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Presented by: Pankaj Rakheja


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Objective Literature survey DNA structure Encryption AES DNA computing in AES Tools Algorithm designed Results Conclusion Future scope Publications References Bibliography

We are proposing a new way to show how cryptography works with DNA computing,It can transmit message securely and effectively. The AES algorithm belongs to symmetric key cryptography; it will be used here connecting with DNA computing technique to encrypt Message

Literature of the topic . • • It includes : Work done in this domain so far.

Vol. where the access structure specifies the subsets of participants qualified to reconstruct the secret. Provided an optimal protocol for multi-secret sharing schemes on a particular access structure. 4. 4 Adleman L . F. ACM. 266: 1021-1024. “Efficient sharing of many secrets. solved a directed Hamiltonian path problem .No. 1993 L. Springer-Verlag. 665.” Journal of Cryptology. 692703. Molecular computation of solutions to combinational problems[J]. 1991. can be achieved if a majority of the players are honest Showed a relationship between ideal secret sharing schemes and matroids.” STACS’93. De Santis and U. A. pp. M. or game with incomplete information. Vaccaro . Vol. 73-85. 21st STOC. pp. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Davenport 3 C. Ben-Or Paper and Conference detail “Verifiable Secret Sharing and Multiparty Protocols with Honest Majority. 1989 Work done Presented a verifiable secret sharing protocol. 1 Authors T. Brickell and D. it indicated the feasibility of a molecular approach to solve combinatorial problems 2 E.“On the classification of ideal secret sharing schemes. pp.S. Science. and show that any multiparty protocol. 1994. 123134. Blundo.” In Proc. Rabin and M.

Li Paper and Conference detail Understanding Long-Range Correlation in DNA Sequenc . Rutovitz. Piper. Lipton R 8 S. Gray and D. F. 5 Authors W. CABIOS. 1995. Kallioniemi. 0. Breaking DES using a molecular computer[R]. 75: 392-41 Using DNA to solve NPcomplete problems. Cytometry. J. Dunworth C. This is especially useful for molecular computer based cryptosystems and can be useful for breaking DES and other applications as well automated the process of analysis and interpretation of DNA hybridization images automate the process of analysis and interpretation of DNA hybridization images 6 Lipton R J 7 Boneh D. D.No. Phys D. A. 1995 Computer image analysis of comparative genomic hybridization. 1994. 1995 Work done Combinedc recombinant DNA technology extended the adleman approach to solve another NP problem batching computations on a molecular computer is very cheap. . Sudar. Audic and G. 19:lO-26. 1995 9 J. Zanetti Automatic reading of hybridization filter images. Kallioniemi.Science. Princeton University. Pinkel. Waldman.S. Technical ReportCS-TR-489-95. 11(5):489-495. D. 268: 542-545.

E B Baum et al. pp. 1997. DNA solution of the maximal clique problem. 19. of the 2ed Annu. Roth. Wolf. Kari Designed a way of mixing DNA strands . Science. Anal. Work done DNA computers extended to RNA used for breaking DES 11 Ouyang.No. 10 Authors Adleman L Paper and Conference detail On applying molecular computation to the date encryption strands in DNA based computers[C]// Proc. Image analysis for comparative genomic hybridization based on a karyotyping program for Windows. Q 12 K. G. Cytology and Histology.S. Dietel and I. eds. vol. 1996: 28-48wetrewtewtw. M. Quyang presented a molecular biology-based experimental solution to the maximal clique problem automate the process of analysis and interpretation of DNA hybridization images 13 L.” The Mathematical Intelligencer. 1997 “DNA computing: arrival of biological mathematics. 19(6):461-473. 9-22. 278:542. Princeton.Meet. And Quant. 1997. NJ. Peterson.

” Theoretical Computer Science. Bancroft C. vol. 54: 233-249. G. Smith designed a DNA computing model system. P_un. 2000. L. A. 183-203. Paper and Conference detail “Sticker systems. Nature. Liu. A. 403: 175-179. L. which is called surface-based DNA computing. E. Frutos. and solved the satisfiability problem .S. 1998. Risca V. 14 Authors G. Reif J H Hiding messages in DNA microdots[J]. 2000. 16 17 Q. LaBean T H. pp. R. Nature. such as P_un’s work on the sticker systems data storage in small part of DNA strands Used discrete mathematics for DNA cryptography 15 Celland C T. G. 1999. Wang. Condon.No. DNA computing on surfaces. M. Corn. Gehani A. 399: 533-534 DNA-based cryptography. M. Dismacs Series in Discrete Mathematics and Theoretical Computer Science. Rozenberg. 204. Work done some new DNA algorithm models are proposed.

Y Benenson designed a programmable and autonomous computing machine made of biomolecules.L 20 Wu. 2001. Richter C. pp. on which a finite automaton can run 22 P. Long-term data storage in DNA. exceptional energy efficiency and extraordinary information density are inherent in DNA molecules . Trends Biotechnol. Cox J “Long-term data storage in DNA. 2001. Banzhaf W.414:430. 247–250. 2000. 2001. 57(1):1322. L. Nature. 2001 find that the vast parallelism. H Wu analyzed and improved their surface-based method 21 Benenson. vol. 19. Programmable and autonomous computing machine made of biomolecules. et al Paper and Conference detail . 19. 59:1. Biosystem. Work done Used DNA binary strands in designing a cryptography scheme data storage in DNA 19 Cox J P. 18 Authors Leier A.” Trends Biotechnology. An improved surface-based method for DNA computation.S. Cryptography with DNA binary strands.No. 247–250.

297-309. Pan. “Efficient DNA sticker algorithms for Npcomplete graph problems. Work done Braich’s experiment about the solution of a 20-variable 3SAT problem by a DNA computer DNA algo model for solving some graphical problem 24 25 L. pp. Zimmermann. W. 23 Authors R. Adleman K. Q.” Computer Physics Communications.” Chinese Journal of Electronics. Paper and Conference detail “Scalability of the surface based DNA algorithm for 3SAT. Chelyapov. Braich. Xu DNA algo model for solving colique problem 26 Kartalopoulos S. Isao S Key distribution in DNA . K. N. C. H. P. “A surface-based DNA algorithm for the maximum clique problem. 2002. S.V. 2005. vol. pp. 296. Johnson. 2005.2:774-779 Public-key system using DNA as a one-way function for key distribution[J]. 2002.25-29. 81. authentication and data mimicking Military Communications Conference. J. pp. vol.S. Rothemund. L.144.Biosystems.” Science. 499-502. 11. DNA cryptography in optics 27 Kazuo T. vol. 169-171 DNA-inspired cryptographic method in optical communications. Akimitsu O.No.

Carlos Paper and Conference detail “Solving Multidimensional 0–1 Knapsack Problem by P Systems with Input and Active Membranes. DNA synthesis. pp. Q. 28 Authors L. and DNA digital coding. X. X. have only been developed and well accepted in recent years Li’s work on scalability of the surface based DNA algorithm for 3-SAT find that the vast parallelism.No. F. Z. 2005 Public-key system using DNA as a one-way function for key distribution. vol.” Biosystems. X.S. 65. 81.” Journal of Parallel and Distributed Computing. Huang. H. Kazuo.” Computer Engineering and Applications. pp. V. exceptional energy efficiency and extraordinary information density are inherent in DNA molecules 30 D. T. Work done mathematic hard problems like knapsap problem with biocomputing 29 T. pp.29– 32. Cui . vol. 2006. 15781584. 25– 29. vol. Isao Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Li 31 G. O. Pan. Akimitsu and S. 2005. “Scalability of the surface based DNA algorithm for 3SAT. 95-98. Li. 42. “New Direction of Data Storage: DNA Molecular Storage Technology. 2006. and M. Li. 85.” BioSystems. pp. R. vol.

No 32 Authors K Ning Paper and Conference detail A Pseudo DNA Cryptography Method 2009 Work done introduced a new cryptography method based on central dogma of molecular biology. Mohamed Essam Khalifa (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security. Mohamed Hashem(2). February 2010. Harsh Dhaka and A K Verma “DNA based Cryptography: an Approach to Secure Mobile Networks “International Journal of Computer Applications 1(1):77–80. Vol. Taymoor Nazmy(1). Since this method simulates some critical processes in central dogma. 3. 8. it is a pseudo DNA cryptography method. 34 Mona Sabry(1). Proposed a DNA Computing method for securing Mobile networks 33 Harneet Singh.S. 2010 A DNA and Amino Acids-Based Implementation of Playfair Cipher Playfair cipher implementation with DNA COMPUTING . Karan Chugh. No.

            Biomolecular computation Data storage in DNA Solving complex mathematical problems Sticker systems Secret sharing or key distribution Breaking DES Use of Discrete mathematics for DNA cryptography Image hybridization Certain surface based methods developed for DNA computing Automation machine based on biomolecules Hiding data in DNA structure DNA based machines .

1 Authors Suchendra M. we present an interrsting example lo encode and decode images wing the proposed scheme.S. Bhandarkar and Tongzhang Jiang Paper and Conference detail Automated Analysis of DNA Hybridization Images 2000 Work done A mathematical model for the positive hybridization patterns and a pattern classifier based on shapebased moments are proposed and implemented to distinguish between the clone-probe hybridization signals. Experimental results on real DNA hybridization images are presented. Biomolecular Cryptography Design 2003 . molecular Cryptography design Carbon nanotube-based message transformation. To demonstmte the performance. proposed a novel design of DNAbased. 2 Jie Chen A DNA-based. and DNAbased cryptosystem an proposed.No.

No. Vancouver. BC. and is a breakthrough in basic biological operations using a molecular computer. 3 Authors Avishek Adhikari Paper and Conference detail IEEE Congress on Evolutionary computation Sheraton Vancouver Wall Centre Hotel. and parallel getting inverse over GF(2n). In order to achieve this. Our scheme involves two very simple DNA computing techniques known as mixing and DNA sequencing we discuss the biometric processes for identity verification. we propose three DNAbased algorithms for parallel adder. and the ramifications to biometric data authentication 4 Stamatios V.S. parallel multiplier. Canada July 16-21. Jin Xu Fast Parallel Molecular Algorithms for DNA-Basedcomputation:Solving the Elliptic Curve Discrete Logarithm Problem over GF(2n) Frontiers in the Convergence of Bioscience and Information Technologies 2007 find the discrete logarithm on elliptic curve. Kartalopoulos Communications Security: Biometrics over Communications Networks 2006 5 Kenli Li1. 2006 Work done a DNA secret sharing scheme for general access structure that plays an important role in cryptography. cryptographic processes that assure data secrecy between the data source and destination. we describe the key authentication processes in the GSM and in the FTTP optical access networks. . Shuting Zou.

AUTHENTICATION AND DATA MIMICKING 2008 Work done Gave a brief of One time pad security technique used for DNA encryption. A novel generation key scheme based on DNA is proposed. sensing of fiber tapping as well as sensing datamimicking by in-truders. Zhang Lei2. the scheme improves the independence and the strict avalanche of the key. Kartalopoulos. it encrypts multiple channels randomly with multiple keys to render channel monitoring by eavesdroppers virtually impossible. Xuncai Zhang Stamatios V. identity authentication. Therefore. Yanfeng Wang . data signature.No.DNA steganography and DNA certification we present a novel WDM link security methodology that borrows certain con-cepts of the double DNA helix and we call it DNA-inspired. the new scheme has wide application in the field of the block cipher.S. 7 8 LI Xin-she1. the random number can be generated by the DNA sequence directly and the speed of the computation is greatly improved. 6 Authors Guangzhao Cui .2. Although it increases computation amount because of using the matrix operation. We also discuss source authentication. By using a key expansion matrix. HU YUpu1 A novel generation key scheme based on DNA 2008 International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Security . Limin Qin . et al. PhD Paper and Conference detail Information Security Technology Based on DNA Computing 2007 DNA-INSPIRED CRYPTOGRAPHIC METHOD IN OPTICAL COMMUNICATIONS.

Xiutang Geng#2. 9 Authors Zhihua Chen#1. tubes. The essential operations required in DES are implemented by the molecular sticker functions. The molecular sticker algorithm includes three parts: initializing the key space with all possible keys. biomolecular automaton can improve the practicability of DNA computer and extend the application of DNA computing 10 Shuhong Jiao1 Robert Goutte2 CODE FOR ENCRYPTION HIDING DATA INTO GENOMIC DNA OF LIVING ORGANISMS 2008 11 Zheng Zhang #1. encryption and detecting the corresponding key. enzymes needed by the molecular sticker algorithm are calculated and analyzed. this work indicates that the DES are perhaps insecure and also presents clear evidence of the ability of molecular computing to perform complicated operations we have selected a Bacillus subtilis gene (tatAD ) and use the specific properties of silent mutations to obtain a biologically innocuous product. Jin Xu#3 Paper and Conference detail Efficient DNA Sticker Algorithms for DES 2008 Work done we propose a concrete recursive sticker molecular algorithm to the DES. The short memory strands. Furthermore.No. Jie Liu*3 A Method to Encrypt Information with DNA Computing 2008 . An adapted code for the message insertion in this gene is proposed DNA STEGANOGRAPHY advantages of DNA computing and electrical computing.S. Xiaolong Shi@ #2.

it can transmit message securely and effectively.No. Qiang Zhang 14 DNA Secret Writing Techniques Published in ieee in 2010 . it is used in this paper connectting with DNA computing technique to encrypt message. and put forward the DNA algorithm of the verifiable secret sharing. Experimental results obtained using Matlab Bioinformatics Toolbox 13 Xing Wang. It represents a synthesis of our work in the field. DNA XOR OTP and DNA chromosomes v indexing. presents the principles of bio molecular computations (BMC) and several algorithms for DNA(deoxyribonucleic acid) steganography and cryptography: One-Time-Pad (OTP).Gao Dong-Mei Paper and Conference detail DNA Algorithm of Verifiable Secret Sharing 2009 ETP International Conference on Future Computer and Communication DNA computing-based cryptography 2009 Work done Solved hamilton problem by applying LZW coding method. The RSA algorithm belongs to asymmetric key cryptography.S. sustained by former referred publications. This paper use a new way to show how cryptography works with DNA computing. 12 Authors Liu Feng .

  Each nucleotide consists of: 1. Pentose sugar 3. Phosphate group 2. DNA consists of two molecules that are arranged into a ladder-like structure called a Double Helix. Nitrogenous base . A molecule of DNA is made up of millions of tiny subunits called Nucleotides.

Phosphate Nitrogenous Base Pentose Sugar .

 There are four types of nitrogenous bases. . The phosphate and sugar form the backbone of the DNA molecule. whereas the bases form the “rungs”.

A T Adenine Thymine C G Cytosine Guanine .

.   Adenine (A) Thymine (T) Cytosine (C) Guanine (G) Form a base pair. Each base will only bond with one other specific base.   Form a base pair.

. Because of this complementary base pairing. the order of the bases in one strand determines the order of the bases in the other strand.

A C T C T G A G A G T T C A .

AGG-CTC-AAG-TCC-TAG TCC-GAG-TTC-AGG-ATC  . To crack the genetic code found in DNA we need to look at the sequence of bases. The bases are arranged in triplets called codons.

RC4. … . 3DES. Transform information such that its true meaning is hidden ◦ Requires “special knowledge” to retrieve the information  Examples ◦ AES. ROT-13.

Ciphers Classical Rotor Machines Modern Substitution Transposition Public Key Secret Key Steganography Stream Block .

Key Key Alice Bob Plaintext Encryption Algorithm Ciphertext Decryption Algorithm Plaintext .

 Uses really big numbers ◦ 1 in 261 odds of winning the lotto and being hit by lightning on the same day ◦ 292 atoms in the average human body ◦ 2128 possible keys in a 128-bit key ◦ 2170 atoms in the planet ◦ 2190 atoms in the sun ◦ 2233 atoms in the galaxy ◦ 2256 possible keys in a 256-bit key .

  One-Time Pad (XOR message with key) Example*: ◦ Message: ONETIMEPAD ◦ Key: TBFRGFARFM ◦ Ciphertext: IPKLPSFHGQ ◦ The key TBFRGFARFM decrypts the message to ONETIMEPAD ◦ The key POYYAEAAZX decrypts the message to SALMONEGGS ◦ The key BXFGBMTMXM decrypts the message to GREENFLUID *From Applied Cryptography .

Not “American” Encryption Standard .

worldwide . Government  Private Industry  Academia ◦ Started in January 1997 by NIST ◦ 4-year cooperation between  Why? ◦ Replace 3DES ◦ Provide an unclassified. publicly disclosed encryption algorithm. AES competition  U. available royalty-free.S.

Security
 Resistance to cryptanalysis, soundness of math, randomness of output, etc.

Cost
 Computational efficiency (speed)  Memory requirements

Algorithm / Implementation Characteristics
 Flexibility, hardware and software suitability, algorithm simplicity

AES uses the finite field GF(28)
 {b7, b6, b5, b4, b3, b2, b1, b0}

◦ b7x7 + b6x6 + b5x5 + b4x4 + b3x3 + b2x2 + b1x + b0

Byte notation for the element: x6 + x5 + x + 1 Has its own arithmetic operations
◦ Addition ◦ Multiplication ◦ {01100011} – binary ◦ {63} – hex

Addition (XOR)
 (x6 + x4 + x2 + x + 1) + (x7 + x + 1) = x7 + x6 + x4 + x2  {01010111}  {10000011} = {11010100}  {57}  {83} = {d4}

Multiplication is tricky

(x6 + x4 + x2 + x +1) (x7 + x +1) = x13 + x11 + x9 + x8 + x7 + x7 + x5 + x3 + x2 + x + x6 + x4 + x2 + x +1 +1 and These cancel = x13 + x11 + x9 + x8 + x6 + x5 + x4 + x3 x13 + x11 + x9 + x8 + x6 + x5 + x4 + x3 +1 modulo ( x8 + x4 + x3 + x +1) = x7 + x6 +1. Irreducible Polynomial .

 There’s a better way ◦ xtime() – very efficiently multiplies its input by {02}  Multiplication by higher powers can be accomplished through repeat application of xtime() .

or 8  Nr – Number of rounds (function of Nb and Nk) ◦ For AES. Nb = 4  Nk – Number of 32-bit words in the Key ◦ For AES. 12. Nr = 10. 6. Nb – Number of columns in the State ◦ For AES. Nk = 4. or 14 .

  Convert to state array Transformations (and their inverses)     AddRoundKey SubBytes ShiftRows MixColumns  Key Expansion .

3 9 1.1 S3.2 S0.1 S0.1 S1.3 8 .0 S0.2 S3.0 S3.3 S S1.Input block: 0 0 1 3 4 5 8 12 6 9 13 1 2 3 4 5 2 6 10 14 7 11 15 = 7 S0.0 S2.1 S2.2 S2.3 S3.2 S1.0 11 12 13 14 15 10 S2.

0 1.1 R3.2 S0.0 S2.1 R R 1.1 S0.2 1.1 S’2.1 S’ S’ S’ 1.1 R2.3 S2.1 .2 S’3.2 S’0.0 R3.1 R0.2 R3.2 S1.3 R R3.3 R3.2 S2.1 S’0.1 S2.1 S’3.3 R2.1 S0.1 2.3 1. XOR each byte of the round key with its corresponding byte in the state array XOR S0.1 S1.1 S3.0S’ 2.0 S’3.2 R2.3 S’3.1 1.1 R0.3 S S1.0 S2.0 R0.0 S’0.2 1.1 S’2.2 R0.3 S3.3 R R R 1.0 1.1 R0.1 S3.0 R2.0 S3.1 S’0.0 S0.3 S’ S’3.1 1.3 S’ S’1.2 S3.3 S’0.1 S1.2 S’2.1 2.

 Replace each byte in the state array with its corresponding value from the S-Box 00 44 88 CC 11 55 99 DD 55 22 66 AA EE 33 77 BB FF .

1 S1.2 S2.0 S0.1 S0.0 S2.0 S3.3 S3. Last three rows are cyclically shifted S0.0 S2.0 S3.2 .1 S1.2 S1.1 S3.1 S2.2 S3.0 S1.3 S2.0 S2.3 S1.1 S3.2 S0.3 S3.

c = S0.0 S2.1 S’ S2.c  ({02}  S2.2 S’1.1 S’3.3  3.0 S0.c 1.1 S’3.0S3.c 0.0 S’3.c  ({02}  S1.2 S1.1 S’ ) S’2.c S0.c)  ({03}  S2.2 S0.0 S3.c  S3.3 S3.1 S3.1 S’ = ({03}  S )  S  S  ({02} 2.1 S’1.30.c  S1.1 S’0.c)  S2.c S3.1 S’0.2 S’2.3 S S1.0 S’0.1 S0.2 S’3.1 S2.c 2.3 S’  S’1.1 S2. Apply MixColumn transformation to each column S’0.c = S 1.c)  S3.3 S’0.c1.0S 2.1 .2 S2.1 S1.1 S’1.1 S’2.2 S3.c = ({02}  MixColumns() S1.c)  ({03}  S0.3 S’3.c 3.3 S’ S’ 2.0 S1.c S0.c )  ({03} 1.2 S’0.

 Expands the key material so that each round uses a unique round key ◦ Generates Nb(Nr+1) words .

     Plaintext to be feed to AES is first DNA encrypted Then the AES works on it Instead of ten usual rounds there is an addition round which will convert hexadecimal cipher to DNA sequence form Then for decrypting. first DNA cipher is used to get the initial state matrix to be decoded by AES Then DNA decryption algorithm retrieves the original data .

. and it is used to implement numerical algorithms for a wide range of applications. MATLAB is a program that was originally designed to simplify the implementation of numerical linear algebra routines. The basic language used is very similar to standard linear algebra notation. It has since grown into something much bigger.

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Figure 1: Encryption process at sender side .

Figure 2:Decryption process at the receiver side .

Figure 3:DNA encryption process .

No 1 2 Alphab et A B CCA GTT 14 15 codon S.Alphabet to codon mapping table S.No Alphab et N O TCT CGG Codon 3 4 C D TTG GGT 16 17 P Q ACA CAA 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 E F G H I J K L M TTT TCG CGC ATG AGT CGA GAA CGT CCT 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 R S T U V W X Y Z ACT GCA CTT GTC TCC GCC ATC AAA TCA .

Mapping nucleotide base to numerical value S.No Base Numeric value Nucleotide 1 2 3 4 A C G T 01 03 07 20 .

Figure 4:DNA decryption process .

Lookup Table for Mapping Numeric Value to Base Nucleotide S.No Numeric value 1 2 3 4 01 03 07 20 Base Nucleotide A C G T .

S.No 14 15 16 Codon TCT CGG ACA Alphabet N O P 4 5 6 7 8 GGT TTT TCG CGC ATG D E F G H 17 18 19 20 21 CAA ACT GCA CTT GTC Q R S T U 9 10 11 12 13 AGT CGA GAA CGT CCT I J K L M 22 23 24 25 26 TCC GCC ATC AAA TCA V W X Y Z . No 1 2 3 codon CCA GTT TTG Alphabet A B C S.

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AES with DNA Computing .

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           It has a maximum key space of 10 1344 It utilizes three encryption schemes Hiller cipher. AES and DNA computing Its key space is variable too It is unique in itself It hides presence of AES in it which makes it more difficult for attacker to crack it It involves high mathematical computations It utilizes DNA complexity and randomness It uses both substitution and permutation techniques It also utilizes concept of hill cipher Its computation speed is also good Data can be decoded only if key used in DNA and AES algorithm are known else it can not be decoded at all .

 We have successfully implemented algorithm with DNA computing AES .

 In future work can be done on reducing overhead and analyzing exact betterment in AES obtained on inserting DNA computing in it .

“A Unique Cryptographic Mechanism for Encoding Data Using DNA Structure”. Singapore Institute of Electronics and other organizations .1. in International conference on Network Communication and Computers (ICNCC 2011) organized and sponsored by IACSIT. The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE).

 “A Novel DNA Cryptographic mechanism using Advanced Encryption Standard” in Journal of Cryptographic Engineering of SPRINGER .

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