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Assignments for B.Sc. (IT) 5th Semester

Subject: Graphics & Multimedia Subject Code: BSIT – 51 Assignment: TA (Compulsory)

1. What is the meaning of interactive computer graphics? List the various applications of the computer graphics. Ans : The term “interactive graphics” refers to devices and systems that facilitate the manmachine graphic communication, in a way, which is more convenient than the writing convention. For example, to draw a straight line between two points, one has to input the coordinates of the two end points. In interactive graphics with the help of graphical input technique by indicating two end points on the display screen draws the line. Various applications of the computer graphics are listed below :I. Building Design and Construction II. Electronics Design III. Mechanical Design IV. Entertainment and Animation V. Aerospace Industry VI. Medical Technology VII. Cartography VIII. Art and Commerce.

2. Explain in detail the Hardware required for effective graphics on the computer system. Ans : The hardware components required to generate interactive graphics are the input device, the output device (usually display) and the computer system. The human operator is also an integral part of the interactive system. The text and graphics displayed act as an input to the human vision system and, therefore, the reaction of the human being will depend on how quickly one can see and appreciate the graphics present on the display.

3. Compare Raster scan system with random scan system. Ans : In raster scan display, the electron beam is swept across the screen, one row at a time from top to bottom. The picture definition is stored in a memory area called refresh buffer or frame buffer. In random scan display unit, a CRT has the electron beam directed only to the parts of the screen where a picture is to be drawn. It draws a picture one line at a time and so it is referred to as vector displays.

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Raster Scan The Most common type of graphics monitor employing a CRT is the raster-scan Display, based on television technology. In a raster- scan system; the electron beam is swept across the screen, one row at a time from top to bottom. The picture definition is stored in a memory area called the refresh buffer or frame buffer. Each point on the screen is called pixel. On a black and system with one bit per pixel, the frame buffer is called bitmap. For systems with multiple bits per pixel, the frame buffer is referred to as a pix map. Refreshing on raster scan display is carried out at the rate of 60 to 80 frames per second. Some displays use interlaced refresh procedure. First, all points on the even numbered scan lines are displayed then all the points along odd numbered lines are displayed. This is an effective technique for avoiding flickering.

Random Scan Display When operated as a random-scan display unit, a CRT has the electron beam directed only to the parts of the screen where a picture is to be drawn. Random scan monitors draw a picture one line at a time and for this reason they are also referred as vector displays (or stroke-writing or calligraphic displays). The component lines of a picture can be drawn and refreshed by a random-scan system in any specified order. A pen plotter operates in a similar way and is an example of a random-scan, hard-copy device. Refresh rate on a random-scan system depends on the number of lines to be displayed. Picture definition is now stored as a set of line- drawing commands in an area of memory referred to as the refresh display file. Sometimes the refresh display file is called the display list, display program, or simply the refresh buffer.

4. How many colors are possible if a. 24 bits / pixel is used b. 8 bits / pixel is used, justify your answer Ans : a). 24 bit color provides 16.7 million colors per pixels, That 24 bits are divided into 3 bytes; one each for the red, green, and blue components of a pixel. b). 256, 8 bits per pixel = 2^8 colors.

Widely accepted industry standard uses 3 bytes, or 24 bits, per pixel, with one byte for each primary color results in 256 different intensity levels for each primary color. Thus a pixel can take on a color from 256 X 256 X 256 or 16.7 million possible choices. In Bi-level image representation one bit per pixel is used to represent black-and white images. In gray level image 8 bits per pixel to allow a total of 256 intensity or gray levels. Image representation using lookup table can be viewed as a compromise between our desire to have a lower storage requirement and our need to support a reasonably sufficient number of simultaneous colors.

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MAGENTA and BROWN. // sets the screen to 80 column black and white ii) clrscr().1) Example clrscr().5). Example: /*inserts line at the 3rd row*/ gotoxy (3. delline ( ). This function positions the cursor to the location specified by x and y.Kuvempu University 5. 1. RED. 1. v) textcolor (int color). // set the next text color to Green vi) delline (). mode variable can take the values 0. vii) insline(). 3|Page . Ans : The different text mode built-in functions of C Programming language are listed below :i) textmode( int mode). x represents the row number and y represents the column number. This function sets the subsequent text color numbered between 0 to 15 and 128 for blinking. // clears the screen iii) gotoxy(int x. BLUE. Example : textcolor(3).20) // cursor is placed in 20th column of 10th row iv) textbackground (int color). This function changes the background color of the text mode. List and explain different text mode built-in functions of C Programming language. GREEN.4). Example: textbackground(2). This function clears the entire screen and locates the cursor on the top left corner(1. 0: represents 40 column black and white 1: represents 40 column color 2: represents 80 column black and white 3: represents 80 column color Example: textmode(2). This function sets the number of rows and columns of the screen. Inserts a blank line at the current cursor position. or 3. It is possible to delete a line of text and after the deletion all the subsequent lines will be pushed up by one line Example : /*deletes the 5th line*/ gotoxy (5. CYAN. int y). insline ( ). Or //changes background color to blue textbackground(BLUE). Example: gotoxy(10. Valid colors for the CGA are from 0 to 6 namely BLACK.

Write a C program to create Indian national flag.200).YELLOW).&gm. line(175.100.125.125). line(175.x.5).50.HORIZ_DIR.h" void main() { int gd=DETECT. line(175.Kuvempu University 6.43). setfillstyle(SOLID_FILL. x=getmaxx(). setfillstyle(SOLID_FILL.200).107).150).y.MAGENTA).0.640. } 4|Page .175.125. bar(50. settextstyle(1.125.125. bar(50. rectangle(50. setcolor(YELLOW).50.300. setcolor(BLACK)."INDIAN FLAG").150.45. outtextxy(150. setfillstyle(LINE_FILL.159.25).639.125. line(175.125).125. rectangle(0.6).640. rectangle(45. bar(0. bar(0. setcolor(6). setcolor(BLUE). bar(45.0.0. getch(). setfillstyle(SOLID_FILL.400). line(175.150).193. bar(50.100)."c:\\tc\\bgi").0.300.175.125.gm. clearviewport().50. setfillstyle(SOLID_FILL. setcolor(BLUE).200. Ans : #include"graphics.107).125. y=getmaxy(). line(175.479). setfillpattern(0x20.125.300.193.43).100).159. line(175. initgraph(&gd.300).150.GREEN).WHITE).h" #include"conio.300.143).BLUE).143).50.45. line(175. circle(175.

Ans : Web is a complex network of international .HTTP is a “request-response” type protocol. The beauty of HTML of course is that it 5|Page . it can describe which text the browser should emphasize. HTML is often called programming language it is really not. That is. HTML is much easier than all of that. or “computable”. That is. For Example.Kuvempu University Subject: Web Programming Subject Code: BSIT – 52 Assignment: TA (Compulsory) 1. which text should be considered body text versus header text.HTML stands for Hyper Text Markup Language. Ans : HTML is often called a programming language it is really not. cross platform. Typically programming languages use conditional branches and loops and operate on data contained in abstract data structures. Typically programming languages use conditional branches and loops and operate on data contained in abstract data structures. programming languages can be used to compute something such as the square root of pi or some other such task. It is a language spoken between web browser (client software) and a web server (server software) so that can communicate with each other and exchange files. “HTML is the Language of the Web” Justify the statement. Now let us understand how client/server system works using HTTP. There are two most important building blocks of web:  HTML and HTTP. 2. HTML is simply a „markup language‟ used to define a logical structure rather than compute anything. HTML is a very simple language used to “describe” the logical structure of a document. and so forth. or „computable‟. Programming languages are “Turing-complete”. programming languages can be used to compute something such as the square root of pi or some other such task. What is the meaning of Web? Explain in detail the building elements of web. and cross cultural communicating devices. connected to each other without any ordering or pattern. HTML is simply a „markup language‟ used to define a logical structure rather than compute anything. This computer runs a software package that listens all day long to requests over the wires. Actually. HTML is much easier than all of that. A client/server system works something like this: A big piece of computer (called a server) sits in some office somewhere with a bunch of files that people might want access to. HTML: . HTTP: . Programming languages are „Turing-complete‟.

For instance emphasized text might be bolded in one browser and italicized in another.Kuvempu University is generic enough that it can be read and interpreted by a web browser running on any machine or operating system. not on the specific style. DIV · H1 through H6 · P · PRE · XMP  Lists · DD · DIR · DL · DT · LI · MENU · OL · UL 6|Page . It is up to the browser to decide 3. The web browser is responsible for adding style. Give the different classification of HTML tags with examples for each category. This is because it only focuses on describing the logical nature of the document. Ans : List of HTML Tags : Tags for Document Structure · HTML · HEAD · BODY  Heading Tags · TITLE · BASE · META · STYLE · LINK  Block-Level Text Elements · ADDRESS · BLOCKQUOTE .

$three ).Kuvempu University  Text Characteristics · B · BASEFONT · BIG · BLINK · CITE · CODE · EM · FONT · I · KBD · PLAINTEXT · S · SMALL 4. } else { print ' '. #$form = $ENV{'QUERY_STRING'}. $cgi = new CGI. my $three = $cgi->param( 'three' ). print 'Enter First Number '. my $two = $cgi->param( 'two' ). print 'Enter Second Number 7|Page . use CGI. print $cgi->start_html( "Question Ten" ). if( $one && $two && $three ) { $lcm = &findLCM( &findLCM( $one. my $one = $cgi->param( 'one' ). print $cgi->header. $two ). Write CGI application which accepts 3 numbers from the user and displays biggest number using GET and POST methods Ans : #!/usr/bin/perl #print "Content-type:text/html\n\n". print "LCM is $lcm".

you can make pictures change when you move over them. $x = $temp. 8|Page . my $temp. $ans. print " ". c) JavaScript interact with document content. you can make text scroll across the screen like ticker tape. b) JavaScript control the browser. $temp++ . a) JavaScript control document appearance and content. What is JavaScript? Give its importance in web. } print $cgi->end_html. $y = $x. With JavaScript. sub findLCM(){ my $x = shift. or any other number of dynamic enhancement. } return $ans.Kuvempu University '. my $y = shift. JavaScript is generally only used inside of HTML document. $temp = 1. if ($x < $y) { $temp = $y. print ' '. print 'Enter Third Number '. while ($ans % $x) { $ans = $y * $temp. } 5. Ans : JavaScript is an easy to learn way to “Script“ your web pages that is have them to do actions that cannot be handled with HTML alone. } $ans = $y.

so if you want to change like the font size of your main text you just change it in the CSS file and all pages are updated. ii) Form data that are user supplied. v). With CGI. 7. iii). server and user is placed in CGI environmental variables. PATH_INFO – Extra path information passed to the CGI program 9|Page . SERVER_NAME – The Server‟s hostname or IP address. e) JavaScript read and write client state with cookies. REQUEST_METHOD – The method with which the information request is issued. The program then processes that data and the server passes the program‟s response back to the web browser. Extra pathname information is placed in environment variables. With CSS you can basically set any style sheet property of any element on a html page. iii) Additional pathname information. g) JavaScript manipulate embedded images. You can for instance link a CSS file to all the pages in your site that sets the look of the pages. What is CGI? List the different CGI environment variables Ans : CGI or “Common Gateway Interface” is a specification which allows web users to run program from their computer. One of the biggest advantages with the CSS instead of the regular way of changing the look of elements is that you split content from design. Most Information about client. SERVER_PORT – The port number of the host on which the server is running. GATEWAY_INTERFACE – The revision of the common Gateway interface that the server uses. server and user. Explain briefly Cascading Style Sheets Ans : Cascading Style Sheet (CSS) is a part of DHTML that controls the look and placement of the element on the page. Form data that are user supplied is incorporated in environment variables. When a CGI program is called. 6. the web server can call up a program. f) JavaScript interact with applets.Kuvempu University d) JavaScript interact with the user.CGI is a part of the web server that can communicate with other programs running on the server. iv). the information that is made available to it can be roughly broken into three groups:i) Information about client. i). while passing user specific data to a program. ii).

} 10 | P a g e .The same test can be done using unless: Unless ($ varname== 23) { #code to execute if $ varname is not 23 } ii).Until Loop – A until loops the reverse of while.While Loop – A while loop executes as long as a particular condition is true: While (condition) { #code to run as long as condition is true.Unless – Unless is similar to if. . for and while. If($ varname! = 23) { #code to execute if $ varname is not 23 } . followed by a condition to be evaluated. You wanted to execute code only if a certain condition were false. i) Conditional statements .Kuvempu University 8. for. What is PERL? Explain PERI control structures with the help of an example Ans : Perl control structures include conditional statement. Looping – Looping allow you to repeat code for as long as a condition is met. If(condition) {condition to be executed } . while and until. It executes as long as a particular condition is not true: While (condition) { #code to run as long as condition is not true. such as if/elseif/else blocks as well as loop like for each.If condition – The structure is always started by the word if. then a pair the braces indicating the beginning and end of the code to be executed if the condition is true. } . Perl has several loop control structures: foreach.

which can be carried around and used in different computers. The Input/output devices (I/O): These devices facilitate the interaction of the users with the computer. This can be thought of as the heart of any computer and computers are identified by the type of CPU that they use. With neat diagram explain the main parts of the computer Ans : A Computer will have 3 basic main parts – i) A central processing unit (CPU) that does all the arithmetic and logical operations. All the computers that we came across these days are what are known as “stored program computers”. Ans : There are two types of memories – Primary memory. both primary and secondary. The input devices are used to send information to the computer. Diagram:- 2. but the CPU can access data only from the primary memory. They cost much less than the primary memory.. while the output devices accept the processed information form the computer and make it available to the user. is that they can store data indefinitely and accurately 11 | P a g e .Kuvempu University Subject: Data Warehousing & Data Mining Subject Code: BSIT – 53 Assignment: TA (Compulsory) 1. The programs are to be stored before hand in the memory and the CPU accesses these programs line by line and executes them. The main advantage of computer memories. ii) The memory is supposed to hold the programs and data. iii). Briefly explain the types of memories. which is embedded in the computer and which is the main source of data to the computer and the secondary memory like floppy disks. CDs etc.

which makes such programming easy.It can perform functions. we store data in what are technically called “relations” or in simple terms as “tables”. .It can perform DML (SELECT. appropriate programs have to be written to do these computations.have been devised. . For example. Hence. Such stored data becomes a “database” – a collection of data.Kuvempu University 3.It is created by selecting only one table. which will not be dealt with here. special languages – called database query languages. as the database becomes too large and more and more data keeps getting included at different periods of time. 4.It does not contain functions. LOCK TABLE) operations through simple view. unless storage in other formats becomes advantageous. Of course. INSERT. Ans : Data is normally stored in tabular form. . it becomes difficult for the average user to keep writing such programs. Which students are weak in more than one subject? etc.It is created by selecting more than one table. there languages help in getting specific “queries” answered easily. MERGE. we can answer questions like – Who has scored the highest marks? . Ans : The Concept of Database :We have seen in the previous section how data can be stored in computer. . From such a database. UPDATE. In which subject the maximum number of students has failed? . if all the marks scored by all the students of a class are stored in the computer memory. Since handling of such databases has become one of the primary jobs of the computer in recent years.You cannot perform always DML operations through 12 | P a g e . The views are of mainly 2 types: i) Simple View ii) Complex View  Simple View: . there are several other problems about “maintaining” these data. DELETE. Also. CALL. it can be called a database.  Complex View : . Describe the basic concept of databases. With example explain the different views of a data.

the original table which comes with subfields will have to be modified suitable. ii) Business case analysis: This looks at an obvious thing. we have 3 sub fields: marks for subject1. 13 | P a g e . However. we will take the simplest definition. by the process of “normalization”. Ans : The concept of data warehouse delivery process :- This section deals with the data warehouse from a different view point . Now we look at the concepts in details:i) IT Strategy: The Company must and should have an overall IT strategy and the data ware housing has to be a part of the overall strategy. Briefly explain the concept of normalization. The overall understanding of the business and the importance of various components there in is a must. Explain the concept of data ware house delivery process in detail. Here. ii) To understand the working of the data ware house in the context of the components. but is most often misunderstood. which suffices our purpose namely any field should not have subfields.Kuvempu University 5. Again consider the following student table. Ans : Normalization is dealt with in several chapters of any books on database management systems. The study helps us in two ways: i) To have a clear view of the data ware house building process. This will ensure that one can clearly justify the appropriate level of investment that goes into the data ware house design and also the amount of returns accruing.how the different components that go into it enable the building of a data ware house. 6. Here under the field marks. it is preferable split these subfields to regular fields as shown below Quite often. marks for subject2 and subject3.

vii) History load: Here the system is made fully operational by loading the required history into the ware house . clean it up. Hence. viii) Adhoc Query: Now we configure a query tool to operate against the data ware house. 14 | P a g e . The major infrastructure components are set up.one to make people. 7. x) Extending Scope: There is not single mechanism by which this can be achieved. ix) Automation: This phase automates the various operational processes like a) Extracting and loading of data from the sources. the process that supports the ware house also needs to be constantly monitored and modified. d) Generate aggregations. first stages of loading and generation of data start up. inclusion of data) ii) day-to-day management of the ware house. What are three major activities of data ware house? Explain.Kuvempu University iii) Education: This has two roles to play . what ever data is available over the previous years is put into the data warehouse to make is fully operational.e. This would ensure that the ware house is incorporated adequately in the overall setup of the organization. The second role is to aid the prototyping activity. iii) Ability to accommodate the changes. v) Technical blue prints: This is the stage where the overall architecture that satisfies the requirements is delivered. especially top level policy makers.i. c) Backing up. As and when needed. a new set of data may be added. iv) Business Requirements: As has been discussed earlier. xi) Requirement Evolution: Business requirements will constantly change during the life of the ware house. This is done on a daily / weekly basis depending on the quantum of the data population to be incorporated. and make it available to the analysis systems.e. vi) Building the vision: Here the first physical infrastructure becomes available. restoration and archiving. i) The processes to populate the ware house have to be able to extract the data. e) Monitoring query profiles. comfortable with the concept. b) Transforming the data into a suitable form for analysis. new formats may be included or may be even involve major changes. Ans : Three major activities of data ware house are :i) Populating the ware house (i. it is essential that the business requirements are fully understood by the data ware house planner.

iii) Once data is extracted from the source systems. remove unwanted fields (either because they are not needed or because they are already there in the data base). check their consistency etc. For example. This especially happens when we arehaving several online systems feeding the data. adding new fields / reference data and finally reconciling with the other data. When large amounts of data are stored and new data are being continually added at regular intervals. Explain the extract and load process of data ware house. it is loaded into a temporary data storage before it is “Cleaned” and loaded into the warehouse. in some systems. Needless to say. the format of these external data is to be monitored and modified before loading it into the ware house. 8. constantly feed data to the warehouse. The data ware house must extract the data from the source systems. 15 | P a g e . Based on these. maintenance of the “quality” of data becomes an important element. Ans : Extract and Load Process : This forms the first stage of data ware house. iii) Ability to accommodate changes implies the system is structured in such a way as to be able to cope with future changes without the entire system being remodeled. the data is not authenticated until it is audited. ii) Having a set of consistent data is equally important. i) A mechanism should be evolved to control the extraction of data.Kuvempu University ii) The day to day management of data ware house is not to be confused with maintenance and management of hardware and software. the inventory systems that give inventory levels etc. we can view the processes that a typical data ware house scheme should support as follows. We shall see a few more details of theses broad actions in the subsequent paragraphs. External physical systems like the sales counters which give the sales data. load them into their data bases.

Ans : The architecture for a data ware is indicated below. 16 | P a g e .Kuvempu University 9. iv) It should be consistent with the information already available in the data ware house. The normal course is to suspect the quality of data. retransmission etc. Normal intuition doubts the validity of the new data and effective measures like rechecking. The size and complexity of each of these items depend on the actual size of the ware house itself. Before we proceed further. 10.. one may even resort to ignoring the entire set of data and get on with next set of incoming data. if it does not meet the normally standards of commonsense or it contradicts with the data from other sources. we should be clear about the concept of architecture. Explain the architecture of data warehouse. iii) It should be consistent with other data from other sources. It only gives the major items that make up a data ware house. it is more difficult to set up systems that automatically cleanup the data. While it is easy to list act the needs of a “clean” data. are undertaken. ii) It should be consistent with other data from the same source. the specific requirements of the ware house and the actual details of implementation. Ans : Data needs to be cleaned up and checked in the following ways :i) It should be consistent with itself. When none of these are possible. data already available in the data ware house etc. In what ways data needs to be cleaned up and checked? Explain briefly.

17 | P a g e . Unlike the load manager.Kuvempu University 11. Briefly explain the functions of each manager of data warehouse. A few of them can be listed below. i) Analyze the data to confirm data consistency and data integrity. The ware house manager can be easily termed to be the most complex of the ware house components. and performs a variety of tasks. viii) Archive the data that needs to be archived. vi) Update all existing aggregations vii) Create backups of data. Ans : The Warehouse Manager : The ware house manager is a component that performs all operations necessary to support the ware house management process. cross references. if needed. iii) Create indexes. v) Generate new aggregations. ii) Transform and merge the source data from the temporary data storage into the ware house. the warehouse management process is driven by the extent to which the operational management of the data ware house has been automated. partition views etc. iv) Check for normalization‟s.

so as the minimize the amount of data scanned before answering a query. This improves the overall efficiency of the system. i) Assists in better management of data ii) Ease of backup / recovery since the volumes are less. The surrounding references are called dimension tables. 18 | P a g e . i) The queries examine a set of factual transactions . Data ware houses tend to exploit these ideas by partitioning the large volume of data into data sets. without the overhead of using an index.Kuvempu University 12. When the components of typical enquiry‟s are examined. The combination can be called a star schema. having too many partitions can be counterproductive and an optimal size of the partitions and the number of such partitions is of vital importance. iii) The star schemes with partitions produce better performance. processing etc. Explain the star schema to represent the sales analysis. backup. data can be partitioned on weekly / monthly basis.sales for example. Participating generally helps in the following ways. ii) The queries analyze the facts in different ways . For example. 13. However. What do you mean by partition of data? Explain briefly.by aggregating them on different bases / graphing them in different ways.In most ware houses. The central concept of most such transactions is a “fact table”. Ans : Partitioning of data :. This leads to several problems of management. a few similarities stand out. These difficulties can be overcome by partitioning each fact table into separate partitions. Ans : Star schemes are data base schemas that structure the data to exploit a typical decision support enquiry. the size of the fact data tables tends to become very large. This technique allows data to be scanned to be minimized.

Consider the following example:- Let us elaborate a little on the example. to direct query to most appropriate source etc. managing Meta data itself is not a very easy task. purchases. stored in it‟s own data base. While this is a very convenient way of managing data. then it becomes a fact table. Ans : Data Mart :. a data mart can be thought of as a retailer.A data mart is a subset of information content of a data ware house. The data of a data ware house may have been collected through a ware house or in some cases.. debts etc. In a crude sense. 19 | P a g e . Data normally describe the objects. 14. and one uses the data of A. their quantity and size how they are stored etc. where the warehouse is building the profiles of customer. Consider a customer A. It means for each volume of data. in such cases. the overall system performance improves. then A becomes a fact . Meta data is useful in a number of ways.against the name A. directly from the source. If there is a situation. we can list his address. if you consider a data ware house as a whole sale shop of data.Meta data is simply data about data. Enlist the differences between fact and dimension. the structure of Meta data is different for each process. On the other hand.Kuvempu University iv) Since several hardware architectures operate better in a partitioned environment. if it is likely to be used to answer questions like “How many customers have made more than 10 purchases in the last 6 months”. avoid making A as a candidate key. Ans : This ensures that key dimensions are no fact tables. as well as of other customers to give the answer. Describe the terms data mart and Meta data. It can map data sources to the common view of information within the warehouse. Meta Data :. It is helpful in query management. One can ask questions like how many purchases has A made in the last 3 months etc. there are multiple sets of Meta data describing the same volume. The rule is. Similarly Meta data stores data about how data (of objects) is stored etc. Then A is fact. 15.

with an additional demoralized star dimension table. This is a very convenient method of analyzing data. which may be partitioned horizontally or vertically. Ans : Multidimensional schemas :. 20 | P a g e . in order to optimize the time spent on querying. They are most appropriate in decision support data ware houses. 18.Kuvempu University 16. the queries should be directed to the appropriate partitions that store the date required by the query. large table. Generally. In such a scenario. for that matter) is the ability to direct a query to the most appropriate source. Note that once the available data grows beyond a certain size.Before we close.One of the basic requirements for successful operation of star flake schema (or any schema. For example. a store maintains a table of each item it sells over a month as a table. These can be referenced from the fact table. The basic method is to design the access tool in such a way that it automatically defines the locality to which the query is to be redirected. What is query redirection? Explain. The key reference data is structured into a set of dimensions. A series of combinatory data base views are created to allow the user to access tools to treat the fact table partitions as a single. Ans : A star flake schema. partitioning becomes essential. when it goes beyond the normal tabular relations. the detailed transactions are stored within a central fact table. Ans : Query Redirection: . Explain the designing of star-flake schema in detail. explain the multidimensional schema. we see the interesting concept of multi dimensions. In detail. is a schema that uses a combination of demoralized star and normalized snow flake schemas. in each of its 10 outlets. Each dimension is stored in a series of normalized tables (Snowflake). 17. it is essential that. as we have defined previously.

20.Needless to say. iii). It can help the query redirection to send the queries to the appropriate partition. Hardware Partitioning:. In fact almost all queries can be thought of as approaching a multi-dimensioned unit of data from a multidimensional volume of the schema. Ans : i). will look for a 3 dimensional cuboids of data.This is essentially means that the table is partitioned after the first few thousand entries. Row Splitting: . 21.e. Then it becomes a 3 dimensional view. Explain the types of partitioning in detail. ii). There is no reason why the dimensioning should stop at 3 dimensions. Thus horizontal partitioning helps to reduce the query access time. not all the information in the fact table needed all the time. it can be done by simply by superimposing the 2 dimensional tables for each of these items – one behind the other. the mapping is 1 to 1 whereas normalization may produce one to many relationships. and the next few thousand entries etc. if the company wants a data of all items sold by its outlets. 19. instead of looking for a 2 dimensional rectangle of data. This is because in most cases.As the name suggests. at much lesser computation time. One the other hand. the data ware design process should try to maximize the performance of the system. This would ensure that the frequently used fields can be accessed more often. Horizontal Partitioning :. Vertical Partitioning :. by directly cutting down the amount of data to be scanned by the queries. Why partitioning is needed in large data warehouse? Ans : Partitioning is needed in any large data ware house to ensure that the performance and manageability is improved.Kuvempu University This is a 2 dimensional table. In row splitting. thereby reducing the overall time taken for query processing. 21 | P a g e . One of the ways to ensure this is to try to optimize by designing the data base with respect to specific hardware architecture. It can be noted that row splitting may not reduce or increase the overall storage needed. Explain the mechanism of row splitting. Then the query. but normalization may involve a change in the overall storage space needed. each row is divided into 2 or more partitions.The method involved identifying the not so frequently used fields and putting them into another table. a vertical partitioning scheme divides the table vertically – i.

Ans : Guidelines used for Hardware Partitioning :. However. ii) Reduce bottlenecks at the CPU and I/O 23. Ans : The following are the reasons for which data marts are created :i) Since the volume of data scanned is small. whereas aggregated data will help us draw certain conclusions easily. ii) Determine the aggregation of multiple facts. Normally the following guidelines are useful:i) Maximize the processing. though minor. advantage of aggregations is that they allow us to get the overall trends in the data. One thumb rule that is often suggested is that about three out of every four queries would be optimized by the aggregation process. ii) Data can be structured in a form suitable for a user access too iii) Data can be segmented or partitioned so that they can be used on different platforms and also different control strategies become applicable. v) Design time into the table. The second. the exact details of optimization depend on the hardware platforms. 25. One of the ways to ensure this is to try to optimize by designing the data base with respect to specific hardware architecture. the data ware design process should try to maximize the performance of the system. Give example. While looking at individual data such overall trends may not be obvious.Kuvempu University 22. Too little of aggregations may not improve the performance to the required levels. Ans : Aggregation : Data aggregation is an essential component of any decision support data ware house. they speed up the query processing. Give the reasons for creating the data mart. iii) Aggregate multiple facts into the summary table. which in other words means that costs incurred to get the answers to a query would be more than offset by the benefits of the query answer. vi) Index the summary table.Needless to say. It helps us to ensure a cost – effective query performance. whereas the fourth will take it‟s own time to get processed. Explain the different aspects for designing the summary table. Obviously. disk and I/O operations. The data aggregation attempts to do this by reducing the processing power needed to process the queries. 24. What is aggregation? Explain the need of aggregation. Explain the guidelines used for hardware partitioning. A file balancing of the two is essential to maintain the requirements stated above. too much of aggregations would only lead to unacceptable levels of operational costs. iv) Determine the level of aggregation and the extent of embedding. Ans : Summary table are designed by following the steps given below :i) Decide the dimensions along which aggregation is to be done. 22 | P a g e .

the data mart formats become fixed. suitable aggregations can be generated. d) Identify the infrastructure issues. iii)Query generation. ii) Once a data strategy is put in place. They can serve to demarcate the warehouse details. 23 | P a g e . b) Identify the natural splits of data. c) Check whether the proposed access tools have any special data base structures.This is one of the major constraints in data mart designs. Any data warehouse. subject to various access controls as to who could access which part of data. with it‟s huge volume of data is. Explain the two stages in setting up data marts. a) Identify the natural functional splits of the organization. What is role of access control issue in data mart design? Ans : Role of access control issue in data mart design :.Kuvempu University 26. because the data marts formats also have to be changes. the data pertaining to all these marts are stored. e) Look for restrictions on access control. Ans : Metadata will be used for the following purposes :i) Data transformation and loading. more often than not. 27. In the data ware house. but the partitioning is retained. ii) If you decide that setting up data marts is desirable. each of these can be put in a data mart and the user of each can access only his data. ii) Data management. If a super user wants to get an overall view of the data. In such cases. What are disadvantages of data mart? Ans : There disadvantages of data mart are:i) The cost of setting up and operating data marts is quite high. Explain the purpose of using metadata in detail. The easiest case is where the data is partitioned so clearly that a user of each partition cannot access any other data. 28. Ans : There are two stages in setting up data marts :i) To decide whether data marts are needed at all. 29. if any that can help in identifying the data marts. The above listed facts may help you to decide whether it is worthwhile to setup data marts or operate from the warehouse itself. The problem is almost similar to that of a merchant deciding whether he wants to set up retail shops or not. It may be fairly difficult to change the strategy later. then the following steps have to be gone through before you can freeze on the actual strategy of data mart.

Kuvempu University 30. The names are self explanatory. The query manger uses the metadata to build a history of all queries run and generator a query profile for each user.Name . This will help the warehouse manager to control data movements. Some of the descriptions are listed here. How the query manager uses the Meta data? Explain in detail. o Query o Table accessed § Column accessed · Name · Reference identifier o Restrictions applied o Column name o Table name o Reference identifier o Restrictions o Join criteria applied o Column name o Table name o Reference identifier o Column name o Table name 24 | P a g e . Ans : Meta data should be able to describe data as it resides in the data warehouse. We simply list a few of the commonly used meta data for the query. Ans : Meta data is also required to generate queries. Explain the concept of metadata management.Table * Columns 31. · Tables .Columns * Name * Type · Views . or group of uses.Type .Columns * Names * Type · Indexes .Columns * Name * Type · Constraints . The purpose of the metadata is to describe the objects in the database.

but will be continuously changing both content wise and structure wise. money and efforts are involved in the development of data warehouses. sophisticated management tools are always justified in the case of data warehouses.Data warehouses are not just large databases. Thus. 25 | P a g e . They are complex environments that integrate many technologies. But such a scheme became both unwieldy and prone to errors as the systems grew in size and complexity. Further most of the management principles were adhoc in nature and were subject to human errors and fatigue. When the computer systems were in their initial stages of development.Kuvempu University o Reference identifier o Aggregate function used o Column name o Reference identifier o Aggregate function o Group by criteria o Column name o Reference identifier o Sort direction o Syntax o Resources o Disk o Read o Write o Temporary 32. They are not static. there is a constant need for maintenance and management. Since huge amounts of time. who went around doing all the administration and management. there used to be an army of human managers. Ans : Need for managers to a data ware house :. Why we need different managers to a data ware house? Explain.

It should also create and maintain a layer of Meta data. indexes and other objects of importance. aggregation. Ans : A schematic diagram that defines the boundaries of the three types of managers :- 34. Creation of additional rows / columns. 35. What are the different system management tools used for data warehouse? Ans : The different system management tools used for data warehouse :i) Configuration Managers ii) Schedule Managers iii) Event Managers iv) Database Mangers v) Back up Recovery Managers vi) Resource and performance a monitors 26 | P a g e .The warehouse manager is responsible for maintaining data of the ware house. Ans : Ware house Manager :. creation and maintenance of tables.Kuvempu University 33. keeping track of the aggregation processes and creating Meta data are also it‟s functions. Explain the responsibilities of each manager of data ware house. Data movement includes the transfer of data within the ware house. Some of the responsibilities of the ware house manager are : o Data movement o Meta data management o Performance monitoring o Archiving. With neat diagram explain the boundaries of process managers. It should be able to create new aggregations as well as remove the old ones.

 Software Configuration includes a Software Requirements Specification. interfaces. system versions. test cases. and source code. Software testing is tougher than hardware testing as because you need to make sure it works with all the hardware. a Design Specification. It is advisable to carry out the testing process from the initial stages. and testing tools.Kuvempu University Subject: Software Quality & Testing Subject Code: BSIT – 54 Assignment: TA (Compulsory) 1. and different countries. Testing is a complex process and requires efforts similar to software development. justify your answer. Ans : In every organization testing is an important phase in the development of a software product. 27 | P a g e . What is software testing? Software testing is tougher than hardware testing. The quality of product always enhances the customer confidence in using the product thereby increasing the business economics. However. languages etc.  It is difficult to predict the time to debug the code. the way it is carried out differs from one organization to another. 2. Software testing is a critical element of software quality assurance and represents the ultimate process to ensure the correctness of the product. operating systems.  A test configuration includes a Test Plan and Procedures. Ans : Software testing means check the correctness and completeness of a product or a project with respect to client requirement is known as software testing. Explain the test information flow in a typical software test life cycle. hence it is difficult to schedule. with regard to the Software Development Life Cycle to avoid any complications.

White-box testing . 28 | P a g e . Which method better? List out drawbacks of each one. proper test plan and test cases are developed.Kuvempu University Once the right software is available for testing. What is coupling and cohesion? Mention different types of coupling and cohesion. Then the software is subjected to test with simulated test data. It was developed by Thomas J. the test results are examined. After the test execution. Discuss its role in software testing and generating test cases. This process will continue till the testing reports zero defects or run out of time for testing.This testing looks into the complex inner working of the application. good OO design should be loosely coupled and highly cohesive.This testing looks at the available inputs for an application and the expected outputs that should result from each input. Ans : Cohesion and Coupling deal with the quality of an OO design. 4. Explain the black and white box testing? Explain with an example. 3. Sr. It may have defects or the software is passed without any defect. Generally. McCabe. the process undertaken or any other internal aspect of the application. It is used by insurance companies to determine insurance rates for clients without posing too much risk to the company. It directly measures the number of linearly independent paths through a program's source code. While black box testing is mainly concerned with the inputs and outputs of the application 5. Ans : Black-box testing . The software with defect is subjected to debugging and again tested for its correctness. Lot of the design principles. 6. What is cyclomatic complexity? Explain with an illustration. It does not have any relation with the inner workings of the application. it tests the processes undertaken and other internal aspects of the application. in 1976 and is used to indicate the complexity of a program. Explain their role in testing. What is risk in software testing? How risk management improves the quality of the software? Ans : Risk are future uncertain events with a probability of occurrence and a potential for loss” Schedule Risk:  Budget Risk:  Operational Risks:  Technical risks:  Programmatic Risks: Risk Management Software is used to balance risk with potential reward. Ans : Cyclomatic complexity (or conditional complexity) is a software metric (measurement). design patterns which have been created are based on the idea of “Loose coupling and high cohesion”.

an autonomous computer activity. So it is component testing. interfaces. plans. It involves testing beyond normal operational capacity. Testing a specific part of a system or even a program. Mention the difficulties in preparing test cases Ans : A test case in software engineering is a set of conditions or variables under which a tester will determine whether an application or software system is working correctly or not. justify your answer. Content coupling (high) Common coupling External coupling Data coupling No coupling 7. It may take many test cases to determine that a software program or system is considered sufficiently scrutinized to be released. Compare and contrast between Verification and Validation with examples. Domain knowledge is valid knowledge used to refer to an area of human endeavor. issues lists. system versions. Ans : Stress testing is a form of testing that is used to determine the stability of a given system or entity. It involves testing beyond normal operational capacity. walkthroughs. In some settings. Yes or no. and inspection meetings. What is stress testing? Where do you need this testing? Explain. while in others it could be a heuristic. 10. and specifications. we emphasize a specific domain which is an object of the discourse/interest/problem. and different countries. requirements. 9. often to a breaking point. operating systems. The mechanism for determining whether a software program or system has passed or failed such a test is known as a test oracle. This can be done with checklists. Stress testing may have a more specific meaning in certain industries. code. such as fatigue testing for materials. Ans : Verification typically involves reviews and meetings to evaluate documents. in order to observe the results. Software testing is difficult than implementation. in order to observe the results. Specialists and experts use and develop their own domain knowledge. 29 | P a g e . or other specialized discipline. often to a breaking point. 8. languages. Ans : Yes software testing is difficult than implementation You need to make sure it works with all the hardware. That would be called a component. If the concept domain knowledge or domain expert is used. What are test cases? Explain the importance of Domain knowledge in test case generation. Stress testing is a form of testing that is used to determine the stability of a given system or entity. an oracle could be a requirement or use case. Validation typically involves actual testing and takes place after verifications are completed.Kuvempu University The aim of the design should be to make the application:  Easier to develop  Easier to maintain  Easier to add new features  Less Fragile.