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Assignments for B.Sc. (IT) 5th Semester

Subject: Graphics & Multimedia Subject Code: BSIT – 51 Assignment: TA (Compulsory)

1. What is the meaning of interactive computer graphics? List the various applications of the computer graphics. Ans : The term “interactive graphics” refers to devices and systems that facilitate the manmachine graphic communication, in a way, which is more convenient than the writing convention. For example, to draw a straight line between two points, one has to input the coordinates of the two end points. In interactive graphics with the help of graphical input technique by indicating two end points on the display screen draws the line. Various applications of the computer graphics are listed below :I. Building Design and Construction II. Electronics Design III. Mechanical Design IV. Entertainment and Animation V. Aerospace Industry VI. Medical Technology VII. Cartography VIII. Art and Commerce.

2. Explain in detail the Hardware required for effective graphics on the computer system. Ans : The hardware components required to generate interactive graphics are the input device, the output device (usually display) and the computer system. The human operator is also an integral part of the interactive system. The text and graphics displayed act as an input to the human vision system and, therefore, the reaction of the human being will depend on how quickly one can see and appreciate the graphics present on the display.

3. Compare Raster scan system with random scan system. Ans : In raster scan display, the electron beam is swept across the screen, one row at a time from top to bottom. The picture definition is stored in a memory area called refresh buffer or frame buffer. In random scan display unit, a CRT has the electron beam directed only to the parts of the screen where a picture is to be drawn. It draws a picture one line at a time and so it is referred to as vector displays.


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Raster Scan The Most common type of graphics monitor employing a CRT is the raster-scan Display, based on television technology. In a raster- scan system; the electron beam is swept across the screen, one row at a time from top to bottom. The picture definition is stored in a memory area called the refresh buffer or frame buffer. Each point on the screen is called pixel. On a black and system with one bit per pixel, the frame buffer is called bitmap. For systems with multiple bits per pixel, the frame buffer is referred to as a pix map. Refreshing on raster scan display is carried out at the rate of 60 to 80 frames per second. Some displays use interlaced refresh procedure. First, all points on the even numbered scan lines are displayed then all the points along odd numbered lines are displayed. This is an effective technique for avoiding flickering.

Random Scan Display When operated as a random-scan display unit, a CRT has the electron beam directed only to the parts of the screen where a picture is to be drawn. Random scan monitors draw a picture one line at a time and for this reason they are also referred as vector displays (or stroke-writing or calligraphic displays). The component lines of a picture can be drawn and refreshed by a random-scan system in any specified order. A pen plotter operates in a similar way and is an example of a random-scan, hard-copy device. Refresh rate on a random-scan system depends on the number of lines to be displayed. Picture definition is now stored as a set of line- drawing commands in an area of memory referred to as the refresh display file. Sometimes the refresh display file is called the display list, display program, or simply the refresh buffer.

4. How many colors are possible if a. 24 bits / pixel is used b. 8 bits / pixel is used, justify your answer Ans : a). 24 bit color provides 16.7 million colors per pixels, That 24 bits are divided into 3 bytes; one each for the red, green, and blue components of a pixel. b). 256, 8 bits per pixel = 2^8 colors.

Widely accepted industry standard uses 3 bytes, or 24 bits, per pixel, with one byte for each primary color results in 256 different intensity levels for each primary color. Thus a pixel can take on a color from 256 X 256 X 256 or 16.7 million possible choices. In Bi-level image representation one bit per pixel is used to represent black-and white images. In gray level image 8 bits per pixel to allow a total of 256 intensity or gray levels. Image representation using lookup table can be viewed as a compromise between our desire to have a lower storage requirement and our need to support a reasonably sufficient number of simultaneous colors.


Inserts a blank line at the current cursor position. // set the next text color to Green vi) delline (). x represents the row number and y represents the column number. This function sets the number of rows and columns of the screen.5). // sets the screen to 80 column black and white ii) clrscr(). This function changes the background color of the text mode. 0: represents 40 column black and white 1: represents 40 column color 2: represents 80 column black and white 3: represents 80 column color Example: textmode(2). RED. mode variable can take the values 0. v) textcolor (int color). This function positions the cursor to the location specified by x and y. 3|Page . Ans : The different text mode built-in functions of C Programming language are listed below :i) textmode( int mode).4). This function sets the subsequent text color numbered between 0 to 15 and 128 for blinking. vii) insline(). GREEN. Valid colors for the CGA are from 0 to 6 namely BLACK. It is possible to delete a line of text and after the deletion all the subsequent lines will be pushed up by one line Example : /*deletes the 5th line*/ gotoxy (5.20) // cursor is placed in 20th column of 10th row iv) textbackground (int color). 1.Kuvempu University 5. // clears the screen iii) gotoxy(int x. List and explain different text mode built-in functions of C Programming language. BLUE. 1. Example: gotoxy(10. delline ( ). Example: textbackground(2). MAGENTA and BROWN. or 3. Example : textcolor(3). insline ( ).1) Example clrscr(). Example: /*inserts line at the 3rd row*/ gotoxy (3. CYAN. int y). Or //changes background color to blue textbackground(BLUE). This function clears the entire screen and locates the cursor on the top left corner(1.

100. setcolor(BLUE).100).640. rectangle(50.107).150.300).125. line(175.640."c:\\tc\\bgi").200).400). settextstyle(1.25).43).300.143). outtextxy(150.159.639.125.y. bar(45.150.125. setfillpattern(0x20. line(175. setfillstyle(SOLID_FILL. circle(175.50. bar(50.50.GREEN). getch().h" #include"conio. setfillstyle(SOLID_FILL.0.WHITE).175.150).gm.h" void main() { int gd=DETECT.300. clearviewport(). setcolor(YELLOW).0. Write a C program to create Indian national flag.50. initgraph(&gd.479).6). line(175. setfillstyle(LINE_FILL. Ans : #include"graphics.125.193.193. } 4|Page . line(175.200. bar(0.&gm. bar(0.175. line(175.0.125).43).HORIZ_DIR. rectangle(45.143). line( bar(50.300.100).0.200). setfillstyle(SOLID_FILL. y=getmaxy(). line(175.BLUE). setfillstyle(SOLID_FILL.125.125.107). setcolor(BLACK).YELLOW).300.125. setcolor(BLUE)."INDIAN FLAG"). x=getmaxx().50.5).Kuvempu University 6. bar(50.45.MAGENTA). rectangle(0.x.125.150). setcolor(6).125). line(175.

The beauty of HTML of course is that it 5|Page . This computer runs a software package that listens all day long to requests over the wires. Programming languages are “Turing-complete”. HTTP: . HTML is simply a „markup language‟ used to define a logical structure rather than compute anything. Typically programming languages use conditional branches and loops and operate on data contained in abstract data structures. Actually. Now let us understand how client/server system works using HTTP. programming languages can be used to compute something such as the square root of pi or some other such task. Programming languages are „Turing-complete‟. It is a language spoken between web browser (client software) and a web server (server software) so that can communicate with each other and exchange files. which text should be considered body text versus header text. and cross cultural communicating devices. HTML is much easier than all of that.HTML stands for Hyper Text Markup Language. HTML: . Ans : HTML is often called a programming language it is really not. There are two most important building blocks of web:  HTML and HTTP.Kuvempu University Subject: Web Programming Subject Code: BSIT – 52 Assignment: TA (Compulsory) 1. HTML is simply a „markup language‟ used to define a logical structure rather than compute anything. it can describe which text the browser should emphasize. cross platform. What is the meaning of Web? Explain in detail the building elements of web. That is. 2. connected to each other without any ordering or pattern. Typically programming languages use conditional branches and loops and operate on data contained in abstract data structures. HTML is much easier than all of that. For Example. HTML is a very simple language used to “describe” the logical structure of a document. programming languages can be used to compute something such as the square root of pi or some other such task. or “computable”. or „computable‟.HTTP is a “request-response” type protocol. HTML is often called programming language it is really not. “HTML is the Language of the Web” Justify the statement. That is. and so forth. Ans : Web is a complex network of international . A client/server system works something like this: A big piece of computer (called a server) sits in some office somewhere with a bunch of files that people might want access to.

The web browser is responsible for adding style. This is because it only focuses on describing the logical nature of the document. not on the specific style. DIV · H1 through H6 · P · PRE · XMP  Lists · DD · DIR · DL · DT · LI · MENU · OL · UL 6|Page . Give the different classification of HTML tags with examples for each category.Kuvempu University is generic enough that it can be read and interpreted by a web browser running on any machine or operating system. Ans : List of HTML Tags : Tags for Document Structure · HTML · HEAD · BODY  Heading Tags · TITLE · BASE · META · STYLE · LINK  Block-Level Text Elements · ADDRESS · BLOCKQUOTE . For instance emphasized text might be bolded in one browser and italicized in another. It is up to the browser to decide 3.

print 'Enter First Number '. print 'Enter Second Number 7|Page . my $three = $cgi->param( 'three' ). $two ). my $one = $cgi->param( 'one' ). if( $one && $two && $three ) { $lcm = &findLCM( &findLCM( $one. $three ). #$form = $ENV{'QUERY_STRING'}. my $two = $cgi->param( 'two' ). $cgi = new CGI. print "LCM is $lcm". print $cgi->start_html( "Question Ten" ). print $cgi->header.Kuvempu University  Text Characteristics · B · BASEFONT · BIG · BLINK · CITE · CODE · EM · FONT · I · KBD · PLAINTEXT · S · SMALL 4. } else { print ' '. use CGI. Write CGI application which accepts 3 numbers from the user and displays biggest number using GET and POST methods Ans : #!/usr/bin/perl #print "Content-type:text/html\n\n".

8|Page . if ($x < $y) { $temp = $y. or any other number of dynamic enhancement. } return $ans. you can make text scroll across the screen like ticker tape. $y = $x. you can make pictures change when you move over them. What is JavaScript? Give its importance in web. } print $cgi->end_html. Ans : JavaScript is an easy to learn way to “Script“ your web pages that is have them to do actions that cannot be handled with HTML alone. $x = $temp. b) JavaScript control the browser. c) JavaScript interact with document content. my $y = shift. With JavaScript. my $temp. while ($ans % $x) { $ans = $y * $temp. print 'Enter Third Number '. sub findLCM(){ my $x = shift. print " ". a) JavaScript control document appearance and content. $ans. } $ans = $y. $temp++ .Kuvempu University '. $temp = 1. print ' '. } 5. JavaScript is generally only used inside of HTML document.

You can for instance link a CSS file to all the pages in your site that sets the look of the pages. REQUEST_METHOD – The method with which the information request is issued. 7. i). f) JavaScript interact with applets. iii) Additional pathname information. Form data that are user supplied is incorporated in environment variables. g) JavaScript manipulate embedded images. SERVER_NAME – The Server‟s hostname or IP address.CGI is a part of the web server that can communicate with other programs running on the server. server and user. iv).Kuvempu University d) JavaScript interact with the user. SERVER_PORT – The port number of the host on which the server is running. iii). PATH_INFO – Extra path information passed to the CGI program 9|Page . the web server can call up a program. With CSS you can basically set any style sheet property of any element on a html page. Explain briefly Cascading Style Sheets Ans : Cascading Style Sheet (CSS) is a part of DHTML that controls the look and placement of the element on the page. Extra pathname information is placed in environment variables. When a CGI program is called. server and user is placed in CGI environmental variables. e) JavaScript read and write client state with cookies. One of the biggest advantages with the CSS instead of the regular way of changing the look of elements is that you split content from design. With CGI. while passing user specific data to a program. 6. ii). What is CGI? List the different CGI environment variables Ans : CGI or “Common Gateway Interface” is a specification which allows web users to run program from their computer. the information that is made available to it can be roughly broken into three groups:i) Information about client. GATEWAY_INTERFACE – The revision of the common Gateway interface that the server uses. v). The program then processes that data and the server passes the program‟s response back to the web browser. ii) Form data that are user supplied. so if you want to change like the font size of your main text you just change it in the CSS file and all pages are updated. Most Information about client.

The same test can be done using unless: Unless ($ varname== 23) { #code to execute if $ varname is not 23 } ii). It executes as long as a particular condition is not true: While (condition) { #code to run as long as condition is not true. You wanted to execute code only if a certain condition were false.Until Loop – A until loops the reverse of while. followed by a condition to be evaluated. . for. If($ varname! = 23) { #code to execute if $ varname is not 23 } . Looping – Looping allow you to repeat code for as long as a condition is met. } . If(condition) {condition to be executed } .If condition – The structure is always started by the word if. i) Conditional statements . such as if/elseif/else blocks as well as loop like for each. for and while.While Loop – A while loop executes as long as a particular condition is true: While (condition) { #code to run as long as condition is true. then a pair the braces indicating the beginning and end of the code to be executed if the condition is true. } 10 | P a g e . Perl has several loop control structures: foreach.Unless – Unless is similar to if. while and until. What is PERL? Explain PERI control structures with the help of an example Ans : Perl control structures include conditional statement.Kuvempu University 8.

. iii). which can be carried around and used in different computers. Ans : There are two types of memories – Primary memory. All the computers that we came across these days are what are known as “stored program computers”. but the CPU can access data only from the primary memory. Briefly explain the types of memories. With neat diagram explain the main parts of the computer Ans : A Computer will have 3 basic main parts – i) A central processing unit (CPU) that does all the arithmetic and logical operations. which is embedded in the computer and which is the main source of data to the computer and the secondary memory like floppy disks. Diagram:- 2. while the output devices accept the processed information form the computer and make it available to the user. This can be thought of as the heart of any computer and computers are identified by the type of CPU that they use. ii) The memory is supposed to hold the programs and data. both primary and secondary. is that they can store data indefinitely and accurately 11 | P a g e . They cost much less than the primary memory. CDs etc. The Input/output devices (I/O): These devices facilitate the interaction of the users with the computer. The main advantage of computer memories.Kuvempu University Subject: Data Warehousing & Data Mining Subject Code: BSIT – 53 Assignment: TA (Compulsory) 1. The programs are to be stored before hand in the memory and the CPU accesses these programs line by line and executes them. The input devices are used to send information to the computer.

Kuvempu University 3. if all the marks scored by all the students of a class are stored in the computer memory. special languages – called database query languages. Also. INSERT. MERGE.It is created by selecting only one table. Ans : Data is normally stored in tabular form. . appropriate programs have to be written to do these computations.It is created by selecting more than one table. Describe the basic concept of databases. Such stored data becomes a “database” – a collection of data. .have been devised. it becomes difficult for the average user to keep writing such programs.It can perform functions. unless storage in other formats becomes advantageous. In which subject the maximum number of students has failed? . it can be called a database. which makes such programming easy.It does not contain functions. which will not be dealt with here.It can perform DML (SELECT.You cannot perform always DML operations through 12 | P a g e . there languages help in getting specific “queries” answered easily. Of course. . CALL. The views are of mainly 2 types: i) Simple View ii) Complex View  Simple View: . there are several other problems about “maintaining” these data. DELETE.  Complex View : . 4. Since handling of such databases has become one of the primary jobs of the computer in recent years. . LOCK TABLE) operations through simple view. With example explain the different views of a data. Ans : The Concept of Database :We have seen in the previous section how data can be stored in computer. we can answer questions like – Who has scored the highest marks? . From such a database. Which students are weak in more than one subject? etc. Hence. we store data in what are technically called “relations” or in simple terms as “tables”. For example. as the database becomes too large and more and more data keeps getting included at different periods of time. UPDATE.

The study helps us in two ways: i) To have a clear view of the data ware house building process. by the process of “normalization”. 13 | P a g e . Ans : The concept of data warehouse delivery process :- This section deals with the data warehouse from a different view point . This will ensure that one can clearly justify the appropriate level of investment that goes into the data ware house design and also the amount of returns accruing. Now we look at the concepts in details:i) IT Strategy: The Company must and should have an overall IT strategy and the data ware housing has to be a part of the overall strategy. but is most often misunderstood. Again consider the following student table.how the different components that go into it enable the building of a data ware house. Briefly explain the concept of normalization. 6. marks for subject2 and subject3. Here. However. it is preferable split these subfields to regular fields as shown below Quite often. The overall understanding of the business and the importance of various components there in is a must. Ans : Normalization is dealt with in several chapters of any books on database management systems. we have 3 sub fields: marks for subject1. ii) Business case analysis: This looks at an obvious thing. we will take the simplest definition.Kuvempu University 5. the original table which comes with subfields will have to be modified suitable. Here under the field marks. Explain the concept of data ware house delivery process in detail. ii) To understand the working of the data ware house in the context of the components. which suffices our purpose namely any field should not have subfields.

especially top level policy makers. vii) History load: Here the system is made fully operational by loading the required history into the ware house .one to make people.e. ix) Automation: This phase automates the various operational processes like a) Extracting and loading of data from the sources. and make it available to the analysis systems. c) Backing up.Kuvempu University iii) Education: This has two roles to play . comfortable with the concept. xi) Requirement Evolution: Business requirements will constantly change during the life of the ware house. it is essential that the business requirements are fully understood by the data ware house planner. As and when needed. 7. What are three major activities of data ware house? Explain. restoration and archiving. inclusion of data) ii) day-to-day management of the ware house. vi) Building the vision: Here the first physical infrastructure becomes available. iv) Business Requirements: As has been discussed earlier. The major infrastructure components are set up. 14 | P a g e . a new set of data may be added. the process that supports the ware house also needs to be constantly monitored and modified. This would ensure that the ware house is incorporated adequately in the overall setup of the organization. b) Transforming the data into a suitable form for analysis. d) Generate aggregations. The second role is to aid the prototyping activity. This is done on a daily / weekly basis depending on the quantum of the data population to be incorporated. i) The processes to populate the ware house have to be able to extract the data. v) Technical blue prints: This is the stage where the overall architecture that satisfies the requirements is delivered. first stages of loading and generation of data start up. viii) Adhoc Query: Now we configure a query tool to operate against the data ware house.i. Ans : Three major activities of data ware house are :i) Populating the ware house (i.e. clean it up. new formats may be included or may be even involve major changes. x) Extending Scope: There is not single mechanism by which this can be achieved. what ever data is available over the previous years is put into the data warehouse to make is fully operational. Hence. iii) Ability to accommodate the changes. e) Monitoring query profiles.

load them into their data bases. Based on these.Kuvempu University ii) The day to day management of data ware house is not to be confused with maintenance and management of hardware and software. we can view the processes that a typical data ware house scheme should support as follows. the data is not authenticated until it is audited. check their consistency etc. 8. iii) Once data is extracted from the source systems. Explain the extract and load process of data ware house. adding new fields / reference data and finally reconciling with the other data. For example. External physical systems like the sales counters which give the sales data. i) A mechanism should be evolved to control the extraction of data. remove unwanted fields (either because they are not needed or because they are already there in the data base). constantly feed data to the warehouse. 15 | P a g e . This especially happens when we arehaving several online systems feeding the data. iii) Ability to accommodate changes implies the system is structured in such a way as to be able to cope with future changes without the entire system being remodeled. maintenance of the “quality” of data becomes an important element. When large amounts of data are stored and new data are being continually added at regular intervals. Ans : Extract and Load Process : This forms the first stage of data ware house. the inventory systems that give inventory levels etc. We shall see a few more details of theses broad actions in the subsequent paragraphs. ii) Having a set of consistent data is equally important. the format of these external data is to be monitored and modified before loading it into the ware house. Needless to say. in some systems. it is loaded into a temporary data storage before it is “Cleaned” and loaded into the warehouse. The data ware house must extract the data from the source systems.

While it is easy to list act the needs of a “clean” data. Before we proceed further. Ans : Data needs to be cleaned up and checked in the following ways :i) It should be consistent with itself. if it does not meet the normally standards of commonsense or it contradicts with the data from other sources. it is more difficult to set up systems that automatically cleanup the data. When none of these are possible. retransmission etc.. In what ways data needs to be cleaned up and checked? Explain briefly. It only gives the major items that make up a data ware house. Ans : The architecture for a data ware is indicated below. iv) It should be consistent with the information already available in the data ware house.Kuvempu University 9. data already available in the data ware house etc. one may even resort to ignoring the entire set of data and get on with next set of incoming data. are undertaken. The size and complexity of each of these items depend on the actual size of the ware house itself. iii) It should be consistent with other data from other sources. 16 | P a g e . the specific requirements of the ware house and the actual details of implementation. Normal intuition doubts the validity of the new data and effective measures like rechecking. The normal course is to suspect the quality of data. ii) It should be consistent with other data from the same source. Explain the architecture of data warehouse. we should be clear about the concept of architecture. 10.

and performs a variety of tasks. iv) Check for normalization‟s. A few of them can be listed below. iii) Create indexes. v) Generate new aggregations. The ware house manager can be easily termed to be the most complex of the ware house components. Unlike the load manager. ii) Transform and merge the source data from the temporary data storage into the ware house. viii) Archive the data that needs to be archived. the warehouse management process is driven by the extent to which the operational management of the data ware house has been automated. partition views etc. 17 | P a g e . vi) Update all existing aggregations vii) Create backups of data. Briefly explain the functions of each manager of data warehouse. if needed. Ans : The Warehouse Manager : The ware house manager is a component that performs all operations necessary to support the ware house management process.Kuvempu University 11. i) Analyze the data to confirm data consistency and data integrity. cross references.

ii) The queries analyze the facts in different ways . processing etc.In most ware houses. Ans : Star schemes are data base schemas that structure the data to exploit a typical decision support enquiry. a few similarities stand out. However. 13. without the overhead of using an index. backup. These difficulties can be overcome by partitioning each fact table into separate partitions. The central concept of most such transactions is a “fact table”.sales for example. i) The queries examine a set of factual transactions . Ans : Partitioning of data :.Kuvempu University 12. having too many partitions can be counterproductive and an optimal size of the partitions and the number of such partitions is of vital importance.by aggregating them on different bases / graphing them in different ways. The surrounding references are called dimension tables. This leads to several problems of management. This improves the overall efficiency of the system. i) Assists in better management of data ii) Ease of backup / recovery since the volumes are less. For example. This technique allows data to be scanned to be minimized. 18 | P a g e . When the components of typical enquiry‟s are examined. Participating generally helps in the following ways. What do you mean by partition of data? Explain briefly. data can be partitioned on weekly / monthly basis. Data ware houses tend to exploit these ideas by partitioning the large volume of data into data sets. The combination can be called a star schema. the size of the fact data tables tends to become very large. iii) The star schemes with partitions produce better performance. so as the minimize the amount of data scanned before answering a query. Explain the star schema to represent the sales analysis.

On the other hand. It means for each volume of data. then it becomes a fact table. where the warehouse is building the profiles of customer. Data normally describe the objects. One can ask questions like how many purchases has A made in the last 3 months etc. Meta data is useful in a number of ways. purchases. if it is likely to be used to answer questions like “How many customers have made more than 10 purchases in the last 6 months”. then A becomes a fact . 15. Describe the terms data mart and Meta data. a data mart can be thought of as a retailer.Kuvempu University iv) Since several hardware architectures operate better in a partitioned environment. in such cases. avoid making A as a candidate key. Consider a customer A.Meta data is simply data about data. While this is a very convenient way of managing data. Similarly Meta data stores data about how data (of objects) is stored etc.. Ans : Data Mart :. Meta Data :. It is helpful in query management. Then A is fact. debts etc. their quantity and size how they are stored etc. the overall system performance improves. If there is a situation. the structure of Meta data is different for each process. directly from the source. Consider the following example:- Let us elaborate a little on the example. It can map data sources to the common view of information within the warehouse. The data of a data ware house may have been collected through a ware house or in some cases. managing Meta data itself is not a very easy task. stored in it‟s own data base.against the name A. as well as of other customers to give the answer. and one uses the data of A. 19 | P a g e . we can list his address. there are multiple sets of Meta data describing the same volume. Enlist the differences between fact and dimension. In a crude sense.A data mart is a subset of information content of a data ware house. to direct query to most appropriate source etc. 14. if you consider a data ware house as a whole sale shop of data. The rule is. Ans : This ensures that key dimensions are no fact tables.

This is a very convenient method of analyzing data.Kuvempu University 16. the queries should be directed to the appropriate partitions that store the date required by the query. large table. 20 | P a g e . is a schema that uses a combination of demoralized star and normalized snow flake schemas. The key reference data is structured into a set of dimensions. a store maintains a table of each item it sells over a month as a table. Note that once the available data grows beyond a certain size. What is query redirection? Explain. it is essential that. These can be referenced from the fact table. in order to optimize the time spent on querying. Ans : Multidimensional schemas :. They are most appropriate in decision support data ware houses. In such a scenario. In detail. Ans : Query Redirection: . 18. 17.One of the basic requirements for successful operation of star flake schema (or any schema. in each of its 10 outlets. Generally. partitioning becomes essential. when it goes beyond the normal tabular relations. we see the interesting concept of multi dimensions. A series of combinatory data base views are created to allow the user to access tools to treat the fact table partitions as a single. which may be partitioned horizontally or vertically. with an additional demoralized star dimension table. for that matter) is the ability to direct a query to the most appropriate source. the detailed transactions are stored within a central fact table. The basic method is to design the access tool in such a way that it automatically defines the locality to which the query is to be redirected.Before we close. as we have defined previously. Explain the designing of star-flake schema in detail. explain the multidimensional schema. For example. Ans : A star flake schema. Each dimension is stored in a series of normalized tables (Snowflake).

if the company wants a data of all items sold by its outlets. Horizontal Partitioning :. Then it becomes a 3 dimensional view.As the name suggests. One of the ways to ensure this is to try to optimize by designing the data base with respect to specific hardware architecture. instead of looking for a 2 dimensional rectangle of data. Ans : i). by directly cutting down the amount of data to be scanned by the queries. Explain the types of partitioning in detail. Thus horizontal partitioning helps to reduce the query access time. Explain the mechanism of row splitting. 19. and the next few thousand entries etc. This would ensure that the frequently used fields can be accessed more often. In fact almost all queries can be thought of as approaching a multi-dimensioned unit of data from a multidimensional volume of the schema. It can be noted that row splitting may not reduce or increase the overall storage needed. Then the query. not all the information in the fact table needed all the time. the mapping is 1 to 1 whereas normalization may produce one to many relationships. the data ware design process should try to maximize the performance of the system. will look for a 3 dimensional cuboids of data. thereby reducing the overall time taken for query processing. Hardware Partitioning:. 21 | P a g e . Vertical Partitioning :. Row Splitting: . 21. There is no reason why the dimensioning should stop at 3 dimensions. at much lesser computation time.This is essentially means that the table is partitioned after the first few thousand entries. 20.Kuvempu University This is a 2 dimensional table. each row is divided into 2 or more partitions. This is because in most cases. but normalization may involve a change in the overall storage space needed. it can be done by simply by superimposing the 2 dimensional tables for each of these items – one behind the other. Why partitioning is needed in large data warehouse? Ans : Partitioning is needed in any large data ware house to ensure that the performance and manageability is improved.Needless to say.The method involved identifying the not so frequently used fields and putting them into another table. In row splitting. iii). a vertical partitioning scheme divides the table vertically – i. It can help the query redirection to send the queries to the appropriate partition.e. ii). One the other hand.

What is aggregation? Explain the need of aggregation. which in other words means that costs incurred to get the answers to a query would be more than offset by the benefits of the query answer. Explain the guidelines used for hardware partitioning. Ans : Summary table are designed by following the steps given below :i) Decide the dimensions along which aggregation is to be done.Needless to say. iii) Aggregate multiple facts into the summary table. Normally the following guidelines are useful:i) Maximize the processing. The data aggregation attempts to do this by reducing the processing power needed to process the queries. 25. ii) Data can be structured in a form suitable for a user access too iii) Data can be segmented or partitioned so that they can be used on different platforms and also different control strategies become applicable. advantage of aggregations is that they allow us to get the overall trends in the data. One thumb rule that is often suggested is that about three out of every four queries would be optimized by the aggregation process. Explain the different aspects for designing the summary table. Give example. However. Ans : Aggregation : Data aggregation is an essential component of any decision support data ware house. While looking at individual data such overall trends may not be obvious. 24. v) Design time into the table. Ans : Guidelines used for Hardware Partitioning :. Obviously. The second. they speed up the query processing. One of the ways to ensure this is to try to optimize by designing the data base with respect to specific hardware architecture. 22 | P a g e . Ans : The following are the reasons for which data marts are created :i) Since the volume of data scanned is small.Kuvempu University 22. though minor. It helps us to ensure a cost – effective query performance. too much of aggregations would only lead to unacceptable levels of operational costs. A file balancing of the two is essential to maintain the requirements stated above. the data ware design process should try to maximize the performance of the system. Give the reasons for creating the data mart. whereas the fourth will take it‟s own time to get processed. vi) Index the summary table. whereas aggregated data will help us draw certain conclusions easily. ii) Determine the aggregation of multiple facts. Too little of aggregations may not improve the performance to the required levels. the exact details of optimization depend on the hardware platforms. iv) Determine the level of aggregation and the extent of embedding. ii) Reduce bottlenecks at the CPU and I/O 23. disk and I/O operations.

In such cases. e) Look for restrictions on access control. Any data warehouse. 27. suitable aggregations can be generated. each of these can be put in a data mart and the user of each can access only his data. Ans : There are two stages in setting up data marts :i) To decide whether data marts are needed at all. What is role of access control issue in data mart design? Ans : Role of access control issue in data mart design :. because the data marts formats also have to be changes.This is one of the major constraints in data mart designs. It may be fairly difficult to change the strategy later. ii) Data management. then the following steps have to be gone through before you can freeze on the actual strategy of data mart. b) Identify the natural splits of data. d) Identify the infrastructure issues. more often than not. if any that can help in identifying the data marts. What are disadvantages of data mart? Ans : There disadvantages of data mart are:i) The cost of setting up and operating data marts is quite high. 28. but the partitioning is retained. They can serve to demarcate the warehouse details. a) Identify the natural functional splits of the organization.Kuvempu University 26. The problem is almost similar to that of a merchant deciding whether he wants to set up retail shops or not. 29. In the data ware house. the data mart formats become fixed. Explain the purpose of using metadata in detail. Explain the two stages in setting up data marts. subject to various access controls as to who could access which part of data. c) Check whether the proposed access tools have any special data base structures. The above listed facts may help you to decide whether it is worthwhile to setup data marts or operate from the warehouse itself. ii) If you decide that setting up data marts is desirable. iii)Query generation. 23 | P a g e . If a super user wants to get an overall view of the data. ii) Once a data strategy is put in place. the data pertaining to all these marts are stored. The easiest case is where the data is partitioned so clearly that a user of each partition cannot access any other data. with it‟s huge volume of data is. Ans : Metadata will be used for the following purposes :i) Data transformation and loading.

· Tables . Explain the concept of metadata management. The purpose of the metadata is to describe the objects in the database.Kuvempu University 30. This will help the warehouse manager to control data movements. Some of the descriptions are listed here. or group of uses. Ans : Meta data is also required to generate queries.Name . We simply list a few of the commonly used meta data for the query. The names are self explanatory.Columns * Names * Type · Indexes .Type .Columns * Name * Type · Constraints . How the query manager uses the Meta data? Explain in detail. The query manger uses the metadata to build a history of all queries run and generator a query profile for each user.Table * Columns 31. Ans : Meta data should be able to describe data as it resides in the data warehouse. o Query o Table accessed § Column accessed · Name · Reference identifier o Restrictions applied o Column name o Table name o Reference identifier o Restrictions o Join criteria applied o Column name o Table name o Reference identifier o Column name o Table name 24 | P a g e .Columns * Name * Type · Views .

Further most of the management principles were adhoc in nature and were subject to human errors and fatigue. 25 | P a g e . Why we need different managers to a data ware house? Explain. who went around doing all the administration and management.Kuvempu University o Reference identifier o Aggregate function used o Column name o Reference identifier o Aggregate function o Group by criteria o Column name o Reference identifier o Sort direction o Syntax o Resources o Disk o Read o Write o Temporary 32. there used to be an army of human managers. but will be continuously changing both content wise and structure wise. there is a constant need for maintenance and management. They are complex environments that integrate many technologies. Since huge amounts of time. money and efforts are involved in the development of data warehouses. They are not static. When the computer systems were in their initial stages of development. sophisticated management tools are always justified in the case of data warehouses. Ans : Need for managers to a data ware house :. But such a scheme became both unwieldy and prone to errors as the systems grew in size and complexity. Thus.Data warehouses are not just large databases.

Explain the responsibilities of each manager of data ware house. Some of the responsibilities of the ware house manager are : o Data movement o Meta data management o Performance monitoring o Archiving. What are the different system management tools used for data warehouse? Ans : The different system management tools used for data warehouse :i) Configuration Managers ii) Schedule Managers iii) Event Managers iv) Database Mangers v) Back up Recovery Managers vi) Resource and performance a monitors 26 | P a g e . creation and maintenance of tables. Ans : A schematic diagram that defines the boundaries of the three types of managers :- 34. 35. Data movement includes the transfer of data within the ware house. It should also create and maintain a layer of Meta data.The warehouse manager is responsible for maintaining data of the ware house. It should be able to create new aggregations as well as remove the old ones.Kuvempu University 33. indexes and other objects of importance. Ans : Ware house Manager :. aggregation. keeping track of the aggregation processes and creating Meta data are also it‟s functions. Creation of additional rows / columns. With neat diagram explain the boundaries of process managers.

and different countries. a Design Specification. Software testing is tougher than hardware testing as because you need to make sure it works with all the hardware. operating systems. system versions. Software testing is a critical element of software quality assurance and represents the ultimate process to ensure the correctness of the product.  A test configuration includes a Test Plan and Procedures. and source code.  Software Configuration includes a Software Requirements Specification. and testing tools. with regard to the Software Development Life Cycle to avoid any complications. Ans : Software testing means check the correctness and completeness of a product or a project with respect to client requirement is known as software testing. test cases. interfaces. It is advisable to carry out the testing process from the initial stages. justify your answer. Ans : In every organization testing is an important phase in the development of a software product. Explain the test information flow in a typical software test life cycle. 2. hence it is difficult to schedule. the way it is carried out differs from one organization to another. 27 | P a g e .  It is difficult to predict the time to debug the code. languages etc.Kuvempu University Subject: Software Quality & Testing Subject Code: BSIT – 54 Assignment: TA (Compulsory) 1. The quality of product always enhances the customer confidence in using the product thereby increasing the business economics. Testing is a complex process and requires efforts similar to software development. However. What is software testing? Software testing is tougher than hardware testing.

Kuvempu University Once the right software is available for testing. McCabe.This testing looks at the available inputs for an application and the expected outputs that should result from each input. It may have defects or the software is passed without any defect. Ans : Black-box testing . the test results are examined. Ans : Cohesion and Coupling deal with the quality of an OO design.This testing looks into the complex inner working of the application. White-box testing . 3. Then the software is subjected to test with simulated test data. What is cyclomatic complexity? Explain with an illustration. 6. Which method better? List out drawbacks of each one. the process undertaken or any other internal aspect of the application. good OO design should be loosely coupled and highly cohesive. It does not have any relation with the inner workings of the application. It was developed by Thomas J. Sr. What is coupling and cohesion? Mention different types of coupling and cohesion. It is used by insurance companies to determine insurance rates for clients without posing too much risk to the company. While black box testing is mainly concerned with the inputs and outputs of the application 5. Explain their role in testing. Discuss its role in software testing and generating test cases. Ans : Cyclomatic complexity (or conditional complexity) is a software metric (measurement). in 1976 and is used to indicate the complexity of a program. Generally. It directly measures the number of linearly independent paths through a program's source code. proper test plan and test cases are developed. 4. What is risk in software testing? How risk management improves the quality of the software? Ans : Risk are future uncertain events with a probability of occurrence and a potential for loss” Schedule Risk:  Budget Risk:  Operational Risks:  Technical risks:  Programmatic Risks: Risk Management Software is used to balance risk with potential reward. This process will continue till the testing reports zero defects or run out of time for testing. it tests the processes undertaken and other internal aspects of the application. After the test execution. The software with defect is subjected to debugging and again tested for its correctness. design patterns which have been created are based on the idea of “Loose coupling and high cohesion”. Lot of the design principles. 28 | P a g e . Explain the black and white box testing? Explain with an example.

in order to observe the results. often to a breaking point. often to a breaking point. That would be called a component. operating systems. Stress testing may have a more specific meaning in certain industries. If the concept domain knowledge or domain expert is used. Mention the difficulties in preparing test cases Ans : A test case in software engineering is a set of conditions or variables under which a tester will determine whether an application or software system is working correctly or not. 8. Content coupling (high) Common coupling External coupling Data coupling No coupling 7. justify your answer. and specifications. 29 | P a g e . It involves testing beyond normal operational capacity. It involves testing beyond normal operational capacity. such as fatigue testing for materials. Yes or no. in order to observe the results. Domain knowledge is valid knowledge used to refer to an area of human endeavor. Stress testing is a form of testing that is used to determine the stability of a given system or entity. we emphasize a specific domain which is an object of the discourse/interest/problem. languages. while in others it could be a heuristic. This can be done with checklists. The mechanism for determining whether a software program or system has passed or failed such a test is known as a test oracle. an autonomous computer activity. What is stress testing? Where do you need this testing? Explain. interfaces. issues lists. Specialists and experts use and develop their own domain knowledge. an oracle could be a requirement or use case. Testing a specific part of a system or even a program. Ans : Verification typically involves reviews and meetings to evaluate documents. and inspection meetings. So it is component testing. walkthroughs. plans. or other specialized discipline. What are test cases? Explain the importance of Domain knowledge in test case generation. Ans : Yes software testing is difficult than implementation You need to make sure it works with all the hardware.Kuvempu University The aim of the design should be to make the application:  Easier to develop  Easier to maintain  Easier to add new features  Less Fragile. 9. and different countries. 10. system versions. Compare and contrast between Verification and Validation with examples. Validation typically involves actual testing and takes place after verifications are completed. requirements. In some settings. It may take many test cases to determine that a software program or system is considered sufficiently scrutinized to be released. Software testing is difficult than implementation. code. Ans : Stress testing is a form of testing that is used to determine the stability of a given system or entity.

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