THRESHOLD ANALYSIS

LINTA JOY APARA BANERJEE POOJA AGARWAL ROSY GOGOI DEBLEENA SAHA ANAND NEHA POTDAR

BACKGROUND
•PIONEERED IN POLAND BY B. MALIS IN EARLY 60S.
•INTRODUCED TO GREAT BRITAIN IN 1965 BY PLANNING

RESEARCH INSTITUTE IN ITS REGIONAL PLAN FOR THE
GRANGE MOUTH / FALKRIK GROWTH AREA – SCOTLAND.

.THRESHOLD ANALYSIS •QUANTITATIVE METHOD •LOCATION ORIENTED TECHNIQUE FINALIZING LAND SUITABILITY FOR THE FORMULATION AND COMPARISON OF DEVELOPMENT •ILLUSTRATE THE CONSEQUENCES IN TERMS OF COST OF DEVELOPING ALTERNATIVE AREAS. •INTRODUCE THE QUANTIFICATION OF THRESHOLD COST INTO PHYSICAL PLANNING TECHNIQUE.

COST -NORMAL COST ( Cn )-INDEPENDENT OF THE LOCATION OF DEVELOPMENT .DEVELOPMENT THRSHOLD • IS THE SUCCESSIVE LIMITATIONS PUNCTUATING THE PHYSICAL GROWTH OF TOWN.THRESHOLD COST ( Ca )-DEPENDENT UPON THE LOCATION OF DEVELOPMENT -TOTAL COST Ct Ct= Cn +Ca . • CAN BE OVERCOME THROUGH THRESHOLD COST.

TYPES OF THRESHOLDS GRADE THRESHOLD STEPPED CAUSED BY SITE CONDITIONS CAUSED BY LIMITATION IN INFRASTRUCTUR E SERVICES .

Grade threshold Total Cost Average Unit Cost No. of units Stepped threshold Total Cost Average Unit Cost A B No. of units A No. of units No. of units B .

(GROUP OF SETTLEMENTS) ASSISTANCE FOR THE PREPARATION OF STRUCTURE PLAN . TOWNS & URBAN AREAS) -.000) -. 5.00.COMPARING SITES FOR DEVELOPMENT RESIDENTIAL USE. -.SITUATIONS WHERE THRESHOLD ANALYSIS CAN BE USED : STRUCTURE PLAN URBAN .APPROPRIATE FOR EXPANDING TOWN ( POP. COUNTY .USED FOR FORMULATING AND COMPARING ALTERNATIVE STRATEGIES FOR DEVELOPMENT OF TOWNS.0001.(CITIES.

PARTS OF LARGE TOWNS 2. NEW DEVELOPMENT 2.LOCAL PLAN ( INFORMATION GATHERED FOR STRUCTURAL PLAN IN DETAIL) DISTRICTS 1. RECREATIONAL AND OTHER SPECIFIC DEVELOPMENT PROBLEMS . INDUSTRIAL. IMPROVEMENT 3. RURAL AREAS AND VILLAGES ACTION AREA 1. REDEVELOPMENT SUBJECT RESIDENTIAL. WHOLE OF A SMALL TOWN 3.

PROCESS PROBLEM SETTING AND PREREQUISITES MAIN ANALYSIS INTERPRETATION OF RESULTS .

PROCESS PROBLEM SETTING AND PREREQUISITES INTERPRETATION OF RESULTS MAIN ANALYSIS SETTING THE OBJECTIVES FOR THE ANALYSIS IDENTIFICATION OF ASSUMPTIONS SETTING UP OF PARALLEL STUDIES DEFINITION OF DEGREE OF ACCURACY DEFINITION OF THE STUDY AREA .

PROCESS PROBLEM SETTING AND PREREQUISITES INTERPRETATION OF RESULTS MAIN ANALYSIS Definition of first and boundary thresholds Elimination of unsatisfactory groupings Preparation of cost charts Identification of critical thresholds and eliminate the unsatisfactory groupings Calculation of comprehensive threshold cost .

PROCESS PROBLEM SETTING AND PREREQUISITES INTERPRETATION OF RESULTS MAIN ANALYSIS SUMMARY OF RESULTS REPORTS AND PRESENTATIONS OF THE IMPLICATIONS IMPLICATION OF THE ANALYSIS FOR THE STRUCTURE PLAN .

The method of threshold analysis permits identification of threshold limitations. Thresholds are known in urban planning as physical limitations encountered by expanding towns. calculations of threshold costs and definition of all other consequences of threshold overstepping. • The prime responsibility of urban planning is to indicate how to influence development processes to ensure that the resulting structural and functional transformations of settlements lead towards the fulfillment of the aims.INTER RELATIONSHIP WITH OTHER DISCIPLINES THRESHOLD ANALYSIS IN URBAN PLANNING • Urban Planning can be considered as that part of the urbanization process which is considered with defining aims and with determining ways and means by which those aims can be attained. and the cost of overcoming these limitations represent threshold costs. Finland to accommodate expeceted 1500 new inhabitants . Practical experience and the most recent research have not only confirmed the continuing usefulness of recent analysis in urban planning but have also indicated broad possibilities for further development • • • Threshold analysis undertaken for the small town of Taivalkoski. In short the method provides a tool for evaluation of urban development possibilities.

Poland Transformatio n Partial Reversible Resistance Total Irreversible . Where these limits are exceeded as a result of functioning or development of particular tourist or other activities. a chain reaction is generated leading towards irreversible environmental damage of the whole eco-system or of its essential parts UETs can be determined by confronting these threats UET Uniqueness Minimal Live application of UET method in preparing a plan for the Tatry national park .INTER RELATIONSHIP WITH OTHER DISCIPLINES (2/3) THRESHOLD APPROACH IN ENVIRONMENTAL PLANNING • Environmental planning can be defined as a process whereby regional and national resource conservation or development plans are created in ways that consciously seek to minimize long term negative effects on existing levels of environmental quality An ultimate environmental threshold (UET): • The stress limit beyond which a given ecosystem becomes incapable of returning to its original condition and balance.

the amount of land being served by existing public utility network and so on. however. Since it aims at defining the amount of land suitable for development from the physiological standpoint. . whether used by regional planners or others has been derived so far from the analyses undertaken at the urban planning level and therefore limited to the local conditions. The regional planning implications arise only from the fact that the relative impact and significance of particular local thresholds may influence the desired evolution of the settlement pattern. This information.INTER RELATIONSHIP WITH OTHER DISCIPLINES (3/3) THRESHOLD APPROACH IN REGIONAL PLANNING • Threshold approach is concerned with aspects of scarcity.

.

.

. It does not attempt to determine the future pattern of development. 3. Calculations are often based on crude assumptions and must not be treated as precise cost assessment.LIMITATIONS AND BENEFITS OF THRESHOLD ANALYSIS •It can play useful part at specific stages of planning process. •Location oriented technique introducing the quantification of threshold costs into a physical planning technique. LIMITATIONS 1. Should not be taken as the comprehensive tool for the economic evaluation of the planning solution as it is concerned primarily with threshold costs. 5. Implications of threshold analysis while comparing planning solutions are valid if all other factors including benefits are considered equal. Assumptions are the prerequisite to the application of threshold. It does not take in to the account the benefits ( economic and social) 4. 2.

where as complex and larger towns require more automated data.6. Deals with the urban development threshold and only provides general ideas on how to analyses redevelopment threshold. Primarily concerned with the residential area development 8. 9. . 7. Process concentrates on comparing the threshold costs of various sites 10. Most suitable for medium sized towns or small sized.Concentrate on calculating “direct threshold cost “ capital cost and gives only general guidance on the calculation of indirect threshold cost ( exploitation cost).

•Identifies differences in cost of developing alternative sites. .BENEFITS Benefits of using threshold analysis can be explained under two groups IN PREPARATION OF STRUCTURE PLANS •Helps to analyse the degree of suitability of sites for urban development. •Can function as input data for other techniques eg: cost benefit analysis. •The information also help local authorities to negotiate better with developers and industrialists. IN DECISION MAKING •Local authorities can use the results for decision making •The information provided can be used for formulating corporate investment plans. planning balance sheet. •Allows the design of a town’s physical structure to be made in such a way the development is integrated with overcoming of threshold limitations.

IT INDICATES THE COST AND IDENTIFIES THE FACTORS RESPONSIBLE FOR COST VARIATIONS •ADVOCACY OF THIS ANALYSIS REQUIRES HUGE RESPONSIBILITY .CONCLUSION • THRESHOLD ANALYSIS IS NEITHER A COMPLETE PLANNING THEORY NOR A PANACEA FOR ALL KIND OF PLANNING PROBLEMS. • IT IS A PROBLEM IDENTIFYING TECHNIQUE •THIS DOES NOT MEASURE THE BENEFITS OF URBAN ALTERNATIVES FORMS.

HALSTED PRESS . BY JERZY KOZLOWSKI. ARCHITECTURAL PRESS. REGIONAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL PLANNING THEORY AND PRACTICE. UNIVERSITY OF EDINBURGH THRESHOLD ANALYSIS BY J KOZLOWSKI AND J T HUGHES. LONDON. NEWYORK THRESHOLD APPROACH IN URBAN. LONDON.REFERENCE THRESHOLD ANALYSIS MANUAL BY THE PLANNING RESEARCH UNIT DEPARTMENT OF URBAN DESIGN AND REGIONAL PLANNING. UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND PRESS. NEWYORK .

THANK YOU .