.06 480.4 2695.66 67.2 47.31 2.01 149.39 490.2 10.42 23.1 vel = 0. Table Capacities are in kilowatts of refrigeration.44 1579.41 0.20 1.04 1137.73 713.01 284.ashrae.67 22.02 191.4 -20oC 0.86 3.07 1.33 42.90 6.73 365.02 488.53 4. 2006.2 -5oC 0.51 17.3 153.02 447.1 15.117 Notes for Table 35: 1.95 19.4 Values in Table 35 are based on 40°C condensing temperature.866 1. Pa/m Δt = corresponding change in saturation temperature.76 276.41 11.44 28.53 46.93 741.82 395. Inc.10 236.6 0.28 6.1 0. Condensing Temperature (°C) 20 30 40 50 Suction Line 1.82 70. K/m Line capacity for other saturation temperatures Δt and equivalent lengths Le ⎛ Table Le Actual Δt ⎞ Line Capacity = Table Capacity⎜ ⎜ Acutal L × Table Δt ⎟ ⎟ e ⎝ ⎠ 5. Multiply table capacities by the following factors for other condensing temperatures.7 238.33 525.11 163.00 83.87 260.51 11.84 340.04 599.08 45.29 249.29 3.31 84.03 1610.8 0.30 6.76 11.23 541.94 3.32 32. Saturation temperatures ΔT for other capacities and equivalent lengths Le 0.88 39.122 1.92 57.22 172.19 40.81 9.2 592.3 62.38 778.56 49.94 229.55 ⎛ Actual Le Δt = Table Δt ⎜ ⎜ Table L e ⎝ ⎞⎛ Actual Capacity ⎞ ⎟⎜ ⎟ ⎟⎜ Table Capacity ⎟ ⎠ ⎠⎝ 1.32 1.82 1.27 338.75 67.04 894.43 42.02 299.04 569.7 982.64 0.Table 35 .56 1.80 462.06 271.3 27. Δp = pressure drop per unit equivalent length of line..60 13.30 16. www. Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers.

Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers.org.44 0.845 1.61 4.23 224. Inc.47 93.68 232.96 6.40 6.01 140.01 183.16 14.6 345. Application Guide AG 31-011 75 23 .40 332.8 68.80 1.70 5.71 8. 4.8 813.78 147.72 3.35 184.58 2.66 4.75 57.2 1446.59 126.. Multiply table capacities by the following factors for other condensing temperatures.61 5.85 54.3 38.70 9.81 987.0 4783.Table 36 .51 10. Δp = pressure drop per unit equivalent length of line.0 24. Condensing Temperature (°C) 20 30 40 50 Suction Line 1.58 1.04 45.86 13.19 2.67 9.2 134.43 463.53 2.76 39.06 0.52 15.9 -5oC 0.01 89.04 561.26 6.56 2.14 101.2 616.66 1078.7 94.02 799.9 Liquid 0.82 31.24 51. 3.13 300.20 2.2 409. © American Society of Heating.02 179.5 0.06 1.04 734.8 ASHRAE Handbook Refrigeration.78 3.15 8.9 159.63 1.5 m/s 2 854. K/m Line capacity for other saturation temperatures Δt and equivalent lengths Le ⎛ Table Le Actual Δt ⎞ Line Capacity = Table Capacity⎜ ⎜ Acutal L × Table Δt ⎟ ⎟ e ⎝ ⎠ 5.39 479.24 3.10 1.605 0.91 128.20 2.27 100.91 15.81 1.17 2.85 3. Table Capacities are in kilowatts of refrigeration.02 799.90 23.62 145.38 323.79 317.59 59.30 0.18 506.65 90.59 0.02 367.32 70. 2006.98 8.52 117.5 40. www.12 108.63 15.02 281 0.8 vel = 0.103 1.67 30. Saturation temperatures ΔT for other capacities and equivalent lengths Le 0.33 155.69 85.76 690.74 157.12 81.84 21.9 19.7 22.5 16.9 64.00 1.76 82.71 4.891 Discharge Line 0.R-407C Refrigerant Line Size Table (kW) 23 Suction SST ΔT (K/m) Δp (Pa/m) OD (mm) 12 15 18 22 28 35 42 54 67 79 105 -20oC 0.50 56.46 169.47 4.04 358. Pa/m Δt = corresponding change in saturation temperature.59 490.89 6.94 209.80 0.63 38.76 25.27 5.133 Notes for Table 36: 1.53 6.5 10. Chapter 2.34 28.50 0.36 28.47 11.16 29.8 Discharge -5oC 0.2 11.97 13.48 2.1 0.25 87.17 3.55 ⎛ Actual Le Δt = Table Δt ⎜ ⎜ Table L e ⎝ ⎞⎛ Actual Capacity ⎞ ⎟⎜ ⎟ ⎟⎜ Table Capacity ⎟ ⎠ ⎠⎝ 1.55 1.ashrae.85 1.84 81.9 Values in Table 36 are based on 40°C condensing temperature.56 13.66 35.17 186.54 24.02 799.3 0.06 28.3 5oC 0.78 1.8 2239.76 328.5 0.18 41.17 9.28 3.8 41.30 1043.32 56.45 17.8 247. 2.71 485.24 2.97 59.6 0.7 247.65 1.34 178.202 1.33 227.8 5oC 0.62 337.29 17.37 270.09 0.84 56.6 -20oC 0.82 7.000 1.78 9.98 19.000 0.

449 140.321 5.748 14. www.655 0.676 0.342 4.292 48.954 50.274 0.388 2.235 31.223 3.217 28 1.112 10.019 16.041 1.247 1.484 0.938 5.487 21.535 10.200 19.168 37.565 18.681 85.258 16.921 3.213 7.731 40.347 3.393 4.791 8.026 33.173 0.993 183.264 0.161 130 93.ashrae.184 45.238 0.881 28 2.027 79 26.302 225.414 87.680 6.471 183.325 7.431 1.600 44.546 10.357 0.065 139.08 50 0.393 0.555 1.354 0..464 9.10 50 0.168 3.470 0. For other liquid line temperatures.898 152.057 2.D.867 2.197 172. Inc.168 0.667 20. (mm) 42 5.790 8.069 54 9.91 Table 38 .695 3. 76 Application Guide AG 31-011 24 .638 3.924 67.425 25.640 67 25.977 9.081 25.792 7.164 72.720 2.862 0.854 34.657 18 0.977 55.129 42.317 0.389 0.Table 37 .. Chapter 2.371 15.617 56.817 1.583 10.401 21.353 115.907 0.440 0.672 2.841 0.882 25.468 2.615 0.org.884 241.813 1.098 162.894 135.244 4.856 52.509 125.006 139.502 0.963 14.468 19.89 ASHRAE Handbook Refrigeration.173 80.63 1.098 33.335 0.ashrae.456 53.913 0.246 60.141 1.356 1.847 121.811 24.576 35 4.848 4.756 0.617 86.956 2.476 Pipe O.532 0.080 41.936 4.479 109.642 199.537 4.535 20.935 1.433 1.136 1.560 63.527 0.307 0.203 4.243 54 15. 25 ASHRAE Handbook Refrigeration.317 0.874 1.380 17.115 116.577 41. Chapter 2.273 0.370 2.526 6.248 22.189 49.287 0.843 25.488 125.224 130 140.311 2.815 1. (mm) 42 7.562 3.582 0.370 0.206 5.369 0.885 0.941 14.792 30.345 Pipe O.226 37.185 15.732 0.771 24. Inc.283 39.273 0.501 0. 2006.861 2.033 0.155 24.447 2.239 25.264 0.104 22 1.075 11.440 13.099 37.419 88. © American Society of Heating.883 6.721 0.058 36.301 22 0.940 33.956 0. Liquid Temperature (°C) 20 1.804 7.422 15 0.100 1.245 0.234 14.840 0.198 1.R-134a Minimum Capacity For Suction Riser (kW) 25 Saturated Suction Temp (°C) Suction Gas Temp (°C) -35 -10 -25 -15 -15 -5 -5 5 0 5 10 20 10 10 20 30 12 0.387 130.692 4.678 3.665 105 53.827 4.774 18 0.386 1. 2006.org.679 0.724 2.732 2.131 13.957 6.412 94.826 7.254 105.844 0.436 0.809 78.806 80.499 189.485 0.204 9.723 1. use correction factors in the following table.807 0.761 1.695 70.010 6.896 216.634 3.441 12. www.823 99.17 30 1.182 0.621 6.843 31.582 12.296 0.195 51.650 0.516 0.126 23.978 1.006 13.R-22 Minimum Capacity For Suction Riser (kW) 24 Saturated Suction Temp (°C) Suction Gas Temp (°C) -35 -40 -25 -15 -15 -20 -5 5 0 -5 10 20 10 5 20 30 12 0.D.929 201.287 1. Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers.240 109.254 105.543 0.929 78.500 0. © American Society of Heating.879 3. Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers.437 1.141 67 14.856 9.449 1.880 1.749 106.963 51.136 181.232 10.306 20.486 105 81.450 0.213 35 3.334 0.957 23.971 79 39.467 7.519 28.291 19.713 0.674 6.944 1.891 Refrigeration capacity in kilowatts is based on saturated evaporator as shown in table and condensing o temperature of 40 C.20 30 1.675 Refrigeration capacity in kilowatts is based on saturated evaporator as shown in table and condensing o temperature of 40 C.358 15 0.555 11.561 0.643 189.340 35.967 5.555 6.087 4.929 51.794 7.888 27. use correction factors in the following table.211 1. For other liquid line temperatures.834 4.250 35.092 1.275 8.559 39.006 147.508 1. Liquid Temperature (°C) 20 1.102 135.

86 6.21 61.26 2.26 12.3 225.1 92 140.R-407C Minimum Capacity For Suction Riser (kW) Saturated Suction Temp (°C) -17 -7 5 Suction Gas Temp (°C) -12 -12 -12 12 0.5 105 152.527 0.72 Table 40 .05 32 1.93 3.70 38.53 79 73.07 30.60 5.D.6 161.4 178.18 79 93.97 43.77 60 0.67 3.37 3.6 14.7 105 196.1 18.113 1.86 76.) Liquid Temperature (°C) 27 1.66 67 60.44 97.25 86.601 15 0.74 Application Guide AG 31-011 77 .00 54.38 10.99 54 26.95 43 0.75 28 5. (Table data based on line size pressure drop formula shown on page 2. Multiply table capacities by the following factors for other liquid line temperatures.83 54 0.05 32 1.1 Refrigeration capacity in tons is based on 32°C liquid temperature and superheat as indicated by the listed temperature.586 0.275 1.) Liquid Temperature (°C) 27 1.D.2 181.7 205.850 0.8 21.406 18 1.4 128.R-410A Minimum Capacity For Suction Riser (kW) Saturated Suction Temp (°C) -17 -7 5 Suction Gas Temp (°C) -12 -12 -12 12 0.86 92 108.42 6.62 Pipe O.05 28 4.4 123.9 146.06 9.19 42 16.450 1.90 49 0.8 108.17 of ASHRAE Handbook Refrigeration 2006.143 18 1.344 2.77 35.699 1. (Table data based on line size pressure drop formula shown on page 2. (mm) 35 10.1 54 33.94 16.15 Pipe O. (mm) 35 8.905 2.403 22 2.Table 39 .17 of ASHRAE Handbook Refrigeration 2006.6 252.80 60 0.747 15 1.00 38 0.674 0. Multiply table capacities by the following factors for other liquid line temperatures.0 13.36 68.89 7.94 43 0.90 49 0.00 38 0.16 67 46.934 22 2.0 Refrigeration capacity in tons is based on 32°C liquid temperature and superheat as indicated by the listed temperature.447 0.8 42 12.85 54 0.996 1.

687 15.916 237.535 0.882 181.399 4.322 79 67.624 o 67 44.547 10.732 86.785 27.281 14.587 2.087 13. 2006. and condensing temperature as shown in table. Chapter 2.941 35 9.565 0.649 31.208 81.903 1.90 -30 0.552 33.062 0.788 40.263 173.601 0.R-134a Minimum Capacity For Discharge Riser (kW) 27 Saturated Discharge Temp (°C) Discharge Gas Temp (°C) 60 20 70 80 70 30 80 90 80 40 90 100 90 50 100 110 12 0.740 30..897 48.374 2.979 8. 2006.588 238.Table 41 .885 42.445 1.473 17.611 0.140 17.001 5.681 4.605 27.D.945 5. and condensing temperature as shown in table.584 0.474 54.735 151.254 9. www.870 48.469 0.006 .560 232.619 5.156 1.092 1.531 58.332 68.881 2.0982 1.805 7.546 47. Saturated Suction Temperature (°C) -50 0.830 6.853 1.588 171.507 0.918 2485.06 ASHRAE Handbook Refrigeration. 27 ASHRAE Handbook Refrigeration.554 16.766 57.512 64.103 1.358 1.671 145.514 2.048 48.328 141.857 18 1. © American Society of Heating.580 87.011 25.698 18.441 0.859 30.951 46.780 305.343 5.573 1.209 3.018 34.829 0.849 0.035 1.334 61.393 1.790 0.020 17.756 4.020 252.904 162.918 4.071 1. Saturated Suction Temperature (°C) -50 -40 -30 -20 0 1.050 130.635 6.285 137. Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers.343 11. Inc.278 Pipe O.02 10 - Table 42 .314 2.812 66.066 260.260 4.291 6.779 5.901 53.834 22 2.032 1.477 0.431 0.305 7.717 9.493 0.590 130 240.121 1.969 9.926 14.477 5.851 76.310 3.467 130 288.465 0.466 27.513 5.007 8.454 28 4.696 138.ashrae.523 313.067 3.563 1.847 32.884 1.480 8.493 Refrigeration capacity in kilowatts is based on saturated evaporator at -5 C.248 25.596 0.852 0. For other liquid line temperatures.386 183.131 88.709 24.382 59.480 10.722 43.242 3. Inc. www.735 1.761 56. (mm) 42 13.630 0.532 105 116.364 54 25.690 13.779 4.96 0 5 1.921 Refrigeration capacity in kilowatts is based on saturated evaporator at -5 C.org. use correction factors in the following table.261 2.808 0.510 0.938 281.311 14.157 3.831 85.396 63.878 0.726 8. © American Society of Heating.794 26.647 10.496 13.346 32.93 -20 0.682 158.132 1.052 150.061 4.87 -40 0.668 127.759 73.860 0.479 0.702 2970190 289.773 316.D.430 2.037 8.563 0.467 15 0.830 46.718 226..093 4.173 105 139.092 18 0.630 173.189 16.665 35 8.469 41.184 44.502 2.403 83. For other liquid line temperatures.836 1.162 10.196 8.77 2 239.563 17.740 1.964 3.973 26.452 0.173 186.163 6.122 25.227 9.595 15 0. 78 Application Guide AG 31-011 26 .933 85.040 2.874 0.800 1.125 28 5.443 261.930 0.100 5.480 66.225 134.624 13.959 32.603 299.027 50.org.469 1.R-22 Minimum Capacity For Discharge Riser (kW) 26 Saturated Discharge Temp (°C) Discharge Gas Temp (°C) 60 20 70 80 70 30 80 90 80 40 90 100 90 50 100 110 12 0. use correction factors in the following table.540 Pipe O.209 176.662 2.463 0.881 70. Chapter 2.462 2.791 323.956 2. Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers.671 167.069 178.5494 0.589 13.943 1.078 29.327 1.009 55.298 4.426 1.476 1.441 22 2.408 12.096 137.702 305.232 19.435 79 80.600 12.503 32.04 10 1.936 0.432 1.371 24.016 54 30.811 67.650 1.ashrae.028 16.439 2.385 45.207 221.627 o 67 43.579 0.519 1.02 5 1.591 83.305 17.785 1.823 10.811 3.936 90.618 0.922 308.691 1.998 10.127 3.863 68.075 45.402 44.377 52.934 10.948 33.296 141.094 15.904 0. (mm) 42 16.679 2.439 8.726 176.242 244.974 72.637 5.159 23.626 8.

For other saturated suction temperatures with -10 C superheat.79 88.1 42 26.4 Pipe O.5 20.45 o 79 119.160 1.839 3.2 11.) Saturated Suction Temperature (°C) -18 0.4 o 67 85.28 18 3.727 3.034 5.231 15 2.590 5.887 5.050 1.15 2.7 42 30.9 27.3 215.89 77. use correction factors in the following table.306 3.36 91.9 304. (mm) 35 17.8 28.54 43.1 17. (mm) 35 19.14 79.94 4 1.98 18 3.9 145.98 4 1.082 15 1.06 Table 44 .8 92 178.195 1.96 -7 0.5 49.87 1.) Saturated Suction Temperature (°C) -18 0.82 45.406 22 4.1 20.17 of ASHRAE Handbook Refrigeration 2006.1 105 251. (Table data based on line size pressure drop formula shown on page 2.7 189.1 10.14 o 67 74.8 31.21 2.6 54 42.81 10.02 o 79 136. (Table data based on line size pressure drop formula shown on page 2.6 123.8 Refrigeration capacity in tons based on saturated suction temperature of 4 C with -10 C superheat at indicated o o saturated condensing temperature with -10 C sub-cooling.6 11. For other saturated suction temperatures with -10 C superheat.90 -7 0.6 18.02 Application Guide AG 31-011 79 .954 22 5.1 126.0 258.D.00 16 1.185 28 9.3 183.210 3.3 Refrigeration capacity in tons based on saturated suction temperature of 4 C with -10 C superheat at indicated o o saturated condensing temperature with -10 C sub-cooling.Table 43 – R-410A minimum Capacity For Discharge Riser (kW) Saturated Suction Temp (°C) 27 38 49 Discharge Temp (°C) 60 71 82 12 1.8 140.9 51.92 1.D.3 295.020 1.6 54 48.00 16 1.2 209.6 105 287.1 92 203. use correction factors in the following table.758 5.931 28 11.9 Pipe O.7 32.R-407C Minimum Capacity For Discharge Riser (kW) Saturated Suction Temp (°C) 27 38 49 Discharge Temp (°C) 60 71 82 12 1.6 266.17 of ASHRAE Handbook Refrigeration 2006.

94 12.35 kg/m 0.79 20.83 1.87 2.29 3.61 3 o Refrigerant weight per 30.16 27.72 8.29 1.56 C 1120.5 meters of Pipe) Line Size OD mm 12 15 22 28 35 42 54 67 79 92 105 130 156 206 Flow Area mm 94 151 312 532 811 1148 2519 3079 4935 5944 7727 12042 17311 30238 2 Suction Line 4.01 105.15 80.79 kg/m 3.15 5.57 10.05 1032.69 39.42 0.56°C condensing temperature.5 meters of Pipe) Line Size OD mm 12 15 22 28 35 42 54 67 79 92 105 130 156 206 Flow Area mm 94 151 312 532 811 1148 2519 3079 4935 5944 7727 12042 17311 30238 2 Suction Line 4.53 3. Table 46 .85 22.50 3 o Liquid Line 40.41 5.49 202.90 3 o Refrigerant weight per 30. 80 Application Guide AG 31-011 .R-22 Refrigerant Charge (kg Per 30.43 259.47 17.07 10.06 6.59 1.73 8.66 4.42 2.65 kg/m 0.10 46.44 C 16.Table 45 .56 C 1100.25 0.76 3.16 10. and 4.85 20.60 0.05 3.48 16.82 kg/m 0.30 40.07 0.5 meters of pipe is based on 40.82 1014.15 591.23 26.91 8.44°C saturated suction temperature.94 263.23 0.26 404.16 0.39 0.52 103.03 580.21 5.11 0.13 168.16 3.31 165.85 27.87 15.17 kg/m 3.55 3 o Discharge Line 60 C 111. 60°C discharge temperature.81 2.44 C 24.96 6.08 0.98 58.20 86.41 3 o Discharge Line 60 C 87. 60°C discharge temperature.05 0.44°C saturated suction temperature.58 199.21 38. and 4.91 102.40 0.52 84.06 1.R-134a Refrigerant Charge (kg Per 30.17 8.65 18.82 411.60 32.21 13.56°C condensing temperature.85 1.16 15.44 3 o Liquid Line 40.32 0.5 meters of pipe is based on 40.51 1.58 2.46 kg/m 0.27 0.

26 0.30 8.91 3.16 0.44 0.29 36.5 meters of pipe is based on 40.56 C 934.82 25.38 9.61 169.77 9.98 7.54 4.5 meters of pipe is based on 40.41 8.16 343.99 18.28 24. and 4.51 97.71 71.11 493.90 380.90 6.24 2.05 15.46 18.64 1.77 187.44 C 27.73 140.07 kg/m 0.90 30.56 C 1035.58 3 o Refrigerant weight per 30.56 3 o Discharge Line 60 C 201.72 3.32 6.5 meters of Pipe) Line Size OD mm 12 15 22 28 35 42 54 67 79 92 105 130 156 206 Flow Area mm 94 151 312 532 811 1148 2519 3079 4935 5944 7727 12042 17311 30238 2 Suction Line 4.40 0.63 3 o Liquid Line 40.07 32.Table 47 .24 79.16 23.07 4. and 4.24 861.77 87.34 12. 60°C discharge temperature.11 32.24 185.12 0.63 12.42 73. Application Guide AG 31-011 81 .94 14.34 0.32 2. Table 48 .44 C 35.32 5.10 546.80 kg/m 2.46 3 o Discharge Line 60 C 138.42 954.56°C condensing temperature.48 47.62 243.89 15.56 3 o Refrigerant weight per 30.44°C saturated suction temperature.56°C condensing temperature.79 25.40 kg/m 0.08 2.R-410A Refrigerant Charge (kg Per 30.88 1.95 2.42 4.90 106.57 0.36 220. 60°C discharge temperature.85 16.44°C saturated suction temperature.80 73.40 kg/m 0.10 0.68 32.99 20.67 0.60 36.08 0.19 155.97 4.R-407C Refrigerant Charge (kg Per 30.95 3 o Liquid Line 40.59 kg/m 2.5 meters of Pipe) Line Size OD mm 12 15 22 28 35 42 54 67 79 92 105 130 156 206 Flow Area mm 94 151 312 532 811 1148 2519 3079 4935 5944 7727 12042 17311 30238 2 Suction Line 4.93 1.60 50.03 127.35 kg/m 0.84 10.26 4.24 3.68 4.58 0.

14 1.58 1.70 1.96 0.85 1.91 0.37 1.84 0.22 1.66 1.01 1.8 Suction Temperature (°C) -12.97 2.88 0.62 1.19 2.05 2.11 1.18 1.34 1.37 4.0 62.02 1.21 1.00 1.82 0.80 0.18 1.15 1.R-22 Suction Gas Velocity Figure 29 is based on 4.24 1.89 0.05 1.5 0.39 1.30 1.43 1.6 43.7 1.36 1.20 1.5 32.42 1.92 0.80 1.27 -9.54 1.00 1.93 0.24 1.25 7.78 0.2 35.04 1.1 48.67 1.51 1.54 1.89 1.04 -6.85 0.94 1.25 1.12 1.50 1.67 -1.04 82 Application Guide AG 31-011 .33 1. Table 49 .51 1.7 1.21 1.10 1.63 1.07 1.29 1.99 2.91 1.5 57.14 10.02 1.9 1.79 1.98 1.05 1.30 1.7 54.95 0.12 2.86 0.75 1.4 1.38 1.0 37.76 0.3 60.46 1.48 1.84 -3.4 46.1 1.01 1.47 1.95 0.83 0.92 0.9 51.07 1.58 1.98 1.61 1.75 1.13 1.27 1.2 0.73 1.8 40.15 1.33 1. For other conditions.0 0.87 0.78 1.R-22 Suction Gas Velocity Correction Factors Cond Temp (°C) 29.10 1.43 1.67 1.46 1.94 0.2 1.34 1.10 1.4°C Suction temperature and 41°C condensing temperature.40 1. apply correction factors from Table 49.71 1.Figure 29 .08 1.84 1.90 0.98 1.63 1.17 1.52 1.27 1.56 1.

93 0.19 1.80 0.33 7.44 2.47 1.7 1.0 62.86 -1.19 10.76 1.00 1.06 1.21 1.65 1.66 1.R-134a Suction Gas Velocity Figure 30 is based on 4.08 2.2 1.53 1.26 2.Figure 30 .1 1.97 2.15 1.06 1.18 1.76 0.25 1.9 1.92 2.5 57.2 35. For other conditions.25 1.42 1.99 1.35 1.56 1.87 1.16 2. apply correction factors from Table 50.18 2.37 1.95 0.6 43.15 1.93 2.10 2.84 0.27 1.2 0.3 60.03 1.14 1.52 1.32 1.4 1.1 48.00 1.47 1.7 1.29 1.90 0.00 2.7 54.91 0.71 1.04 2.48 4.18 1.44 1.03 1.26 2.61 1.92 0.43 1.75 1.74 0.09 -3.10 1.33 1.37 1.85 1.07 1.10 1.99 1.00 2.65 1.70 1.81 1.59 1.86 0.8 Suction Temperature (°C) -12.78 1.23 1.59 1.82 0.5 32.90 0.98 1.78 1.66 1.14 1.96 0.12 1.86 1.55 2.66 -9.R-134a Suction Gas Velocity Correction Factors Cond Temp (°C) 29.4 46.8 40.42 1.91 1.40 1.0 37.28 1.4°C Suction temperature and 41°C condensing temperature.04 1.61 1.56 1.72 1.96 0.53 1.36 -6.23 1.39 1.07 Application Guide AG 31-011 83 .32 1.0 0.09 1.82 0.03 1.81 1.12 1.27 1.5 0. Table 50 .84 0.87 0.93 0.48 1.35 2.88 0.77 0.9 51.

69 1.45 1.17 1.02 2.R-410A Suction Gas Velocity Correction Factors Cond Temp (°C) 29.7 54.51 1.68 1.0 62.36 1.47 1.93 2.75 0.62 1.86 0.4 46.23 -6.48 1.22 1.81 0.83 0.19 1.5 32.5 0.10 1.01 1.08 1.31 1.07 1.7 1.33 1.24 1.44 1.97 1.2 35.73 1.5 57. Table 51 .38 1.43 1.03 1.36 7.38 1.01 1.2 1.57 1.06 2.58 1.48 -9.53 1.94 0.86 0.0 37.89 0.67 1.77 0.84 0.50 4.13 1.04 1.89 0.08 1.03 1.60 1.13 1.29 1. For other conditions.91 0.82 1.29 1.25 1.18 1.64 1.79 0.92 0. apply correction factors from Table 51.42 1.37 1.92 0.21 1.13 84 Application Guide AG 31-011 .24 10.14 2.79 1.21 1.82 0.74 1.24 2.7 0.91 2.1 48.46 1.04 1.62 1.0 0.3 60.95 0.98 2.79 1.90 0.8 Suction Temperature (°C) -12.1 1.99 1.4 1.24 1.91 1.8 40.82 -1.R-410A Suction Gas Velocity Figure 31 is based on 4.10 1.75 1.73 1.19 1.52 1.Figure 31 .00 1.2 0.4°C Suction temperature and 41°C condensing temperature.85 1.01 -3.95 0.08 1.86 1.50 1.97 1.31 1.9 51.98 1.17 1.6 43.12 2.65 1.57 1.11 1.35 2.42 1.30 1.33 1.56 1.34 1.65 1.26 1.07 1.9 1.14 1.14 1.

82 1.35 1.93 0.78 0.77 1.90 0.02 1.97 2.4°C Suction temperature and 41°C condensing temperature.72 1.91 1.5 57.R-407C Suction Gas Velocity Figure 32 is based on 4.59 1.13 2.38 1.22 1.86 1.29 2.38 2.04 2.07 1.10 1.77 1.15 1.62 1.2 1. apply correction factors from Table 52.17 1.26 1.03 1.88 0.2 35.31 1.1 48.72 1.4 1.42 1.50 1.48 1.75 0.99 1.99 1.23 -6.00 -3.10 1.32 7.95 0.15 1.49 -9.80 0.06 1.0 0.87 0.17 1.93 0.5 32.09 1.8 Suction Temperature (°C) -12.79 -1.03 1.80 1.29 1.82 0.21 1.19 10.34 1.7 1.28 1.2 0.57 1.83 0.76 1.34 1.06 1.49 1.7 0.78 1.49 1.46 1.98 2.43 1.90 0.43 1.8 40.75 1.38 1.1 1.92 0.Figure 32 .4 46.75 1.53 1.R-407C Suction Gas Velocity Correction Factors Cond Temp (°C) 29.90 1.00 1.84 0.04 1.59 1. Table 52 .86 0.72 1.96 0. For other conditions.24 1.55 1.40 1.21 1.08 Application Guide AG 31-011 85 .12 2.29 1.54 1.84 1.91 0.85 0.83 1.35 1.9 1.76 0.0 62.0 37.20 2.7 54.00 1.96 1.5 0.26 1.81 1.14 1.10 1.04 1.97 1.22 1.78 1.3 60.6 43.05 2.19 1.13 1.91 2.46 4.9 51.12 1.25 1.39 1.53 1.

63 87.4 46.58 76.91 0.06 1.78 0.72 0.74 0.94 0.79 0.79 0.60 82.19 1.79 0.22 1.9 51.28 1.66 93.79 0. For other conditions.84 0.6 1.08 1.8 40.17 1.02 0.1 48.89 0.86 0.81 0.8 1.86 0.69 0.63 0.55 71.01 0.93 0. apply correction factors from Table 53.75 0.84 0.20 1.0 1.59 0.67 0.68 99.80 0.96 0.23 1.5 57.88 0.03 0.42 1.39 1.95 0.1 1.07 1.R-22 Discharge Gas Velocity Figure 33 is based on 28°C discharge temperature and 5°C condensing temperature.91 0.3 1.76 0.01 0.2 35.86 0.33 1.76 86 Application Guide AG 31-011 . Table 53 R-22 Discharge Gas Velocity Correction Factors Cond Temp (°C) 29.0 62.65 0.28 1.77 0.2 1.71 104.64 0.89 0.3 60.72 0.07 1.8 Suction Temperature (°C) 65.0 37.67 0.73 0.5 32.25 1.72 0.62 0.21 1.5 1.7 54.31 1.26 1.82 0.81 0.37 1.91 0.97 0.70 0.81 0.99 0.92 0.13 1.25 1.14 1.77 0.73 110.06 1.84 0.12 1.05 0.98 0.84 0.70 0.86 0.6 43.91 0.96 0.74 0.10 1.82 0.4 1.11 1.12 1.10 1.68 0.14 1.96 0.04 0.00 0.18 1.87 0.93 0.Figure 33 .88 0.76 0.23 1.05 0.20 1.15 1.31 1.34 1.98 0.74 0.16 1.7 1.01 0.

For other conditions.25 1.70 0.07 1.92 0.57 0.02 0.63 0.66 104.8 Suction Temperature (°C) 65.83 0.71 Application Guide AG 31-011 87 .99 0.70 0.66 0.64 99.37 1.91 0.75 0.55 76.89 0.77 0.R-134a Discharge Gas Velocity Correction Factors Cond Temp (°C) 29.5 57.68 0.77 0.07 1.61 0.5 32.2 35.65 0.07 0.93 0.3 60.95 0.8 1.09 1.79 0.9 51.7 1.23 1.12 1.61 0.74 0.57 82.68 0.92 0.53 71.76 0.15 1.8 40.20 1.69 110.22 1.60 87.79 0.91 0.81 0.19 1.17 1.04 0.05 0.93 0.74 0.83 0.95 0.04 0.82 0.17 1.26 1.86 0.40 1.19 1.75 0.79 0.00 0.98 0.0 62. Table 54 .75 0.0 37.86 0.6 1.72 0.97 0.72 0.68 0.00 0.59 0.14 1.12 1.R-134a Discharge Gas Velocity Figure 34 is based on 28°C discharge temperature and 5°C condensing temperature.28 1.36 1.09 1.72 0.31 1.6 43.62 93.79 0.70 0.02 0.34 1.23 1.43 1.76 0.14 1.32 1.72 0.4 46.3 1.02 0.88 0.09 1.99 0.88 0.86 0.7 54.35 1.26 1.81 0.88 0.1 48.80 0.87 0.65 0.85 0.64 0.70 0.29 1.17 1.46 1.96 0.94 0.4 1.2 1.83 0.27 1.5 1.12 1. apply correction factors from Table 54.1 1.Figure 34 .84 0.0 1.

88 0.94 0.8 1.95 0.13 1.2 1.04 0.85 0.98 0.74 0.8 Suction Temperature (°C) 65.03 88 Application Guide AG 31-011 .16 1.94 0.99 0.86 0.1 48.2 35.32 1.80 0.01 0.91 0.75 0.64 0. Table 55 .23 1.5 1.77 0.22 1.69 0.9 51.15 1.67 76.01 0.19 1.93 0.29 1.1 1.96 0.87 0.87 99. apply correction factors from Table 55.91 0.67 0.29 1.13 1.91 0.82 0.07 1.10 1.00 0.82 93.02 0.71 0.95 0.R-410A Discharge Gas Velocity Correction Factors Cond Temp (°C) 29.80 0.81 0.73 0.3 1.0 1.4 46.77 0.0 37.95 0.3 60.87 0.88 0.81 0.13 1.01 0.84 0.17 1.R-410A Discharge Gas Velocity Figure 35 is based on 28°C discharge temperature and 5°C condensing temperature.04 1.11 1.91 0.32 1.97 0.10 1.17 1.25 1.35 1.00 0.96 0.25 1.87 0.91 0.10 1.93 0.07 1.03 1.95 0.04 0.5 57. For other conditions.84 0.Figure 35 .6 43.03 1.78 0.05 1.00 1.6 1.98 110.08 1.8 40.73 0.97 0.7 54.19 1.85 0.98 0.22 1.07 1.77 0.77 87.7 1.72 82.13 1.16 1.5 32.10 1.99 0.4 1.70 0.79 0.26 1.93 104.97 0.06 1.20 1.92 0.61 71.90 0.90 0.0 62.07 1.99 1.83 0.20 1.84 0.39 1.87 0.01 0.

17 1.69 0.1 1.96 0.38 1.58 76.32 1.20 1. Table 56 .4 46.97 0.84 Application Guide AG 31-011 89 .91 0.92 0.89 0.90 0.03 0.16 1.R-407C Discharge Gas Velocity Figure 36 is based on 28°C discharge temperature and 5°C condensing temperature.66 0.62 82.08 1.62 0.2 35.66 0.95 0.6 43.5 57.14 1.82 0.8 Suction Temperature (°C) 65.29 1.69 0.02 0.85 0.73 0.15 1.99 0.14 1.03 0.86 0.12 1.88 0.97 0.20 1.0 37.91 0.10 1.92 0.83 0.27 1.7 1.35 1.23 1.2 1.26 1.3 60.09 1.99 0.79 0.84 0.20 1.95 0.86 0.02 0.86 0.80 110.82 0. For other conditions.73 99.08 1.1 48.41 1.19 1.97 0.96 0.02 0.55 71.24 1.6 1.93 0.8 40.80 0.11 1.76 0.11 1.5 32.80 0.05 0.05 1.81 0.70 0.17 1.79 0.33 1.94 0.9 51.5 1.05 0.59 0.77 104.71 0.66 87.0 62.79 0.83 0.82 0.13 1.30 1.8 1.17 1.3 1.23 1.22 1.85 0.73 0.00 0.26 1.00 0.87 0.88 0.77 0.7 54.76 0.08 1.79 0.R-407C Discharge Gas Velocity Correction Factors Cond Temp (°C) 29.76 0.69 93.72 0.94 0.67 0.74 0.0 1.85 0.63 0.91 0.88 0.76 0.Figure 36 . apply correction factors from Table 56.89 0.99 0.4 1.06 1.

Notes 90 Application Guide AG 31-011 .

Application Guide AG 31-011 91 .

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