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Reformational

Studies
An annotated bibliography
of B. J. van der Walt

Edited and compiled


by Steve Bishop

allofliferedeemed
Bristol, UK

i
Reformational Studies

An annotated bibliography of

B. J. van der Walt

Edited and compiled by


Steve Bishop

Allofliferedeemed

Bristol, UK
1st edn Feb 2009

ii
© Steve Bishop 2009
Published by allofliferedeemed
www.allofliferedeemed.co.uk

First edition February 2009

iii
In memory of

Harry James Bishop


(1994-2005)

iv
Acknowledgements
This has been an international collaborative project.

I would like to thank my co-collaborators: Bruce Wearne, for encouragement, supplying


many scans of articles and for going the extra mile; the other Antipodean scanners: Chris
Gousmett and Geoff Wilson. The South Africans: Alwyn and Cora Bezuidenhout for
obtaining scan of the Koers and Word and Deed articles; Bennie van der Walt, without
whom this project would literally have been impossible, my thanks to him for supplying
articles and answering my many queries and questions.

Thanks too to Keith Sewell and Ponti Venter for kind offers of help.

Any errors and omissions are mine.

And last but my no means least my family, Susie, Jack and Sophie, for their love and
patience.

v
Contents
Acknowledgements ................................................................................................. v
Biography .............................................................................................................. vii
Annotated bibliography .............................................................................................. 8
1971 .......................................................................................................................... 8
1972 .......................................................................................................................... 9
1973 ........................................................................................................................ 10
1974 ........................................................................................................................ 14
1975 ........................................................................................................................ 16
1976 ........................................................................................................................ 18
1977 ........................................................................................................................ 23
1978........................................................................................................................ 23
1979 ........................................................................................................................ 29
1980 ....................................................................................................................... 33
1981 ........................................................................................................................ 36
1982 ....................................................................................................................... 38
1983 ....................................................................................................................... 41
1984 ....................................................................................................................... 42
1985 ....................................................................................................................... 48
1986 ....................................................................................................................... 48
1987........................................................................................................................ 52
1988 ....................................................................................................................... 54
1989 ....................................................................................................................... 60
1990 ....................................................................................................................... 64
1991 ........................................................................................................................ 67
1992 ....................................................................................................................... 81
1993........................................................................................................................ 83
1994 ....................................................................................................................... 87
1995........................................................................................................................ 94
1996 ....................................................................................................................... 99
1997 ...................................................................................................................... 103
1998 ...................................................................................................................... 112
1999 ...................................................................................................................... 118
2000 .................................................................................................................... 122
2001 ..................................................................................................................... 123
2002 ...................................................................................................................... 127
2003 ...................................................................................................................... 131
2004 ...................................................................................................................... 137
2005 ..................................................................................................................... 140
2006 ..................................................................................................................... 144
2007 ..................................................................................................................... 149
2008...................................................................................................................... 157

Index of subjects .................................................................................................. 163


Index of journals ..................................................................................................167
Appendix 1: A word on journals and series ........................................................ 168
Appendix 2: IRS F Publications ........................................................................... 172

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Biography
“Can a Christian be a philosopher or a philosopher a Christian? Professor Van der Walt has proven this is possible.”
Desmond M. Tutu

Barend Johannes (Bennie) van der Walt ThB D Phil, was born on 12 April 1939 in Potchefstroom,
South Africa.

He studied theology and Aquinas, John Calvin and


philosophy at the the ‘Synopsis Puris
Potchefstroom University Theologiae’.]
for Christian Higher
Education (PU for CHE), From July 1974 to 1999
Transvaal South Africa he was the director of the
and from 1968-1970 at Institute for
the Free University of Reformational Studies
Amsterdam, the (IRS) at the PU for CHE
Netherlands. He holds a and since 1980 he was
ThB in Theology and a also professor in the
doctor’s degree in Department of
Philosophy. His 1968 Philosophy at the same
masters thesis was university. He retired in
entitled Die wysgerie konsepie van 2002. Though at present he is Research
Thoams van Aquino in sy “Summa Contar fellow in the school of Philosophy
Gentiles” met spesiale verwysing na sy (Potchefstroom campus) of the North-
seining van Teologie (Potchefstroom West University, SA.
University for Christian Higher Education,
1968). As this annotated bibliography testifies he
From 1970-1974 he was senior lecturer in has written many articles and books on
Philosophy at the University of Fort Hare, topics as diverse as Africa, Aquinas,
one of the first black universities in Africa. Calvin, Kuyper, Christian education,
In July 1970 he also became the director of integral scholarship, the Reformation,
the Institute for the Advancement of sport, development, religious diversity,
Calvinism at PU CHE. He completed his worldviews, women, marriage, frienship,
DPhil under J A L Taljaard in 1974 with a idolatry, secularism, secularisation and
Dissertation entitled Die Natuurlike economics. He has organised a number of
Teologie met besondere aandag die visie national and international conferences
daarop by Thomas van Aquino, Johannes and lectured in different parts of the
Calvyn en die “Synopsis Purioris world. He was involved with IAPCHE from
Theologiae” 2 vols (917 pages) (1974) its inception in 1975 and served for
[Natural Theology with Particular different terms on its council up to 2000.
reference to the viewpoint of Thomas

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Annotated bibliography
1971

1971.1 ‘The value and task of Philosophy at the university’.


Perspektief: kwartaablad ter bevordering van die Christelike wysbegeerte en
die Christelikwysgergie grondslae van die vakwetenskappe 10 (4): 198-216.
Reprinted in Horizon (1978.4).

Is a philosopher made or born? This is the question addressed in this van der
Walt’s first English article. To answer the question he uses a Dooyeweerdian
modal analysis. The analysis is light-hearted, with regard to the lingual
aspect he notes: ‘A philosopher is one who possess the magnificent gift of
talking about everything with equal authority – note the stress is on the
talking and not on the authority’! He then turns more seriously to the crisis in
the modern university, the value and task of philosophy and the current views
on philosophy. He concludes ‘Perhaps you will not be able to do much with
Philosophy. I hope that scripturally directed philosophy will do much to
you!’.

8
1972

1972.1 ‘Life and world view: a philosophical analysis’.


Perspektief: kwartaablad ter bevordering van die Christelike wysbegeerte en
die Christelikwysgergie grondslae van die vakwetenskappe 11 (2/3): 41-61.
Reprinted in Horizon (1978.4).

The role, function and structure of worldviews are themes that run through
the work of van de Walt. This is the first time he address the theme in
English. Each of us adheres to one or other worldview; knowledge of it is
important and valuable. It has a social, cultural-historical, personal and
practical value. ‘A life and world view is the pre-scientific comprehensive
view and the fundamental convictions of a group (or community) concerning
reality.’ Different methods of classifying life and worldviews are then
examined. Van der Walt prefers a ‘crossbread of methods’ by combining
Dooyeweerd’s modal aspects and Vollenhoven’s pre-synthetic, synthetic and
anti-synthetic typology.

9
1973

1973.1 ‘Historiography of philosophy - the consistent problem-historic


method’.
Tydskrif vir Christelike Wetenskap 9 (4): 163-184.
Also in Perspektief 12 (4) (1973): 16-24
This was reprinted in Heartbeat (1978.3).

This essay provides a clear overview of D H Th Vollenhoven’s Consistent


Problem-Historic Method (CPHM). Other overviews of the CPHM are to be
found in: 1983.1, 1991.1 (2008.1).
Van der Walt is aware of some of the limits of this approach but focuses on
its great advantages.

1973.2 ‘The difference between scientific and pre-scientific knowledge’.


Perspektief: kwartaablad ter bevordering van die Christelike wysbegeerte en
die Christelikwysgergie grondslae van die vakwetenskappe 12 (2-3): 29-42.

1973.3 ‘Eisegesis-exegesis, paradox and nature-grace: methods of synthesis in


Medieval Philosophy’.
Philosophia Reformata 38: 191-210.
Reprinted in Heartbeat (1978.3).

This volume of Philosophia Reformata was also published as:


The Idea of a Christian Philosophy: Essays in Honour of D.H. Th. Vollenhoven
Toronto: Wedge Pub. Foundation, 1973.

Contents
Beyond being, ontology and eschatology in the philosophy of Emmanuel
Levinas / Th. de Boer
Problems of time: an essay / Hendrik Hart
Calvin and Neo-Calvinism on non-Christian philosophy / J. Klapwijk

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Nature and supernature according to Duns Scotus / H. van der Laan
Methodology and practice / J.P.A. Mekkes
Qua via, philosophia? / N.T. van der Merwe
Patristic evaluation of culture / K.J. Popma
Science between presuppositions and decisions / H. van Riessen
Biblical wisdom underneath Vollenhoven's categories for philosophical
historiography / Calvin G. Seerveld
On the contingent and present-day western man / H.G. Stoker
Christian alternatives for traditional ethics / A. Troost
Kuyper's semi-mystical conception / John C. Vander Stelt
Eisegesis-exegesis, paradox and nature-grace: methods of synthesis in
mediaeval philosophy / B.J. van der Walt
A selected and annotated bibliography of D.H. Th. Vollenhoven / K.A. Bril.

This volume of Philosophia Reformata is a fetschrift for D H Th Vollenhoven


to celebrate his eightieth birthday. In it van der Walt elaborates on the
distinction between the methods of synthesis during Patristic and Medieval
philosophy. He examines the reasons for the rise of synthetic thought, the
process of eisegesis-exegesis and the method of nature-grace. Exegesis is not
a neutral activity it starts with eisegesis: ‘foreign ideas clashing with biblical
revelation were first read into the Bible and afterwards taken out again but
now with biblical sanction’. To illustrate this he looks at allegorical
interpretation used by the Greeks, Jews, Arabs, the Patristics and modern
Christians. Another method of synthesis is the two-realm theory of nature-
grace. This was prominent in the thought of Aquinas, but its roots are much
earlier. Elements in Clemens of Alexandria, Origen and Augustine as well as
Aquinas are examined. The result of such ideas is secularism.

11
1973.4 ‘The encounter of Arabic and Christian civilization in medieval
philosophy with particular reference to the conflict between faith and reason.
A comparison between the viewpoints of Averroes and Thomas Aquinas’.
Perspektief: kwartaablad ter bevordering van die Christelike wysbegeerte en
die Christelikwysgergie grondslae van die vakwetenskappe 11 (4) en 2(1): 27-
35.
[According to Heartbeat (1978.3) in 1972 Bulletin die Suid-Afrikannse
Verening vir die Bevordering van Christelike Wetenskap 23: 53-64]
Reprinted in Heartbeat (1978.3).

The paper was first prepared for the ‘The encounter of different civilizations
in Medieval Philosophy’ Fifth International Congress of Medieval Philosophy,
Madrid, Gordoba and Granada: 5-12 September 1972.

Averoes (Ibn Rusd 1126-1198) and Aquinas were two great representatives of
Arabic and Christian culture in the Middle Ages. Van der Walt looks at the
religious ground motives of these two thinkers before turning to their view of
the relationship of faith and reason.

Neither of these thinkers were able to solve the problem of the faith-reason
conflict, ‘they only emphasised one or other side of the dilemma’ and ‘never
penetrated to the crux of the problem’. Both attempted to synthesise pagan
and Christian concepts.

Van der Walt concludes by saying that the issue is not between a supernatural
faith and natural reason but between obedience and disobedience to god
with both activities of believing and reasoning. There is no conflict between
faith and reason and the dilemma of faith or reason is a false one.

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1973.5 ‘Thomas Aquinas’ idea about wonders: a critical appraisal’.
Bulletin die Suid-Afrikannse Verening vir die vordering van Christelike
Wetenskap 23: 39-53.
Reprinted in Heartbeat (1978.3) and in Atti Congresso Internazionale
Tommaso d’Aquino nel suo settimo centranio Vol 4 (Napoli: Edizione
Domenicane Italiane) pp 468-478.

This was a paper read at the International Congress held at the Seventh
Century Commemoration of the death of Bonaventure, Sept 19-26., 1974.

Van der Walt obviously has a high regard for Aquinas; he describes Aquinas’
mind as ‘supple, encyclopaedic and immensely creative’. Here he looks at
Aquinas’ concept of wonder/ miracle. He disagrees with Aquinas’s approach
of an artificial and contradictory interrelation between wonder and nature.
He concludes with a summary and then ten propositions in which he outlines
the differences between his and Aquinas’ view.

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1974

1974.1 ‘Calvinistic outlook – outline of the Institute for the Advancement of


Calvinism’.
Koers 39 (5/6): 311-322.
See also 1984.8.

The Institute for the Advancement of Calvinism (IAC) began in 1966 with S. C.
W. Duvenage as the director. Van der Walt took over as director in 1974.
This sketch of the IAC was at the request of the editor of Koers for its first
English issue. He describes the character, the aim and the work of the IAC.
Ten pamphlets (nos 77-86) were published, as well as a number of brochures
and larger works. Future proposed projects included looking at the impact of
Calvinism on South Africa. It concludes with a notice of a future conference
and a call for international co-operation.

1974.2 ‘Man, the tension between the transcendent and the non-transcendent
world in the thought of Bonaventure of Bagnorea’.
Philosophia Reformata 39.
Reprinted in Heartbeat (1978.3).

This paper was presented at the International Congress held at the Seventh
Century Commemoration of the death of St Bonaventure. Sept 19-26, 1974.

Van der Walt exposes Bonaventure, one of the great Scholastic philosophers
of the Middle Ages, as a synthetic thinker. Bonaventure’s ideas relating to
created reality are examined as they provide a background to his flawed
anthropology. Bonaventure’s anthropology shows ‘the impossibility of fusing
heterogeneous, foreign elements’ with Christian concepts.

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1974.3 ‘The profile of the twentieth century in the seventies - an analysis of the
contours of contemporary Western culture’.
Perspektief: kwartaablad ter bevordering van die Christelike wysbegeerte en
die Christelikwysgergie grondslae van die vakwetenskappe 13 (2/3): 1-17.
Reprinted in Horizon (1978.4).

Seven typical characteristics of modern culture are first outlined before


looking at the wrong and right attitude to culture. The typical characteristics
identified are: a tendency to internationalism, the unknown welfare, an
emphasis on the sensuous, the forceful dynamics of our time, the serious
clash of idolatries and the increasing power of secularism. Although this was
an analysis of the seventies, much is still applicable thirty or forty years on.
The wrong attitudes are: negativism, neutralism, traditionalism,
progressivism, compromise and revolutionism. The positive attitudes: open-
mindedness, protest, witness-bearing and willingness.

1974.4 ‘In lumine Tuo videbimus lumen: integral Christian scholarship’.


Fort Hare Papers 6(1): 63-79.
Reprinted in Horizon (1978.4).

In lumine Tuo videbimus lumen, in Thy light we see light, is the motto of the
University of Fort Hare, one of the oldest black universities in Africa. Here
van der Walt looks at the possibility of Christian scholarship. He exposes the
weakness of the faith or science and the faith and science positions before
examining, what could be called, a faith shapes science position. He then
looks at nine propositions that clarify what he means by a Christian scientific
endeavour.

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1975

1975.1 ‘Radical biblical anthropology: remedy for the crisis of contemporary


society’.
Koers 40 (4-6): 380-401.
Reprinted in Horizon (1978.4).

This edition of Koers is a Festschrift for the South African philosopher J. A.


Taljaard. It was also published as a hardback volume with the title: Social
Theory and Practice: Crosscuts and Perspectives: Philosophical Essays in
Honour of Prof. J. A. L. Taljaard (Potchesftroom: Koers, 1975).

Van der Walt starts this article by expressing his deep thanks to Taljaard.
Taljaard had supervised van der Walt’s master and doctoral theses. The
purpose of this article is ‘to re-affirm Taljaard’s point of view that traditional
Christian anthropology … cannot be qualified as radically biblical’. To do this
he starts by examining the ‘one-dimensional views’, the –isms. He then turns
to a multi-dimensional views of man – like a diamond catching the light we
can see different facets so too with humans who express themselves in
different aspects ie numerical, spatial, physical, biological, psychical,
analytical, historical, linguistic, social, economic, aesthetic, juridicial,
ethical and pistical.

He then turns to the danger of a dualistic view of man; this creates


anthropological schizophrenia. In the section ‘Man as a unity’ he looks at
man as a soul, as a body, as a spirit, as flesh, as heart. Each of these denote
man as a whole from a specific standpoint, they are not something in or part
of man.

The traditional (scholastic) views are then examined in the light of the
creation, fall and redemption motif - and found wanting.

Van der Walt concludes with a brief critique of Taljaard’s anthropology.


Taljaard rejects the substantialistic and funcionalistic views that resulted in

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dualism and yet van der Walt suspects there may well be traces of dualism
within Taljaard’s anthropology.

1975.2 ‘The relationship of man: a studium generale’.


Bulletin van die Suid-Afrikannse Verening vir die vordering van Christelike
Wetenskap 47 (Dec): 39-58.
Reprinted in Horizon (1978.4).

This was part of a lecture ‘Man in philosophical dimension’ delivered in the


series Studium Generale at the University of Fort Hare in 1971.

Van der Walt examines four different relationships of man (it must be recalled
that van der Walt is writing well before the use of inclusive language); to God,
to fellowmen, to nature and to self. The first part deals with the concept of
‘religion’; he maintains that all of life is religion, but all of life is not
necessarily religious. The role of man as office bearer and as the image of God
The relationship with others is not only an ethical one. It involves other
aspects as well. Here he takes a brief look at sphere sovereignty.

He sees the relationship of man to nature as one of mastery. It is perhaps an


unfortunate term in light of today’s environmental issues, but the relationship
envisaged by van der Walt here is not one of domination but of dominion.

Man’s relationship to himself – human freedom is dependent upon the absolute


freedom of God.

1975.3 ‘The Potchefstroom University for Christian Higher Education: the


university with a surname’.
Potchefstroom: PU vir CHO
See also 1984.8.

The surname is ‘Christian Higher Education’.

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1976

1976.1 ‘A comparison between Bantu and Western thought: outline for an


exploratory discussion’.
Philosophy in African Context (1976): 85-123.
Reprinted in Horizon (1978.4).

The Bantu is the language of some 60 million people who live in the regions
of the equator and down into southern Africa. Here van der Walt seeks to
promote mutual understanding and appreciation, he does so by looking at the
differences between Bantu and western thought. These differences can be
summarised in the table below.
Bantu Western
Hierarchy of forces Search for truth through science
Mythologising thinking Demythologised thinking
Integral religious trends Dualistic tendencies
Closeness to the past Organising the future
Heritage bound Critical discernment
Collective-socialising-participatory thought Individualistic accents
Authoritarian orientation Democratic approach
Direct experience Systematic exploration
Concretely-practical thinking Abstract thought
Sensitive-intuitive identification Intellectual definition
Irrationalistic inclinations Rationalistic disposition
Situational integrity Conceptual fragmentation
Reality of the unknown Scientific nudity
Useful meaning Neutral objectivity
Agrarian situated Industrialised-technocratic dominated

1976.2 ‘Ethics: theoretical or practical science?’.


Koers 41 (5/6): 201-222.
Reprinted in Horizon (1978.4).

This paper, prepared for the International Congress on ‘Theory and Practice’
held at Genoa and Barcelona 8-15 September 1976, uses ethics as an

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illustration of the problem of theory and practice in philosophy. He starts by
surveying how philosophers through the ages have viewed the problem of
theory and practice. He then critiques traditional viewpoints about ethics
before in the final section presenting in outline a new perspective. He sees
ethics as a science with a limited scope but ‘full of practical relevance’.

1976.3 ‘First International Conference for Christian Higher Education: review


and preview’.
In Christian Higher Education: The Contemporary Challenge. Proceedings
First International Conference of Reformed Institutions for Christian
Scholarship. 9-13 September 1975.
Wetenskaplike bydrae van die PU vir CHO, (2nd edn 1983). Reeks F: Institut
vir die Bevordering van calvinisme Reeks F3: versamelwerke, no 6.
Potchefstroom, Institute for the Advancement of Calvinism, 1976: 407-418.
ISBN 0869903209; 418 pages.
A brief foreword was also published in International Reformed Bulletin 19
(64): 1.

In his review and preview van der Walt examines the when?, where?, who?,
why and what about?, how did things go? and what about the future
questions? He concludes by a look at the tasks for the newly established
Clearing House for the International Alliance of Reformed Institutions for
Christian Higher education based at the Potchefstroom University.
The Free University were initially invited to this conference, but when they
chose to send Beyers Naudé( 1914-2004), a leading Afrikaner anti-apartheid
campaigner, H. J. J. Bingle of the PU for CHE withdrew the invitation (see
1984.9).

Contents
A radical new order? / H.J.J. Bingle
University as it is & as it ought to be / H. van Riessen
Threats to the Christian character of the Christian institution / P. Courthial
Threats to the Christian character of the Christian institution / J.H.
Kromminga
Idea of Christian scholarship / H. Hart

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Contextual possibilities for Christian academic service / J.S. Stone
National & international structure & task of the Christian institution for
higher education / Z. Rittersma, P.G.W. du Plessis & B.J. van der Walt
Commitment & theory / N. Wolterstorff
Our Christian calling of doing science / H.G. Stoker
Christian scholars & Christian science / J.C. Coetzee
What are the problems affecting the development of Christian science in the
modern world, specifically in the case of non-Christian countries? / R.
Hashimoto.
Problems affecting the development of Christian education in non-Christian
countries / A.H. Nichols
Challenge to reformed higher education in the Latin third world countries /
S.H. Rooy
Problems affecting the development of Christian learning or Christian
scholars / G. van Groningen
Position of the Christian lecturer, teacher & student at a Christian institution
with special reference to the educational task / J.A. Heyns
Position of the Christian teacher at the Christian university, with special
reference to the situation in Japan as a non-Christian country / T. Kodera
Christian in the secular university / W. Stanford Reid
Medical faculty - secular or Christian: an examination of relationships facing
the Christian teacher / D. Hanson
Status of the Christian teacher in a secular educational institution & the
status of the non-Christian student at a Christian educational institution /
J.S. Rhee
Authority & discipline at institutions for higher education / S.C.W. Duvenage
Authority & discipline at Christian higher education institutions / P. G.
Schrotenboer
Academic freedom in Christian perspective / W. van't Spijker.
Academic freedom in Christian perspective / F.J.M. Potgieter
Reflections on the Christian past, present and possible future with respect to
the Christian reformation of higher education / R. Russell
Co-ordination between reformed Christian institutions in the Americas / J.C.
van der Stelt
Developing reformed Christian study facilities: Indonesia, New Zealand,
Australia & the South Pacific islands / S. Fowler

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Japan & the Far East / S. Tokunaga
Reviewing the status quo in Europe / A. Troost
Creating facilities for evangelical theological training in Africa / B. Kato
Co-ordination between Christian institutions in South Africa / J.H. Coetzee
Calvin's critique of Calvinism / H.A. Oberman
Conflict between the Lutheran & Calvinistic churches about the relevance of
faith for public life and the consequences of this conflict for Calvinistic
research / R. Makrosch
On Calviniana literature / D. Kempff
Resolutions
First International Conference for Christian Higher Education / B.J. van der
Walt.

1976.5 with Prof Dr P G W Du Plessis. ‘The national and international


structure and task of the Christian Institution for Higher education:
propositions for discussion’.
In Christian Higher Education: The Contemporary Challenge. (1976.3): 114-
115.
This brief two-page, seven-paragraph discussion paper is replete with wisdom
regarding the role and task of a Christian university; ‘both the what and the
how of the teaching programme are important’.

1976.6 ‘Natural theology with special reference to the viewpoint of Thomas


Aquinas, John Calvin and the “Synopsis Purios Theologiae”’.
In die Skriflig 10 (39): 48-52.
Reprinted in Heartbeat (1978.3).

This is an English summary of his D Phil dissertation, Potchefstroom University


for Christian Higher education, 1974.

He concludes that natural theology was the result of ‘a synthetic mind and
consequently unbiblical Ontology, Anthropology, Theory of Knowledge and
Philosophy of Science amongst Christians’.

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1976.7 ‘“Regnum hominis et regnum Dei”. Historical-critical discussion of the
relationship between nature and supernature according to Duns Scotus’.
Bulletin van die Suid-Afrikannse Verening vir die Bevordering van
Christelike Wetenskap Sept/ Dec 50/51: 21-39.
Also reprinted in Heartbeat (1978.3).

This paper, prepared for the Fourth International Scotus Congress, Padua, 24-
29 September 1976, elaborates on the problem of the relationship between
natyre and supernature – ‘the two realm theory’. It is one of the basic
premises of Scotus. After tracing the history of the two realm approach van
der Walt looks at Scotus’ view. In Scotus’ view the fall implied a loss of the
supernatural which was then restored as a donum superadditum by
redemption. Scotus’ view of the fall and of redemption is not total or radical
enough.

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1977

1978
1978.1 ‘Ad Fontes. Research on the sixteenth century reformation’.
Koers 43 (6): 497-530.
This was reprinted as 1979.2 – see below.

1978.2 ‘Lend wings to Calvinism: CHE International Action’.


Koers 43 (6): 531-532.
This brief two-page report, reports on the work of the PU for CHE and the
Clearing House. This gives an opportunity to ‘lend wings to Calvinism
emanating for Potchefstroom and South Africa, thus spreading it far beyond
our countries borders’.

1978.3 Heartbeat: Taking the Pulse of Our Christian Theological and


Philosophical Heritage.
Wetenskaplike bydraes of the PU for CHE series F.
Institute for reformational studies F3, no. 9.
Potchefstroom: PU for CHE
ISBN 0869904620; 307 pages

Contents
Preface
Introduction
1. Historiography of philosophy: the consistent problem-historic method (see
1978.1)
2. Ancient Greek thought: origins of Western theology

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3. Eisegesis-exegesis, paradox and nature-grace: methods of synthesis in
Medieval philosophy (see 1973.3)
4. The problem of the relation between faith and knowledge in Early
Christian and Medieval thought
5. The encounter of Arabic and Christian civilizations in Medieval philosophy
with particular reference to the conflict between faith and reason. A
comparison between the viewpoints of Averroes and Thomas Aquinas (see
1973.4)
6. In the steps of Thomas Aquinas: 1274-1974 - A bibliographical sketch
7. Thomas Aquinas and the fundamental problems of our time
8. The philosophical conception of Thomas Aquinas in his Summa Contra
Gentiles
9. Thomas Aquinas' idea about wonders - a critical appraisal (see 1973.5)
10. The relevance of Thomas Aquinas' view of Theology (as expressed in his
Summa Contra Gentiles) for contemporary studies
11. Man, the tension-ridden bridge between the transcendent and the
nontranscendent world in the thought of Bonaventure of Bagnorea (see
1974.2)
12. Regnum hominis et regnum Dei. Historical-critical discussion of the
relationship between nature and supernature according to Duns Scotus (see
1976.7)
13. Biblical and unbiblical traits in Calvin's view of man.
14. Natural, Theology with special reference to the viewpoints of Thomas
Aquinas, John Calvin and the Synopsis Purioris Theologiae (see 1976.6)
15. Theologia Naturalis redivivus. Some critical remarks on the resurgence of
Natural Theology and Theodicy
16. Acts 17: 15-34 and Romans 1: 18-25: evidence of contact-points in mission
work, or proofs for a Natural Theology?
17. The relapse into Scholasticism during the Further Reformation - A
preliminary survey
18. How do we know that the Bible is the Word of God? A few remarks on
General Canonics and Apologetics

This collection of works aims to ‘take the pulse of our past by means of a
“cardiogram”’. The scene is set in the first chapter with Vollenhoven’s CPHM.
This is then utilized to look at ancient Greek thought (ch 2) and Medieval

24
philosophy and theology (chs 3-12). Avererroes (ch 5), Aquinas (chs 5-10,
14), Bonaventure (ch 11) and Duns Scotus (ch 12). All the thinkers examined,
to some extent, show synthetic and dualistic thinking.

Calvin, the great reformer, is also examined (ch 13 and 14). Though standing
firmly within the Calvinistic tradition van der Walt is not afraid to criticise
the great man – Calvin is not above reproach. In particular his anthropology
(ch 13) and his natural theology are criticised (ch 14).

Ch 16 looks at natural theology and theodicy – usually understood as ‘a


justification for evil’. They are both closely related, natural theology
attempts to prove the existence of God and theodicy prove that the existence
of evil does not prove that God doesn’t exist! Acts 17 and Rom 1, both
passages have been used in attempt to justify natural theology, are examined
next. He gives reasons why it fails.

Moving back to the Reformation ch 17 looks at thee seemingly perennial lapse


into scholasticism – he sees a wide gap between Calvin and post-Reformation
Calvinism. Melanchthon, Luther’s successor, and Beza, Calvin’s successor, are
examined. Both absorbed Aristotelianism, this paved the way for subsequent
thinkers to embrace scholasticism. The seventeenth century post-
Reformation scholars found in scholasticism an intellectual (theological)
foundation as no radically Christian philosophy had been developed.

The final chapter provides an apologetic for the Bible as the word of God – he
urges us not to take took seriously this argument. He rightly notes regarding
canonics – which books and why these books are in the Bible – is not to be
approached in a rationalistic way.

Ch 2 is a translation of ‘Die oorspronge van die Westers teologie binne die


antieke Grieks denke’ Philosophia Reformata 41 (1976): 24-48.
Ch4 is a translation of ‘Die problem van die verhouding tussen geloof en wete
in die vroeg-Christelike en Middeleeuse denke’ Tydskrif vir Christelike
Wetesnskap 12 (1976): 97-17.
Ch 6 is a translation of ‘Op die spore van Thomas van Aquinao (1274-1974): ‘n
biografiese skets’ Koers 40 (1) (1975): 38-47

25
As the title suggests this a is brief biographical sketch of Aquinas – it serves to
introduce the subsequent chapters in this volume of Aquinas’ approach.
Ch 7 is a translation of ‘Thomas van Aquino en die fundamentale probleme
van ons tyd’ Tydskrif vir Christelike Wetenskap 10 (1974): 119-128.
Ch 8 a translation of ‘Die wysgerige konsepsie van Thomas van Aquino’ Koers
41 (2): 73-81 and 41 (3/4): 133-149.
Ch 10 Is a translation of the last chapter of his MA Thesis: ‘Die wysgerie
konsepie van Thomas van Aquino in sy “Summa Contra Gentiles” met spesiale
verwysing na sy seining van Teologie’ (Potchefstroom University for Christian
higher Education, 1968)
Ch 13 This an abstract – apart from the introduction and conclusion – of his
dissertation Die Natuurlike Teologie met besondere aandag die visie daarop
by Thomas van Aquino, Johannes Calvyn en die “Synopsis Purioris
Theologiae” 2 vols 900 pages (Potchefstroom University ofr Chriatin Higher
Education1974) pp 398-418.
It has also been published in Afrikaans in Tydskrif vir Christelike Wetenskap
13 (1977): 172-189.
Ch 14 A summary of his dissertation (1974).
Ch 15 Translation of ‘Theologia Naturalis Redividus. Enkele immanent-
kritiese opmerkings oor die herlewende Natuulike teologie en Theodisee’
Bulletin van die Suid-Afrikannse Verening vir die Bevordering van Christelike
Wetenskap 45 (July 1975): 42-57.
Ch 16 Translation of ‘Handelinge 17:15-34 en Romeine 1:18-25: Bewyse vir
aansluitingspunte in die sending of vir ‘n Natuurlike Teologie?’ In die Skriflig
10(38) (1976): 47-51.
Ch 17 Translation of ‘Die terugval in die skolastiek ten tye van die Nadere
Reformasie’ Tydskrif vir Christelike Wetenskap 11 (1975): 117-133.
Ch 18 Translation of ‘Hoe wee tons dat die Bybel die Woord van God is?’
Bulletin van die Suid-Afrikannse Verening vir die Bevordering van Christelike
Wetenskap 15 (Sept 1968): 215-224.

26
1978.4 Horizon: Surveying a Route for Contemporary Christian Thought.
Wetenskaplike bydraes van die PU vir CHO. Reeks
F3, Versamelwerke ; no. 10.
Potchefstroom: PU for CHE
ISBN 0869904639; 297 pages.

Contents
Preface
Introduction
1. Life and world view: a philosophical analysis (see 1972.1)
2. A comparison between Bantu and Western thought. Outline for an
exploratory discussion (1976.1)
3. The Gospel as a liberating power in the traditionally closed, static culture
of the Black peoples of Africa
4. The evolutionistic life and world view
5. The importance of a Scripture-based Ontology
6. Radical Biblical Anthropology (see 1975.1)
7. The meaning of the expression "created in the image and likeness of God"
8. The relationships of man: a studium generale (see 1975.2)
9. The value and task of Philosophy at the university (see 1971.1)
10. Ethics: theoretical or practical science? (see 1976.2)
11. In lumine Tuo videbimus lumen: integral Christian scholarship (see
1974.4)
12. Amazement at the marvellous
13. A few observations on the place and nature of scientific criticism
14. The profile of the twentieth century in the seventies on analysis of the
contours of contemporary Western culture (see 1974.3)
15. Contemporary Western culture and counter-culture
16. Is the Christian-National principle Calvinistic?
17. Maturity: contours of a viewpoint

27
18. In the power of the Spirit. Spiritual readiness under Scriptural
illumination

Heatbeat (1978.3) focused on history, Horizon looks at the present. As Henk


Hart notes in his Preface: ‘this collection of essays represents a fascinating
record of intellectual development in the Afrikaner-Calvinist community’.
The first three essays deal with worldviews in general (ch 1) and that of the
black Africans in particular (ch 2-3) and an evolutionistic worldview (ch 4).
Several of the chapters than deal with anthropology (ch6-8). He exposes
dualistic worldviews and describes a biblical, reformational anthropology.

Ch 3 A paper delivered at a conference on’ Education and community


development’ University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg 29 Sept – 3 Oct,
1976.
Ch 4 Class notes for first-year students at the university of Fort Hare
Ch 5 A translation of ‘ Die waarde van ‘n Skrifmatige Ontologie’ Tydskrif vir
Christelike Wetenskap 12 (1976): 124-131
Ch 7 Translation of ‘Imago Dei. Betekenis van die uitdrukking “geskape na
beld en gelykenis van God”’ Tydskrif vir Christelike Wetenskap 12 (1976): 23-
31
Ch 12 Translation of ‘Verwondering oor die wonder’ Word en Daad 14 (128)
(1973): 3-5
Ch 13 Translation of “Enkele opmerkings oor die plek en aard van kritek in
die wetenskap’ Tydskrif vir Christelike Wetenskap 13 (1977): 229-231
Ch 15 Translation of ‘Kotemporere kulture en kontra-kultuur’ Reformasie en
Revolusie (Potchefstroom: Institut vir die Bevordering van die Calvinisme,
1974): 119-142.
Ch 16 Translation of ‘Is die Christelik-Nasionale beginsel Calvinisties?’ Fokus
4(4) (1976): 397-410
Ch 17 Translation of Volwassenheid – kontoere van ‘n standpunt
Wetenskaplike bydraes van die PU vir CHO. Reeks F1, IBC-studiestukke ; no.
104. (1976)
Ch 18 Translation of Geestelik weerbaar of weerloos? Wetenskaplike bydraes
van die PU vir CHO. Reeks F3, Versamelwerke ; no. 8 (1977)

28
1979
1979.1 From Noyon to Geneva: A Pilgrimage in the Steps of John Calvin
(1509-1564).
Wetenskaplike bydraes van die PU vir CHO. Reeks
F2 No 10
Potchefstroom University for CHE
ISBN 0-86990-482-5; 71 pages (including
photographs)

Contents
Preface
1 Adventure in the unknown
2 Noyon in Picardia
3 A trip to Ourscamp on the Oise
4 Student in the capital
5 Huguenot landmarks in Paris
6 Through Huguenot country
7 Huguenot footprints in the south of France
8 Calvin in Strasbourg
9 More about Strasbourg
10 Calvin in Geneva
11 Geneva – the protestant Rome
12 Unfortunate events
13 Farewell to Geneva
Photograph album

This is an original and fascinating study on Calvin. It is a photo history and


tour guide. He has followed in the footsteps of Calvin and along the way he
has written this short (71 pp) but marvellous tour guide, complete with 66
photographs.

29
He traces Calvin from his birthplace in Noyon to his time as a student in
Paris, his days as a fugitive in the south of France and then on to Strasbourg
and Geneva. Along the way we are also given a brief history of the
Huguenot’s. Van der Walt’s writing is very clear and he has many suggestions
for the would-be Christian tourist/ pilgrim. He identifies places that the
heritage of Calvin still lives on and places where his influence has been all
but lost. The 66 photographs serve to make this book a first-class tourist
guide for the modern Reformed pilgrim.

1979.2 Contemporary Research on the Sixteenth Century Reformation.


Wetenskaplike bydraes van die PU vir CHO. Reeks
F4, Calvyncauseriee; no. 8.
Potchefstroomse University for Christian Higher
Education
ISBN 0869905279; 31 pages

See also 1978.1.

This booklet is the first and only one of the F4 series to be published in
English. Following on from F4 no 7 (1979), which (in Afrikaans) had dealt with
the intellectual décor of the Reformation (see 1980.2) where he shows how
Calvin cannot be understood in isolation he provides bibliographic and other
resources for a study of the Reformation. He is also writing in the hope that
it will stimulate an ‘interest in the reformational heritage here is South
Africa’. He looks at the work being done at universities and institutions. He
takes a worldwide tour and looks at work undergone in Europe, and outside
Europe (where places England and Scotland) which includes USA, Japan,
Korea and South Africa. He concludes with a plea to go to the original sources
(ad fontes). There are 76 footnotes, they take up almost half of the booklet.
It provides a fascinating snapshot of reformational studies in the seventies.

30
1979.3 ‘Jesus Christ: neither revolutionary nor conservative’.
Anakainosis 2 (1): 20-21.
This is an extract from a speech given to the South African Christian
Leadership Assembly entitled: ‘What do I owe Caesar?’ Here he points out
that Christ’s teachings can’t be identified with any political party of His day.
His way – and thus ours – is a way of reformation not revolution. Reformation
is more radical than revolution.

1979.4 ‘Second International Conference of Institutions for Christian Higher


Education - Grand Rapids 13-19 August 19878’.
Circular (Clearing House of the International Conference of Institutions for
Christian Higher Education) 12: 1-10. Jan
This is a report on the second conference, the first was held in 1975 at
Potchefstroom; the second at Calvin College. The theme was ‘Justice in the
international economic order’. 119 delegates attended and 62 institutions
were represented - The Free University refused to attend. These conferences
were the precursor to the foundation of The International Association for the
Promotion of Christian Higher Education (IAPCHE).

Van der Walt, along with Mr Achineku, Marion Barnes, Nick Wolterstorff,
Christie Coetzee, Ted Fackerell, Jan Dengerink, Sidney Rooy and Paul
Schrotenboer, were members of the steering committee.

The report contains a frank summary of the sessions and closes with an
evaluation. He notes the high standard of the papers presented and that the
conference was well organised. One problem was that the conference was
too overcrowded – leaving little time for personal networking. He then offers
a suggested outline for future conferences.

31
1979.5 ‘Second International Calvin Congress’.
Circular (Clearing House of the International Conference of Institutions for
Christian Higher Education) 13: 18-22. April
This conference – the first real international conference, the first, in 1974,
was European – was held at the Free University, 25-28 September 1978.
There were 80 researchers present from 16 countries.

The theme of the conference was Calvinus Ecclessiae Doctor. The report
outlines the themes and objectives of the conference and lists the speakers
and their topics. He notes that the papers were of a high standard and that
the discussions were informative. The business meeting is described and
bibliographic research and Calvin research is noted.

1979.6 ‘The Institute for the Advancement of Calvinism’.


Circular (Clearing House of the International Conference of Institutions for
Christian Higher Education) 15: 13-18 September
This is a brief report on The Institute for the Advancement of Calvinism,
Potchefstroom University for Christian Higher Education. The IAC was
established in 1966 and was the successor to the Calvinistic Foundation (est
1962). Van der Walt is the present director and he took over from Prof S. C.
W. Duvenage in 1974. The IAC also now acts as the Clearing House of the
ICRICH.

The IAC conducts research and issues publications on Calvin and the sixteenth
century Reformation. One research project was a bibliographical research on
Calvin conducted by D Kempf, the other is on the impact of Calvinism in
South Africa. The IAC is also responsible for Wetenskaplike Bydraes [=
scientific contributions] series F.

32
1980

1980.1 ‘Church reformation: a permanent call’.


Woord en Daad/ Word and Action 20 (216-219): (Aug): 11-13; (Sept): 20;
(Oct): 5-6; (Nov): 6-8.
Reprinted in 1991.1.12 and 2008.1.

This is a prophetic and heartfelt cry for the reformation of the church. He
writes as a critical friend of the church. He is well aware that what we don’t
need is a return to the past: ‘We should be careful not to fall into an
idealization of the past. The apostolic church was not at all a perfect church.
… Paul even had to write them a letter to the Corinthian Christians to remind
them that adultery is sin!’

1980.2 ‘The intellectual décor for the Reformation’.


Tydskrif vir Christelike Wetenskap 16: 25-55.
Reprinted in 1991.1 and 2008.1.
This is a translation of IRS publication F4 no 7.

Here we have a brief introduction on interpretations of the Reformation, an


overview of the trends in the era of the Reformation and a look at Calvin
amidst the spiritual currents of his time. This article contains an expansion of
many of the themes in 1982.4. Van der Walt concludes with: ‘… it cannot be
denied that whoever reads Calvin’s literary output honestly and without
preconceptions, together with an intimate knowledge of the preceding
history of Western thought, will have to admit that this great Frenchman for
Noyon often leant on extra-biblical sources. Like any other individual he
belonged to his time – he could alienate himself from many undesirable
inheritances, but he was also steeped in the thought of his time.’ It is a
substantial article which has 106 footnote references.

33
1980.3 ‘Introduction’.
Circular (Clearing House of the International Conference of Institutions for
Christian Higher Education) 17: 1-4. (Jan).
This introduction notes the symbolism of the new cover
design for the Circular: a dove descending from heaven
with an olive branch. He notes that the Circular is going
to 53 different countries. He observes that ‘Christian
education has to start with the premise of salvation in
Christ, inspired by his Spirit and be in the service and to
the honour of God’

1980.4 ‘The relevancy to the black peoples of Africa of a Calvinistic


cosmoscope’.
Koers 45 (3): 236-250.
Reprinted in Anatomy 1981.2 (first edn only).

This was a paper read at the opening of the conference of Dimbaza Reformed
Bible School, Dimbaza, Ciskel on 16th February 1979. The main emphasis then
was lay training and the provision of basic literature in English and Xhosa. It
is now called the Dumisani Theological Institute.

Van der Walt poses two important questions: ‘Can the Calvinistic (or
Reformed) view of life advance the indigenization or Africanization of the
Gospel? Can the Reformed approach help bring about a real Biblical, but at
the same time fully African, Christianity?’

He describes a calvistic cosmoscope using the four solas: sola Dei gloria; sola
scriptura; sola fide; and sola gratia. He then looks at some threats to these,
including pluralism, universalism, ecumenism and syncretism. He rightly
states that ‘Christianity … stands to judge every culture, destroying elements
that are incompatible with the Word of God … Black has to be biblical to be
beautiful’.

34
He looks at some causes of syncretism: political and social pressure,
friendliness of the African, poor training. He concludes by looking at the
need to live ‘by faith in God alone instead of resorting to materialism’ and
‘relying on God’s grace alone instead of depending on vital force’.

‘It is possible to bake an African bread with Calvinistic leaven and be sure
that it will not be sour!’.

35
1981

1981.1 Why the State?: Bible Study on Romans 13 and Revelation 13.
Wetenskaplike bydraes van die PU vir CHO. Potchefstroom: PU vir CHO.
Series F: Institute for the Advancement of Calvinism Series F2: Brochures, no
18: 21pp.
Also in Tydskrif vir Christelike Wetenskap 18 (1-2) (1982): 23-27.
This brochure was revised and expanded as 1988.8.

This version contains two chapters; one Rom 13:1-7 and the other Rev 13. It
was an address delivered at the third International Conference for Christian
Higher Education, Aug. 13-20, 1981 at Dordt College, Sioux Center, Iowa.
In it he addresses the question; ‘Why such a thing as the State?’. To answer
it he looks at Rom 13 and Rev13. Rom 13 portrays the state as it ideally
should be, Rev 3 the state as it can deteriorate. He starts by looking at the
background, the audience and context of Rom 13, before looking at some
exegetical ‘flashes’ from its contents.

In the section on Rev 13 he looks at two beasts: the beast from the sea (13:1-
10) and the beast from the earth (13:11-18).

1981.2 Anatomy of reformation: Flashes and Fragments of a Reformational


Worldview.
Series Wetenskaplike bydraes van die PU vir CHO. Reeks F3, Versamelwerke;
no. 13. Potchefstroom: PU vir CHO.
ISBN 0869906070; 542 pages
See 1991.1 and 2008.1.

Contents
1. Christ – conservative, revolutionary, ascetic or what? (see 1988.8)
2. Christ and the religious order of his day
3. Christ and the social order of his time
4. Christ and the political situation of his day (see 1988.8)
5. The new way of reformation

36
6. Sixteenth century models for Christian involvement in the world
7. Renaissance and reformation -- contemporaries, but not allies
8. Christian nationalism - tracking down Calvinism in South Africa
9. Church reformation -- the permanent call
10. Out of love for my church -- on the reformation of a reformed church
11. Not of the world, but in the world -- the calling of the church in the world
12. Church mission or kingdom mission? - The kingdom perspective in our
missionary endeavour
13. The significance of a biblical view of man for the pastorate
14. God's hand in history
15. A total onslaught -- revolutionary warfare in southern Africa
16. The relevance of a calvinistic cosmoscope to the black peoples of Africa
(1980.4)
17. Panorama of reformation in the year of our lord 1980 -- a survey of world-
wide reformed faith and action
18. Reformation or revolution

This book van der Walt sees as the third in a trilogy that began with
Heartbeat (1978.3) and Horizon (1978.4). The reception of these two other
volumes prompted the publication of this collection of essays.

Many of the chapters here began as speeches or magazine articles;


consequently it is less technical than the other two collections. There are no
footnotes, for example.

The book comprises several sections. The uniting theme is that of


reformation. The first deals with Jesus’ attitude to the culture of his time.
The second looks at the reformation. The third examines the sixteenth
century climate of the Reformation. Contemporary South Africa is the
subject of the next section. Another section looks at socio-political issues
associated with reformation.

A revised and expanded version was published in 1991.1. See that entry for a
comparison of the versions. It was republished in 2008.

37
1982

1982.1 ‘The best of John Calvin, by S. Dunn (Book review)’.


Kerbode 134 (1): 7.
A brief review of Samuel Dunn’s The Best of John Calvin reprinted by Baker
Book House, 1981.

1982.2 ‘Important recent studies on the sixteenth century reformation’.


Circular (Clearing House of the International Conference of Institutions for
Christian Higher Education). 27: 64-67.
This is a brief four page summary of two books: Calvin’s handschriftliche
annotations zu Chrystosomus by Alexandre Ganocry and Klaus Muller (1981)
and Zwingli’s Thought: New Perspectives by Gottfired W. Locher (1981).

1982.3 ‘Foreword’.
In Calvinus Reformator: his contribution to theology, church and society.
Wetenskaplike bydraes van die PU vir CHO. Reeks F3, Versamelwerke ; no.
17.
ISBN 0869906860; 322 pages
Papers delivered at the first South African Congress for Calvin Research,
August 12-14, Pretoria, 1980. It includes English translations of papers
presented in Afrikaans. In his foreword he notes three things: most of the
addresses from the conference were in Afrikaans and so have been translated
into English; the numbering and bibliographies of the papers presented
remained unchanged; and the length varies as some had three-quarters of an
hour and other one-quarter to present their papers.

Contents
The shadow and the sketch / T.H.L. Parker
Calvin's hermeneutics of Holy Scripture / H.W. Rossouw
The hermeneutics of Calvin / L. Floor
Is Christ the scopus of the Scriptures? / B. Engelbrecht

38
The problem of the concept of the "personality" of the Holy Spirit according
to Calvin / B.J. Engelbrecht
John Calvin and the Protestant hymns / W.J.B. Serfontein
Calvin's canon law and influence on churches in South Africa / B. Spoelstra
The doctrine of Calvin as transmitted in the South African context by among
others the oude schrijvers: an introductory survey / J.W. Hofmeyr
Calvin and Puritanism in England and Scotland: some basic concepts in the
development of "federal theology" / J.B. Torrance
Calvin and art / P.W. Buys
Calvin on art: Calvin defended against (some of) his supporters / J.J. Snyman
Calvin and art: introduction to the discussion Calvinus reformator hodie / J.A.
Heyns.
International Calvin research / W.H. Neuser
Research on Calvin and its influence in the field of Afrikaans theology / D.
Kempff
Research on and influence of Calvin in the English-speaking ecclesiastical
sphere / J.A.B. Holland
Calvin research at Calvin / C.J. Vos
The editio princeps of the Institutio Christianae religionis 1536 by John Calvin
/ H.W. Simpson
A brief characteristic of Calvin's theology / F.J.M. Potgieter
Calvin and the theological trends of his time / W. Balke
Calvin, Augustine and Platonism: a few aspects of Calvin's philosophical
background / N.T. van der Merwe
Renaissance and Reformation: contemporaries but not allies / B.J. Van der
Walt
Jacques Lefèvre d'Etaples (c. 1455-1536): Calvin's forerunner in France / P.E.
Hughes
John Knox and the word of God: a comparison with John Calvin / V.E.
d'Assonville
Calvin as Scriptural theologian / P.C. Potgieter
Calvin's view of man in the light of Gen. 2:15, or, Man: earth's servant or lord
/ C.J. Vos

39
1982.4 ‘Renaissance and Reformation: contemporaries but not allies’.
In Calvinus Reformator: his contribution to theology, church and society.
Wetenskaplike bydraes van die PU vir CHO. Reeks F3 no 17: 85-92.
Potchefstroom: PU vir CHO.
Also in In die Skriflig 17 (1983) (67): 29-34 and Anatomy (1991.1.10).

Originally a fifteen-minute lecture, this article, van der Walt’s contribution


to 1982.3, looks at the intellectual background of Calvin and isolates the
religious driving force behind the Renaissance and the Reformation. Calvin is
no ‘sixteenth century Melchisedek: a man without beginning or background’.
Van der Walt looks briefly at the influence of humanism, stoicism and
Platonism upon Calvin. ‘Renaissance in essence was a rediscovery of
Antiquity, a revival of original paganism. The essence of Reformation was the
rediscovery of the word of God of genuine Christianity.’

For more elaboration he points readers to Anatomy 1981.2 (1989.5).

1982.5 ‘Zwingli’s thought: new perspectives’.


In die Skriflig 62:54-55.
A brief review of Gottfried Locher’s Zwingli’s thought: new perspectives. See
also 1982.2.

40
1983

1983.1 ‘The consistent-problem historical method’.


Anakainosis. 5 (2/3): 1-22.
Reprinted in 1991.1 and 2008.1.
See also 1978.1; 1983.1.

Van der Walt returns again to Vollenhoven’s consistent problem-historical


method (CPHM). He provides a clear and succinct summary of the CPHM. He
answers several questions: Why a history of philosophy? Is the CPHM scriptural
and philosophical? Does the CPHM do justice to the history of philosophy?
Before looking at some of the arguments for and against the CPHM. He sees
the CPHM as a fruitful approach which has may possibilities and can be
exploited more fully.

1983.2 ‘Studying religion: a methodological introduction to science of religion


by J S Kruger (Book review)’.
In die Skriflig 66: 48-9.
A brief book review of Kruger’s Studying Religion (Pretoria: University of
South Africa)

41
1984
1984.1 ‘Vision – reality – vistas for the future: spot impressions of the IRS
conference held on 4 and 5 November 1983.
Orientation 32: 72-94.
This is a report on a 24-hour conference of the IRS at 29 Tom Street,
Potchefstroom. His report takes the form of three acts: vision, reality and
vistas for the future.

The conference, a mustard seed conference, was attended by 32 invitees, ‘10


Blacks, 2 Coloureds, one Indian, 2 Koreans and 17 Whites’. No mean feat for
apartheid South Africa when many countries were active in a boycott.

A main part of the report is given over to an appreciation of one of the key
speakers Dr Tokunboh Adeyemo form Kenya.

1984.2 ‘An alphabetical list of key words indicating problem areas in the
African (and other Third World) situation’.
Orientation 32: 62-65.
This is exactly what the title suggests a list of 113 words from Africanization
to Youth drawn from conference papers and PACLA (1976) papers published in
Facing New Challenge.

The list was used in the 1983 IRS conference (1984.1). It was studied, the
concepts grouped together, and 8 discussion groups from the 32 delegates
tackled one set of the complex problems.

1984.3 ‘Preface’.
In Our Reformational Tradition: a rich heritage and lasting vocation.
Wetenskaplike bydraes van die PU vir CHO. Potchefstroom: PU vir CHO. F3
no 21 i-ii.
ISBN 0869907662; ii + 552 pages

42
This preface reveals the aim of the book as ‘to give expression to our
conviction that the sixteenth century Reformation still has meaning for us
today’.
The book is in three sections:
A. The sixteenth century
B. John Calvin
C. Calvinism – also in South Africa.

1984.4 ‘John Hus, a reformer in his own right’.


In Our Reformational Tradition: a rich heritage and lasting vocation
Wetenskaplike bydraes van die PU vir CHO. Potchefstroom: PU vir CHO.
Reefks F: IRS F3 no 21: 30-60.
Reprinted in Anatomy 1991.1 and 2008.1.

The Czech Hus has often been neglected. Van der Walt seeks to remedy this
by offering a brief biography of the bold reformer and contemporary of
Wycliffe. Hus lived was one of the fifteenth century heralds of the dawn of
the Reformation ushered in by the sixteenth century Calvin, Luther and
Zwingli.

1984.5 ‘John Knox: the Scottish reformer who feared no man’.


In Our Reformational Tradition: a rich heritage and lasting vocation.
Wetenskaplike bydraes van die PU vir CHO. Potchefstroom: PU vir CHO. F3
no 21: 146-154.
Reprinted in Anatomy 1991.1 and 2008.1.

This provides a brief biography of the Scottish reformer. The subtitle is taken
from Knox’s gravestone. Knox began as a Roman Catholic priest and was
converted by reading the Bible and Augustine and the influence of the martyr
George Wishart. Knox sent a lot of his life outside his native Scotland
because of persecution. Knox’s life is inspiring because he showed ‘a
complete obedience to the Word of God, with no regard to the
consequences’.

43
1984.6 ‘Was Calvin a Calvinist or was/ is Calvinism Calvinistic?’.
In Our Reformational Tradition: a rich heritage and lasting vocation
Wetenskaplike bydraes van die PU vir CHO. Potchefstroom: PU vir CHO. F:
IRS F3 no 21: 369-377.
This is the third contribution of van der Walt to this volume. This is a
bibliographic list that will enable others ‘to study and investigate both Calvin
and Calvinism as it succeeded him’. The material is classified according to
county as far as is possible. He spends some time on R T Kendall’s Calvin and
English Calvinism (1979) and Paul Helm’s response Calvin and the Calvinists
(1982). He remarks that ‘here we find a striking example of how people can
come to widely divergent results because of differing interpretations of the
same material’. As a postscript he notes Donald Sinnema’s (then ICS,
Toronto, now Trinity College) work.

1984.7 ‘The “Synopsis Puriorius Theologiae” – is it really so pure?


Philosophical impurities in the post-Dordtian theology’.
In Our Reformational Tradition: a rich heritage and lasting vocation
Wetenskaplike bydraes van die PU vir CHO. Potchefstroom: PU vir CHO. F:
IRS F3 no 21: 378-423.

1984.8 Communicating the gospel of the kingdom of God at the PU for CHE
and its IRS.
Potchefstroom: PU vir CHO. IRS.
25 pages
Contents
1. Important distinction
2.The Potchefstroom University for Christian Higher Education: proclaiming
the lordship of Christ also in the field of scientific endeavour
3. The Institute for Reformational Studies [IRS]: a power station of radical
biblical thought and action

44
This pamphlet - unusually not given an F number - gives a brief history of the
Potchefstroom University for Christian Education (PU for CHE) and of the IRS
(see also 1975.3 and 1974.1).

It starts, by outlining the important distinction between church and kingdom,


as this is important to understand the work of the PU for CHE and the IRS.
Neither are ‘primarily involved in communicating the Gospel in the
ecclesiastical sphere, but in the first place in the much broader kingdom of
God’ (p 2).

The University’s direction is reflected in it surname: For Christian Higher


Education (vir Christelike Hoër Onderways). This does not mean it is a
narrow institution. Religion is not something apart from ordinary life, but all
of life is religion. The paper then examines what is meant to by Christian
scientific studies. A distinction is drawn between pre-scientific and scientific
knowledge. For scientific endeavour to be Christian means, in part, not
minimising our expectations of scripture and not expecting too much from
the Bible. The Bible offers a persectival source of knowledge. It involves
investigation illuminated by the Word of God, and most important, ‘an
enlightened, deeply moved, reborn heart’ (pp 16-17).

The final section looks at the history and activities of the IRS.

1984.9 ‘Report on the first conference of ICPCHE’.


Orientation. 35: 6-17.
In his introduction van der Walt notes that this may be the first conference of
the International Council for the Promotion of Christian Higher Education
(ICPCHE) arranged by this Council, but it is actually the fourth. The first
conference was arranged by the PU for CHE in 1975 (see 1976.3), the second
the third in the US at Calvin College 1978 and Dordt College in 1981.
This conference was held at the castle Nijenrode, the Netherlands and
organised by the Free University. The theme was ‘Critique and challenge of
Christian Higher Education’.

45
The 140 participants came from 39 countries including from African countries
such as Cameroon, Egypt, Uganda, Ghana, Botswana Tanzania and Liberia,
who had not been previously represented.

Five resolutions were submitted; these included one on apartheid that caused
‘furious discussion’; the second resolution read: ‘The conference makes an
urgent appeal to the Council of the PU for CHE to open the doors of this
institution unconditionally to all students desiring Christian higher education,
so that its pretension of being a Christian institution should not be denied’.

He concludes with a critical evaluation. The conference was too general,


there was a tendency for an uncritical theology of liberation theology to
dominate, time was wasted with grand ideas while the small obvious things
were often neglected, and at times it was poorly organised.

1984.10 ‘Scholastic influences on Calvinism: a bibliographical survey’.


Tydskrif vir Christelike Wetenskap 20:6-17 (Dec)

1984.11 ‘The will of God’.


RESA Newsletter 8: 5-9.
Reprinted in 1991.1 and 2008.1.

This provides us with wise advice on how to know the will of the Holy Spirit
when confronted with difficult decisions; a neglected subject in the
Reformed world. We are not offered ‘dogmatic bricks of gold’ but ideas from
scripture. Biblical examples are examined before looking at today. Prayer;
the study of the scriptures; desires, gifts and personality; advice of believers;
and circumstances are all seen as five ‘navigation lights’ that God can use to
guide us.

46
1984.12 ‘Woman and marriage in the Middle Ages’.
Proceedings of the Seventh Biennial Conference of the Medieval Society of
South Africa: 189-201.
This is the same paper as 1986.3 – see below.

47
1985

1986

1986.1 ‘The underlying “Nooitgedacht”’.


Orientation 40: 1-11
This is the opening address of an IRS conference held in a farm called
‘Nooitgedacht’, near the Vall River in South Africa. In this brief introductory
address he provides the background to the meeting, states the aim of the
conference – the theme is the meaning of the reformational vision of life for
Southern Africa – and the character it should bear.

He then uses John 4 to look at some aims – the demolishing of the walls, alls
between nations, walls of traditionalism, of personal sins and of religion.
This can be done by drinking of the true fountain of life, Jesus. The
character of the conference he hopes will be reflective, praying, singing,
listening, discovering, opening-up and enriching.

The first IRS conference (see the report in Orientation 32 (1984.1)) was a
one-day event with 32 people attending, this was over four days with double
the number of attendees.

1986.2 ‘Preface’.
In John Calvin's Institutes: his opus magnum: proceedings of the Second
South African Congress for Calvin Research, July 31-August 3, 1984.
Wetenskaplike van die bydraes van die PU vir CHO.
F3: no 28: i-iii.
ISBN 0869908839 (pbk.); iii + 528 pages

48
In his preface to the conference proceedings van der Walt comments on the
diversity of participants – no easy task in South Africa at that time. He also
comments on the wide range of presentations at the conference, this included
a celebration of the first Afrikaans translation of Calvin’s Institutes by W H
Simpson, a slide show ‘In the steps of the Reformers’ and an exhibition of
manuscripts and other research materials.

1986.3 ‘Woman and marriage: in the Middle Ages, in Calvin and in our own
time’.
In John Calvin's Institutes: his opus magnum.
Wetenskaplike van die bydraes van die PU vir CHO. F3 no 28: 184-238.
See also 1984.12.

This is a wide ranging lecture – he notes several reasons for this: ‘it is
difficult to talk about woman without involving the family’, it is necessary to
compare Calvin with the Middle Ages to see what is traditional and what is
new, and the need to see again the scriptures upon which Calvin based his
views. Though the conference theme was Calvin’s Institutes, the lack of
information there means that van der Walt has to look wider.

He starts with a brief look at woman in the Middle Ages. Here he finds a
‘chorus of contempt’ for woman; she is ‘cursed as a consequence of the sin of
Eve, dishonest because she was made form the crooked rib of Adam, bestial
because she associated with the serpent and lustful and crazy because of her
biology’! She had a subordinate position to man. Some voices of dissent
began to be heard in the twelfth century.

The Middle Ages was a period of the ‘two realms’: nature and grace.
Everything was seen through this ‘bifocal lens’; hence marriage and sex was
all right but virginity was better. Woman was either looked down upon as a
witch or as a whore, or looked up to, eg nuns or the virgin Mary.

In the Reformation marriage was restored to its right place, the appreciation
of woman within marriage was increased and the married female was seen as
the ideal.

49
For Calvin, marriage is an institution of God and not a sacrament, it was not
primarily for procreation, love and fidelity are the main considerations. He
did not regard sex as sinful. Here he broke with the nature-grace dualism of
the Middle Ages. He saw woman as equal but following the ideas of the time,
as subservient to man. Calvin does permit divorce, but only on two grounds:
adultery and an unbelieving partner rejecting the believer and under these
conditions he permitted remarriage. In this Calvin was ahead of his time. He
‘opened the door for a reappraisal of woman and of marriage’.

The remainder of the lecture examines Calvin’s exegesis of some key


passages.

1986.4 ‘Secularization and ideolization: the two most dangerous enemies of


Christianity in South Africa today. How to recognise them’.
Orientation 42: 64-87.
This is the abstract of a paper ‘Men and Gods in Southern Africa: religion,
idolatry, church centrism, secularism and ideologies’ Orientation 34 (1984):
1-69.

This is an address to the second Africa conference of the IRS on ‘Revival and
reformation in Southern Africa’.

The aim of this paper is an overview to help an analysis of our times. He sees
secularism as not an outside invader – but as the result of a nature/ grace
divide in Christian thought. The world has conquered Christianity rather then
the other way round. The process of secularism is a slow gradual, but
irresistible, process that had its beginnings in the sixteenth century.
Secularism is different from atheism in that atheism posits that God does not
exist, whereas secularism is indifferent.

He identifies a vicious circle of a closed worldview in secularism. Secularism


leads to individualism, which in turn leads to relativism, relativism leads to
utilism which brings us back to secularism and the whole spiral begins again.

50
Secularism ‘does not mean that man believes in nothing, but that he can
believe in anything’.

In the second part of the paper he looks at the results of secularism. He


takes a look at the ideology of secularism and how it works.

Our task as Christians he sees as: recognising secularism and other ideologies,
to acknowledge that we have been seduced by these ideologies – we need
self-criticism; and to remember, particularly in South Africa, that these
ideologies cannot be fought with violence.

There is a useful five-and-a-half-page bibliography on secularism and


ideologies.

1986.5 ‘Book review: Aquinas, Calvin and Contemporary Christian Thought


by Vos’.
Orientation 42 p 114.
A brief one-page review of Vos’ book. He concludes:

He [Vos] compares Aquinas’s vision with that of Calvin and comes to the
surprising conclusion that – in spite of differences – they are not so far
apart as the spiritual heirs of Calvin in Thomas himself would have
thought.

This work once again fixes attention on the necessity for the study of
primary sources themselves – and a cautioning not to trust in hearsay. I
would like to recommend this thorough piece of research to all (aspiring)
theologians and philosophers.

51
1987

1987.1 ‘Preface’.
In Educational Challenges in Southern Africa in a Christian-Reformational
Perspective.
Wetenskaplike van die bydraes van die PU vir CHO.
IRS. F3 no 30: i-iv.
ISBN 0869909606; v + 375 pages

This volume contains the proceedings of a ‘Nootigedacht’ held 29 November –


2 December. It is a special edition to commemorate the silver jubilee if the
IRS. It was also published in Orientation 45-47 .

1987.2 ‘Integral Christian scholarship: looking into the heart of the PU of the
CHE’.
In Educational Challenges in Southern Africa in a Christian-Reformational
Perspective.
Wetenskaplike van die bydraes van die PU vir CHO. F3 no 30: 235-260.
Reprinted in Anatomy 1991.1 and 2008.1.

1987.3 ‘Education, teaching, training: a few concluding remarks’.


In Educational Challenges in Southern Africa in a Christian-Reformational
Perspective
Wetenskaplike van die bydraes van die PU vir CHO F3 no 30: 347-354.
Rather than providing a summary of the conference van der Walt reflects on
what is the essence of education. Education is ‘to lead someone so that the

52
person can develop with the purpose of becoming capable’. ‘Education is a
conscious effort of the provider of education to guide the receiver thereof
towards the awareness of and equipment for the task I life in accordance
with certain norms.’ He then expands upon this definition.

1987.4 The Institute for Reformational Studies: twenty-five years of service


(1962-1987).
Potchefstroom: PU vir CHO IRS.
This pamphlet provides a succinct overview of the first twenty-five years of
the IRS (see also 1974.1, 1984.8 and 2008.2). It addresses what is the IRS,
what does it does and how individuals are able to profit from it.

1987.5 ‘The cunning of modern religious thought by David S Pacini (book


review)’.
Kerkblad(GKSA) 22 (Oct).
A brief review of Paccini’s The Cunning of Modern Religious Thought
(Augusburg, 1987)

53
1988

1988.1 On Being Human and Being a Christian in Africa: Communalism,


Socialism, and Communism in a Struggle for an African Anthropology.
Wetenskaplike van die bydraes van die PU vir CHO (2nd
edn) F2 no 42
Potchefstroom University for Christian Higher
Education.
ISBN 0 86990 967 3; ii + 64 pages.

Contents
By way of introduction
1. Subject and outline
2. African communalism
3. African socialism
4. African communism
5. Homo Africane, quo vadis?
6. Outlines for a scriptural view of man and society
7. Selected bibliography

The origins of this brochure are in a tour during Oct-Nov, 1984 to several
Southern African countries, and then a 1986 conference in the Netherlands
‘On being human; anthropology in Christian perspective’ on the 50th
anniversary of the Verening voor Calvinstische Wijsbegeerte.

He does not provide a complete description of an African anthropology, but


to look at three aspects: communalism – the traditional African vision;
socialism; and communism. He examines the anthropology in each of these
systems. Africa has developed from a traditional communalism to socialism
to Marxism, it has not followed the individualism of the west. As a
representative of the socialist position he examines Kenneth D Kaunda’s A
Humanist in Africa (1966), Kaunda sees socialism as ‘Zambia’s most precious

54
gift to Africa’. To examine communism he uses Canaan Banana’s The
theology o promise: the dynamics of self-reliance (1982).

In section 5 he raises the question, why are so many in Africa choosing a


revolutionary way and examines why the reformational perspective is
neglected. This is because of the prevalence of a dualistic view – the
‘spiritual’ reality has nothing to do with the ‘secular’; many Christians do not
have an encompassing vision of life, whereas Marxism at least offers a
political-economic vision of life.

The final section looks at some ‘flashes’ from a biblical anthropology and
provides an outline for a scriptural vision of society. Man is: religious;
lawbound; responsible; and equal in value. He rises the question: capitalism
of socialism? The biblical answer: neither! Both emanate from the same
religious root: the autonomy of man. A third way is needed, where man is an
office bearer of God, where those who bear authority are those who obey,
where there is social pluralism and that the spheres of life are free.

1988.2 ‘Psalm 72: a prayer for government to govern according to God's will’.
Woord en Daad/ Word and Action 28 (307) (March): 2, 14-15.
See also More Precious than Gold 1991.2.23.
This is an editorial in Woord en Daad.

To understand the biblical role of the State Romans 13 is normally the first
place we look, and yet the psalmists offer some insight. Here van der Walt
looks at Psalm 72 and the responsibility of the ruler and the effects of
government conducted according to the will of God. ‘This Psalm is not only
an insistent prayer to God to give us a God-fearing government. It is also a
flaming prophecy of inevitable destruction if a government does not rule
according to the will of God’.

55
1988.3 ‘Reformational comments on the Kairos document: prefatory remarks’.
Orientation 48: 60-61.
The Kairos Document was issued in 1985, and then revised in 1986, by a
number of Black South African theologians primarily from the townships of
Soweto challenging the churches stand and response to apartheid.

The IRS held a discussion on the document in 1986. This is the preface to the
discussions published in this issue of Orientation. Van der Walt notes the
importance of reading the document and not relying on commentaries on it.
He also draws attention to a document produced by Concerned Evangelical in
1986: Evangelical witness in South Africa: a critique of evangelical theology
and practice by evangelicals themselves (40 pp)

1988.4 ‘In a bullet casing - a toast’.


Orientation 50/51: 20-39.
This is the introduction to a special issue of Orientation on ‘Ideological
struggle in Southern Africa: flee from idols!

The bullet case in question is used instead of ‘in a nutshell’, as he


summarises the following chapters in this issue. Toast, because it is also a
congratulatory message. As well as summarising each chapter he looks at the
aims and objectives.

1988.5 ‘Ideolatry’.
Orientation 50/51: 53-68.
This chapter 3 of the special issue of Orientation.
It was reprinted in Anatomy 1991.1 and 2008.1.

Van der Walt offers the following definition with seven elements:
‘Ideology, which usually
• comes into being in a situation of threat,
• is a substitution of true religion,
• with as its highest ideal an all-encompassing purpose,
• to the attainment of which any (power) means may be used,

56
• norms adapted,
• sacrifices demanded, and
• a specific image of the enemy propagated’.
These seven elements are then expanded upon.

1988.6 ‘Flee from the idols!’.


Orientation 50/51: 223-244.
Reprinted in Anatomy 1991.1 and 2008.1.
See also Liberating Message (1994.1.12).

This is chapter 18 – the final chapter - of the special issue of Orientation. The
title of the article is the sub-title of the volume.

It starts with a brief historical and biblical overview from Moses in c. 1500 BC
to AD 1984. Van der Walt poses, and then answers, three important
questions:
• Why do people make and worship idols?
• Of what and how are these idols constructed?
• What are these idols capable of? (or: want are the effects of the
worship of idols?)
We cannot suppress the need for a God – substitutes are thus created. The
idols are constructed out of something created, ‘a fragment of creation
blown up to the stature of a god’, hence the possibilities for idolatry are
many. The Bible regards idols as non-entities and yet indicates that they are
dangerous. Idols have tremendous power; ‘idolaters are not free people
anymore’.

Freedom from idols comes from obedience to God and the first two
commandments. As van der Walt puts it in his introductory chapter (1988.4)
‘Ideolatry means self-destruction. Theolatry (service of the true God) means
healing, salvation, peace for man and society’.

57
1988.7 ‘Secularism: the most dangerous enemy of Christianity’.
Orientation 50/51: 171-182.
This is a slightly revised and shorter version of 1986.4 (there is no
bibliography in this edition).

1988.8 Why the State? Bible Study on Matthew 22, Romans 13 and
Revelation 13.
Wetenskaplike bydraes van die PU vir CHO. Reeks F2,
Brosjurereeks ; no. 18.
Potchefstroom: PU vir CHO.
ISBN 0869906410; 47 pages

Contents
Preface
1. Christ: conservative, revolutionary, ascetic , or …? (1981.2.1)
2. Matthew 22: 15-22 (1981.2.2)
3. Romans 13:1-7
4. Revelation 13

This is an expanded and revised edition of 1981.1 – hence the same F2


numbering, the title has been expanded to include Matthew 22.
It includes two chapters from Anatomy (1981.2).

1988.9 The Bible as an eye opener on the position of woman.


Wetenskaplike van die bydraes van die PU vir CHO. (2nd edn) F2 no 44.
ISBN 0869909746; 54 pages
Also reworked as ch 8 in 2006.1.

Women have a low position in African society, and so the Bible brings good
news for them. He looks at the biblical data and provides a convincing case

58
for an egalitarian position of women. He examines the concepts of headship,
authority and submission. He sees the meaning of kephale (head) as source,
unity or responsibility. His arguments are convincing, and ‘liberating,
refreshing and healing’ for women. He offers a timely warning to husbands:
‘by keeping your wives in subservient positions, you place not only them but
yourselves at a disadvantage’.

1998.10 ‘The Interaction between the post-secondary education system and


the statutory professional councils’.
by J C Pauw; J B Z Louw; B J Van der Walt; Committee of University
Principals (South Africa); A G S.; Universities and Technikons Advisory
Council (South Africa). Committee of Technikon Principals.; South Africa.
Dept. of National Education.;
Pretoria: The Dept.
ISBN 0797011684; 127 pages

This report was edited and prepared for publication by the Department of
National Education"--Pref. "Research for this report was conducted under the
guidance of ... J.B.Z. Louw, by B.J. van der Walt and J.C. Pauw in co-
operation with representatives of the Committee of University Principals and
the Committee of Technikon Principals. The report was compiled by: J.C.
Pauw in co-operation with: B.J. van der Walt ... [et al.]"--Acknowledgements.
"This report is the outcome of a request directed by the Minister of National
Education in 1984 to the Universities and Technikons Advisory Council (1984)
... "--Pref. "National Education Policy"--Prelim.
http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/86005043?tab=details#tabs

59
1989
1989.1 ‘Introduction’.
Swanepoel, Rita, and B. J. Van der Walt ed. Christian Literature for Africa: a
survey of problems and prospects in writing, printing, publishing, and
distribution
Orientation 52-54: 21-29.
Van der Walt starts this introduction by noting the decline in Christianity in
the West and then the hunger – both spiritual and nutritional – in Africa. The
need is for Christian literature produced by and for Africans. He provides
some background to the Potchefstroom Indaba (= important conference, from
the Zulu meaning ‘business’ or ‘matter’). In 1984 van deer walt visited the
Netherlands to deliver a paper and mentioned the need for African literature,
in response Jan Dengerink on behalf of IARAFA made available funds for
almost half the cost of this conference. In total 38 people attended the
meeting.

The objectives included the need to identify the needs of writers, printers,
publishers and distributors; to reflect how better coordination could be
achieved between individuals and institutions; and to provide a strategy to
meet the needs and deficiencies.

Most participants agreed that there was too much talking and too little
action. Thus, groups were formed to form concrete, practicable
recommendations – these are published in this issue.

He also notes that a pilot committee had met in May 1988 in Harare. This
committee was renamed Christian Literature Committee for Africa (CLCA).
Van der Walt was appointed the chairman and Emmanuel Ayee, the secretary.
Some suggestions for themes subjects included:

• The family in society (changing patterns of life)


• The African woman in modern society
• African Christian marriage
• Christianity and traditional African culture
• Nepotism and corruption

60
• Political options for a new African society
• Suffer or fight?
• Urbanisation, loss of values, materialism

It is interesting to note, that van der Walt has tackled most of these issues in
his own writings.

1989.2 ‘And he continued his way with joy’.


Orientation 52-54: 30-40.
This is the opening talk to the Christian Literature for Africa conference, 20
October 1987. It deals with Acts 8: 26-39 – the first Christian from Africa.

A shorter version was reprinted in More Precious than Gold 1991.2.20. This
version has a section on ‘The importance of the “black art” of printing in
Africa’. He also briefly comments on the questionnaires sent out before the
conference, they indicate the need for literature addressing the socio-
political and economic needs of Africa. He concludes with a few words of
thanks, In particular to IARAFA, Jan Dengerink and Jacques Marias, the former
chief administrator of IRS.

1989.3 ‘Is it really worthwhile?’.


Orientation 52-54: 213-218.
This is the closing address to the Christian Literature for Africa conference.

He notes the often lonely battle of the Christian writer, publishing and
writing with little recompense. He hopes that there would be joy in fulfilling
‘our calling in the service of the written word’ and uses Romans 14: 7-8 and
Phil 1:21-25 to examine the question ‘Does it make any sense to devote one’s
life to good literature for Africa?’ He concludes that if we work for the Lord,
rather than profit or fame, our efforts will not be in vain.

61
1989.4 ‘Preface’.
In Visie en Missie/ Vision & Mission: IRS 25 jaar (1962-1987): die
reformatories-evangeliese lewensvisie en die toekomstige missie van
Christelike hoër onderwysinrigtings in wereldperspektief.
Wetenskaplike van die bydraes van die PU vir CHO.
F3 no 35: 121-137.
ISBN 0869909940

This volume contains the lectures deliverd on the silver jubilee of the IRS (12-
13 November 1987). The lecturers included P. Z. Mukwena, Al Wolters, Jan
Dengerink, T van der Walt. Their contributions were all published in their
original languages. Van der Walt contributes a preface and three articles, two
in Afrikans and one in English (see below 1989.5)

1989.5 ‘Relevant Christian theological education for Africa’.


In Visie en missie/ Vision & Mission: IRS 25 jaar (1962-1987): die
reformatories-evangeliese lewensvisie en die toekomstige missie van
Christelike hoër onderwysinrigtings in wereldperspektief.
Wetenskaplike van die bydraes van die PU vir CHO. F3 no 35: 121-137.
ISBN 0869909940
This is taken from a paper read at the Conference on Bible Schools for Church
Leaders in Africa 99-12 August 1988) at the PU for CHE, Potchefstroom. An
expanded version of it is found in 1990.6.

Van der Walt addresses three key questions:


1. What does theological education in Africa look like at present?
2. Why is the present theological education so irrelevant for Africa?
3. How should relevant theological education for Africa look like?

62
1989.6 ‘The intellectual décor of the Reformation - with special reference to
Calvin’.
Tydskrif vir Christelike Wetenskap 16 (1-2):
Reprint of 1980.2.

63
1990

1990.1 Being Human: A Gift and a Duty. On the Way to a Christian View of
Man for Africa.
Wetenskaplike bydraes van die PU vir CHO. Reeks F2, Brosjurereeks ; no. 49.
Potchefstroom University for Christian Higher Education
ISBN 0869909967; iv + 89 pages
Revised updated and included in Liberating Message 1994.1.7.

Contents
Preface
Introduction: being human as a gift and a duty
1. Man and Bible
2. Man and religion
3. Man and God
4. Man and sin
5. Man and culture
Intermezzo: A provisional comparison between traditional and African culture
and Western culture
6. Man and history
7. Man and his fellowman
8. Man and office
9. Man and society
Intermezzo: The relation between religion and society
10. Man and sexuality
Conclusion: On the way to a new Africa
A brief bibliography

64
1990.2 ‘Preface’.
In Venster op mag en geweld: Christelike perspektiewe = Reflections on
power and violence: Christian perspectives. Wetenskaplike bydraes van die
PU vir CHO, Reeks F3, Versamelwerke ; no. 37.
Potchefstroom: PU vir CHO: 6-12.
ISBN 1868220443; ii + 303 pages
This volume in the F3 series deals with power and violence at a time of great
thirst for power and much violence.

In his preface van der Walt notes that this volume is intended to provide
guidance and address questions such as: ‘Is power as such wrong? And
violence? Is Christianity justified in answering violence with violence (as, for
example, during war? If not, is a believer not entitled to offer any resistance?
And if resistance should be permissible, what forms of resistance are not?”

1990.3 ‘The calling of government and citizen: where do we stand in South


Africa at this stage?’.
In Venster op mag en geweld: Christelike perspektiewe = Reflections on
power and violence: Christian perspectives. Wetenskaplike bydraes van die
PU vir CHO, Reeks F3, Versamelwerke ; no. 37.
Potchefstroom: PU vir CHO: 6-12
ISBN 1868220443; ii + 303 pages
Reprinted in 1991.1 and 2008.1.

This version is the unchanged speech presented at a meeting of Youth for


South Africa (Potchefstroom branch) in October 1988. He addresses the
following issues:
• What does the Bible say about rebellion and violence?
• What does Christian tradition say about these?
• What does it mean to speak of government authority, power and
violence?
• What is the calling of the subject/ citizen?
• Where do we stand in South Africa at present?

65
1990.4 ‘Introduction’.
Orientation. 55-57 (Dec 1989- Jun 1990): 1-6.
This is the introduction to the Second Southern African Education Conference
held at Potchefstroom. It was held from 19 -20 February 1988 and was
attended by 90 delegates, including those from South Africa, Zambia, Kenya,
Canada and the USA. The first conference was held in 1986 (see 1987.1).

1990.5 ‘A vision of renewal for education in South Africa: opening meditation


based on Ezekiel 47:1-12 for IRS Course in Christian School Education. 22-24
Feb’.
Orientation. 55-57 (Dec 1989-Jun1990): 246-249.
See 1991.2 ch 41.

This is a meditation on Ez 47:1-12. The hope is that this conference will pump
cleansing water into the Dead Sea of the ideologised education system.

1990.6 ‘Relevant Christian theological education for Africa’.


In Gilbert Okoronkwo ed. Church, and society - can they work in harmony?
Nairobi: Association of Evangelicals of Africa and Madagascar: 30-49.
68 pages
This is an expanded version of a paper that appeared in 1989.5.

The previous paper looked at thee questions (3-5 below). This paper expands
on the previous by adding two other questions (1 and 2):

1. What is Christian education?


2. What is (Christian) theological education?
3. What does theological education in Africa look like at present?
4. Why is the present theological education so irrelevant for Africa?
5. How should relevant theological education for Africa look like?

66
1991

1991.1 Anatomy of Reformation: Flashes and Fragments of a Reformational


Worldview.
Wetenskaplike bydraes van die PU vir CHO. Reeks
F3, Versamelwerke ; no. 13.
Potchefstroom University for Christian Higher
Education
ISBN 1868220362; iii + 581 pages

Second revised edition of 1981.2 – see also 2008.1.

Contents
1. Christ: conservative, revolutionary, ascetic, or.....
2. Christ and the religious order of his day.
3. Christ and the social order of his time.
4. Christ and the political situation of his day.
5. The new way of reformation.
6. John Hus: a reformer in his own right. (1984.4)
7. Ulrich Zwingli: his message for South Africa today.
8. John Knox: the Scottish reformer who feared no man. (1984.5)
9. Sixteenth century models for Christian involvement in the world.
10. Renaissance and Reformation: contemporaries but not allies.
11. The intellectual decor of the Reformation; special reference to Calvin.
(1980.2)
12. Church reformation: permanent call.
13. Out of love for my church; on the reformation of a reformed church.
14. Not of the world but in the world; the calling of the church in the world.
15. Church mission or Kingdom mission? The kingdom perspective in our
missionary endeavour.
16. Flee from the idols! (1988.6)
17. The Idolatry of ideologies. (1988.5)

67
18. The evangelical, revolutionary and reformational views of social change.
19. The calling of government and citizen; where do we stand in South Africa
at this stage? (1990.3)
20. Integral Christian scholarship; looking into the heart of a Christian
university. (1987.2)
21. God's hand in history?
22. Norms, means and ends; a reformational approach to economics. (1996.7)
23. The consistent problem-historical method of philosophical historiography
(reprint of 1983.1)
24. The will of God; how the Holy Spirit directs us in the taking of difficult
decisions. (1984.11)

In this second edition chs 6-8, 16-20 and 22-24 replaced seven chapters from
the first edition. This volume is less technical and more popular than either
Heartbeat (1978.3) or Horizon (1978.4), the two previous compilations.

The table below shows how the 1981 and 1991 editions compare:

Anatomy of Reformation 1981 Anatomy of Reformation 1991


1. Christ – conservative, revolutionary, 1. Christ: conservative, revolutionary,
ascetic or what? ascetic, or.....

2. Christ and the religious order of his day 2. Christ and the religious order of his
day.
3. Christ and the social order of his time
3. Christ and the social order of his time.
4. Christ and the political situation of his
day 4. Christ and the political situation of his
day.

5. The new way of reformation 5. The new way of reformation.

6. John Hus: a reformer in his own right.

7. Ulrich Zwingli: his message for South


Africa today.

68
8. John Knox: the Scottish reformer who
feared no man.

6. Sixteenth century models for Christian 9. Sixteenth century models for Christian
involvement in the world involvement in the world.

7. Renaissance and Reformation -- 10. Renaissance and Reformation:


contemporaries, but not allies contemporaries but not allies.

8. Christian Nationalism -- tracking down


Calvinism in South Africa

11. The intellectual decor of the


Reformation; special reference to Calvin.

9. Church Reformation -- the permanent 12. Church reformation: permanent call.


call

10. Out of love for my church -- On the 13. Out of love for my church; on the
reformation of a reformed church reformation of a reformed church.

11. Not of the world, but in the world -- 14. Not of the world but in the world; the
the calling of the church in the world calling of the church in the world.

12. Church mission or kingdom mission? -- 15. Church mission or Kingdom mission?
the kingdom perspective in our missionary The kingdom perspective in our missionary
endeavour endeavour.

13. The significance of a biblical view of


man for the pastorate

15. A total onslaught -- revolutionary


warfare in southern Africa

16. The relevance of a Calvinistic


cosmoscope to the black peoples of Africa

17. Panorama of Reformation in the year


of our Lord 1980 -- a survey of world-wide
Reformed faith and action

69
18. Reformation or revolution.

16. Flee from the idols!

17. The Idolatry of ideologies.

18. The evangelical, revolutionary and


reformational views of social change.

19. The calling of government and citizen;


where do we stand in South Africa at this
stage?

20. Integral Christian scholarship; looking


into the heart of a Christian university.

14. God's hand in history 21. God's hand in history?

22. Norms, means and ends; a


reformational approach to economics.

23. The consistent problem-historical


method of philosophical historiography

24. The will of God; how the Holy Spirit


directs us in the taking of difficult
decisions. (1984.11)

70
1991.2 More Precious than Gold: Discovering the Real Wealth of Scripture.
Wetenskaplike bydraes van die PU vir CHO. Reeks F3,
Versamelwerke ; no. 38.
Potchefstroom University for CHE
ISBN 186822046X; ii + 277 pages

Contents
About being married
1. Finding a husband/wife (Gen 24)
2. Christ as wedding guest (Jn 2:1-12)
3. The secret of marriage (SoS 8:6,7)
4. Being married is not everything (1 Cor 7:38)
A song about real love
5. The best way of all (1 Cor 13)
6. The indispensability of love (1 Cor 13: 1-3)
7. The excellence of love (1 Cor 13: 4-7)
8. The immortality of love (1 Cor 3: 8-13)
For special occasions
9. The gospel of Christmas in names (Lk 1:5-25, 57-66)
10. God's penultimate visit (Acts 2)
11. Liberated liberators (Mt 2:13-23)
At funerals
12. A meeting between life and death (Lk 7:11-17)
13. Moses on Nebo (Dt 34: 1-12)
14. Travellers from an old to a new paradise (Rev 21: 3-7, 22:1-5)
Youth and old age
15. Can there still be hope among the Christian youth of today?
16. Running a marathon (1 Cor 9:24-26, 1 Tim 2:5, 4:7-8, Heb 12:1-3)
17. Spiritual preparedness in the light of Scripture (Eph 6: 10-18)
18. An old person's prayer (Ps 71)
19. Christ's guidelines for his first missionaries (Mt 10)
20. "And he continued his way with joy ..." (Acts 8:26-39)

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21. Jonah and us (Jonah 1-4)
Our socio-political calling
22. Our presence in the world (Mt 5: 13-16; 13:33)
23. A prayer for government to govern according to God's will (Ps 72)
24. Christ and the walls of separation in our country (Jn 4: 1-42)
25. Builders or demolishers? (Neh 1-4)
The meaning of life and work
26. Is it really worthwhile? (Rom 14:7,8; Phil 1:21-25)
27. All is vain, without the blessing of the Lord (Ps 127:1-4; Mt 6:25-32)
28. Strength in smallness (Mk 4: 30-32)
The beatitudes of our King
29. Introduction (Mt 5:1-12)
30. The poor – who own everything! (Mt 5:3)
31. The sorrowful – who will find consolation! (Mt 5:4)
32. The meek – who inherit the earth! (Mt 5:5)
33. The hungry – who shall be satisfied! (Mt 5:6)
34. The merciful – who shall receive mercy! (Mt 5:7)
35. The pure of heart – who can see God! (Mt 5:8)
36. The peace-makers – who are God’s children! (Mt 5:9)
37. The persecuted – who own a kingdom! (Mt 5:10)
38. Those who suffer insult – an rejoice! (Mt 5:11,12)
Joy service in God's Kingdom
39. "Servite Domino in laetitia" (Ps 100:2)
40. From incense-offering to blood sacrifice (Mk 14:3-9)
41. A vision of renewal (Ez 47:1-12) (1990.5)
42. Never the same again (Mt 13:44)

The opening paragraph of the van der Walts’ preface is illuminating: ‘To
reflect on matters of lifeview (my task at the Institute for Reformational
Studies) and to be involved in Philosophy (my work at the Potchefstroom
University for Christian Higher Education) I regard as a special privilege. But
perhaps it is still more wonderful as a Christian to be able to drink at the
Source of our reformational vision of life and philosophy – the Word of God’.
It is that that he does in this book, a collection of ‘brief meditations,
opening addresses and sermons, and also more systematic Scriptural
exegesis’.

72
The first four chapters on ‘About being married’ were also published in
Orientation 1991 (see 1991.3, 1991.4, 1991.5, 1991.6)

1991.3 ‘Finding a husband/ wife (Genesis 14)’.


Orientation (Dec 90-Dec 91) 58-62: 232-245.
Also in 1991.2.1.

This looks at the biblical story in Gen 14 – one of the longest in the Bible.
Abraham wants a wife for Isaac and so he sends Eliezer, who finds Rebecca.
Parallels are drawn between finding a wife or husband toady. ‘The great
question is therefore whether we still practise prayer. Do parents still pray
that their children will find, not necessarily a goodlooking, rich, intelligent
marriage partner, but in the first place one intended for the child by god? Do
the young people pray for this seriously enough?’.

1991.4 ‘Christ as the wedding guest (John 2: 1-12)’.


Orientation (Dec 90-Dec 91) 58-62: 245-253.
Also in 1991.2.2.

The wedding feast in Cana was the first time Christ performed a miracle. This
talk looks at how Christ manifested his glory: through his wedding gift – the
quality and quantity of the wine; through the inversion of the existing order/
tradition – the best wine was served last; through bring people to faith in him.

1991.5 ‘The secret of marriage (Song of Songs 8:6,7)’.


Orientation (Dec 90-Dec 91) 58-62: 253-259.
Also in 1991.2.3.

These verses in Songs are used to look at the secret of a good marriage. Love
is not sinful, it cannot be enforced, it is glorious, tremendous, a flame of the
Lord. Love is intimate, spontaneous , intense and exclusive. It is not
despicable or forced.

73
1991.6 ‘Being married is not everything (1 Cor 7: 36)’.
Orientation (Dec 90-Dec 91) 58-62: 259-264.
Also in 1991.2.4.

Paul is often accused of misogyny and of having a negative ascetic point of


view when it comes to sex. The context for this passage is examined and it
absolves Paul of these false accusations. Paul’s message briefly is: ‘Through
the gift of abstinence some of the Corinthians could bear testimony to what is
important in the life of the Christian, which is total devotion to God. Being
allowed to marry is also, however, a gift of the Lord … It is not by fleeing from
marriage and its problems but within the confines of a blessed marriage that
we have to testify to that which makes life worth living: the service and
honour and glory of God.’

1991.7 A Christian Worldview and Christian Higher Education for Africa.


Potchesfroom: PU vir CHO.
ii + 124 pages
Much revised and updated in Liberating Message 1994.1. It was written for
the first regional conference for Africa of the IAPCHE in Harare, March 1991.

1991.8 ‘The idea of reform’.


In W. van't Spijker ed. Calvin: Erbe und Auftrag: Festschrift für Wilhelm
Heinrich Neuser
Kampen: Kok; pp 18-30.
ISBN 9024230578; xi + 430 pages
This is van der Walt’s contribution to the Festschrift of the Calvin scholar
Wilhelm Neuser. In it he develops what is meant by reformation? He makes a
systematic comparison with other concepts of renewal and provides a
historical reconnaissance of the origin, meaning and development of the
concept of reformation as a mode of change.
He comes to this provisional definition:

74
Reformation is the deliberate, fearless, positive witness of Christians
with real repentance, acknowledgement of guilt and humility and in
deep dependence on God, according to the Biblical guidelines of
renewal towards the image of God through the Holy Spirit to know
God’s will and to live in accordance with it and with creative
cognizance of the good from the past, without ceasing, to improve the
relatively good further, to combat evil in all its manifestations , that is
individually and structurally, and so to strive for and effect the radical,
total, and integral renewal of individual and society, in accordance with
the strategies which will counter the issues of the day in the most
effective manner.

1991.9 ‘Preface’.
In Kultuurverskeidenheid in Afrika: verleentheid of geleentheid? = Cultural
diversity in Africa: embarrassment or opportunity?
Wetenskaplike bydraes van die PU vir CHO, Potchefstroom: PU vir CHO. F3
No 40: 6-10
ISBN: 868220540; ii + 261 pages
This volume contains the papers delivered at a conference on Cultural
Diversity organised by the IRS and the Department of Philosophy at PU for
CHE, 12-14 May 1989.

In his Preface van der Walt offers an impression of the meeting under four
points: overview, insight, horizons and future vistas.

1991.9 ‘A provisional comparison between traditional African culture and


Western culture’.
In Kultuurverskeidenheid in Afrika: verleentheid of geleentheid? = Cultural
diversity in Africa: embarrassment or opportunity?
Wetenskaplike bydraes van die PU vir CHO, Potchefstroom: PU vir CHO. No
40: 211-221.

75
1991.10 ‘Jonah and us: fleeing from God’s transcultural command’.
In Kultuurverskeidenheid in Afrika: verleentheid of geleentheid? = Cultural
diversity in Africa: embarrassment or opportunity?. Wetenskaplike bydraes
van die PU vir CHO. Reeks F3, Versamelwerke ; no. 40. Potchefstroom: PU vir
CHO.
Also in 1991.2.21.

In this brief meditation van der Walt looks at three points: the command of
God, the flight of Jonah and the lesson for us. Like Jonah we can be: spoilt
prophets, nationalistic prophets, silent prophets, cowardly prophets, fleeing
prophets and failed prophets. ‘I often get the impression … that we as
Christians worry as little about transcultural mission as did Jonah. While we
should be working and praying we have fallen – like Jonah – into a stuporous
sleep: a sleeping church in a tempest-torn South Africa!’

1991.11 ‘Preface’.
In Paul Marshall A Calvinist Political Theory.
Wetenskaplike bydraes van die PU vir CHO. Reeks F1, IRS-studiestukke ; no.
283.
ISBN 1868220796 (pbk); ii + 48 pages
This brief, one-page Preface, places this booklet in the context of the next
few booklets. He hopes that it will ‘stimulate Christians in South Africa to
reflect on their calling as Christians in the field of politics’.

1991.12 ‘Preface’.
In H. Antonides and E. Vanderkloet A Christian Labour Association.
Wetenskaplike bydraes van die PU vir CHO. Reeks F1. IRS-studiestukke ; no.
285.
Potchefstroom: PU vir CHO.
ISBN 186822080X ; ii + 23 pages
In this Preface van der Walt notes that the influence of the IRS outside of the
Afrikaans-speaking community is limited by the fact that most of their

76
literature is in Afrikaans. Consequently, it has been decided to publish more
material, including this booklet, in English. This booklet on CLAC is
published, not so that South Africans would imitate the CLAC, but to point
out viable alternatives.

1991.13 ‘Preface’.
In G. N. Monsma et al. Poverty in Southern Africa
Series Wetenskaplike bydraes van die PU vir CHO. Reeks F1, IRS-
studiestukke ; no. 287.
Potchefstroom: PU vir CHO.
ISBN 1868220842 (pbk); 68 pages
This brief Preface tells us that these papers were the topic of a four-day
conference hosted by the Reformed Ecumenical Council (REC), 20 February-2
March 1990.

1991.14 Window on the World: On the Nature of Worldviews and the Value
of a Christian Worldview for Africa.
Potchefstroom: PU vir CHO. IRS.
55 pages
Paper prepared for the Nairobi World Conference of Philosophy, Nairobi,
Kenya: 21-25 July 1991.

Contents
1. The struggle for an own worldview and an African identity: some flashes
from the past 100 years
2. Nature and function of a worldview
3. The present debate on worldview in Reformational circles
4. In search for solutions: the structure of a worldview
5. A Christian worldview – some contours
6. Bibliography

Much of this booklet has been revised and updated in 1994.1 and 2008.2.

77
Chapter 1 looks at the different phases in African history: the pre-colonial,
colonial and post colonial phases. This chapter was later updated and
expanded in The Liberating Message 1994.1.2

In Chapter 2 a worldview is defined as ‘an integrated, interpretative set of


confessional perspectives on reality which underlies human activity, shapes
it, mediates it and gives it direction and meaning so that man’s calling in the
world is spelled out’ (p 13). Ten important characteristics of a worldview are
listed:
• It is encompassing
• It is a mode of looking/ seeing
• It guides and orients us in our understanding of the world
• It reveals a unity
• It is both descriptive and prescriptive
• It requires full commitment
• It is typically human
• It is pre-scientific
• It is a deeply –rooted source of action
• It is a definitive image of reality, and yet fallible

Chapter 3 goes on to look at the debate in reformational circles, principally


in the book Stained Glass P. Marshall et al. (eds) (UPA, 1989), and the
relationship between worldview and philosophy. Wolters identifies 5 ways of
viewing the relationship:
1. Worldview repels philosophy
2. Worldview crowns philosophy
3. Worldview flanks philosophy
4. Worldview yields philosophy
5. Worldview equals philosophy
Wolters maintains that Kuyper, Bavinck and Dooyeweerd (pre 1940) hold to
position 4. Post 1940 Dooyeweerd developed his concept of religious ground
motives and changed his view to 3. Not all reformational thinkers hold to
position 4. Wolters, Olthius and Griffioen do, but Klapwijk doesn not.
Klapwijk sees worldview as an integrative and transformative role – model 4
leads Christian thinkers into isolation. Van der Walt does not indicate which
position he favours.

78
Van der Walt then turns to look at a brief history of woldview he looks at
the use in Kant, Dilthey, Kuhn in an attempt to see if its use does lead to
subjectivism or relativism: it becomes clear that worldview cannot be
detached from historical relativism. What then are we to do with
worldview? We need to remember that God’s world is more than our view
of it. Even if worldviews change stable components remain. He then
identifies some important aspects of worldviews”
1. A large number of factors play a role in the establishment of a worldview
2. A worldview is the bridge or link between a person’s faith an life in the
world
3. Both absolutism and relativism give a twisted image of the nature of a
worldview

He then provides some aids indicators, to some criteria for a reliable


worldview: in the first place reciprocation is important, reality and faith
should accord with our worldview, and vice versa; in the second place the
direction of worldviews may be different. Worldviews are a response to
God’s law orders.

Crises in worldviews can arise from the threat of a stronger worldview,


from the worldview no longer no longer accords with reality, or a lack of
commitment to the worldview. This may result in a two possible responses:
either change it or stick with it.

The final section (§5) looks at some contours of a worldview. A


reformational worldview is a transformational worldview. Our whole life is
service to God, it is total, radical, central and integral. The history of this
worldview is then traced from Augustine, Calvin, Kuyper, Bavinck,
Vollenhoven and Dooyeweerd. In South Africa reformational ideas were
worked out by H G Stoker and his successor J A L Taljaard.

Six distinctions of a reformational worldview are outlined:


• The radical distinction between God and his creation
• The distinction between heaven and earth

79
• The distinction between God’s creational ordinances and that which
is subject to them
• The distinction between various irreducible facts or modes of
existence of the earthly reality
• The distinction between different phases in the development of the
earthly creation
• The distinction between structure and direction.

80
1992

1992.1 ‘Leave, cleave unto one and be one: the threefold mystery of marriage.
Many to many 2: 45-51.
A three part talk given at a wedding – it addresses in turn the need to leave,
leave and become one. It concludes: ‘This then is the threefold secret of a
happy marriage: leaving, cleaving unto and being one. Without the leaving it
is not possible to cleave unto each other. (Because then you remain bonded
to your parental home.) And without the cleaving unto (reciprocal troth) the
being one flesh (sexual union) is empty and dangerous. These three together
form the one great secret. We find the heart in the central one of the three:
reciprocal, lifelong troth’.

1992.2 ‘Twenty-one theses about sound “democratization” of Universities in


the light of a reformational philosophy of society’.
Woord en Daad/ Word and Action 32 (339): 16-18.
As the title suggest we have here 21 theses .

The first 12 focus on the office bearers of the university – they must be
servants, there are specific calls and therefore a variety of offices. Their
authority is rooted in God’s creational ordinances. The next examine the
calling of a university to be an educational institution, a scientific
educational institution.

1992.3 ‘New hope for a bleeding Africa’.


Woord en Daad/ Word and Action 32 (341): 27-28.
This is the same as 1992.4.

This is some reflections on a 1992 IRS conference at the PU on Africa. Van der
Walt sees new hope for Africa. He makes ten pertinent points:
• A second liberation
• Democracy only a means towards a better future
• New private initiative
• Re-awakening of a more radical and encompassing Christianity

81
• End of the wars between East and west
• Self-reliance as the solution
• Openness towards self-criticism
• A new spirit of reconciliation
• High expectations of South Africa
• South Africa changing
He concludes that he is an African – and proud of it.

1992.4 ‘New hope for a bleeding continent’.


SWO/CSD-Bulletin 4(9): 13, 18 (Oct).
This is the same as 1992.3.

1992.5 ‘Introduction’.
In Christian Education in the African Context
Proc. of the African Regional Conf. of the IAPCHE, Harare 4-9 March 1991.
Orientation 63-66 (Jan – Dec 1992): i-iii
These are the proceedings of the first regional conference of the IAPCHE.
The preceding conferences were all international ones: 1975 Potchefstroom,
1978 Calvin College, 1981 Dordt College, 1984 Breukelen, the Netherlands
and 1987 Lusaka, Zambia.

In his Introduction van der Walt takes the opportunity to inform us of the
developments since the conference.

1992.6 ‘The task of IAPCHE in the African context’.


In Christian Education in the African Context
Proc. of the African Regional Conf. of the IAPCHE, Harare 4-9 March 1991.
Orientation 63-66 (Jan – Dec 1992): 185-189.
Here van der Walt looks ‘some areas and strategies which can be discussed,
worked out more fully and made more concrete’. These include lecturer
exchange, joint textbooks and correspondence courses, a regular exchange of
publications, conferences and seminars, and contact with the community of
Christian scholars outside of Africa.

82
1993

1993.1 ‘A Christian university – what it really is and what it does not want to
be’.
Woord en Daad/ Word and Action 33 (343): 3-6.
He identifies and addresses six misconceptions regarding a Christian
university.
• It is not a neutral institution
• ‘Christian’ should not have a merely historical meaning
• ‘Christian’ should not be interpreted in terms of church activities on
campus
• “Christian’ does not indicate that Christian evangelisation or
missionary work is being done on campus
• ‘Christian’ is not located in specific or additional subjects taught at
an institution
• ‘Christian’ does not only refer to the religious convictions of students
and staff

He then looks at four basic requirements of a Christian university:


• It must be a free university, free from state intervention
• The lecturers and the (majority) of students should be Christians
with the insight into what Christian scholarship entails
• All the fields of study should be studied in the light of God’s
revelation in creation, in scripture and in Christ
• The Christian approach to the sciences should be visible by its fruits.

1993.2 ‘The family: a new vision for Africa’.


Woord en Daad/ Word and Action 33 (344): 23-25.
In Africa as well as in the West, the family is in crisis. Here Van der Walt
offers another reason for family disintegration: the lack of vision. He
addresses this by offering under 7 points a new vision for the family:
1. The family as a true community
2. The family as a natural community
3. The family as a distinctive community

83
4. The family is a blood community
5. The family as a community authority
6. The family as a community of love
7. The family as a community of faith

1993.3 ‘Reformational spirituality’.


Woord en Daad/ Word and Action 33 (345): 15
Also in Man and God 1994.2.36.

This one-page concise summary provides an overview of a reformational


spirituality, a spirituality that encompasses the whole of life. It is not
pietistic, not mystical, not a sacrametalistic religiosity and not strongly
emotional as the whole of life is involved. Care should be taken, however,
that it does not become intellectualistic, legalistic, passivistic, or
conservativist or revolutionist.

1993.4 ‘We need more than ethics’.


Woord en Daad/ Word and Action 33 (346): 21-24.
See also 1993.6.

This paper takes a look at ethics in the context of business and economics.
Van der Walt is convinced that too much is expected of ethics. Ethics is not a
panacea, it is wrong to limit the normative to ethics – each science has its
own set of norms.

1993.5 ‘Preface’
In Window on Business Ethics: a Challenge to Christians/ Venster Op
Bestuursetiek.
Wetenskaplike bydraes van die PU vir CHO, Potchefstroom: PU vir CHO. IRS.
F3, no 43: 1-7
ISBN 1868221326; iv + 221 pages

84
These are the proceedings for the 1990 IRS conference on business ethics. It
was held on 28 February at the Carlton Hotel, Johannesburg. It was organised
in conjunction with the Faculty of Economics and management at the PU for
CHE.

Several papers not presented at the conference were also included.

1993.6 ‘Do we not perhaps need more than (business) ethics?’.


In Window on Business Ethics: a Challenge to Christians/ Venster Op
Bestuursetiek.
Wetenskaplike bydraes van die PU vir CHO . Reeks F3 no 43: 208-216.
Potchefstroom: PU vir CHO.
See 1993. 4.

1993.7 ‘Preface’. With Swanepoel, Rita


Integral Christian Scholarship: Exploratory Reflections on the African
Situation.
Potchefstroom, RSA: Institute for Reformational Studies, on behalf of the
Potchefstroom University for Christian Higher Education.
Orientation, no. 67-70, Jan.-Dec. 1993. i – viii.
This issue of Orientation contains all the papers delivered on the last day of
the Pan-African Conference held April 27-May 1, 1992 which was organized by
the Institute for Reformational Studies (IRS) and hosted by the Potchefstroom
University for Christian Higher Education. This last day of the conference was
devoted to the issue of Christian higher education in Africa.

In his preface van der Walt looks at some background to the conference, the
aims of the final day and concludes with some general impressions.

Contents
Preface / B.J. van der Walt
Message from the International Association for the Promotion of Christian
Higher Education / P.G. Schrotenboer

85
Opening devotions / P.Z. Mukwena
The plight of African universities and scholarship and its implications for
students: overview / J.N. Orkar
Response / G.N. Nguru
Response / V.B. Cole
A critical evaluation of Christian higher education in Africa: past and present:
West Africa / V.B. Cole ; East Africa / G.N. Nguru ; South Africa / J.L. van
der Walt
Christian worldview foundations: a methodological approach / Y. Turaki
The pilgrim's progress of a Christian academic / B.J. van der Walt (see
1993.8)
Contours for a Christian perspective in the social sciences and humanities /
C.W. Bester
A physicist on Christian science / J.P.L. Reinecke
A Christian perspective on languages / D.M. Wybenga
Can the business of any business be only business? / G.J. de Klerk
A hight challenge for tough times / K.C. Sewell
Bringing into captivity every thought / J.B. Hulst.

1993. 8 The pilgrim’s progress of a Christian academic.


Orientation. 67-70: 100-122.
This was reworked as chapter 5 in Transformed by the Renewing of Your Mind
(2001.1).

It tells the story of Thomas the Christian and how he developed to be Thomas
the Christian Scholar. To do so he passed through two other stages: Thomas
the Christian or Scholar and then Thomas the Christian and Scholar. He came
to see that academic life can also be one to glorify God.

86
1994

1994. 1 The Liberating Message: A Christian Worldview for Africa.


Wetenskaplike bydraes van die PU vir CHO. Reeks F,
Instituut vir Reformatoriese Studie. Reeks F3,
Versamelwerke; no. 44.
Potchefstroom University for Christian Higher
Education, Institute for Reformational Studies
ISBN 1868221407; 625 pages

Reprinted 1996, 1997, 2002 and 2006.

Contents
Preface – Dr Y Turaki
1. Voices calling from Africa
2. The crisis in the transformation of Africa and the urgent need for a
Christian worldview (expanded version of Window 1991.15.1)
3. The nature, structure and function of a worldview
4. God’s revelation: the foundation of a Christian worldview
5. A radical Christian worldview compared with dualist Christian worldviews
6. The basic outlines of a Christian philosophy
7. On being human according to a Christian worldview (see 1990.1)
8. Cultural plurality in Africa
9. Conflicting views on human identity and society in Africa
10. A Christian view of society in dialogue with the individualist and
communal views
11. Societal change and renewal according to three models
12. Christian worldview versus ideology (see 1988.6)
13. Six important social relationships in a Christian perspective
14. Government and citizen in a Christian perspective
15. Christian higher education in Africa
Postscript
Bibliography

87
This popular level first-year undergraduate book started life in A Christian
Worldview and Christian Higher Education (1991.7) and On Being Human
(1990.1). It is split into 15 chapters to fit within one university semester.

There are no footnotes, but it does include a 23-page bibliography.

It was originally intended to be co-written with Yusufu Turaki, the General


secretary of the Evangelical churches of West Africa, but circumstances
mitigated against this. Turaki does, however, contribute a Preface. He
writes: ‘This book serves as an introduction towards understanding the
Christian worldview within the African context’.

1994.2 Man and God: A Reformational Philosophy of Religion.


Potchefstroomse Universiteit vir Christelike Hoer Onderwys,
Series Wetenskaplike bydraes van die PU vir CHO. Reeks C, Diverse ; no. 10
ISBN 1868221628; 424 pages

Reprinted in late 2008. See also 1997.2.

Contents
1 The relationship between religion, philosophy and science
2 Trends in philosophy of religion and disciplines studying religions
3 Religion: the word and the basic features or characteristics of religion
4 A bird's-eye view of religious history
5 Different types of religion
6 Formulating a reformational perspective: God's revelation: the basis of our
faith
7 How we know that the Bible is the Word of God
8 The importance of a philosophical ontology based on Scripture
9 The aspects or modalities of earthly reality
10 The relationships of man to God, his fellow men, nature and himself
11 A Christian perspective on miracles
12 God's hand in history
13 How to know the will of God for our lives
14 A radical Christian worldview compared with dualist Christian worldviews

88
15 Religion and political, economic and social renewal
16 Christianity and scholarship
17 Theology and philosophy
18 Challenging other viewpoints: Functionalistic explanations about the origin
of religion
19 Idolatry and its consequences
20 The Gospel as a liberating power in traditional African religion
21 The relationship between faith and knowledge in Early Christian and
Medieval thought
22 Natural theology and Theodicy
23 Ideology as a substitute for true religion
24 The development of Western atheism
25 Secularism: the most dangerous enemy of Christianity
26 Religious language: meaningful or meaningless?
27 The New Age Movement
28 Something about the problem of evil
29 Religious plurality, equality of religions and freedom of religion.

1994.3 ‘Preface’.
In [Christian Higher Education in the African context]: "continuing the line
of the two previous editions of Orientation (1992 and 1993)"
Orientation 71-74: i-ii.
In this brief preface van der Walt (and Rita Swanepoel) introduces this special
issue of Orientation devoted to Christian Higher Education in Africa. He
concludes: ‘We are convinced that, in spite of the focus on Africa, some of
the issues discussed here are of universal importance. We therefore hope
that our readers from other parts of the world will find much of relevance
also for their specific circumstances’.

Contents
The oppression and liberation of modern Africa: a critical history / S. Fowler
The crying need for a Christian worldview and a Christian philosophy in Africa
/ B.J. van der Walt
That was then, this is now / K.C. Sewell
Schooling for what? / S. Fowler

89
Christian students in the university crisis ;
John Dawkins versus John Calvin / B.C. Wearne
Reformational university basis in operation ;
"Transforming" "society" / J.J. Venter
A Christian approach to the diversity in political viewpoints, religions and
cultures: illustrated by way of a case study of S.A. / B.J. van der Walt
Addresses of Christian liberal arts colleges and universities in Africa.

1994.4 ‘The crying need for a Christian worldview and a Christian philosophy
In Africa’.
Orientation 71-74: 162-207.
This paper was originally read at the International Symposium on ‘Christian
Philosophy at the Close of the twentieth century’ at Bevendonk, Hoeven, the
Netherlands, from 22-26 August 1994. In it he discusses the problem, the
potential and the plan for developing a Christian philosophy in Africa.

1994.5 ‘A Christian approach to the diversity in political viewpoints, religions


and cultures: illustrated by way of a case study of South Africa’.
Orientation 71-74: 337-418.
This paper was originally read at the conference on ‘Multicultural education
challenges for South Africa’ hosted by the PU, 4-6 August 1994. (See 1995.2).

The aim of this paper is to provide a ‘principal reflection on the causes for
the conflicts and the quests for solutions’ and to offer practical application
to the South African situation.

The causes for conflict include different views of society, religious diversity
and cultural (including ethnic) diversity. Three prevalent views of society are
examined: individualism, communalism and the Christian pluralist view. The
differences between the views are highlighted in a table and in diagrammatic
form.

The diversity of religions is an issue that van der Walt examines in more
detail in Transforming Power 2007.1 chs 5-7 (see also 2004.1). it raises the
question ‘Are all religions equal?’ here he examines four possible views and

90
surveys three different viewpoints. He compares Buddhism, Islam and
Christianity and shows that the differences are not simply relative but
essential. Religions are not equal in the sense of being the same or of the
same value. Christianity is a unique road to salvation.

Three main types of religion are then compared: traditional African, secular
Western and pagan Eastern religion. These are usefully illustrated
diagrammatically (cf Roy Clouser’s diagram in Myth of Religious Neutrality
University of Notre Dame Press, 1991 [2nd edn 2005].

The discussion on culture looks at important features of culture and again


utilises another helpful diagram: culture is viewed as an onion with different
layers. This is a theme take up and developed in When African and Western
Cultures Meet 2006.1 ch 1 and in 2001.2 (see also 2006.5; 2001.1 ch 2). He
concludes this section by looking at his own cultural identity (see 1994.9).

The third section takes a look at the Afrikaner regime in South Africa. Here
van der Walt uses the image of a river: its colour is its Calvinistic character,
the taste is the Christian-National form which it assumed in South Africa, the
purity, in light of the radical nature of the gospel, its healthy quality, it
developed into a nationalist ideology, its force, the destructive effects of
apartheid.

He concludes that South Africa society in the past has failed because ‘it
failed to acknowledge and apply the three basic principles of structural,
religious and cultural diversity’.

91
1994.6 ‘Human dignity and identity according to apartheid and according to
the Word of God’.
In M. Waijaki, Y. Turaki, B. J. van der Walt and P. Kasenene. Visions of Man
and Freedom in Africa: 29-52
Series Wetenskaplike bydraes van die PU vir CHO. Reeks F1, IRS-
studiestukke ; no. 302.
Potchefstroom: PU vir CHO.
ISBN 868221342; 64 pages
Contents
Preface
1. Africa beyond liberation / Dr Munyana Waljaki
2. Human dignity, identity and reconciliation/ Dr Yusufu Turaki
3. Human dignity and identity: According to apartheid and according to the
word of God/ prof Bennie van der Walt
4. Human dignity, identity and decolonising the mind/ Dr Peter Kasenene

Van der Walt starts by noting that although apartheid’s day has passed,
apartheid itself has not, it has been scaled down but not completely
obliterated. He looks at the ideology of apartheid – he identifies six
ideological characteristics in apartheid. These are: nationalist, communalist,
racist, secularist, prosperity and revolutionary.

He then considers the effects of the ideology of apartheid and the challenges
for the future. The biblical view of man is then seen in reply to apartheid.

1994.7 ‘A reformational look at the powers and authority of the office bearers’.
Woord en Daad/ Word and Action 34 (347): 25-26.
This is a summary in 13 theses of the office, authority, power and
responsibility of office bearers. These theses were discussed in more detail in
a subsequent issue (1994.8). These issues have also been dealt with in
Leaders with a Vision 1995.1.

92
1994.8 ‘Take a good look at office, authority and power’.
Woord en Daad/ Word and Action 34 (349): 14-17.
Here he deals in more detail with the 13 theses posted in a previous issue of
this journal. He notes that ‘Clarity about concepts like office, authority,
power and responsibility is an absolute prerequisite for a principled analysis
of democracy. They are the essential, basic building blocks for a
reformational view of democratic form of government’. Authority and office
are not the same; people in office do not have authority unless they comply
with the requirement of authority: insight into divine norms. The task of
office bearers is service: authoritative and responsible service.

1994.9 ‘Afrikaner identity in perspective’.


Woord en Daad/ Word and Action 34 (350): 25-27.
This article proposes a few positive ideas about cultural unity and diversity in
the new South Africa. As an example he looks at his own identity: he is an
Afrikaner, a South African, an African, a citizen of the whole world but above
all he is a Christian. Identity is not static, it is dynamic; it can be limiting and
impoverishing or it can be wide-ranging and enriching.

93
1995

1995.1 Leaders with a Vision: How Christian Leadership Can Tackle the
African Crisis.
Potchefstroomse Universiteit vir Christelike Hoer
Onderwys.
ISBN 1-86822-189-X; 101 pages

Contents
Introduction
A Christian perspective on office, authority, power and responsibility
A Christian perspective on the structuring of society
A Christian perspective on social involvement and change
A Christian perspective on the state (government and citizens)
Conclusion
Bibliography

This 101-page book started life as the lectures for the Pan African leadership
Assembly II in Nairobi, 22-30 November 1994.

Although this book’s context is Africa its value extends beyond that
continent. The four main chapters deal with: the nature of office, authority,
power and responsibility; the structuring of society; social involvement and
change; and the nature of the state. Important and crucial issues for
Christians wherever they may live and work.

Van der Walt sees leadership as being a key to the African crisis. However, he
rightly maintains that it will mean much more than leaders who are

94
Christians. It needs Christian leaders with a clear vision that they can
communicate and inspire others.

The first main chapter (ch2 – chapter 1 is a brief Introduction) examines a


Christian perspective on office, authority and power. As the author states’ If
one does not know what office, authority, power and responsibility means,
one cannot be a real leader’ (p 8). He sees office as God’s mandate to render
service to the members of the societal relationship. Authority is the right to
render this service, which requires insight into and obedience of the God-
given norms for the specific relationship. Power is acted-out authority and is
dependent on insight and obedience to god’s norms; and finally responsibility
is towards God and the people of the societal relationship. This is important
for Africa and equally so for the church everywhere.

Chapter 3 looks at the structuring of society. Here he looks at three biblical


perspectives: from the perspective of the image of God, the perspective of
different offices and from the perspective of diversified love. Individualim,
communalism and pluralism are then examined. A Christian view is a pluralist
view: it wishes to do justice to both individuals (individualism) and society
(communalism).

In ‘A Christian perspective on social involvement and change’ (Ch 4) three


models are mentioned and critiqued. The first two the dualist-pietist view –
common among many evangelicals - and the revolutionary views are found
wanting and the biblical reformational view is briefly expounded. The
reformational view is radical – God transforms the world – and positive – it
seeks to be obedient to God for the sake of God’s world.

Chapter 5 examines a Christian perspective on the state. Here the African


background comes to the fore and he uses this turbulent context to draw out
some biblical perspectives, including a useful discussion on civil
disobedience. He discerns four viewpoints radical passivists, partial
passivists, partial militarists and radical militarists. He concludes ‘In the final
instance it is the duty of especially Christians to keep on talking, trying their
best to convince the government that it has to change’ (p 90).

95
In the final chapter – the conclusion – he looks briefly at the different
leadership models that have shaped Africa: the paternalistic elder tradition
(Mzee Jomo Kenyatta and Kwame Nkrumah), the sage tradition (Leopold
Sedar Senghor or Mwalimu Julius Nyrere), the warrior tradition (Gadafi or Idi
Amin), the charismatic style of the inspiring personality (Kenyatta, Nyere or
Amin) and the monarchical style (Nkrumah, who was sometimes known as
Osagyefo, the Redeemer). He concludes that what is needed in Africa – and
we might add everywhere – is responsible servant-leaders.

1995.2 ‘A Christian approach to the diversity in political viewpoints, religions


and cultures’.
In J L van der Walt ed. Multicultural Education: New Challenges for South

Africa. Conference Proceedings, 4-6 August 1994


Potchestroom: PU vir CHO. 44-111.
189 pages
Also in Orientation: International Circular of the PU for CHE 71-74: 337-418.
See 1994.5.

1995.3 ‘Preface’.
In B J van der Walt ed. Hope for the Family.
Wetenskaplike bydraes van die PU vir CHO. Reeks F1, IRS-studiestukke ; no.
335.
Potchefstroom: PU vir CHO.
ISBN 01868222195; 54 pages
Contents
1 The family breakdown / A. de Graaff
2 Family living and learning in Biblical perspective / P.G. Schrotenboer
3 Hidden invaders of our homes / J.A. Olthuis
4 The family in society / G.J. Spykman
5 The family of the future / H. Hart.
Bibliography of books on marriage and family life written from an African
perspective.

96
This five-page preface is actually more than a mere preface. In it van der
Walt looks at the changes in family life and the need for a new vision. This is
developed in his 1993.2.

Turning to the papers in this volume he notes that they are all from the USA
and all were originally published in the International Reformed Bulletin 14
(1971).

1995.4 ‘Preface’.
In H Antonides Reclaiming our Daily Work.
Wetenskaplike bydraes van die PU vir CHO. Reeks F1, IRS-studiestukke ; no.
330.
Potchefstroom: PU vir CHO.
ISBN 186822211X; 10 pages
Van der Walt provides the provenance of this paper, first published by CLAC
in 1994.

1995.5 ‘Preface’.
In K C Sewell The Idea of a Free Christian University
Wetenskaplike bydraes van die PU vir CHO. Reeks F1, IRS-studiestukke ; no.
334.
Potchefstroom: PU vir CHO.
ISBN 1868222179; 16 pages
Here van der Walt notes that while the paper by Sewell was first presented to
an Australian audience it could just as well have been an African audience.
He hopes that this paper will help those who question the idea for a Christian
University understand it better.

97
1995.6 Family Backpacking Adventures.
Pretoria: Symbol
ISBN 0799322342; 12o pages
This is a little different form the main bulk of van der
Walt’s works as a theologian-philosopher. Here writes as
one who loves the outdoors and his love of backpacking
with his family. It is written to help hiking families
‘experience as few problems as possible on the trail’. It is a
practical handbook written from much practical experience
hiking with a family. See also The Enchanting World of the
Drakensberg Mountains 2003.1.

Contents
1. Backpacking in general
2. The hikers
3. The backpack
4. The hiking experience
5. Bibliography
6. Photo album

98
1996

1996.1 ‘Neither cold nor hot, but lukewarm’.


Woord en Daad/ Word and Action. 36 (355): 14-17 (Herfs)
This piece is written in the hope that it sensitises Christians to the urgent
need for political reflection and action in South Africa. Van der Walt starts
with a few reflections on Rev 3: 15-16, he then goes on to look at different
attitudes among Christians towards political involvement and at how
Christians could make a difference.

1996.2 ‘The clash between African and Western conception of time’.


Woord en Daad/ Word and Action.36 (356): 19-25. (Winter)
See also Understanding and rebuilding Africa (2003.2.6).

Van der Walt compares and contrasts African and Western concepts of time.
Western views tend to be mechanical whereas African tend to be organic.
Both are one-sided and so time is not viewed in its multidimensional variety.

1996.3 ‘God in South Africa's new political dispensation’.


Woord en Daad/ Word and Action 36 (357): 14-16.
This is a reprint of 1996.6.2. This time in eight rather than ten propositions:
1. Religion and politics should be clearly distinct
2. The state cannot be Christian, but we can have a Christian view of the
state
3. Neither government nor citizens should be identified with the state, nor
with each other
4. The government does not receive its authority and power from either God
or the citizens
5. The state should have limited power
6. The state has qualified authority and power
7. We have to depoliticise society and reject statism
8.We should move beyond human rights in order to achieve real justice.
In the 1996.6 version the introduction is labelled 1 and the conclusion 10.

99
1996.5 ‘Responsibility, conversion, confession, forgiveness, restitution and
reconciliation: six of God's requirements for a new South Africa’.
Wetenskaplike bydraes van die PU vir CHO. Reeks F1, IRS-studiestukke ; no.
337.
Potchefstroom: PU vir CHO.
ISBN 1868222276; 30 pages
This was reworked and expanded and published in Understanding and
Rebuilding Africa (2003.2).

1996.6 editor with C.F.B. Naudé Christianity and Democracy in South Africa:
a Vision for the Future.
Wetenskaplike bydraes van die PU vir CHO. Reeks F1,
IRS-studiestukke ; no. 345.
Potchefstroom: IRS.
ISBN 186822242X. 37 pages

Contains two articles by van der Walt:


1996.6.1 Why 'Christianity and democracy in South Africa'
1996.6.2 What happened to God in new South African political dispensation?
(see 1996.3)

The preface by Ms Rita Swanepol, the Publications Officer, explains that this
study pamphlet is part of the proceedings for a conference on Christianity
and Democracy in South Africa, held on 10-12 July 1996 at the Potchefstroom
University for Christian Higher Education. The full proceedings were
published in Orientation 1997.4 – Christianity and democracy in South Africa:
Christian responsibility for political reflection (300 pp).

100
Van der Walt’s first contribution is the opening address. He looks at the
meaning of the three terms in the title: Christianity, democracy and South
Africa and their relationship. The second paper is a summary of the first in
ten propositions and with diagrams.

1996.7 ‘The Ethics of Economics: Norms, Means and Ends’.


In Doug Blomberg (editor) Humans Being: Essays Dedicated to Stuart
Fowler
Association for Christian Scholarship: Melbourne/ National Institute for
Christian Education: Sydney
ISBN 0 646 302605 5
This is the “Fowler Festschrift”, essays originally intended to celebrate the
sixtieth birthday of Stuart Fowler.
This is a revised version of Anatomy 1991.1 ch 22.

‘Our economy and our management practices are in crisis’, is the opening
statement of this article. Van der Walt denies that the solution can be found
in ethics; economics is not just about making money but is about norms, and
ethics does not hold the monopoly on norms. The meaning and origin of
(economic) norms are then examined. Norms are not determined by what the
majority does, what our conscience tells us, or what authority figures decree
– they are responses to God’s laws.

Current economic practices have been controlled by a number of –isms,


including deism, naturalism, evolutionism and utilitarianism, profitism,
autocentrism and hedonism.

There is no such thing as ‘neutral’ economic thought and practice. In section


8 he examines the biblical idea of stewardship
• The concept of steward cuts off at the root the idea that we are owners
of creation and its wealth
• The fact that we are not owners does not mean that we have less
responsibility

101
• Stewardship demands that we cultivate God;s creation, so that it will
come to fruition in all fields
• Together with cultivation goes care of the creation of God
• Stewardship entails a careful distinction between needs and mere urges
• Stewardship requires the limited use of goods for our own needs and help
to those in need
• Stewardship in the economic field is not only concerned with the
gathering of things, but also with relationships among people
• Stewardship means service to the neighbour
• Because we live in a sinful world, stewardship also implies that we should
confess our failed responses to God, to his creation and to our neighbours
• The final perspective which flows fom the crucial idea of stewardship is
that of grace
He then looks at the business enterprise, what it is, what its objectives are
and how authority is structured within it.

102
1997

1997.1 Afrocentric or Eurocentric: Our Task in a Multicultural South Africa.


Wetenskaplike bydraes van die PU vir CHO. Reeks F2,
Brosjures van die Instituut vir Reformatoriese Studie ;
no.67.
Potchefstroomse Universiteit vir Christelike Hoer
Onderwy, IRS
ISBN 186822256X ; ii + 190 pages

Chapter 2 expanded in 2003.2.5


Chapter 4 expanded in 2003.2.7

Contents
1. How should cultural diversity be understood and evaluated?
2. Communalism or individualism?
3. Enjoying or using time?
4. Thinking like Africa or like the West?
5. An African or a Western identity?
6. Hope for the economic development and management of South Africa?
7. Transforming culture to the honour of God!

The titles first six chapters of this book all pose questions. The final one
offers a solution. For the most part the book compares and contrasts
communalistic African and individualistic Western views: Afrocentric or
Eurocentric? The key issue is ‘How should we understand and evaluate
cultural plurality?’

103
1997.2 Man and God: The Transforming Power of Biblical Religion.
Wetenskaplike bydraes van die PU vir CHO. Reeks C,
Diverse ; no. 18.
Potchefstroom University for Christian Higher
Education
ISBN 1-86822-270-5; iii + 519 pages
Republished in 2008. See also the earlier edition 1994.2.

Contents
1. Children's letters to God –
2. Exploration: Philosophers, philosophical disciplines and their value –
3. Religion: the word, its basic characteristics and its scientific study –
4. Disciplines which study religion
5. Trends in Philosophy of Religion
6. Methods applied in the study of religion
7. Types of religion
8. Religious language
9. Functionalistic explanations of religion
10. Foundation: Religious diversity, religious equality and religious freedom
11. God's revelation: the basis of our religion
12. How to read the Bible
13. How we know that the Bible is God's Word
14. God, law and cosmos
15. All-encompassing religion: a Biblical worldview
16. The relationship of man to God, his fellowman, nature and himself
17. Application: How to know the will of God for our lives
18. Something about the problem of evil
19. A Christian perspective on miracles
20. God's hand in history
21. Church revival and reformation: permanent call
22. Office, authority, power and responsibility
23. Religion and political, economic and social renewal

104
24. Christian political reflection and action
25. Christianity and scholarship
26. Theology and philosophy
27. Confrontation: Idolatry and its consequences
28. Natural theology and Theodicy
29. The relationship between faith and knowledge
30. Ideology as a substitute for true religion
31. Secularism: the most dangerous enemy of Christianity
32. The New Age Movement
33. A Biblical evaluation of cultural diversity
34. The Gospel as a liberating power in traditional African religion and
culture
35. Tolerance can be very intolerant
36. Reformational spirituality. (See 1993.3)

This is a revised and expanded version of 1994. 2. The following table shows
how the books compare:

Man and God 1994.2 Man and God 1997.2

1 The relationship between religion,


philosophy and science

2 Trends in philosophy of religion and


disciplines studying religions
1. Children's letters to God –

2. Exploration: Philosophers, philosophical


disciplines and their value –

3 Religion: the word and the basic features 3. Religion: the word, its basic
or characteristics of religion characteristics and its scientific study

4 A bird's-eye view of religious history


4. Disciplines which study religion

5. Trends in Philosophy of Religion

105
6. Methods applied in the study of religion

5 Different types of religion 7. Types of religion

26 Religious language: meaningful or 8. Religious language


meaningless?

18 Challenging other viewpoints: 9. Functionalistic explanations of religion


Functionalistic explanations about the origin
of religion
10. Foundation: Religious diversity, religious
equality and religious freedom

6 Formulating a reformational perspective: 11. God's revelation: the basis of our religion
God's revelation: the basis of our faith
12. How to read the Bible

7 How we know that the Bible is the Word 13. How we know that the Bible is God's Word
of God

8 The importance of a philosophical


ontology based on Scripture

9 The aspects or modalities of earthly


reality
14. God, law and cosmos

15. All-encompassing religion: a Biblical


worldview

10 The relationships of man to God, his 16. The relationship of man to God, his
fellow men, nature and himself fellowman, nature and himself

13 How to know the will of God for our lives 17. Application: How to know the will of God
for our lives

14 A radical Christian worldview compared


with dualist Christian worldviews

106
15 Religion and political, economic and
social renewal

28 Something about the problem of evil 18. Something about the problem of evil

11 A Christian perspective on miracles 19. A Christian perspective on miracles

12 God's hand in history 20. God's hand in history

21. Church revival and reformation:


permanent call

22. Office, authority, power and


responsibility

23. Religion and political, economic and


social renewal

24. Christian political reflection and action

16 Christianity and scholarship 25. Christianity and scholarship

17 Theology and philosophy 26. Theology and philosophy

19 Idolatry and its consequences 27. Confrontation: Idolatry and its


consequences

22 Natural theology and Theodicy 28. Natural theology and Theodicy

21 The relationship between faith and 29. The relationship between faith and
knowledge in Early Christian and Medieval knowledge
thought

23 Ideology as a substitute for true religion 30. Ideology as a substitute for true religion

24 The development of Western atheism

25 Secularism: the most dangerous enemy of 31. Secularism: the most dangerous enemy of
Christianity Christianity

107
27 The New Age Movement 32. The New Age Movement

29 Religious plurality, equality of religions


and freedom of religion.
33. A Biblical evaluation of cultural diversity

20 The Gospel as a liberating power in 34. The Gospel as a liberating power in


traditional African religion traditional African religion and culture

35. Tolerance can be very intolerant

36. Reformational spirituality.

This book has its origins as a reader for a philosophy of religion course taught
by the author. The book is split into four main sections: Exploration,
Foundation, Application and Confrontation.

Exploration provides basic information on philosophy and religion, some of


the trends, methods and explanations. Foundation as the section title
suggests, provides some basic foundations and explores God’s revelation, the
Bible and a biblical worldview. Application builds on the previous sections
and applies the starting points. Topics considered include guidance, the
problem of evil, miracles, Christian scholarship and political action. The final
section Confrontation examines natural theology and its limited role, the
relationship between faith and knowledge, ideology, secularism, cultural
diversity and the new age movement.

It is a wide-ranging book and provides an excellent foundation for students of


philosophy and students of theology.

108
1997.3 Being Human in a Christian Perspective.
Wetenskaplike bydraes van die PU vir CHO. Reeks F2, Brosjures van die
Instituut vir Reformatoriese Studies; nr. 68.
Potchefstroomse Universiteit vir Christelike Hoer Onderwys
ISBN 1868222578; 83 pages
Contents
Preface
1. A sexual being
2. A holistic being
3. A multi-dimensional being
4. A religious being
5. A cultural being
6. An individual-communal being
7. Conclusion
8. Appendix: Questions for group discussion

This is the text of a lecture delivered at a conference held at Nairobi, Kenya


from 6th to 10th January 1997. The material here is basically the same as
chapter 7 of my book The Liberating Message (1994.1). The second part
draws upon Leaders with a Vision (1995.1).

1997.4 ‘Preface’.
In Christianity and democracy in South Africa: Christian responsibility for
political reflection and service.
Orientation: International Circular of the PU for CHE: i-ii
This edition of Orientation contains the proceedings of a conference on
Christianity and democracy in South Africa which was held at Potchefstroom
from 10th to 12th July, 1996. It was attended by 350 people.

In his preface van der Walt notes the four main areas of the conference:
• South African Christians from different political groups sharing their
experience of a new democracy
• An evaluation of new South Africa constitutional dispensation and
dynamics

109
• The international experience of democracy from a Christian perspective
• Political struggles in the case of both secular and Christian political
parties as well as churches.
The final part of the volume contains some papers from the conference A
vision for the future.

Papers were contributed by Paul Marshall, Jim Skillen, David Gitani, Jonathan
Chaplin, Bob Goudzwaard and C F B Naudé among others.

1997.5 ‘The voice of this conference in the context of voices from the past and
present’.
In Christianity and democracy in South Africa: Christian responsibility for
political reflection and service.
Orientation: International Circular of the PU for CHE: 1-7.
This was one of the opening speeches of the conference. He looks at six
voices speaking from the past and present:
• The original voice
• An exclusive voice
• A voice of protest
• A clear voice and
• The decisive voice

1997.6 ‘Report on the conference’.


In Christianity and democracy in South Africa: Christian responsibility for
political reflection and service.
Orientation: International Circular of the PU for CHE: 267-277.
As the title suggests this is a report on the conference held in July 1996. It
consists of four main sections:
• The need for political capacity building in South Africa
• Providing in the need by way of a conference
• An evaluation of the results of the conference
• A word of thanks

110
1997.7 ‘Appendix: Does religious freedom imply religious equality A biblical
perspective?’.
In Christianity and democracy in South Africa: Christian responsibility for
political reflection and service.
Orientation: International Circular of the PU for CHE: 284-297.
Many Christians at the conference indicated that they needed clarity
regarding religious freedom and equality, so this paper was included in the
proceedings as an appendix.

Here he focuses on three issues:


• Religious equality
• Religious freedom
• Confessional pluralism

These issues have been developed in Understanding and Rebuilding Africa


2003.2 and in Transforming Power 2007.1 ch 5-7. See also 2004.1 and 2006.3.

111
1998
1998.1 editor with Rita Swanepoel Signposts of God's Liberating Kingdom:
perspectives for the 21st century.
Potchefstroom: Potchefstroom University for Christian Higher Education.
Insitute for Reformational Studies.
Orientation Jan-Dec (83-86)
A special issue of Orientation.

Volume 1
Contents
Preface / B.J. van der Walt
Section 1: Introduction
Not pilgrims 'en route' to heaven so much as building tent cities of refuge
in God's world / C. Seerveld
The universal reality of God's Kingdom / J.D. Dengerink
The church and the world: the power of identity / C.G. Bartholomew
Section 2: Christian higher education
Higher education as service to the King / H.G. Geertsema
All things in Him: Christian higher education in a modern/postmodern
world / F. Fernhout
Christian higher education in the new South Africa / C.J. Reinecke
Philosophy education in varsity curriculum; the case of Daystar University
/ L. Obonyo
A situation analysis, determination of needs and formulation of aims for
Biblically founded subject teaching in Christian education / P.H. Stoker
Are there additional criteria for academic quality in Christian universities?
/ L.O.K. Lategan
Educating young Christians for serving the Lord in a technological world /
M.J. de Vries
Section 3: Contributions from different disciplines --.
Pluralism, liberalism and the truth of lived faith / H. Hart
Preaching on political issues; guidelines from Romans 12-15 / C.J.H.
Venter
A reformational perspective on law and justice / A.M. Cameron

112
Social problems and God's plan of redemption / R. Maatman
Why do economists disagree? / J.P. Tiemstra
Christianity and economics / B. Goudzwaard
A Christian perspective on culture / P.G. Schrotenboer
Making decisions in a Christian organization / R.E. VanderVennen
The occult in the twenty-first century / W.J. Ouweneel
Inclusive community in the face of exclusive fragmentation / B. Breems
Wholistic health care / J.H. Boer
Biblical principles of justice and redemption which can direct our search
for strategies to control crime / H.G. Wetmore
From doing things right to doing the right thing: the role of the humanities
in the education of technological culture-formers / C.C. Adams
Missions to Muslims in the twenty-first century / B.M. Madany
How shall we sing the Lord's song in the Lord's land? / B. Wearne

Volume 2
Contents
Preface / B.J. van der Walt
Section 1: Christianity and politics
A new political path for Ghana: the role of the Christian / K. Anane-Fenin
When religion and politics mixed in America: what went wrong? / R.A.
Wells
Chances for Christian politics in a God-less society / A. Rouvoet
Towards reconciliation in a divided world / G. Vandezande
The revelatory and anticipatory character of politics / J.W. Skillen
Section 2: Christian perspectives on theology
Faith-life and theology / J.C. Vanderstelt
Missions in the fear of God / P.J. Buys
Costly communion: mission between ecclesiology and ethics / G.
Vandervelde
A theological-ethical perspective on population explosion and family
planning / P.J. de Bruyn
Religious freedom in a multicultural context / K. Nurnberger
Theories of truth and interpretation / J. Botha
Non-formal theological training / E.J. Smit

113
The assailability of the prophetic figure and message in the Book of
Jeremiah / O. Dube
The reformers and missions / S.H. Rooy
Section 3: Contributions from different other disciplines
An ideal curriculum for Christian religious education / V.B. Cole
Some remarks on a technological university and its technology: a
Reformational perspective / L.O.K. Lategan
Teaching kingdom values in a postmodern media world / H. Van
Brummelen
Recasting the sociological encyclopaedia / B.C. Wearne
A Christian sociological imagination from the perspective of the garden to
the city / B. Breems
Anthropology, justice and eschatology / C. Gousmett
Trends in agriculture: sustainability / D. Vander Zee and R. Vos
Modern management philosophy: 2000 years late! / L. Nyirongo
Freedom in western life and thought since the Renaissance: a broad
outline / W.J. Richards --.
Section 4: Essays on Africa
Clash of two worldviews: African and western / T. Adeyemo
To Henry and beyond Henry: a reappraisal of Odera Oruka's estimation of
the trends in African philosophy / M. Deacon
The development agenda: beyond dehumanising ideology / S. Fowler.

Review from Contact 10 (2)(IAPCHE, 1999)


http://www.iapche.org/1-99.html
The aim of this volume is to give to its readers a glimpse of the different
areas of God's all-encompassing kingdom. It emphasizes the fact that God's
kingdom is much wider than the institutional church. By doing so, we hope to
inspire its readers to follow in the footsteps of the contributors in erecting
signposts of God's liberating kingdom in the way in which they think and act
in the different areas of life the world over.
With the word "kingdom", we have the following central biblical ideas in
mind: (1) that God is the sovereign ruler (2) over his entire creation, which
(3) results in all kinds of blessings, such as redemption, salvation, liberation,
peace, etc. In using the word erecting (signposts) we do not subscribe to the
modernist myth of progress.
It should also be remembered that, according to Scripture, we are now living
in the time between the "already" (the kingdom arrived with the coming of
Christ, the King and his Holy Spirit) and the "not yet" (its final coming upon
Christ's glorious return). Thinking and acting between the kingdom come and
the kingdom to come, we are called to erect signposts pointing in the
direction of the kingdom to come.

114
Jesus himself invited the followers not only to wait for, but also to enter his
kingdom. We cannot "establish" it on earth, but neither can we sit "waiting"
for it passively. We have to inscribe its dynamism (love to God and our
neighbor) in the way we run the present world. Our word "kingdom"
(translation of the original Greek word "basileia") is perhaps a too fixed,
static, spatial concept. It could probably be better translated as God's reign,
which indicates dynamic power in the present and also a powerful movement
towards the future.
This volume, as a whole, wants to be a clear signpost erected by different
writers with a kingdom vision. Each in their own area or field of interest are
struggling to give shape to a Christian worldview, to help others who are
traveling the same road. It is not done in the spirit of "we have the answers"
or "we have attained our goal," but in humility. At the same time, however, it
is done with sincerity because it is part of our calling, one way to give
substance to our daily prayer: "Thy kingdom come."

1998.2 Godsdiens en samelewing = Religion and society: a review of the


Truth and Reconciliation Commission hearings, East London, 17-19
November 1997
by B J Van der Walt; J J Venter; South Africa. Truth and Reconciliation
Commission.
Wetenskaplike bydraes van die PU vir CHO., Reeks F,, Reeks F1,, Instituut vir
Reformatoriese Studie., IRS-Studiestukke ;, nr. 361
ISBN 1868223035; 44 pages
Contents
1. Gelowiges bely hulle skuld oor apartheid en gee hulle visie vir die toekoms
/ B.J. van der Walt
2. The relationship between religion and society / B.J. van der Walt
3. A few remarks on our civil duty / J.J. Venter
4. A public confession from Potchefstroom -- Die Koinonia-verklaring.

Van der Walt and J J Ponti Venter attended the Truth and Reconciliation
Commission . Faith communities hearing 17-19 November , 1997 in London.
The Full text of which is available here:
http://www.doj.gov.za/trc/special/faith/faith_b.htm
They confessed with honesty and humility their part in apartheid – even
though they both had spoken out against it. To the question ‘what have you
done to oppose apartheid’ van der Walt responds:

115
We were privileged at the Potchefstroom University in our education also
overseas, that we were not educated in a narrow minded church view of
the world and of society, but that we were educated in a Christian world
view which indicated that as Christians, we had a calling to serve God in
all areas of life.

Of course this makes us even more guilty that we have done so little in
the past. An important part of this perspective was a Christian social
analysis, you can call it Christian footwear and Christian clothing to
appear in public and not only pyjamas for your personal life of faith or a
Sunday suit.

And of course a Christian world view can easily derail and finally become
an oppressive ideology, but from this perspective and from a Christian
philosophy, we tried to open the eyes and the perceptions, change the
perceptions of especially the white people in our church and also at the
university and as far as possible, also outside our university.

I mention a few examples. The periodical Word and Action, Word and
Deed, already criticised apartheid from the early 1970's. The publication
in 1977 of the Koinonia declaration which had an international impact,
and then all the publications of the Institute for Reformational Studies on
socio-political issues as well as its comments on important documents
like the Kairos document, Church and Society.

But what I would like to mention especially is our conferences where we


try to get together people from all walks of life and all the different
population groups in South Africa to discuss together issues of relevance
for the whole country.

I had experience that during time of racial isolation, this encouraged


people tremendously to continue in the struggle and at our conferences
we also challenge the Potchefstroom University, we reprimanded it in our
resolutions because of its stance, its policy about the admission as well
as accommodation policies towards black students.

116
In all these ways, we tried to open the eyes of church leaders, lecturers,
students and people blinded by the apartheid ideology and I must confess
opening our own eyes more and more for the damage done by this
ideology.

117
1999
1999.1 ‘Christian religion and society: the heritage of Abraham Kuyper for
(South) Africa’.
In C van der Kooi and J Bruijn ed. Kuyper Reconsidered:
aspects of his work and life.
Amsterdam: Free University Utigeverij: 228-237.
ISBN 9053836403; 320 pages

This is the same – with an added introduction and with footnotes as in 1999.2,
1999.3 and 1999.4. Also in reprinted in 1999.1.

This volume is the proceedings of a conference that celebrated Kuyper’s


Stone Lectures held in 1998 at the Free University, Amsterdam. The paper
starts by considering Kuyper the man: he was a true reborn Christian, he was
a visionary, a man of the people and a practical man. He then distinguishes
three threats to Christianity in Africa: ecclesiasticism, escapism and
secularism. Kuyper’s Christian philosophy of society is then briefly outlined.
One should neither identify religion and society (including the state), nor
separate them, but clearly distinguish between the two’. He then elucidates
several ‘flashes’ of Kuyper’s ideas: a different kind of secularism – one
positive and one negative ; a new view of religion – it embraces the whole of
life; a novel conception of vocation; God’s ordinances apply to the whole of
society; pluralism as an alternative to communalism and individualism;
confessional pluralism. He concludes with a discussion as to how Kuyper’s
philosophy of society applies to the problem of poverty.

118
1999.2 Religion and Society: Christian Involvement in the Public Square.
Wetenskaplike bydraes van die PU vir CHO. Reeks F3,
Versamelwerke ; no. 50
Potchefstroom: PU vir CHO.
ISBN 1868223426; iv + 86 pages

Contents
1. A new Christianity for a new South Africa
2. Christian religion and society (see 1999.1)
3. A Christian perspective on fundamental rights (see 2000.1)
4. The tyranny of the neo-capitalist free market economy
5. Western developmentalism

This book builds upon The Liberating Message and Leaders with a Vision. It
examines the role of Christianity in the public square. The first chapter
examines the weak points in Christianity in Africa today:
• Nominalism • Secularism
• Pietism • Subjectivism
• Escapism • Eurocentrism
• Denominationalism • Myopism
• Institutionalism
What is needed is a ‘new’ Christianity, which is:
• Committed • Visionary
• Integral • Socially involved

• Involved
• Ecumenical
• Kingdom
• Radical
• Normative
• African

119
Chapter 2 looks at Kuyper’s heritage for South Africa (this was delivered in 1998 at
the Free University of Amsterdam at the commemoration of Abraham
Kuyper's Stone Lectures of 1898). Chapter 3 examines the issues of rights from a
Christian perspective; this is done under five sub-headings:
• Human rights are important, but can be overemphasised
• Christian reactions to rights
• The Bible on human rights
• Human rights in a Christian philosophy
• We need more than fundamental rights for a just society.
The chapter concludes with 34 discussion questions.
In chapter 4 the dangerous ideology of neo-capitalism is examined, it looks at how its
main characteristics, why it is unacceptable and how it should be challenged.
Development is briefly discussed in the final chapter. This is a precursor to his 2000
paper on development and culture.

1999.3 Church and faith: the heritage of Abraham Kuyper.


Woord en Daad/ Word and Action 39 (368): 16-20 (Winter)
Reprinted in 2002.6.

Also in 1999.1. This version does not have the footnotes or the brief
introduction of 1999.1.

1999.4 ‘Kuyper's philosophy of society’.


Many to many 25: 19-21, 40-41 (Dec)
This is another version of 1999.1.

120
1999.5 ‘Preface’.
In I. Achineku & MAP International The AIDS Crisis in Africa: our Christian
responsibility
Wetenskaplike bydraes van die PU vir CHO. Reeks F1, IRS-studiestukke ; no.
380.
Potchefstroom: PU for CHE
ISBN 1868223507; 45 pages
Preface / B. J. van der Walt
Facing the threats and challenge of AIDS / I. Achineku
Aids in Africa: the church's opportunity / MAP International.

121
2000

2000.1 ‘A Christian perspective on fundamental rights’.


Woord en Daad/ Word and Action 40 (372): 8-13. (Winter)
Here van der Walt asks the question ‘What is the relationship between our
Christian faith and human rights?’ And ‘How will a Christian perspective on
human rights look?’.

2000. 2 ‘Towards a Biblical-Reformational perspective on development’.


Woord en Daad/ Word and Action 40 (374): 20-22.
Previous issues of Woord en Daad had included articles on development; this
is van der Walt’s response. He defines development as the :
…(i) balanced unfolding of (2) all the abilities of the human being and (3)
the potential of material things, plants and animals (4) according to God’s
purposes and (5) His will, to enable the human being (6) within his/ her
own culture. (7) to fulfil his/ her calling (8) as a responsible steward of
creation (9) in a free society (10) to the honour and glory of God.

122
2001

2001.1 Transformed by the Renewing of Your Mind: Shaping a Biblical


Worldview and a Christian Perspective on Scholarship.
Potchefstroom: Institute for Contemporary
Christianity in Africa (ICCA)
ISBN 1868223825; v + 198 pages

Contents:

1. Why the salt has lost its quality


2. Culture, worldview and religion
3. Transformed by the renewing of your mind
4. Taking captive every thought to make it obedient to Christ
5. The pilgrim's progress of a Christian academic (see 1993.8)
6. Our past heritage, present opportunity and future challenge (see 2002.3)

Ch 1 Is a paper delivered at the International Reformed Theological Congress


on the Kingdom of God, Potchefstroom, 21-24 August 2000. See 2003.2.20

Ch2 is based on a paper presented at Cultures and Christianity AD 2000 The


International Symposium of the Society for Reformational Philosophy,
Hoeven, the Netherlands, 21-25 August. See 2001.2, 2002.5 and 2003.2.4.

As the subtitle suggests this book examines two concepts: a Christian


worldview and Christian scholarship, particularly that in higher education.
The context is Africa, but the principles apply anywhere in the world. Several
of the chapters in this book were originally lectures presented at IAPCHE
events.

123
The main thesis of the book is that we urgently need a genuine, biblical
worldview and this should be seen in Christian scholarship and education. The
first chapter looks at one of the major obstacles in forming a biblical
worldview: dualism. The second looks at the relationship between the key
concepts of worldview, culture and religion and this is applied to the
important, particularly in the African context of development. The
subsequent chapters start to focus on the need for a Christian worldview in
higher education. Chapter 3 looks at what it means to renew the mind in the
context of higher education and in general and in Africa in particular.
Chapter 4 looks at the challenges post 2000. The theory of these chapters is
then applied in the story of Thomas, an African Christian academic. His
struggles to integrate his scholarship with his Christianity as he moved from
being a Christian and then a scholar to become a Christian scholar are told.
The final chapter is a look back and forward to the work of the IAPCHE.

2001.2 ‘Culture, worldview and religion; a perspective from the African


continent’.
Philosophia Reformata 66 (1): 23-38.
Versions are reprinted in 2001.1.2 and 2003.2.4.

A summary of the larger paper 'Culture, worldview and religion' prepared for
the Cultures and Christianity AD 2000: International Symposium of the
Association for Reformational Philosophy Aug 2000. It examines the
relationship of culture, worldview, religion and development in the context
of Africa.

2001.3 ‘Transformed by the renewal of your mind; in commemoration of the


50th Anniversary of Potchefstroom as an independent Christian University on
17 March 2001’.
Woord en Daad/ Word and Action 41 (375): 20-25.
This is an exposition of Rom 12: 1-2. His outline comprises: a warning, a
command and a promise. He concludes with a ten-point vision for Christian
higher education:

124
• Visionary • Relevant
• Integral • Culturally sensitive
• Rigorous • Communal
• Critical • Global
• Open • Modest.

2001.4 ‘Development: a critical reconnaissance’.


Woord en Daad/ Word and Action 41

2001.5 ‘Shaping a radical biblical worldview’.


Woord en Daad/ Word and Action 41 (376): 13-17.
This answers the question: ‘What will a genuine Biblically-inspired worldview
look like?’. All worldviews contain six components: a conception of our view
about God; about law, order and value; about what it means to be human;
about the ideal society; about our relationship towards nature; and about
time and history. Here van der Walt examines how these components
changed at creation, fall into sin and redemption.

2001.6 ‘What does it mean to be Reformed? An answer from a worldview


perspective’.
In die Skriflig 35 (2): 299-316.
Reworked and expanded in 2003.2.20.

This article looks at what it means to be Reformed from a worldview


perspective. A typology of five perspectives on the relationship of nature
and grace is examined; these are shown in tabular and diagrammatic form.
Dualistic worldviews are analysed and found wanting. Several distinctions
are made; between kingdom and church; between religion and faith;
between structure and direction. Finally, a distinctive Reformed worldview is
presented.

125
2001.7 ‘The shape of an integral Christian cosmoscope’.
In John Kok ed. Marginal Existence: Essays Dedicated to John C Vander
Stelt.
Sioux Center: Dordt College Press: 71-88.

2001.8 ‘A Reformed perspective on development in Africa: a personal


pilgrimage’.
In H J Hendriks, D A Luidens, R J Nemeth, C E Smidt and H Stoffels ed.
Reformed Encounters with Modernity: Perspectives from Three Continents
Stellenbosch: The International Society for the Study of Reformed
Communities (ISSRC): 65-73.
ISBN 0 620 27170 1
These are the conference proceedings of the ISSRC, held at Stellenbosch,
South Africa.

In his opening statement he notes that he has managed to ‘force a whale into
a sardine tin’ and summarised two books in three points and nine pages! His
three points are: a problem, a pilgrimage and a proposal.

2001.9 ‘Corruption. The many-headed monster’.


Koers 66 (4): 691-705.
Reprinted in Understanding and Rebuilding Africa 2003.2.15.

Corruption is many-headed because it takes many forms. He offers a neat


and simple solution: ‘Never pay nor accept bribes’! Several reasons for
corruption are explored before a few ‘practical hints’ are offered and then
whistleblowing is examined as one way of counteracting corruption.

126
2002

2002.1 ‘Seek and you will find; the message of the wise men (Matt 2:1-12)’.
Woord en Daad/ Word and Action 42 (382) (Summer): 1-3.
This is a brief meditation on Mt 2:1-2. This passage shows how God reveals
himself in three different ways. This threefold revelation, the order in
creation, his verbal communication (Micah 5:2) and Christ, forms a unity
which should not be separated.

2002.2 ‘Our past heritage, present opportunity and future challenges;


reflections on the past 25th anniversary of the International Association for
the Promotion of Christian Higher education’.
Christian Higher Education 1 (2-3): 123-137.
ISSN 1536-3759

Utilising first a rear view mirror than a microscope and finally a telescope.
van der Walt, in his opening talk at the 25th anniversary celebration of the
IAPCHE, takes a look at the past, present and future of the IAPCHE.

He sees the history as been divided into two periods: 1975-1987, its
childhood, and 1987 to the then present (2000), its teenage years. Its history
has often been turbulent, but the IAPCHE still survives. There have been six
international conferences, this one the sixth, after a pause of some 12 years,
and seven regional conferences. It has undergone a process of change from
ICRICHE, to ICPCHE and now the IAPCHE (since 1987). Some of the changes
were because of the strained relations between the Potchefstroom University
and the Vrijie University.

127
Some negative aspects such as majoring in criticising each other, talking but
weak in doing and concentrating on academics in Christian institutions to the
detriment of Christians at non-Christian institutions.

Nevertheless, he does see some promising opportunities for the present and
some future challenges to rise up to.

http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/content~content=a713836950~db=all~order=page

2002. 3 ‘The challenge of Christian Higher Education on the African continent


in the twenty-first century’.
Christian Higher Education 1 (2-3): 195-227.
Abstract. This article consists of three main sections. In the first, reasons are
given why a vision for Christian higher education is, to a large degree, still
lacking in Africa. The following factors are dealt with to explain this
situation: (1) the politicaleconomic- social environment; (2) the character of
Christianity on the continent; (3) the state of higher education; and (4) the
implications of all these factors for Christian higher education. The second
main section develops a basis for a vision for Christian higher education by
listening to what Romans 12:2 says about the renewing of our minds. The
final section provides an answer to the question how this vision for Christian
education could be realized in Africa. A proposal is made for the
establishment of an African Center for Christian Higher Education. How this
could be done, and what its key activities should be are spelled out in a
practical way.
http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/content~content=a713836951~db=all~order=page

This journal also a carried ‘A response to Bennie van der Walt’ by E. W.


Namukoa Namukoa: 229-233.

128
2002.4 ‘Reformation and /or renaissance? A comparison between John
Calvin’s and Thabo Mbeki’s ideas of renewal’.
Koers 67 (2): 135-157.

This was the basis for ch 19 in Understanding and rebuilding Africa


2003.2.19.

Abstract. This essay compares the differences and similarities between the
European Renaissance (1300 - 1600) and the African Renaissance in order to
determine what an apposite Christian attitude would be. The first section
describes the European Renaissance as a reaction to the Middle Ages and a
return to the original sources of Western civilisation. Two different trends
are distinguished, viz. classical humanism and evangelical humanism. The
ideas of the great Renaissance thinker and evangelical humanist, John Calvin,
about reformation receive special attention in this regard. He learned much
from his contemporaries, but did so in a critical, independent way. From the
five different Christian worldviews which crystallised during the Renaissance
epoch, his Reformational worldview was the most strongly biblically founded
one. The second main part of the essay first asks some critical questions
about the African Renaissance and then provides a brief historical survey of
past efforts at an African Renaissance, followed by an exposition and
evaluation of Thabo Mbeki's ideas about an African Renaissance. The third
main section of the essay poses the question as to what role Christianity can
and should play in the African Renaissance. Similar to the attitude of Calvin,
we should both learn from it and contribute to it from the perspective of a
Christian worldview.
http://www.sabinet.co.za/abstracts/koers/koers_v67_n2_a1.xml

The impetus for this article was from a keynote address delivered at the First
General Assembly of the World Reformed Fellowship, 23-26 September 2002,
Muldersdrift, South Africa.

129
2002.5 ‘Culture, worldview and religion: towards a biblical-reformational
perspective on development’.
African Journal for Transformational Scholarship 1 (1):
1-26.

This article contains the substance of a presentation to the ‘Transforming


Directions for Africa’ conference of the Heidelberg Institute for Christian
Higher Education, South Africa in January 2000. It is an edited version of a
much longer paper written for the International Symposium of The Society for
Reformational Philosophy on Cultures and Christianity AD 2000 held at
Hoeven, the Netherlands 21-25 August 2000
(See 2001.1.2, 2001.2 and 2003.2.4.)

2002.6 ‘Religion and society in Africa: the heritage of Abraham Kuyper’.


In A B Tshibangu and B G Ahule ed. Christian Worldview: a book of
readings.
Gboko, Benue State, Nigeria: Nimsy Printing and Publishing.
Reprinted from 1999.1.

130
2003

2003.1 The Enchanting World of the Drakensberg Mountains as Experienced


by an Adventurous Family
Potchefstroom: Institute for Contemporary
Christianity in Africa.
ISBN 1868224295; v + 251 pages

Reprinted in 2006 and 2008.

Contents
Preface
Introduction
1. Adventure calls
2. Preparation for the onslaught
3. Imminent danger
4. Drama in the Drakensberg
5. Trapped in a cave
6. Here we come again!
7. Through three deep valleys
8. The place of a thousand voices
9. Farewell to the Bushmen
10. On the white tracks
11. Back to Paradise
12. Still bewitched by the hiking trail
13. The bounce is back in our walk
14. Farewell – and au revoir
15. Adventure or accident?

131
16. Why hiking is so popular
17. What hiking means to the individual
18. How to hike

This book is an expanded version of the original Afrikaans edition of


Voetslaanavonture in die Drakensberge published by Intergrafix, Pretoria.

The foreword is written by Beki Khoza, the Regional director for the
Drakensberg Mountains of KwaZulu-Natal Wildlife.

2003.2 Understanding and Rebuilding Africa: From Desperation Today to


Expectation for Tomorrow.
Potchefstroom: Institute for Contemporary
Christianity in Africa.
ISBN 9781868224197; xi + 553 pages.

Contents
Preface Desmond M Tutu
Introduction
1. The impact of slavery, colonialism, neo-colonialism and Christianity on
Africa
2. The contemporary crisis in Africa: its characteristics and causes
3. African traditional religion
4. Culture, worldview and religion; a comparison between the West, Africa,
and the Bible
5. African communalism and Western individualism
6. Traditional African and modern Western concepts of time

132
7. The African way of thinking compared with the Western mode of thought
8. Different schools of philosophy in Africa
9. Morality in Africa – a serious crisis
10. The sacralisation and desacralisation of authority and power
11. Religion and politics
12. Human rights – a serious duty
13. The five requirements for reconciliation
14. Religious diversity, equality, freedom and tolerance
15. Corruption: a many-headed monster (reprint from 2001.9)
16. Stewardship of our natural environment
17. Development of the African conflict
18. Towards a normative economy
19. The African renaissance (see 2002.4)
20. An integral biblical worldview: a key to the rebuilding of Africa

Ch 1 Previously unpublished
Ch 2 Previously unpublished
Ch 3 Previously unpublished
Ch 4 A part of chapter 2 of Transformed by the Renewing of your Mind
(2001.1) and (partly) published also in Philosophia Reformata, 66(1) (2001.2):
23-38. See also 2002.5
Ch 5 A reworked, expanded version of chapter 2 Afrocentric or Eurocentric?
(1997.1)
Ch 6 Reworked English translation of In die Skriflig, 36(2) (2002): 293-308
Ch 7 A reworked, expanded edition of chapter 4 of Afrocentric or
Eurocentric? (1997.1)
Ch 8 New text
Ch 9 New text, except last section taken from The Liberating Message
(1994.1) (p. 400-423 (first section of chapter submitted for publication In die
Skriflig see 2003.5
Ch 10 Expanded version of chapter 21 of Man and God (1997.2)
Ch 11 Expanded version of chapter 23 of Man and God (1997.2)
Ch 12 Previously published as chapter 3 of Religion and society (1999)

133
Ch 13 Reworked and expanded edition of Responsibility, conversion,
confession, forgiveness, restitution and reconciliation: God's requirements
for a new South Africa (IRS Study Pamphlet no. 337, 1966)
Ch 14 Reworked text of chapters 9 and 34 of Man and God (1997.2)
Ch 15 Previously published in Koers, 66(4): 691-705
Ch 16 Previously published in Afrikaans in Koers, 65(1) (2000): 123-161, as
well as In Tydskrif vir Christelike Wetenskap, first and second quarter (2001):
135-148. English version from a lecture delivered at Pusan, Korea (2001)
Ch 17 A part of chapter 2 of Transformed by the Renewing of your Mind
(2001.1)
Ch 18 Expanded version of The Liberating Message (1994), p. 427-443
Ch 19 Newly written text. An abbreviated version published in Koers 67(2)
(2002): 135-157
Ch 20 Reworked and expanded text previously published as chapter 1 of
Transformed by the Renewing of your Mind (2001.1) and partly also published
in In die Skriflig, 35(2) (2001.6): 299-316

This volume was written as a textbook for a course on ‘Philosophy in Africa’.


It has been reprinted in 2004 and 2006.

The aim of the book is to provide a popular introduction for a better


understanding of Africa. It begins with an historical overview of Africa from
pre-history to the nineteenth century and colonialism. Van der Walt sees the
influence of Christianity as being a mixed blessing as the gospel preached was
largely dualistic and it confused the gospel with western civilisation.

He then turns to the contemporary crisis within Africa, the characteristics –


suffering, hunger, disease, poverty, injustice - and causes - bad government,
the international economic system, African culture, education, population
explosion, the environmental fragility, poor leadership, corruption, the wrong
type of Christianity (dualistic, escapist, pessimistic and one confined to the
ecclesiastical sphere) - are examined. African tribal religion is the subject of
the next chapter – here van der Walt draws upon his own experiences and
Lenard Nyirongos’s The gods of Africa and the God of the Bible.

134
Chapter 4, drawing upon his Philosophia Reformata article 2000, compares
culture, worldview and religions. Chapter 5 looks in more detail at the
differences between African communalism and Western individualism. African
and Western concepts of time are examined in chapter 6– the difference lies
not in the experience but in the conception of time.

Chapter 7 compares African and Western modes of thought – neither are fully
Christian, a third way is needed. Chapter 8 looks at the variety of African
schools of philosophy – he identifies four distinct trends: ethnophilosophy,
sage philosophy, nationalistic-ideological liberation philosophy and
professional philosophy.

Chapter 9 looks at morality and ethics. The importance and limitations of


ethics are examined before looking at the ethical aspect in terms of the
other modal aspects. Friendship, marriage and the family are then discussed.

Chapter 10 looks at the concepts of authority and power and draws upon the
discussions in Leaders with a Vision (1995.1) and Man and God (1997.2).
Another chapter from Man and God is developed in chapter 11 on religion and
politics. He notes that real social justice only comes from moving beyond our
rights and to accept our responsibilities to fellow humans – to become as
servants. The issue of rights is taken up in chapter 12: rights are important
but the Bible offers a better way, that of love.

The next chapters deal with the requirements of reconciliation in the light
apartheid South Africa, religious diversity and corruption.

Stewardship, development and economics are the subjects of the next three
chapters. These are important issues for Africa. Africa is facing an
environmental crisis, development was once seen as the magic bullet for
Africa and economics plays an important part in Africa because of
globalisation.

The final two chapters look at the hope for Africa. The first is the African
renaissance, a movement initiated by Thabo Mbeki, which is compared and
contrasted with the European renaissance (1300-1600). A Christian response

135
is then presented. The final chapter develops an integral Christian
worldview, which van der Walt sees as the only viable hope for Africa.

2003.3 ‘The question about the meaning of life’.


Woord en Daad/ Word and Action 43 (Autumn): 2-7.
Part of a paper published in Koers 65 (1) (2000) in Afrikaans.

This article looks at the questions raised by the writer of Ecclesiastes and
then looks at some worldview questions: Why are we here? Where are we
going? and How should we live?

2003.4 ‘Morality in Africa, yesterday and today; the reasons for the
contemporary crisis’.
In die Skriflig 37: 51-72.
There is a moral decline within South Africa. To illustrate this van der Walt
compares the moral degeneration with the values and virtues of traditional
African society. Traditional morality is communalistic, humanistic or
anthropocentric, pragmatistic and utilitarian, tribalistic, shame-oriented and
this-worldly. These contain inherent weaknesses which should not be
ignored.

There are also a number of external reasons for the moral degradation.
These include the influence of Western culture and Western capitalism and
individualism in particular, materialism, the mass media, education and the
influence of Christianity, which was presented as a system of ‘dos and
don’ts’, its morality tended to focus on the commandment ‘do not commit
adultery’ and it waged a war against traditional African morals. He sees the
solution as being a ‘third way’ as opposed to the traditional African road and
the modern Western road. This third way – this is developed further in
Understanding and Rebuilding Africa 2003.2 – means being obedient to norms
established by God, rather than the norms established by the community or
the self.

136
2004

2004.1 ‘Religious diversity, equality, freedom and tolerance’.


African Journal of Transformational Scholarship 1 (2): 22-44.
There are two other versions of this paper: chapter 14 of Understanding and
rebuilding Africa (2003.2) (very brief), but also an extended version in
chapters 5,6 and 7 of Transforming Power (2007.1).

This article addresses three questions: (1) Is only Christianity true and all
other religions false? or (2) are all religions at least partly (or wholly) true? or
(3) are they all possibly untrue? He believes not all religions are equal,
because Christianity is true. This, however, does not mean he supports
Christian imperialism or rejects freedom of religion. There is a big difference
between religious equality and religious freedom. He then considers the
biblical grounds for religious freedom. Finally, he examines the case for
religious tolerance. Western thought, unlike the Bible, offers no solid grounds
for religious tolerance. Religious tolerance is rooted in God’s respect of the
freedom of humans and his long-suffering.

2004.2 ‘Religion and society in Africa: The heritage of Abraham Kuyper’.


In John B. Hulst (editor) Christian Worldview and Scholarship.
Eltham, Victoria: Amani Educational services: 22-29.
ISBN 0975030736; 203 pages

This volume, published for International Association for the Promotion of


Christian Higher Education in association with Centre for the Promotion of
Christian Higher Education in Africa, was an edited collection of papers from
a conference in Nigeria.

Contents
Foreword / John B. Hulst and J.J. Venter
Perspectives on the Conference / J.O. Nyiakura
Christian world view and scholarship / John B. Hulst

137
Religion and society in Africa: the Heritage of Abraham Kuyper / B.J. van der
Walt
A response / B.G. Ahule
The role of philosophy in the Reformational Christian university / J.J. Venter
Revelation and the Bible in the context of religious pluralism issues / T.C.
Rabali
The vital stake of the African church in Christian higher education's world
view and scholarship / Jim Lont
Christian religious education in the 21st century: a shared praxis / T. Mkena
A response / Philip Tachin
Women's participation in Christian theology / Anthony Zaayem Apenda
Learning to teach from within a Christian perspective / John H. Kok
Teaching science from a Christian perspective / Albert B. Tshibangu
Christian faith and economic theorising / George N. Monsma, Jr.
Christian view and school curriculum / J.I. Ibyeenegh
Mission versus economics: tensions in distance education / Robert S. Fortner
Unfulfilled coup d'etat promises / C.K. Ibekwe
Evangelism and cross-cultural communication: Reformed perspective /
Joseph Y. Akpem
The Christian faith and colonial experience / Ayem Shoja
A Biblical perspective on stewardship: a world view on giving / Dirk W.
Vander Steen
Response / Philip S. Tachin.

Van der Walt’s contribution is from 1992.1 – see above for details.

2004.3 ‘The Bible on poverty and wealth our task as Christians’.


Woord en Daad/ Word and Action 44 (388): 9-12
Traditional African views about what constitutes being poor are different to
western views; for the African the economic aspect is not of primary
concern. Poverty is one of the main concerns in Africa and so van der Walt
looks at the biblical message on poverty and wealth. Poverty is a reality, but
neither acceptance nor optimism is the solution. There are a number of
biblical motives for fighting poverty: Christ as our example, love for the poor
and justice. The Bible sees that it is best to prevent it from occurring;

138
numerous laws and regulations help towards this (e.g. the Jubilee and
Sabbath legislation). Small-scale projects can be more effective than large-
scale development projects. The poor are not without responsibility, they
need to help themselves and those poorer than themselves.

He concludes that the biblical message on poverty is very clear: ‘we have to
do something about it!’.

2004.4 ‘The essence of contemporary secularism: the separation between


“private” and “public”’.
Woord en Daad/ Word and Action 44 (389) (Lent/ Spring): 1-2.
This is a brief introduction to an issue of Word and Action on secularism.

He sees secularism as the result of three centuries of development.


Secularists, and Christian dualists, have a two-storey perspective of reality, a
holy upper storey and a secular public lower storey. He argues that it is not
possible to separate private and public life. Public life is not neutral – ‘Christ
is either King of everything or He is not King’.

139
2005

2005.1 ‘Growing together in faith: how can it be understood theoretically and


be achieved practically?’.
Tydskrif vir Christelike Wetenskap 41 (4): 141-168.
Reprinted in Transforming Power (2007.1.1).

Conversion also means that we have to grow in faith – how do we do that?


This is the topic of this article. It provides a critique of James Fowler’s model
before examining three other approaches: Westerhoff, James Olthuis and
Harry Van Belle. He argues that Fowler’s approach is a secular moel that
cannot be uncritically accepted. He also notes that all theoretical models
are ‘schematic and systematic abstractions’. They can never fully ‘capture
the dynamics and complexity of real life’.

Van Belle’s, Olthuis’s and Westerhoff’s stages of faith are then examined.
He concludes by looking at how adults can help in this process of faith
instruction. He looks at five practical ways: reading the Bible together,
commemorating together, prayer, talking and listening and doing faith acts
together – the deeds of love, justice and peace.

2005.2 ‘The concept of leadership – in Africa, the Western world and


according to the Bible’.
Woord en Daad/ Word and Action 45 (391 & 392) (Autumn and Winter) : 12-
18.
This and part two (2005.3) revisit the theme of leadership fist dealt with in
Leaders with a Vision 1995.1. It is a translation of an Afrikaans article
originally published in Koers (2003) 68 (2 & 3): 143-170.

The African view of a leader is someone who serves the community; the
Western view sees the leader as an effective organiser or manager of
individuals. The biblical view is that of the leader as a servant, as someone
in relationship that has a task or calling and as a follower. Briefly, the
concepts of office, authority and power and responsibility are explored.

140
2005.3 ‘Leadership implies office, authority, power organisation and
responsibility’.
Woord en Daad/ Word and Action 45 (393 & 394): 8-12.
This is part two of 2005.2.

It examines in more detail the concepts of office, authority and power. The
biblical view of office is neither hierarchical (top down) nor democratic
(bottom up). Office is a vocation, from God, to serve. Authority comes from
insight and obedience. Power is the ability to exercise authority and fill an
office. A leader is a steward and a servant thus he has a great responsibility.

2005.4 ‘The challenge of the African way of thinking to the western mode of
thought: how to Africanize Western science’.
In John Kok ed. Ways of Knowing in Concert.
Sioux Center: Dordt College Press: 165-188.
ISBN 0-932914-49-1; 276 pages.

Contents
Knowing and human being
Neurons and knowledge / Claudia DeVries Beversluis
Incarnate being and carnal knowledge: the caress beyond the grasp /
Clarence W. Joldersma
Faulty psychology' and theology / John C. Vander Stelt
Ethical knowledge and literary fiction / Clarence Walhout
The miracle of mutual love: Luce Irigaray and the ethics of sexual
difference / James H. Olthuis

141
Knowing and truth
Dooyeweerd on knowledge and truth / Henk G. Geertsema
Two very different analyses of knowledge / Rene van Woudenberg
Ways of wisdom: multiple modes of meaning in pedagogy and andragogy /
Doug Blomberg
Even as I am fully known: an exploration in 'cruciform epistemology' / Syd
Hielema
The challenge of the African way of thinking to the western mode of
thought: how to Africanize western science / Bennie J. van der Walt
Plastic injection molding: an epistemological problem / Lambert Van Poolen

Knowing and believing


Knowledge of religion and religious knowledge: the cultural anthropology of
religion and a religious anthropology / Andre Droogers
Variety in scripture and the coherence of scriptural doctrine: the Doctrine
of Atonement, an example / Cornelis van der Kooi
Beyond knowledge: the language of the prophet / Renee D.N. van Riessen
Writing and knowing / James C. Schaap.

(It was reviewed by D.L. van der Tholen in Philosophia Reformata 71 (2),
(2006):180-182.)

This book is a collection of essays from the sixth ‘quadrilateral conference’:


‘Ways of knowing, in concert: Christian initiatives and responses’ at Dordt
College in August 1998. It was co-sponsored by Dordt, Calvin College, ICS and
Vrijie Unversity. The fifteen chapters are split into three main foci: knowing
and being human, knowledge and truth, and knowing and being. Van der
Walt’s contribution (ch 10) comes in the second category.

He compares traditional African culture with modern western culture. He


notes that it is like ‘comparing something that is pre-scientific with
something that is scientific’. He doesn’t use the term ‘pre-scientific’ in any
derogatory way. It is not better or worse it is a different way of knowing. He
sees different cultures emphasise different sides of our relationship to God or
the supernatural, to nature, to other and to ourselves. Hence different gifts
are developed in different cultures and these enable them to know reality in

142
different ways, it also means that knowledge of reality can be expressed in
different ways. He advocates a ‘mutually affirming and corrective cultural
pluralism’, so that the African and western cultures can confirm and correct
each other.

143
2006

2006. 1 When African and Western Cultures Meet: From Confrontation to


Appreciation.
Potchefstroom: Institute for Contemporary
Christianity in Africa
ISBN 1868225100; vii + 317 pp; pbk

Contents
Preface: Prof Emmanuel Ayee
1. How to explain and evaluate cultural diversity
2. Africa, the poorest continent
3. Development: the illusion of the twentieth century?
4. Globalisation: the new spirit of the 21st century
5. Leadership models in Africa, the West and the Bible
6. A shame- versus guilt-oriented conscience: an explanation for the conflict
between African and Western cultures?
7. The Western way of thinking compared with the Eastern and African mode
of thought
8. A liberating message for women on Africa (see 1988.9)
9. Direction in the crisis of agriculture
Acknowledgements

Ch 1 Previously unpublished
Ch2 Originally an introductory lecture given at Dordt College, Iowa, USA Sept
2004.
Ch 3 Translation from In die Skriflig 28(2) (2004): 235-262
Ch4 Translation from the Afrikaans from In die Skriflig 28 (2) (2004): 263-289
Ch 5 Translation of an article that appeared in Koers 68 (2&3) (2003): 143-169

144
Ch 6 Translation of Koers 69 (1) (2004): 27-55
Ch 7 Translation of Koers 69 (4) (2004): 661-696
Ch 9 Translation of Tydskrif vir Christelike Wetenskap 44 (2006)

This volume is another a collection of essays that have largely been published
elsewhere – with the exception of chs 1 and 2. The book, is however, no less
coherent for that. He starts by looking at the meaning of three important
concepts: cultural diversity (ch 1), development (ch 3) and globalisation (ch
4).

The first chapter looks at why cultures differ, how we can evaluate their
differences and what is unacceptable and acceptable in a culture. Cultural
differences he sees as having their origin in the cultural mandate, different
environments bring different challenges and hence different cultures.
Culture is a religious response to a divine calling. No culture can become a
norm and no culture is fully obedient to God’s call. He sees cultural diversity
as a means of enrichment; there should be no tension between cultures,
rather a mutual enrichment and appreciation (hence the subtitle of the
book).

Chapter 2 puts the spotlight on Africa, one of the poorest continents. First he
examines its richness before looking at Christianity on the continent and
some of the socio-political-economic conditions. The condition of the church
is described in five catchwords: escapistic, dualistic, pietistic, ecclesiasticism
and secularism. Five words which could also describe the state of the church
in the so-called developed West. The issue of poverty and wealth is then
looked at. He concludes that the biblical message about poverty is clear: ‘we
have to do something about it’ p. 44.

The next chapter looks at the issue of development. Here he surveys recent
research that indicates that development isn’t “all it’s cracked up to be”; it
isn’t the success story hoped for, the concept is not as clear as it should be
and that development isn’t the only way to advance human well-being.
Development is a belief that distinguishes western culture from others. It
maintains that more is better! Development as it stands ‘lacks a clear

145
normative consciousness’ (p. 63) and has become ‘a kind of secular religion’
(p. 65).

Globalisation is examined in chapter 4. Here is a brief description of


globalisation, some of its characteristics, some of its consequences, an
analysis of the capitalist economy that drives it and some ideas as to how it
should be viewed from a Christian perspective. Here he utilises and develops
Jonathan Chaplin’s ideas of globalisation and the essence of space, looking at
retrocipations and anticipations of space. Space is the qualifying aspect of
globalisation.

The issue of leadership in Africa is one that van der Walt has dealt with
before in Leaders with a Vision (1995.), he revisits it here in chapter 5. He
focuses on what leadership entails. He sees leadership as ‘holding an office
and having the right or authority as well as the competence or power to
organise in such a way a particular community of people or a social power or
a societal relationship that while obeying definite norms it can fulfil its
vocation or reach its goal in a responsible way’.

The next two chapters (ch 6 and 7) compare African and Western culture and
worldview. Van der Walt does it sensitively and compassionately, he is never
patronising of either position. He sees cultural pluralism as an answer to the
problem of cultural superiority. Diversity should be an enrichment and not a
threat.

Chapter 8 looks at the important question of the role of women in Africa.


Women have a low position in African society, and so the Bible brings good
news for them. He looks at the biblical data and provides a convincing case
for an egalitarian position of women. He examines the concepts of headship,
authority and submission. He sees the meaning of kephale (head) as source,
unity or responsibility (p. 262). His arguments are convincing, and
‘liberating, refreshing and healing’ for women. He offers a timely warning to
husbands: ‘by keeping your wives in subservient positions, you place not only
them but yourselves at a disadvantage’ (p. 277).

146
The final chapter (ch 9) looks at the crises in agriculture; an important issue
for rural Africa, where subsistence agriculture is a way of life for many. He
argues the need for a more holistic view of agriculture, a multi-dimensional
view.

2006.2 ‘The philosophy of D. H. Th. Vollenhoven (1892-1978), with special


reference to his historiography of philosophy’.
Tydskrif vir Christelike Wetenskap 42 (1-2): 35-39.
The aim of this paper is to acknowledge Vollenhoven’s contribution to
Reformational philosophy. It explores the recent literature on Vollenhoven
and his consistent problem-historical method and provides a brief
introduction to Vollenhoven’s method of studying philosophy.

2006.3 ‘Religious diversity, intolerance, freedom, equivalence, uniqueness


and tolerance’.
In J. Dinakarlal (editor) Christian Higher Education in
Asia/ Oceania: Moving Towards a New Vision
Proceedings of the Regional Conference for Asia/ Oceania
IAPCHE, January 13-17, 2005. Sioux Center, Iowa:
IAPCHE pp 110-122.

These proceedings were from the second Asia/ Oceania regional conference
of IAPCHE. The conference was hosted by CSI Bishop Appasamy College,
Coimbatore and St Christopher’s Training College, Chennai, India and held in
Chennai. They were published for private circulation only. It was attended by
60 delegates from 14 countries.

Van der Walt’s contribution was reworked as Understanding and Rebuilding


Africa 2003.2 ch 14 an extended version is also found in Transforming Power
2007 ch 5-7.

147
2006.4 ‘Leadership models in Africa, the West and the Bible’.
In Peter Blokhuis and Evelyn K Hielema ed. Civil Society:
East and West.
Proceedings of the regional Conferecne for Europe
IAPCHE August 20-23,
Sioux Center: Dordt College Press: 145-168.

This was, apart from an abbreviated text in Woord en Daad also published
(extended) as chapter 5 of When African and Western Cultures Meet (2006.1
ch 5).

This version was a paper presented to a regional IAPCHE conference held at


St Andrew’s Biblical Theological Institute, Moscow in August 2005. He focuses
not on how to be an efficient leader but on what leadership entails.

148
2007

2007.1 Transforming Power: Challenging Secular Society.


Potchefstroom: Institute for Contemporary
Christianity in Africa
ISBN 9781868225118; xii + 441

Contents
A preview and a review: Prof.dr. Rantoa Letsosa
Introduction: The transformation of an increasing secular society
1. Growing together in faith
2. Friendship
3. Mission unlimited
4. Church and society
5. Religious diversity and religious intolerance
6. Religious freedom and religious equivalence
7. Religious uniqueness and religious tolerance
8. Secularism, the spirit of our times: (1) the threat
9. Secularism, the spirit of our times: (2) its characteristics
10. Secularism, the spirit of our times: (3) a response
11. The urgent need for Christian organisations/institutions
12. "Faith-directed scholarship"
13. Spotlight on sport
14. Contemporary guidance on the relationship between male and female:
reflections on an evolutionistic ethics
15. A transformed Christianity for a new society

149
Chapter 1: Originally published in Tydskrif vir Christelike Wetenskap, 41 (4th
quarter)(2005): 141-168 (2005.1)
Chapter 2: English translation of Afrikaans text published in Koers,
69(3)(2004):473-498
Chapter 3: Previously unpublished paper delivered at a National Conference
on Global Missions, Pretoria, South Africa on 18th & 19th March, 2005.
Chapter 4: English translation of Afrikaans text published in Koers, 70(2)
(2005):227-263.
Chapter 5: A part of the original Afrikaans text published in In die Skriflig,
39(1) (2005):39-80.
Chapter 6: A part of the original Afrikaans text published in In die Skriflig,
39(1) (2005):53-80 and 38(2)(2005):325-362.
Chapter 7: A part of the original Afrikaans text published in In die Skriflig,
39(2) (2005):325-362.
Chapter 8: English translation of Afrikaans text published in Tydskrif vir
Christelike Wetenskap, 40(1st & 2nd quarter) (2004): 85-97.
Chapter 9: English translation of Afrikaans text published in Tydskrif vir
Christelike Wetenskap, 40(3rd & 4th quarter) (2004): 102-123.
Chapter 10: English translation of Afrikaans text published in Tydskrif vir
Christelike Wetenskap, 41(1st & 2nd quarter) (2005): 43-75.
Chapter 11: English translation of Afrikaans, text published in Tydskrifvir
Christelike Wetenskap, 39(3'" & 41h quarter)(2003): 131-148.
Chapter 12: English translation of Afrikaans text published in Koers, vol
70(3)(2005):373-399.
Chapter 13: English translation of Afrikaans text to be published in Koers, vol.
71 (2006).
Chapter 14: English translation of Afrikaans text to be published in In die
Skriflig, 40(2) 2006 and 40(3) 2006.
Chapter 15: Reworked text of chapter 1 of my book Religion and Society:
Christian involvement in the public square (1999), p. 1-22.

This book was written originally with the African situation in mind, but as
with all van der Walt’s writings the insights go much further. It is relevant
for concerned Christians everywhere.

150
Growth in faith is a prerequisite for counteracting secularism, so it is fitting
that the first chapter looks at this key issue. He discusses in some depth
James Fowler’s approach and finds it lacking, he then looks more
appreciatively at Van Belle, Westerhoff and Olthuis’s stages of faith. It is
important to understand these stages so that helpful advice and counsel can
be given.

It is rare to hear any Christian teaching on friendship, so it is refreshing to


read chapter 2 which deals with this oft-neglected but much-needed subject.
He takes a brief view of what Augustine, Brunner and C S Lewis have to say
but finds their accounts dualistic. Friendship, according to van der Walt is ‘an
inter-human relationship ordained by God’, ‘in friendship the central
commandment of love is positivised in the form of fidelity’ (p 62). It is
reflected in the range of modalities.

Ch 3, mission unlimited, develops a deep holistic view of mission. This kind


of mission is possible because of on the human side unlimited love and
because on God’s side he has unlimited authority and unlimited presences.

Chapter 4 is a wide ranging one of the nature of the church and society. It
provides an excellent introduction to Dooyeweerd’s theory of society. He,
following a number of reformational thinkers, distinguishes between church,
the institution, Church, the body of Christ and the kingdom of God. Church
has its founding function as the historical mode and its qualifying function as
faith. This means its activities are directed to the faith aspect, the economic
aspect, for example, means that money is collected to advance the aim of
faith, not as means to make a profit.

Section B ch 5-7 look at the relationship between other religions. This is a


topic he has briefly touched on before (see AJTS 1 (2), for example).
Religious diversity, tolerance, freedom and uniqueness are examined.
Chapter 5 examines ‘Religious diversity and religious intolerance’. His point
of departure is that religion is important. Religion, despite the efforts of
Richard Dawkins, cannot be eradicated and it cannot be isolated – it is all-
embracing and shapes every area of life. Van der Walt makes an important
distinction between ‘religion’ and ‘faith’. Religion is the encompassing

151
service towards God or an idol; faith is the cultic expression of religious
expressions. Religion is extremely diverse; primal, world, Christian, new age,
Eastern and implicit are all adjectives used to describe different forms of
religion; what were once ‘foreign’ religions have now become our
neighbours’ religion. The question is, how do we view and deal with this
diversity? The secularist model is wholly inadequate, a religiously-neutral
state which relegates religion to the private sphere is no solution. No state
can be fully secular, those who run it have religious beliefs! The separation
into public and private spheres is artificial; secularism fails to recognise the
variety of religions and then tries to replace or suppress them in the public
arena.

Many bad things happen in the name of religion. The final sections of this
chapter look at these. Religion is very important to all, hence it is not totally
surprising that when one’s deepest convictions are challenged or threatened
it sometimes results in violence. The lack of religious freedom too often
results in violence. Christianity is not immune from this violence, the
inquisition, the crusades, the support of slavery and apartheid are often
quoted as examples of this. Almost all religions preach ‘love your neighbour’
and yet violence is committed in the name of that religion. Van der Walt
briefly explores some of the reasons for this. Violence often depends on the
social, political and economic conditions. He cites the work of M[ichael]
F[erreira] Heyns, he sees the reasons for the violence comes from a
totalitarian worldview, from the failure to recognise the diversity in creation
and thus make one aspect absolute and fail to recognise that other aspects
have equal value. It results in an –ism , an ideology which must be realised,
if necessary, by violence.

Chapter 6 focuses on ‘Religious freedom and religious equivalence’. It


examines two key questions: can a secular constitution guarantee religious
freedom? And does treating all religions as equal before the law imply that
they are in principle equally true? The first question has already been
addressed in part in the previous chapter. Here he answers it by examining
the new South African constitution. This looks fine on paper, but it still leads
back to the position of the human being as being his or her own boss. A

152
Christian response is one of principled pluralism. Freedom of religion must
mean freedom from suppression and freedom to live one’s own convictions.

In response to the question are all religions equal he cites five possible
responses: (1) only one is correct (2) none of them are correct (3) all are
equally true (4) one religion is more true than the others and (5) the truth of
religions is left unanswered. Position (1) is examined in the next chapter.
Position 2, the idea that all religions are different painkillers for the same
headache, has it’s roots in historicism, the ‘father of religious relativism’.
Here he draws upon Jacob Klapwijk’s work.

Section C examines secularism and secularisation. Chapter 8 examines what is


meant by secularism and looks at secularism in South Africa and the
Netherlands. Secularism does not mean that the world is becoming less
religious, it is that the religious orientation is changing. Secularism is an
alternative worldview. In chapter 9, he makes the initially outrageous
suggestion that Christianity, rather than being the ‘antipole’ of secularism,
could be one of the causes of secularism. He sees secularism as the outcome
of the dualism of sacred and profane. He clearly explains this with recourse
to a few thousand years of history in four pages! He then examines the role
of atheism in secularism. Secularism is the denial of a transcendent horizon.
Here he draws upon the insights of Hendrik van Riessen and Herman
Dooyeweerd to discuss how the reformational model of modal aspects
provides insight into the different aspects of secularism. This chapter closes
by looking at why secularism has been so attractive and seductive. An
important first step for Christians in dealing with it is an awareness of it.

To be able to confront secularism Christians must be prepared to change.


This chapter looks at some of the changes needed. We need to be authentic
Christians, kingdom Christians, Christians with an office, a vision and
organised Christians. He rightly notes that secularism has many traits of a
religion: it puts its final trust in something - humanity; it has a revelation -
secular science; its priests - scientists and lawyers; and its own form of
evangelisation – the public school system. It even has its own story – progress.

153
Van der Walt brilliantly exposes why the secularist view of society is
untenable and unacceptable. He shows it to be self-refuting. It is intolerant
of tolerance, it stands in the way of a good society and in the end might
becomes right. Religion influences all of life, neither the Christian faith nor
secularism are merely private matters. Politicians and religious leaders make
total universal demands; they cannot ignore matters of ultimate importance.
The public domain may not be equated with the state – it is much broader.
The public-private divide so beloved of secularism is an artificial (and
unbiblical) divide; it is not founded on social realities. Van der Walt then
goes on to argue cogently for a pluralist society with religious, structural and
confessional diversity. This model provides a way of being truly tolerant in a
multireligious and multicultural society.

Chapter 11 looks at how Christian organisations can respond to secularism


and retain their Christian identity.

Section D looks at scholarship, sport and sexual ethics as case studies on how
they can be transformed. This section provides examples of how Christian
thinking can transform the often-secular approaches.

Most evangelicals adopt an integration view on Christianity and scholarship.


Van der Walt agues that this view arises from a ‘deep-seated ontological
dualism and an anthropological dichotomy’. The integration model accepts
the neutrality of science and sees the Bible as an additional source of
knowledge. His purpose in knocking (down) this model is to build Christian
scholarship on a more secure foundation. He proposes an integral model,
where faith is integral rather than an addition to the scientific enterprise.
This approach is then modelled in the chapters on sport and gender.

Sport is a topic that has received scant attention form Christian scholars.
Here van der Walt surveys three approaches: the workaholic, the hedonist
and the utilitarian before looking at a Christian response. A response that
does not depend on proof texts, but looks deeper at norms and principles in
God’s creation. He looks at the normative structure and (mis)direction of
sport and how it fits into different social relationships.

154
The penultimate chapter examines male and female relationships. The
popular book by Pease and Pease Why Men Don’t Listen and Women Can’t
Read Maps is taken as a starting point. He exposes the evolutionism
worldview that lies behind this and other similar books and the use of
stereotypes to reinforce their views. This leads onto a discussion of socio-
biology where morality, moral conduct are reduced to something biological.
Van der Walt then outlines a Christian perspective on the relationship
between the sexes – we are similar, different and complementary

The final chapter (15) is a ‘retrospective conclusion’. Here van der Walt
summarises the basic message of the book. He wants to see a bold, robust
and involved Christianity, one that is able to transform and shape society,
one that avoids an escapist, dualistic, pietistic Christianity.

2007.2 ‘The secret of becoming a real Christian: reflections on the beatitudes


of Christ: reflection’.
Word and Action = Woord en Daad 47 (401 and 402)(Spring and Summer):
10-14
This is a reflection on Matthew 5:3, blessed are the pure in spirit. This is a
theme he looked at in More Precious than Gold 1991.2.30. He looks briefly at
four questions: who is pronouncing the beatitudes, to whom are they
addressed, where and when were they proclaimed and how do they fit
together? He then looks at who are the poor and why they are blessed. They
were those who were nothing in their own eyes; they are not poor at all – for
theirs is the kingdom of heaven!

We need to acknowledge that there is nothing we can do to earn God’s


blessings, when we are utterly dependent upon God then will we be rich.

155
2007.3 ‘Ad Fontes: First building blocks for a history of Reformational
philosophy’.
Unpublished English version of original article published in Afrikaans in
Journal for Christian Scholarship / Tydskrif vir Christelike Wetenskap 43:
216-234.
This, as yet, unpublished article traces the history of the reformational
movement from its origins in the Netherlands to South Africa. The South
African developments are often neglected, yet 2008 marked the 75th year of
an indigenous Christian philosophy.

He identifies as second generation (Dutch) Christian philosophers: J P A


Mekkes, S U Zuidema, Popma, H van Riessen, M C Smit, J Dengerink and A
Troost. Third generation: H J van Eikema Hommes, J van der Hoeven, H G
Geertsema, A Bos, S Griffioen, Groenewoud, A Tol and R van Woudenberg;
fourth generation include: G J Buijs, J Hoogland, R Kuiper, M J Verkerk and M
J de Vries.

In South Africa there are two main foci: Bloemfontein and Potchefstroom.
The pioneers at Bloemfontein are recognised to be E A Venter and H J
Strauss. The third generation would include: J H Smit, D F M Strauss, J
Visagie and J C van der Merwe. Others are D J van der Berg, A W G Raath, L O
K Lategan

At Potchefstroom there was H G Stoker, the founder of a Christian approach.


The second generation include J A L Taljaard, N T van der Merwe and P G W
du Plessis. Third and fourth generation would be E Botha, J J Snyman, van
der Walt himself, J J Venter and M F Heyns.

There follows a brief survey of US , Canada, Australia, England and South


Korea and an overview of Christian scholars and their subject areas.

It concludes with some ideas for extending and contextualising Reformational


thought for Africa.

156
2008
2008.1 Anatomy of Reformation: Flashes and Fragments of a Reformational
Worldview.
Potchefstroom: Institute for Contemporary Christianity in Africa
ISBN 1868220362; iii + 582 pages
Reprint of 1991.1.

2008.2 The Eye is the Lamp of the Body: Worldviews and their Impact.
Potchefstroom: ICCA
ISBN 978-1-86822-55-2; iii +304 pages

Contents
Preface: Dr. Tukunboh Adeyemo (Centre for Biblical Transformation, Nairobi,
Kenya)

1. Introduction: Windows on the world

SECTION A: THEORETICAL REFLECTIONS


2. How to view and read God's revelation, the basis for an integral Christian
worldview
3. The popularity, history, structure, value and dangers of a worldview
4. The uniqueness of a Reformational worldview
5. The historical background of the postmodern view on normativity and on a
Christian worldview

157
SECTION B: PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS
6. Traditional African worldview and culture: a reason for the extreme
poverty on the continent?
7. Antheunis Janse van Biggekerke (1890-1960): morning star of a
Reformational worldview
8. The Christian worldview of Archbishop (emeritus) Desmond M. Tutu;
(i) a general review
9. The Christian worldview of Archbishop (emeritus) Desmond M. Tutu; (2)
his view on being human and on society
10. The Institute for Reformational Studies (1962-1999) as a Christian
worldviewish organisation; Its relevance for future Christian actions

Chapter 1: Previously unpublished.


Chapter 2: To be published in Tydskrifvir Christelike Wetenskap, vol. 44 (3rd
& 4th quarter) (2008).
Chapter 3: An English translation of Afrikaans text published in Tydskrif vir
Christelike Wetenskap, vol. 44(1st & 2nd quarter)(2008): 39-64
Chapter 4: An English translation of the Afrikaans text published in Tydskrif
vir Christelike Wetenskap, vol. 44 (1st & 2nd quarter) (2008):139 Chapter 5:
An English version of the original Afrikaans text to be published in Koers 72
(2007) (4)
Chapter 6: An English translation of the original text in Afrikaans published in
Tydskrif vir Christelike Wetenskap, 43(2007):107-130.
Chapter 7: Onginally published in Koers, 69(2) (2004):221-258.
Chapter 8: An English translation of the original Afrikaans text published in
Koers, 68(1) (2003):15-33.
Chapter 9: An English version of the original text (in Afrikaans) published in
Koers, 68(1) (2003):35-57.
Chapter 10: An English translation of the original text (in Afrikaans) published
in Koers 71(1) (2006): 251-274.

Worldviews is a topic that South African philosopher-theologian B J van der


Walt has dealt with before (see for example, 1972.1; 1991.5); this though is
his first full book-length treatment of worldviews.

158
This is a book of two halves. The first deals with a theoretical reflection on
what is a worldview, the second part deals with how worldviews influence
life; the first deals with the what, the second with the how. This is a
collection of articles that have mostly been published elsewhere, mostly in
Afrikaans, notably in Koers and Tydskrif vir Christelike Wetenskap. Despite
that the book hangs together as a coherent whole.

Chapter 1 sets the scene by explaining the title of the book – the eye
represents what a person looks like and the eye is a lamp illuminating the
way. This dual purpose is expressed in worldviews. He presents a fascinating
structural analysis of worldviews using Dooyeweerd’s modal aspects.

The start of a biblical worldview is revelation, hence chapter 2 looks at God’s


threefold revelation: his creation, his scriptures and his son. He sees the
Bible as a worldviewish book. There have been different ways of interpreting
the scriptures through the ages and he looks at some mistaken methods
before looking at and developing the work of Sinnema, Spykman and Olthius
in seeing the scriptures as a confessional/ certitudinal discourse. He rightly
concludes ‘When the Bible is viewed as a book of faith it can be read in a
new way …, but it also becomes clear how it can have authority over all
aspects of life’ (p 41).

Chapter 3 provides a brief bibliographical review of Christian worldview


books. He then draws initially upon the work of David Naugle to examine the
origin of the term ‘worldview’ before turning to discuss what a worldview is.
He takes a helpful look at some internal (comprehensiveness, coherence) and
external tests (openness, correspondence, balance, liveability) for a
worldview. He also provides a helpful summary of some images that have
been used to represent worldviews: coloured spectacles, an anchor, a map, a
compass, a carpenter’s square, a dynamo, an adhesive and a dye. He
concludes this key chapter by providing some warnings and possible dangers
of a worldview approach.

The uniqueness of a reformational worldview, is the subject of chapter 4.


Here van der Walt draws upon Colson and Pearcey, Wolters, and Walsh and
Middleton to examine the contents of a Christian worldview. He looks at

159
some of the reasons for the lack of impact of such a worldview and then
argues for the unique characteristics of a reformational worldview, a view
that is world transformative and is able to move both hearts and minds. He
concludes with looking at how this worldview can be communicated
effectively by drawing upon the work of Stephen Garber. Van der Walt’s
strength is that he is able to synthesise different authors views and provide
an excellent summary and review, but he dies more than that, he develops
them in such a way that his own voice is not lost.

In the chapter on postmodernism he provides an accurate and broadly


appreciative overview of postmodernism. His is no knee-jerk response. He
sees it, rightly, as more than a reaction against modernism – it is the result of
the long history of Western thought, from the sophists through Socrates and
Plato to the rationalism and the irrationalistic tendencies that look for ‘the
law in the subject’. He also provides a ‘immanent critique’ of
postmodernism – postmodernisms lawlessness is one of the results of
historicism. Here he draws upon the work of D F M Strauss and Roy Clouser on
historicism: how can we have history if everything is history? Postmodernism
is characterised by a mistrust of metanarratives, they are regarded as
oppressive and untrue. And yet, as van der Walt points out, postmodernism
‘is nothing but (another) grand narrative, for it is the universal base on the
grounds of which all other viewpoints are regarded as restricted versions. For
itself postmoderism claims common validity while all other positions are
relativised’ (p 147).

He takes on board the postmodern warning that worldviews can become


oppressive or legalistic and identifies where this may happen in a Christian
worldview. This can be avoided by being prepared to keep on listening to
God’s revelation both in creation and scripture.

Traditional African culture is then examined in chapter 6. This is a theme


that van der Walt has revisited a number of times (see, for example, 1996.2;
2003.2; 2005.3; 2006.1). Here he draws upon some African voices to examine
some of the reasons for the poverty in Africa. Van der Walt writes not as
outsider offering advice, but as an insider offering wisdom. African authors
(such as Joseph Nyasani, George Kinoti and Peter Kimuyu, N C Dembetembe,

160
Dia and Nyang) are quoted in length to provide an objective view as possible.
Van der Walt has done a great service for African development studies by
drawing attention to these authors. He concludes, rightly, that ‘Culture and
development can only in theory (in abstraction) be separated, when we speak
of culture and development. More correctly we should speak of development
as (a part of) culture’ (p 184).

Chapter 7 looks at Antheunis Janse, a largely neglected figure in the


reformational movement. Little has been written of Janse in English, this
chapter remedies this and offers a biographical overview as well as an
overview of his theology, in particular his anthropology and has a useful
bibliography of works on and by Janse – unfortunately, for me at least,
nothing apart from this chapter is available in English. Hopefully, this will be
remedied before long. Van der Walt makes a good case for Janse to be
considered as one of the founding fathers of reformational philosophy. This
chapter is an update of van der Walt’s Afrikaans booklet 1989 Atheunis Janse
van Biggekerke (1890-1960) (IRS F2 no 48) which was translated into Dutch in
2000 by M. Ploeg-de Groot.

The next two chapters look at the Christian worldview of Desmond M. Tutu.
Tutu had previously written an appreciative preface of van der Walt’s
Understanding and Rebuilding Africa and had met as part of the Truth and
Reconciliation Commission in London in 1997.

The occasion and part controversy that surrounded the presentation of an


honorary degree to Tutu by the (predominantly) white Potchefstroom
University prompted the writing of these chapters. Tutu’s theology is only
mentioned in passing; the chapters concentrate on the source and shape of
his worldview. Van der Walt is appreciative of Tutu’s transformational
worldview, despite its shortcomings, and writes that ‘Christendom in South
Africa, the rest of Africa and even the world would have been poorer’
without Tutu’s contribution.

The final chapter, chapter 10, looks back at one important ‘worldviewish
organisation’, the Institute for Reformational Studies (IRS) (1962-1999). Van
der Walt is well positioned to write on this, as he was its director. Here he

161
focuses on some of the reasons as to why it was closed down after 37 years.
In essence it was a clash between two diverging Christian worldviews: the
reformational perspective of the IRS and the less transformational
perspective more dualistic worldview of the Potchefstroom University
authorities.

2008.3 ‘How to explain and evaluate cultural differences from a


Reformational-Christian perspective’.
In Nick Latinga (editor) Christian Higher Education in the Global Context:
Implications for Curriculum, Peadagogy, and Administration. Proceedings
of the International Conference IAPCHE, 15-19 November 2006, Granada,
Nicaragua. 33- 52.
Paper delivered at IAPCHE’s 6th Int. Conf, Grenada, Nicaragua 1996. This has
also been published in When African and Western Cultures Meet 2006.1. 1.

Here van der walt looks at the problems of explaining and evaluating cultural
diversity. He explains why cultures look so different and thus provides a way
of sensitively other cultures witout resorting to cultural ethnocentrism or
cultural relativism.

162
Index of subjects
Africa Anthropology Bonadventure
1976.1 1974.2 1974.2
1978.2 1975.1 1978.2.11
1980.4 1975.2
1981.2 1978.2
1984.2 1978.2 Calvin
1986.4 1988.1 1976.6
1988.1 1990.1 1979.1
1989.5 1994.2 1978.2.
1990.1 1997.2 1980.2
1990.3 1997.3 1982.1
1990.6 1997.3 1984.6
1991.1 1990.1 1986.5
1991.9 1989.6
1991.14 2002.4
1992.3 Apartheid
1992.4 1994.6
1993.2 1998.2 Calvinism
1993.5 2002.1 1974.1
1994.1 1978.1
1994.4 1978.3
1996.1 Aquinas 1979.2
1996.2 1973.4 1979.5
1996.3 1973.5 1984.5
1996.5 1976.6 1984.10
1996.6 1978.1. 1989.6
1997.1 1978.2
1997.6 1986.5
1998.2 Christ
1999.2 1979.3
2001.3 Averroes 1981.2
2001.8 1973.4 1991.1
2001.12 1978.1.5 2008.1
2002.5
2003.1 Backpacking/
2003.2 hiking Christian (higher)
2003.6 1995.6 education
2004.2 2003.1 1971.1
2005.4 1974.4
2006.1 1975.3
2008.1 Bantu 1976.3
1976.1 1976.4
1978.4. 1976.5
Afrikaner Bible 1978.2
1994.9 1978.2.18 1978.3
1991.2 1979.4
1991.10 1979.5
Agriculture 1996.4 1984.9
2006.1 1994.2 1987.1
1987.3
1989.4

163
1990.6 Culture History
1991.7 2001.1 1991.1.21
1992.2 2002.5 1994.2
1992.6 2003.2 1997.2
1993.1 2006.5
1993.8
1994.1 Hus
2001.1 Development 1981.2
2002.2 2000.2 1984.4
2002.3 2001.4 1991.1.6
2001.8
2002.5
Christian life 2003.2 Idolatry
1978.3 2006.1 1981.2
1984.11 1988.4
1991.1 1988.5
1993.3 Drakensberg 1998.6
2005.1 Mountains 1991.1
2007.1 2003.1 1994.2
2008.1 1997.2

Duns Scotus Institute for the


Christian 1976.7 Advancement of
scholarship 1978.2.12 Calvinism
1974.4 1974.1
1978.3 1979.6
1987.2 Economics
1981.2 1991.1
1991.1 1996.7 IRS
2007.1 2003.2 1984.1
2008.1 1984.8
1986.1
Ethics 1987.4
Church 1976.2 2008.2
1980.1 1993.4
1984.10 1993.6
1991.1 2007.1 Janse
1991.14 2008.2
2007.1
2008.1 Faith
2005.1 Kairos document
1988.3
Consistent-problem
historic method Family
1973.1 1993.2 Knox
1978.3 2003.2 1984.5
1983.1 1981.2
1991.1 1991.1
2006.2 Friendship
2008.1 2007.1
Kuyper
1999.1
Corruption Globalisation 1999.2
2001.9 2006.1 1999.3
2003.2 1999.4

164
1999.1 Philosophy 2003.2
2002.6 1971.1 2004.1
2004.2 1978.3 2006.1
1994.2 2006.3
1997.2 2007.1
Leadership 2003.2 2008.3
1994.7 2007.3
1994.8
1995.1 Revelation
2005.2 Politics 2008.2
2005.3 1995.2
2006.1 2003.2
2006.4 Postmodernism Rights
2008.2 1999.2
2000.1
Marriage 2003.2
1984.12 Poverty
1986.3 2003.5
1991.2 2004.3 Science
1991.3 2008.2 1978.3
1991.4
1991.5
1991.6 Publishing Secularism
1992.1 1989.2 1986.4
2003.2 1989.3 1988.7
1994.2
1997.2
Morality Reform 2004.3
2003.4 1981.2 2007.
1991.8
2001.5
Medieval Society
philosophy 1992.5
1973.3 Reformation 1994.1.10
1978.2 1977.1 1995.1
1978.1 1997.4
1979.2 1999.1
Natural theology 1980.1 2004.2
1976.6 1980.2 2007.1
1978.2 1981.2
1994.2 1982.2
1997.2 1982.4 Scholasticism
1989.5 1984.8
1991.1
New age movement 2002.4
1993.7 2008.1 Sport
1994.2 2007.1
1997.2
Religious equality/
diversity
Ontology 1997.4
1978.2 1994.2
1994.5
1995.2
1997.2

165
State/ government Western culture 2001.1
1981.1 1974.3 2001.2
1988.2 1976.1 2001.3
1988.8 1978.3 2001.5
1990.3 1991.9 2001.6
1991.1 1996.1 2002.5
1994.1 1999.1 2003.2
1995.1 2001.12 2008.1
2008.1 2002.3 2008.2
2005.3
2006.1
Stewardship Zwingli
2003.2 1981.2
1982.5
Women 1991.1
Time 1984.12 2008.1
1996.2 1986.3
2003.2 1988.9
2006.1
2007.1
Tutu
2008.2
Worldview
1972.1
Vollenhoven 1976.1
1973.1 1988.3
1978.3 1978.3
1983.1 1991.7
1991.1 1991.14
2006.2 1994.1
2008.1 1994.4

166
Index of journals

Anakainosis Philosophy in African


1979.3 Orientation Context
1983.1 1984.1 1976.1
1984.2
1984.9 SWO/CSD-Bulletin
African Journal for 1986.1 1992.4
Transformational 1986.4
Scholarship 1986.5 Tydskrif vir Christelike
2002.5 1988.3 Wetenskap
2004.1 1988.4 1973.1
1988.5 1980.2
Bulletin die Suid- 1988.6 1981.1
Afrikannse Verening 1988.7 1984.10
vir die vordering van 1989.1 1989.6
Christelike Wetenskap 1989.2 2005.1
1975.2 1989.3 2006.2
1976.7 1990.4
1990.5
Circular 1991.3 Woord en Daad
1979.4 1991.4 1980.1
1979.5 1191.5 1988.2
1979.6 1991.6 1992.2
1980.3 1992.5 1992.3
1982.2 1992.6 1993.1
1993.7 1993.2
Fort Hare Papers 1993.8 1993.3
1974.4 1994.3 1993.4
1994.4 1994.7
In die Skriflig 1994.5 1994.8
1976.6 1997.4 1994.9
1982.5 1997.5 1996.1
1983.2 1997.6 1996.2
2001.6 1997.7 1996.3
2003.4 1999.3
Perspektief 2000.1
1971.1 2000.2
Koers 1972.1 2001.3
1974.1 1973.1 2001.4
1975.1 1973.2 2001.5
1976.2 1973.4 2002.1
1977.1 1974.3 2003.3
1978.1 2004.3
1980.4 Philosophia Reformata 2004.4
2001.9 1973.3 2005.2
2002.4 1974.2 2005.3
Many to Many 2001.2 2007.2
1992.1
1999.4

167
Appendix 1: A word on journals and series

The Institute for Reformational Studies published a number of brochure,


booklets and books. These are designated as the F series. F1 comprised
brochures, F2 booklets, F3 were usually collections of papers or conference
proceedings. F4 and F5 were more academic.

The IRS also produced a journal. Initially it was called: Circular


(International Conference of Institutions for Christian Higher Education)
this was published from 1976 -1982, when it was continued in part by
Orientation: International Circular of the Potchefstroom University for
Christian Higher Education.

By 1999 the IRS had published over 380 pamphlets (F1), 76 brochures (F2)
and 51 compiled works (F3) and 90 issues of Orientation. Not all, of course
were published in English (see appendix 2)

Journals published in include:

Anakainosis: A newsletter for Reformational thought


This was published quarterly by the AACS, Toronto.

Die Suid-Afrikannse Verening vir die vordering van Christelike Wetenskap.


Bulletin (founded 1965)

168
In die Skriflig
(In the Light of the Word) serves as the official journal of the
Gereformeerde Teologiese Vereniging (Reformed Theological
Society). (Founded 1966-67)
ISSN 1018-6441
Published quarterly by The Bureau for Scholarly Journals,
Potchefstroom Campus, N-W University, Private Bag X6001,
Potchefstroom 2520, South Africa.

International Reformed Bulletin


The journal of the International Association for Reformed Faith
and Action (IARFA). It was established in 1957 and ceased
publication in 1981.
ISSN 0538-9399

Koers: Bulletin for Christian Scholarship/ Bulletin vir


Christelike Wetenskap
Periodical for Calvinistic thought, Potchefstroom.
ISSN 0023-270X
Published quarterly in March, June, September and December by The
Bureau of Scholarly
Journals, Potchefstroom Campus, N-W University, Private Bag
X6001, Potchefstroom 2520, South Africa.

169
Perspektief: kwartaablad ter bevordering van die Christelike wysbegeerte en
die Christelikwysgergie grondslae van die vakwetenskappe
This was the quarterly for the promotion of Christian philosophy and the
philosophical principles of the sciences. Potchefstroom: PU CHE.
The first volume appeared in 1962/63; it was absorbed into Koers.

170
Philosophia Reformata
The journal of the Association for Reformational philosophy
ISSN 0031-8035

Tydskrif vir Christelike Wetenskap/ Journal for


Christian Scholarship
The first volume appeared in 1965. It is published by VCHO.
ISSN 1013-1116

Woord en Daad/ Word and Action


The official publication of the ‘Afrikaanse Calvinistiese Begweging’.
The first volume appeared in 1954.
ISSN 0257-8921

171
Appendix 2: IRS F Publications

Wetenskaplike bydraes van die PU vir CHO. Reeks F1


Pamphlets
1966
No 1 Liberaal-christelik, nasionaal-christelik en Christelik-nasionaal / H.J.J.
Bingle.
No 2 Grensuitwissing in die volkslewe / S.C.W. Duvenage.
No 3 Sabbatsheiliging / P.W. Buys.
No 4 God’s hand in die natuur / A. Duvenage.
No 5 Calvinistiese kultuurbeskouing / P.G. Snyman.
No 6 Ware en valse ekumenisiteit / B. Duvenhage.
No 7 Die beplanning van werk en tyd vanuit Calvinistiese visie / S.C.W.
Duvenage.
No 8 Gesprek oor seksualiteit / W.J. de Klerk.
No 9 Die betekenis en boodskap van die jaar 1966 vir die Calvinistiese
Afrikaner.
No 10 Strafregtelike toerekeningsvatbaarheid en kranksinnigheid / H.L.
Swanepoel.

1967
No 11 Die mens in meganisasie en outomatisasie / W.J. Venter. 1967
No 12 Die Christendom in Afrika / H. du Plessis.
No 13 Die internasionale geskil oor Suidwes-Afrika / M. Wiechers.
No 14 'n Kultuur-psigologiese beskouing van die wetenskap en die tegniek in
die krisis van die westerse wereld / T.A. van Dyk.
No 15 Roeping: 'n sisteem / W.J. de Klerk.
No 16 Sondagsarbeid / S.C.W. Duvenage.
No 17 Ruimtenavorsing in perspektief / P.H. Stoker. Perspektief op
ruimtenavorsing / J.A.L. Taljaard.
No 18 Die Calvinisme se antwoord op die huidige situasie in die Afrikaanse
volkslewe / H.J.J. Bingle.

172
No 19 Fisiese weerbaarheid / W.J. Putter.
No 20 Die stryd tussen die koninkryk van God en die ryke van die wêreld /
J.C. Coetzee.
No 21 Die staatspresidentskap in Suid-Afrika / J.S. du Plessis.
No 22 Onderwysontwikkeling in Suid-Afrika gedurende die afgelope dekade /
H.J.J. Bingle.

1968
No 23 Natuurbewaring: 'n noodsaaklikheid / J.J. Duvenage.
No 24 Devaluasie- 'n prinsipiële beskouing / D.P. Erasmus.

1969
No 25 Internasionale diensorganisasies (Rotary-, Lions-, Round Table
International) / D. Kempff.
No 26 Die staatstaak ten opsigte van Sondagsheiliging / J.D. van der Vyver.
No 27 Suid-Afrika se lidmaatskap van die V.V.O. / J. Raubenheimer.
1969
No 28 Belasting: prinsipieel beskou / W.J. Venter.
No 29 Buitelandse hulpverlening aan Afrika / F.J. Potgieter.
No 30 Huweliksnood / S.P. van der Walt.

1970-73
No 31 Die prinsipiële patroon van die Calvinisme in Suid-Afrika / B. J.
Engelbrecht.
No 32 Die praktiese belewing van die Calvinisme in Suid-Afrika / A.P.
Treurnicht.
No 33 Die Calvinisme in Suid-Afrika: 'n toekomsperspektief / W.J. de Klerk.
No 34 Die humanisme as bedreiging van die Christelik-nasionale lewens- en
wêreldbeskouing van die Afrikaner / S.C.W. Duvenage.
No 35 Die jongman in uniform / Johan Claassen.
No 36 Die Calvinisme in 'n neutedop / W.J. de Klerk.
No 37 Hartoorplanting / J.A. du Plessis.
No 38 Die probleem van totale afskaffing / S.P. van der Walt.
No 39 Verkeersproblematiek / P.W.B. Kruger.

173
No 40 Fenomenologiese pedagogiek / J. H. van Wyk.
No 41.
No 42 Christelike Opvoedings- en Onderwyspraktyk en Christelike
Opvoedkunde / P. J. Heiberg
No 43. Internasionale ekonomiese afhanklikheid van Suid-Afrika
No 44. Die problematiek ten opsigte van die Indiër-bevolkingsgroep in Suid-
Afrika / Johann Bekker
No 45 Alkoholisme / A.P.C. Duvenage
No 46-48 Die Calvinisme en volkereverhoudinge / J. H.Coetzee. Die
grensnywerheidskema in Suid-Afrika / F.J. Potgieter. Die blanke se
afhanklikheid van nie-blanke arbeid / C. J. Jooste.
No 49 Die Oorlogsvraagstuk: 'n oriëntasie / J. H. van Wyk.
No 50 Die doodstraf in oenskou / S. Postma.
No 51 Die misbruik van dwelmmiddels / Jan Grobler.
No 52 Die posisie van die politieke partye in die Afrikaanse volkslewe: 'n
histories-prinsipiele beskouing / G.N. van den Bergh.
No 53 Die studente-opstand, of, die weiering om normaal te wees / A.G.
Schutte.
No 54 Die menslike faktor en padveiligheid / L.A. Gouws.
No 55 Die Moderne spraakverwarring, of, Die generasiegaping ten opsigte van
die taal / P. D. Van der Walt.
No 56 Homoseksualiteit / T.A. van Dyk.
No 57 Die pers-- wie is waghond? / P.G. Snyman.
No 58 Sondagsport / F.N. Lion-Cachet
No 59 Ons roeping en ons norme / B. Duvenhage.
No 60 Wat sê die heksepoot? / J. H. van Wyk.
No 61 Gesagsverhoudinge, prinsipieel belig en toegepas op die akademie /
S.C.W. Duvenage.
No 62 Die filosofie van die grafskrif!: 'n inleiding tot die verstaan van die
Sowjet-Kommuniste / Jan A. du Plessis.
No 63 Skepping en evolusie / C. J. Reinecke.
No 64 Die voor-universitere vorming van die student / H.B. Kruger.
No 65 Staat, kerk en godsdiens / J.D. van der Vyver.
No 66 Sensuur: histories en juridies besien / G.J. Pienaar.

174
No 67 Sensuur: prinsipieel en prakties besien / T.T. Cloete.
No 68 Die kulturele rewolusie en Suid-Afrika: 'n analise / Elaine Botha.
No 69 Die antwoord van die Afrikaner op die huidige kulturele rewolusie /
W.J. de Klerk.
No 70 Nuwe Bybelvertalings: probleme en metodes / S. du Toit en E.J.G.
Norval.
No 71 Is dit nog ons erns?: die verhouding tussen Afrikaans en Engels in die
R.S.A / F.J. Labuschagne.
No 72 Die etiek van gesinsvorming / B. Duvenage.
No 73 Die probleem van omgewingsbesoedeling / J.J.P. van Wyk.
No 74 Aksente in 'n Christelike romanbeskouing / D.H. Steenberg.
No 75 Neutraliteit versus normatiwiteit in die sosiologie / M. Elaine Botha.
No 76 Permissiwiteit as groeibodem vir misdaad / S.C.W. Duvenage.
No 77 Normatiwiteit teenoor neutraliteit im die kuns / P. D. van der Walt.

1974
No 78 Militêre diensplig en diensweiering (Jeh. getuies) / deur J.F. Potgieter
en J.P. Munnik.
No 79 Enkele praktiese en etiese beskouings by ekonomiese dryfvere / W.J.
Venter.
No 80 Natuurwetenskap en kultuur met besondere verwysing na
natuurwetenskaplike wêreldbeeld en wêreldbeskouing / P. J. Botha.
No 81 Enkele gedagtes oor persvryheid / B. Duvenage.
No 82 Die stryd tussen Rooms-Katolieke en Protestante in Ierland / P. de
Klerk.
No 83 Die Reg op privaatheid: met besondere verwysing na meeluistering /
Lourens du Plessis.
No 84 Nie-blanke vakbondwese in Suid-Afrika / W.N. Coetzee
No 85 Brandpunte betreffende sekere medies-etiese probleme / H.D. Brandt.
No 86 Vermeerde staatstoetrede tot die ekonomiese opset in Suid-Afrika /
N.J. Swart.

175
1975
No 87 Boks: ja of nee? / W.J. Putter.
No 88 Perspektiewe oor sport, politiek en menseverhoudinge / Gert J. L.
Scholtz.
No 89 Suicidologie: 'n etiese en pastorale gesprek oor selfmoord / J. H. van
Wyk.
No 90 Aspekte van die Afrikanisasie van die Kerk gedurende die twintigste
eeu / I.J. van der Walt.
No 91 Zen-Boeddhisme / D.H. Steenberg.
No 92 Die Vereensaming of vervreemding van die moderne mens / S.C.W.
Duvenage.
No 93 Christelik-Calvinistiese wetenskapsbeoefening: wat dit nie is en wat dit
wel wil wees / J.A.L. Taljaard.
No 94 'n Paar gedagtes oor 'n Calvinistiese kunsetiek met besondere
verwysing na die probleem van pornografie en perssensuur / P.W. Buys.
No 95 Die Vrou moet haar plek ken / M. Elaine Botha.
No 96 Kremasie in die lig van die Bybel / A. Lindhout.

1976
No 97 Die etiek van dans / J. H. van Wyk.
No 98 Suid-Afrika binne die afsienbare toekoms vanuit 'n onderwyshoek
besien / B.C. Schutte.
No 99 Covenant and Kingdom: a Christian view of history./ W Stanford Reid.
No 100 Geestesgawes, Charismata / J.C. Coetzee.
No 101 The Word of God and biblical authority / J. H.Olthuis.
No 102 Dwelmverslawing / A. Haasbroek.
No 103 Die Gesin van die toekoms / H. Hart.
No 104 Volwassenheid: kontoere van 'n standpunt / B. J. van der Walt.
No 105 Enkele aspekte van die sielkunde van die Bantoe / T.A. van Dyk.
No 106 Kerk en industrie / P. J. de Bruyn.
No 107 Die Hervorming: geen verhuising maar opruiming / L. Floor.
No 108 Aktuele prediking / C. J. H.Venter.
No 109 Liturgiese vernuwing?: besinning oor die erediens / W.J. De Klerk.

176
No 109a Christelike Kersfeesviering / J.J. de Wet.
No 110 Die Kleurlinge en ons kleurlingbeleid / D.P. Botha.
No 111 Die Afrikanervrou en beroepsarbeid: 'n praktiese beskouing / Cilna van
Wyk.
No 112 Die "Rule of law" / F. Venter.
No 113 Handelsboikotte: invloed en moontlike reaksie deur die Republiek van
Suid-Afrika / L.A. van Wyk.
No 114 Hink op twee gedagtes: die houding van die vroeë Christendom
teenoor die antieke denke en kultuur in die eerste eeue na Christus / B. J. van
der Walt.
No 115 Bybelstudie vir die nie-teoloog / M.J. Booyens
No 116 Wat maak ons met televisie? / G.H.J. Coetsee.
No 117 Soberheid in ons geldbesteding / P. J. de Bruyn.
No 118 Soevereiniteit in eigen kring / B. Goudzwaard.
No 119 Televisie as opvoedingsmiddel / A.J. van Rooy.
No 119A Soviet strategy toward South Africa / Lucius Beebe
No 120 Die stad van die mens: dienaar of meester? / F.J. Potgieter.
No 121 Die Universiteit en die student in Christelike perspektief./ S C W
Duvenage
No 122 De Culturele oorsprong van het kapitalisme / B. Goudzwaard.

1978
No 123 Kuns en wetenskap / P.G.W. Snyman.
No 124 The scientification of modern culture / E. Schuurman.
No 125 Gemengde huwelike / J. L. Helberg.
No 126 Is kultuurbeoefening nog sinvol? / M. Elaine Botha.
No 127 Liberalisme en die nuwe Weste / T. van der Walt.
No 128 Teologie van die revolusie / J.A. Heyns.
No 129 Nuwe Testamentiese beginsels vir die herderlike bediening aan die
mens van vandag / C. J. H.Venter.
No 130 The traditional world view of Black people in Southern Africa / J.A.
van Rooy.
No 131 Die roeping van die kerk ten opsigte van die Kleurvraagstuk vandag /
J.M. Vorster.

177
1979
No 132 Die taal van ons klere / L.C. Minnaar.
No 133 Parapsigologiese verskynsels / David P. Fourie
No 134 Out of concern for the christian school / H van der Laan.
No 135 Sendingwerk: wat, waarom, wie, hoe? / J.A. van Rooy.
No 136 Die etiek van die kommunikasiemedia / D.A.S. Herbst.
No 137 Die etiek van die onderwys / J. L. van der Walt.
No 138 Our Christian task in the arts: some preliminary considerations / D.L.
Roper.
No 139 Cultuur en heil / M.C. Smit.
No 140 Die inburgering van die Suid-Afrikaanse Weermag in die burgerlike
beroeps- en gemeenskapslewe na voltooing van militêre opleiding / N.J. van
der Westhuizen.
No 141 Church, world, kingdom / Herman Ridderbos.
No 142 Die etiek van die geoktrooieerde rekenmeester (S.A.) / D.S. van der
Merwe.
No 143 Die Navolging van Christus / C.N. van der Merwe.
No 144 Die sterwende kind in gesinsverband / F.M.J. de Villiers.
No 145 Bijbelse uitgangspunte van 'n Calvinistische beroepsethiek / W.H.
Velema.
No 146 Geslagsopvoeding / H.B. Kruger.
No 147 Die politieke betrokkenheid van die universiteit: vanuit die oogpunt
van 'n universiteitdosent / Lourens M. du Plessis.
No 148 Christian community life in communist China / Jonathan Chao.
No 149 Die egskeidingsvraagstuk / D.A. du Toit.
No 150 Die Studie van die toekoms: 'n noodsaaklike verantwoordelikheid /
C.H. Boshoff.
No 151 Die Ideale leier / J.E. Pieterse.
No 152 Die etiek van kans: 'n teologies-etiese besinning oor veral dobbelary,
lotery en kansspeletjies / J. H. van Wyk.
No 153 Hoe sterk staan die kerk in Afrika?/ P. J. Meiring

178
1980
No 154 Reformasie of revolusie? / B. J. van der Walt.
No 155 Calvyn se etiek van die sosiaal-ekonomiese lewe / B. Goudzwaard ; [in
Afrikaans vertaal deur L.C. Minnaar].
No 156 Die godsdiensbelewing en godsdiensopvoeding van die kind / J. L. van
der Walt.

1981
No 157 Life in the Kingdom / K.C. Sewell.
No 158 Die roeping van die Christen t.o.v. stoflike besittings / J.C. Coetzee.
No 159 Gesamentlike aanbidding?: Die Bybel, die kerk en volkeverhoudinge /
D.C.S. van der Merwe.
No 160 Die vierde weg / B. J. van der Walt.
No 161 Gesonde lewensgewoontes / N.T. Malan.
No 162 Lewensbeskoulike boodskappersepsie in die toneel / P.C. Jansen van
Rensburg.
No 163 Vrymesselary in die lig van die Skrif / D.H.P. Wijnbeek.
No 164 Bittereinders, hensoppers en/of voort-trekkers / J. H.Coetzee.
No 165 Die Bybel oor misdaad / H. Conradie.
No 166 Die Neo-Marxisme in die teologie: teologies beoordeel / L. Floor.
No 167 Sterwensbegeleiding / F.M.J. De Villiers.
No 168 On being human: toward a biblical understanding / Stuart Fowler.

1982
No 169 Kerksending of koninkryksending / B. J. van der WaltNo 170 The
church as alternative community / D.J. Bosch.
No 171 Die Neo-Marxiste: 'n heilige familie? / L. M. du Plessis.
No 172 Die Afrikaneronderwyser in die dekade '80, veral ten opsigte van
volkereverhoudinge / T. van der Walt.
No 173 Die Verhouding tussen die skrywer en sy volk / T.T. Cloete.
No 174 Calvinism and culture: a historical perspective / Irving R. Hexham.
No 175 Ongeluk of huwelik? / J.J Janse van Rensburg.
No 176. Onderwys in die RSA: die pad vorentoe / B.C. Schutte.

179
No 177 Jan Lion-Cachet as Calvinis / J. L. Ras.
No 178 Die Hervorming destyds: en volkeverhoudinge vandag.
No 179 Magsdeling - 'n trojaanse perd?: vyf stanpunte met 'n prinspiële em
praktiese besinning.
No 180 Kan Geloftedag oorlewe? / B. Spoelstra.

1983
No 181 Kinderdoop, grootdoop, herdoop / L. Floor.
No 182 Versoening in 'n huwelikskrisis / D.J. Louw.
No 183 In U lig--my lewe, en, Roepingsvervulling / Tjaart van der Walt.
No 184 Karl Marx: secular messiah / Stuart Fowler.
No 185 God se wil: hoe die Heilige Gees 'n mens by moeilike besluite lei / B. J.
van der Walt.
No 186 Die verbondskind / Malan Nel.
No 187 Die onheilige drietal: die duiwel, die antichris en die valse profeet
(Openb. 12 en 13) / J.C. Coetzee.
No 188 Beroep en roeping / B. Duvenage.
No 189 Towards an evangelical theology in totalitarian cultures, with special
reference to socialist China / Jonathan Chao.
No 190 Herdenk(ing van) die hervorming: die stroomversnelling van destydse
en die stroomversnelling vandag / Tjaart van der Walt.
No 191 Luther, die reformasie en ons / P.W. Buys.
No 192 Calvyn oor die Christelike lewe / J. H. van Wyk.

1984
No 193 Calvinism in America, review and reflections / Gordon J. Spykman.
No 194 Die roeping van die kerk in die Suid-Afrikaanse politieke problematiek
/ J.M. Vorster.
No 195. Die behoefte aan en dringende noodsaaklikheid van Christelike
universitêre opleiding vir bruin en swart Suider-Afrikaners / J.J. Venter.
No 196 Gemeente en evangelisasie / P. J. Buys
No 197 Die verhouding tussen gesag en vryheid as hedendaagse probleem / J.
L. van der Walt.

180
No 198 Information society: impoverishment or enrichment of culture? /
Egbert Schuurman.
No 199 Ulrich Zwingli, sy boodskap vir Suid-Afrika vandag / B. J. van der
Walt.
No 200 Materialisme, ons dodelikste vyand / C. J. Malan.
No 201 Christen en politiek / J. H. van Wyk en J.J.F. du Rand.
No 202 Die Christen-Afrikaner in beweging in die twintigste eeu / F.C.
Fensham
No 203 Charisma en amp / M. Aucamp
No 204 Geloftedag: gister, vandag, more / J. H.Coetzee.

1985
No 205 - 206 Vrou en huwelik, in die Middeleeue, by Calvyn en by ons / B. J.
van der Walt.
No 207 As ouers maar geweet het-- / B.C. Schutte.
No 208 Die Islam dwaalleer van die Moslems / A.J. van der Walt.
No 209 Maarten Luther se politieke etiek teen die agtergrond van sy
teologiese benadering / K. Nürnberger.
No 210 Christianity and art / H.R. Rookmaker.
No 211 Die etiese regverdiging van kernkrag / J. H. van Wyk.
No 212 Die plek van die natuurwetenskappe in ons samelewing: vandag en
more / J.A. van den Berg.
No 213 Die Boesmans: hulle kultuur, godsdiens, taal, Bybelvertaling en
toekoms / P. J.W.S. van der Westhuizen.
No 214 Socialism or capitalism, must we choose? / H. Antonides.
No 215 Beroepsbeheptheid en huweliksnood in Suid-Afrika: 'n uitdaging aan
die moderne bestuurder / J.J. L. Coetzee.
No 216 Isolasie, polarisasie, versoening: 'n uitdaging vir Christene in Suid-
Afrika / P.G.J. Meiring.
No 216a Reg, mag en orde: 'n besinning oor die noodtoestand in die RSA /
D.C. du Toit.

1986
No 217 Die Koninkryk van God in die Bybel / T. van der Walt.

181
No 218 Burgerlike ongehoorsaamheid en politieke verantwoordelikheid / J.
Douma.
No 219 Biblical perspectives on human engineering / Donald M. MacKay.
No 220 Herroeping van die Edik van Nantes en die betekenis daarvan vir
Suid-Afrika / P. Coertzen.
No 221 Sosialisme of kapitalisme vir Afrika?: 'n valse dilemma / P. J. van
Niekerk.
No 222 Tegniese onderwys aan Swartmense / W.L. Rautenbach.
No 223 Swart verstedeliking / W.P. Esterhuyse.
No 224 Christ's ambassadors in Islamic context / Tokunboh Adeyemo.
No 225 Goeie leesgewoontes: toegespits op volwassenes en die jeug / P. D. van
der Walt en E. Steenberg.
No 226 Die boodskap van die reformasie vir vandag / J. H. van Wyk.
No 227 Hoop vir die Christenjongmens in Suid-Afrika / J. H.Coetzee et al.

1987
No 228- 229 Bybelse verrassings oor die vrou / B. J. van der Walt.
No 230 Die gemeenskap van die heiliges: Bybelse beginsels, praktiese
struikelblokke en konkrete patrone / V. Combrink
No 231-232 'n Reformatoriese kommentaar op die Kairos-dokument / A.J. du
Plessis et al.
No 233 Calvinism does not teach apartheid / P. J. Buys.
No 234 Depressie vanuit mediese en pastorale perspektief / J.M. de Wet en C.
J. H.Venter.
No 235 Christelik-nasionale onderwys geweeg in die lig van die ekumeniese
roeping van die PU vir CHO en die probleme wat anderskleurige Christene in
Suid-Afrika daarmee het / J. H.Coetzee.
No 236 Mediese etiek / J. Douma.
No 237 Wie is my naaste en wie se naaste is ek? / D.J.R. Schutte.
No 238 Die Doleansie, 1886-1986: herdenking van 'n hervorming uit die
negentiende eeu / B. J. van der Walt et al.
No 239 Natural science and two themes in human history / R. Maatman.
No 240 Die Christen en dans: 'n nuwe koers / P.G.L. van der Walt.

182
No 241 Post tenebras lux: die Hugenote in Suid-Afrika: hulle koms, vestiging
en invloed, 1688-1988 / P. Coertzen.

1988
No 242 Versoening: in die Bybel en in die praktyk van die huidige Suid-Afrika
/ Jan Botha.
No 243 A Christian perspective on hypnosis / Kangadaran Arabindan
No 244 Kunsmatige voortplanting vanuit etiese en juridiese hoek bekyk / J. H.
van Wyk & A.J. van der Walt.
No 245 Removing medicine's cartesian mask: the problem of humanising
medical education / J.R. Kriel.
No 246-247 My roeping as Christenjongmens in die huidige Suid-Afrika / B. J.
van der Walt et al.
No 248 'n Reformatoriese visie op die feminisme en die posisie van die vrou /
Magda van Niekerk.
No 249 Krisis in die landbou: 'n reformaties-wysgerigte perspektief / E.
Schuurman.
No 250 - 251 Polarisasie en spanning, eenheid en samerwerking tussen kerke
in Suid-Afrika/ J H. van Wyk, C. D. Jaftha, P. J. Buys et al.
No 252 Die Doodstraf in etiese perspektief / J. H. van Wyk.

1989
No 253 Evangelieverkondiging aan die Boesmans deur middel van visuele
hulpmiddele / A.H. le Roux.
No 254 A Christian perspective on work and labour relations / H. Antonides.
No 255 Die gemeente as bondgenote in verwagting / P.G.J. Meiring.
No 256 Kerk, teologie en geweld / J. H. van Wyk.
No 257 Owerheid en onderdaan in Suid-Afrika in 1989 / B. J. van der Walt.
No 258 The new Christian right and North American education / Harro van
Brummelen.
No 259 Politiek in/en onderwys: 'n probleem met vele fasette / J. L. van der
Walt.
No 260 Genetiese manipulasie: die wysgerig-etiese agtergronde / E.
Schuurman.

183
No 261 Die wet het van my 'n kleurling gemaak / N.S. Jansen van Rensburg.
No 262 Reformasie op die viersprong / B. J. van der Walt.
No 263 Herlewing en reformasie / J.A. van Rooy.
No 264 Die sin van ons bestaan: oor hoe 'n Christen met die lewe moet
omgaan / M. Valenkamp.

1990
No 265 Menseregte / D.A. du Toit.
No 266 Foundations of responsible technology / C.C. Adams.
No 267 Vigs / J. H. van Wyk en J. Verschoor.
No 268 Die verhouding tussen kerk en staat in Oos-Europa / J. H.Santema.
No 269 Die taak van 'n Christelike etiek / M. Valenkamp.
No 270 Die kerk se antwoord op satanisme / J. H. van Wyk.
No 271-272 The word of God for Africa / J.A. Muthwadini.
No 273-274 Die "New Age"-beweging = The "New Age" Movement / B. J. van
der Walt, S. Fowler, J.J. Venter.
No 275-276 Liberation theology in brief / J.A. Kirk.

1991
No 277-278 National identity and the renewal of democracy / S. Fowler.
No 279 Surrogaatmoederskap: 'n teologies-etiese beoordeling / P. J. de Bruyn
No 280 The Deceptive morality of power / S. Fowler.
No 281 Calling, work, and rest / P. Marshall.
No 282 Proefdiernavorsing: mag 'n Christen daaraan deelneem? / B. J. van
der Walt, D.G. van der Nest.
No 283 A Calvinist political theory / P. Marshall.
No 284 Venster op die stad / G.-M. van der Waal. A window on township art /
G. Hagg
No 285 A Christian Labour Association / H. Antonides, E. Vanderkloet.
No 286 Kindermolestering: teologies-eties beoordeel / P. J. de Bruyn.
No 287 Poverty in southern Africa / G.N. Monsma et al.
No 288 Ondernemingsetiek / Ir. E. Schuurman.

1992

184
No 289 Enkele prinsipiële onderwysvraagstukke vir die toekomstige RSA / J.
L. van der Walt.
No 290 A future South Africa in the African context: a South African
perspective / C. J. Reinecke et al.
No 291 A future South Africa in the African context: an African perspective /
N. Onwu et al.
No 292 A Future South Africa in the African context: a christian perspective /
W. Nicol et al.
No 293 Paranormale, okkulte en demoniese verskynsels / W.J. Ouweneel
No 294 An African response to the question of apartheid / Yusufu Turaki.
No 295 Medeseggenskap van studente in die universiteitsbestuur / H.J.
Brinkmann en B. J. van der Walt.
No 296 Contemporary issues in Christian Higher Education / John B. Hulst.
No 297 Christelike wetenskapsbeoefening onderweg / B. J. van der Walt.
No 298 Technology education: a Christian perspective / M.J. de Vries.
Tegnologiese onderwys in Suid-Afrikaanse skole / P. van Schalkwyk.
No 299 Die feminisme: 'n oorsig / M. Valenkamp.
No 3oo A Christian perspective on motivation / M. Scott.

1993
No 301 God praat met ons: nuwe perspektiewe of [sic] God se openbaring / B.
J. van der Walt.
No 302 Visions of man and freedom in Africa / M. Waijaki et al.
No 303 Die unieke identiteit van die Christelike skool in die toekomstige Suid-
Afrika / J. L. van der Walt, E. Blaauwendraat en I.A. Kole.
No 304 Democracy in Africa / J.D. van der Vyver et al.
No 305 Die rolprent as dié kunsvorm van die twintigste eeu / J.R. Botha.
No 306 Reconciliation in Africa / P.M. Krishna et al.
No 307 Die noodsaaklikheid van Christelike organisasies, & ; Die geheim van
'n geslaagde jeugaksie / B. J. Van der Walt.
No 308 Health in Africa / G.S. Fehrsen et al.
No 309 Op soek na gemeenskaplike kulturele waardes vir 'n toekomstige Suid-
Afrika: 'n voorlopige verkenning / B. J. Van der Walt.
No 310 Communication in Africa / R.A.B. Crabbe et al.

185
No 311 Die lied in ons arbeid / F.M.J. de Villiers.
No 312 Art in Africa / C. Seerveld et al.
No 313 Regstellende aksie: prinsipiële riglyne / J.C. van der Merwe.

1994
No 314 Godsdiensverskeidenheid, -gelykheid en -vryheid in Suid-Afrika: wat
is die implikasies vir Christelike höer onderwys? / B. J. van der Walt.
No 315 Development in Africa / E. Beukes et al.
No 316 Transformasie van die samelewing / J.J. Venter.
No 317 Die 1994-verkiesing in Suid-Afriks: 'n voorlopige evaluering na
aanleiding van ervarings in die Noordwesstreek / C. J. Coetzee.
No 317 Transforming the Internet: toward a reformed ontology of human
technics / Roy Alden Atwood.
No 318 Women in Africa / Gertrude Shope et al.
No 319 Maskers vir geweld: oor die religieuse legitimering van geweld in Suid-
Afrika / M.F. Heyns.
No 320 Africa and the new world order / O.B. Sichone et al.
No 321 Die Christen in die branding van die transformasieproses in Suid-
Afrika / J.N.J. Kritzinger et al.
No 322 The relationship between nature and grace according to H. Bavinck /
J. Veenhof.
No 323 Die universiteit en die PU vir CHO: gister, vandag en môre / L.O.K.
Lategan en B. J. van der Walt.
No 324 God's order for creation / P.G. Schrotenboer et al.
No 325 Evangelieverkondiging en/of sosiale betrokkenheid?: 'n
reformatoriese alternatief / B. J. van der Walt.
No 326 Building bridges in multicultural schools through structured
discussion groups / Piet J. du Toit.
No 327 'n Kritiese besinning oor die moderne tegnologie / E. Schuurman.
No 328 South Africa's second liberation: how to make reconstruction and
development work / S.F. Coetzee.
No 329 Bybelse perspektiewe op die mens / B. J. Van der Walt.
No 330 Reclaiming our daily work / H. Antonides.

186
No 331 Christelike perspektiewe op die samelewing / B. J.van der Walt.
No 332 Reflections on the state of Christianity in Africa / T. Adeyemo.
No 333 Entrepreneurskap: hoe om (vir jouself) werk te skep, en dit nie (by
ander) te soek nie / W. Viviers, J. Kroon en J.J.D. Havenga.
No 334 The idea of a free Christian university / K.C. Sewell.
No 334a Moet die staat sy subsidie aan religueus georiënteerde
diensinstellings onttrek?: enkele flitsgedagtes oor die voortbestaan van
Christelike onderwysinstellings in Suid-Afrika / B. J. van der Walt en J.J.
Venter.
No 335 Hope for the family / B. J. Van der Walt et al.
No 336 Die Rwanda-tragedie: waarom dit gebeur het en wat ons daaruit kan
leer / C.M. Overdulve.

1995
No 337 Responsibility, conversion, confession, forgiveness, restitution and
reconciliation: six of God's requirements for a new South Africa / B. J. van der
Walt.
No 338 Ja, vir die nuwe Suid-Afrika!: verantwoordelikheid, rekonstruksie en
ontwikkeling / A.G.S. Gous en D.E. de Villiers.
No 339 Christians organizing for political service / J.W. Skillen.
No 340 Die stryd teen armoede / J.J. Kritzinger.
No 341 Rediscovery of the Church I / G.J. Spykman and H. Hart.
No 342 Die Waarheids- en Versoeningskommissie / B. J. van der Walt & T.
van der Walt.
No 343 Rediscovery of the Church II / B. Zylstra & J.C. Vanderstelt.
No 344 Die noodsaak van kundige, kritiese mediagebruik & Rethinking news
values / J.D. Froneman and L. Obonyo.
No 345 Christianity and democracy in South Africa: a vision for the future / B.
J. van der Walt & C.F.B. Naudé.
No 346 Arbeidsetiek: 'n teologies-etiese benadering / J. H. van Wyk.
No 347 'n Evaluering van die nuwe Suid-Afrikaanse grondwet = An evaluation
of the new South African constitution / F. Venter, J.M. Vorster & M. Prozesky.
No 348 The limits of both socialist and capitalist economies / W. Ver Eecke.

187
1997
No 349 Wanvoeding in Suid-Afrika: strategieë om onder-en oorvoeding aan te
spreek / H. H. Vorster.
No 350 Responsibility for our natural environment / C. Gousmett and A.T.
Chimuka.
No 351 Ontwikkeling: armoede, tegnologie en die omgewing / H.F. van Rooy
et al.
No 352 The religions of southern Africa: a synopsis of their basic beliefs /
W.R. Kauuova.
No 353 Verby armoede en oorvloed / B. Goudzwaard.
No 354 Leisure, play, game and sport in a Christian perspective / T. L. Visker
& S. J. Hoffman.
No 355 Geloofsgroei / B. J. van der Walt & Perspectives on developmental
psychology / K. Bussema
No 356 Crime in South Africa: its causes and solutions / E.P. Cain.
No 357 Christelike skole vir Suid-Afrika / J. L. van der Walt et al.
No 358 The ideal of Christian schools / H. Van der Laan ... et al.
No 358A 'n Skuldbelydenis oor apartheid / B. J. Van der Walt.
No 359 Hoe moet christenjongmense plesierig wees? / C.A. Janson & S.J. van
der Walt.
No 360 Homosexuality, scripture and the body of Christ / M.D. Williams.

1998
No 361 Economic theory and practice in Biblical perspective / G.N. Monsma.
No 362 Bribery and extortion in world business: a study of corporate political
payments abroad / Neil H. Jacoby, Peter Nehemkis, Richard Eells.
No 363 Korrupsie = Corruption / B. J. Van der Walt, W.A.S. Cornelis, V.
Samuel.
No 364 The certainty of faith / H. Bavinck.
No 365 Natuurwetenskap : 'n moderne godsdiens? kan dit christelike beoefen
word? / W. J. Ouweneel
No 366 The precious gift of love/ CAVA

188
No 367 Die oorbeklemtoning van seks in die samelewing / P. J. de Bruyn.
No 368 Transforming the internet. Toward a Reformed ontology of human
tehnics/ R. A. Atwood
No 369 Wat beteken postmodernisme? / B. Goudzwaard, H.G. Geertsema,
M.F. Heyns.
No 370 The Christian and social science/work. 'n Christelike benadering tot
die sosiale wetenskappe en maatskaplike werk / R.A. Atwood, B. Hugen, E.H.
Ryke.
No 371 Landbou: 'n Christelike perspektief / D.H.P. Wijnbeek et al.
No 372 Viagra and the mind-body problem: philosophical implications of a
pharmaceutical innovation / J.R. Kriel.

1999
No 373 Wonders: kan ons daarin glo?. Nature and miracle / B. J. van der Walt
& J. H.Diemer.
No 374 Ubuntu in a Christian perspective / J. H.Smit, M. Deacon, A. Schutte.
No 375 Onderwys in die nuwe Suid-Afrika: drie aktuele vraagstukke / J. L.
Marais, S.C. du Toit en J. H.Steyn.
No 376 Two shall become one: reflections on dating, courtship and marriage /
H.A. van Belle.
No 377 Multikulturele musiekonderrig in S.A. / B.M. Spies. How should
Christians think about music? / K.A. DeMol.
No 378 What to do when you are ill / CAVA
No 379 Kerkvernuwing onderweg na 2000: visie, missie, konteks / B. J. van
der Walt.
No 380 The AIDS crisis in Africa: our Christian responsibility / I. Achineku &
MAP International.
No 381 Christelike waardes in die nuwe Suid-Afrika / B. J. van der Walt,
P.G.W. du Plessis en G.J. de Klerk.
No 382 Year of jubilee, cultural mandate, worldview / J. Brouwer, A.M.
Wolters, C. Bartholomew.
No 383 Die sinvraag: met besondere aandag aan ons verantwoordelikheid as
lede van die skeppingskoor tot eer van God / B. J. van der Walt.
No 384 Christianity and politics: a reformational perspective / C. Gousmett.

189
Wetenskaplike bydraes van die PU vir CHO. Reeks F2
Brochures
1967
No 1. Die gesag van die Heilige Skrif S C W Duvenage. (51 pages)

1968
No 2 Toneel, film, radio en beeldradio vanuit Calvinistiese gesig
A.J. van Rooy. (42 pages)

1970
No 3 Blanke volksontwikkeling in die lig van die Calvinisme J. H.Coetzee.
(30 pages)
No 4 Die Calvinis en die kuns P. D. van der Walt. (40pages)
No 5 Calvijns betekenis in onze tijd K. Runia. (52 pages)

1974
No 6 Menseregte Johan David van der Vyver. (74 pages)

1975
No 7 Die energiekrisis in Suid-Afrika W.P. Robbertse, P H Stoker, W J
Voorwind, F J Potgieter, D P Erasmus. (69 pages)

1976
No 8 The Kingdom of God in the preaching and work of Jesus A.I. de Graaf.
(33 pages)
No 9 Vraagstukke rondom die lewe juridies besien L. M. du Plessis.
(39 pages)

1979
No 10 From Noyon to Geneva: a pilgrimage in the steps of John Calvin B. J.
van der Walt. (71 pages)
No. 11 Teaching Science in Christian Perspective E.D. Fackerell. (31 pages)

190
1980
No. 12 Issues in the Philosophy of Education S. Fowler (70 pages)
No. 13 A Christian philosophy of Culture D.L. Roper (73 pages)
No. 14 Aspekte van 'n etiek by die Neo-Marxisme van die Frankfurter Schule
J.J. Snyman (53 pages)
No 15 Die professionele gedrag van die juris: 'n gids vir studente L. M. Du
Plessis. (67 pages).
No. 16 Technology in Christian-philosophical perspective E. Schuurman (17
pages)
No 17 Psychology: sensitive openness and appropriate reactions Arnold H.
de Graaff. (23 pages)

1981
No.18 Why the state? Bible Study on Romans 13 and Revelation 13 B. J. van
der Walt (21 pages)

1982
No. 19 Ons in Christus en Christus in ons L. Floor (32 pages)

1983
No. 20 Wysiging van breinfunksie deur middel van psigochirurgie - Is dit
Christelik verantwoordbaar? P. J. Pretorius 1983 (33 pages)
No.21 IRS: 1962-1982 B. J. van der Walt (50 pages)
No. 22 Communism in a Christian perspective. Philosophical essays in the
development of Communism H. van der Laan (93 pages)
No. 23 Die Staat in die lig van die Bybel B. J. van der Walt (51 pages)
No. 24 Mense en gode in SuiderAfrika B. J. van der Walt (68 pages)

1984
No. 25 John Knox B. J. van der Walt 1984 (9 pages)
No. 26 Huldrych Zwingli C. G. de Groot (69 pages)
No. 27 Desiderius Erasmus C. G. de Groot (77 pages)

191
1985
No. 28 Johannes Hus B. J. van der Walt (30 pages)
No. 29 Voorlopers van die Hervorming: Arnold van Brescia, John Wycliff,
Johannes Hus C. G. de Groot (27 pages)
No. 30 Johannes Calvyn C. G. de Groot (60 pages)
No. 31 Maarten Luther: sy lewensgeskiedenis teen die agtergrond van sy tyd
C. G. de Groot. 1985 (59 pages)
No. 32 Calvin and his times Jansie van der Walt (154 pages)
No. 33 The Word of God S. Fowler (48 pages)
No. 34 Biblical Studies in the Gospel and society S. Fowler (136 pages)
No. 35 Man van die derde weg: w.J. Snyman as.teoloog J. H. van Wyk (60
pages)

1986
No. 36 Bible Studies on the kingdom of God T. van der Walt (31 pages)

1987
No. 37 The Bible and Islam B. Madany (81 pages)
No. 38 The Christian's social calling S. Fowler (72 pages)
No. 39 Christian educational distinctives S. Fowler (216 pages)

1988
No. 40 Aurelius Augustinus: die rustelose waarheidsoeker C. G. de Groot
(90 pages)
No. 41 Mens- en Christenwees in Afrika: Kommunalisme, Sosialisme en
Kommunisme in stryd om 'n mensbeeld vir Afrika B. J. van der Walt (67
pages)
No. 42 On being human and being a Christian in Africa: Communalism,
Socialism and Communism in a struggle for an African anthropology B. J.
van der Walt (64 pages)
No 43 The church and the renewal of society S. Fowler. (108 pages)
No. 44 The Bible as eye-opener on the position of women B. J. van der Walt
(52 pages)
No. 45 Herman Bavinck R. H. Bremmer (31 pages)

192
No.46 The State in the light of the Scriptures S. Fowler (52 pages)

1989
No. 47 Groen van Prinsterer M.R. Langley (16 pages)
No. 48 Antheunis Janse van Biggekerke B. J. van der Walt (40 pages)

1990
No.49 Being human: a gift and a duty B. J. van der Walt (89 pages)
No. 50 Om mens te wees: gawe en opgawe B. J. van der Walt (89 pages)

1991
No. 51 A Christian voice among students and scholars S. Fowler (231 pages)

1992
No 52 Die skepping herwin: Bybelse grondslae vir 'n Reformatoriese
lewensbeskouing Albert M. Wolters. (98 pages)
No 53 P. de B. Kock: predikerfilosoof in die greep van die Reformasie P. J.
Strauss. (34 pages)
No 54 G. Dekker, Christen-literator / P. D. van der Walt. (77 pages)
No 55 Spener en Francke: grondleggers van die Duitse Piëtisme C. G. de
Groot. (53 pages)
No 56 J. Chr. Coetzee: reformatoriese opvoedkundige J. L. van der Walt en
S.C. du Toit. (39 pages)

1994
No 57 Should a Christian embrace socialism, communism or humanism?
L.T. Nyirongo. (pages)
No 58 Your marriage and family Grace Kimathi. (110 pages)

1995
No 59 Leaders with a vision: how Christian leadership can tackle the African
crisis B. J. van der Walt. 1995 (98pages)
No 60 Perspectives on technology and culture E. Schuurman. (164 pages)

193
No 61 Die hand in eie boesem: 'n besinning oor Afrikaneridentiteit B. J. van
der Walt. (80 pages)
No 62 Tegnologie: menslike mag of onmag? S.W. Vorster. (50 pages)
No 63 The oppression and liberation of modern Africa: examining the
powers shaping today's Africa Stuart Fowler. (177 pages)

1996
No 64 Patterns of the western mind: a reformed Christian perspective John
H. Kok. (242 pages)
No 65 How to look for a job L. Darmani. (64 pages)
1997
No 66 Afrosentries of eurosentries?: ons roeping in 'n multikulturele Suid-
Afrika B. J. van der Walt. (201 pages)
No 67 Afrocentric or eurocentric?: our task in a multicultural South Africa
B. J. van der Walt. (190 pages)
No 68 Being human in a Christian perspective B. J. van der Walt. (83 pages)
No 69 Religious pluralism as a challenge to the church in Southern Africa
W. R. Kauuova. (61 pages)
No 70 The gods of Africa or the gods of the Bible?: the snares of African
traditional religion in biblical perspective Lenard Nyirongo. (212 pages)

1999
No 71 Rebuilding our nation: participating in the political process from the
perspective of a Biblical Christian worldview M. C. Heuvel. (96 pages)
No 72 Dealing with darkness: a Christian novel on the confrontation with
African witchcraft Lenard Nyirongo. (125 pages)
No 73 Lewe in liefde: moraliteit vir die markplein J. H. van Wyk. (95 pages)
No 74 Naby God: Christen en kerk op die drumpel van spiritualiteit B. J. van
der Walt. (264 pages)
No 75 Christianity and African gods: a method in theology Yusufu Turaki.
(384 pages)
No 76 Kultuur, lewensvisie en ontwikkeling: 'n ontmaskering van die gode
van onderontwikkelde Afrika en die oorontwikkelde Weste B. J. van der
Walt. (284 pages)

194
Wetenskaplike bydraes van die PU vir CHO. Reeks F3
Collections
1969
No 1 Die atoomeeu - In U lig. (290 pages)

1974
No 2 Reformasie en revolusie. (pages)

1975
No 3 A bibliography of Calviniana, 1959-1974 D. Kempff. (249 pages)

1976
No 4 Kontak en kommunikasie: aspekte van die ontmoeting tussen die
Swartman en Blanke in Suider-Afrika B. J. van der Walt ed. (157 pages)
No 5 Gesprek met die toekoms: futurologiese verkenninge T. C. Smit (93
pages)
No 6 Christian higher education: the contemporary challenge (418 pages)
No 7 Geregtigheid in die Suid-Afrikaanse samelewing. (107 pages)

1978
No 8 Geestelik weerbaar of weerloos? B. J. van der Walt et al. (102 pages)
No.9 Heartbeat. Taking the pulse of our theological-philosophical heritage B.
J. van der Walt (307 pages)
No 10 Horizon. Surveying a route for contemporary Christian thought B. J.
van der Walt (197 pages)

1980
No 11 Christenjeug en gesag (ABC Kongresreferate 1979) (50 pages)
No 12 Venster op die kerk. Twintig lidmate oor die reformasie van die kerk in
die jare '80 (248 pages)
No 13 Anatomy of Reformation. Flashes and fragments of a Reformed
Cosmoscope B. J. van der Walt (580 pages)

195
1982
No 14 Die uitdaging van die Neo-Marxisme op die gebied van die wetenskap
(193 pages)
No 15 Navolging van Christus vandag - 'n Keur van IRS-studiestukke Vol. 1
(419 pages).
No 16 Venster op die huwelik. Openhartige vrae oor seksualiteit en die liefde.
(268 pages)
No 17 Calvinus reformator: his contribution to theology, church and society.
(323 pages)

1983
No 18 Die opvoedingsgebeure. 'n Skrifmatige perspektief. (286 pages)
No 19 Venster op die gesin. Openhartige gesprekke met ouers, kinders en
familie. (455 pages)
No 20 Maarten Luther. 1483-1983. (145 pages)

1984
No 21 Our Reformational tradition. A rich heritage and lasting vocation.
(552 pages)
No 22 Die ideologiese stryd in Suider-Afrika. Vlug vir die afgode! (159 pages)
No 23
No 24 Venster op die onderwys: ouer en onderwyser op die kruispad in Suid-
Afrika
No 25 Rondom die teekan. Gesprekke oor konsekwente, positiewe Christelike
lewenswandel op die kampus (144 pages)

1986
No 26 Onderskeiding van die geeste; Hedendaagse pinksterstrominge in
Suid-Afrika. (147 pages)
No 27 Sodat my huis vol kan word; Reformatoriese perspektiewe op ons
evangelisasieroeping vandag (209 pages)
No 28 John Calvin's Opus Magnum; Proceedings of the Second South African
Congress for Calvin Research. July 31 - August 3, 1984 (528 pages)

196
1987
No.29 Julie sal my getuies wees. Sending na mense in nood. (201 pages)
No 30 Educational challenges in a Christian-Reformational perspective. (375
pages)
No 31 Venster op die vrou; reformatoriese perspektiewe. (258 pages)
No 32 Venster op die universiteit. (195 pages)

1989
No 33 Kommentaar op "Kerk en Samelewing". (150 pages)
No 34 . Vensters vir bejaardes. (323 pages)
No 35 Visie en missieNision and mission. Die Reformatories- evangeliese
lewensvisie en toekomstige missie van Christelike hoar onderwys-inrigtings
in wereldperspektief- (147 pages)
No 36 Venster op die sakewereld; perspektiewe op Bedryfsetiek. (288 pages)
No 37 Venster op mag en geweld; Christelike perspeldiewelReflections on
power and violence; Christian perspectives. (303 pages)

1990
No 38 More precious than gold; discovering the real wealth of Scripture. B.
J. van der Walt (277 pages)

1991
No 39 Christian Schooling: education for freedom. S. Fowler, H. W. van
Brummelen, J. van Dyk. (198 pages)
No 40 Kultuurverskeidenheid in Afrika: verleentheid of geleentheid? =
Cultural diversity in Africa: embarrassment or opportunity?. (261 pages)
No 41 Die idee van reformasie: gister en vandag = The idea of reform:
yesterday and today. (526 pages)

1992
No 42 Venster op sport: Christelike perspektiewe Potchefstroomse
Universiteit vir Christelike Hoër Onderwys. (348 pages)

197
1993
No 43 Window on business ethics: a challenge to Christians = Venster op
bestuursetiek: 'n uitdaging vir Christensakelui. (221 pages)

1994
No 44 The liberating message: a Christian worldview for Africa B. J. van der
Walt. (625 pages)
No 45 Venster op die kunste: Christelike perspektiewe = Window on the arts:
Christian perspectives. (492 pages)

1997
No 46 Kurrikulum 2005, lewensoriëntering: grondleggende fase: gids vir
Christenonderwysers. (172 pages)

1998
No 47 Curriculum 2005, life orientation: foundation phase: guide for
Christian teachers. (165 pages)

1999
No 48 Visie op die werklikheid: die bevrydende krag van 'n Christelike
lewensbeskouing en filosofie B. J. van der Walt. (612 pages)

1998
No 49 Man and God: the transforming power of Biblical religion B. J. van
der Walt. (519 pages)

1999
No 50 Religion and Society: Christian involvement in the public square B. J.
van der Walt. (86 pages)
No 51 Godsdiens en samelewing: Christelike betrokkenheid op die markplein
B. J. van der Walt. (148 pages)

198
Wetenskaplike bydraes van die PU vir CHO. Reeks F4,
Calvyncauseriee
No 1. Calvyn en die Skrif C.F.C. Coetzee. (1973)

No 2. Bibliografie van Suid-Afrikaanse Calviniana D. Kempff. (1973)

No 3. Calvyn oor die staat en die reg L. M. du Plessis. (1974)

No 4. Calvyn en die ekumeniese roeping van die kerk B. Duvenage. (1973)

No 5. Calvyn en die herderlike bediening C. J. H. Venter. (1975)

No 6. Soteriologie by Calvyn C. J. Malan. (1977)

No 7. Die denkdekor van die Reformasie: met spesiale verwysing na Calvyn


B. J. van der Walt. (1979)

No 8. Contemporary research on the sixteenth century Reformation B. J. van


der Walt. (1979)

No 9. Die etiek van Calvyn J. H. van Wyk.(1980)

No 10. Calvyn se beskouing van kerkregering en kerklike tug G. P. L. van der


Linde. (1980)

No 11. Calvyn oor opvoeding en onderwys J. L. van der Walt. (1981)

No 12. Die leer aangaande God by Calvyn C. J. Malan. (1982)

199
Wetenskaplike bydraes van die PU vir CHO. Reeks F5,
Studies oor die inslag van die Calvinisme in Suid-Afrika
No 1

No 2 L. J. du Plessis as denker oor staat en politiek P. J. J. S. Potgieter.


(1976)

No 3-6 Die inslag van die Calvinisme in Suid-Afrika: 'n bibliografie van
Suid-Afrikaanse tydskrifartikels. (1980)

No 7. Die nadere reformasie C. J. Malan. (1981)

No 8. Gewortel en gegroei: die inslag van die Calvinisme in Suid-Afrika,


1652-1806 D. Kempff. (1981)

No 9. Bestry en bevestig, 1806-1900 D. Kempff. (1982)

No 10. Christelik-nasionaal: outentieke, ideologiese of gesekulariseerde


nasionalisme?: Die inslag van die Calvinisme in Suid-Afrika gedurende die
periode 1877 tot 1910 M. Elaine Botha. (1982)

200