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Cerebral Cortex which is composed of gray matter. Cortices are asymmetrical. Both hemispheres are able to analyze sensory data, perform memory functions, learn new information, form thoughts and make decisions.
Associated Signs and Symptoms
Ventral View ( From bottom) Sequential Analysis: systematic, logical Left Hemisphere interpretation of information. Interpretation and production of symbolic information:language, mathematics, abstraction and reasoning. Memory stored in a language format. Holistic Functioning: processing multi-sensory Right Hemisphere input simultaneously to provide "holistic" picture of one's environment. Visual spatial skills. Holistic functions such as dancing and gymnastics are coordinated by the right hemisphere. Memory is stored in auditory, visual and spatial modalities. Connects right and left hemisphere to allow for Corpus Callosum communication between the hemispheres. Forms roof of the lateral and third ventricles.
Damage to the Corpus Callosum may result in "Split Brain" syndrome.
Cognition and memory. Prefrontal area: The ability to concentrate and attend, elaboration of thought. The "Gatekeeper"; (judgment, inhibition). Personality and emotional traits. Movement: Motor Cortex (Brodman's): voluntary motor activity.
Impairment of recent memory, inattentiveness, inability to concentrate, behavior disorders, difficulty in learning new information. Lack of inhibition (inappropriate social and/or sexual behavior). Emotional lability. "Flat" affect. Contralateral plegia, paresis. Expressive/motor aphasia.
Ventral View (From Bottom) Premotor Cortex: storage of motor patterns and
voluntary activities. Integration of recent memory. Language: Receptive speech. irritability. Visual Association Cortex: loss of ability to recognize object seen in opposite field of vision. rage. Disorientation of environment space. Severe Injury: Inability to recognize self. Inability to write. childish behavior. Expressed behavior. Olfactory pathways: Amygdala and their different pathways. fear. biological rhythms. Primary visual association area: Allows for visual interpretation. Limbic System Hippocampi and their different pathways. Language: motor speech Side View Parietal Lobe Processing of sensory input. . "stars". Agitation. loss of control of emotion. • • Primary/ secondary somatic area. Receptive/ sensory aphasia. Loss of recent memory. Occipital Lobe Primary visual reception area. • • Loss of sense of smell. sensory discrimination. Temporal Lobe Auditory receptive area and association areas. • • • Hearing deficits. • • Body orientation. emotions. "flash of light". Limbic lobes: Sex. Primary Visual Cortex: loss of vision opposite field. • • • Inability to discriminate between sensory stimuli. Inability to locate and recognize parts of the body (Neglect). Agitation. Memory: Information retrieval.
• Thalamic syndrome spontaneous pain opposite side of body. Diabetes Insipidus (DI). Malignant hypothermia. Parkinson's. activity of the cortex via the integration of the • Loss of perception. Structures of the Diencephalon (within the cerebrum and continues with the midbrain). Posterior Hypothalamus: sympathetic activity ("Fight" or "Flight".Hypothalamus. Behavioral patterns: Physical expression of behavior. Hypothalamus Integration center of Autonomic Nervous System (ANS): Regulation of body temperature and endocrine function. Inappropriate ADH (SIADH). difficulty initiating movement. • • • • • • Hormonal imbalances. Inability to control temperature. • Altered level of Thalamus Coordinates and regulates all functional consciousness. Postural reflexes. Basal Ganglia Subcortical gray matter nuclei. Anterior Hypothalamus: parasympathetic activity (maintenance function). Contributes to affectual expression. afferent input to the cortex (except olfaction). . abnormal increase in muscle tone. Balance (inhibitory). • • Movement disorders: chorea. Appestat: Feeding center. Diencephalic dysfunction: "neurogenic storms". Part of extrapyramidal system: regulation of automatic movement. stress response. Brain Structure Function Associated Signs and Symptoms Processing center of the cerebral cortex. tremors at rest and with initiation of movement. Pleasure center. Processing link between thalamus and motor cortex. Initiation and direction of voluntary movement.
Respiratory: Hyperventilating. CN IV. • Nystagmus (Involuntary movement of the eye). Brain Stem: • Midbrain Nerve pathway of cerebral hemispheres. CN IV . (RAS) • Altered level of consciousness. wakefulness. Brain Structure Cerebellum The Cerebellum and the Brain Stem Function Coordination and control of voluntary movement. attention. • • • • LOC (Loss of consciousness): Varies Movement: Abnormal extensor ( muscle that extends a part).Trochlear (Superior oblique muscle of the eye which rotates the eye down and out). Reactivity: Sluggish to fixed.Internal Capsule Motor tracts.Oculomotor (Related to eye movement). . Associated Signs and Symptoms • Tremors. • Contralateral plegia (Paralysis of the opposite side of the body). • • Weber's: CN III palsy and ptosis (drooping) ipsalateral (same side of body). [motor]. [motor]. Pupils: Size: Midposition to dilated. Reticular Activating System Responsible for arousal from sleep. Auditory and Visual reflex centers. • Ataxia. Cranial Nerves: CN III . CN (Cranial Nerve) Deficits: CN III. lack of coordination.
Gag. Reactivity: Fixed. CN VIII . and vomit. • CN Palsies (Inability to control movement): Absent Cough. CN VII. heart. [mixed].• Pons Respiratory Center. teeth. [motor and sensory]. the constricted openings from the mouth and the oral pharynx and the posterior third of tongue. [motor]. CN XI . [motor]. [sensory]. stomach). Hyperventilation. Hiccups. muscle of mastication). Movement: Ipsilateral (same side) plegia (paralysis). • Pupils: Size: Pinpoint • LOC: Semi-coma "Akinetic Mute". lungs. Cranial Nerves: CN V .Glossopharyneal (Muscles and mucous membranes of pharynx. "Locked In" Syndrome. Vasomotor (nerves having muscular control of the blood vessel walls) Center Centers for cough. Cardiac Center. Medulla Oblongata Crossing of motor tracts. Cranial Nerves: CN IX . [mixed]. CN VI . larynx. gag. swallow.Vagus (Pharynx. .Trigeminal (Skin of face. • • • • LOC: Comatose. • • CN Deficits: CN VI. Clustered. CN X .Accessory (Rotation of the head and shoulder). Respiratory Center.Facial (Muscles of expression). [motor]. tongue. Ataxic. [motor and sensory].). CN XII .Abducens (Lateral rectus muscle of eye which rotates eye outward). Withdrawal. CN VII . Pupils: Size: Dilated. Respiratory: Abnormal breathing patterns.Acoustic (Internal auditory passage).Hypoglossal (Intrinsic muscles of the tongue). • Respiratory: Apneustic (Abnormal respiration marked by sustained inhalation). • Movement: Abnormal extensor.
Blood Supply to the Brain Arteria cerebri anterior Arteria cerebri media Arteria cerebri posterior Arteria chorioidea anterior Arteria basilaris .
Anterior cerebral artery 4. Pericallosal artery 2.basilar artery VA .Cerebral angiograms Carotid angiogram Anterior view Carotid angiogram Lateral View Vertebral angiogram Anterior view Vertebral angiogram Lateral View Abbreviations: • • • ACI . Anterior choroidal artery 7. Lenticulostrate arteries Carotid angiogram Anterior view Carotid angiogram Lateral View . Ophthalmic artery 5.posterior inferior cerebellar artery More detail • • • • • • • 1.vertebral artery PCA . Callosomarginal artery 3.middle cerebral artery • • • • BA . Internal carotid artery 6.posterior cerebral artery PICA .internal carotid artery ACA .anterior cerebral artery ACM .
Tractus spinoolivaris 12. Tractus rubrospinalis 8. Tractus spinothalamicus lateralis (Edinger) 6. Tractus spinothalamicus anterior Syndromes of the Spinal Cord Extent of lesion Structures damaged Myelitis Trauma Causes Complete transsection Hemisection Brown-Séquard syndrome Central structures Syringomyelia Hydromyelia Tumor Posterior funiculus Posterior horn Tabes dorsalis . Tractus vestibulospinalis 15. Fasciculus gracilis (Goll) 2. Tractus spinocerebellaris ventralis (Gowers) 7. Tractus tectospinalis 13. Tractus olivospinalis 11. Tractus corticospinalis anterior 10. Tractus spinocerebellaris dorsalis (Flechsig) 4. Fasciculus cuneatus (Burdach) 3.Tracts of the Spinal Cord 1. Tractus reticulospinalis 14. Tractus corticospinalis lateralis 5. Tractus spinotectalis 9.
Posterior funiculus Pyramidal tracts Subacute combined degeneration Posterior funiculus Pyramidal tracts Spinocerebellar tracts Spinocerebellar degeneration Pyramidal tracts Ventral horn Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis Ventral horn Spinal muscular atrophy Poliomyelitis Pyramidal tracts (crossed + uncrossed) Familial spastic paraparesis Dorsal one-third Occlusion of the posterior spinal arteries Ventral two-thirds Occlusion of the anterior spinal artery .
Syndrome Weber (hemiparesis alternans oculomotoria) Crossed brainstem syndromes Site of lesion Ipsilateral side Oculomotor palsy Contralateral side Hemiparesis Benedikt Oculomotor palsy Hyperkinesis (athetosis. sternocleidomastoideus Hypoglossus palsy Hemiparesis Foville Hemiparesis Avellis (hemiparesis alternans vaga) Hemiparesis Schmidt (hemiparesis alternans accessoria) Jackson (hemiparesis alternans hypoglossa) Hemiparesis Hemiparesis Déjerine Hypoglossus palsy Hemiparesis Disturbance of deep sensibility .chorea) Rigor Disturbance of deep sensibility Hemiparesis Ataxia Hypesthesia Hemiparesis Raymond-Cestan oral pons Internuclear ophthalmoplegia Raymond (hemiparesis alternans abducens) Abducent palsy Millard-Gubler (hemiparesis alternans facialis) Facial paresis Hemiparesis Brissaud-Siccard Facial hemispasm Facial paresis Abducent paresis Horizontal gaze paralysis Signs of vagus lesion Paresis of m. trapezius and m.
Anatomy and Functional Areas of the Brain .
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