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Abstract The literature on tourism supply chain management (TSCM) is reviewed. We explore current TSCM research in academic databases, namely Scopus, ABI/INFORM Global (Proquest), ScienceDirect and EBSCO as well as Google Scholar. Accordingly, a systematic literature evaluation is conducted to obtain an overview of the current state of research on TSCM. We found that there is limited amount of research on TSCM. Furthermore, the finding shows that the existing research frameworks for TSCM do not yet provide a holistic view of TSCM. Moreover, we found that the current issues in TSCM are concerned with applying SCM to tourism management. Thus, we propose a new framework for research on TSCM. Then potential research questions are discussed and suitable research methods are identified. Keywords: tourism management, service supply chain management, literature review.
No matter what the economic climate, tourism has a significant impact on global and local economies (UNWTO 2009, Antunes 2000). During economic booms, the tourism (especially international tourism) sector absorbs wealth from people on trips away from their homes (Kim et al. 2006; Lee and Change 2008). On the other hand, during an economics crisis, domestic tourism is one of the key mechanisms for restoring the economy. This could be because many governments see that tourism can also create new jobs (Seckelmann 2002; Page 2009). Tourism has been recognised as a complex system (Jafari 1974; McKercher 1999; Smith 1994; Véronneau and Roy 2009). Business management in the tourism industry critically needs to consider supply chain perspectives not only to increase their efficiency and profitability (Zhang et al. 2009; Véronneau and Roy 2009) but also to ensure sustainability (Schwartz et al. 2008). Furthermore, Tourism Supply Chain Management (TSCM) is currently emerging as a new research agenda (Zhang et al., 2009). One of the reasons for this is that supply chain management (SCM) has already become a critical source of an organisations competitive advantage (Christopher 2005). Therefore SCM is considered to be a vital part of any kind of business. However, research on TSCM is still rather immature and very limited at the moment (Zhang et al., 2009). Consequently, the objective of this study is to provide a research framework for TSCM research. The potential research topics in TSCM are also identified.
PhD candidate and corresponding author (Email: PiboonrungrojP@cardiff.ac.uk) Senior Lecturer in Logistics and Operations Management, Cardiff Business School
Spain and Finland (4. We found that there are two stages of TSCM research. 3 These databases include over 14. “tourism supply chain”. It could be argued that empirical research on TSCM tends to be conducted only on the most famous tourist destinations. Most of TSCM literature has been published in 2008 and 2009 (29 papers or 66%). ‐ Page 2 of 11 ‐ . all in Canada. and social science as well as trade publications. ABI/INFORM Global (Proquest). On the other hand empirical studies on TSCM in Asia are only in China and Thailand (4 and 2 studies respectively). we employed a content analysis to identify the main focus of each paper. in this stage of TSCM research. ScienceDirect and EBSCO 3 as well as Google Scholar using the keywords of. Moreover. “travel supply chain”. Surprisingly. Figure 1 highlights the quantity of TSCM research over time. and 2 studies respectively). 2. there are only 12% of empirical studies were found in the Americas. in another stage since 2007. Moreover. Then we found that TSCM research is currently very limited.000 scholarly journals in business. The findings show that a half of empirical studies were found in Europe whereas approximately one‐third of empirical studies were in Asia. and “hospitality supply chain”. the number of TSCM research has rapidly increased. This significant role of case study approach in TSCM research could be due to the advantage of the case study that can gain depth and insights from the complex phenomenon. more empirical studies are published than conceptual framework papers. Scopus. Secondly. we conducted a systematic literature search of the academic databases. Details of the previous literature on TSCM can be found in Appendix A. the result shows that all studies conducted in Europe employed the case study approach. Literature review To obtain the current state and evolution of TSCM research.PhD Networking Conference Exploring Tourism III: Issue in PhD research Piboonrungroj and Disney 2. Considering the research methodology. Figure 1: Trend in research on tourism supply chain management Furthermore. Methodology and the geographical focus of the research will be classified if the study is empirical research. The first stage is the era before 2007 where there are only conceptual‐ framework papers and no empirical studies conducted. There were only 44 studies found in these databases. Within Europe. There are only three works using quantitatively approaches. a case study approach is a dominant choice (14 studies). most empirical studies were conducted in the UK. management.
Thus coordination in TSCs is highly intensive. Source: Adapted from Pizam (2009). tourism is not a pure manufacturing or a pure service industry (Jafari 1974. Zhang et al. High volatility and sensitivity to the disturbances of tourism demand requires an insightful knowledge to manage it. Moreover. on the supply side.PhD Networking Conference Exploring Tourism III: Issue in PhD research Piboonrungroj and Disney 3. Secondly. (2) Specifying special characteristics of tourism There are two main distinctive characteristics of the tourism industry. services provided by the hospitality and travel industry are partly for tourism purpose. Precisely. tourism demand has been recognised as a complication (Sigala 2008. Lafferty and van Fossen 2001)). Therefore. Firstly. there are also non‐tourist customers in both the hospitality industry and the travel industry. on the demand side. Tourism is a very complex industry. travel and hospitality could mis‐lead researchers (Pizam 2009). Zhang and Murphy 2009). hospitality and travel industries. it is critical to clarify the definition of tourism. Page 2009. Travel trade Clubs Institutional foodservice Assisted living facility Lodging Restaurants Time share Events Attractions Destination marketing Tourism planning & development Trains Ferries Airlines Bus & coach Car rental Commuters Local travellers Migrants Students Hospitality Industry Tourism Industry Travel Industry Figure 2: The relationship between the tourism. 2009). Tourism supply chains (TSCs) consists of various parties that are highly connected (March and Wilkinson 2009. (1) Defining tourism industry The confusion of the terminologies between tourism. ‐ Page 3 of 11 ‐ . It is a mixture of products combining services and goods. we can identify distinct activities in the tourism industry by considering whether they serve tourists (Figure 2). What are the tourism supply chains? This study offers a four‐step approach to define the tourism supply chains. Firstly.
one of the important input providers is the food suppliers or the food supply chain (Font et al. it could be more meaningful to use a correlation matrix approach (Figure 3) that is derived from the tourism supply chain links (Tapper and Font 2004. 7. wholesalers. Waste recycling & disposal 10.PhD Networking Conference Exploring Tourism III: Issue in PhD research Piboonrungroj and Disney (3) Identifying tourism supply chain components A generic supply chain usually comprises of raw material providers. Furniture and crafts 7. Tour operating 15. suppliers. 12. ‐ Page 4 of 11 ‐ . service & resources of destinations 8. satisfaction of the tourists is largely based on the performance of service providers (Yilmaz and Bititci 2005). Marketing & sales 16. Zhang et al. a) Input providers (sources) As the second tier supplier. 6. Energy and water supplies 9. Therefore. and retailers. distributors. 2008). However. 2009. Foods production 11. Excursions & attractions 5. Accommodations 14. 3. Ground transport 3. 14. 9. Customers 1. However. 2009). retailers. social and sport events 6. foods and beverages 13. Cultural. Firms in the first tier suppliers directly contact with the customers even though tour agencies or tour operators may manage the combination and linkages between each of the service providers (Véronneau and Roy 2009). Laundry 12. we may classify components in TSCs by their functions as followings. Ground operations 4. p. we found that TSCs consist of various components linking to each other. Tapper and Font 2004). 5. However. Webster (2001) discussed the scope and structure of food supply chain from the sources of primary inputs (resources). input providers have a role of supplying resources and materials for service operations in the first tier (Smith 1994. Infrastructures. Therefore. Tourism supply chain components 1.4). 13. 11. manufacturers. Transports to & from destinations 2. ∆ ∆ Ο ∆ Ο Ο ∆ ∆ Ο ∆ ∆ ∆ Ο Ο Ο Ο Ο Ο ∆ Ο Ο Ο ∆ Ο Ο Ο Ο ∆ Ο Ο Ο Ο Ο Ο Ο ∆ Ο Figure 3: Correlations matrix of components in the tourism supply chains Source: Extended from Tapper and Font (2004) Note: Supply chain link (Tapper and Font 2004. and final customers (Smith 1994). 10. p. it is not suitable to use this approach to describe the TSCs because it is a complex system that consists of various supply chains. They are agriculture sector. 16. 15. 4) Ο Critical correlation between TSC components (the authors) ∆ Moderate correlation between TSC components (the authors) According to the figure 3. 8. 2. 4. Caterings. We can classify input providers into different types by materials they supply. wholesalers. b) Service providers (service producers) Service providers (1st tier supplier) are considered to be the core facets of TSCs (Zhang et al.
‐ Page 5 of 11 ‐ . after the trip. which is derived from combining perspectives of both the demand and the supply side. it is noteworthy to state that there are also other important components i. e) Passenger transport (customer flow enablers) Not only does freight transport play a significant role in TSCM but also passenger transport play an important role. It composes of various supply chains (Tapper and Font 2004..PhD Networking Conference Exploring Tourism III: Issue in PhD research Piboonrungroj and Disney c) Intermediaries: tour agencies and tour operators (product assemblers) Tour operators and tour agencies have a massive influence on TSCs (Schwartz et al. Duval 2007). Another tier is the service provider that contacts customers (tourists) directly. Muhcina and Popovici 2008). after the customers decided to make a trip. According to the previous discussion. Firstly. In TSCM. energy and waste management which are rarely studied (Zhang et al. The second part is a combination of supply chains that associate to tourism such as lodging (hotel). information inquiries and booking procedures with tour agencies or via the internet. 2009). acting as architects. freight transport is the integrator of the physical flow (McKinnon 2001). 2003) or factory gate pricing (Potter et al. TSCs are considerably complex. 2009. and customer flow (Fawcett 2000). there may be some after sales services or activities between tourists and service providers/ tour agencies. Font et al. there are four major flows including physical flow (Zhang et al. 2009). and passenger transport supply chains. and then the transactions between the tour agencies/tour operators and service providers. information flow (Go and William 1993. Bignné et al. 2008. (4) Outlining flows and processes Finally we outline flows and processes of the TSCs by proposing a generic tourism supply chains model (Figure 4). This model represents components and flows in typical TSCs that can be divided into three phrases. 2008). freight transport still has an important role to ensure the seamless transactions between input providers and service providers (Véronneau and Roy 2009).e. This critical role of passenger transport is to seamlessly move the tourists along their trips (Fawcett 2000. d) Freight transport (physical flow connectors) In a typical supply chain. Considering this vital role of tour operators. There are two tiers of suppliers. could be also applicable for TSCM. Firstly. Thirdly. The critical role of the tour operators is controlling the flow of tourists and partly managing the tourism supply chain (Zhang et al. such as vendor managed inventory (Disney et al. In this model. Muhcina and Popovici 2008). 2008). Apart from the components of TSCs discussed previously. 2007). designing the supply chain. Various techniques for managing efficient transport operations in traditional supply chain. they may be considered to be forth‐party logistic service providers (4PLs). catering (restaurant) supply chain. souvenirs. input providers who supply resources for service operations such as foods and beverages (F&B) or equipments.
After the trip Figure 4: A Generic Tourism Supply Chains Model ‐ Page 6 of 11 ‐ .e. Furniture Water & Energy Hotels supply chains Passenger transport supply chains Service providers i... Before the trip Passenger Transport (air) Passenger Transport (land) II.e. During the trip Passenger Transport (air) III. (2nd Tier suppliers) F&B Equipment Waste mgmt.PhD Networking Conference Exploring Tourism III: Issue in PhD research Piboonrungroj and Disney Upstream I n Freight transports & f Distribution systems o r m Information flows a t i Via o tour operators n F Direct Via l contact travel o via agencies websites w s Trip Arrangement Input providers i. st (1 Tier suppliers) Service opera‐ tions Attraction supply chains Service opera‐ tions Service opera‐ tions P h y s i c a l F l o w s Downstream Services delivery Services delivery Services delivery Customer flow Customer (Tourist) I.
and performance measurements) under the concept of SCOR model that consists of plan. Financial ‐ Margin ‐ Profitability 3. There are three major focuses in the framework (designs. and return (Supply‐Chain Council 2009). operational. 1st tier suppliers ‐ Lodging ‐ Travel ‐ Etc. Secondly. Operational ‐ Effectiveness ‐ Efficiency ‐ Responsiveness ‐ Reliability ‐ Resilience ‐ Value added ‐ Wastes (Muda) 4. Conceptual framework for TSCM research After we have a generic form of TSCs. source. make. In TSCM. Firstly. relations. supply chain should be designed preliminarily based on what the targeted tourists want. the core of TSCM is relationship among stakeholders. in TSCM they are those correlations between TSC quartets that are first‐tier and second‐tier suppliers. Supply chain redesign I. Development Sustainability Intermediaries ‐ Tour agencies ‐ Tour operators Collaborations within/between the tourism supply chains Plan Source Make Deliver Return Figure 5: A research framework of tourism supply chain management ‐ Page 7 of 11 ‐ .PhD Networking Conference Exploring Tourism III: Issue in PhD research Piboonrungroj and Disney 4. The other aspects of the design process such as strategy. Thirdly. Designs II. tour agencies/tour operators. supply chain design is a critical starting point of TSCM. financial. External Customer satisfaction 2. distribution or pricing could also be considered (Chopra and Meindl 2007). performance measurement covers four aspects including external. and development that are considered in the balance score card (Johnston and Clark 2008). then we can illustrate the research framework for research on TSCM (Figure 5). deliver. Customer s (Tourists) 1. Performance measurements Customer value Competitive advantage Strategies Processes Distribution Inventory Transport Sourcing Facilities Pricing Quartet relationships of the tourism supply chains 2nd tier suppliers ‐ Foods ‐ Energy ‐ Etc. Unlike typical SCM that considers only buyer‐seller relationship. Relationships III. and tourists.
Furthermore. Thus. Undertaking this model. the generic tourism supply chain in this present study may be a robust model for future research on TSCM. TSCM research could employ either qualitative or quantitative research methods or both (Piboonrungroj 2009). considering the immaturity of the TSCM concept. To an extent. Nevertheless. concerning the level of generalisation of the research. we found some emerging topics in the literatures that are still the gaps. 6. We outline five potential research agendas with specific research questions that should be answered. tourism is also a business that inevitably has to consider SCM. because SCM is a study of the relationships between each player along the supply chain. The proposed research framework could also enable researchers in both tourism and SCM areas to comprehensively explore and examine the phenomenon in the TSCs. Conclusions There is a growing consensus that a single company no longer competes in the marketplace but rather its supply chain that competes (Christopher 2005). However. therefore another vital research agenda could be the collaborations of the TSCs. Acknowledgements The authors are grateful to the Royal Thai Government through the Commission on Higher Education for financial support of Mr. There are various research methods the selection of research method should be based on types of research questions and research objectives (Yin 2003). it was found that most of the empirical studies have employed the case study approach to provide an in‐depth analysis. drivers and impacts of collaboration in TSCs can be the focal consideration. Research opportunities The potential research agendas which could enable the better understanding of the TSCs have been identified. survey‐based research using advance statistical methods such as structural equation modelling or econometrics could offer a better reliable model of the TSCM. Therefore. Examples of methodological selection in TSCM research can be obtained in Piboonrungroj (2009). (1) TSC design What is the right tourism supply chain to a particular situation? How can we identify it? (2) Collaboration in tourism supply chain What type of collaborations existing in TSCs? What are the antecedents and the benefits of collaboration in TSCs? (3) Performance measurement Which aspect that we should consider when measuring TSCM performance? How can we measure supply chain performance in tourism? (4) Managing risk and uncertainty in Tourism Supply Chain What are risks and uncertainties of TSCs? How can we measure and mitigate risks in TSCs? (5) ICT and E‐tourism supply chains How can we design ICT systems in TSCs? How can we identify the right E‐business model for a particular TSC? In terms of research methodology. Various research topics suggested in this paper could extend the scope of the existing SCM research. Finally.PhD Networking Conference Exploring Tourism III: Issue in PhD research Piboonrungroj and Disney 5. Piboonrungroj’s study in Cardiff University. ‐ Page 8 of 11 ‐ . the research employed in other industries could be applied in TSCM research.
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Silaga Smith and Xioa Wei and Lu Xinyue and Yongli Year: 2007 Mitchell and Faal Ogden and McCorriston Main focus Collaborative tourism marketing Tourism business network Ethics in TSCs Tourism partnership evaluation TSC relationship Overall TSCM Methodological implications in TSCM research SCM in tourism destination TSCM practices Competition dynamics SCM and tourist destination marketing Overall TSCM TSC relationship IT adoption in travel agency supply chains SC Collaboration Sustainable SCM Competition & relationship in TSCs Coordination in supply chain Holiday supply chains Tourism Logistics Overall TSCM Service quality measurement in TSCs Paper type Empirical Empirical Empirical Conceptual Empirical Conceptual Conceptual Empirical Empirical Analytical Empirical Conceptual Empirical Empirical Descriptive Empirical Empirical Analytical Conceptual Empirical Conceptual Empirical Empirical Empirical Conceptual Empirical Empirical Empirical Conceptual Empirical Empirical Empirical Empirical Empirical Conceptual Conceptual Conceptual Conceptual Conceptual Conceptual Conceptual Conceptual Conceptual Conceptual Methods Countries Case study Spain & Austria Case study Finland Case study China ‐ ‐ Survey France (Descriptive statistics) ‐ ‐ ‐ ‐ Case study Case study Quantitative (Game‐theoretic) Case study ‐ Case study Quantitative (Structural Equation Modelling) Case study Exploratory Quantitative (Stackelburg games) Simulation ‐ Case study ‐ Quantitative (Factor analysis) Case study Case study ‐ Case study Case study Case study ‐ Case study Survey Qualitative Case study Quantitative (Regression) ‐ ‐ ‐ ‐ ‐ ‐ ‐ ‐ ‐ ‐ Finland Canada ‐ China ‐ Brazil UK UK UK & EU China ‐ Thailand ‐ India Thailand Spain ‐ Greece Canada China ‐ Gambia UK New Zealand UK Belgium ‐ ‐ ‐ ‐ ‐ ‐ ‐ ‐ ‐ ‐ Supply Chain Audit Method Tourist destination competitiveness &benchmarking Sustainable SCM SCM & sustainable tourism Overall TSCs (Culinary) TSCM and tourism development TSC operations TSCM and tourism development Supplier relationships in conference and event mgmt. Véronneau and Roy Yang et al. Bignné et al. Schott Distribution channels Year: 2006 Novelli et al. Year: 2008 Almeida et al. Guo Harewood Johnston and Clark Kaosa‐ard and Suriya Municină and Popovici Narayan et al. Tourism network and cluster Walle and Steenberghen Public transport and trip chains Year: 2005 Alford Yilmaz and Bititci Year: 2004 Tapper and Carbone Tapper and Font Year: 2001 Hovara King Lafferty and Fossen Year: Before 2001 Antunes (2000) Smith (1994) Go and William (1993) Business Process Re‐engineering Performance measurement Sustainable SCM Overall TSCM Logistics of airline service Logistics of airline service Integration in tourism Overall TSCM Tourism production process Information technology ‐ Page 11 of 11 ‐ . Zhang and Murphy Zhang et al. Piboonrungroj Rodríguez‐Díaz and Espino‐Rodríguez Schwartz et al. Dye Font et al.PhD Networking Conference Exploring Tourism III: Issue in PhD research Piboonrungroj and Disney Appendix A: Summary of TSCM literature Authors Year: 2009 d’Angella and Go Lemmetyinen and Go Keating March and Wilkinson Murphy and Smith Page Piboonrungroj Rusko et al.
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