tutor2u™ is the leading UK educational resource for Business, Economics, ICT and Politics.

You can access a comprehensive range of free and subscription-based resources at the tutor2u website (http://www.tutor2u.net)

and to make people feel more positive towards it Behavioural segmentation divides customers into groups based on the way they respond to. It involves the collection of data at one point in time from one sample of respondents Added value refers to the increase in worth of a product or service as a result of a particular activity. Methods of above the line advertising include television and radio.g. newspapers and Internet. performs only a few functions and does not take title to goods A deliberate attempt by a business or brand to associate itself with an event (often a sporting event) in order to gain some of the benefits associated with being an official sponsor without incurring the costs of sponsorship. product development. The additional customer services and benefits (“added value”) that are built around the core product or service offering The total group of customers who have an interest in a interest in a product or service. have access to it. goods and services through mass media such as newspapers. magazines. Often this service is provided as part of a warranty or guarantee scheme. magazines. public relations) whose primary purpose is to increases general knowledge of the company.tutor2u™ Term Above the line Description “Above the Line” is the term commonly used for advertising for which a payment is made and for which commission is paid to the advertising agency.on a matrix showing new versus existing products along one axis and new versus existing markets along the other. ACORN stands for “A Classification Of Residential Neighbourhoods”. This can be used for various purposes in marketing planning and in designing promotional campaigns Ad-hoc research focuses on specific marketing problems. A model used in strategic marketing planning. the added value is provided by features and benefits over and above those representing the “core product”. use or know of a product. The Ansoff Product/Market matrix model links marketing strategy with the general strategic direction of a business. Part of the distribution channel. and have the ability to buy it Advertising or other promotional activity (e. market development and diversification . Advertising is any paid form of non-personal presentation and promotion of ideas. The total amount of money that a marketer allocates for advertising over a period of time The services received after the original goods or services have been paid for.e. market penetration. television or radio by an identified sponsor. In the context of marketing. An agent is effectively a wholesaler who represents buyers and sellers on a relatively permanent basis. It maps four potential product-market strategies .g.net . ACORN is a database which divides up the entire UK population in terms of the type of housing in which they live.tutor2u. For example by advertising during television coverage of the event. Marketing AtoZ Glossary Page 2 of 2 ACORN Ad hoc market research Added value Advertising Advertising budget After-sales service Agent Ambush marketing Ansoff matrix Augmented brand Available market Awareness Behavioural segmentation http://www.

packaging – is the identity of a particular product form that customers recognise as being different from others.tutor2u. A brand – represented by a brand name. design. A strongly motivated and long standing decision to purchase a particular product or service A customer's awareness that a brand exists and is an alternative to purchase Breakeven is achieved when total contribution is equal to total fixed costs. name awareness. trademarks and channel relationships. It was developed by the Boston Consultancy Group (BCG) A brand is the specific type of the product form. Here the company can invest to increase market share (for example turning a "question mark" into a star) The business portfolio is the collection of businesses and products that make up the business. and other sales promotions. Addition contribution earned after this point becomes profit Setting a price to achieve break-even on the costs of making and marketing a product (direct costs). Brand equity is based on the extent to which the brand has high brand loyalty. Breakeven is achieved when the total contribution from sales priced in this way at least equal the fixed costs of the business A strategy based on the Boston Matrix. The process of comparing the products and services of a business against those of competitors in a market. symbol. therefore.net . Brand extension refers to the use of a successful brand name to launch a new or modified product in a new market. while others look for comfort or speed. logo. This includes direct mail. A car manufacturer. Marketing AtoZ Glossary Page 3 of 3 Benchmarking Benefit segmentation Boston Group Matrix Brand Brand building Brand equity Brand extension Brand image Brand loyalty Brand recognition Breakeven Break-even pricing Build share Business portfolio http://www. perceived quality and strong product associations. in order to find ways of improving quality and performance Benefit segmentation relates to the process of dividing a market based on the specific benefits consumers seek from a product. point of sale displays. some car buyers want safety and security from their car. or leading businesses in other markets.tutor2u™ Below the line “Below the line” is a term commonly used to refer to non-media advertising or promotion when no commission has been paid to the advertising agency. Developing a brand's image and standing with a view to creating long term benefits for brand awareness and brand value Brand equity refers to the value of a brand. Brand equity also includes other “intangible” assets such as patents. For example. Brand image refers to the set of beliefs that customers hold about a particular brand. has to decide which benefits to offer – and how these benefits should be communicated to the customer A means of analysing and categorizing the performance of business units in large diversified firms by reference to market share and growth rates. These are important to develop well since a negative brand image can be very difficult to shake off. Virgin is perhaps the best example of how brand extension can be applied into quite diverse and distinct markets.

The idea here is to provide some association for the product with a strong family brand name but maintaining some distinctiveness so that customers know what they are getting A competitive advantage is a clear performance differential over the competition on factors that are important to customers Competitor benchmarking compares customer satisfaction with the products. successful businesses with relatively little need for investment. cookers.so that they continue to generate the strong cash flows that the company needs for its Stars. Channel conflict often occurs when a business uses a multi-channel approach to distribution Cognitive dissonance is an customer effect commonly observed after a major purchase whereby the customer feels uncertainty about whether the purchase should have been made. repeatedly Contribution per unit can be defined as selling price less variable costs. Buying behaviour can be influenced by a variety of external factors and motivations. services and relationships of the business with those of key competitors Consumer buyers are those who purchase items for their personal consumption Consumer durables have low volume but high unit value. dishwashers. Customers are rarely prepared to pay a premium for these elements of a product. fridgefreezers. Post-purchase promotion (particularly advertising) has a role to play to reduce the incidence and effect of cognitive dissonance A combination brand name brings together a family brand name and an individual brand name. This term is often shortened to “B2B” Buying behaviour concerns the process that buyers go through when deciding whether or not to purchase goods or services. A strategy of producing goods at a lower cost than the competition. games consoles. Overall contribution is the difference between total sales revenues and variable costs The set of problem-solving or need-meeting benefits that customers are buying when they purchase a product. personal computers) Consumer markets are the markets for products and services bought by individuals for their own or family use Continuous research involves interviewing the same sample of people. A term used in the Boston Group Matrix.g. including marketing activity. DVD players.tutor2u™ Business to business Buying behaviour Marketing activity directed from one business to another (as opposed to a consumer). These are mature. They need to be managed for continued profit .g.tutor2u. Disagreement among members of a distribution channel about who should be paid what and what roles each should play. Consumer durables are often further divided into White goods (e.net . This usually requires the business to enjoy higher economies of scale or have some kind of productivity advantage Marketing AtoZ Glossary Page 4 of 4 Cash Cows Channel conflict Cognitive dissonance Combination brand Competitive advantage Competitor benchmarking Consumer buyers Consumer durables Consumer markets Continuous market research Contribution Core product Cost leadership http://www. microwaves) and Brown goods (e. Cash cows are low-growth businesses or products with a relatively high market share.

and retailers. if ever.net .tutor2u. gender family size. low-growth markets. web site URL or email address. address and enquiry form. A term used in the Boston Group Matrix. A strategy based on the Boston Matrix. during which sales fall rapidly Demographic segmentation consists of dividing the market into groups based on variables such as age. a car alarm for new car buyers. e. Here the company can divest the SBU by phasing it out or selling it . but they are rarely. wholesalers. Companies that buy and sell on their own account but tend to deal in the goods of only certain specified manufacturers. Consumer demand is a want for a specific product supported by an ability and willingness to pay for it. the term "dogs" refers to businesses or products that have low relative share in unattractive. race and nationality A lengthy. income.tutor2u™ Cross-selling Customer demand Customer loyalty Using a customer’s buying history to select them for related offers. analysis and tracking of customer behaviour to develop a relational marketing strategies Direct response advertising is that which incorporates a contact method such as a phone number.g. examining in detail a consumer's views about a product A marketing strategy aimed at ensuring that products and services have a unique element to allow them to stand out from the rest The delivery of an advertising or promotional message to customers or potential customers by mail. worth investing in. service or brand. Dogs may generate enough cash to break-even. in relation to price paid A want is a desire for a specific product or service to satisfy the underlying need. People who choose new products carefully and are often consulted by people from the remaining adopter categories People who adopt products just prior to the average person Marketing AtoZ Glossary Page 5 of 5 Customer need Customer satisfaction Customer wants Decline stage Demographic segmentation Depth interview Differentiation Direct mail Direct marketing Direct response advertising Distribution channel Distributors Divest Dogs Early adopters Early majority http://www. The provision of goods or services which fulfil the customer’s expectations in terms of quality and service. or else to re-purchase a particular product. the distribution channel therefore potentially consists of manufacturers.g. education. The planned recording.in order to use the resources elsewhere (e. one-to-one structured interview. A need is a basic requirement that an individual wishes to satisfy. Unsurprisingly. The last stage of a product's life cycle. distributors. The use of this technique on television is commonly referred to as DRTV advertising The network of organisations necessary to distribute goods or services from the manufacturers to the consumers. shop or outlet to purchase there again. placing an order etc. investing in the more promising "question marks"). Feelings or attitudes that incline a customer either to return to a company. religion. This is done with the intention of encouraging the recipient to respond directly to the advertiser by requesting more information. occupation.

all products that use the brand can benefit.g. The cosmetic industry is a good example of widespread use of gender segmentation Geographic segmentation divides markets into different geographical units A pricing strategy that sets price largely based on the prices of competitors The stage at which a product's sales rise rapidly and profits reach a peak. disposal income. By building customer trust and loyalty to the family brand name. Good examples include ready meals. Here the company reduces the amount of investment in order to maximise the short-term cash flows and profits from the SBU. implying to the potential customer that a product is good Expansionistic pricing is a more exaggerated form of penetration pricing and involves setting very low prices aimed at establishing mass markets. possibly at the expense of other suppliers. or alternatively repel potential new entrants. KFC and KwikPrint Full cost plus pricing seeks to set a price that takes into account all relevant costs of production The segmentation of markets based on the sex of the customer. In business format franchising the agreement will involve a common brand and marketing format. electronic data exchange and industry extranets to streamline business transactions The promotion of some kind of product recommendation or affirmation. and involves setting very low prices in the short term in order to ‘undercut’ competition. The stages of family life based on demographic data that are useful in defining the markets for certain goods and services.net . the product enjoys a high price elasticity of demand so that the adoption of a low price leads to significant increases in sales volumes Extinction pricing has the overall objective of eliminating competition. and have fast consumer repurchase. Under this strategy. newspapers etc A small group of sample customers who are brought together into a group discussion to measure their response to a marketing stimulus such as a new brand or product The process of estimating future demand by anticipating what buyers are likely to do under a given set of marketing conditions (e. with low unit value. pricing levels) The selling of a licence by the owner (franchisor) to a third party (franchisee) permitting the sale of a product or service for a specified period. before levelling off into maturity. economic confidence.tutor2u™ E-commerce Endorsement The use of technologies such as the Internet. Fast-moving consumer goods are those that sell in high volumes.tutor2u. usually from a celebrity. This may have the effect of turning Stars into Marketing AtoZ Glossary Page 6 of 6 Expansionistic pricing Extinction pricing Family brand name Family life cycle Fast-moving consumer goods Focus group Forecasting Franchising Full cost pricing Gender segmentation Geographic segmentation Going-rate pricing Growth stage Harvest http://www. Many service businesses are operated under franchise include well-known brands such as Burger King. A family brand name is used for all products. A strategy based on the Boston Matrix. baked beans. Each group has its own specific and distinguishable needs and interests.

as these are increasingly seen as good predictors of consumer behaviour. socially and geographically mobile. These are goods that are not aimed directly at consumers. in order to encourage them to promote its goals.tutor2u. Inferior goods have a negative income elasticity of demand. a family) who first suggests buying a particular product or service Innovators are those who adopt new products first. Most companies use off-the-shelf research-agency classifications (such as the Target Group Index). informational and legal purposes. interests and opinions Lifestyle segmentation of a market is based on identifying lifestyle characteristics of customers that enable target customer groups to be identified. lively. Many businesses now segment their markets by lifestyles.g. This process can happen at a number of levels. A product's first appearance in the marketplace. intelligent. because of the high cost and complexity of developing their own. before any sales or profits have been made The level of interest. Hold Impulse buying Income elasticity of demand Industrial buyers Industrial market Inferior goods Influencer Initiator Innovators A strategy based on the Boston Matrix.tutor2u™ Cash Cows. Demand falls as income rises A person in a group buying situation (e. to explaining overall business strategy.net .g. Here the company invests just enough to keep the SBU in its present position Behaviour that involves no conscious planning but results from a powerful. The group of consumers who are typically last to buy a new product People who are quite sceptical about new products but eventually adopt them because of economic necessity or social pressure Lifestyle is a person’s pattern of living as expressed in his or her activities. They are often of a high socioeconomic group (“AB’s”). persistent urge to buy something immediately Income elasticity of demand measures the relationship between a change in quantity demanded and a change in income Industrial buyers are those who purchase items on behalf of their business or organisation Industrial markets involve the sale of goods between businesses. from increasing awareness of individual products or marketing campaigns. They are usually relatively young. Intensive distribution aims to provide saturation coverage of the market by using all available outlets The process of eliciting support for a company and its activities among its own employees. Marketing AtoZ Glossary Page 7 of 7 Intensive distribution Internal marketing Introduction stage Involvement Labelling Laggards Late majority Lifestyle Lifestyle segmentation http://www. emotion and activity which the consumer is prepared to expend on a particular purchase Packaging information that can be used for a variety of promotional. a family) who exerts significant influence in the final buying decision A person in a group buying situation (e.

where the market leader has a relatively small market share and there are many other competitors. Macro forecasting is concerned with forecasting markets in total. A different strategy is required depending on whether the product is an early or late entrant to the market. the market is said to be highly concentrated.paying attention to a few market segments The fourth strategy is a losing strategy in which a business pursues a middle-of-the-road path. The market leader. often measured by sales during a specified period. Groups of consumers selected to represent a market or market segment who agree to be regularly interviewed by mail Manufacturer brands are created by producers and bear their chosen brand name. Market research The systematic gathering. The brand is owned by the producer. usually consisting of a symbol and/or group of letters that identifies a company or brand. This is about determining the existing level of Market Demand and considering what will happen to market demand in the future. manufacturers can gain widespread distribution (for example by retailers who want to sell the brand) and build customer The business in a market with the largest market share. recording and analysing of data about Marketing AtoZ Glossary Page 8 of 8 Mail panels Manufacturer brand Marker leader Market Market challenger Market concentration Market development Market entry Market follower Market positioning http://www.tutor2u.net .making use of specific marketing mixes . the first entrant usually has an automatic advantage. To achieve positioning success it is suggested that there are four basic competitive strategies that a company can follow (based on work by Porter): . perhaps taking advantages of opportunities created by leaders without the need for much marketing investment of its own see also 'market challenger' and 'market leader' A marketing strategy that will position a business’ products and services against those of its competitors in the minds of consumers.Differentiation . A business in a market that is fighting hard to increase its market share Market concentration is the proportion of market value that is owned by the leading brands or products/companies in the market. A firm that is happy to follow the leaders in a market place without challenging them. By building their brand names. a market is said to be “fragmented” The process of growing sales by offering existing products (or new versions of them) to new customer groups (as opposed to simply attempting to increase the company’s share of current markets). Businesses that try to be good at everything are rarely particularly good at anything.Cost leadership .the company tries to achieve lowest costs of production and distribution .Focus . The launch of a new product into a new or existing market. Where the market leaders own a large part of the overall market. particularly one with a dominant market share. cheaper and so on. By contrast.tutor2u™ Logo Macro forecasting A graphic. The producer is responsible for marketing the brand. is often “followed” by competitors in terms of pricing and product strategy A market is the demand for a particular product or service. while later entrants need to demonstrate that their products are better.

for example Argos. service or idea that is “perceived” by some potential customers as new. Retail chains. channels or customers into groups with different needs. strategies. in terms of the products and services it produces for its customers.net .tutor2u™ problems relating to the marketing of goods and services Market segment Market segmentation Market share Market targeting A customer group within the market that has special characteristics which are significant to marketing strategy Segmentation involves subdividing markets. and activities with a view to identifying key strategic issues. It refers to an investigation into the relative effectiveness and the relative costs of using the various advertising media in an advertising campaign Micro forecasting is concerned with detailed unit sales forecasts. besides using the shops to distribute their products. A detailed statement (usually prepared annually) of how a company's marketing mix will be used to achieve its market objectives. This is about determining a product’s market share in a particular industry and considering what will happen to that market share in the future A mission describes the organisation’s basic function in society. A mission statement is a formal description of the mission of a business. Market targeting is the process of evaluating each market segment and selecting the most attractive segments to enter with a particular product or product line. The stage during which a product's sales curve peaks and starts to decline.tutor2u. The composite of all data and ideas available within an organisation that assists in decision-making. The marketing concept is about matching a business’ capabilities with customer wants. The all-embracing function that links the business with customer needs and wants in order to get the right product to the right place at the right time” A systematic examination of a business’s marketing environment. The main purpose of multi-channel marketing is to more effectively reach different customer segments A strategy by which a business directs its marketing efforts towards two or more market segments by developing a marketing mix for each A new product can be defined as a good. Market share can be defined as the percentage of all sales within a market that is held by one brand / product or company. and profits continue to decline. objectives. It may have been available for some time. quite often also use catalogue selling. to deliver tailored propositions which meet these needs as precisely as possible. this is known as multi-channel marketing. but many potential customers have not yet adopted the product nor decided to become a regular user of the Marketing AtoZ Glossary Page 9 of 9 Marketing Marketing audit Marketing concept Marketing intelligence Marketing plan Maturity stage Media analysis Micro forecasting Mission Mission statement Multi-channel marketing Multi-segment strategy New product http://www. When a business distributes its products through more than one distribution channel. Media analysis is a term used in advertising. A marketing plan is usually prepared following a marketing audit. threats and opportunities.

If the business is successful in exploiting opportunities. marketing objectives for the next year) A basis of segmenting a market based on occasions when buyers get the idea to make a purchase. or use a purchased item. Substitutes. New Entrants and Rivals Portfolio planning is the process of managing groups of brands and product lines Positioning is how a product appears in relation to other products in the market Pre-emptive pricing is a strategy involves setting low prices in order to discourage or deter potential new entrants to the suppliers market. The personal selling may focus initially on developing a relationship with the potential buyer.g. The five forces in terms of which the model analyses businesses and industries are: Buyers. throughout its entire life cycle – as opposed to the short term Marketing AtoZ Glossary Page 10 of 10 Non-personal communication Normal goods Objectives Occasion segmentation Opportunities Own-label brand Packaging Penetration pricing Penetration strategy Personal selling Porter’s Five Forces Model Portfolio planning Positioning Pre-emptive pricing Prestige pricing http://www. Opportunities are any feature of the external environment which creates conditions that a business can exploit to its advantage. Often these distributors are retailers. It is especially suited to markets in which the supplier does not hold a patent. or other market privilege and entry to the market is relatively straightforward. rather than higher prices in order to achieve a large. Niche segments exist in nearly all markets – for example the self-build sports car segment of the motor industry Methods of promotion that do not generate any personal feedback. Suppliers. Advertising is the best example of this Normal goods have a positive income elasticity of demand so as income rise more is demand at each price level Measurable aims of a business set for a given period (e.tutor2u. the distributor will mix own-label and manufacturers brands The activities of designing and producing the container or wrapper for a product Penetration pricing involves the setting of lower. Own-label brands are created and owned by businesses that operate in the distribution channel – often referred to as “distributors”. but will always ultimately end with an attempt to "close the sale An analytic model developed by Michael E. However. Sometimes the retailer’s entire product range will be own-label. more often. Porter. actually buy. Prestige pricing refers to the practice of setting a high price for an product. but not exclusively. Oral communication with potential buyers of a product with the intention of making a sale.tutor2u™ product.net . For penetration strategy to be effective the market will have to be large enough for the seller to be able to sustain low profit margins. then it will be better placed to achieve its objectives. if not dominant market share A marketing strategy based on low prices and extensive advertising to increase a product's market share. Niche marketing Niche marketing refers to the exploitation of comparatively small market segments by businesses that decide to concentrate their efforts.

net . high price of price ‘skimming’.Introduction . Within a product class. washing machines. or much-improved product is launched onto a market Primary market data is data collected specifically for the market research project and obtained directly from the relevant source The first stage in the buying process where the potential customer recognises that a problem or a need can be met by buying a product or a service A product is defined as anything that is capable of satisfying customer needs Product class is a broad category of product such as cars. The model describes five stages. innovative. Quality is a function of several factors including reliability and ease of use One of the four “P’s” of the marketing mix.Decline Product map Product mix Product quality A product map defines the market in terms of the way buyers perceive key characteristics of competing products The set of all product lines and items that a particular business offers for sale to buyers The ability of a product to perform its functions (“fit for purpose”).Growth .Development . each of which represents a different opportunity for the marketer: .Maturity . For example. newspapers. there are different forms that the product can take. for reasons not associated with costs Price elasticity of demand measures the responsiveness of a change in demand for a product following a change in its own price Price sensitivity is the effect a change in price will have on customers Price skimming involves charging a relatively high price for a short time where a new.tutor2u™ ‘opportunistic’. Promotion is all about businesses communicating with customers The promotional mix consists of a blend of five main kinds of Marketing AtoZ Glossary Page 11 of 11 Price elasticity of demand Price sensitivity Price skimming Primary research data Problem/Need recognition Product Product class Product form Product group Product life cycle Promotion Promotional mix http://www.tutor2u. people carriers or two-seater sports cars are product forms within the motor cars product class A product group (or product line) is a group of brands that are closely related in terms of their functions and the benefits they provide The course of a product's sales and profitability over its lifetime. This is done in order to evoke perceptions of quality and prestige with the product or service Price Price discrimination The price of a product may be seen as a financial expression of the value of that product Price discrimination occurs when a firm charges a different price to different groups of consumers for an identical good or service.

sex and education). personality characteristics and interests.tutor2u™ promotional tools: advertising. customer satisfaction surveys and so on. It focuses on advertising and above the line activities.tutor2u.such as price reductions and point of sale displays . A sampling method in which all the units in a population have an equal chance of appearing in the sample. Good examples include time-series analysis and statistical surveys of customer purchasing behaviour Market research that concentrates on statistics and other numerical data. See also 'push promotion' The stage in the customer buying process when the purchase decision is actually made Push promotion relies on the next link in the distribution chain . See also 'Sales Promotion' Qualitative forecasting is based on experience and judgement.g. It revolves around sales promotions . but may require substantial investment in order to grow market share at the expense of more powerful competitors. sales promotion and public relations Psychographic segmentation Public relations Publicity Pull promotion Psychographic (or “lifestyle”) segmentation seeks to classify people accordingly to their values. typically unearthed during interviews or discussion groups Quantitative forecasting is based on facts. direct marketing. Examples include general surveys of customers. Question marks are businesses or products with low market share but which operate in higher growth markets. addresses the customer directly with a view to getting them to demand the product. in contrast to Push promotion. a wholesaler or retailer . A sampling method in which the final choice of respondents is left to the interviewers. opinions.to “push” out products to the customer. The planned and sustained effort to establish and maintain goodwill and mutual understanding between an organisation and its publics Promotional activities designed to promote a business and its products by obtaining media coverage not paid for by the business Pull promotion. Retailers operate outlets that trade directly with household customers The sales forecast is the expected level of company sales based on a Marketing AtoZ Glossary Page 12 of 12 Purchase decision Push promotion Qualitative forecasting Qualitative Research Quantitative forecasting Quantitative Research Question marks Questionnaire Quota sampling Random sampling Retailers Sales forecast http://www. who base their choices on two or three variables (such as age. providing the questions and structure for an interview or self-completion and providing space for respondents' answers. Compare 'qualitative research' A term used in the Boston Group Matrix.e. gathered through opinion polls. personal selling. Base document for research purposes. This suggests that they have potential.and other below the line activities. such as subjective opinions and value judgements. distributors and the sales force Research that deals with information too difficult or expensive to quantify. and hence “pull” it down through the distribution chain.net .

Stars are high growth businesses or products competing in markets where they are relatively strong compared with the competition. will become cash cows. activity or organisation by providing money or other resources that is of value to the sponsored event.g. resource or distinctive competence which the business possesses and which will enable it to achieve its stated objectives. A sampling method in which the population of interest is divided according to a common characteristic or attribute and a probability sampling is then conducted within each group Strengths are a particular skill.tutor2u. except that they wear out more quickly and therefore have a shorter replacement cycle. A term used in the Boston Group Matrix. Examples include clothes and shoes. arranging demonstrations or exhibitions. a product line or even individual brands . An SBU can be a company division. increased PR activity. however. personal letters on other methods. analysed and used for other purposes or for general reference The dimensions or characteristics of individuals. The larger the sample. advertising and other promotional methods (e. Often they need heavy investment to sustain their growth. groups or businesses that are used for dividing a total market into segments. offering free gifts or trading stamps. Selective distribution involves a producer using a limited number of outlets in a geographical area to sell products Soft goods are similar to consumer durables. assuming they maintain their relative market share.it all depends on how the company is organised. conclusions about a market drawn from a sample always contain a sampling error and must be used with caution. Sales promotion Sales promotion refers to any activity designed to boost the sales of a product or service. Eventually their growth will slow and. the more accurate will be the conclusions drawn from it Secondary market data is data that has already been obtained. As such they should be protected and built upon. It may include an advertising campaign. setting up competitions with attractive prizes. “Guinness is good for you”) A SBU is a unit of the company that has a separate mission and objectives and that can be planned independently from the other businesses.net . This is usually in return for advertising space at the event or as part of the publicity for the event. A small group of items selected from a larger group to represent the characteristics of the larger group. temporary price reductions. doorto-door calling. Supporting an event.tutor2u™ chosen marketing plan and an assumed marketing environment. in general. telephone-selling. The group of potential customers sharing common needs and characteristics that a business decides to serve Telemarketing (sometimes also referred to as “telesales”) is a method Marketing AtoZ Glossary Page 13 of 13 Sample Secondary research data Segmentation variables or bases Selective distribution Soft goods Sponsorship Stars Strapline Strategic business unit (“SBU Stratified sampling Strengths Target market Telemarketing http://www. A slogan often used in conjunction with a brand name. Strengths are a source of competitive advantage. Samples are often used in marketing research because it is not feasible to interview every member of a particular market. a free-sample campaign.

what presents a threat to one business offers an opportunity to other businesses.tutor2u. to judge customers' reactions. A unique selling proposition (“USP”)is a customer benefit that no other product can claim The long-term aims and aspirations of the company for itself Weaknesses are any aspect of the business which may prevent the business from achieving its objectives. Test marketing has a disadvantage in that competitors learn about the new product before its full launch Threats are any aspect of the external environment which cause problems and which may prevent achievement of objectives. Management should seek ways to reduce or eliminate weaknesses before they are exploited further by the competition Often part of the distribution channel.tutor2u™ of direct marketing in which the telephone is used to contact potential customers in order to reduce the time spent in making personal visits. products such as double glazing and central heating have been marketed using this technique Telephone surveys Test marketing Surveys in which respondents' answers to a questionnaire are recorded by interviewers on the phone Test marketing occurs when a new product is tested with a sample of customers. in the holiday market. If the product is unsuccessful. Weaknesses are a source of competitive disadvantage. involves the selling of goods in large quantities to be retailed by others Threats Trademark Undifferentiated marketing Unique selling proposition Vision Weaknesses Wholesaler http://www. or launched in a restricted geographical area. the sale of short-haul summer-sun package holidays to the Mediterranean is an undifferentiated mass-market product. Legal designation indicating that the owner has exclusive use of a brand Undifferentiated marketing is the marketing of a product aimed at the widest possible market. Almost by definition. For example. the business will have minimised its costs and can either make changes before the main launch or decide to discontinue the product.net Marketing AtoZ Glossary Page 14 of 14 . Traditionally.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful