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Cormen Algo-lec2|Views: 359|Likes: 4

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05/10/2014

**6.046J/18.401J LECTURE 2
**

Asymptotic Notation • O-, Ω-, and Θ-notation Recurrences • Substitution method • Iterating the recurrence • Recursion tree • Master method Prof. Erik Demaine

September 12, 2005 Copyright © 2001-5 Erik D. Demaine and Charles E. Leiserson L2.1

Asymptotic notation

O-notation (upper bounds): We write f(n) = O(g(n)) if there We write f(n) = O(g(n)) if there exist constants c > 0, n00 > 0 such exist constants c > 0, n > 0 such that 0 ≤ f(n) ≤ cg(n) for all n ≥ n00.. that 0 ≤ f(n) ≤ cg(n) for all n ≥ n

September 12, 2005

Copyright © 2001-5 Erik D. Demaine and Charles E. Leiserson

L2.2

Asymptotic notation

O-notation (upper bounds): We write f(n) = O(g(n)) if there We write f(n) = O(g(n)) if there exist constants c > 0, n00 > 0 such exist constants c > 0, n > 0 such that 0 ≤ f(n) ≤ cg(n) for all n ≥ n00.. that 0 ≤ f(n) ≤ cg(n) for all n ≥ n EXAMPLE: 2n2 = O(n3) (c = 1, n0 = 2)

September 12, 2005

Copyright © 2001-5 Erik D. Demaine and Charles E. Leiserson

L2.3

Asymptotic notation

O-notation (upper bounds): We write f(n) = O(g(n)) if there We write f(n) = O(g(n)) if there exist constants c > 0, n00 > 0 such exist constants c > 0, n > 0 such that 0 ≤ f(n) ≤ cg(n) for all n ≥ n00.. that 0 ≤ f(n) ≤ cg(n) for all n ≥ n EXAMPLE: 2n2 = O(n3)

functions, not values

September 12, 2005 Copyright © 2001-5 Erik D. Demaine and Charles E. Leiserson L2.4

(c = 1, n0 = 2)

Asymptotic notation

O-notation (upper bounds): We write f(n) = O(g(n)) if there We write f(n) = O(g(n)) if there exist constants c > 0, n00 > 0 such exist constants c > 0, n > 0 such that 0 ≤ f(n) ≤ cg(n) for all n ≥ n00.. that 0 ≤ f(n) ≤ cg(n) for all n ≥ n EXAMPLE: 2n2 = O(n3)

functions, not values

September 12, 2005

(c = 1, n0 = 2)

funny, “one-way” equality

L2.5

Copyright © 2001-5 Erik D. Demaine and Charles E. Leiserson

**Set definition of O-notation
**

O(g(n)) = { f(n) :: there exist constants O(g(n)) = { f(n) there exist constants c > 0, n00 > 0 such c > 0, n > 0 such that 0 ≤ f(n) ≤ cg(n) that 0 ≤ f(n) ≤ cg(n) for all n ≥ n00 } for all n ≥ n }

September 12, 2005

Copyright © 2001-5 Erik D. Demaine and Charles E. Leiserson

L2.6

**Set definition of O-notation
**

O(g(n)) = { f(n) :: there exist constants O(g(n)) = { f(n) there exist constants c > 0, n00 > 0 such c > 0, n > 0 such that 0 ≤ f(n) ≤ cg(n) that 0 ≤ f(n) ≤ cg(n) for all n ≥ n00 } for all n ≥ n } EXAMPLE: 2n2 ∈ O(n3)

September 12, 2005

Copyright © 2001-5 Erik D. Demaine and Charles E. Leiserson

L2.7

**Set definition of O-notation
**

O(g(n)) = { f(n) :: there exist constants O(g(n)) = { f(n) there exist constants c > 0, n00 > 0 such c > 0, n > 0 such that 0 ≤ f(n) ≤ cg(n) that 0 ≤ f(n) ≤ cg(n) for all n ≥ n00 } for all n ≥ n } EXAMPLE: 2n2 ∈ O(n3) (Logicians: λn.2n2 ∈ O(λn.n3), but it’s convenient to be sloppy, as long as we understand what’s really going on.)

September 12, 2005 Copyright © 2001-5 Erik D. Demaine and Charles E. Leiserson L2.8

Macro substitution

Convention: A set in a formula represents an anonymous function in the set.

September 12, 2005

Copyright © 2001-5 Erik D. Demaine and Charles E. Leiserson

L2.9

Macro substitution

Convention: A set in a formula represents an anonymous function in the set. EXAMPLE: f(n) = n3 + O(n2) means f(n) = n3 + h(n) for some h(n) ∈ O(n2) .

September 12, 2005

Copyright © 2001-5 Erik D. Demaine and Charles E. Leiserson

L2.10

Macro substitution

Convention: A set in a formula represents an anonymous function in the set. EXAMPLE: n2 + O(n) = O(n2) means for any f(n) ∈ O(n): n2 + f(n) = h(n) for some h(n) ∈ O(n2) .

Copyright © 2001-5 Erik D. Demaine and Charles E. Leiserson L2.11

September 12, 2005

**Ω-notation (lower bounds)
**

O-notation is an upper-bound notation. It makes no sense to say f(n) is at least O(n2).

September 12, 2005

Copyright © 2001-5 Erik D. Demaine and Charles E. Leiserson

L2.12

**Ω-notation (lower bounds)
**

O-notation is an upper-bound notation. It makes no sense to say f(n) is at least O(n2). Ω(g(n)) = { f(n) :: there exist constants Ω(g(n)) = { f(n) there exist constants c > 0, n00 > 0 such c > 0, n > 0 such that 0 ≤ cg(n) ≤ f(n) that 0 ≤ cg(n) ≤ f(n) for all n ≥ n00 } for all n ≥ n }

September 12, 2005

Copyright © 2001-5 Erik D. Demaine and Charles E. Leiserson

L2.13

**Ω-notation (lower bounds)
**

O-notation is an upper-bound notation. It makes no sense to say f(n) is at least O(n2). Ω(g(n)) = { f(n) :: there exist constants Ω(g(n)) = { f(n) there exist constants c > 0, n00 > 0 such c > 0, n > 0 such that 0 ≤ cg(n) ≤ f(n) that 0 ≤ cg(n) ≤ f(n) for all n ≥ n00 } for all n ≥ n } EXAMPLE:

September 12, 2005

n = Ω(lg n) (c = 1, n0 = 16)

Copyright © 2001-5 Erik D. Demaine and Charles E. Leiserson L2.14

**Θ-notation (tight bounds)
**

Θ(g(n)) = O(g(n)) ∩ Ω(g(n)) Θ(g(n)) = O(g(n)) ∩ Ω(g(n))

September 12, 2005

Copyright © 2001-5 Erik D. Demaine and Charles E. Leiserson

L2.15

**Θ-notation (tight bounds)
**

Θ(g(n)) = O(g(n)) ∩ Ω(g(n)) Θ(g(n)) = O(g(n)) ∩ Ω(g(n)) EXAMPLE:

1 2

n − 2 n = Θ( n )

2 2

September 12, 2005

Copyright © 2001-5 Erik D. Demaine and Charles E. Leiserson

L2.16

**ο-notation and ω-notation
**

O-notation and Ω-notation are like ≤ and ≥. o-notation and ω-notation are like < and >.

ο(g(n)) = { f(n) :: for any constant c > 0, ο(g(n)) = { f(n) for any constant c > 0,

there is a constant n00 > 0 there is a constant n > 0 such that 0 ≤ f(n) < cg(n) such that 0 ≤ f(n) < cg(n) for all n ≥ n00 } for all n ≥ n } (n0 = 2/c)

L2.17

EXAMPLE: 2n2 = o(n3)

September 12, 2005

Copyright © 2001-5 Erik D. Demaine and Charles E. Leiserson

**ο-notation and ω-notation
**

O-notation and Ω-notation are like ≤ and ≥. o-notation and ω-notation are like < and >.

ω(g(n)) = { f(n) :: for any constant c > 0, ω(g(n)) = { f(n) for any constant c > 0,

there is a constant n00 > 0 there is a constant n > 0 such that 0 ≤ cg(n) < f(n) such that 0 ≤ cg(n) < f(n) for all n ≥ n00 } for all n ≥ n } (n0 = 1+1/c)

L2.18

EXAMPLE:

September 12, 2005

n = ω (lg n)

Copyright © 2001-5 Erik D. Demaine and Charles E. Leiserson

Solving recurrences

• The analysis of merge sort from Lecture 1 required us to solve a recurrence. • Recurrences are like solving integrals, differential equations, etc. o Learn a few tricks. • Lecture 3: Applications of recurrences to divide-and-conquer algorithms.

September 12, 2005

Copyright © 2001-5 Erik D. Demaine and Charles E. Leiserson

L2.19

Substitution method

The most general method: 1. Guess the form of the solution. 2. Verify by induction. 3. Solve for constants.

September 12, 2005

Copyright © 2001-5 Erik D. Demaine and Charles E. Leiserson

L2.20

Substitution method

The most general method: 1. Guess the form of the solution. 2. Verify by induction. 3. Solve for constants. EXAMPLE: T(n) = 4T(n/2) + n • [Assume that T(1) = Θ(1).] • Guess O(n3) . (Prove O and Ω separately.) • Assume that T(k) ≤ ck3 for k < n . • Prove T(n) ≤ cn3 by induction.

September 12, 2005 Copyright © 2001-5 Erik D. Demaine and Charles E. Leiserson L2.21

Example of substitution

T (n) = 4T (n / 2) + n ≤ 4c ( n / 2 ) 3 + n = ( c / 2) n 3 + n desired – residual = cn3 − ((c / 2)n3 − n) ≤ cn3 desired whenever (c/2)n3 – n ≥ 0, for example, if c ≥ 2 and n ≥ 1. residual

September 12, 2005 Copyright © 2001-5 Erik D. Demaine and Charles E. Leiserson L2.22

Example (continued)

• We must also handle the initial conditions, that is, ground the induction with base cases. • Base: T(n) = Θ(1) for all n < n0, where n0 is a suitable constant. • For 1 ≤ n < n0, we have “Θ(1)” ≤ cn3, if we pick c big enough.

September 12, 2005

Copyright © 2001-5 Erik D. Demaine and Charles E. Leiserson

L2.23

Example (continued)

• We must also handle the initial conditions, that is, ground the induction with base cases. • Base: T(n) = Θ(1) for all n < n0, where n0 is a suitable constant. • For 1 ≤ n < n0, we have “Θ(1)” ≤ cn3, if we pick c big enough.

This bound is not tight!

September 12, 2005 Copyright © 2001-5 Erik D. Demaine and Charles E. Leiserson L2.24

**A tighter upper bound?
**

We shall prove that T(n) = O(n2).

September 12, 2005

Copyright © 2001-5 Erik D. Demaine and Charles E. Leiserson

L2.25

**A tighter upper bound?
**

We shall prove that T(n) = O(n2). Assume that T(k) ≤ ck2 for k < n: T (n) = 4T (n / 2) + n ≤ 4 c ( n / 2) 2 + n = cn 2 + n = O(n 2 )

September 12, 2005

Copyright © 2001-5 Erik D. Demaine and Charles E. Leiserson

L2.26

**A tighter upper bound?
**

We shall prove that T(n) = O(n2). Assume that T(k) ≤ ck2 for k < n: T (n) = 4T (n / 2) + n ≤ 4c ( n / 2) 2 + n = cn 2 + n = O(n 2 ) Wrong! We must prove the I.H.

September 12, 2005

Copyright © 2001-5 Erik D. Demaine and Charles E. Leiserson

L2.27

**A tighter upper bound?
**

We shall prove that T(n) = O(n2). Assume that T(k) ≤ ck2 for k < n: T (n) = 4T (n / 2) + n ≤ 4c ( n / 2) 2 + n = cn 2 + n = O(n 2 ) Wrong! We must prove the I.H. = cn 2 − (− n) [ desired – residual ] ≤ cn 2 for no choice of c > 0. Lose!

September 12, 2005 Copyright © 2001-5 Erik D. Demaine and Charles E. Leiserson L2.28

**A tighter upper bound!
**

IDEA: Strengthen the inductive hypothesis. • Subtract a low-order term. Inductive hypothesis: T(k) ≤ c1k2 – c2k for k < n.

September 12, 2005

Copyright © 2001-5 Erik D. Demaine and Charles E. Leiserson

L2.29

**A tighter upper bound!
**

IDEA: Strengthen the inductive hypothesis. • Subtract a low-order term. Inductive hypothesis: T(k) ≤ c1k2 – c2k for k < n. T(n) = 4T(n/2) + n = 4(c1(n/2)2 – c2(n/2)) + n = c1n2 – 2c2n + n = c1n2 – c2n – (c2n – n) ≤ c1n2 – c2n if c2 ≥ 1.

September 12, 2005 Copyright © 2001-5 Erik D. Demaine and Charles E. Leiserson L2.30

**A tighter upper bound!
**

IDEA: Strengthen the inductive hypothesis. • Subtract a low-order term. Inductive hypothesis: T(k) ≤ c1k2 – c2k for k < n. T(n) = 4T(n/2) + n = 4(c1(n/2)2 – c2(n/2)) + n = c1n2 – 2c2n + n = c1n2 – c2n – (c2n – n) ≤ c1n2 – c2n if c2 ≥ 1.

**Pick c1 big enough to handle the initial conditions.
**

September 12, 2005 Copyright © 2001-5 Erik D. Demaine and Charles E. Leiserson L2.31

**Recursion-tree method
**

• A recursion tree models the costs (time) of a recursive execution of an algorithm. • The recursion-tree method can be unreliable, just like any method that uses ellipses (…). • The recursion-tree method promotes intuition, however. • The recursion tree method is good for generating guesses for the substitution method.

September 12, 2005 Copyright © 2001-5 Erik D. Demaine and Charles E. Leiserson L2.32

**Example of recursion tree
**

Solve T(n) = T(n/4) + T(n/2) + n2:

September 12, 2005

Copyright © 2001-5 Erik D. Demaine and Charles E. Leiserson

L2.33

**Example of recursion tree
**

Solve T(n) = T(n/4) + T(n/2) + n2: T(n)

September 12, 2005

Copyright © 2001-5 Erik D. Demaine and Charles E. Leiserson

L2.34

**Example of recursion tree
**

Solve T(n) = T(n/4) + T(n/2) + n2: n2 T(n/4) T(n/2)

September 12, 2005

Copyright © 2001-5 Erik D. Demaine and Charles E. Leiserson

L2.35

**Example of recursion tree
**

Solve T(n) = T(n/4) + T(n/2) + n2: n2 (n/4)2 T(n/16) T(n/8) (n/2)2 T(n/8) T(n/4)

September 12, 2005

Copyright © 2001-5 Erik D. Demaine and Charles E. Leiserson

L2.36

**Example of recursion tree
**

Solve T(n) = T(n/4) + T(n/2) + n2: n2 (n/4)2 (n/16)2 Θ(1)

September 12, 2005 Copyright © 2001-5 Erik D. Demaine and Charles E. Leiserson L2.37

(n/2)2 (n/8)2 (n/4)2

(n/8)2

…

**Example of recursion tree
**

Solve T(n) = T(n/4) + T(n/2) + n2: n2 (n/4)2 (n/16)2 Θ(1)

September 12, 2005 Copyright © 2001-5 Erik D. Demaine and Charles E. Leiserson L2.38

n2

(n/2)2 (n/8)2 (n/4)2

(n/8)2

…

**Example of recursion tree
**

Solve T(n) = T(n/4) + T(n/2) + n2: n2 (n/4)2 (n/16)2 Θ(1)

September 12, 2005 Copyright © 2001-5 Erik D. Demaine and Charles E. Leiserson L2.39

n2

5 n2 16

(n/2)2 (n/8)2 (n/4)2

(n/8)2

…

**Example of recursion tree
**

Solve T(n) = T(n/4) + T(n/2) + n2: n2 (n/4)2 (n/16)2 Θ(1)

September 12, 2005 Copyright © 2001-5 Erik D. Demaine and Charles E. Leiserson L2.40

n2

5 n2 16 25 n 2 256

…

(n/2)2 (n/8)2 (n/4)2

(n/8)2

…

**Example of recursion tree
**

Solve T(n) = T(n/4) + T(n/2) + n2: n2 (n/4)2 (n/16)2

…

n2

5 n2 16 25 n 2 256

…

5 3 16

(n/2)2 (n/8)2 (n/4)2

(n/8)2

Θ(1)

September 12, 2005

Total = n = Θ(n2)

2

(

5 + 5 2 1 + 16 16

+L geometric series

L2.41

( ) +( )

)

Copyright © 2001-5 Erik D. Demaine and Charles E. Leiserson

**The master method
**

The master method applies to recurrences of the form T(n) = a T(n/b) + f (n) , where a ≥ 1, b > 1, and f is asymptotically positive.

September 12, 2005

Copyright © 2001-5 Erik D. Demaine and Charles E. Leiserson

L2.42

**Three common cases
**

Compare f (n) with nlogba: 1. f (n) = O(nlogba – ε) for some constant ε > 0. • f (n) grows polynomially slower than nlogba (by an nε factor). Solution: T(n) = Θ(nlogba) .

September 12, 2005

Copyright © 2001-5 Erik D. Demaine and Charles E. Leiserson

L2.43

**Three common cases
**

Compare f (n) with nlogba: 1. f (n) = O(nlogba – ε) for some constant ε > 0. • f (n) grows polynomially slower than nlogba (by an nε factor). Solution: T(n) = Θ(nlogba) . 2. f (n) = Θ(nlogba lgkn) for some constant k ≥ 0. • f (n) and nlogba grow at similar rates. Solution: T(n) = Θ(nlogba lgk+1n) .

September 12, 2005 Copyright © 2001-5 Erik D. Demaine and Charles E. Leiserson L2.44

**Three common cases (cont.)
**

Compare f (n) with nlogba: 3. f (n) = Ω(nlogba + ε) for some constant ε > 0. • f (n) grows polynomially faster than nlogba (by an nε factor), and f (n) satisfies the regularity condition that a f (n/b) ≤ c f (n) for some constant c < 1. Solution: T(n) = Θ( f (n)) .

September 12, 2005

Copyright © 2001-5 Erik D. Demaine and Charles E. Leiserson

L2.45

Examples

EX. T(n) = 4T(n/2) + n a = 4, b = 2 ⇒ nlogba = n2; f (n) = n. CASE 1: f (n) = O(n2 – ε) for ε = 1. ∴ T(n) = Θ(n2).

September 12, 2005

Copyright © 2001-5 Erik D. Demaine and Charles E. Leiserson

L2.46

Examples

EX. T(n) = 4T(n/2) + n a = 4, b = 2 ⇒ nlogba = n2; f (n) = n. CASE 1: f (n) = O(n2 – ε) for ε = 1. ∴ T(n) = Θ(n2). EX. T(n) = 4T(n/2) + n2 a = 4, b = 2 ⇒ nlogba = n2; f (n) = n2. CASE 2: f (n) = Θ(n2lg0n), that is, k = 0. ∴ T(n) = Θ(n2lg n).

September 12, 2005 Copyright © 2001-5 Erik D. Demaine and Charles E. Leiserson L2.47

Examples

EX. T(n) = 4T(n/2) + n3 a = 4, b = 2 ⇒ nlogba = n2; f (n) = n3. CASE 3: f (n) = Ω(n2 + ε) for ε = 1 and 4(n/2)3 ≤ cn3 (reg. cond.) for c = 1/2. ∴ T(n) = Θ(n3).

September 12, 2005

Copyright © 2001-5 Erik D. Demaine and Charles E. Leiserson

L2.48

Examples

EX. T(n) = 4T(n/2) + n3 a = 4, b = 2 ⇒ nlogba = n2; f (n) = n3. CASE 3: f (n) = Ω(n2 + ε) for ε = 1 and 4(n/2)3 ≤ cn3 (reg. cond.) for c = 1/2. ∴ T(n) = Θ(n3). EX. T(n) = 4T(n/2) + n2/lg n a = 4, b = 2 ⇒ nlogba = n2; f (n) = n2/lg n. Master method does not apply. In particular, for every constant ε > 0, we have nε = ω(lg n).

September 12, 2005 Copyright © 2001-5 Erik D. Demaine and Charles E. Leiserson L2.49

**Idea of master theorem
**

Recursion tree:

a f (n/b) f (n/b) … f (n/b) a f (n/b2) f (n/b2) … f (n/b2)

f (n)

Τ (1)

September 12, 2005 Copyright © 2001-5 Erik D. Demaine and Charles E. Leiserson L2.50

…

**Idea of master theorem
**

Recursion tree:

a f (n/b) f (n/b) … f (n/b) a f (n/b2) f (n/b2) … f (n/b2)

…

f (n)

f (n) a f (n/b) a2 f (n/b2)

…

Τ (1)

September 12, 2005 Copyright © 2001-5 Erik D. Demaine and Charles E. Leiserson L2.51

**Idea of master theorem
**

Recursion tree:

a f (n/b) f (n/b) … f (n/b) a h = logbn f (n/b2) f (n/b2) … f (n/b2)

…

f (n)

f (n) a f (n/b) a2 f (n/b2)

…

Τ (1)

September 12, 2005 Copyright © 2001-5 Erik D. Demaine and Charles E. Leiserson L2.52

**Idea of master theorem
**

Recursion tree:

a f (n/b) f (n/b) … f (n/b) a h = logbn f (n/b2) f (n/b2) … f (n/b2)

f (n)

f (n) a f (n/b) a2 f (n/b2)

…

Τ (1)

September 12, 2005

**#leaves = ah = alogbn = nlogba
**

Copyright © 2001-5 Erik D. Demaine and Charles E. Leiserson

…

nlogbaΤ (1)

L2.53

**Idea of master theorem
**

Recursion tree:

a f (n/b) f (n/b) … f (n/b) a h = logbn f (n/b2) f (n/b2) … f (n/b2)

CASE 1: The weight increases CASE 1: The weight increases geometrically from the root to the geometrically from the root to the Τ (1) leaves. The leaves hold aaconstant leaves. The leaves hold constant fraction of the total weight. fraction of the total weight.

September 12, 2005 Copyright © 2001-5 Erik D. Demaine and Charles E. Leiserson

f (n)

f (n) a f (n/b) a2 f (n/b2)

…

…

nlogbaΤ (1) Θ(nlogba)

L2.54

**Idea of master theorem
**

Recursion tree:

a f (n/b) f (n/b) … f (n/b) a h = logbn f (n/b2) f (n/b2) … f (n/b2)

…

f (n)

f (n) a f (n/b) a2 f (n/b2)

…

Τ (1)

September 12, 2005

CASE 2: (k = 0) The weight CASE 2: (k = 0) The weight is approximately the same on is approximately the same on each of the logbbn levels. each of the log n levels.

nlogbaΤ (1) Θ(nlogbalg n)

L2.55

Copyright © 2001-5 Erik D. Demaine and Charles E. Leiserson

**Idea of master theorem
**

Recursion tree:

a f (n/b) f (n/b) … f (n/b) a h = logbn f (n/b2) f (n/b2) … f (n/b2)

CASE 3: The weight decreases CASE 3: The weight decreases geometrically from the root to the geometrically from the root to the Τ (1) leaves. The root holds aaconstant leaves. The root holds constant fraction of the total weight. fraction of the total weight.

September 12, 2005 Copyright © 2001-5 Erik D. Demaine and Charles E. Leiserson

f (n)

f (n) a f (n/b) a2 f (n/b2)

…

…

nlogbaΤ (1) Θ( f (n))

L2.56

**Appendix: geometric series
**

1 − x n +1 2 n for x ≠ 1 1+ x + x +L+ x = 1− x

1 1+ x + x +L = for |x| < 1 1− x

2

Return to last slide viewed.

September 12, 2005

Copyright © 2001-5 Erik D. Demaine and Charles E. Leiserson

L2.57

Maths 220, Discrete Maths, Test 3 , Chapter 7&8

Math220 Discrete Math Test 3 Solutions

Discrete maths Assignment

Discrete Maths assignment

Tess

Cormen Algo-lec21

Cormen Algo-lec20

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Cormen Algo-lec18

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Cormen Algo-lec12

Cormen Algo-lec11

Cormen Algo-lec10

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Cormen Algo-lec8

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Cormen Algo-lec5

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Cormen Algo-lec3

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Intro to Algorithms - Lecture 1

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Cormen Algo-lec13

Cormen Algo-lec10

Cormen Algo-lec6

Cormen Algo-lec7

Cormen Algo-lec5

Cormen Algo-lec16

Cormen Algo-lec14

Cormen Algo-lec17

Cormen Algo-lec18

Cormen Algo-lec21

Cormen Algo-lec1

Cormen Algo-lec19

Cormen Algo-lec15

Introduction to Algorithms

Algorithm Notes Good

LaTex+Primer+1.0

Programming Pearls

8085 microprocessor

Complete Advanced 2nd Ed Sample Lesson

pnp12pt

Maths Shortcuts

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