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Colour plalrs bl MICHAEL ROFFE
ALBA:>' 1I0 0 K H RVIC r.s
Colour plates by ROFFE
Publabed in 1974 by
Ckprey Publishing Li d, P.O. Boll :.1 5,
107 Oxford ROiId, Reading, Berkshir e
Cop)Tighl 1974 Os prey Publi shing I. td
This book is copyrighted und er the Heme
Convenuon. All reser...ed. from
fair dealing for t he purpose of pri e S1 ud)',
researcb, eriucicm or re...iew, as permit ted und er the
Copyright Ar t , 1956, no part of th is pu bli ca tion
ma y be reproduced, stor ed in a retr ieval Iyst em, or
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edition tsBS 085045 'J.J. 7 9
edinon 0 198 1
Pr inted in Great Britain by
JarTold . Sons Lid, ::\"orwich
lJlf/Y}flt/rfi ol/
25 Xovember 1795 the kingdom of Poland fell
10 her stronger neighbours, Russia, Pr ussia
Aust ria, and 'he third partition of t ha t un-
y, turbulent state took place.
Tbe elected King of Poland, Sranislas Augustus,
forced 10 abdicate and retired to Russia with
prnsion of 200, 000 ducats a year . HI"dirt! at 51
M1enburg (now Leningrad] on 12 Febr ua ry 1798.
HiI old kingdom was redistributed as follo...."I :
\.ustria took the la rger part of t he pala tinate of
~ . , the pa latinates of Sandomi r and Lublin
part of the distr ict of Chdm and those pa rts
tht- palatinates of Brzecz, Podl achie and
it' which lay all the left bank of the Ri ver
Pru.ia look those parts of Podlachie and
-it' which lay on t he right bank of the Bug;
0( the palatinates of T roki and Samogit ie
on the left bank of the Xiemen and one
t of the palatinate of Krakow.
ia took the rest of Lithuani a up to the
_iiemen, the rNI of the palatinates of Breece
'ovogrod(" k and the greater part of Samogi rie
tht' rema ins of Wolhynir-, Courland an d
nDCr- alone had opposed Poland' s treat ment
ame Iht' natural refuge of all Polish exiles.
Polish offic("rs and men were still held as
of in Tobolsk, P('I('rsburK, Moscow,
u..Magdeburg and ot her places, bUI among
In Pari s was one General J ean-Hr-nri
" , ~ k i who on II October 1796 formed the
1eeion' with xapolecn's aid.
cit" 287 of the French Cons rinnion did
it the pr C5(' nce of foreign troops on
d. Dombrowski was sent 10 It al y to
I l ~ work in the new repu blic crea ted as
a result of Napoleon's victories in It al y. After the
victory of Lodi, the Cispadane and Tran spadan e
Republics were combined into rhe Cisalpi ne
Rep ublic, and the government of Ihis new 5[011(",
being unable to raise its own army, decided 10
enlist the aid of forei gn troops.
Dombrowski arrived in Mil an on 2 December
1796 and presented his scheme 10 Napoleon. On
4 January 1797 Napoleon wrot e to the Council of
Stat e of Lombard y 10 say t ha i Genrral Dombrow-
ski was willing to raise a Polish II"gion to help rhe
people of Lombardy. Xapoleon added that he
would gladly la ke all measures necessary for this
T his offer was well received and on 9 J anuary
1797 a conve nnon was signed by which Domb row-
ski gua ran teed the s('rvices of his compatriots to
the republic in exchange for which his men
became Lombard citizens and received rhe same
pay and privileges as the other national troops.
The Poles retained their own unifonns and com-
mands were given in Polish. They wore the French
cockade and comre-epauleues in Lombar dy' s
national colours with the inscription ' Gli uomini
liberi sono Iratelli' (Free men arc br others},
w-, 1M ....... laiat:d.o... 01 rot..od.u.......u. ( w .)
....... s...-,. (rieJul _ 50 __coo.. I. 1107 ....
On 20 Janua!) 1797 Dombr o.... published a
proc lamation in four langu ages ca lling on Poles
10 t nt..r his n..w tegion.
Two weeks lat ..r th.. Legio n consi te-d of 1,:200
me- n in Polish uniform {kur t ka, panta loons and
czapka in blu.. cloth .
\ Iany of hi men ca me from rh.. Ausman Army
which indudrd in its ra nks ollierrs and sold iers
originally from Galicia and mallY others were
Pol ish ..x-prison..n of war an d deseners.
I n \ Iarch th.. Legio n was sen! to th.. fort ress of
Mant ua, wh..r.. it was joi ned hy a n..w ba tta lion .
At t h.. sam.. lime its arril l..ry was orga nized at
\Iilan. II did not receive its bap tism of fire unt il
the insurr..ct ion 4111 Brescia.
By April, Dombrowski had .),000 me-nr nrolled., anxious for action, wan ted his
l..gion augmented by 2,000 infantry, 500 cavalry
and sixty ca nnon from the Army of It aly in on!
10 undertak.. a raid th rough Croatia, Transylv,u
an d Hun gary up into Ga licia. This was aim .
approved, and on 18 Apri l the Legion WaJ 4111 ,I
Leob-n P..u preparing 10 march when Xapol-
forbad.. th.. scheme on the grounds th at it wo ul
not 5("("\... th.. political good of th.. Polish cause.
At this time occurred the massacr.. 011 VtTOn
and the troubles in V..nice; the Legion took at
active part in the assault on ,"..rona.
In \Iay the Legion had so increased in sill" tha t
it ..... as reorganized into two infantry legions, Ih.
first commandrd by (flonl:'Tal Knia ziewicz, the
second by Ge n..ra l Wi elhorski.
Each consisted of three ba ttalions of ten com-
panics, eac h company haying 12.) men. The corps
also had three companies of artillery commanded
by Chef de ba ta illon Axami rowski.
French regu lations were used for ga rrison
duties; drill and discipline wer e acco rdi ng to old
Poli sh regulation s but cor poral pun ishment was
forbidden, a. was the case in t he French Army
of th.. day.
I n J uly t 797 Dombrowski and the grenadi..r
ba tta lion went 10 supp ress the insurrection al
Reggi e du ri ng which the Poles much distinguished
t hemselves.
.\t th....nd of the Xeapolitan Arm}
invaded th c Papal stat.. to expel th.. Franco,
Polish forces und ..r GC"ner,d Championnr t. Knia-
ziewicz commanded the Polish Legion during
Dombrowskis able-nee and on .. December th ..
Xeapc litans wert" at the Sault of Civira
Castellana. From th.. captured stocks ofhonn and
ha rness found in Ga ..l.. arsenal after this battle,
a of ca valry .....a. added to the Polish
The n..w regirnenr was commanded by Colonel
Karwowski; Elie T remo and Biernacki wr-re
nominate d Cht' fs d 'Escadron s. Organi zati on was
not comple te, however , before the armi stice of
I I J anuary. On 23 J anuary Naples ca pit ula ted
and as a ma rk of respec t to t he Polish services,
General Kniaziewicz was sent to paris hy G..neral
Championn et to lake back all the trophies cap-
iu red during th e campaign.
A new ann- French coalition was quickly formed
and considerable Ausrro-Russian fOTC.., under the
oommand of the- Russian Feld Marschal l Leutnant
E.,le o f Ihe 131h Infaall'}' ...d ( riSb l) ....1...Jd... o f lb
.... 011..... UI &11&110.., 1.. 1" Inf .nl l'}'.
____ _ _ _ _ J
-arcw soon advanced to threaten the young
blics founded in Italy.
For-cn available for their defence wrre few. The
French troops were in Egypt with Napoleon:
comman d of the Army of I ta ly was held b)'
incompetent Scherer; Championner had gone
~ was replaced as commander of the army of
. 'aples by Macdonald .
The Polish Legions, commanded by Widhorski
ADd Rynk iewica, were garrisoned in .\I a ntua at
the sta rt of the campaign and were employed
dis persed amongst the Fr ench uni ts. Constantly
eng aged in different battles, they suffered heavily;
from 26 " la rch 10 5 Ap ril (a ner t he Battle of
. lagnano where General Rynkiewice was killed ).
Of the 4,000 men who had set OUI, only 2,000
effecuves remained. The Second Legion retired
in to Mantua with their artillery under the com-
ma nd of Wirl hon ki. .Mantua was commanded by
Ge nera l Foissac-Larour and was besieged and
capitul ated (much against the wishes of the Poli h
officers) on 28July. The Austrians demanded the
return 10 their service of all Poles corning from
N .....- ,.rI... E.av-..... UI" . ..--.: ...
f ...... UfeJ. Mi ..
It s stre ngth was 5.970 men and the commanders
Four of infanlry each of len companies
of 1:13 men
One of C3"alry of four squadrons
One balll'ry of hone artillery
In 1800 the infantry of the Danube Legion
went to the Rhine and joined the COrpl of General
St Suzanne on the kft of the ' .\ rmh du
Rhin', They fought at the actions of Rrrg,
Bernheim and Offmburg and occupied the fortress
of Philipsbourg aflrr the armistice of I'andorf
(ls July 1800).
T he Dan ube Legion was also engaged at the
Baul e of Hohenlinden on 3 December 1800. A
lancer of the Legion, Jan Pawlikowski, disarmed
and captured f,(\,cn Austrians single-handed.
Completely illiterate, he refused Oeaerat
offer of a commi ion and a financial reward and content with the rank of It'rgeant and the
presentanon of a carbine of honour from the
French Government bearing the inscription: 'La
Repu bljque frant;aiJr a son defenseur, le citoven
Gnteral KniaLit'wW:'z
1' -IJZU, Druwiecki,
Kralevnki .nd \\'
R<dd Arlillery Nltel)'
Lt:gion commander
Chief of Suff
Old" de BriI(D
Chefs de baOlillons
Folluwin/it Illl' disasters which d1iKKI'd Ib,
French in Italv the Cisalpine Republic eli
appeared and the homele-ss debris of III.. l'Riull
found thrmsrhi" in France wht'rr tht')' prompt "
set about raising a new lCJ::wn.
Conditions in France had changed : 8unapartt'
Irll f4tYpt l('Cf('lIy and landed at Freju on
:2 October 1799. On 9 !\O\'em!xr he changed Iht'
form of French government and was proclaimed
First Consul. He decreed that foreign troops could
be' taken into Frrnch service and ordered the
formation of Dew l("J{ions.
On to Fl'hrual)' 1800 the remnants of thl"
Polish- It alia n Legions were rcorRiinill"d at
scill" and renamed 'La l.iKion ltalique'.
Kn iaziewicz meanwhile had received orders 10
form another Polish legion ; this forrnanon, rhe
'Legion of the Danube' , was organized as follows:
Au trian-comrolled Galicia and all had to revert
to the rank of private rtg;lrdlns of what position
tht') had anained in the ILgMJJl. and
150 men of the Legion escaped 10 I.)'ons disguised
in French uniforms. General Widhonki,
Kosinski and the ofiicen were imprisoned in
Leoben and did not regain theif freedom until
after the Battle of Marengo.
This was the end of the Second Legion.
The Fint Legion, augmented by the battalions
of grenadiers and vctugeurs of Malachow ki and
Jasinski and by Karwowski' s cavalry regiment
were directly-under Dombro wski' s command.
Tceetber with two French demi-brigades they
were responsible fur establishing communicat ions
between the Army of lI al y and the Army of
"", pia
.\fl a the First Legion and a French dcmi-
bricade formed the 1St Division of the joint army.
T'brJT forIIowflI thr Bank- ofTrebbia P7, 18 and
19 J uar which the French ilnny withdrew
to Cmoa.. tM Ban k of Xovi I.') Augusl ) and the
Rank 01 Z lCh .l6 pt ember which finally
broItt' ibe farcn the Aunro-Russian coalition.
s.e.- from , R.".hul_..,. ........ I. _n........ h.ln
A_ria. i '..,. ...... ' n.c:k 11MF...-ell.
aniII<n a>mp&D'
PnchH-n aed ~ 1 & D t
The Peace of Lunn
ended t h(' war bu t did
liberation of Poland . In proteSt,
resigned his command of the Danubf:
Ge neral jablonowski took hi piau .
Dombrowski ret ained command of rbe Po
It alian Legion and bot h thi s forma tion
Legion of the Danube were revie wed b ~ him ill
Mi lan on 21 March 1801 . At this time rhe I Wia.n
Legion had 303 officers and 6.432 men : tM
Dan ube Legion had about 6,000 all ranks .
The temporary peaceful clima te in Europe did
nothi ng to aid the Polish cause: on 21 December
1801 t he- French Government disbanded both
Polish Le gions and convened them into three
for eign 'demi-b riga des' (a new term coined by
G('n('ral Carnot, French Ar my reformer}.
The It alian Legion (the old 1st Polish Legion
became the 'I' and 2" Demi- Brigade Etrangere',
t he old Danu be Legion beca me the '3 Dcmi-
8rigadf' Et rangere' , By 18 .\ Iay 1802 this latter
formation. now ren umbered the '113" Dcmi-
Brigade and consisting of 118 officers and 2,235
Pawl ikowski, lancier de la cavaleric polonaise,
pendant le bataille de 12 frimai re de I'an I X
Republique, fit 57 prisonniers. '
campa ign ended on 25 December 1800.
xnbrowski. meanwhile, was organizi ng the
Legion' in Man eillt's after the 1799 ca m-
. Consisting of 9,000 men, t he Legion had
nI infant ry battalions and five compa nies of
The Polish troops now released from the fort ress
. Iantua formed t he cadres of the 4th . 51h and
battalions of the Legion; t he cad re for the 7t h
ttaHon came from the I ~ t . and and grd batra-
of the Legion.
Karwowski's cavalry regiment was sent to join
Danube- Legion. The remai nde r of the new
rui ts for both legions came from men of Polish
aigin among the Austrian prisoners of war now
Iadd in France.
On 8 Novem ber 1800 the It alian Legion under
Dombrowski joined the Army of It al y (com-
ma ndt'd now by Massdna, who had replaced
Championmt). The- ir strengtb at this point was
- . ,nn men in four infa ntry bat talio ns and one
Ma...._ . 0- cLt RJvoli, pn-. " ' EU.. ,; hi.
., Port.. ..1 I.. 1810 _. kahHl loy 1M U .... of
' HI......
: r.alions commanded hy Zagarski,
aed Plltru wier bvckl . wa forcibly em-
.&1 Lr.'OnIO for service in the French West
ladiae cx*:my of Saint Domingue. Two French
had ' escort ed ' the Poles on to the
T'1IIr Dnni-Brigade Errangere suffered a like
f'f'DWDOuni the I q ! Demi-Brigade, thev
'nconcd' on to transports in Genoa with a
of n ghty-St'''t' n officers and 2,7.50 men
'W"l iI, abo for Saint Domingue, at the
of Februarv 1803.
Of Iftn,e two derni -brigades only about fifteen
oftian and 150 men returned to Europe; the rest
had been killed in action or had died of yellow
k\t'r or were now in the English pr ison hulks.
The I",r Demi-Br igade Eirangere was incor-
porared into the 1St It al ian Di vision of the army
of t he newly formed Cisalpine Republi c. T hey
were prtSt'nt at t he blockade (If Venice under
General Sr Cyr and fought the Austrians under
rhe Duc de Rohan at t he Battle of Canel-Frenco.
In 1806 they entered Naples with the corps of
Oe aeral St Cyr to secure thai state for its new king.
joseph, ..apoleon' s brother. They were
still there when the Prussians were crushed at jena
and Auerstadt by Xapoleon on 14 October 1806.
Dombrow ki was called to Pari to discuss with
tM Emperor his plans for the reorganisation of
Cjtie (lrrllltl VI/ell)'
of UJrI/Jf1W
Ha\-'ing effectively destroyed the Prussian Ar my
at Jrna. and forced Saxony and the Saxon d uchies
t .&baDdon Prussia and to become his allies,
_-apokon proceeded to defeat Russia and the
rnnaanu of . he Prussian Anny at the battles of
Eytau 7 and 8 February 1807) and
Frirdb.Dd 14J une 1807).
Tbr culmination of the campaign W3.$ the
T "'nIY oC Tilsir, between Xapoleon, Tsar
N.pol '"1"' IU. G..rd i .. II.. L".'prt"'... a.rlha.,
"1""" hJ 1he SaaOD. _Pru. . ... Ann" . 1 J"'....Itd
A.. "'r. l.dl.
Alexan der I of Russia and Ki ng Friedrich Wilhd m
I I I of Prussia on a raft moored in the ce ntre of the
RiH'TNiemen. One of the results of this treaty wa s
the creation of the 'Grand Duchy of Warsaw'
under nominal control of the King of Saxony who
had been promoted from his previous rank of
Kurfursr (Prince-elector of the Holy Roman
Empire] by. lapoleon for his support in the recent
The creation of the grand duchy was far below
the aim set hy Dombrowski and his compatriots
Joseph W)'bicki and Kosciuseko who had pressed
Napoleon to reconsriture the independent Polish
stale in her borders of 1795.
I n exchange for a dubiously worded promise
from Napoleon to give the Poles back their home-
land, a guard of honour of about ant' hundred
riders was formed in Posen in November 1806 and
command of this unit was given to Umins ki who
had been aide-de-camp to thc Pol ish General
in the 1795 campaign.
Napoleon's progrl"SS through the old Polish
areas was a series of delirious triumphs a nd the
Posen 'Garde d'honneur' replaced the Emperor's
own French troops.
The French advanced guard of Devout's corps
entered Warsaw on 28 November, and Xapoleon
followed on 17 December.
The ' Poli h honeymoon' was soon over ; the:'
retreating Pru ians and Ru ians had destroyed
stores which they could not carry away, but
insisted that Ihf' country provide his
army with supplies or he would hand
back to her previous opprnson.
Poles had to find 100,000 rations of food
cia, for thdr French liberators and a reserve
000 ralions was to be held in the depots.
oeduct of the French troops in the duchy
to a drastic cooling of Franco-Polish
Dombrowski now srt about recruiting men for
alMfl," forces of the duchy and this scheme was
support ed by Napoleon.
alt h of irregular units existed and Dom-
formalized these into, initially, four
and two cavalry regiments. All officers
o the rank ofcaptain had seen service under
Polish eagle, only the junior offict'n Wt'1T
nuli ta ry lift'.
a December 1806 Dombrowski had 3 ,000
IDCluding 600 eava try concentra ted at Posen.
_ ua ry 1807 Xapcleon directed that tht' III
of the eight nt'wly formed Polish lint'
reai menrs were 10 go to Bromberg to join
the Grande Arrnre-, Each
strong, and Dombrowski
which wasdivided int o t wo
General Axamitowski
I nfant ry Regimenu and t1K' (.
Cheval ; the and Brigade Gtnt-ra. Fi
the .Jlh-8t h Infantry Rtgimmt
Chasseurs a. Cheval. Total di\'wona l
6,400 men including 300 cavalry. There
one hattery of foot artillt'ry of six
A rt'Rimt'nt of ' Nat ional Cauillo
squadrons eac h of 12 0 men and the ' Levee ..
(t hree regiments of volunteers) a lso calT"
Bromberg later to strengthen Dom
At the same rime, the old 'Italian
(General demi-brieade abo je i
thc army with three battalions of infant", c;
800 . tronR, and Colonel Roaniecki's N'gi mt'Ol
\notht'r newly raised Polish force _-as
'Legion du iord' of 2,51)0 men under Priece
Rarlziwi11; this legion had been raised
Ihl:' Rhine from Austrian and Prussi an prUori
, ,
.. ... ..""..
' - ~ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Pri...,. J...f P-u.1--.1U, .fll'r . C'OD" u n po.....,. ......
I. Dn.d.... NOIIII', ... , ...cUtlo_1 PoU.h ....dl_r -
, ... l......t. Iacot . , I'" C'OlI ar (ad D _ I ,. _ eM
u...w.rr.. I ...... 01 Poll.h I l'ansl.) .... , ...-.....-

ca nno n and 800 men. :O-; apolffi n deeri bcr ed
teen CTOUrS of the Lr gion of Honour amon.: t
Poles for this action.
The forn', besieging Danz ig coraared of Dt:
bro wsk i's division 6,000 men , the I
Xord (2.500 me n a division from Badm
3,000 Fre nch troops.
Danzig capit ula ted on 26 t80i and
quen rlv beca me an ind ependent Trpu r
thousand Poles from the Danzig
Dombrowski' s fOT("('.
T he Polish Chevau-l egers
10 the Imperi al Guard was incorpor.
i litt' bod y of t he French Ann\
decree of 6 Apri l 1807 isIuf"CI
headquart ers at Finken trio. as t
c hl' \"aultgC"T1 polonai se de La
O n I.f Junf' l80i :\"apokoa
t he Banle of Fried land aDd
(pan of corpo: ar1lni r
their cond uct in lhi-
eleven offict'n and 1
rot of 1M 1st ,. C"", .U_r -.........
pI" c 1HI1'rt.s _ "'rt. w_ 1 _
leo k, .n fri-e- cord.. ... ..1.. .....
Polish extraction. It was sent 10 jo in t he Siege
a dec ree of I f January 1807 Na poleon ern-
"'IT'd. the Polish Government 10 negoeiate
sett lements with Prussia and Russia and on
.l.Duary Dombrowski's division was sent to
bnha l Lefebvre 's X Corps at the Siege of
. GeneralZe jonczek, with four nrwly raisrd
banaho es (formed at Kalisz . joined the
h forces brsiC"Ring Graudenz and some days
apol eon gavr Prince Poniatowski command
et her newlv formed Polish battalions for
duty in Warsaw. Th e Posen ' Ga rde
Mur' was now anached 10 the Imperial
as Ihr ' u l of Pol ish Cheva u-
hil(' tht' main French Army was beari ng the
sal Pre ussisch Eylau on 8 February 1807.
and X Corps were employed redu cing those
n fi,rtrNiWs which still held out in his rear.
fron t of Danzig. Dombrowski captu red
II on '23 February 1807, ca pt uri ng se-ven
LEe' L

Eac h infantry regiment had
th ree battalions each of six
compa nies indudinll: one
dier, one vohi/(eur and four
fusilier compa nies (t he sta nd-
ard French (\ rmy
Staff of 0 regintln/ of inf o,,/o':
One Colonel
One Major
Three batai llon
Three Adjutant-majors
One Colour bearer (Pt1r"I-oigle)
One Surgeon lSI Class
Two Surgeons and Class
Three Surgeon s grd Class
One Chaplain
Six Adjutants K C.O.s
Two ='I.Co. s (and and :lrd
Po,/t-oi gu )
One drum major
Onc Battalion drum major
Eight Mu si6ans
Three Ma ster Craft smen
{ar moure r, tailor and
Olfi m s Qj /he th,tt battalions:
Six Captains 151 Class
Six Captains and Class
Six Ca pta ins 3rd Class
;Xine Lieutenants 1St Class
Nine Lieutenants end Class
EiKhteen Second Lieutenants
f Ah consisted oj-
One Captain
One Lieu tenant
One Second Lieut ena nt
One Sergeant-major (sicl
Four Sergeants [.sic]
One Fo urj-ier (compa ny
quartermas ter)
EiKht Corporals
T wo Drummers
I I 7 Soldiers
Each cavalry regi ment has
four sq uadrons each of two
companies except the Kuras-
sier regiment which only had
two squadrons.
Rtgintlnlal stnif:
One Colonel
One Major
Two Chefs d'escedron s
One Pa ymaster
Two Adjutant-majors
One Surgeon I st Class
Two Surgeons lind Class
Two SUflo1eons 3rd Class
One Chaplain
One Standard bearer
Two Adjutant N.C,O ,s
One T rumpet major
One Veterinarian
Fi ve Ma ster Craftsmen
(a r mourer, tailor. boot-
maker. breeches-maker and
sadd ler)
T hree Captai ns 1St Class
Five Captains end Class
Four Lieutenant.'! 1st Class
Four Lieutenant, lind Class
Sixteen Second Lieutenants
Roch compl1. n), tOrlSut(d of:
One Captain
O ne Lieutenant
Two Second Lieutenants
One Ma rechal des log-is chef
(sergea nt-major)
Four Sergeants [sicI
One Fourricr
Ei gh t Corpora ls
One Farrier (blacksmit h)
Two Trumpeters
79 Troopers
One of t he companies was tile
' elite company' ,
Tlu KUfasSln u gimmt of two
squl1.d,ons had 1Mfollowing Ttgi.
ntlnlo{ stoff:
One Co lonel
O ne Major
One Chef d'escadron
One Paymaster
One Surgeon 1St Class
One Surgeon and Class
Two Surgeons 3rd Cla ss
One Chapla in
One Porte-etendard
One Trumpet major
One Veterinary surgeon
Five Ma ster Craftsmen
(as for the other regiments)
Each company had the same
establishment as the other
ca va lry companies.
Ot;f';t; RA L STAFF
G'hiif of Staff
PrinceJo:;cph Poniatowski
Gtniral de Di vision
de UriKade
Command": Gtnrral de Di vision
Chiifof Sioff: .\fajo r de Division
Prince Joseph
Pon iatowski
J. Pasakowski
Cemm. of /M . 1,/illtT)'
Insp.-Gen. of
Insp.-Gen. of CovalT)'
Gl:niral de
de Brigade Fiszer
Grniral de Brigade Roaniecki
Ge neral de Hril{ade
rst Re Kiment
and Re Kiment
Luc Biegansk i
Colonel Grabowski
Colo nel Cornie Stanislaus
j rd ReKiment
.fth Re,{iment
Colonel Zultowski
Colonel ('.omte Felix Potocki
loth Rcgimcnt
m d Battalion Cbcf de Bataillon Gorski
eoor A RT I L L ER'
I t Battalion Ch ef de Bataill un J. Redel
<Anira l de Brigade Sta nislas Woj c-
lit Regiment of Cbasseurs Col onel
Dombrowski , IatCT
and Regiment of Lancers Co lonel Comte
Thadee Ty szkle-
CoIond I>
J) zicwa.n
I I th RegimeJlt
12th Rq(iment
GencraJ de Bril(ildc
5t h Rcgimcnt of Chaucun
6th of I....nan
3rd Batrahon Chef de Kataillon
AS F.S GINEER Pf: TA<:HMk..lI. '
In 180 7 the army of th e Grand Duc hy of W
comprised 3 1,7 '3 infantry, 6,035 cavalry
guns including the horse a rt i llcry batt"),
at privat e cxpt'nSt' hy th e )'oung Count \\
Three French officers were attach ed to
organize the artillery and the engin eers.
At Ihr sa me time the regiment of Cheva u-
ofthc Guard was organized in the ca mp at. hr.
col onel wa s th e Count Vincent Krasi nski aDl.i .
four squadron commanders wer e Thomas Lc
ski, J an Kceietubki, Ignace Srolowski and H
Kami enski .
The old ' Polish-I tali a n Legion ' arrived
Silesia with Gcncral Grabinski a nd remained
the kingdom of Wntfalia in order to
Comprising 6,000 men, it received the namc
the ' Legion of th e Visrula' and was divided !
three regiments each of two battalions:
('.olond Lonczynski
('.oLond Kwasniewski
Zajon czck
Co lonel
Skorzewski (Pa ul)
Comte Isidore Krasinski
Col onel Pr ince
Coloncl \'al en tin Skoru,"lr.i
Colonel Sobolewski
('.oloncl ("oOdcbsk i
{;jnt-ral de Oivi ion
Chef d' Etat
lajor de Division
de Brigade
Regi ment "
tKh Rcgi mcnt

A ' ALIl Y
General de Brigadc
vd of Lancers
.fth Regiment of
Grneral de Oi,,i ion
---f of StD-I; de Di vision
rr/1PI4nMr : Grll t' ral de Brigade
Ih Regiment
Jean Henri

Colonel Cz Pak a.z
Amil car Kosinsk i
Colonel Prince
Antoine Sulkowski
u t
and Rcgimcn t
3rd Regiment
CoJond Chlopicki
Kons inow\ ki
Chcfs de & taillon Ruthic
Fondzieb ki
Colo nel Bialowlcj slr. i
Maj or Szou
C...lolld Swidcrsk.i
Major Billing

4>,.....,., il .... d rtnlained at ran*- ... 1.... 1 in I.... J-Y U
ranr .. . .. \1 Ibr ctlllw cna!ion of Itw Grvod l>u<hy of
.ana" il ... .,nTl It... ("boiceof in l rat< h MTV....
mInI' Ibr r..n"ft of \.... d .... hy. On I I "\'U'C <he men
............if'owni and IIw CjUoO:llDrft aoch company ...rtrl
h y ;e Pnl.k8' 1....... Il,c Pnl.and'
.... fren<:h <>tficcn In !he dcmandrd 10 br rrtainrd
The cavalry of th e Legion Lancers of
who later beca me th e 7th Lancers
Anny, received Coloncl K lick i as
place of Colon el Rc en iecki who brc:uDe
General of th e Cavalry.
At the bcginninK of XOHmt C
ski received the ord er to rer re
no. 01 Poll_ -adIe.. ol 19730 u.o-iat: ..'-dy
liM alUl ,.... 1,. II _. t. 11107 n .."PC
r_ t h e ~ 01 .........
to being incorporated into till' French Army. AI'
officers and men chose to serve their own country.
but Napoleon was adamant and the Legion wa
sent 10 Kassel in the S('rvicc of rhe newly formed
kingdom of Wnilfalia.
xt arsbal Da vout, who had French and foreig n
troops under his command, was in reality the
mili tary viceroy of the Grand Duchy of W a r u ~
with supreme control over the civil au thorities.
On I Sept ember 1807 the Gra f von Schon feld,
Mini ster Pleni poren riary of the King of Saxony,
arr ived in Waryw; on 5 September he assembled
the Provisional Government, dissolved it and
created by royal decree in its place a government
of one ministry having six members, almost all the
members of the old regime.
Stanislas Malachowski was President of the
Cou ncil , Prince Poniat ows ki retained. the folio of
War Minist er ,
On 21 September 1807 the Ki ng of Saxony,
Duke of \Van aw, was received at the frontier by
t he President of t he Council, the minis ters and by
Gt'neral Dombrowski and arrived in state in the
capital with his wife and daughter. Frederick
Augustus liked the Poles and spoke their language
weil ; he was good, just and pious bUI was no
The- Saxon king re mai ned in Warsaw until
21 December 1&:17, and on his departure he
reinst at ed th e ord er ' Vi rtut i Mil itari' which had
been created by St anislas-Augusue, and decorated
many officers into its various grades. He intro-
duced a modification: the horsed warrior on the
reverse of the cross [the same as on the arms of
Lithuania] was superseded by the motto 'Rex et
He wanted thus 10 avoid offending the Tsar of
Russia (Alexander I ) under whose control
Lithu an ia now was,
..U(('r th e' king' s depart ure: the d uchy continued
its reorga niza tion; in Apr il IBoB it was divided
into ' depa rtments' on the French model.
In view of the reduction of the financial burden
of the Polish Army which had 1.In a drain on
the Imperial Chest, Xapoleon was able 10 pa'
from his own account a third of the sum whic h
was required for the' raising and equipping of the
He abo ordered Marshal Devo ut to pay at the
..........d.. of A-p"' .... llor;t; ..... Au i ...p_DC a.._
;.w.&l .-_1.- II.. rreDC''' I_ I .... boo....... do_"," 01
end of June all that was requ ired for the mainte-
nance ofthr French Corps wi thin the d uch y whose
nJ)(' n5C'S were originally to have been met by the
Polish Treasury.
This made a good impression on all as the
Polish Treasury was not in any condition to meet
all these chargee.
Not unti l the begi nning of September 1808 di d
the French troops retire into Silcsia, with Breslau
as their headquarters.
The Marshal retained supn:me command eve r
the Polish Army hut conferred direct control of
the- thre-e- Polish divisions on Pri nce- Poniatowski.
lit' continued to exerc ise polit ica l survei lla nce
over the d uchy and appoi nted one of hi s own
officers, Celene! Saulnier, to be Commandant of
At t he outset of the Spanish campaiKn in spring
t 808 the Polish contribution numbered some 8,000
men of the Vistula Legion and the Chevau-legers
of t he Guard, raised 10 16,000 in August by the
arrival ofthe 4th, 7th and 9th I nfant ry
The Yistula Legion infantry distinguished them-
selves at the two sieges of Saragossa: by the- final
fall of the cit y on 20 February 1809 the Legion
ha d lost 1,39l"l men - thirty per rent casualties.
The lancers of the Legion fought at Medina del
Rio 50. For the re-invasion of Spain in Xovem-
ber 1808 the Legion serve d wuh III
Corps , and the ot her three infant ry regiments
with Lefebvre ' s 1\ ' Corps . The IV Corps regi-
menu fouJtht at Talavera on 28 July IB09. a nd at
Almonacid on 10 August: Ihey were prominent
in the victory at Ocana on '9 Xovember IBog.
Meanwhil e the Legion had been employed in the
eas tern provinces, under Suc he r. In 18 10
a fourth regiment joined Ihe Legion infant r-y; it
had orill;inally been rai sed as a "and Legion of the
Vistula' by a decree of8 July 1&9- The last ba tt le
in which the Legion loo k pari in Spain was at
Sag unto 0 11 25 October 1811, whe re Ihey provided
the backbone of a French force of 18,noo which
smashed 3U,I-""'Spaniards.
T he Vist ul a Legion lanc ers served Sl'paraldy
from the infan try. A second regiment was rai sed
by decree on 7 Feb ruary 1811, under Col onel
Lubienski, late of the Chevau-legera of rhe Guard ;
but on 18 June 1811 both regimenls were incor-
pcrared into the French Army as t he 71h and 8th
Regi ments of Lancers, a 91h txing
formed around drafls from t he ether IWO. Only
Poles were admitted 10 these three regi ments.
The mos t famou s act ion of the \ 'i stula lancer s i .
Spain was their devasta ting charge at Albu er
on 16 .\f ay 1811, when, with a French huss.
regimem, Iht')' an ni hilated Colbome's
infa ntry brigade.
The Chcvau -legers of the' Guard entered Spa ll
with Napoleon, with a strength ofeiltht cornpanie
The)' dislinji!:uished themselves in a bloody chan:
at Scmosierra on 30 Xcvember 1808, and too k
part in the pursuit of Moore' s British Ann)' II
Astorga. Aftcr escorting the Emperor back It
France were stationed on the Franco-Spanish
fron der, returmn g to Paris in February IBog, I n
February 18 10, newlv armed with lances and
redesignated lanciers, a de tachment
re- mmed to northern Spain. They operated main h
against gue rr illa bands in the area; present at
Fuen tes de Osoro in 1811, they did not in
fact charge. In Sept ember T81 1, 315 strong, Ihis
detach ment returned to the parent regi ment in
Fr ance,
In Febr uary 18 12 all Polish units serving in
Spai n were concen trated on the Ehro. Together
the fuur regiments of the Visrula Legion had 3,oor
men ; the four infant ry regiment s of the: duchy -
the' 4th, 7th and 9th - totall ed 2,400; and the 7th.
8th and 91h Lancers totalled 1,000. ThCSt: figur es
were on ly achieved after remforcemem drafts frOID
Warsaw.I Est ima tes of Pol ish casualties in lhi.
bitter campaign run as high as 40,000 dead a
wounded; Ihey ccnsistenrlv fought with gre
de terminauon, and uften, it mUSI be' said, dis-
played bestial cruelty.
In the spri ng of lBog Austri a declared war
Fran ce', encouraged by signs of pa triotic unr
among Fr ance' s German vassals .\t this stage t
army of the Duchy of Warsaw consisted of
following : twelve infantry regiments each of rhre
ba ttalions; six cavalry regiments ( 1St, 41h and 5t
Chaucul"1 a Cheval, and, 3rd and Srh Lancers
three banaliorn of anille'')-, each of three c
nine ty- three cannon; three I"nginffr
train compa nies. The 41h, 7th and 9th
been detached for Spanish service,
h, toth and 1 uh were in Modlin and
This left tl,2'65 infanlry, 4,s&t u.valf)"
for of the duchy.
were formed, each of four infantry
cavalry rrgjml"nls and an bat-
rith the 1St Division also ha,;nll: a horse
bat tery , Some 2,200 Saxon troops
This army w;u threatened by the
VII Corps in Galicia. some 33,000 men
tht Archduke Ferdina nd.
a nd invaded the duchyon 15 April 1809.
JoIaJ-_kWl.. . .... P k_r ...
. tIM--u. e--. __ 011 w.
= .H':....:
and the first serious dash took place at Raseyn,
some ten miles south-east of Warsaw, on 20 April.
Poniatowski withdrew into w arsaw that night,
and at this point the Saxon troops were reca lled:
the: Poles had only 9.500 dfl"li,'t'S left, and had
to abandon Warsaw and retire into Medlin. A
treaty was concluded making Warsaw a neutral
rily. and Poniatowski galhl"JTd strength. Austrian
attempts to capture the Polish bridgehead which
remained on their side of the Visrula at Praga
were repulsed, and a successful coumer-auack was
mounted. Ferdinand nl"xl attacked Thorn, bUI
withdrew when tbe Poles promptly threatened his
rear in Galicia by taking Sandomir. ofthl"
4,000 Austrians ejected were new local recrui ts,
and some 800 immediately ca rne ever 10the PoIM.
On 19/20 Zamosc fdl to the Poles; and the
jrd, 6th and reth Polish infantry, with cavalry
and artilll"f)" support, succt'SSfull y resisted a n
attempt by 8,000 Austrians under Schau roth to
recapture Sandomir. In rhe fact' of thrx repea ted
set-backs, and gTowing local rnUtancl", Ferdina nd
abandoned Wanaw on 2 1809-
The situa tion beca me more <,omplicat l"d wben
s.IoaII. oJ HiiC'O'r
01 H_ ....
Russian troops moved against the Aust rians in on the same day. in support of the Pol es;
but this support was lirnhed and uncoordinated,
and Pc nia ro... was forced on to the defensi ve
again in th e second week of J un e. A second
Aust rian assault on Sa ndomir failed blood ily on
t5 June, but on th e 18th th e garrison wasforced
to capi tulate - wit h full honours - through lack
of a mmu nition. Meanwhil e Pon ia towski's for e"
wer e growi ng in str engt h, reach ing a tot al of sorne
24.000 th rough th e rais ing of si:ot new infant ry and
ten cavalry regiments in Gali cia. Krakow was
reta ken from the Austr ian s on 1. 1 J uly; and Iwo
days later D('WI of the a rmistice of Zn aim between
Aust ri a and France reached Krakow, ending th e
ca mpaign. T he subsequent T reat y of Scho nb ru nn
brought to the duchy west Ga licia, the a rea sur-
roundi ng Kra kow. and the area of Z.amosc.
T he army of t he Duchy of warsa w, including
t he new ' Franeo-Gahcian' formauora raised d ur-
ing thi s ca mpaign, consisted on 14 Xovember 18l"
of the following:
Infant ry
ul Rtgl . (Col. Casi mir 2.690 meu
:nul Rtgl . (Col. Stanislas Potocki), 3.0]0; :lf d Rt,( 1
(Col. Edouard Zohowlki l, 2,6-11; II/' Rtl" (Col
Wien l>i mki), 2,2.11 - two boatt.a.lions in Spai n
jt/' RtA' . (CuI . Prince Radz iwill), 2, 10-1
6t1t. H.tA'. (Col. Sierawski), 2,67); illt. Rt A'
(Col. Jakubowicz), 1,095 two boattalions in Spai n;
Blit. Rt,'. (Col. Stuart), 2,302;9d Rt,', ((".01. Priner:
Antoine SulkowU.i), 2,050 - two hattaHolU in
Spain; l ot ll RtA" (Co!. IJownarowiczl, 1,QQ6 - two
battalions in Da nzig; Ill. Rt f l. (Co l.
2, "15 - two baltalions in Danzig; 1211t. &". (Co l
Weyumhof ). 2,60t. r.,41 28,387 me n.
Ca val ry
tsl CJuuurm {Col. Praebendowski), 937 men; 2rUI
IANni (Co l. T)'ukiewicz ), 1,163; 3'4 IANni (C.ol.
Lo nceynski), 1,015; ItII C/uJJstlm (Col. Kwasn iew,
ski), 687 - in German y; jilt Cluustwrs (Col. Cu
Turno), 1,097; 611t. JAI/IC,,"S (Co l. Dom Dziewanow-
ski), 1,0<: )9. Tl'lal 5,998 men. Artilluy, Engineers
and T rain, hJlal 2,620 men . Grand T otal , 37,00,'jmen.
u t Rtgt. (Col. Sl neidr:r), 3,t25 mr:n; :nul Rtlt. (Col.
2,852; 31d H.r!!,l. (Col.
3,t22; pit. &". (Co l. Kencz}" cki), 2,338; jIlt. & AI.
(Col. Prince Comtantin Cza rtOf)"l ki), 2,561; 61'
Rtl t. (Col. Homowu.i ), 1,985. T.t4l 16,583 men
The 41h Rr:l(iment was bter disban ded, and the
m, end, 3rd, ,'jth and 6th became the Pol ish 13th
to 17th Regimen ts respecrivdy.
Caval ry
"' (Col. 7....wadl ki). men; IfttI I _ m
(Col. Ro:zwadowslo. i). 954; :Fd l..tuttm (Col
Prz)"sychowaki), 936 ; 4llt l...41tur1 (Co l. Potodi )
699; 5,AI l..tuttm (Col. Ryszc.zewski), 943 ; 6,.
J.-cm (Col. Treeciecki), 9 16; ;Ur. I.. (Col
Tarnowski). 661; 8tll H MlJtlTl (Col. Tolimkil , 1,049,
t H VSS4f1 ((".01. L'milUki), 8oJ; l(jllt. A/i,unm
fou). Thn(: Ul\\\\ \a.\u b.aTl'\ll:
the 7th to t 6th Polish (:a\'alry regimr nl5.
Gra"d Tl'tal FrllttC-.GtJ/it;i1l1l lrllOfJJ : 25, 193 mr:n
GrllM Tot41 Pl'lislt f()fw: 6'2, 198 men. Dt'lItlwi
forus: Spa in 6,265 men ; Danzig - 3,024 men
Germany - 68t i men .
In IBog Poniatowski created .1company of
Guides from Ga lician noble famil ies, compri.,inr
four officers, twelve N,C.O. s, two trumpet ers an d
sixty soldiers.
It ma y be added th at the Cheva u- legere of t he
Fr ench Impe rial Guard ..... presen t a t tht Rau le
of Wagram (5-0 J oly . Bog), and overt hrew t he
Aust ri an Scbwa ree nberg L"hl.aI15 in one charge.
Girard', divi sion of I X Corps: and Princr Michael
Radxiwill's brigade (5th. 10th and rnh Polish
Infantry] were in Danxig as part of Macdon ald' ,
X Corps. The Legion of the Visrula, in two
brigades consisting of the 1St and 3rd Regiments
and the and and 4th Regimcnl s. served in
Claparede' s divi sion of the Young Gu ard under
In August 181:l a brigade formed from
the 13th I nfantry and a regiment of the Xarional
Guard of Warsa w, commanded by Gencral
Kwasniewski. j oined a Saxon d ivision in Reyni cr' s
VII Corps.
Fl ftd hal "",lay 01.. T"",.. como of R. ...ia'.
1_ i.-s ....... _ . ... of 1M I I ca ...paip.
18th Commander, Gen. Kniaziewicz;
Chiefof Staff, Col. :'\owicki j Brigade Commanders,
Gens. and Grabowski. and, Bth and nth
Infantry Regiments ; aorh Light Cavalry Brigade
(Gen. Prince Antoine Sulkowski) ; 5th
and 13th Huu an ; Ligh t Cavalry (Gw . j 6th and 8th Lancers ; Light Cava lry
BriRade (Gen . Axamitowski ); loth Hussars.
,6l/r Commander, Gen. Zajonczck;
Chief of Staff, Col. Weysscnhoff: Ilril{ade Com-
manden, Gem. and Pouzkowski. 3rd,
15th and rfith Infantry Regiments; t qth Light
Cavalry Brigade (Gen. T)"skiewicz); 4th Chasseurs;
12th Lancers.
'7th Commander, Gen. Dombrowski ;
Chief of Staff, Col. Codrowsu; Brigade Com-
man<kn , Gell$. Axamitowski and Piotorwski.
1St, 6th, and 17th Infantry Rqcimenu;
Cav..lry Brigade lGcn. lhicwanowski) j 1St
c.,pJ CtnrrnuuuJn: Prince PoniatoW1k.i; Chid oj
SLtJff, Gen. Fiszer-; /NptdJ of S14.ff, Gen .
41h Po/uh Litht CdlJtl.lry DirUimr: Commander,
Gen . Rcrniecki. 28th Light Ca\alry Brigade
{Gen. Dziewarowski ) j:lnd and t t th I.itln:n : 29th
LiJl:ht Ca \alry Brigade (Gen. Turno) j 3rd and 16th
Lancen. Cnder command, lith Polish Kimusicn.
The scope of this campaign was so vast, and the
r:ontribulion of'the Polish units so widespread, tha t
for reasons of'space it is impossible 10 go in to details
this hook. A summary of unit s engaged, and a
f list ofsomc of their most notable actions must
I the bt'ginning of xt arch 1812 Prince
tcwski, Ci-tn -C. of the army of the Duchy
Warsaw. recci ved orders from the Emperor to
re to march. With the absorption of the
nncc>Galician unit s. the forces of the duchy V'
totalled 74.700 men, 22.850 hones and 165
:annan. The enti re V Corps of the Grand e Armee
composed of Polish troops, orga nized as
In addition to t hese formations, the 4th, 7th and
qth Pol ish Infant ry Regiments were attached to
M....t..l Ikn.dool ... ... be I. d ... .,...- of
S......Ina; la 181J h. led. t.--p- .. pl1 1t.1.l or m ., ma. IU,
On 23 1812 the Grande crossed
the Niemen on to Russian soil; for months before-
hand the Duchy of Warsaw had been a vast camp
and assembly area, and rhe population wen nu
doubt hear tily glad to be rid of some of thei r
guests. Few, indeed , would pass that way again .
The army ran into difficulties straight away :
ahhough the Russians retreated before them, they
poisoned the wells and streams and removed or
destroyed all grain. Hundreds of men died from
heat prostration every day, and the young Polish
conscripts suffered particularly badly. The poor
forage available soon began to kill off cavalry
mounts in tho usands. On ::13 June V Corps num-
bered 3,000 men; by ::18 J uly it mustered only
22,000, although no major actions had yet bun
On 27June the Poles entered Wilna, Lithuania
- a Polish possession unti l 1795 - and were
welcomed as liberators. In response to local
requ ests a federation of Lithuania with the duch y
was proclaimed on I Jul y. and the raising of five
infantry and four lancer regimenu was put in
hand. These were designated the 18th to aand
Infantry and 17th to seth Cavalry of
the anny of the duchy - although they never
reached full strength, and most of them perished
in the horror of the Russian winte r. Napoleon also
formed a guard of honou r from young Lit hua nian
nobles which became the grd Cbevau-legers
La nd ers de la Garde.
On 9 July at Mi r, on 10 July at Koralice and
on 14 J uly at !'\icswiez, the Polish cavalry were
rough ly handled by Russian forces amo ng whom
Platcw's Cossacks were prominent. The Pain
took some measure of revenge on 25 July, when
the 6th and loth Cavalry smashed the Russian
Ingermannland Dragoons. On 13 August the
Polish 17th Division and the and, 7th and 15th
Lancers were detached to act as a link with Saxon
and Austrian forces on the southern flank. of the
army, leaving V Corps with but 15,000 men. On
16 August the Poles were heavily commined to
bitter fight ing at Smclensk, with mort than 2,000
casualt ies, including four generals and sixtyofficers.
Late in August the fint elements of the new
Lithuanian infantry regiments arrived with the
17th Division: at about the same time Victor sent
the 4th, 7th and qt h Polish I nfantry Regiml'nts to
. At Borodino on 5-7 Sept ember the Poles
aga in heavily enga ged . On 5 Sep tember
towski led the bulk of the Polish units for-
on the right Rank of the ar my, whe re they
the Schwcradino redou bt. On 7 Sr-pn-mber
rt her flanking movement dev eloped on the
and the Polish infan try fought around the
e of Uticza; the cavalry were also active in
sector, taking Pasaraew. T he Vist ula Le gion
ht on the left flank unde r Claparede.
In the second halfofthe mont h, while Xapoleon
pied the smoking ru ins of and
ed on his d ilemma. t he Polish corps was sent
clear strong Russian forces threatening the lines
communication. They foug ht at Podo lsk on
September, then following the enemy as he fell
k towa rds Kaluga, figh ting several furt her
lions. Losses had been extremely heavy, an d the
lish infantry regi ments were now reorganized
"t h two battalions each instead of thr ee. At about
time the Vistula Legion joined the other
Pa lish units.
The lull in ope ra tions between lat e September
an d mid-October ended on 18 October , whe n
Iwavy Ru ssian pressure devel oped aga inst Mur at's
OUtposts; t he King of Naples was forced to with-
draw inside a Polish infan try square. By the time
they had fough t t heir way back to Woron owo the
Poles had lost another 500 dead (incl uding
Ceneral Fiszer ) and 1,000 wounded (including
Pri nce Anton Sul kowski), and the V Corps was
down to 12,000 men. On 18/19 October the
retreat from Moscow began. It s miseries have
been chro nicled too often to meri t repetition her e;
suffice it to say that the Polish troops suffered as
badly as any dement in the dwin dling and
wretched army. Aft er fighting at Borowsk and
Wiasma, V Corps - so-cal led - had but 800
eflecrlves under arms. The Vistula Legion. which
had joined the Grande Armee 7.000 st rong, was
reduced to 1,500 by t he time th e army reac hed
Smolcnsk on 9 Xovember. The 3rd (Li thuanian)
Lancers of the Gua rd were wiped out at Slonim
on 3 Nove mbe r. The detached 17th Division
under Dombrowski was still 4,000 st rong, bu t it
suffered heavily at Boriesowon the Beresina while
vain ly tryin g to save the vita l bri dge from
Tschemichew' s Russian s. Whi le the ghost of the
Gran de Arm ee st ragg led across the two rickety
Napo1.-.'a t D-.I.. chid of a' a fr.
bri dge s which were improvised at Studienka on
27 November, the now-reuni ted V Corp s under
Zajonczck held off a Russian advance up t he west
ba nk of the Bereslne. Poni atowski, who was sick
and tr avelli ng in a carriage, only escaped across
t he river with difficulty. Command of V Corps
passed rap idly from Zajcnczek to Kniaaicwicz to
Krasinski, as t he gene ra ls were wounded one by
one. On the night of 6 November the Polish
Lan cers of the Guard and the 7th Polish Lan cers
escor ted Napoleon as he deserted the rabble of his
ar my . On 9 November t he remains of V Corps
crossed th e Niemen and entered their homeland
once agai n. Poniatowski reviewed them at Warsaw
on Christmas Day; apart from Dombrowski' s 17th
Division, th ey number ed 400 men - but they still
had their eagles and forty cannon.
pa__a:;" or 1.... RJv .... Ni ..1 a oa :14Jua.. 1813, a l 110e
_t a rt or til.. ra1dlll Ru__1aa onpaICa..
The Russia ns flood ed into th e Duchy of Wa rsaw
in t he ea rly mon ths of 1813; th ey occupied the city
on 9 February, and Ponia towski began th e painful
busine ss of reorganizing his forces from Krakow.
Element s of Poli sh unit s were sca tte red all over
northern Eur ope, and it was not until t he victory
of LUtzen br ought a brief respite with the armistice
of Pleisswitz that a Polish corps could be assembled.
By thi s time the Russian advance had pushed
Poniatowski back to Ziuau in Saxony. From
composite uni ts of survivors , raw conscripts, re-
numbered regiment s, returned pr isone rs and ot her
'od ds and ends', Napoleon an d Poni at owski
created VI II Corps, a s follows:
26th Infant,y Division (Gen. Kam ieniecki): I
n,igad, (Gen. 1St and 16t h IntantrT
Regiment s; 2nd B, igaM (Gen. Ma lachowski),
and 15th Infantry Re giments.
27th Inf antry Di oision (Gen. Kr a.i nski) : I
B, igade (Gen. rarh Infant ry Rcg"imcn
2nd Brigade (Gen. Lonczynski) lind and I,J
Infant ry Regiments [ex-Dombrowski's division}.
The cavalry became the 4th Reserv e Cavaln
Corps under Gener al Kellerman, Co mte
Valmy, as follows:
Advanced Guard (Gen. Lminski) : 14th Kurasai
(Col. Dziekonski}; Krakw (Maj . Rzuchow
8th Light Division (Gen. Pri nce Sul ko....
1St, 3rd and 6th in two bril{
man ded by Gens. Weys. o,enhof and 'Furno.
UJ:hl Cat'airy Dit,isiOri (Gen. Sokolnicki ) : 8th
16t h Lance rs and 13th Hussars in two bri
comma nded by Gens. To linski and
The lind and 4th Cavalr y, ex-Dombrowski's
sion, were briga de d und er G('n('r al Kruko....
attached 10 VIII Corps. Various isolated
. h regtmenu were still in existence in Danzig,
osc, Modlin and Hamburg. At WittemlW'rJt
two regiments now in French pay: the R ~ i
t of the Yistula, a two-banalion remnant of
old Legion, and the ' 4 ~ Rc:gim('nt Polonaise',
composite of t he uld 4th, 71h and 9th Infantry,
re that ma ny of t he uni ts of\' 1II Corps, above,
e' no direct relationship to the prr.1813 n- gi
.enIS of the' same numerical designation.
After the victory of Dresden (:l6 August 1813
release of Polish prisoners brought \' 111Corps'
IItn"ngth up 10 12,000. The new formation was
Wooded at Katzbach on 26 August. Krukowi eckt' s
cavalry br igade - and and 4th Regi ments - distin-
CUishcd t hemselves ar Denn ewirz on 6 September.
On 16 October th ere ope ned the last great banle
of Xapolcon' s Polish allies - Leipzig, the Battle of
tbt Xarions. At first based at xt ark-Kl ceburg, the
000 Poles were pu hed back 10 Dolitz by an
all ack by 18,000 Russians and Prussians under
Kleist , That night Poniatowski was nomina ted
Manhal of France. T he Poles remained at Doli rz
t hroughout ' 7 October, apart from element s
.... hic h held the suburb of Hall e and areas to the
north. Tbe ci lYhad beoorne a trap in the middle
of a ring of converging Allied armies, a trap with
only one way out - a single bridge over the Eisler,
The heavy trains wert sent out over the bridge on
the night of 17- 18 October: it was then prepared
for eventual de moli tion. On 18 October t he Allies
renewed thei r assaults, and bitter fight ing took
place, Tha i night Napoleon ordered the evacua-
tion of the ci ty, and during the following day
conditions within the areas of French occupation
deteriorated as the rearguard formations tried 10
fight off the Allied prcssUf(' and panic began to
infect those units which had not )'t'l managed to
wi thdraw eve r the bridge. Wh("n the Russians
forced th eir wa), into the city, after blood y fighti ng
in which t he Poll'Splayed a desperate part, chaos
gripped t he bridgehead - and at thai poin t the
Elster bridge was prematurely blown, leaving
20,000 Fr ench, German and Polish troops trapped
in Leipzig. Among them were Ponia towski and
the remnants of \' 11I Corps. Most fell into enemy
hands; man y attempted to swim to safety across
the EISler, an d were drowned , Among these latter
was Marsh al Pri nce Poniatowski - and with him
died, for all practical purposes, the Gran d Duch y
of " ' anaw.
One by one, isolated fortresses all OHr northern
Gennany capitulaled, and many PolC'S were
among the garrisons. Those f("w thousands who
remained with the French forces as they retreated
towards Fran ce were on ly kept in t he ran ks with
grea t di lllculty afte r th e news of Pon iatowski ' s
deat h spread. Eventually, and in violation of a
promise made to Dombrowski, Napoleon ordered
t he incorporation of all Polish units into the
French Arm)'. Isola ted units, inspi red by personal
loyalty to the Emperor, distinguished themselves
during the French campaign of 1814,
The Treaty of Paris was signed on I I l\pr i11814,
and t he wa r was over. Napoleon bec a me r uler of
Elba and was permit ted to la ke wit h hi m a
battalion of grenadiers of the Guard and a
squadron of 120 men of the Polish Chevau-legers
of the Guard. This squadron was formed com-
pletely of volunteers and was commanded by
J ermanowski. Art icle '9 of the Trea ty of Pa ris
T10e r ......... Gno..-.l Kleb t ..- NoIt,.... lorft.
TIoe _ ....n . r v.....__ .., e-..m. _ ]0
A..- 181lt all... , ... ""'" eI K..Jm.
defined the future position of the Poles who had
fought 10 valiantly for 10 long for the Emperor :
'Polish troops of all amu are at liberty to rl:tum
to their homelands having terminated their
honourable service.
'OffICCR, :X.C.O., and men may retain the
dttOralions which Ihey have been awarded and
""i11 ecminue 10 receive the pensions auached to
thn(' decorations.'
ll uad rft1 Day.
At the beginning of April 1815 it was decreed
thai five foreign r('gimenu shou ld be formed for
service with Xapoleon'e army. The grd Foreign
Regiment formed ot'Poles unde r '-I ajon 5lUIc
and The men came mainly from the
old Legjon of We \"istula. Tbe Elba Squadron of
Polish Ca"'alry became rhe ut Squadron of the
Regiment of Chevau-legers Lanciers de la Garde,
and foughl wdl at Waterloo. On I Oc tober 1815
Ibis squadron JWII'Cd into Rua ian JnVice in the
new kingdom of Poland.

At the beginning of 1807 the infantry wore d.ark
blue with crirmon facings; black felt
cupka decorated with a br. sun-burst plate,
dark blue or white trousers, brown gr('atcoat.
Plume, pompon, epanleues and cords as follows:
grl:nadiefl red, vohigeurs )'ellow; fusiliers light
This uniform was modified by a decree of
a March 1807 as folio",.. lall kurtkas dark blur}:
III Dil'iJu,II: Lapels yellow, collar and cuff, nod,
yellow buttons bearing the nogiml:ntaJ number;
trousers worn over bocu, closed at the bottoms
..... ith eight buttons and dght kx>ps. On dutj-
ofTlCrn wore gilt with silver eagles; gilt
belt with lilnr eagle. Field officers wore dark blue
l ~ _ = - - - -
I DriW'l'. Mllh ..,. Trala
2 rO"q1e. c.r.-.u.r e-,...,.. ,til
IaI_U'Y JltoP-t, 1110-,,,
J Aial.e-rd

I Offi"r,"_ AnUJ....,.. fwlJ drno_

3 Co..-, up- ..I d ...
Vlacw.., 1108
J ...... Sd. Cba.-... ..
Cbn-al, parade dres.
I 0.--- MIIj..., 1 1.& ., ReP-t
:II V""'da_" ~ ...,-...,
......-.. I . I ~ I ..
J T K......H-ra, .......t.o
d Io7-I..
Ta_booar of ,. ...rue 110 Wuury
~ : t ~ ~ &eld _me W...
:a s-....u_I...-at, ')1" H fodl
d ........ 1106-
) C......uer. I'.... laf..,ry ReP-eM,
I e..-r,"-- ArtiDn'y. auba.
s Tree,..... ~ . ta b le d........
J T--.-r, K.nII.......table d .
1 . ~ ...._TnNnJl""l '" 0..-.-1......,.
.",..,..,. d . 1.- ........ _n:loiac
........... 10-1.
;II 0f60eer. KnoJo,_ .. 11n
J T........... U.Io __I.. T. ..... .... ordar
G_cdo "n
e-..duI I. _booe, n. PoliN eoI'JM _ .............. , ......
d rU_ ., _ of ...... a by e..-do
.n 1 6...c .IN Poli.h .,. ..,. onadt' r
.....t1.d aJ 1oowfatI.
and gold silk sashes; junior officers, white leat her
belts. Degen with steel grip. 2rlJDit1sion: Crimson
lapels, collar and cuffs, white buttons and up-
plates: otherwise as 1St Division. 3'J Division:
Lapels, collar and cuffs white, yellow buttons and
cap-plate, otherwise as 1St Division. In undress,
officers wore dark blue frock-coau with collars of
the same colour, and bicoms.
The cockade was white like that of the ancient
Polish republic. Napoleon imposed the French
cockade on the Franco-Polish regiments in lB09,
but Prince Poniatowski rein troduced the white
cockade when these troops were incorporated into
the ar my of the Duchy of Wanaw on I J anuary
In the decree of 3 September 1810 it was
directed that all regiments of infantry would wear
the same facings .
0ffiurs' FiliI Dress: Dark blue coat, white waist-
coat and trousers; collar closed and piped in
crimson (volugeurs - yellow unpiped eolian).
White lapels, straight cuffs ....-ith crimson flaps and
white pipi ng. The coat was closed by means ol
hooks and oJX'n on the thighs. Horizontal, three-
poi nted pocket Raps with crimson piping. n.r
skirts were hooked back to show the white w...r
with, in the corners, embroidered hunting llor-.
for the stan for the fusilien ...
grenades for the grenadiers. Yellow metal t.ut-
beari ng in relief the number of the
Seven small bu ttons on eac h side of
th ree large buttons belo..... on the left side
t hree buttonholes on the righ t. Two large __
in the sma ll of the back, t hree on each pockn
one small button for each epaulene. Tbe
showed benea th the coat and was cJo..d,
sma ll but tons; t hree on each podcL
breeches, Hunga rian boots . Black ACId
white. Black bicom edged in black ;_
a double loop of gold half .ilQ inch ..
gold button) which fixed rbe c:ockMk..
Officers wear beankins with red ""_..
cords. The bearskin is of the JaIN'
of the men . Voltixnlrs: Qffic""
yellow pompon fourteen centi metres high. FlLfilin:
Officers have a black pompon above the cockade.
Ojfiur$' {""d,m: Dark blue- frock-coat with similar
collar and lapels, closed with nine large buttons,
Dar k blue trousers. Grenadier officers have- a red
hat pompon. SlUlotll: Dark blue- wirh seven large
buttons on e-ach lapel ; unde-r this, waistcoat and
trousers of whi te- dimity or nankeen as desired.
}/.C.O.s olld So/dins: Dar k bl ue coa t, whi te
lapels bu ttoned back and closed with hooks; below
the plastro n the kurtka is closed wit h two large
buttons. Dar k bl ue trousers for everyday we- ar,
white for parades, the latter worn with white
gaiters unde-r them . CunadU1S: Bearskin bonnet
(mostly shown with a sma ll black pea k edged in
yellow metal] leaning slightly forward. Brass pl at e
with whi te metal eagle and bearing the numbe r of
the regi ment between two flanking grenades. Top
of the bears kin red with a whit e cross, red cords
and plume. Long moustaches are worn. Red
epauteucs. l'oJtignus: Shako wit h yellow cords,
above- the cockade a }"rHow and green plume.
Short moustaches arc worn. Green epaulenes.
Fusi/ins: Czapka ofhlack felt, nine inches high and
ten inches while metal eagle above a
yellow metal plate bearing the regimental num-
ber. Black Ie-ather pe-akedged in brass. Above the
eagle a while cockade surmounted by a black.
pompon. Whilc cords, terminating in tasK'1s which
are silve-rand crimson for X.C.O.s. While leather
work. Dark blue shoulder-straps, The fusiliers were
clean -shaven. Bldck leather pouch with a regi-
mental number in brass for the fusilirrs, number
wi thin a hunting horn for vohigeurs and number
and a grenade for the grenadiers. Dark blue forag('
cap with red piping and tassel. On the march, the
forage cap was carried rolled up unde-r the pouch
and t he plume (in its case) was strapped 10 the
sabre shea th. Whil e waistcoat for fatigues (collar,
cuffs and piping crimson?), grry greatcoat.
Sapptu1J: Gr enadier' s bearsk in; on the uppt'r arms
of the kur tka a. badge of two crossed ax" with a
gren ade in red clot h. While leather apron, wide
white band olier and black pouch for the axe,
small pouch with the sappeur's badge, gauntlet.
The sab re has a brass grip terminating in a cock's
head and dragoon carbines are carried. Sappeurs
wore full beards. \{IUUUnu: Drummers and musi-
cians wore a great variety of dress following the
whim of their commander.
RadCe'tiI of Ra.ak
OJlims (indica ted by epaulenes}: Co/nt/ - two
epaulettes with bullion fringes, no e-mbroidery on
the straps .\Iojar - the same epautenes but with
the top in silver . - on the Ie-ft an
epaulerte with bullion fringes, on the right a
conue-epaulet te without fringes. CtJptllin - on the
left a fringed epeu lene, on the right a centre-
epau lctte. utukllalll - as for a captain, but with
a line of cri mson, one-eigh th of an inch wide
along the stra ps. SIJUJ-/uuttnant - the same epau-
leues, but with two lines of crimson silk zigl.agging
along t he straps. Adjlltallt-trUJjar - on the right a
fringed epaulene, on the left a corure-epaulerte.
Epaulettes were gold for all infantry officers, the
ptJrk-lpit and hat cords silver, the gorget gold with
a silver Polish eagle. CorptJraJ - t.....o stripes
of yellow cloth two inches above the culTs. !'.'nINllt
- one gold stripe on e-ach ann and one on the
stra p of the epauleue or shoulder-strap. &rgtO"'-
1Nl]or - t"''O gold stripes. FtnlTfin - one gold
chevron four inches above the elbow. All KC.O.s
have a gold top band one inch wide to their
shakos or czapkas.
A r m a m ~ d t
All fusilier officers carry French-pattern Dege-n
with gilt plate and grip; black she-ath, leather belt .
Mount ed officers carry sabres with ye-llow grips
and . hr aths, trimmed in black leat her; silver spun .
Grenadier and voltigeur officers also carry sabres.
KC.O.s, grenadiers and volt igeurs ca rry sabres as
well ill muskets and bayonets, the fusiliers only t he
musket and bayonet.
Foot A r t m ~ r y
OJfims' Full Dress: Dar k gTCt'n coa ti colla r, lapels
and cuffs black velvet with red edging: whit e
waistcoat and trousers; yellow metal buttons bea r-
ing in relief a flaming grenade above crossed
cannon barrels. Style of coat, number of buttons,
hooks. Itock, hat and cockade as for offiurs of
infantry. At the tumbaek comers, gold ern-
broidered flaming grenades. Riding boots, silver
spurs, gilt fittin gs and buckles . U"drm: Dark
green, single-breasted frock-coa t, black velvet
colla r and cuffs with red pipi ng. Black or grl"t'n
trousers. Cut as for th e infantry. SUTIsId: As for
undress, but double-breasted with seven lar ge
buttons on eac h lapel. Below this, waistcoat and
trousers of whi te dimity or nankeen according to
,X.C.OJ tVU1 Grmnns: Dark gree n kurtka with
black collar, lapels and cuffs piped in red. Green
trousers or whi te trousers and gai ters. Red epau-
lenes. Shako with yellow chin scales and yellow
metal plat e bea ring a flaming gre nade and two
crossed cannon ba rrels, all surmo unted by a whit e
met al eagle. Red cords, pompon and plume. Vt SU
Ih emit (Faligut jaektl ): White with grttn collar and
cuffs and green piping round the pockets. Foragt
Cap: Dark green edged in yellow. Conductt urs
(Dri vns): Grey /blue kur tkas wit h grey trousers
(with leather insets); dark blue czapka trimmed
with black astra kha n. On the left upper arm an
ova l brass plate bea ring the nu mber of the vehicle
and of the division. Badgts of Rad: : As for the
infantry. A"'1fI: As for th e infantry except tha t
N.C.O.s and men have dr agoon carbines a nd
sabres with red straps. Traill tl'lrpnJNIgt: Dress as
for the art illery, but the kunka is blue/grt')' with
light yellow colla r and cuffs. Buttons, epautenes,
etc., are white,
Fall Dress: Dar k blue coat faced in red, red collar
closed with three hooks, squa re red cuffs with dark
blue piping. T wo grenades in the tumback ccmers,
pockets in the folds of th e skir t. The coat closed by
nine buttons and the skirt projected nine inches
below the kurass. Three buttons on each pocket,
two at the rear of th e waist and one for eac h
epaulene . The buttons are flat and yellow and
bea r in relief the number of t he regiment . \ "' hile
waistcoat nOI visible beneath the coat; whil e
leather breeches closing with four buttons below
th e knee, whi te cloth knee-c uffs reaching to four
inches above the knee and closi ng with four
buttons. Cuffed boots rising to three inches above
the knee, long, buckle-on steel spurs. Steel korass
with front and back pla te with brass rivets , leather
TIle ., da. 01 the Btrr...u... in Nov.....t..r 1 8 1 ~ 110..
rIO o( II.,. G...... de Ann& auemp' 10 _ ..... the....
_Iv,"",. TIle FoU.b Co"P.., reduc:ed to .. ( 'Ow bWldrPd m ,...,
(0""1:101 I: .. naoll,. 08 11010 ~ I . . . , .. I.
stra ps covered in brass scales. The kurass is edged
with red cloth three inches wide the outer edge of
which has a silver edging one inch wide. French-
style helmet with red plume 00 the left side (steel
body, brass combe, horse-hair crest and tuft,
yellow chin scales, black fur turban extending
over peak, which is edged in brass. No neck
shield). Black stock edged in white', white leather
gau ntlets wit h cuffs seven inches high.
Undress: Dar k blue frock-coat faced in red and
closed by nine yellow buttons. Red collar closed
with three hooks. Pointed cuffs outlined in red
pipi ng and closed with three small buttons.
Grenades on the turnbacks; vertical pockets with
three points edged in red pip ing. Plain dark blue
trousers, same boots as for full dress. Bicom as for
the Chasseurs 11 Cheval with red plume . Surtout:
Dark blue with similar collar and cuffs, pockets
in the folds of the skirt ; seven buttons on each
lapel. Greatcoat: Whi te cloth, closed collar with
yellow meta l loops and red piping; circu lar cape
collar (rotondt) nine inches high. Red lining twelve
inches wide.
N.C.O.s and soldiers have the same uniform as
the officers, according to regulations.
Badgts of Roni: Gold epaulenes as for infantry
officers; portt-lpll one and a half inches wide
terminating in a silver tassel (bullion fringes for
field officers). Armamml: French model Pallasch
with yellow hilt, polished steel sheath; steel fitted
pistols. White leatherwork with yellow metal
fittings. White leather bandolier with yellow
buckle worn over the kurass.
Chane-ul's Che-val
Full Dress: Dark green kurtka lined in dark
green, collar closed with three hooks, pointed
cuffs. Seams on the rear of the coat one inch wide,
pockets in the folds. Th e kurtka is closed with nine
round brass buttons and there are two on each
pocket. Long breeches with a double side-stripe
of one-inch-wide br aid in the facing colour. The
breeches close at the bottoms with six hooks and
one button covered in green cloth. Black leather
instep straps. Collar, cuffs and piping in the
regimental facing colour. White waistcoat under
the kurtka. The elite company and the officers
wear busbies; the bag of the busby is in the facing
colour and the top lining is gathered under a large
central gold button. Black stock edged white .
Baul. 01 Ui. ... ... or Gro..-G6 r lK:"' '''a., :I Ma,. IIIJ.
White gauntlets for officers, gloves for the men.
Short boots under the breeches; yellow metal
screw-in spun.
UJUlTtJJ: Dark green frock-coat with dark grttn
lining; collar closed with three hooks; pointed
cuffs in the collar colour closed with two buttons.
Coat closnl with nine buttons in yellow metal.
Vertical pockets in the skirts, trident shaped with
three buttons. The skirts hooked back to form
tumbach, gold hunting horns embroidered in
the tumback corners. French-style white breeches
or dark green breeches, Hungarian boots edged in
black with a small tassel in the front. Breeches
for everyday wear in dark green or grey cloth,
fitted inside the l ~ s with black leathe r and on the
left thigh to gua rd against wear from the sabre.
Black bieorn with a two-inch-wide black binding
and on t he Itoft side a double gold bra id loop and
a gold button holding the cockade. Surwut: Dark
green as arc the collar and cuffs, seven yellow
buttons on each lapel; vertical pockets in the rear
skirts. GrtOwMt: White cloth, high collar (with
piping in the facing colour) closed by three small
buttons; the cape collar could be removed.
N.C.O. and IOldien wear the same uniform
as for the officers' full dress. The elite company
wear busbies with red plumes and cords, the
centre companies have shakos with white cords.
White leatherwork, yellow scale epauleues with,
for the ilite company, red fringes, for the other
companies, white frinltcs.
The regimental facing coloun were: nt Regi-
ment: red; fth Regiment: crimson; 5th Regiment :
orange. The trumpeters rode greys and wore
white busbies with yellow and grttn cords, white
kurtkas with waistcoat Ii la H. mrrJt with braid
in the regimental facing colour. Trumpet cords
silver and crimson.
Badgn Df Rod : As for the infantry except that
t he strap of t he epaulette is covered in yellow
metal scales; portt_/plt of woven black leather with
silver tassel; silver cords and gold pompon to
busby. N.C.o.s and soldiers are distinguished in
the following manner: Corporal - two stripes of
yellow cloth, edged in red, placed two inches
above the culT. S"gtant - one silver stripe, edged
in red, in the same position. S"gtanl-mojDr - two
silver stripes edged in red as above. FDwnin - one
gold chevron edged in red.
Arma""",t: Sabre with yellow metal hilt, 1IC'e!
COot-.opo.....,. _ ....Yi'"'l( 01 I.... & u l. o f ~ a6
"' ......1 1113
sheath with yellow fittings. Black pouch decorated
in gold with the number of the regiment betwee n
two wreaths. Bandolier of black polished leather
three inches wide bordered wi th two gold laces
half an inch wide. Yellow metal buckle. Black
leather belt two inches wide with gold deco raocn,
slings one inch wide, For everyday wear the
offiun wore white polished leather bandoliers.
For the and, grd and 16th Regimenta the lance
~ n n o n s are red over whitt' . For the 7th and 16th
Regiment' (Fra nco-Galician) the lance ~ n n o n s
arc in three colours , the triangular part which is
attached to the staff being blue, the top fly being
red and the bottom fly whit e. The 11th to 2151
Regiments (Lithuanian) have blue over whit e
lance pennons.
Trumpeters' dress was extremel y varied and at
the discretion of the commander. Gem-rally they
wore whi te busbies and kur tkas, red plumes and
rode greys. N.C.O.s and soldiers wore the same
dreu aJ the officen except that their greatcoats
were whit e with eolian in the facing eolour.
BaJltS efRaIlA: As for the Chasseurs a Cheval.
AnMmnII : French-style light cavalry sabre with
yellow three-bar hilt, steel sheath and fittings.
Yellow filled pistols. Bandolier as for the Chas-
seun a Cheval. Black leather belt three inches
wide with a half-inch-wide border along each
edge, yellow buckle-plate with the Polish eagl e.
The belt is worn over the buttoned kunka.
FrJl lftm: Dark blue kurtka of Polish eUI, duk
blue lining. Collar closed with three hooks,
pointed cuffs. The kurtka closes by mean s of
hooks. Vertical pockets in the rear skins. Pipin g
to lapels, cuffs and along seams on the rear of the
jacket and the sleeves. Flat yellow metal buttons
bearing the regimental number - seven on each
lapel, three on each pocket, two at the rear wai st
and two for the epaulettes. White waistcoat under
the kurtka. Long da rk blue breeches worn over
the boots with double bands down each leg in the
facing colour, each band half an inch wide. ThC' 1e
breeches dose with six hooks and one button at
the base of the It'S in the facing colour. Black
leather instep straps. Black ceapka nine inches
high and each top edge ten inches long. The
top part is separated from the round bottom part
by a two-inch-wide gold lace band. Each corner
""rl,,hr l ftll/U" r H;'mr,f:.r "(In df'r lni'Zl.",;rrN"P" aHN.
of the top part has a metal cap with a hook for the
cords. On the left-ha nd top side (in the middl e of
tha t side) is the white Polish cockade under a gold
Malt ese cross. In the front, OH."r the lace band, a
gilt plate bearing thc number of the regimen t in
relief. lUack leather peak edged in yellow meta l,
yellow chi n scales, black plume fifteen inches high
for junior officers, white plumes for field officers"
Short boots with yellow screw-in spurs. White
gloves. Black stock edged white.
c.;"dnSJ: Dark blue frock-coat lined in the same
colour and closed with nine semi-rou nd, yellow
buttons. Collar closed by three hooks. Pointed
cuffs, with piping, closed by two small buttons;
verti cal , tride nt-shaped pocket flaps. Skirts hooked
toget her at the bot tom. Hungari an breeches and
polished boots . Black bicorn. Su,touJ: Same cloth
as above, seven buttons (yellow, half-round) on
each lapel . G"dWtJt : Dar k blue clot h, high colla r
and collar reaching to the waist-belt.
Rc-gi m('nts of lancers are distinguished by their
buttons (which bear their number) and by thei r
facing colour worn on collar, lapels, cuffs, trouser
stripes and pipi ng as mown below.
pip;", pipin, fripitt,
R<d White Yellow R,d White Yellow
Crimson White White Crimson White Yellow
6 White Crimson
Crimson Crimson White Crimson
Yellow R<d blue R,d Yellow R<d Yellow

R<d R<d R,d Yellow R<d Rod

Rod Blue White Dark blue White R<d

Whitt Crimson White Dark blue White Crimson
White Dark blue White Dark blue White Crimson
White Cri mson White Crimson White Crimson
,6 White Dark blue Crimson Crinuon White Crimson
' 7
White Dark blue Ccinuon White Crimson
Crimson White Dark blue Crimson Crimson White
' 9
Yellow Yellow Yellow Yellow Yellow Yellow Yellow
Yellow Yellow Yellow Yellow Yellow Yd low Yellow
0. nge Orange Orange 0..00< 0....e
Orange Orange
Dark blue pelisse lined with white fur
and edged in black fur with three rows each of
eighteen 10 twenry buttons accordi ng to the
wear er ' , siee: a dolman with crimson collar
and the same number of butto ns: Hungari an
sash with five sets of knot s: Hungari an breec hes
with t high knots; a sleeved waistcoat for forage
duties and long grry breech es, reinforced with
leath er and closing at the bott om with six butt ons.
Polished Hungarian boots with st1spurs. Light
blu r shako with cords. OffiUTJ' FuJI Dress:
lined in crimson dot h and edge d with white
astrakhan; five rows each of eightee n to twenty
buttons with silver lacing. The pelisse is edged
wit h lace and has lace decoration 10 the rear .
Crimson dolman, same lace, buttons and orna-
ments as the pelisse. Light blue breeches with
thigh knots; Hungarian boots with lace tri m and
tassel. Hungarian sash in silver and cri mson.
Light blue shako with silver cords and decoration
accordi ng to rank. U"d,t1J (for summer}: Dark
blue dolman, crimson collar edged with lace; five
TO""" oflacc, three rows each of five buttons, ether-
wi se as for full dress. White waistcoat , long, grey
breeches fined wit h grey leat her insert s, crimson
side-stripes each having six white buttons. For
wint er a da rk blue pclisse edged in white ast rakhan
with five rows of silver and crimson lace. Light
blue forage cap with silver pipin g as for the French
Army. White greatcoat.
X .C.CJ andSo/dins: Light blue shakos and their
pelisses arc trimmed with black lamb' s-wool
Trumpeters wear red fox fur busbies, white
pelisses edged in red fox fur and having white and
crimson lacing. The trumpeters of the I odl
no. f..-eta prri_ .. oIS,.nd.. I ...,orud bOlO ... pdriry
I. 1813 by P.... ..I aad R. ..... troope.
Hussars had a blue dolman, crimson breeches and
yellow boots; those of the 13th Hussars a crimson
dolman, blue breeches and red boots. The officers
and men of the elite company wore black
astrakhan busbies with light blue bags held by a
la rge light blue button. The loth Hussars had
gold lace, decorat ions, buttons, stripn, etc., but
their shako cords remained silver, their pelissee
were edged in black astrakhan and thei r shakos
were light blue. (The- rgth Hussa rs we-re- as
described in the main body of the text .)
Badgts of Rank : Office-rs were- distinguished by
the number of chevro ns over the cuff: SOUJ_
IituUlIallt - one-; Litulf1lanl - two; Capitaillt - three ;
ClujJ'tJ(adron - four; .\fajor - five- (one in gold and
four in silver for t h ~ 13th Hussars or nne in silver
and four in gold for the loth Hussars}: Cololttl- five
chevrons in silver or gold according to regiment .
Portt-lpIt of woven black leather with silve-r or
gold tassel {heavy bullions for field officers}.
.'rmomttlt: Sreel basket-hilted sabre and sheath,
silver-fined pistols, black It-athe-r bandolier with
cagle and small silver e-dging, black leather
sabretache hcaring a silver eagle (officers have
gold crown, gold regimental number below the
eagle and gold lace- edging}. Belt, slings, etc., of
black leather with silver buckles.
HOnJe Artillery
Full Dms: Dark green kurtka of the same cut as
for the Chasseurs and lined in dark green. Black
velvet collar four inches high, piped in red and
closed with four hooks. Gold grenades em-
broidered on e-achside of the collar. Pointed black
velvet cuffs piped in red and closed with two small
buttons. The kurtka is piped in red and closed
with eight gold buttons. The skirts are nine inches
long and decorated with embroidered gold
grenade. There are two buttons at the bottom of
the tumbacks, two at the rear waist and two on
the shoulders. The buttons are yellow and semi-
round. Long dark g r c ~ n breeches worn over the
boots with black velvet side-stripes two inches
wide piped in red. The breeches close at the
ankles with seven hooks and one black velvet
button at the bott om. Black velvet waistcoa t with
gold braid and buttons. Short boots with steel,
screw-in spurs. Black gauntlets. Black fur busby
ten inches high and larger at the top than at the
bottom; dark green bag held by a gold button.
Gold lion's- head bosses, gold chin scales and
cords, and pompon above the cockade with two
small silver cords and tassels.
Und ress: Coat of dark green cloth with similar
lining; lapels with rounded top corners each
bearing seven buttons. Black velvet collar wit h
red top pipin g bearing a gold- embroidered
gr enade on each side. The collar closes with three
hooks. Cuffs as for the collar. Grenades em-
broidered on the skirt turnbacks; no buttons on
the pocket flaps, two buttons at t he rear of the
waist and one on each shoulder for the epaulettes.
Gr ey breeches, Hu ngarian boots with gold tri m
and tassel. Nor mal bicom. Sur/oul : Dark gr een
and fastened with yellow semi-round but tons,
black velvet collar. CTtatcoal : White , the collar
piped in red and beari ng two emb roidered gold
grenades. Cape collar to the waist.
X .C.O. s and Soldiers: The same uniform - busby
with red pompon and cords; bra ss scale epa uleues
wit h red half moons and fringes; red aiguilleue,
white leatherwork. Trumpeters wear whit e
busbies; white kur tkas faced in black velvet and
piped in red (originally thi s kurrka was red with
white facings).
Badges oj RanA: As for the Chasseurs a Cheval
but with gold aiguille nes. Armament: Brass-hilled
sabre in a steel sheath with brass fittings; almo st
straight blade, black belt and slings. Black leather
ba ndolier and pouch wit h gold ornaments, on the
pouch a steel grenade. The bandolier is thr ee
inches wide (edged in gold ) and has a gih shield
bea ring the Polish eagle in silver. Yellow mounted
RegimeDt s servin g with the FreDch Army
The 4th, jth and 9th Infantry Regiments, serving
in Spai n in french pa y, wore the following
uniforms. The 4th Regiment kept its old 1807
uniform with a red collar edged in dark blue,
yellow lape ls, red culfs with blue cuff-flaps and the
same coloured epaulertes. At the beginning of
18 12 the three regiments wore French uniforms,
the 4th Regiment also worc the tricolour cockade.
The grenadiers had shakos edged in red and their
officers also wore sha kos. Plumes were red for
grenadiers and yellow for the voltigeurs; fusilicrs
wore pompons in colours acco rdi ng to compa ny
as follows: 1St Company - gr een; end Company -
light blue ; grd Company - yellow; 4th Compan y
- violet. N.C.O. s wore rank stri pes, the sergeant-
major had lace round his collar. OffiCCTS of
regimental headquarters and of t he fusilier
companies wore turn back badges in the form of a
crowned ' N' ; grenadier officers wore grenades
and voltigeurs wore hunti ng horns. The 7t.h
Regiment had dark blue collars edged crimson,
crimson lapels, da rk blue cuffs and cuff-Raps ....itb
crimson piping; whi te butt ons. The 9th Regiment
had red collan edged dark blue , white lapels, red
cuffs piped white wit h dark blue cuff flaps; white
Tb. Kraku s
These light cavalry We'ff a novelt y in the' Polish
Army; instead of trumpeters Ihe'y had a trooper
who carried a pike with a horse' tail attached 10
the head which was used to give signals. nus
device was calkd a 'bunczuk' and its carrier rode'
a gn)' 001'1('. ThC'rC' were othcr innovations in
Ihe'ir uniform: the hat consis ted of a melon- like
crimson 'beret' with a white cockade and plu me
on IhC' left-hand side and a .trip of black aheepekln
round the headband, on the' lOp was a whi te
button and white laces came' radi all y from the
button down 10 the headband. Instead ofa kurtka
th('y wore a dark blue, single-breasted, full-skirted
coat with crimson collar and cuff. and white
piping to all edges . T he wual cart ridge pouc h
was replaced by the ee...cIr.tyle 'uchrrkn:s'
which consisted of a It'l of five' meta l canridgn
on each hrrast, rach with a cap on a silver chain
lC'ading 10 a sil\'C'r button above the line of can.
ridges. Each group ofcartridge was encircled by a
white lace (sihC' r for officl"n) and covered in
crimson cloth. The overalls "'C'[C' dark blur with
crimson side .tripn; and black lC'ather iRSC'M.I. ThC'
greatcoat was replaced by a widr grry c a ~ and a
hood. Round thC' waist was a crim.m sash; their
wC'apons WC't(' pistols, sabres and lance'S without
CUEUl lsnl, j. VON AND M AU II. AN, A: 1.'.1"";, tht
Dwlll d, I"Ml oW, '807-'5 (I'aris, 1913).
G EMBA RZE W'IoKI, BRONln ", w: W"j solo Pols!;"(Wanaw,
Kp,; OTaL, HERBERr AND SIEO, Ht.. BI.Rr . Hadhell dn
Uaif ( Hamburg, 1966).
LuxHARr, D. A!Im Hl."MBr.aT, R.: IAI Cttif...-s M
L',Arah FrUlfGu. Vol. \' ( Paris).
1.IsDu. KAROl.: WIjJU PJslN .Hw.t..,. (Wanaw,
The basic information on these uniforms is quoted
in the preceding section of the text; notes on the
individual plait'S are t herefore limited to brief
mention of special peculiarities.
Al DriDn. J/j/il41] Traill
The dark or 'slate' blue shown here is typical of
Polish uniforms of the eigbteemh as well as the
nineteenth century. The brass arm-plate bart' the
number of the column to which the driver was
auached, and idC'ntifit'd him to military police,
All military vehicles in the French - and Polish -
armies carried licence plates.
.42 P""-4i,u, Grnultlin NJfft/JdIlJ,5,Ir b,jamry
RIKilMJII. ,8,G-14
The "'ery strong influence of contemporary
French designs is obvious; but note thai the eagle
itself is of Polish df'Sign.
This sergeant is nne of the escort for the preceding
figure: the small fanion on the bayonet was used
to scare tht' horses of mounted artackers. The coat
is of traditional Polish cut with French gre nadier
distinct ions. 'rcnch rank badges were worn, but
note that Ma libran and Chelminaki show a
deviat ion - a hor izontal gold stripe on t he
sergea nt's cuff in addi tion to the usua l diagonal
stripes above it.
B Trumptttr, 14th KilraHirfJ, parade dress
The trumpeters were the only members of this
unit who wore a uniform readil y distinguishable
from that of the French regimcnu of' this bra nch.
C TrwmjNln, 110m Arti/ltry,jwlJ dress
The custom of mounting trumpeters on greys was
international at this pcroid, as in later times;
colonels of regiments enjoyed considerable lat itude
in selecting uniforms for their musicians, hence
this gaudy cost ume. The Polish heavy cavalry
usually used Englis h-panern saddles while lancers
and hUS5af1 used the Hu ngarian or ' Hod' sadd le.
Horse artillery often used ligh t cavalry harn ess,
as here,
DI OJlien, Horst Arlillny,jtJl drrss
This genera l colour combination had been tradi-
tional Polish and Saxon ar tillery unifor m since
the early eighteenth century, but the black fur
busby ofhussar pattern was a recent innovation.
D2 r o l t i ~ n u COUld, Ulio,. oftAt riJttJ., 1808
Xapolecn always tried to seep the Legion firmly
under his control, and apart from the rest of the
army of the Duchy. This 'dual nationality' is
reflected in this uniform of Polish CU1, with French
shako and voltigeur d istinctions. Banle signals
were nonnally given on the con dw eJuuJt - comet
or bugle-horn - in the vcldgeur companies and
light infantry rl':giml':nls of the French Anny, just
as the Bri tish Rift" used bugles, because the
unwieldy drum was considered unsuitable for USl':
by light, fast troops.
Dj Trumptln, 5th CJuwnm d C/wM(, paradt drm
Once again, the licence enjoyed by unit com-
manders has produced a colourfu l uniform. Note
that the single-b reasted white coat does nOI ha v1':
the usua l Polish-cut front worn by dismounted
arms. 011 campaign gr('y buttoned overalls
replaced the breeches, and the expe nsive whit e
busby was covered wit h black oil-cloth,
1 Drum Maj or, t u Jrifanlry Rtgimrnt
The costume of d rum majors of armies of this
period wou ld requ ire a sepa rate study of iLS own,
50 varied and colourful were the uniforms worn.
T his figur e, after xt alibran and Chdminsli,
shows the tip of th e iceberg on ly! The drum maj oe
wears a long-t ailed coal of officers' style, As a
specia l distinction his sabre scabbard is brass {OI'
E.l ry of the AlUM __r .,h, lal. L.l .... Irl er 1M banle
." 16-1 8 Octobn' 181J .
gilt?} on gold slings; his crimson plJT(t-lpit is
another mark of his office. The crimson and gold
sash was heavily decorated 011 the chest.
F.2 l'olti!:turStrgtont , 41h In/an/V Rt gimmt, 1810-11
The ceapka, the national headgear of Poland, is
the most striking feature of this uniform ; it is
int('n:-sling 10 note that this shape, in much modi -
fied and inhibited form, is still to be traced today
in Polish military headgear. The front ba nd bean
the pierced regimental number. Rank is indicated
by the gold top band and silver and crimson cords
of the czapka; the silver and crimson epaulette
fringes; the gold stripe round the cuff and the
conventional diagonal striJX'S above ; and the
silver and crimson poru-lplt. Th e two gold Itripes
on the uppt"r left arm are length of service
chevrons, again in the French style.
tJ Tr oopn, 11th Kiira,S,Sim, ptJradt dm s, 1&7-14
Helmet, cuirass, boots, gauntlets and sword are
French-made items suppl ied under a ' lend-lease'
arrangement profitable 10 France! For campaign
t he impressive boots would give way to short boots
worn under grt'y overa lls. For parade the white
leather equipment - including the breeches - was
pipeclaved. Both men and horses were selected
for thei r size and strength.
FI Tambour of Fxsiliers, Ith Inf an,.", Rtgimtnl, fuld
sacice maTdling OTd", l&xj
The uniform is conventional. The pack is of brown
cowhide with white straps, as in the french Army.
Brass drums began to replace the earlie r wooden
patterns in about 1780, for the sake of lightness
and case of movement. The apron was worn by
drummers of all nat ionaliti es.
lal_l..,. a.. 01 doe ~ _ .. PoIaDd, Ilh,:
..Iol.",_~ . . . . - . Wad< ............. cri__
__1..1 drc-h, ...........rMad, _tIu.. d ~
~ ..uYn' -ale. lOOn!.. ...... ~ ... 'Jloe
R. Hl.. iafllIIeD .. dftl'l doe _ Polin A......,.
..-lI.r_f.u........d "'" R.Hl.. pan"'...... _D.
\ . ~ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
A.' _rioo. f ,""" I. Ih., R....... . ad ..-........
nr .,or F...
F2 SOUJ.lindmant , t3th llUlsars,juJi dress, /806-/4
The two Polish hussar regiment s, the loth and
13th, were th e most decorative units in the anny -
this branch has had an image of unequalled
glamour, in all national armies, since the la te
yean of the eighteenth century. The colours reflect
the nat ional colours of Poland. The allver lacing
on the thighs increased in size and numbe r of lines
according to rank.
Fj Cwwdin, t3th Infantry JUgimttlt, t Boy- / 4
The whit e uniform was unique in the army of the
duchy; thi s regimem was raised ill IBog from
Austrian prisoners from Ga lician areas - Leoregtons
which had belonged to t he kingdom of Poland
before its partition between Russia, Prussia and
Austria. It is Iikdy that the white Austrian
single-breasted jackets were modified by simply
sewing on false half-lapels, and cuff-naps could
have added in the same mann er.
Gr CW"'", H",st ArliJ/ny, slablt dress
The fine uniforms worn 0 11 parad e in Na poleonic
days were recognized, even then, as bei ng a shade
imp ractical for such tasks as ' mucking out' the
squadron stables, and a much simpler everyday
COSlUme was dev ised for these tasks. The slt'e\'es
of the working-dress coats worn by some armies
w('re only laced in position, and could be removed
in summer.
G2 1'1'00,,", JA"CtTl , 1Mble dress
T he zipjtfmfit.{t or for age cap was usually made
up from old uniforms by the unit tailor s, and the
design often varied according to the colonel's taste .
The overalls would also be the normal campaign
dress, although breeches and high boots oflen
accompanied the regiments in the baggage train;
. .apoleon had strict ideas about the occasions on
which his troops could property dispense with full
uniform, and where circumstances allowed would
order full dress on the battlefield.
C3 Troop", Kfiraml1'I, stdh dmI
Due to the complexity of the code of facing
colours within this branch, it is not possible to
identify the regiment with which this man served
from the scant distinctions visible on the working
/11 Brigadier- Tromptltt, C/uwlJ,-/igm Polonais dt 14
Garde, marching order, /810- 14
This corporal trumpeter wears the oil-clot h
czapka cover, buttoned overalls, and buttoned-
across crimson kur tka of marching order. Little
need be said about this famous regiment, always
the apple of Napoleon's eye; many of the men
followed their Emperor to Elba in 1814. Their
lesser-known sister unit, the 3rd (Lithuanian)
Lancers of the Guard, wore the same basic
uniform, but with gold lace and metal replacing
the silver, during their short career.
H2 Offiur, A"rakru, /812
Raised in Lithuania during the 18t:2 campaign,
this unit was clothed in a uniform which displayed
strong cossack influence. The colours employed
once again reflect Polish national colours.
H3 Troopn, LithW1l1itJlI TtlrttZrs of tlu ClJ.t1rd, /812
The uniform of this regiment has long been the
subject of controversy; since the v('ry limited
number of original sources are at variance, it will
probably remain so. The fact that this unit of
almost Asiatic dress was raised in Poland in t8t:2
is a reminder that in centuries gone by Poland
was a much stronger nation, with territories so
widespread that she rivalled even Russia. Officers
of this unit wore jackets with much more
elaborate embroidery.
us. CAVALRY ]- SM#.J
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U.....DERS w.uo- Alta-
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TilE SE\ 'F.J\" YEARS WAR Al'm S-
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