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Selected Moralia of Plutarch

Selected Moralia of Plutarch

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20th century translation of selected "essays" of Plutarch. A very important ancient Greek text, whose uniting principle is the broad-ranging curiosity of the author. It was rediscovered at the Renaissance where it enjoyed a great influence on Montaigne, Shakespeare, and others.
20th century translation of selected "essays" of Plutarch. A very important ancient Greek text, whose uniting principle is the broad-ranging curiosity of the author. It was rediscovered at the Renaissance where it enjoyed a great influence on Montaigne, Shakespeare, and others.

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second. It is fair to add that no modern version of the Moralia has been consulted for the purposes of this rendering. first. as covering between them a tolerably large field of interesting matter. In the Introduction. Notes upon the proper names will be found after the text by readers who may require them. From them and from complete picture of which lay between Pliny's Z<?«^ri we are able to form a fairly a large part of that sounder social element the froth and the dregs. In making Plutarch write as he faithfully as the substance. it is equally judicious to say Chilo '. but. The Moralia offer us perhaps the best of all extant material for judging the civilization of the middle classes of society just as The before and after the year lOO of our era. however. It does not follow that. does in the following pages the translator hopes that il ne luy a au moins Hen preste qui le desmente ou qui le desdie. either more imposing or more humorous.PREFACE essays here rendered into English have not been selected the very best pieces in Plutarch's Moralia. as far as possible. A 2 . the pronunciation of those who are * ' unfamiliar with Greek. as typical examples of his writing in that kind. English version does not seek to be either more formal or more vivacious. In the Introduction some remarks are offered concerning Here it will suffice to say that the Plutarch's literary style. and the spelling Pheidias may do towards correcting the common English tendency to something ' pronounce the first syllable as it is pronounced in fiddle *. ' because it is necessary to say Plato and usual to say Par* menio '. one cannot fail to owe much suggestion to Greard and Volkmann. than the An attempt has been made to preserve the tone as original. In the spelling of Greek proper names every modern scholar must follow his own best judgement. and. Nor can any ' safe rule be laid down for a choice between Pisistratus and Peisistratus *. the most advisable course is to safePerhaps ' ' * ' guard.

and Friend (tto)? av T15 hiaKpCvut rov KokaKa tov Quomodo adulator ab amico internoscatur). 138 B-146. in the translation by an asterisk in the margin. 779 D-782 f. . Moral Ignorance tate\ in High Places Ad principem tneruditum). Critics would have saved themselves much trouble if they had observed that. and in a number of places which are commonly acknowledged to be corrupt the translator has ventured on These places are marked a modest emendation of his own.4 The Preface text generally adopted is that of Bernardakis in the Teubner series. On On Bringing up a Boy {mpl TraiSwv dywyi}? educandis). On Old Men in Public Life (ci Trpco-ySvrepu* -rroXirevrfov TOV : (Trpos rjyifiova aTraiBtv : Jn sent respublica gerenda sit). On Garrulousness (ircpi aBo\€<rxta^ De garrulitate). {ruiv k-jrra Coniu* Dinner-Party of the Seven Sages iroa-Lov : cro<f>Qtv av/x' Septem sapientum convivium). vowels which carry a semivowel glide in themselves. though hiatus is regularly avoided in the genuine writings of Plutarch. 783 B-797 f. The orthodox order. : De : liheris the Student at Lectures ratioTte audiendi)^ On Fawner <^tAov : Df recta (Trcpl tov d/covctv 37 c-48 D. 1-14 c. Greek and Latin titles. The English titles belong to the present version. : Advice to Married Couples (ya/AiKa vapayyikfxaTa galia fraecepta). but recourse has been had throughout to Wyttenbach. 502B-515. 48 E-74 e. and sectional references of the pieces here chosen are as follows. no hiatus is created by a word ending in iota or upsilon. Concerning Busybodies (jnpi TroXinrpay/xotrvnys De curiosi' : On 515B-S23B. and the readings adopted will be found at the end of the book in an appendix on the Greek text. 146 B-164 d.

when men found entertainment. and probably some measure of moral or social help. He might have written. An eighteenthinterestingly set forth century Plutarch might conceivably have written the moral papers of Johnson without Johnson's ponderousness. or in its continuation He flourished at a time when intellectual interests . if not very profound most part it ventured on no high imaginative flights. when facts. in the readable essay or the friendly epistle if . or have contributed to the Spectator papers more full than Addison's ' of those ideas in which Matthew Arnold found that writer ' so deficient. the Essay on Man. Addison. without first playing the earnest and Plutarch did not. so far as we are aware. as such. did at least aim at some practical bearing upon the conduct of life . try his hand at verse. with Goldsmith and Johnson. To duty and by his quotations judge by his comments upon poetic which are regularly taken from the — best writers of a classical age already far remote — his conception . from the literary point of view. being meanwhile as willing as Pope to owe the bulk of his matter to other minds. Of the periods of English style and thought. were remark- when literature. closely ' similar to the so-called all Augustan age of English writing. merely . he would probably have found himself most at home in that of Pope. were accepted as interesting and when Philosophy. met with a due welcome from either sex. if she deigned to keep her feet upon the ground and to speak as one of the mortals. if for the ably keen. though in a prose form.INTRODUCTION The wrote his Ethica age in which Plutarch was educated and in which he is. and ' Steele. but not so willing as Pope to play the expositor critical student.

Herbert Spencer but he might have been much that Macaulay was outside of politics. He might. he * ' in the broader degree sensible. but in no sense creative. A disman of letters and an educator of tinguished and popular opinion he assuredly would have been. he might have made as he did then an admirable of reading. would be difficult to suggest with any precision the place ' ' which Plutarch might have filled in Victorian literature. * or inspired. a brilliant expositor of a preacher not only eminent but also in the best sense popular. and so far as that spirit finds an individual it finds It embodiment in the Greek half of the Roman Empire. in the highest fashion of his times. a persistent self-culture. He he would have been no Carlyle or was no Plato or Aristotle . possibly. . 48. — — biographer and essayist. reflection. have been an eminent lecturer . with a broad practical Christianity substituted for his broad practical Platonism. and had he followed the would perhaps have come nearer to our even than in his prose. oft was thought. style. Its ideal contents consisted of what imaginative. He might have been a contributor of substantial papers to the quarterlies and other higher reviews. satire. it Approximately may be put down as a. studiously informed with wit Queen Anne sense of that word and characterized by extreme * ' — — and quotable phrase. The attitudes deftness of pointed of both prose-writer and poet belonged to the intellectual and aesthetic spirit of the period. He would certainly have made whatever he undertook to expound. d. and moralizing. him in Plutarch of Chaeronea. and probably would. In poetry it was the age Augustans of description.6 Introduction of the poetic office was too exalted to permit of his dabbling in that domain. It is accepted . As to the date of Plutarch's birth there can be no certainty. Given a width public and a careful but unpedantic corresponding to those which he practised in his own generation. Had he done so. but ne'er so well expressed '.

and amid the was fifty before the last tyrant of the early but the remainder of his life was spent under the greatest peace and pros- perity. Vitellius. at its profoundest. and for making acquaintance with the best knowledge physical. there was indeed no stimulation or scope. for the patriotic poet from whom thrilling verse must be wrung by the wrongs. a vigorous revival of life. it was possible to look abroad over a wider field. Vespasian. Nerva. Titus. it may have taken place somewhat. or in consequence. He must have been nearly Empire fell. antiquarian. for the satisfaction of intellectual curiosity. he lived through the reigns of Nero. Since the immediate human environment was no longer distracted and distracting with the clamorous urgencies of external or internal strife and danger. Born in the days of Claudius. or the yet unrealized aspirations of his But for country. The pax Romana . later. and for the philological — — that had been thought and said ' by it. historical. and Trajan. for the indulgence of a taste art and belles-lettres. for the search after interesting mathematical. for the cultivation of the humanities. There was at the intellectual same time. Galba. the sense of security at its fullest the fact of general well-being was everywhere most palpable. thoughtful observation of men and manners. the decline. to . Otho.Introduction 7 that his death did not occur before the year I20 . the time was almost ideal. At no period of antiquity would it have been possible for a man of studious habits and of mild and genial disposition to enjoy a leisure so undisturbed or a society so free from those forms of preoccupation which preclude an engrossing interest in things purely of the mind. and saw at least the first three years of the rule of Hadrian. most beneficent regime. ever experienced in the ancient world. though not much. For the orator who is fired by the natural heat of democratic politics. In the absence of anxious and absorbing problems of the present there was leisure for a contemplative and critical ' survey of the past. Domitian.

of course. the traveller. of apophthegms. however much its professors might dissent from each other according to the degrees of philistinism in their respective temperaments. It might be that the teaching philosopher '. beauties. to equip him for the art of living and conducting himself as such. dignity. and often perhaps kalokagathia too much from were too exclusively. the describer. and marvels.8 Introduction contemplate the more spacious world of man and his work. beyond all else. of stories from history. the self-command. of Nature and her facts. The dress. This was the one object of education. the voice. the commentator. and that care of the person. and the deportment upon which * all ages have insisted according to their several lights or tastes. and a capacity for The right morals were based mainly upon reasoned right manners were chiefly those of urbanity. to turn the raw material of the boy into universally avowed — a man both a private standpoint. of objects — of art. The aim of contemporary education —generally realized with definiteness than educational aims are wont to be in modern times was to turn the pupil into a gentleman. hardly fail to be those who regarded this the exterior point of view. capable and clubbable. whose concern was with the soundness of the morals. and the right manners. while others fixed their attention more decidedly. whether from a public or The things to be sought were the right The accomplishments speech. literary informa- tion and culture. There also considerable differences between the Greek and Roman But in the main this end was conceptions of a gentleman. argumentative dexterity. upon the inward and spiritual grace. of pointed and interesting quotations. the right morals. of books. included. had his quarrel with the teaching . the collector collector of curiosities. accomplishments. It was therefore the age of the encyclopaedist. The prevailing aim was mental and social culture. There more — could.

and often positive upon practical efficiency. who was merely where he was first useless for harder work —passed into taught his letters and then proceeded to the reading. to develop his of invention a on either side of a chosen topic. After his years of infancy the boy. under the supervision of his paedagogus ideally a slave of superior character.Introduction ' 9 its sophist '. look a upon the philosopher clog as visionary. Coleridge calls it. showy. to study '. Next. its due measure of both forms of teaching. ' as many the equivalent of a university sophistic commonly ceased. Even in the more mature years of life . and recital of classical poetry. From artificial harangues and the speaking piece he advanced to the imaginary pleading of forensic ' cases. taken in hand by the rhetorical teacher in a higher school. and the elocutionary ' arts of a and graces. mostly on trite and unreal themes of powers a historical or pseudo-historical nature. and to some acquaintance with elementary arithmetic and geometry. in which the law was often as fictitious as the facts. to philosophy. ( typically cultured person of the day that. pedantic. learning. upon reaching the age for assuming the toga vtrilis. whose business was with the rhetoric and excellence for exhibition purposes or for the gaining of various forms of The philosopher might think the sophist superficial. he was made to write and deliver descriptions and essays. and to cultivate fastidious diction. in ' order ' orbicular to be complete — —education must include Nevertheless no would have questioned as or. and often actually pernicious. pointed phrase. his formal education If as he proceeded further. while the sophist might influence. When. or to dally with both in such measure as seemed likely to set off the abilities or consolidate the culture of a gentleman. what may be considered course. to the study of music. but too often — a person a school. he might elect to study did. he was emancipated from the custody of the faedagogus and the discipline of the school.

With the Greeks philosophical specializing was commonly subject to no such reprehension. Plutarch. and audiences of wealth and fashion readily gathered Rome and elsewhere to listen to lectures on philosophy by professors who properly understood the art of clear and pleasant For the most part the typical Roman. This. less genuinely impassioned than the Greek for thought pure and simple. For in whatever light the modern f may regard Plutarch as a man of letters. and it was in this world that Plutarch of Chaeronea became t / a figure of special eminence and reader distinction. if ' ' not dangerous. the Greeks were the accepted teachers throughout the Roman sphere. the scene of the decisive victory of the Macedonians over the southern Greeks. at which the student himself stood in danger of becoming a philosopher '. exposition. of philosophical and a certain modicum might impart but the study must not be pursued to the point * a steadiness to character. views. was born about a. partly because in this domain. His family must have . looked upon any specializing in philosophy as likely to lead either to too cloistered a virtue or to the acquisition of eccentric. A certain knowledge might be an adornment to of philosophical training modicum life.lO Introduction the intellectually-disposed grandee had a habit of maintaining near his person a salaried philosopher as a kind of domestic in monifor. to his own times he was first and foremost an educator. d. and also of that in which the forces of Greece. or nearly this. partly because of the inborn Hellenic ardour for study and esteem of learning. was the attitude of the educational world in the first decades of the second century. It is from this point of view that we must consider both his Parallel Lives \ and his I Moral Essays. 48 in the very heart at the comparatively small town of Chaeronea. then. if we are to perceive in them that unity of character I and purpose which he intended all his work to possess. even more than in the rhetorical. famous as of Mithridates were routed by Sulla.

If the philosopher was strictly conscientious he felt it his duty to watch over the developing character of his pupil. The familiar phrase ' guide. an Alexandrian philosopher Platonist. to visit him with any deserved reproof. or at least. and the fact that his man of cultivated tastes and refined manners finest — ^was the owner of the kind of horses ' is enough to show. to answer his questions. We find both Plutarch and his brother in the company of Ammonius at Delphi when Nero. Musonius. he was placed. philosopher. chiefly under the of Ammonius. references to That as a boy he passed obvious from his wide if intelligent. not particu- both music and mathematics. the lectures of a selected teacher. or placed himself. Often he lived in that teacher's house. and friend perhaps describes the relations with unusual exactness. * . made all his hearers feel as if some one had been talking to him about them ' ' . semi-Peripatetic school. as other members of the family of his Lamprias and Timon. and also from what is known own life and upbringing. When of an age to receive an education in philosophy. we discover little of the The reproof might ostensibly be general. His formal education completed. The same conclusion may be drawn both from what Plutarch himself incidentally ciate the significance of the word reveals concerning his brothers. as well circle. and to meet ' his moral and intellectual difliculties. in the year 66^ graced that city with his imperial and artistic presence. to those who appre- must hipfotrophia. acquaintance with literature and his larly profound. that he have been possessed of considerable means.^ to serve as his father confessor. we are told by Epictetus.Introduction been of high * 1 1 father — a local standing. in intimate connexion therewith. but its particular application was readily felt. but not necessarily to confine himself to. distinguished a broad semiestablished who had become in a prominent intellectual and public position at Athens. It was the accepted rule for the student to attend. is through the orthodox curriculum.

except that he must have been in high local estimation. we cannot say. delivered lectures. We can only be sure that to his learning he added a recognizable compilation of those capacity for public business. of which he may have been sent as representative). from the position of his family. and in this metropolis and ' epitome of the world ' he made acquaintance with a large circle of men of distinction. journeys were at least as expeditious as any modern time until the employment of steam. and the north of Italy. have devoted to study and However many hours he may to the ample commonplace-books which evidently served him in such good stead. or with other public positions. for he confesses that like most other Greek writers * — —he had given almost no attention See Concerning Busybodies. 522 E. He must have spoken always in Greek. partly. Rome. . or with proconsul of the province.12 Introduction younger manhood of Plutarch. Rome he must have visited at least twice. it was also a patriotic duty. transacted public business (presumably on behalf of his native town.^ and apparently acted as a sort of consulting physician to morally perturbed members of Roman society. he prided himself on carrying his philosophic attainments into the local Chamber or on to the local platform. Had this as not been the case. the seas and main roads were secure from pirate or enemy at . In his judgement this procedure was not only a vindication of philosophy and a method of keeping the faculties energetic . this was an age of travel. he would hardly a delegation of have been appointed mission to the one of two sent on a he was a first At what age entrusted with civic functions as aedile. As has been already said. Facilities of transport were plentiful . but doubtless no less on account of his own con- spicuous gifts. We know of visits made by Plutarch to Alexandria. various parts of Greece. Roman Delphic priesthood (then merely a ceremonial office open to any layman). perhaps.

was then the universal language of the cultured as. however. diplomacy. could not have failed to win the notice of the Horace Walpole of his day. much and the The Rome with which Plutarch was immediately acquainted was the Rome of Vespasian and of the earlier half of Domitian's reign. but of quiet . Quintilian. 1 3 any such avowal needed from a person who. Had his sojourn in the capital taken place some fifteen or twenty years later. To There he married Timoxena. Sosius A man who could make close friends of consulars like Florus. believed sine fatris to be nor is the Latin for as ' without a father '.Introduction to Latin . it is because he was living in remote Chaeronea and forgathering only with his chosen circle of philosophers. Pliny. traveller. Statins. French was the universal accomplishment of fashion. Corinth. it is in the highest degree probable that he would have been further known to us through an acquaintance with Pliny or some other Roman writer of that date. until recently. — — Pliny. Chaeronea Plutarch must have retired by middle life. writing culture. including comparatively obscure like Euphrates. or musicians in that town or in Athens. a lady of position. should make no mention of contemporary Latin authors that in his heart he should rather despise them is only characteristic But that the amiable of the Hellenic attitude of the time. That a Greek. and Juvenal were all already the coryphaeus of Greek and if not one of them mentions his name. amounts to evidence that the two had never met. when Plutarch was Martial. artists. Greek. even after looking into the language. men of letters. and especially one who had a difficulty in reading Latin. and other Greek centres near at hand. and who enjoyed an intimacy with Paccius and Fundanus. Suetonius. Senecio and Mestrius Silius. should say nothing of so eminent philosophers a figure as Plutarch. who has an appreciative word to say of almost every one within his social horizon.

Aedepsus ^where he — — most probably delivered an occasional lecture. made copious extracts there- from. industriously read the books in his moderate but useful library. we are certain. delivered lines of a imparted instruction on the modified or latitudinarian Platonic philosophy. doubtless dominating the conversation though in his more courteous way somewhat as — — Johnson dominated the coterie described by Boswell. wrote his Lives and those occasional papers known Ethica or Moral Essays^ and enjoyed the discussion of a knotty question as his —often its many perhaps of a little beyond the fact of forming problem —in or no importance the agreeable society of his relatives or his cultivated friends and guests. ' ^ Roman Nevertheless. and where. At such gatherings he was the leader. is . there is a distinct similarity between their conWe can imagine a Plutarch fully at home with versational tastes. Often. Over and above his resemblances to Macaulay as a writer of essays and biographical history. it may fairly be gathered that the Greek or Graecointerlocutors in the reign of Trajan were the more ingenuously athirst for reciprocal enlightenment. to persons of both sexes is known from his own references to the Whether practice. and where he might be endured while he recited them. and religious concerns of his town. reveals for contemporary Greek society the same deliberate cult of intellectual conversation sharpened by challenge and debate. Nor it easy to believe that Plutarch would have thought it etiquette to indulge in the protracted monologues to which the more modern society submitted with such grace as it best could.^ as That he gave philosophical education^^ though apparently not of a systematic and pedagogic kind. we gather. however dubiously we may regard the value of the information or misinformation actually gained.1 4 had civic Introduction issue four sons tastes. Sparta. identified himself with the lectures. In such conversation he must himself have played a conspicuous part. Macaulay at one of those astonishing early Victorian breakfast-parties where a man might be asked if he knew his Popes '. and a daughter. he thoroughly enjoyed himself in table-talk. Plutarch's Table-Talk. like his DinnerParty oj the Seven Sages. he varied this quiet course of life by means of excursions to other Greek cities Athens.

. and to create a large Aberglaube about his writings. But there is every reason to suppose that Plutarch was a man of independent means angusta was often . Plutarch was able — likelihood the sons and practised all the amiable candour which he explicitly originality. a Platonist. in dealing with them or with a wider audience. of prothe obscurity which is so often mistaken for that fundity (or virtue). of speculative audacity. secreted the most valuable constituents. He browsed on literature and thought. and the nobility of his conceptions. we know further that a genial frugality was the rule of his household. to extract dogma from Be him. to choose his all own pupils —in fee or present. he belonged to a philosophic school. So far as Old Academy. To his generation he served as a recommends. We may take it therefore whether with or without and daughters of his friends and that. The later Platonists felt bound to adopt the attitude of Socrates and Plato towards the taking of fees. the obsequious or the advertiser. The day of the endowed whether of philosophy or sophistic. he would have labelled himself It is probable that he was as much attracted by the superb literary style of Plato.Introduction he did so for i s by no means the res money or not. was still to dawn for Greece under Marcus Aurelius. while in the by anything capable of crystalThese qualities attracted even the specially philosophic more world time had done much to refract the real Plato. and that he entertained a becoming contempt for professor. The world had changed. as lization into a philosophy. he maintained the fullest dignity and independence. town as Chaeronea. and more powerful than a principle which had ceased to appear entirely rational. we cannot tell. and yielded the cream to his hearers or readers. For any lack of milch-cow of practical philosophy on its ethical side. Plutarch fully compensates. it was that of the In other words. dilettante. the nature of the man. and it never dawned at all for so small a that.

he was. ' This does not mean that he had no friends among the rhetorica teachers (the contrary is shown by his reference to our Niger in praec ' ' ' He refused to approve san. was his charm and potenc} teaching. and it is especially by the later Neo-Platonists that he was quoted as a divinely gifted writer who lent literary to wisdom. no less opposed To him the representatives of that art were apt sophistic. to say to what sect Plutarch did nol belong than to associate him definitively with any other. anc however popular the philosophers. however. § 16).. Plutarch ranked witf he was opposed to Stoicism and Epicutc tc reanism. would logically withhold men from public activity — —he It is distinctly. that the basis of righi is knowledge.^ easier. He would thei rise and demonstrate his extemporiring powers with much show ol rhetorical ornament.^ He action * held. in his De repugnantiis Stoicorum and his Non posse suaviUr viv secundum Epicurum. 300 sqq. and there £ welcome. So broad. pp. like other philosophers.g. there is is much in Plato that Plutarch does noi much outside of Plato to which he gives that accept. . in fact. and he had no belief in empiricism. Nevertheless it is as a Platonist that he would have classed himself. against these. seem shallow and showy . but only that he distrusted the type. Yet. Pliny describes how the amazingly voluble Isaeus would offer his audience a choice of subject and allow it to dictate the side which he should take.^ Into whatever shape he may have systematized his views. lik< those of the Christians. of a fluent and polished style as an end in itself. with the Socratics in general. it would be hard to saj whether the number of Stoic dogmas which he rejects exceeds that which he quotes with approval' (TA^r Greek World under Roman Sway. his If treatment of them. that early writers the Church had no scruple in borrowing liberally from him. Towards Stoics and Epicureans whose doctrines. Noi e. hostile. and it is when his pen ranges is against particular schools. as Mahaffy says. and in manj o' respects so adaptable even to Christianity.1 6 as it Introductiofi may.) • Volkmann names in particular Clement of Alexandria and Basil. itself though never virulently.

and Menander were ' learned and wise '. that he rejected either established moral views or established religion. he necessarily felt some qualms as to the possible effects. Poetry served in the schools ' as introduction to philosophy. geography. and boys were brought to regard them as inspired. entirely rational. the divine word is rather to be taken as denoting the sum of wisdom and beneficent dispensation. Hence Plutarch's treatise on Poets as Moral Teachers of the Toung. and it had much to do with the formation of religious and ethical notions. indeed. and astronomy '. Pindar. Like all the best his minds of moral own and many a previous generation. and he found no difficulty in reconciling and combining the two sets of notions cults. In the polytheism in which he acquiesced. appeared to him equally tenable with the worship practised by his own ancestors. he found difficulties in accepting the characters ascribed to the deities in the best literature of earlier Greece. while approving of the established education in poetry. The Egyptian worship of Isis and Osiris. y is remarkably receptive in the matter of deities. which acted upon mankind from the one side as the gods did from the ' ' If he appears to rise to the conception of God in the other. Sophocles. 546«19 Instead of frankly recognizing the limitations of B Homer . The point of view in that essay is not. there was no ancient cult of atheism. though his culture and his natural good taste made him despise corybantic and tions demonstrations and what Friedlander has called 'dirty mortifica'.Introduction 17 atheist. history. still less an As Friedlander Plutarch. He was deeply tinged with Orientalism. such divinities were only other forms of those known in Hellas. and therefore. which had made great indeed^ progress throughout the Roman Empire. singular. He was no sceptic. has well argued. He held the Eranian belief in daemonic agencies. Homer. It was not so easy for Plutarch religious as it is for us to realize that moral and had passed through an evolution corresponding to the development of intellect and ideas in Greek literature society.

Plutarch felt a lively interest in all such posers were mooted in the talk of the table or of the loungers' club. and strangers. like those of Seneca or Bacon. sondern die eingestreuten Reflexionen. the honourable. is not made up entirely of preaching and exhortation. For logic and dialectic he shows no liking. It is only when he fails in such a tour deforce that he consents to censure the poet. deal with separable components or manifestations of right and wrong character.1 8 Introduction or the inconsistencies of the dramatists in this respect. As has been often observed. least of all when the philosopher is Yet life. he puts a highly ingenious constraint upon the connexion between any dubious sentiment and its context. die ethischen Betrachtungen. is From philosophy is we what due to ourselves.' . the right. By philosophy he meant the best conduct of of the nature of virtue — life. das Eingehen auf individuelle Stimmungen und Leidenschaften der grossen Manner. friends. The Essays. His object was to relate philosophy to life. The battle of the • ' takers of ' ' objection (Trpo/3krjfmTLKot) and the ' solvers of (Xvtlkoi) was centuries old. That Plutarch should range himself as far as possible with the solvers is a circumstance which would naturally follow both from his love of literature difficulties and from his constitutionally reverential temperament.^ even that of a philosopher. In this procedure he was by no means the first. the becoming. die er giebt. children. the purpose running through the Parallel Lives and the Moral Essays is one and the same. includes * among his occasional papers —whether He therefore written by Volkmann says of the Lives/ D&s Werthvolle an ihnen sind nicht die historischen Details. The philosophy of Plutarch was ethical. but what to parents. with duties and circumstances : the Lives meanwhile afford us concrete examples or object lessons from history. at the same time a man of the world and a man as of letters. due to the gods. based on an understanding are to learn not only to kuXov. fellow-citizens. to bring home a philosophy which could be lived. to the laws. enemies.

feel its if Plutarch did not write the piece. we can only that unmixed regret that he did article not. With the on The Bringing-up sufficiently of a Boy the its case is different. they all bear the impress of the man. he may in a spare moment tions in discuss such matters as The Face in the Moon or ques- Roman custom. has those Dinner-Party of the who do not expect a dinner-table conversation to be a systematic treatise. or interesting item of information at the point where the discourse threatens to become tedious. and is Plutarchan. There is the same moral broadmindedness and sobriety. and artistic topics which can hardly be said to bear with any immediateness upon — from the treatment of the ethical perfection of the reader. If so. the same knack of relieving the sermon by means of anecdote. are precisely the things for which one would look on such an occasion. the same shrewd sense of le bonhomme Plutarque. Every feature of the style banter. The themselves. It is true that the German critic. B2 .Introduction 1 9 request or under the fashionable fiction of a request a number of treatises on physical. As a change. antiquarian. therefore. Volkmann guesses that it is ein Produkt der spateren Sophistik. and a frequent transition of subject. narrative. impugned the authorship of the Seven Sages ^ on grounds unintelligible to and who are satisfied to believe that a mixture of serious talk. the same faculty for popularizing^ without descending to vapidity. and unmixed surprise real author should sacrifice the credit of his performance. literary. may congratulate the Sophist on his perfect reproduction of Plutarch's style and of his non-sophistic tone. of Rules for Married Couples and Rules of Health and rules for The Student'^at Lecture. quotation. non doctis. Wyttenbach has ^ ' pointed out frequent feebleness we Aulicis tantum scripsit. majority of the pieces in the present selection speak for With the one exception to be mentioned imme- diately. says Scaliger. and. in his indefatigable search for the unecht. Superstition or Inquisitiveness or The Restraint of Anger.

but there are few writers who do not at some less felicitous moment is perpetrate paragraphs less vivacious than their average. however. ^ Perhaps. no laborious in the classic atticist. Antiquity produced authors —imitations when an far too many amateur essays in imitation of great actually ascribed to those authors recognized fiction of the schools —for us by a to do an injustice to Plutarch easier solution lies so close to our hands. no understanding reader will call him verbose. On it the contrary.20 of argument. and the domestic Otherwise a puerile student essay. find him borrowing the words for there is no such Flatterer as a Man's selfe '. it is true. his words are selected with extreme care. . is as watchfully as any true that his vocabulary large and his expression full. the exceeding triteness its and unaccountable omissions. We do. But this does not is mean that he in the least negligent in either word or sentence. and for ditions of domestic life it is incidental revelations of the conaffections. of its ideas. and where the text is sound. the answer * performance and savours of nothing but the If it be argued that it is one of Plutarch's juvenile is that it is unlike him to be disingenuous . if in his early youth he pretends * tx) have often impressed upon parents this or that. he writes ' with comfortable breadth'. As a stylist Plutarch apt to be underrated. works. and makes no point of writing like a purist manner of a Plato or a Lysias.^ He displays an * immense command of language. as for the most part his sentences — is —are rounded off and interlinked It is natural writing need require. ' ' As Volkmann happily puts it. To us moderns it is of great interest for the light its which it throws on the educa- tion of the period. He is. its Introduction turbid arrangement. again. and disingenuous he must be. but. but no word plays Bacon's Essay Of Followers and Friends owes almost nothing to Plutarch beyond the title. the piece on Fawner and Friend suffers from an occasional longueur. when his words are properly weighed and their metaphorical and other differentiations duly perceived.

at least as agreeable as the What chiefly exacts is some its from the reader of Plutarchan Greek are extraordinarily charged with the fact that words choice of one metaphor and allusion. despite any irritates length of sentence and fullness of praise. A pedant he could not be. whom many respects he resembles) he synonyms. .^ His word rather than another is always nicely calculated. upon the It is true also that his sentences are apt to appear — ^like somewhat lengthy . suit their context. a reader cannot fail to admire both the consistency with which the writer maintains his similitude while he is upon it. of Johnsonese.^ find with a passage of Demosthenes or Plato. some emphasis helpful to sense. It one not * The sentences would doubtless have been easier still if Plutarch had felt bound to follow the fashion of the time and elaborately avoid hiatus. while his sense was nevertheless closely' * jointed and pithily-continued '. He is no writer To him the best words are those which best a is and he has no objection whatever to dash of the colloquial or a touch of the ^ homely or naive. and also the copious resources of vocabulary upon which he draws for the purpose. Meanwhile. This truth once recognized. the sentences of Ruskin's earlier days nevertheless they commonly atone by — lucidity of construction for any demand they may make upon In a modern English dress they must necessarily be broken up. Plutarch neither with tricks and mannerisms nor wearies with pedantry and ponderousness. but a practised reader of Plutarch finds no more difficulty with them in the original than he would sustained attention. Perhaps this is why Plutarch. appeared to Montaigne close and thorny '. it fond of joining what are erroneously called needs but little appreciation of verbal values to realize that the some more a full grasp precise definition. as seen through Amyot. or added words invariably carry some amplification. 21 in and is if (like Cicero. To one who effort becomes familiar with them they are staccato brevities of Seneca.Introduction an idle part.

at which we feel that his We To memory or his notebook has been unduly exploited. it style. of that profession.' a professor of human. There are numerous signs that the pendulum of classical interest is swinging in the direction of the literature of the early Empire. though rare ones. and though Guevara perhaps owed nothing directly to him (as he did to Seneca 2). was in and Plutarch assuredly does not err more often or more heinously with one generation than Shakespeare did with another.22 higher and Introductio?! knows when to take the of his characteristic merits that he when the lower road of diction. The contagion of the thing. Apart and Plutarch. Wide reading and natural fecundity easily slip into sins which narrow resources and slow invention are impotent to commit. like that of Euphuism in the Elizabethan age. p. is but.' has been said. Plutarch was a teacher. not here implied that he is never culpable. . feel that he might have spared us an illustration which does is not illustrate or a similitude which a certain extent deficient in similarity. never over- loaded. Intro- duction. » See an observation of Professor Summers. is his pen must have moved with extraordinary evident from the number of his publications. facility is That humanity without a chair. the air. ' is to write like a human being. his Moralia include over eighty pieces. long or short. always and entirely from his Lives (of which not all are extant). like truly intelligent members recognized that the most uninspiring attitude to adopt ' The knack of severely and unremittingly pedagogic. Euphuist. Seneca Select Letters. Ixxiv. He also knows when he the he is in danger of stylistic all monotony. it is manifest that Plutarch sometimes strains a point in order is he a to achieve an over-ingenious comparison. There are times. * Stobaeus (sixth century) had access to much of Plutarch that is now lost. and it is certain that many others had disappeared ^ before the present collection became available in It is its eleventh-century MS.

however. and writers Seneca and Plutarch are coming into their own once more. as being a writer of Latin.2 and Montaigne was by no means the only reader among nous the Plutarch of ' autres ignorans who made his Amyot his breviary. It was not the all literary etiquette of the Elizabethan age to acknowledge owe even to a contemporary. Authors who could make such an appeal to Montaigne. and pointed moral instances. A History of Classical Scholarship.^ but from the publication of the a silver ' ' editio princeps of Plutarch by Aldus in 1509 our author sprang into peculiar estimation It was. Later the Adagia of Erasmus draw freely upon him.^ are surely not to be despised because they belong stylistically to age. » He was familiar reading of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. or because their strength lies mostly in the fact that they are a mine of ideas. of Jeremy Taylor' (Sandys. and the stores of Plutarch might be rifled without much fear of detection. in England no less than on the Continent. that both his Lives and his The Essays became accessible to those who had little or no Greek. spirits of upon the ardent and inquiring the sixteenth andfoUowing centuries. . to the Elizabethan dramatists. and appears in the Gesta Romanorum. much the obligations one might less to the ancients. and who ' drew water incessantly from him. Essays were rendered into idiomatic French by that admirable translator in the year 1572. * When Lyly. ' ' II a en quelque sorte cree Plutarque. 300). Seneca. wise saws. to Bacon. was naturally the earlier and more widely read.* says Demogeot. and certainly with no fear of reproach. or to Jeremy Taylor.Introduction 2 3 The like exclusive toujours perdrix of the Attic and Ciceronian periods has apparently begun to jade the palate. Plutarch ' is the theme of more than 230 allusions or direct references on the part i. among the recovered to due Amyot spirits of antiquity. There was a time when these authors were perhaps better known than any consideration exercised is That they were worthy of prime manifest from the immense influence which they others.

and one of the most lovable '. and to Professor Gilbert Murray * he is one of the most Plutarch is ' a * tactful characters in antiquity and charming of writers. expanding. the olde Athens that amiddest the pottes could hold his peace. ' Quoted by Sandys {A History of Classical Scholarship. Said Emerson ^ Plutarch will be * : perpetually rediscovered from time to time as long ^ as books last. 427. full of precious information. sometimes refers Plutarke '. Montaigne. fessor many good things have filtered down may not be well worth reading Mahaffy ^ to us through various at first hand. Time of Shakespeare. and at least on one occasion informs us ' that said ' Mountaigny ' saith ' a thing which on reference to the Mountaigny it is we find to be Plutarchan. for example. p. with the story of Zeno. credits Plutarch via Amyot with a multitude of observations. and from whom so channels.* Jusserand {The English Novel in the Euphues appeared in 1579. with his bland unreserve. while Bacon. but he appears to be unaware that Lyiy borrowed this object. it is at least worth asking whether an author whom genius once delighted to exploit. p. and breathing a lofty moral tone '. particularly that on Garrulousness^ lating.24 in Eufhues Introduction and his in the way he should Ephoehus} takes it in hand to bring up a child go. he is in a large measure simply trans- and emphasizing the pseudo-Plutarch on the a Boy and interspersing the discourse with Bringing-up of pickings from other essays. To Pro- pure and elevating writer. 127) remarks that Euphues 'addresses moral epistles to his fellow men to guide them through hfe '. Though modern no part of the present Introduction to examine in detail the influence of the philosopher of Chaeronea writers. ' We meet. 396. as well as so large a quantity of his matter. The Literature of Ancient Greece. or to upon make an inventory of his contributions to English literature. 300). i. of course. .' ' man in ' * History of Greek Classical Literature. from Plutarch. when us to ' following the new vogue of the essay. ii.

High Places Fawner and Friend Bringing up a Boy ..... .... 180 187 241 Notes on Persons and Places Appendix : 267 295 Notes on the Greek Text ... . .. 113 . . .. ..130 157 On the Student at Lectures On Moral On Ignorance in .. . . .. PAGE 27 65 On Old Men in Public Life Advice to Married Couples 96 Concerning Busybodies On Garrulousness ..CONTENTS Dinner-Party of the Seven Sages . .. .

Anacharsis {see Notes on Persons and Places). list Pittacus. c. who was date is despot of Corinth from 625 b. The Seven Sages are here Thales. He and a power of crystallizing was not a ^philosopher* in the later sense of that word. the results into pithy maxims. Bias. The dramatic towards the close of that period. Pittacus. Solon. c. The qualities which constituted a sage in this connexion were those of keen practical sense and insight. Cleobulus. and Chilon is regularly. and anachronisms must he disregarded.In the following imaginary * Dinner. a professional diviner and expiator of omens connected with the court ofPeriander. . and a certain Myson also appears. It must not he assumed is that Plutarch pretending to he historical. to 585 b. 7 he and varies with different writers.Party of the Seven Sages* the supposed narrator is a certain Diocles of Corinth. Chilon. hut Thales. Periander is himself sometimes * made ' one of the number. Solon are invariably. Bias. included in the canon.

where they are so fresh and recent. For after having refused to sacrifice to Aphrodite since the love-affair which led to his mother's suicide. both as — — of Thales. the party at dinner did not consist as you have been told merely of seven. I will —since you the whole story from the beginning. that in process of time facts be altogether beyond ascertain. not in the city. whoever related the converit incorrectly. the festival being in her honour. each of the invited guests a carriage was supplied with Thales. Inasmuch as it was summer-time and the road to the sea full all the way was crowded with people and vehicles.146 ment. simply . In the first place. on seeing the carriage at the door. Presumably he was not one of the company. seeing that in the present instance. Periander had prepared his entertainment. he was now for the first time. In the second place. I was myself included. reported directions. being professionally intimate with Periander and as the host who had taken up his quarters with me by Periander's sation to you. thanks to certain dreams on the part of Melissa. d but in the banquet-hall at Lechaeum. the world accepts accounts of them which are so obscured as to become pure concoctions. however. and pair handsomely caparisoned. but of c more than twice that number. Nicarchus.DINNER-PARTY OF THE SEVEN SAGES We may will be sure. therefore. close to the temple of tell — eager you are all so Aphrodite. and therefore of dust and a confusion of traffic. as I have plenty of spare time and my years do not warrant me in putting off the narrative with any confidence. Inasmuch. induced to pay honour and court to that goddess.

and the fall of the sunlight making two triangles. but he was hugely delighted with your method of measuring the pyramid. one shadow to the other . The pyramid was then also equal in height to the length of its shadow. you stood your stick at the end of the shadow thrown by the pyramid. 147 quence. with excellent judgement. He had been instructed.' replied Thales.2 8 Difwer-Party of the it E smiled and sent away. sent him an animal for sacrifice. and. as he did ! ' the * first. a man of high character who had formed a close acquaintance with Solon and and proceeded to walk quietly Thales in Egypt. a Bias does not object friend of kings. 'to find you all here.' said ' I. * . as you perceive * I am bringing the letter to the dinner. Without any fuss or the need of any instrument. although he suspected that the sealed document of a second problem for solution. took out and sent the tongue . and to be called.' showing us the paper — — At this Thales remarked with a laugh. Of its purpose he was himself which he was the bearer contained unaware. Sages we turned off Accordingly Sevm the road through the fields. and he is manifestly held in high repute and admiration in conse' That is not the only reason. " by the " ? The king. and bade him pick out and send back the worst and best portion of the meat. once more to Priene ^ For Bias will solve the difficulty.' said Niloxenus. as The home According to another account he waited till the shadow was equal in length to the stick. a third member of our party being Niloxenus of Naucratis. ' to show ' the missive to the wisest of the Greeks. In your own case the king not only admires — — you on general grounds. without first ' assistance.' ' as you do to be. In case of trouble.^ But. It is a godsend to me. Thereupon our friend. you showed that the pyramid stood in the same * ratio to the stick as the of Bias.' ' ' What do you mean. in case Bias could do nothing. His presence was due to his having been sent on another mission to Bias.* f said Niloxenus.

in a case where the subjects are good but the ruler they are great but he is regarded as greater. my feelings at the altered after version are those of the young fellow who." Yes. I regarded Solon as very wise in refusing to act the despot. and among tame animals the sycophant." when the talk fell upon animals. throwing at the dog and hitting his step-mother. slaves rather than men is suggested by my fellow. you stated that among wild Molpagoras what was the strangest sight you had seen. remarked. would not have " it is be good ". cultivates the society of sensible men. inasmuch as up he keeps wholesome company. animals the worst was the despot.' said Thales. We . e your visitor here has launched us upon an inopportune topic. or oxen. Periander. you were charged with being a king-hater. who once a despot. Among the many undesirable features of despotic rule. safety is better.Dinner-Party of the Seven Sages I 29 observed. you answered. and^ certain outrageous expressions of yours concerning despots were reported to him. " Not so bad. My own observation c was that should regard as a but an aged navigator. horses. said that if he had kept hard as to clear of monAs for archy. However much a king may claim to differ from he does not welcome language of that kind. when asked by the Ionian Again. However. the former remark belongs to Pittacus. For example. from which he making a creditable recovery. ' ' made it in a playful attack I on Myrsilus. None strange sight. at a drinking-party. "An aged despot. his despotism may be regarded an inherited disease.' Nay. his right course would be to rule over a herd of sheep. the one desirable element is the honour and glory. not over human beings. after all. and will have nothing to say to that is to the present " cutting down of the tall countryman Thrasybulus. and where with If he is satisfied without honour.d despot who desires to rule over no better than a farmer who is ready " poppies A to reap a harvest of darnel and cammock in preference to wheat and barley. Our Pittacus also. the less. not an aged despot.

and a shipmate or tentmate proves disagreeable. yet the custom * The divinities of spring-water. 148 Nor have you the resource of an emetic for that kind of annoyance. and if a wine is poor. . In my own opinion one who is to play the diner in the proper way requires still more time for real and true invitations to the preparation. but in some cases the mutual antipathy lasts all your life. inasmuch as it is harder to arrive at the appropriate adornment of character than at the useless and superfluous adornment of the person. Chilon was therefore quite right when. The people of Sybaris. bidding you B remember that you will very soon be like it. but to contribute something either serious or sportive. one may take refuge with the Nymphs. send their women a year in advance. when people cannot help going to sea or on a campaign.^ But when your table-companion gives an ill-bred bore who you a headache. that there is a certain preparation necessary for the guest as well as for the host. I understand. on receiving his invitation yesterday. may be put aside. he utterly ruins the enjoyment of any wine or dish or musical entertainment. an insulting or angry incident at your wine having resulted in a kind of nausea. and he should have moot For you will doubtless admit questions suited to the occasion. As he remarked. he does not bring himself to be filled like a vessel. listen or talk He is to about such matters as the occasion asb of the company. they are obliged to put up with him . he only accepted after ascertaining the full list of the guests. but no sensible man will form one of an indis- criminate wine-party. regularly bring in The mummy which the Egyptians and exhibit at their parties.30 Dinner-Party of the Seven Sages remembered to are walking to a dinner. may be an unwelcome and unseasonable boon-companion . if An inferior is dish they are to find pleasure in each other's society. so that they may have plenty of time to prepare their dress and their jewelry before coming to dinner. When a man of sense comes to F dinner.

' But how is it she is attending to Anacharsis so affectionately ' ' ? Because. incite liking and enjoy " Life.' * like a savage. is her father's name for her. was seated a girl. your compliment refers to the girl's cleverness Some of her puzzles have found their ' ' way Not at all. Even if it may not mutual . the wrestling- grounds. he is a man of virtue and learning.' I presume. visit and inspect the race.' are merely the dice with which. ' Upon a laugh. one e by looking at her simplicity and unpretentiousness." it yourself. ' is short in duration do not make long by vexations. however. really a Upon my asking when he him who the child was.' Yes. by the way. There is more in her than that an as far as : admirable spirit. were being led by the servants through the cloister into the dining-room.Dimier-Party of the Seven Sages is 3 1 not without its point." After talk of this nature on the way we arrived at the house. he replied. it " urges. Don't you know the wise and far-famed d Eumetis That. . As we had anointed but proceeded to ourselves. popular. but of public spirit. and an amiable character. she plays a match for fun in conversation. after him. Anacharsis. so that is he may most not frighten us by looking civilized person. in constructing riddles. Those Egypt. a practical intellect. as soon as each had anointed himself or bathed.' was the answer.' rejoined Thales. on occasion.* ? * said Niloxenus. he kissed her and said with in the cloister. and the handsomely decorated park along the shore. Not that he was greatly taken with anything of that kind.tracks. Thales decided not to take a bath. That 's right : make our foreign visitor beautiful. ' though most people call her Cleobuline. he would not appear to despise or slight Periander's display c The other guests. who was parting her running to meet Thales in the frankest possible manner. and in front of his hair him stood with her hands. it does incite to you to drink and regard. ' by which she renders her father's rule over his fellow country' men more gentle and can see * it remarked Niloxenus.

who. instead of irritation. he were nobody. of making even this place one of honour.* * . In Egypt they say of the stars. we should cultivate.' That. she is moment. islanders. when and I come to it. by Alexidemus of Miletus. and. table. the natural son of the despot ThrasyHe was coming out in a state of excitement and angrily : muttering something which conveyed no meaning to us. accord- * ing to their increase or decrease of altitude in the regions they * ' ' ' traverse.' continued Thales. upon being put *' by the director way in the last place in a chorus. You are afraid that in your own case your place at table may mean a similar loss of brightness show less spirit and eminence. that they become better or worse than themselves. take precedence of Thrasybulus. When he saw Thales he collected himself a little. The man who is annoyed with his place at table is more annoyed with his next neighbour than with his host. he means to insult and humiliate 149 him.32 Dinner-Party of the Seven Sages and has given her zealous and ungrudging instruction in the Scythian manner of dieting and purging the sick. but how we are to make ourselves agreeable to our immediate neighbours. it is evident that. we were met F bulus. B or rather bring with us. a As a means of immediately securing beginning of friendly feeling on their part.' As we were just approaching the dining-room.' I see. and said ' Look how we have been not allow me to He would by Periander take ship home when I was anxious to do so. and he earns the dislike of both. in my person.' said Thales. lets Aeolians. stopped. remarked. For since I was commissioned by Thrasybulus. and goodness knows whom. insulted ! but begged me to stay for the dinner he assigns me a degrading place at . while looking after the gentleman getting some lesson and talking it over. a tone of satisfaction at being placed in such good company." When A capital we take our places. by treating ' him as if what you are afraid of. and you propose to than the Lacedaemonian. I should say that at the present so amiably. 'we should not ask who have seats above us.

In practice ' I and therewith he even you sages are greedy for precedence us and went off. As you see. the goddess is giving warning of a second. neat wine. e c . Thales. for the token indicates strife and discord. cona mere lad and perfume had been presented to Thrasyhe emptied it into a big wine-cooler. still beardless and with considerable handsomeness of person.' At this point an attendant came up and said. Periander requests you to take Thales here along with you and examine ' it is a an object which has just been brought to him. Thales stitutionally ' — notice that said. to see whether mere matter of accident or signifies something portentous.' To this Thales made no answer. as far as the neck and arms. and I am afraid it may affect no less a matter than marriage and its issue. Upon our expressing surprise at the passed man's peculiar behaviour. before we have expiated I ' Of course ' the original offence. and drank it off. the lower parts equine its voice when it cried was that d Heaven help us of a new-born child. regarding it as a upon the festival. but began to move off 54fi-19 — ^laughing. at the young fellow. you are thinking of setting your purifications to work and giving trouble to the averting powers. were human. When he was still crazy person. Diodes. opened a leather wrapper and displayed a baby thing which he told us was the offspring of a mare. The upper parts.' Whereupon he off proceeded to lead us to one of the apartments the garden. He pollution. poured in some bulus. A wrong-headed. ' ' ! . the Seven Sages arty of ' 3. apparently a herdsman. and with a smile remarked in —in accordance my with his regular habit of twitting profession suppose.' said I. and as a smirch appears himself to be greatly agitated. Niloxenus.Dintier-P retorted Alexidemus.3 is mere talk. exclaiming but Thales took a prolonged look turned away from the sight . ' in the belief that a great and terrible thing has happened ? I — me connexion with ' am. thereby bringing ill-odour upon c a quantity of valuable Thrasybulus instead of the contrary. Here a youth.

he went round and occupied it himself. gave a toss of his mane and set out to run like a horse . F refusal of Alexidemus to be present at dinner. he quickly B stopped his career and dropped his pride and conceit. for he burst out * I should laughing and hugged and kissed Thales.' at your leisure. will On hearing this speech Periander appeared to be greatly delighted. reflecting that he was the son of an ass. taking me with him. an' ye're running the mule's gait. a flute-player and priest of the Ardalian Muses. addressing said * : me— I was on the couch above Bias — Diodes. having caught sight of his reflection in a river and conceived an admiration for the size and beauty of his body. that the sign has found its fulfilment already.' The Ardalus 1^0 privilege in question was a Troezenian. I would have paid something for the of sharing the same table with Ardalus. and was present on a low ' stool close to where Solon was reclining above said.34 Upon Dinner-Party of the Seven Sages Periander coming to the door to meet us. observed yersel. why don't you inform Bias that our visitor from . ' : questions as to took him by the hand. for you see what a serious misfortune has befallen us in the say. who observed : you perform more careful as to your herdsmen. A Lydian — mule. Thales.' At this Chilon. Anything Diodes bids you My own advice is to be Diodes. Thales turned from me. whose worship was established by the original Ardalus of Troezen. and putting what we had seen. but after a while. speaking in a louder tone. Thales. speaking in broad Laconian. and ' ' remarking : Why. and said do. whereas Eumetis sat at her dinner.' * : Ye're slow At this point Melissa came in and reclined beside Periander. said And where was the seat to which the ' : gentleman objected ? Upon the place being pointed out. Thereupon Aesop who happened to have — arrived recently on a simultaneous mission from Croesus to Periander and to the god at Delphi.' When we had actually entered the room.

Ardalus. herself in also that used by his wife. besides his other cisipacities. He put aside and out of sight not only the display usually made in other things. After the flute-girl had played a short piece to accompany them. since it eliminates fancy dishes. nor yet vines. out-of-the-way perfumes and sweetmeats. therefore. ' * : he may be sober and capable of looking after himself Bias replied Nay. No. that my " being filled wisdom. but the Scythians gods who understand ' human language.Dinner-Party of the Seven Sages Naucratis has so that 3^ come to him again with communication ? royal problems to solve. C 2 . ' have gods Ardalus rejoined Quite true. addressing Anacharsis. indulged in such things pretty nearly every day. whom he made present modest and inexpensive attire. distributed .' said he : ' : Well. I feel c with the god " will cause hopeful fight of it. and I was led to meditate on the fact that to invite and to a less me make While jokes of this entertain wise and good men means no additional expense. and we poured libations. But I am aware that.' kind were passing between these great men over their dinner.' said ^ The title Lusios or Luaios was popularly interpreted Deliverer (from care or difficulty). and yet believe that the gods would rather listen to pieces of bone and wood. on this occasion he was trying to impress the company with a show of simplicity and modest expenditure. who imagine they speak better than the Scythians. asked if there were any flute-girls among the Scythians. and lavish decantings of costly wines.' e When ' . when he receives the Dionysus is styled Solver'^ in right of no fear.' ' Ah. The tables were removed Melissa caused garlands to be but . being a despot and a person d of wealth and power. but rather a curtailment of it. Though Periander. our friend here has been trying for a long time to frighten me with that warning. and had then with* drawn. I was noticing that the meal was unusually frugal. We are not like the Greeks. Instantly he replied.

business of strangers first and of citizens afterwards. of which our is the bearer to Bias. because it sounds is ' like the bray of an ass. On the doing so. as being local and familiar. should supply us with a bone particularly Now that. you knew. therefore.Party of the Seven Sages what if Aesop. that the present-day flute-makers have given up using the bones of fawns and have — F taken to those of asses a fact They maintain that these sound better which explains Cleobuline's riddle upon the Phrygian flute: With a shin that was horned Did an ass that was dead Deal a blow on It is my ear. I propose that for a short time we suspend any topics of our own. I presume.' said Niloxenus.* face the risk this. it is to go the round of you all ? ' Niloxenus thereupon offered him the document. is precisely and melodious. You know. to take the practice. it is a comwhether of community or ruler. it is profanation even to listen to a trumpet. and which you should join him in considering. but Bias bade especially when . a wonderful thing that the ' ass. that the ass of treated contemptuously by the Egyptians because Typhon ? A silence here occurred. and. or if it with whom. though the matter is to begin with me. was shy 151 of mendable *To my mind. as Periander perceived that Niloxenus. he said : present occasion. though eager to enter upon the subject. on the contrary.' the objection which the Busirites bring against us of Naucratis . gentlemen. and ' that we treat ourselves as an Assembly and grant an audience ' to those royal excellent friend Niloxenus Bias desires that said Bias ' : communications from Egypt.' * Yes. for asses' bones for flutes are already in use with us. who is otherwise particularly ' crass fine and unmusical.3 6 * Dimier. With them. could one more readily must be faced of answering in a case like — the king's instructions are that. 15 — for where. ? Sir Visitor.

and consider how he is it can be done. take the matter c in hand and send Niloxenus back to me at once. it is. Bias. Amasis learns it. my friend from Naucratis. before the sea ' said is all with a laugh. he Do you mean to say. he will have no further . The command Bias applies to the sea as not as it is to be later on. King of Egypt. I am to surrender the cities in the neighbourhood of Elephantine. that Amasis. said : who was close to him at table. I am to have a number and towns. drunk up and lost. contents of the letter were to the following effect : Amasis. If not. Any return which friends or countrymen of yours require from hesitation on me will be made without my part.' said he ' : let him tell d the Ethiopian stop the rivers that run into the ocean. therefore. if how Bias to render his kingship sweet is and drinkable for a past master at teaching e such a lesson. hut has finally concocted a terrible poser in the shape of a command that I should drink ' up the sea\ of his villages If I meet it with a solution.Dinner-Party of the Seven Sages him open it 37 The himself and read every word to the whole company. ' After a few having been read.' to ' Very well then.' replied Niloxenus. letter This part of the answering. but rather his subjects. Hitherto he has had the worst of it. to Bias. Chilon Sir Visitor from Naucratis. and. Do you. though reigning over so of so large many subjects and possessed ' and excellent a country. set sail and tell Amasis not to be asking how to make away with all that brine. After the rest of the comthis speech made pany had cheered and applauded. Bias was not long in moments of meditation and a brief conversation with Cleobulus.' no sooner than Niloxenus was so delighted that he rushed to embrace and kiss him. while himself drinking up the sea at present existing. wisest of the Greeks The King of Ethiopia is engaged in matching his wits against mine. will be ready to drink up ' the sea in order to win a few miserable insignificant villages ? * Take it that he will.

' Yes. Diodes . and in accepting with avidity from others. and they mostly take a delight in inventing for themselves. because Solon declared that laws were alterable. having legislated for the Athenians. if all would be it has —^were a good thing — " man after man ". A bonus of on his venture the kind thrown in would not only make the returns more valuable to him.' Sixth See note on Amasis.citizens despot would win most renown by furnishing with a -popular. as having altered the whole ' Lacedaemonian constitution. People believe a good deal that is false. and by the way. Fourth Anacharsis ' ' : Fifth Cleobulus ' : If he trusted none of * those about him. who said By identifying his behaviour : with the laws of his country. he held the At this Niloxenus remarked quietly to me. ' but because.'' The ' second to speak was Bias. not only because he was senior to all the rest and was in the place of honour at the table. .^ Thales came next with the statement that he considered a ruler happy // he died naturally If good sense never failed him. 'The by story is for in that case Chilon all ought to begin disclaim- ing Lycurgus and his laws. even * be courting and making much of him for his if he is declared to be of a thousand times lower ' birth than he actually it is.' ridiculous .' said Periander. For instance. greatest and completest position as a ruler.' : After a brief delay Solon said In my opinion a king or his fellow. goodness. but would also be the best us. as Homer to contribute a similar offering to His Majesty.* of old age '.' thing in the world for Chilon thereupon asserted that Solon was the right man to F make a beginning on the subject. At this I answered. it was reported 152 to us in Egypt that Chilon had cancelled his friendship and his relations of hospitality with Solon. in place of a monarchical. mischievous stories about wise men.j8 They Dinner-Party of the Seven Sages will all occasion for his golden footpan ^ in dealing with the Egyptians. government.

is best off when it listens. and not to have delivered an attack ' man of sense from being a ruler. is likely to follow you in the matter rather than the God. With anything but ' : and pulling a serious face. whose ' ' opinion is given in the oracle delivered to yourself to : Blessed the city that hearkens * one commander^s proclaiming. Whereupon Aesop. the Athenians. and rubbing * i.e. You have a wonderful gift at understanding ravens voice of modesty is indistinct. .* True. taking him by the head and smiling. ' to "one ".' 1 At this Solon broke into a laugh.' legislated to the effect that for you have not yet Yes. we claimed that Periander himself cheerfulness.' You upon rulers under pretence of being their advisers and friends. but always immortal After hearing these dicta. but b for him. should express an opinion. that one can make a ruler more moderate and a despot * * more reasonable by persuading him that it is better to decline ' such a position than to hold it ? And pray who. not him.' said Aesop. but your hearing of the While you think that a state God says. you believe is that in which everybody talks on every subject.'' Next Chilon said that ' the ruler's conceptions should '.' c Don't you think. " " a slave shall not get tipsy is to stand on the same footing with those Athenian ordinances of " a slave shall not indulge in love or in dryyours which say with oil ". but with exercise in the wrestling-schools. as if in a ought. though with a popular government. ' but. as the that the best convivial party * and jackdaws. the opinion I have to add is that every one of the views stated practically disqualifies a spirit of reproof. as a matter of fact.' said Solon. anointing himself.' said Solon. not in connexion with bathing. to have discussed this subject by yourselves.' he replied. do listen to one proclaimer d and ruler in the shape of the law. of course. he replied Well. never be mortal. said.Dinner-party Pittacus : of the Seven Sages 39 '[//" the ruler could get his subjects to fear.

nor to let any the part of the answerer escape without refutation. as we proposed. the most universal. the most beautiful.'' Well. was satisfied with the solutions. most the What What the easiest F — That which genius.' Well. in when the wine is footing with dry-rubbing it is very pleasant. whereas the comtogether. ' : other properly punished dropping before bringing forward the whole of those from questions Amasis. and take advantage of the gentlemen being all here As for that. and the easiest.' Yes. What the most universal F most harmful F —Death. the wisest. Thales The precise remark uncertain.' Thales did appear to recommend getting old Periander laughed. is Truth. Nicarchus.' mand sent by the Ethiopian can only be called a " doleful " as F dispatch Archilochus would say ^your friend Amasis has * * — — shown a fine and more civilized taste in setting such problems. . the text here being corrupt. this second passage Then Thales was is asked Niloxenus Amasis he had said. bade him name the oldest thing. read you the replies as given. the most harmful. Pray look at the rest of the letter. after the reading of there was a silence.' said Niloxenus. the most powerful. the not stopping there greatest. if •pleasant. it is the more to be avoided. What —Evil What the F—Light. and did his answers give the solution in ' 153 for His replies were these.' said ' — taking effect does stand ' one respect.40 talking Difmer-Party of the Seven Sages ' : Cleodorus the physician remarked But. What beautiful the most beneficent F — the oldest thing F — — wisest F the — God.' Gjnsequently. slip on each case ? ' ' * to listen .' * ' E broke in Chilon. and He — — the most beneficent. on the same Aesop again.' replied Niloxenus. but ^ dissatisfied with others. for we have been into Niloxenus. and said Aesop. What What the greatest F The universe.^ as quickly as possible. Upon his replying that n accepted some. What is the strongest F — Fortune. I will Time. It is and judge for the king is very anxious neither you to be guilty of pettifogging with the answers.

' The whole company being satisfied with Thales and his e . the answer concernin that c ing gods and evil spirits is bold and dangerous. blunders and signs of ignorance all through. Again.' Time What part of it.' What most powerful P Necessity invincible. if he considered Light beautiful—as indeed it is—how came he to ignore the sun ? As for the rest.' What for Expectation most beneficent P : Virtue for it makes other things beneficent by using them : rightly. if am ready to be the first to be questioned point desires.Dinner-Party of the Seven Sages 'And 41 are great yet not one of them is unassailable.' What is most beautiful P for everything duly ordered ' space that The cosmos : Time . seeing that.' for most things suffer Vice most harmful P for it is from its presence. some of it is future ? Time which is must be regarded as younger than the events and persons of the present. Niloxenus so In relating the questions and answers as * put them exactly God.' What most easy P The natural . it contains the universe. would not be so readily upset if it was the strongest and most powerful thing in existence. for it is discover them. to avoid seeming merely to criticize the work of others. What is the oldest thing P for He is without birth. There For instance. to call Truth wisdom is past and to come after us appears to me as bad as making out that the light is the eye. for ' : ' What people often fail to cope with that.' What is wisest P that has either discovered things or will is most universal P else ' those ' who have nothing : have ' that. while Fortune concerning Fortune the logic is exceedingly bad. However. for in the case of the living it has no existence.' What is greatest P Space is ' : for d while the universe contains everything else. how can Time be the oldest thing. let us express I views of our own and compare them with his.' I will ' by point.^ said Thales ' : they occurred. while some of it some present. not pleasure. Nor yet again is Death the most universal thing. Next.

Nor shall hereafter befall F To which When Hesiod instantly replied : in eager -pursuit of the prize the chariots.' asked Cleodorus. required the short answer made by Pittacus to Alyattes. that there was a gathering at Chalcis of the most distinguished poets among the wise men of the day. one Against the other Are dashed by Zeus the ringing. that it became a difficult and troublesome matter to judge between them. This answer. between Equivalent to a command to ' go weep '. Niloxenus. Cleodorus.42 Dinner-party of the Seven Sages ' . 'I may remind you.' is But pray what * the difference. in order to celebrate the funeral of Amphidamas a great warrior who had given — much trouble to the Eretrians and had fallen in the fighting for Lelantum. that are the Lesbians a letter containing an arrogant command. The verses composed by the poets were so well matched. .hoof d steeds round the tomb where lieth buried. when he wrote this kind. of such things as neither before have befallen. We are told. acumen. for instance. On the other hand. and the reputation of the competitors — Homer and Hesiod 154 embarrassment. Cleodorus observed It is questions and answers of proper for kings.' i Here Periander joined in . it is said. that even in old times the Greeks had a habit of posing each F other with similar difficulties. won particular admiration and secured ' him the ' tripod. and the following : — the jury much diffidence and they had recourse to questions of as Lesches tells us —propounded Tell me^ Muse. the barbarian who gave Amasis the sea to drink. —caused Homer Thereupon the present kind. The reply was merely a recommendation to eat onions and hot bread.

with the thing. ' I beg to ask. her face for sensible ' mantled with blushes.' said Aesop. or does it so well.Dinner-Party of the Seven Sages 43 It is no doubt right b such questions and Eumetis's riddles ? for her to set women such puzzles by way of amusement. Mnesiphilus. set us just before . for he made more use of cupping-glasses than any medical man of the day. ness is But absurd. We think. beginning once more with Solon.' answered Cleodorus. and each of you again contribute some opinion. men to treat them with any seriousEumetis would apparently have liked to make but she was too shy. shall not be limited to wealth or rank. First came Solon. that the conversation. every other Athenian. that you should take a government with equal rights. therefore. have heard what opinion I hold about such a government. And yet. when the is ^ wrongdoer accused and punished quite as much by those who e In antiquity these vessels were of bronze. it seems to me that a community is in the soundest condition. But if you desire to hear it again now. .' some retort. enough constructing them as other women plait their bits of girdles or hair-nets. as you. it is surely more absurd Nay. by way of championto be unable to solve them. and its popular government most securely maintained. you. like the wine.' said Mnesiphilus the Athenian.' said Aesop. like It ' was decided that this Well. Can you ' tell me what that means ' ? No. but shall be put on a democratic footing and made to concern all alike. no one is so familiar it. and checked herself. * ing her. and ' I don't want c to be told either. ' Take for example the one she dinner : / saw a man glue bronze on a man with fire did he glue it. cupping-glasses^ will bear me out. Periander. and the estimation in which If you deny that remedy is held is especially due to him.' should be done. a close friend ' and admirer of Solon.' At this Cleodorus laughed. In what has just been d said about wealth and kingship there is nothing for us commoners.

by clay home means those and wood and tiles. fail to realize the surpassing beauty and marvellous B size of his car. occupying first ' ' one and then another region of the sky. by You. he is free and independent.' Anacharsis."* Last of all Chilon expressed ' the view that the best free government is that which pays least Pittacus : ' attention to the orators and most to the laws. public men are more afraid of blame than of the law '. superiority determined by virtue and inferiority by vice^ In the fifth place Cleobulus affirmed that a democracy is most soundly conducted when its Sixth. otherwise you would not have tried to raise a — —or more than Yes. however. * for while there are few who are at the helm of a kingdom or a commonwealth. at the ' end by saying that they Upon the conclusion of this second discussion I begged that they would also tell us the proper way to deal with a household . we all play our parts in the hearth and home. * Where the bad are not permitted to hold office and the F good are not permitted to decline it. that to you a it with ours. ruling all and ruled none. It seems to me.' ' No not if in " all " you 155 At this Aesop said with a laugh include Anacharsis."* Periander once more summed up to all appeared to him be praising that democratic government which most resembled an aristocratic '. and that is why.^ that in which there are no citizens either ' Anacharsis followed with is * that in which. and on using as a wagon —in the same way they tell us the sun roams about in a chariot.' retorted laugh by jocosely comparing Aesop.Dinner-Party of the Seven Sages have not been wronged as by the man that has^ The second to speak was Bias. unlike any other any other god. but actually prides himself : ! on being homeless. is while everything else treated as equal.* which every one fears the law as he would a despot. He has no home. but always playing the king and holding the reins. You might coverings of yours made " " as well regard a snail . who said that the best popular government is 44 ' that in Next came Thales with too rich or too poor.

But you go inspecting the productions of carpenters c " home ". that in which the master can find most time ' and expended without refentance '.^ Pittacus ' where the master has more it who love than ' would have and ' that the best '. when she and the leopard were engaged in a dispute " as to which was the more cunningly marked ". fear him. house is that which wants no luxury lacks no necessity Chilon's view was that the house should be to as like as possible a state ruled by a king * : '.Dinner-Party of the Seven Sages as 45- meaning the shell instead of the animal. and he went on to observe that when to establish a republic at Sparta. for " —he possessor argued —" was happy and blessed I am more desirous of looking at the fine things in the man than at those in his house.' . a man who shares his good and happy home. he e some one urged Lycurgus answered You begin by creating a republic at home. and regarding those as the the of the inward and domestic constituents in the case — children. and servants. that you have forgotten your own fox. moreover. That animal. According to Thales. wife. begged the to examine her on the inside. But it is of the others should express his own views. It is therefore natural that you should find cause to laugh at Solon.' Thereupon Solon said that in his opinion the best household was ' that in which the resources are acquired without dishonesty^ distrust.' he continued. when he beheld the costly splendour in the house of Croesus and yet refused its all to declare off-hand that in his home " . even 'That. If these possesses a and good morals. have good sense best means with them be but an ant-hill answer to Aesop only fair that each if it ' or a bird's-nest." It appears. According to Cleobulus. inasmuch as she would be judge found to possess more " marks of cunning " from that point of view.' is my and my contribution to Diodes. ' d watched over without According to Bias it was for his own sake as well as he does outside for the law^s sake '. instead and stone-masons. that inside which the master behaves to himself. friends.

and.4-6 Dinner-Parly of the Seven Sages in a also having been dealt with. was testifying against the verses why by in which he.' A prize was offered to And why not ? ' asked Anacharsis. Periander then pledged Chilon in company capacious goblet.' ' said Anacharsis. ' ' him who drank most. If any one commit any offence when drunk. addressing Aesop. when you had got intoxicated at that 156 party at Delphi. claimed the reward of victory. as if a Bathycles's goblet. Pittacus laughed. the law that last year. It was given to Thales. I. where the words run. of course. Now And ' do I welcome the tasks of the Cyprus-born goddess and Bacchus^ tasks of the Muses that bring cheer to the heart of mankind.' retorted Pittacus. for Solon has age. and the process was repeated till it cam* back passed to Thales. and.* been keeping it all to himself for quite Pittacus. you asked for a prize and a victor's wreath. while Aesop told the following story. and Chilon in turn pledged Bias. had written Thereupon Solon. if it is not to get intoxicated ? * A wolf. At this This topic Ardalus got up. since I was the first to get tipsy. Eumetis left the room with Melissa. who on to another. he is frightened at that cruel law of your own. and said : to the wisest'. ' there is to be nothing democratic about this cup an either. Because. the penalty to he double that paid by a ' man who was * sober. it * Which was bequeathed ' .^ and are giving no one else a turn. addressing Mnesiphilus. before Mnesiphilus could speak. came close " What a to-do you would have made up to them."* And showed such wanton contempt of you.* F replied Aesop. asked not drinking.' were Nay. said will * : Perhaps you us. seeing it ' be good enough to pass yonder cup on to that these gentlemen are passing theirs to each other. whereupon he dedicated it to Apollo. having seen some shepherds eating a sheep in a tent. Pittacus. Otherwise will you gentlemen tell me what is the end and aim of drinking a large ' quantity of unmixed wine.

Still would a master-builder object if. In Solon's opinion the concern of every art and faculty of man or God is with I ' results rather means. and so provides a starting- point towards a blending in mutual friendship. and the close mutual under- standing which they produce in us by those agencies. declared his object to be the boring of wood or the mixing The Muses would utterly scout the notion that their c is concern with a harp or flute. Dionysus uses wine to soften and supple their dispositions. instead of a ship or a house.' requested to answer on behalf of ' A b said Mnesiphilus. would consider his object to be a cloak or mantle rather than the arrangement of his shuttle- rods or the picking-up of his straightening-stones. the longing. in doing so. nor that of Dionysus wine and tipsiness. Solon. where persons are not very intimate or as a kind of fire particularly acquainted. .Seven Sages Dinner-Party of the if 47 ' / had been doing that " ! ' At this Chilon remarked. muzzle on him. These " tasks ". and now he sees that others have taken the words It was Mnesiphilus who was out of Mnesiphilus' mouth. using pleasure as the means of melting at the same time with their bodies . than with agencies. the end rather than the I take it. old Of is Aphrodite and commingling their souls and women reciprocal affection between men the creator. while in ordinary cases. To a blacksmith it is rather the welding of iron and putting an edge on an axe than any of the processes necessary thereto. and he means that these are what Solon calls divine are the objects which he appreciates and cultivates in his age. Aesop moment ago we put the has properly taken his revenge. A weaver. such as the more kindling of his charcoal or the preparation of lime. speak with knowledge. instead of with the cultivation of character and the soothing of the emotions of their votaries means of melodies properly attuned. So to come to the by — — point the object of Aphrodite is not sexual intercourse. but the friendly feeling. the companionship. we of mortar.' Well.

' ' better qualified ' going (as one another. Chersias. household economy has again been mooted. don't you think also scarce and hard to get. as and then letting his neighbour take he would do with a sacrificial portion. as Agamemnon did for his chieftains ' ' ' ? And pray. I gather that with the ancients the ceremony consisted of one large goblet " " the each man a measured for pledging As round. his When Mnesiphilus had finished. versation. is to discover all what amount ' meet needs. she said. blend it. — understand that. but in reference to weak characters will repeat a story which my daughter told her brother. The Muses set before you all.' said Cleodorus. when the gods were the guests of Zeus and were pledging each other. and pour it forth. grave or gay. however. fit The Moon. as if you poets say he does — by Zeus has his ambrosia brought — doves which find the greatest difficulty in flying 157 that his nectar is quently he is sparing of ' over the Clashing Rocks. tells drinking allowance Homer share. he poured in their drink by also to measure. the poet Chersias —who had * ceased to be under censure and had lately been reconciled to F Periander through Chilon's intercession Are we remarked.' To of property will be sufficient to the wise man. perhaps some one will deal with the remainder of the question. the law ' has supplied the standard I .' us). and that conseit and doles ' it out economically * ? Since.' said Cleobulus. I take and the wine-ladle. I take it. the question of Perhaps so. while for the most part the E ladle is allowed to lie undisturbed " above the bowl is " — a thing which Hesiod forbids where the company for drinking than for conversation.' replied Chersias.48 * Dinner-Tarty of the Seven Sages But when such men meet together is as it. there no need. form of con- a mixing-bowl containing no intoxicant and yet abundance of pleasure. asked her mother to weave a tunic to . And that. Periander has invited of the goblet in the fn your persons.' he continued. In this they stir friendly feeling.

Chersias ' —he ' the idea of living a close and simple Spartan life. perceive that there is no equal distribution the properties which even you sages respectively possess.' he said. Cleodorus joined in. ' ' allots us the amount which properly and reasonably fits each case. because the law. you and diet and physic the sick by prescribing." Similarly. ' in I but. like a weaver. a was both thought himself a big fellow. went on that even insignificant people. my dear sir. it is at the bidding of some law that Epimenides the friend of you gentlemen and the guest of Solon abstains from other kinds ' ' — — of food and passes the day without breakfast or dinner by merely " " anti-hunger essence putting in his mouth a little of that which he makes up 546*19 for himself? ' This remark having arrested the attention of the party. suppose. substituting reason for law.' he asked. and decided laborious and an unnecessary task to build so large a house to cover him. and at another gibbous. though they will at one moment draw themselves into a very modest compass. of whom our friend says that in winter he huddled and curled himself up with the cold. feed d profession. then. at another c time will fancy they are going to die of want unless they have all the king's and all the private all the money in the world — ' people's ? * Chersias having nothing to say. Thales mockingly observed that D . his case being that of Aesop's dog. with — Don't you observe. 49 " How can I possibly b whereat the mother answered.' Yes. out when he that it slept. .' In your own I Here Ardalus interposed.Dinner-party of the Seven Sages her . but the proper quantity for each case. at another as a crescent.' said Cleobulus. Well. my dear Chersias. not the same quantity for everybody. there is no way of determining the amount of means requisite for a weak and foolish person. His wants vary with his appetites and experiences. weave one to fit ? At one time I see you as a full moon. and contemplated making a house but in summer it was different he stretched himself .

I heard my hostess singing to the mill Grind. if your guest. seeing that * in the verses of Hesiod.E Dinner-party of the Seven Sages — Epimenides was a sensible man for refusing to be troubled —with grinding and cooking his own food. that : when I was at Eresus. and difficult to procure. For Pittacus is As he kings it grinding. on recently making his great purification of Delos. For it is he who was written supplied first Epimenides with hints for teaching F that form of nourishment. — honey and cheese. — . do you imagine Hesiod conceived of anything of the kind ? Don't you suppose that. by him to make trial How ' great and sustaining lieth. grind . Solon. as commemorafailed to note how they present to the temple tive samples of the earliest stalk form of food — — mallow and asphodel- along with other cheap and self-grown produce. with his habitual praise of economy.' said Periander. over great Mytilene. he is merely urging us to try the most frugal ' most agreeable ? The mallow makes good but I am told that antiand asphodel-stalk is sweet hunger and anti-thirst drugs for they are drugs rather than foods include among their ingredients some sort of foreign dishes as being the eating. Hesiod would find that the " rudder " hung above the smoke " and would The works of perish. The to us natural reason for which Hesiod also recommends them . the food that in mallow and asphodel Nay.'' Then Solon expressed his surprise that Ardalus had not read the it law ordaining the diet in question.' he ' said. as Pittacus was fo ' You must know. I am surprised. mill. the drudging mules and the oxen's labour 158 if all that provision is to be made. a large number of seeds which are Most " certainly. therefore.

all entertainment and hospitality the most humanizing and essential — Or rather you do away elements in our mutual relations. say. and you take away the table that is to As of Friendship and Hospitality. ' We may What need was ' there to ask him that question ' ? replied Solon. " with the whole of life. me that women. diet. he speaks about bathing.Dinner-? arty of the Seven Sages is yi remarked that they are simple and frugal. so the abolition of food means the dissolution of house and home.' said 'That Hesiod possessed medical knowledge is manifest from the careful and well-informed manner in which Cleodorus. especially with a table in front of Take away food. good quality in water. most of those actions being evoked food. It was self-evident that the next best thing to the c is supreme and greatest good to require the least possible food. by the need. if you do away with the earth. good is to require no by any means.' answered Cleodorus.' ' ' Not only are so. in his long association with at Athens. For with it you do away with the hearth-fire. but both vegetables bear the highest possible character for wholesomeness. of Of immense importance. the whole I us.' has to say. the hearth. But for my part I should be glad to hear what Solon assume that. if life is ^ 'passing of the time on the fart d of a human being involving a series of actions ". and in the acquirement. b .' Anacharsis. the mixing of wine.' 'You quite right. — cosmos will fall into confusion. You ' allow. that the greatest ' ' food at if all ? Not I. the wine-bowl. and the way to seat infants. am to say what I think. is the question D 2 . It is to the owes speech of the hawk to the nightingale that our friend the first promptings to his admirably subtle wisdom in many tongues. my good friend. the altar of the Gods Thales tells us that. I suppose. he asked him what motive or subtle Epimenides purpose he had in adopting such a diet. But it seems to there is more reason for Aesop to declare himself Hesiod than there is a pupil of for Epimenides.

whereas their amorous pleasure is screened by night and is all the darkness possible. F other pleasures of a superior kind to enjoy the body can find no pleasure more right and proper than that derived from taking food. To share that pleasure with others as it is considered as shameless and brutelike not to share in * the case of the table. and the most important. or Poseidon the Fosterer of Plants if How gives can Dionysus be Boon-Giver. Here. Men will thank the Sun but little. of our most important is is pleasure in every case in every case to be a to be a block. stomach. : is — and we lose life will be our most important means of divination. sharing with each other in the table and the banquet. There is an end also to our honouring the gods. Most of its parts. are provided as instruments to feeding the tongue. there is no dreaming either. ? What ? sacrifice or libation we need nothing that he What offering shall we make ? of firstfruits All this means the overthrow and confounding interests. The ruin of agriculture all arts and crafts as well . Let agriculture perish. and there will be practically no purpose in wearing a body round our soul.f2 Dinner-Party of the Seven Sages * of mere agriculture. All the world recognizes the fact. Where will you find altar or sacrifice to Zeus of the Rain. and provides them with their basis and their Do away with her. and they count for nothing. and the Moon still less. and vagabond streams. and liver. all alike. teeth. for mere light and warmth. I joined in And there not another point that in discarding food we also 159 discard sleep ? If there is no sleep. Consequently . and none has other business to attend to.' as Cleodorus paused for a moment. Moreover. a corrupt wilderness of barren forest means the ruin of E material. for this pleasure people take openly. Though to cling to every madman. to avoid every pleasure By all means let the soul have . ? Demeter of the Plough. None of them is without its — work. for she takes the lead of them. and the earth that it leaves us becomes unsightly and foul.

They then throw those parts into the riyer and proceed to attend to the as purified. He has it with the principle of injustice in the shape of its Would it not. be a good thing. the gullet. rest of the body. are our contributions on behalf of the belly. We commit the wrong plants. say destroying. If God has made it impossible for a thing to secure also its own endowed nature. If Solon or any one else has objections to bring. they take out the entrails and expose them to the sunlight. when cutting out injustice. " self ". wish to be thought a poorer judge than the Egyptians. more a quibble than an avoidance of crime in the matter of food. it become the other's sustenance. is destroyed .any Dinner-Party of the Seven Sages one who has no need of food has no need of Which means * 5-3 a body either. nothing that feeds it can be alive. is to become self-sufiicing and free of of avoiding it. — a bakery —ovens.' replied Solon. is we are told Orpheus did in ancient times. must perish utterly in order To abstain from eating flesh. we will listen. lies which is now regarded of our flesh. For while itself lives. and of destroying of murdering animate things which can claim to have life through I the fact that they feed and grow. a confused medley of wind and fire and of dead things. After cutting open a dead body. for it is that a person has no need of himself. The only way a and the only way of attaining to justice by complete purification. own preservation without injury to another. therefore.' ' I added.' * ' I have no b Of course I have objections. because c anything that changes from what nature has made it into something to as else. external needs. if.' thanks to the body that each of us is a Such. my dear friend. therein in truth It is its Tartarus — the pollution ^like that in Hades — full of dreadful streams ". and the liver. *' Yes. but partly resemble the utensils for cooking butcher's meat such as choppers and belly. water- . we could cut out the — stew-pans and partly the apparatus for which impart to us no perception d of anything noble and no appetite for it.

Well then. I suppose. must be put away into inglorious What is the diflPcrence between these arguments and hiding the other ? Food is. there must be food so that there sacrifices to may be tables and wine-bowls and Demeter and the Maid. and with garlands on our heads we are — — E we have if engaged in sociable and leisurely conversation together. terrible thing if.5-4 Dinner-Party of the Seven Sages Indeed. A no more use in soft bedclothes. and no more Asclepius or the Averting Powers. but one which Nature renders compulsory. But now that the tables have been removed. " taken " as a " remedy " for and all who use food are said to be " taking care " of hunger. because arrived at the state of not requiring food. we have as you perceive become free. so that else demand that there shall be war we may have fortifications and arsenals and F armouries. Take ourselves. ! act is not a pleasant and agreeable performance. slaving at the business of feeding. and if medical its sacrificing to skill. since the quest for luxuries is but the immediate consequence and concomitant of the use of necessaries. shall ' we now find ourselves remains as a permawe not be at perpetual leisure to enjoy ? We shall have no fear of poverty. for example. Another. shall each other's society we know the meaning of wealth. aggrieved at the prospect of the healthfulness which would follow. there is is such as they say are the law in Messenia. and also sacrifices in honour of slaying our hundreds. and perpetually going round and round at the business of getting food. " " and this implies that the 160 themselves and using some diet . and kneading-troughs ? * people you can see their soul shut up in their body as if in a baker's mill. Then let some one and fighting. Nor But. with all drugs and implements. the state in which all nence our lives. thinks Cleodorus. in fact. but we all had our heads down. Just now we were neither looking at nor listening to one another. in the case of most tanks. Certainly one can enumerate more . because there is no illness.

Just suppose it were a question with the Danaids what sort of life they would live and what they would do if they could get rid of their menial labour at filling the cask. it feeds the body with continual service. concluded the discussion . and lasts but a short time. when he used as a proof that the gods do not die the fact that they do not feed : For they eat not the bread of is corn. is the necessary means not only b but for dying. From it come our diseases. and will presumably feed itself in the enjoyment of live with an eye to itself and the truth.' This. Homer had these in view. As things are. those who have been when they are emancipated. which suffer quite as much from repletion as from want. Further still . Nicarchus. Very often it is an easier business to get together our supply of victuals than to make away with them and get quit of them again when once they are in the body. feeding themselves with the feeding of our bodies. have they none in their veins. what are we going to do ? " it is because in our ignorance of noble things necessities impose. And therefore blood the Immortals. nothing to distract and deter it. whereas the pleasure affects but a small region of the body. but let it get quit of its menial and it will freedom. " Supposing it possible to cease from heaping into this unconscionable flesh all these things from c land and sea. When we raise the question. he gives us to understand. do for themselves and on their own account what they used formerly to do in the service of their masters. with as to food. I suppose.Dinner. nor drink they the wine that ruddy. we as are content with the life which our in slavery.Party of the Seven Sages fy pains than pleasures arising from feeding. toil and trouble . and are called for living. Food. so is it with the soul. it needs no telling how full we become of ugly and painful experiences through the worry and difficulty of digesting. Well.

' I should like to tell the company the news . that while we should disbelieve our enemies even in matters believable. he sat down on the couch and gave him a private account of some occurrence which appeared to cause Periander various by his brother emotions as he listened to it. in consequence of certain he had been sent on a mission to Taenarum in charge sacrificial embassy. speaking. must let every one hear it or rather you must pit the you enemies I * . and It Periander had taken him to his arms and kissed him. in the distance a ripple and. This happened so quickly that. dolphins were seen. some of them massed together and moving in a ring. Finally he laughed and said to us. accom- panied by foam and a very appreciable noise of surge. but a dead calm. By presume he meant the wicked and foolish. and on the F last there was an all-night festival with dancing and frolic by the sea-shore. Periander's brother. there appeared coming in past the promontory.' Gorgos then told us His sacrificial his story. At one part he was manifestly vexed. at another indignant .' said Periander. n oracles. because we At this Bias interposed. and by friends the good and wise. it. and this was followed by amazement.^6 Dinner-Party of the Seven Sages still While Solon was entered the room. After we had welcomed him. but I have E scruples about it. though there was no wind. ceremony had occupied three days. Yes. The sea was covered with the light of the moon. Gorgos. but when it is impossible I * believe our friends even when ' the thing is unbelievable ". At this they all ran in astonishment down to the place where it was coming to land. before they could guess what was approaching. we should but here is thing is probable we should say nothing about heard Thales once say that when a should speak of it.' Very well then. often he showed incredulity. story you have brought us against those new-fangled dithyrambs and overcrow them. of a happened that.' " another wise saying of Thales. some leading .

What Arion told us was this. until. alive and moving after which they themselves retired in the direction at the . and discovered that it was Arion. frolicking and bounding for ' joy. He had for some time made up to his mind to by leave Italy. ' fled from the few found the courage to approach along with myself. as Well. They had a moderate wind for three days. b sea in a panic. So they came on. and had been made the more eager from Periander. ' we heard him tell a story which no one would believe except us who actually saw the end of it. when he perceived that the sailors were forming a plot to by the make away with him. and in that respect show no less . we brought him him there was nothing the matter with that he was evidently tired and overstrained from except inasmuch the rushing motion. At being helpless and at a loss what to do. and was afterwards secretly informed c pilot that they had resolved to do the deed that night. In the middle there stood out above the sea. he at once went do so a letter on board and put to sea. dim and indistinct. apparently. the shape of a body being carried. adorn his person and — He alive ^while still —put on decided that he would his own shroud in the shape of his festal attire. the harp-player. this. Not only did he utter his own name. Accordingly. but a for he was actually wearing the festal robes which he adopted when performing to a tent.the Seven Sages Dinner-Party of the S7 were i6i way to the levellest part of the shore. he acted upon a kind of heaven-sent impulse. 2i he would sing finale to life. in meeting his death. they put ashore a human being. when a Corinthian merchant-vessel appeared on the scene. but his dress spoke for itself. Many of our number. gathering together and coming to land same moment. than the swan does. of the promontory. leaping out of the water more than ever and for some reason.' continued Gorgos. and. and others as It bringing up the rear. at the competitions. Accordingly. having dressed himself and given notice that he felt moved to perform the Pythian spirit Then.

they swam close in by the shore and him safely to land like a ship into harbour. his stand hymn on D he took on the poop by the bulwarks. his dolphins ran under body had all sunk into the water. as felt was not so much fear of death or desire of eagerness to be rescued. he was led to reflect path was being cut for his that Justice has more eyes than one. observing that the sky was full of stars. Thereupon the sailors no longer waited for night. the sun began to set into the sea and the Peloponnese to come into sight. however. he realized beyond doubt that he had been steered on his voyage by the hand of God. After some prelude invoking the gods of the sea. so that he might become recognized as the object of divine favour. and when the long distance at which the vessel was left behind showed how great was their speed . At the same and that the F time. and when at last. he began to sing the piece. rising bright a kind of moon was and clear. At first he was filled distress. and might have his reputation as a religious man assured. ran back and hurled himself as far as possible from the vessel. By these reflections (he told us) he found relief from the weariness which was by this time beginning to weigh upon his body. but when he found himself riding easily.J8 Dinner-Party of the Seven Sa^es behalf of the safety of himself and the ship and crew. Arion. When Arion had told us this story. with bewilderment. Just before he was half-way through. E and alarm . a number of him and bore him up.' continued ' . while the sea on all sides was waveless and course. seeing their knives unsheathed and the pilot beginning to cover his face from the sight. Before. dexterously avoiding and rounding the lofty and precipitous headland which 162 brought ran out to meet them. but advanced to their murderous deed. he said that what he life. and saw many of him in a friendly way. and taking turns them gathering about at the work as if it were a necessary duty belonging to them all . and that God looks abroad with all those orbs upon whatever deeds are done by land or sea.

no. ' The event. Well now.Di?mer-Pariy of the Seven Sages ' 5*9 him where he thought the ship would put in.' Thereupon Periander ordered Gorgos at once to get and place the men ' in custody up and go out where no one would approach them or tell them of Arion's escape.' ' For my part. and the traders and sailors arrested. I ' the story. he had Arion with in hiding. you gentlemen make fun of * my jackdaws and crows for ' talking. Gorges. Do dolphins behave in this ' outrageous way ? To which more than ' I replied. Moreover. Milesian having been found out in a secret intrigue Hesiod fell under suspicion of having of the offence along known and helped in concealing it. that after ascertaining the the ship's flag. so that they might not hear of his rescue beforehim hand and make their escape.' Gorgos added. let us grant that these events are in the sphere of the divine and beyond us. Diodes . ever since the times of Ino and Athamas. Though at a no way guilty. He answered that it would certainly be at Corinth. Hesiod and a Milesian Well.' said Aesop. The with the all host's daughter.' Solon here interposed Well. For the girl's in .' I think it worth hearing.' he ' said. and also vessels and soldiers to the various b landing-places to keep a watch. has proved for no sooner did we arrive here than we truly miraculous learned that the ship had been seized by the soldiers. : You have probably heard answered. was shared the same room as guests in a house at d it is ' — — Locri. however. But what happened to Hesiod is on our own human plane. . he believed he had been carried over sixty miles and a calm had fallen immediately. for. but that I asked it was left far behind . A different matter. he had sent out names of the captain and pilot. c Aesop ! A story to among the same effect as this has been believed and a written us for thousand years. he fell a victim to cruel circumstance critical time of anger and misrepresentation. after throwing himself off it in the evening.

which caught by E was carried out into the current of the river Daphnus. they have been charmed by the flute or the singing For. ' If. the only exception being that. dolphins it is still if dead. of course. on running down to the shore. Hence there is an unwritten law that they shall not be harmed. to recover the remains and bury them in their own country in accordance with an oracle. Meanwhile the off the shore dead body of Hesiod was picked up immediately by a shoal of dolphins. which is still a notable celebration body being borne towards them who proceeded to carry it to in those parts. they recognized the corpse for it was still fresh they could think of nothing but tracking out the murder. Their object was soon achieved. we are all aware that music is a thing which these animals enjoy and court. however. from a desire. The rock still bears his name.6o brothers Dinner-party of the Seven Sages lay in wait for him at the Nemeum in Locris and killed him. At sight of the they were naturally amazed. that of Troilus. No one hunts them or injures them. and they have diving matches with them. and when. and razed their house to the ground. whose name was Troilus. They take a delight also in children when 163 swimming. It in the Rhian festival Rhium. so — — They high was the renown of Hesiod. it is said. show such affectionate interest in the more natural for them to render help to the living. threw them into the sea. when they get into the^nets and do mischief to the catch. swimming and gambolling especially of tunes. Meanwhile Hesiod was ignorant buried near the of his Nemeum. then. happened that the Locrians were engaged and fair. Their bodies having been pushed into the sea. was a low wave-washed rock projecting a little above the water. Most strangers. they . together with his servant. close to Molycrea. discovered the murderers. are tomb. which has been concealed because the people of F Orchomenus are in quest of it. beside a ship as in its oarsmen row to the tune of song and flute calm weather.

This youth. throwing his arms about her. I am not. and. the lot fell upon the daughter of Smintheus. Echelaus ^whom the — Pythian oracle had assigned as leader of the colony making an eighth. ' An oracle was given to the colonizers of Lesbos that.Dinner-Party of the remember hearing some Lesbians Sevm Sages I 61 further are punished with a beating. however. the contingent rumour. he is the right person to tell us about them. of Amphitrite and the Nereids. His name has been it — — preserved to us as Enalus. cast himself along with her into the sea. the girl. but nevertheless widely believed. Echelaus was still a bachelor. Now a from the first there was spread among . For when an enormous wave was rushing sheer round d . like naughty children. and a live virgin to all seven chiefs. lacking certainty. since Pittacus knows them. when on the voyage they came across the reef known as Mesogeum. they should then and b there throw a bull into the water as an offering to Poseidon. Upon getting near the place.' Pittacus thereupon assured us that the story had good warrant and was mentioned by many authorities. tell of a girl having been rescued from the sea by a dolphin. seized by an eager but utterly hopeless darted forward at the right instant and. He had other still more miraculous experiences to tell. and at a later date. and. When as many of the seven as — had unmarried girls cast lots. they decked her in fine clothes and gold ornaments. that they were safe and had been rescued Enalus appeared in Lesbos and told it is said. Now a happened that one of the party on the ship assuredly gallant young man ^was in love with her. but for all of which he gave actual evidence. how they had been carried by dolphins through the sea and cast ashore without harm upon the mainland. after offering prayer. in the passion of the c desire to succour moment. There were whom were kings. which held the crowd spellbound with amazement. sure as to the exact details. were on the point of lowering her into the water.

And as. of persons rescued in hopeless situations. so again is it with the soul. be F a very strange thing if. as the aptest of all instruments. a number of polypi followed him to the temple of Poseidon. he will neither believe nor disbelieve without discrimination. they should lend themselves mor^ responsively to motions from God than does the bow to the Scythian or the lyre and flute to the Greek. babe. Chilon . had been sent to When he was a newborn make away with him were turned from that of Cypselus. " but will carefully observe your own rule of nothing in excess ". he alone ventured to face it. From the largest of these he took a stone which it as a was carrying.' said he. His occasion at it is all used animals He often He has On agents. and soul is the instrument of God. ' dedication. there was no reason to wonder if the most splendid actions were brought to pass by the will of God. its retiring. clouds. by which as nourishes and often kills and destroys. upon the divine power.* Anacharsis next E all the greatest made the remark that. wind. the men who their .' natural that. to the use of God. That stone we the difference call Speaking generally. and rain are Gpd's instruments. will be most a man after your own heart. though many of the motions of the body proceed from itself.62 * Dinner-Party of the Seven Sages On it the island and people were terrified. to direct and apply it as He chooses. While it performs many actions on its own motion. water. as Thales believed and most important components of the universe to contain soul. the most and the finest are produced by the soul. preserves and never on any the contrary. among other cases Periander's father. while fire. and offered Enalus. in their dependence After this the poet Chersias mentioned. between unreasonable and unexpected. ' For the body is the instrument of the soul. the man who knows between impossible and unfamiliar. in other cases it is but lending itself. for Him ' It would.

he proves that Homer was ". he and that Odysseus recommends urges would not fight. When they changed in a chest. as. dumbness ' — the made many distrustful. .purpose minds and came back to look for him. He says that Hector rest. * 63 their mother having hidden him It is for this reason 164 that Cypselus built the house at Delphi.^ ' you that. seeing that you have so long admired the stories in which Aesop Nay. words Give a to tell fledge. hut he shunned him. have told thyself. he was not to be found. misguided and when he says I trow. who knew the reason and was present when Cypselus consecrated the house. is Nay. . I will give no inforniation until these gentlemen the meaning of their Nothing in excess and Know and of those words which have kept many people from : ' No me marrying. his Dinner-Party of the Seven Sages because he smiled at them.' At * this Pittacus. and reduced some to positive and Mischief is nigh. *' knew himself inasmuch he attacked the Ajax. is As for a pledge. Telamon's son. addressing Periander. I have to thank Chersias. not only it as a the general opinion that he futile thing reprobating Sorry. to take are the pledges that sorry folk offer. believing that the god had then stopped him from crying so that he might elude the search.' replied practically deals with each of those maxims ? Why do you need us ' ' ' Aesop. Periander. Tydeus^ son . for mentioning that house for I have often granted to ask you the meaning of those frogs which are carved in such large size at the base of the palm-tree. But when though c he is in earnest. their inventor. " " since he nothing in excess Diomede prithee. Chersias said with b a smile. observed. he does need it.' said Pittacus. nor praise it me much nor reprove me. What ' Periander reference have they to the god or to the dedication ? having bidden him ask Chersias. when he is joking at me.

Let us therefore pour an offering to the Muses and to Poseidon and Amphitrite. and His good to obey her. take his advice here . Nicarchus.' us how " Mischief " was hurled from heaven by Zeus because she was present when he was tripped his word ' in connexion with the birth of Here Solon interposed. night bids. and then ^with your permission break up the — — party.64- Dinner-party of the Seven Sages tells but our friend Chersias here D up through pledging Heracles. . Homer was : a very wise man. and we should do well to Already the night is Well.' This. terminated the party on that occasion.

that as an admirer of Pindar you 783 b ' are fond of quoting his fine When struggle afoot. a public. but as a last and most advancing years '. This is their desperate plea they urge ' pretext far excellence for blunting of countenance. not for us to convert the brief remainder into a confession that the bulk of our time has been wastefully applied to no good purpose. E DionyInstead . as ambition and putting is it out They as to argue that there a fitting close to much an athletic.ON OLD MEN It is IN PUBLIC LIFE and forcible words is ' : well known. It was therefore a shrewd remark of Diogenes. They my own old may prevent either of us from deserting that long companionship which has hitherto followed a common path. 546.19 ' humble private station at Corinth. d as some one told Dionysius that It is not. In connexion with the struggles of public life timidity and weakness can find plenty of excuses. I determine that would have us abide by our original principle. indeed. in order to adopt another which is unfamiliar. Euphanes. you are far from receiving your deserts.' said he. and from abandoning that public life which may be regarded as a familiar friend from youth up. when at a later date ' he saw Dionysius' son in a sius. — — absolutism with injustice was only made all the more complete a calamity by the fact that it never ceased. career. and It is life and the worthy life shall end together. For these reasons c ' I think it well to take men in public life ' ordinary reflections upon and lay them before yourself. excuses Cast a deep cloud on valour. and with which there is no time for us to become thoroughly intimate. true * In his case the combination of despotism is a fine shroud '.

to For —to quote Simonides— in the shape of the Is the last thing sink beneath the ground^ earlier to fail except in cases where high human interests and noble zeal are and die than natural desires. housed in the despot's palace and made to live in it. have passed their prime should Yet there are some who claim that public men who sit and be fed in seclusion at home. has learned to show himself a profitable subject as well as a profitable ruler.66 On Old Men in Public Life and fearless life here with us. When fine a man '. On the contrary. Are the active and divine elements of our being more evanescent than the passionate and corporeal ? That were an unworthy view to hold . allowing their practical abilities to rust away in idleness. No one has ever seen old age convert a bee into a drone. or to supervise gleaners and reapers in the country. till old age. It is different with constitutional like your father. There are many vices. but that public spirit and activity which even ants and bees maintain till the end. is Where now Where the famed riddles now P one thing to wait till old age before commencing public and to be like Epimenides.' of living a free and democratic statesmanship. but none can do more than weak and cowardly inactivity to disgrace a man in years a man who skulks away from the public offices to look — after a houseful of women. to the many plagues of its own from which old age suffers. as unworthy as to accept the doctrine that the F only thing of which we never weary is making gain. we should improve upon Thucydides. there is no justification for deliberately adding the disgrace of vice. you ought to have been there. 784 Cato used to say that. who so they say fell asleep — — . Is Oedipus F It life. ' he E does indeed obtain at death a shroud this good name earned by his life. and regard as * ' ' the only thing that never ages not the love of honour '.

fifty. If. Simonides says The it is State is a man^s teacher. nowhere so out of place Foolish audacity and lack of experience d as in a deliberator or a judge. or like some stranger who but of a new life. If about which you know nothing. not of a new district or country. when inviting speech first and advice. as the ' ' Pythian priestess said. on the contrary. room for remonstrance. It is agreed on all hands that the measures of Caesar the conqueror of Antony became considerably more regal and good for the public towards the end of his life. the time to change their teacher true only of those a who have and learn new lesson — a lesson slowly and laboriously acquired by means of many can take toils its a struggle hold sufficiently and experience. it when past eighty and on his defence. surprise visit is is You are like till not made some blundering reveller whose night . when by stern application of custom and law he was correcting the rising ^ — — The text here is corrupt. Witness our laws. one were to divest himself of that quiet habit which has lasted all his life. and were to plunge into struggles and worries with which he was unfamiliar.^ Cato. Tou come too late in your quest of office and leadership. and only when it c early on a natural genius for bearing it is and troubles with equanimity. under which the crier in the Assembly. sensible striplings and youths whom men do their best to keep out of public business. £ 2 . calls upon the platform in the but persons over are instance not an Alcibiades or a Pytheas. said was hard to have to defend himself before one set of people after having lived with another. in b such a case. To We find that. We might say. in quest. Once. resume. and for which he was there would be not trained by intercourse with public affairs or with mankind.On Old Men a in Public Life 67 youth and fifty years afterwards awoke an old man. You are past the time for knocking at the door of the Presidency.

' time man whom own words were old men listened : was in old age. As for what Xenophon writes of Agesilaus. not merely of the commanders and popular leaders of those what of who nowadays days. by all fight a battle against sixty but sealing up the public armouries and the locks of the gates. if regretted by his friends than Agesilaus^ though he died when full of years? time was no hindrance to the great actions of us. men like enjoy the luxury of a public life which admits of no despots. . Simonides fell the glory and prize of the poet come to his eightieth year. listen when he was young. when his sons charged him with being in his dotage. compare to Is there any youth with whom this old man did not advantage P Who in the prime of life was soformidabli an enemy as Agesilaus was at the most advanced age? Of whom to ' was F the foe so glad to be rid as of Agesilaus^ though he his was old when end came? Who inspired such courage in his own side as Agesilaus^ although close upon the end of life? What young man was more Well. he read in his defence the entrance ode of the Oedipus at Colonus. but only of warless contests and of ambitions which are for the most part settled by just means according to law and reason ? Are we 785 to play the coward ? Must we confess that we are the inferiors.tf8 On Old to Men an old in Public Life outcry. but of the poets. as from the last lines of the epigram : Simonides. It is said that. no fighting. no sieges. it is best to quote verbatim. these. He won evident And withal to to Fell Leoprepes'* son. Take Sophocles. beginning : . leaders of thought. This was the when he induced the Athenians to enter upon the war. his to generation. and they ' made an It E Young men. that the statesman- ship of Pericles reached greatest influence. and actors? is Take choric victories in old age. its too. and when he successfully opposed their ill-timed eagerness to thousand men-at-arms.

to farmer Demosthenes calls it descent indeed. — a lyric which won such admiration that he left the court. his high place in the Sacred League. when overtook them. creditable old men of the platform should ? ' show a poorer spirit than old men of the stage should retire ably are —and give from the sacred contests — That they these verit- for * sacred for goodness is a up the role of the public man in exchange knows what other part ? From king. or shearing sheep. Take Philemon. abandons the Presidentship of Games. still winning crowns. But suppose a public man and cattle for Meidias. his seat on the Federal Board. Eratosthenes and Philochorus inform us that. contains the words : Five years and fifty Sophocles had seen. give her an Turn public ability to apron. shortly before his end. Ere for Herodotus he wrought a song. strip off her gown. and Alexis. To the goodliest homes on earth. make that sacred warship carry cargoes of timber. It cannot but look as if of 'old worn-out horse'. cruel treatment of the Paralus. and is found D measuring out barley-meal and olive-cake. . and when c he was seventy.. and keep her in a tavern. Fond haunt of the nightingale. admitted to be by Sophocles. say. They were still death putting plays upon the stage. the comic poet. he were needlessly courting the status As for leaving a public career to engage in vulgar and petty trade. one might as well take self-respecting lady.On Old Men in Public Life 6^ To this land of the steed. Thou hast come to the white Colonus. Where her clear voice trills its sorrow In the green of the leafy dell. O stranger. A little epigram.. I that say. as it b might have been the theatre. he acted eight tragedies in four days. to vine-stakes. Is it. the tragedian. some . amid the applause and cheers of the audience. Take Polus.

lay lulling him on a couch. I when they mean luxurious public self-indulgence if recommend the hardly ' man to adopt that process of idle senile know which Shall I say of two ugly comparisons case of sailors taking will best ' hit off such a Aphrodite-holiday and keeping it up for ever. dinners. a fondness for place Pompey replied that for an old man effeminacy was more unseasonable than office. When he was 786 ill and the doctor ordered him fieldfares the bird being then out of season and difiicult to procure and when some one told — — him that Lucullus had a large number in his preserves. the case that Not only The Queen of Love B as Euripides has it. ' he refused could to send for or receive one. social entertainments in the daytime. profound indolence. and rank and character Or if. '.70 mere E are lost. it is a Or is it a case of * ' humourists depict him —^wearing Heracles-chez-Omphale a saffron — as some sorry quietly his hair? gown and allowing Lydian handmaids to fan him and braid Are we to treat our public man Or in that feast way ? To strip off his F lion's-skin. and new-fangled notions in the way of house-building. people choose to talk of ' ease . without waiting till their ship is berthed. The latter. exclaiming. But. the body has become incapable of all is it pleasures except a few which are essential. On Old business and Men in Public Life its money-making. and power Meanwhile he accused Pompey of unsuited to his years. with lute and flute should we not take warning by ? the retort of his Pompey the Great to LucuUus services. and they enjoyment decay. after campaigns and public had given himself up to baths. with an old man. ? and him all the while him. What ? Pompey ' not live but for the luxury of Lucullus ? It may be true that nature ordinarily seeks pleasure and delight. as a last alternative. but deserting it while still on the voyage ? life. turns weary from the old^ Though they may retain the appetite for .

I will ' not say upon the golden wings ' of Euripides. It is in the mind that one must lay up though not of the mean and ignoble kind indicated by Simonides. Nicias the painter was so taken up with his artistic work that he was often obliged to ask his servants whether he had had his c bath or his breakfast. though age had robbed him of other joys.On Old eating and drinking Men in Public Life 71 form — ^generally in a dulled or toothless — the they find a difficulty in whetting the edge or sharpening teeth even of that. whereas the pleasures of noble deeds the creations of the true statesman's art will — — bear the soul aloft in grandeur and pride and joy. but upon those * celestial -pinions described by Plato. when asked what had been his most pleasurable . ' Remember the instances of which you have so often heard. intermittent. as if. (an acquaintance of your own) used to say that people did not pleasure he himself got from playing than otherwise an audience would be paid to listen instead of paying. a stock of pleasures. of the greatest and noblest sort. Carus the flutist know how much more he gave to others . when he told those who reproached him with avarice that. fickle. or the chief. Epaminondas. The ticklings of the flesh d are spasmodic. Archimedes stuck so closely to his drawingboard that. in order to anoint him. enjoyment of the gods themselves I mean those which result from a beneficent deed or a fine achievement. He then went on drawing his diagrams in the ointment on his body. his attendants had to drag him away and strip him by force. Can we fail to perceive how great are the pleasures derived from fine actions and public-spirited achievements by those who put high qualities to use ? Nor is it able by means of those effeminate titillations which soft and agreemovements exert upon the flesh. such as we may believe to be the only. he had still one left to support his declining years —the — In public activity there are pleasures joy of money-making.

If we admit. that as ' no hearing agreeable as praise \ no is so fraught with gratification the contemplation of exploits of our own in the conspicuous public arena of office and statesmanship. in keeping it Reputation .72 On Old Men * in Public Life experience. when sight. Having been victorious at Leuctra while E my father and mother were still alive. Not but what.' When Sulla first reached after purging Italy of its civil wars. are great. with Xenophon. that it seemed to walk on is so air. and to make it permanent. They used to replace unsound timbers by others. So with political first power and reputation. by means of insertions and repairs. Though not It is easy to get in the increase instance. with a friend. Therefore. and. alive it merely requires a little feeding with it But take let either of them become to rekindle. and when there is a rivalry of commendation productive of well-earned popularity. we must be constantly adopting new devices and making fresh efforts to enliven the sense of past obligation. when once he becomes He does not look for a large . There is no difficulty fuel. our merit acquires a gloss and brilliance which adds to our sense of pleasure.' he answered.* fortune. extinct and cold. he could not sleep wink that night. replied. so elated was his mind with the greatness of his a Rome joy and happiness. anything will suffice to maintain as and them when once they such. instead of permitting our reputation to wither an athlete's crown. and will some trouble Lampis. but it was a long and hard business to make the little one. We must act like the craftsmen who were required to provide for in our old age like the security of the Delian ship. were regarded as keeping the vessel immortal and indestructible from 787 the oldest times. or reflection F a grateful goodwill testifies to our achievements. *was easy enough. the shipowner. is like flame. As he has written in his own Notes and Recollections. was once asked how he made his 'Making the big one. to enhance it. recollection.

but he finds friendly admittance. it disappears. to play the champion. And why should one look life with dread. wearisome. Campaigns are not matters of everlastingly facing the enemy. In the case of beginners. it pours forth in clouds . burden of care and fighting. severe old age. and besieging. the — to the recipient. when they are in full blaze. the greatest bane of public less life. . They open your purse. after dances of the Muses and. Gladsomeness^ and honour c to the gods relax the stern honour brow of the Bureau or the Chamber. is For. as being laborious.On Old number Men in 'Public Life 73 . this reason some have compared jealousy to smoke. or public spirit —through so in merit. Respect paid to the aged has the unique quality of doing more honour to the giver than ' — any acknowledgederogation to themselves. And while d people resist and dispute other forms of superiority — birth. or to are retained by mere public spirit by — being in no haste to desert or shirk the watchfulness. of important services in order to retain his friendship b small tokens. during the process of kindling. seeing that the theatre. They have also their times of sacrifice. Upon public ' awards. will keep his constant affection. their periods of when jest and nonsense are toward. and ? yield a manifold return of inviting entertainment In the next place jealousy. to quote Heracleitus. ample leisure. ' no savageness or fierceness is shown to a man of familiar and For established reputation. their occasional social gatherings. processions. consistently shown. Nor are the confidence and friendship of the people perpetually calling for you to hold an office. and devoid of consolations. dogs hark upon at the man they do not know.^ Though jealousy may fight with the beginner at the doors of the platform and refuse him access. a belief that ment to others means much ' primacy which is due to time seniority in the proper sense is conceded without a grudge.

And if political conflict does leave you some remnant of jealousy or antagonism to face when you are old. and then. wishes to lay her It is just as strange when has fought his ship in a long battle with jealousies. but . who has managed his ship safely in the face of contrary winds and waves. off the stage. eloquence. the more friends and fellow-workers he has made to lead . 788 We may also to the Thebans.74 Moreover On Old it is Men in Public Life not every one who expects to attain to the power derived from wealth. abandons his partners and associates. when the weather to. he is a dignified spectacle . they will regard you as no better than themselves. whereas no public man despairs of winning the esteem and distinction to which age gradually Imagine a navigator. leads. appeal to the great Epaminondas and his remark It was winter at the time. F nor has he the right to leave life is like them pull it in the lurch. it is better to quell it by means of your position than to turn your back and retire without armour or weapons of defence. and then. or receiving honours. exercises you and admire your wrestling and military but if they see you sitting by the fire and chewing your beans. This he refused to allow. a man and. but he is neither in a position them with him an old tree. transacting business. or wisdom . The more time there has been.* So with an aged man. When making a speech. E becomes fair and calm. after they are quietly laid. and the Arcadians ' were inviting them to enter the city and live in the houses. People are not so ready to attack you out of jealousy when you are still in action as they are out of contempt when you give it up. A long public no easy task. as a poet does his chorus. because of its many roots and its entanglement with many interests. observing At the present time they : come to look at . in abandoning his activities. which involve worse wrenching and disturbance when you leave To up is them than when you stay. backs out of public life.

the son of Theochares against the enemy. a man in the prime of bodily strength and condition ^was brought into the ring in opposition to Timotheus and Iphicrates also. Nestor. com- munities feel the need of a Board of Government consisting of senior men. and counted for nothing. in times of disaster or alarm. This precisely him rightly. to make sturdy stand and doughty fight When Chares. what Homer teaches. Bodily weakness case of those may be a drawback to public activity in the c who. make the platform or the Cabinet their goal. with the claim that ' this . in Idleness gradually renders it feeble and the absence of some necessary exercise of thought to keep the logical and practical faculty perpetually alive and in trim. to talk without taking breath. They do not dash into public affairs with the expression of opinions prompted by error or vanity as the case may be. But it is more than compensated by the advantage of their caution and prudence. ' ' — is — by the public speakers of Athens. and no doubt. Like glossy bronze. even intellectual power begins to fail those who have let themselves relax. high respect and honour whereas Peleus and Laertes. in spite of their years. if you read who was campaigning at Troy. the stay-at-homes. were despised. while they thrust aside generals and popular leaders. in a mild and reasonable fashion with such matters as arise.On Old when he lies all Men in 'Public Life jf resort talking drivel day on a couch or sits in the corner of a public b and wiping his nose. flaccid. received . Often they have fetched back from the country d an old man who put his neither asked nor wished it. His use that makes it shine. It is for this reason that. despite all their ability to shout. Nay. and have compelled him to hand to the helm and steer the ship of State into safety. he is an object of is contempt. and carrying the mob with them in as excited a condition as a stormy sea but they deal .

Some of these feelings are abated or dulled. when his hair warning to say grey.' he was glad that old age had enabled a fierce him to escape from sexual passion — and mad master. fray. so that we can bring a sober and steady reason to bear upon our in dealing is : thoughts. and bestirs himself to obtain a command or an official post. let with one who begins to play the youth as it is considered it be sound — — Misguided man. If an old man has his wreath on and is scenting himself marry. By all means. Rare bridegroom thou. as from a bed of sickness. to call him back and bid him change the road he has long followed. jealousy. And though age may do something to diminish our zest for action. Timotheus * : By no manner of means. is a life of public action utterly unfeeling. vanity. it does more to guard us from the intemperate heat of passion.76 E replied On Old Mm in Public Life the kind of general the Athenians should have '. some are old altogether chilled and quenched. from many madder first from contentiousness. and the desire to be and greatest a malady most fertile in envy. No doubt that is the sort . 789 Let us remonstrate with an old man when he rises from a long privacy. and whose calculations as Sophocles said ' to policy no distractions can disturb. and still . be one who needed to carry the general's baggage but the general should " sees before and after ". But suppose ' a man has lived and thoroughly played the part. Would welcome thee F where the young maid. stay quiet in thy bed.' not from one master — the But in public life love of women —but we have to escape. — F feud. there is nothing unreasonable in trying to dissuade him by quoting the lines addressed to Philoctetes in readiness to : But. and bears no resemblance to the case just given. poor soul / . by old age. where is the bride. To prevent him from going on till finis and the torch '.

e. — Thine age is withered and thy head o'erjrosted therefore sue for a divorce from statesmanship. ^ i. War and with work. No fay ! because of my white hair ? my friend. and for the neighbours'* good : But when a man has been long married. and has lived with his wife for years without a fault to find. when we take hold of a Phocion. to tell him that he should divorce her because he is old.' Well. But it is urging a public man to act c with injustice and ingratitude. but (it " for thrift may be asked) what of the soldier in the comedy with his Discharged ! Quite true. and keeping him to the state of inactivity to which he has been used.On Old expense : Men in 'Public Life jj own b Nay. — or some philosopher from the Garden ^ —there is some reason in admonishing him. and that he should live by himself or get a wretched concubine in place of his lawful spouse. Epicurean. or a Pericles. Lampon the ship's captain. a Cato. though the spirit be willing. and ' say. The War-God's servants must be in Their business war''s baleful is the prime of manly vigour. . though an old man's grey hair may be hidden by aweary. they are fond of making jests of the kind at their Vm marrying I know it. in which. In the same way when an aged man seeks to enter politics Chlidon the farmer. the strength can no longer respond. Yet in secret his thews are and. have done with the worrying business of the platform and the Board of War. and make haste into the country. Sir Athenian —or Sir Roman . is the very extreme of absurdity. old. his d helmet. to live with farming " or to a waiting-maid occupy the rest of your days with and the keeping of accounts.

78 On Old of Men Zeus in 'Public Life But the ministers of the State —are not asked —the God of Council. it its only in old age that nature brings out quality. And first he summoned By the side of the ship is to council the old men mighty-hearted of Nestor. white hair and wrinkles become the They E It is suggest moral force. Pythian oracle ' sans phrase. honour with prerogative prerogative. but by Lycurgus old men *. not such as to evoke roars of mere noise in the Assembly. and safe to follow. of old age to guide . but because he amounts to a king in the state by virtue of is his wisdom . but for counsel and foresight. a touch greatly admired. In their case the despised visible tokens of experience. And Homer's best the young man's spear. and that is state safest where Best are the old men's counsels. the part of youth to obey . for deeds of hand and foot. We ask them for advice. Nature crowns him with grey hair.' derived from geron. and wisdom is like a late-fruiting plant. For the same reason the Select ' Board associated with the kings at Sparta was called by the elder-born '. and both are F geras. The law crowns a man with the circlet and the wreath. old man retain a dignified sense. of Assembly. special excellence and perfect When Would 79° the king of kings prayed to the gods that —meaning ' among the Achaeans were ten such as he to advise ' me ! Nestor — not one of the valorous all ' and * prowess- hreathing Achaeans complained. Moreover. They admitted that not . * ' — — because the old man's bath is warmed and his bed a softer one. the words and gerairein. but full of sense and shrewdness. and are therefore a help to persuasion. not ' * ' the venerable emblems of sovereign rank. while the Roman Council is called Senatus down to the present time.

spend upon the public all the arrives passionate licence of our ambition.' . ' and D you get rid of them. labours. used to declare that ordinary people so knew what letters. it is full of cares. In Aesop. when age itself. he exclaimed : Heavens what is our life worth. and then. and preoccupations. Seleucus. Neither then should we compel Solon c to leave the Council of the Areopagus. More worth is one sage thought than many a hand^ and one rational and cogent judgement achieves the finest and most important results in public affairs. when we are obliged to suit it ! to the convenience of our asses ' ? same advice to a king when he has Ought we then to give the Bid him lay grown old ? to a cloak and a crutched aside the stick. if was said. or yet a Darius. but was * Good there was no fodder for the pack-animals. the most complete and comprehensive form of public activity. take and unseasonable of him and live in the country. and brings the wisdom of experience. a Numa. crown and the purple.' said he. hungry ones will be at you in their place.On Old since Men in Public Life also. the fox would not let him. desert and betray our public standing like a woman whom we have used at our pleasure. Now kingship. when the hedgehog wanted to pick off his * These are glutted. And the story goes that. 79 only in statesmanship. for fear people should think it is officious to be reigning when he grey? But we have no right or a to talk in this way about an Agesilaus. if ticks. but in war age was of great moment. nor urge a Pericles to leave popular government to look after It is contrary to reason that in our youth we should bounce upon the platform. they found b when Philip was told that proposing to encamp in an excellent position. nor a Cato the Senate. a business it was merely to write and read if many it they would not pick up the crown lying in the street.

but by the practical administration of public business. Men in Public Life If it is perpetually shedding the old men. Aristeides with Cleisthenes. How it will So with public can they be otherwise. A teacher of letters or of music himself reads or plays a passage over first by way of example F to his pupils. if for no other reason. So the authority on statesmanship must guide young man. He must often have stood upon the quarter-deck and watched the struggle with wave and wind and stormy nights. be plagued with young ones. Cato with Fabius Maximus. Keep as Simonides puts it. if they are to have no elderly statesman to watch and learn from ? A ship's captain is not made by treatises on navigation.8o On Old life. For Tyndareus^ twin And a E or Council be rightly left to a can the handling of a State and the persuading of Assembly young man because he has read has not taken his stand book or taken down a lecture on statesmanship in the Lyceum? Though he rope and many a time beside rudderto that. and so learned his lesson in the midst of dangers and difficulties ? Beyond question. as with the steed the wearied colt . while tiller. filled with the breath of life. No For the education and training of the young. It is training of this kind — not in the schools where you practise safe forms of wrestling under mannerly professors. It is by deeds as well as by words that he will mould him to the true a shape. Cimon with Aristeides. Pompeius with . who are thirsting necessarily for notoriety and power but devoid of political sense. ! old men should play a public part. leaned first to this side and then generals and public leaders were pitting their knowledge and experience against each other. 791 — face. when The sailor on the brine longs sore sons. Phocion with Chabrias. but in contests truly Olympian and Pythian — that makes one. not simply by talking or suggesting from outside.

by being raised to their standard of states- manlike achievement. There is no crudeness in them. For this reason. he replied. that they acquired the political experience which brought them fame and power. When certain professors declared that the claim of Aeschines. been one just as it is is to he a public man. we must have Plato speaks of mixing water with elderly ' ' neat wine as the bringing of a frenzied god to sanity by the in public men j. So when young spirits in the Assembly are a-boil with the intoxication of glory and ' ambition. The 546-19 right course therefore .On Old Men Sulla. another consideration. but the deeds. have said. was by attaching them- selves their when young to older men. but always a quality of quiet solidity. by using them as supports to own growth. fragrance gains in sweetness. Polybius in Public Life It 8i with Philopoemen. It not a public burden. when the iris has its grown old and exhausted crude exuberance of perfume. not to JP . of an old man. however. chastening of another who is sober '. worthy aims. all not merely the talking. that lose ostentation and itch They all tell us that. to eliminate their we need the old men's caution mad excess of fire. O yes Carneades at the time when age had taken out of shape. not to right to speak the truth. to be borne only so long is the career of a civilized being with a gift society. is to qualify them and There an is It a is an error to suppose that statesmanship like a voyage or campaign —carried on is for ulterior object is and discontinued when that attained. to have been a pupil of Carneades was contrary to fact. for citizenship and and with a natural disposition to live social helpfulness a life of public influence. and for as long as occasion calls. ' the Academic philosopher. So with the views and suggestions of the old. as I life. as Statesmanship needs must.' his teaching : I all was a disciple of the fuss and noise ^ and reduced it to practical and serviceable it is - With the statesmanship for notoriety.

Young men are often sickly. were thin. Masinissa Polybius relates that he died leaving a child of four. a housr crumbles. 792 and the next day was seen in front of his tent eating a loaf of cheap coarse bread. sickly. power. service to Ne*er let us cease from mankind. old To men often vigorous. and Antigonus old . . her promptings are such as these : Thy and sire begat thee for rich use to men. he ' said. But it were folly also to — and hinder old men like Phocion. or Masinissa the African. of Asia. Men in Public Life . it shities in use. not the young. For WhiU like to goodly bronze. To expressions of surprise he answered that he did so to keep himself in training. There is no hardship. if left idle long. To butt for whoever happened to be in say. demand of the sophist Prodicus or the poet Philetas a and young though they might be. Aridaeus was young. or the The Cato. Those are Nature's objects. urge the plea of ill-health or disablement is to blame disease and injury. D have spoken to act honestly. who am be with you in command. this angry.82 On Old it .' And of when he was ninety. not to have loved them. constantly taking to their beds through ill-health that they should take up public life. up arms and serve. It is therefore not the old whom we should discourage. Aridaeus but while Antigonus annexed nearly the whole was like the super ' upon the stage a king * — with nothing to —^who. and where men are not utterly demoralized by idleness and effeminacy. of am over eighty. F Athenians being set upon an ill-timed war. but the incapable. were folly. Phocion ordered that every Roman man under made them to sixty should take When I. Shortly before his death he beat the Carthaginians in a great battle. whom he was the father. not old age. from holding office or military command. not to have so acted to love one's country and fellow-citizens. It is the capable whom t we should encourage.

' the king used to inquire of arrivals from Asia. himself to a life of inactivity. In the ' case of the special ability and justice. together his caution. and became a calm. he could see nothing to distinguish him from his grooms. he replied Heaven forbid I ever should Whereas a bow. For the same reason it is said that wars and campaigns than inactivity. for his keeper. that the man c was thought to be bewitching him with spells and drugs. had simply In fact. If a musician gives up listen.d ing for pitch. old age will enfeeble the ability along with the loss of its exercise. memory. When some one asked the elder Dionysius if he had * time to spare. in his old age. and Ateas the Scythian declared that. with an experienced knack of hitting the of the statesman— F 2 .On Old says Sophocles. to Men in Public Life 83 We may say the same of that glossy brightness which we owe calculation. although the art * in these cases is not a practic ' one. of the mind. stayed as lifeless But he surrendered at nothing. make better idleness that Philopoemen. a certain till at last his brother Marcus drove the fellow away and himself took to managing and tutoring him for the short remainder of his life. On the other hand. and sound judgement. they tell us. a geometrician the solving of problems. wisdom. thought of and shrunken as a sponge in Afterwards. but a theoretic '. when he had nothing to do. Attalus. is broken by stringing it tight. the Romans shepherd him and keep him fat. whether to had any influence with Philopoemen'. so long as he kept his intellect braced with action. one of his intimates. find a It would be hard to Roman general more able than LucuUus. Callisthenes. the brother of kings was so thoroughly enervated by long peace and b Eumenes. a ' : ! mind is broken by leaving it loose. the father of Xerxes. an arithmetician the constant habit of calculation. he so tamely accepted freedman. used to say that he became his wisest in times of danger . Darius. home.


On Old Men

in Public Life

right language at the right

— persuasion



to say, a




constant speech,


good condition by and judicial decision.

would be

a dire mistake for it to

abandon such

E and permit

the mind.

those important virtues to leak away from For it naturally means a decline of kindly interest

man and


thing which should be without limit

or end.

Suppose your father had been Tithonus. Suppose, though he was immortal, old age had made him require close and constant care. You would not, I imagine, have run away and
repudiated the task of tending him, talking to him, and helping ' him, just because you had borne the burden for a long time \ fatherland or motherland ' as it is called in Crete Well, your


has claims prior to those of parents, and greater. Your country's life has been a long one, but she is not without old age. She is
F not sufficient to herself,



in perpetual need of watchful

and considerate help. and holds him back

She therefore grasps at the statesman

Clutching his garment she stays him, though eager he he for


are aware that


have performed


public duty at



But you would not

Plutarch, you have

done enough

in the


of sacrifices, processions,
it is

and choruses.



in years


to leave the shrine alone

duty in the same way. you are coryphaeus and prophet, and it is not for you abandon that worship of Zeus, God of State and Assembly,

; age Well, look at your own In the sacred service of the State

time to put off your wreath



which you have been


long initiated

and are




mc now

to leave the


for quitting public

On Old Men


Public Life




examine another point.

We must beware of inflicting

upon our old age an unbecoming or exacting task, when so many portions of public work are so well suited to that time of If it had been proper for us to go on singing all our days, life.
there are at our disposal many keys and modes, or, as the Our right course in our old musicians call them, systems.'

and age would have been to cultivate, not a mode both high but one combining ease with appropriate character. sharp, And since Nature prompts mankind to act and speak even more b

— —until the end, our prompts the swan to sing



not to lay action aside, like a lyre of too high a pitch, but to lower the key and adapt it to such forms of public effort as We are light, unexacting, and within an old man's compass.

do not leave our bodies entirely without muscular exercise because we cannot use the spade and the jumping-weights,
or hurl the discus, or practise
fencing, as

we used




swing or walk, and in


cases the breathing


and warmth stimulated by playing a gentle game of ball, or by conversation. On the one hand, then, do not let us allow ourselves to become c stiff and torpid from inactivity. On the other, let us not undertake any and every official position, clutch at any and every kind
of public work, and bring such an exposure it is driven to exclaim in despair :

upon old age that


Right hand, how fain art thou to grasp the spear vain thy longing, in thy strengthlessness /


in the


of strength a

man wins no




tries to



his shoulders the

whole pack

of public business,

Zeus, according to the Stoics

— to

and d

leave anything

to others


he insinuates himself everywhere and has

finger in everything, through an insatiable greed for notoriety

or through jealousy of any one


contrives to get a share


On Old

in the

honour and power

Public Life community. But when




quite old, then, apart from the discredit, wretchedly hard work is entailed by that itch for office which is always courting every ballot-box, that meddlesomeness which lies in wait for every

opportunity of acting on a jury or a committee, that ambition

which snaps up every appointment as delegate or proctor. Such work is a heavy tax on an old man, even when people are But the opposite may very well be the case. well-disposed.
For young men hate him because he leaves them no opportunities and prevents them from coming to the front ; while
the rest of the




his itch for office


precedence with the same disapproval

upon the

itch of other

Bucephalus was growing old, Alexander, being unwilling to overwork him, used to ride some other horse while reviewing the phalanx and getting it into position before the
F battle.

men When


money and



after giving the


to Bucephalus,

the fortunes of war.

for the day, he changed once led the charge and tried In the same way a sensible public man




in this case handling his





in years, hold

to deal

from unnecessary effort, leaving more vigorous persons with the minor matters of state, but himself playing

a zealous part in great ones.

Athletes keep their bodies from

and in perfect trim for


contact with necessary ones. We, on the

contrary, will leave petty
ourselves in reserve

details alone,

and will keep

for matters of










all labours

are seemly,

and the world gives consent and approval, calling them public' spirited and energetic when they do a large number of little things, and noble and lofty-minded when they do brilliant
' '







in Public


are 794

and distinguished



that time of

venturesome aggressiveness is more or less in But what when an season and wears a grace of its own.





perform routine services to the
seizes opportunities of

public, such as letting out taxes, or superintending harbours

and markets

What when he




a position contains no dignity, and which necessitates time-serving and

a mission to

some governor or other powerful perfor which there is no necessity, which


To my


friend, his case




regret and commiseration; some

may even




Not even positions of authority are any longer a suitable b sphere for him, unless they are of high rank and importance such a position, for example, as you now hold in the Presidentship

of the Areopagite Council, not to

mention the distinguished

rank of Amphictyon,! which your country has imposed upon









and labour sweet




these honours


should not seek, but should make from

holding them. We should ask, not for them, but to be excused from them. It should seem, not that we are taking office to ourselves, but that we are surrendering ourselves to office. The

Emperor Tiberius used

to say that a


ashamed of holding out his wrist to be more ashamed of holding out
solicitation of its

a physician.

over sixty should be But he should c
to the public in



vote and influence





humiliating and ignoble as the contrary is honourable and I mean when dignified your country chooses you, calls you, and waits for you, and when you come down amidst respect



of a religious council

which met at Delphi and represented

the chief states of


8 8

On Old


in Public Life

and welcome, a reverend signior tinction with gracious acceptance.

indeed, to

meet your


Similarly with speaking in the Assembly. A man of advanced age should not be perpetually springing upon the platform and crowing back to every cock that crows. Young men are like horses, and he should not, by constantly grappling with

D them and irritating them, lose control of their respect, or encourage the practice and habit of resistance to the reins.


should sometimes leave them to make a restive plunge for distinction, keeping out of the way and not interfering, unless
the matter at stake

and honour.
should let

is vital to the public safety or to decency In that case he should not wait to be called, but some one take him by the hand, or carry him in his

and push




more than

full speed, like


Claudius in



The Romans had been



by Pyrrhus in a great battle, and Appius heard that the Senate was listening to proposals for a truce and a peace. This was
bear, and, though blind of both eyes, along he came in his chair through the Forum to the Senate House. Hitherto He went in, planted himself before them, and said

more than he could


have been distressed at the

loss of

to be also unable to hear

— that you are meditating






could pray
so ignoble

and disgraceful

a transaction.'

Thereupon, partly by reproaches,

partly by advice and encouragement, he persuaded them to have F immediate recourse to arms and to fight Pyrrhus to a finish
for the prize of Italy.

Again, when


became manifest that,
at absolutism,

was aiming

to resist or prevent

in acting the demagogue, and yet no one ventured Solon brought out his weapons with

hands, piled them in front of his house, and called upon the citizens to help. And when Peisistratus sent and asked


him what gave him the confidence
so vital as these, it



he replied,



true, are rousing


to fire

On Old


in Public Life


even the most worn-out of old men, so long as he possesses the breath of life at all. Otherwise he will sometimes, as I have said, be showing good taste if he declines to perform paltry

and menial


to the persons for

which bring more worry to the doer than good 795 whom they are done. There are also occasions
to his house to fetch him.

when he

will wait for the citizens to call for him, feel the need

of him, and




wanted, and

therefore his appearance

on the scene

will carry

But for the most part, though present, he will leave the younger generation to do the speaking, while he acts
as umpire to the match of And if it goes political ambition. beyond bounds, he will offer a mild reproof and courteously put an end to outbreaks of self-assertion, recrimination, or

more weight. be silent and will






wrong, he will reason with and

correct the mover, but without blaming him.


it is


without reserve and will cheerfully acquiesce, often surrendering an argumentative victory in order that b

he will commend

young man may get on

in the world

and be


In some cases he will supply a deficiency while paying pliment, like Nestor with his

good heart. a com-

No man, I
None say

trow, will find fault with thy words


all the


thee nay.

Yet not


an end hast thou brought

all the

thou art yet hut young,

and myself might be thine

own father.



a practice still



One may not

merely teach a lesson openly in public by means of a reproval

unaccompanied by any sting of humiliation or injury to prestige. Still more may be done in private for persons with good political

We may


them kindly

suggestions and assistance c

towards the bringing forward of useful arguments and public
measures, encourage


high aims, help them to acquire

service. and who told him that he had no right to despair of himself. next a priestess. each is called first a novice. and those of Themistocles It way that by Mnesiphilus. it is is to take otherwise with those a youth in public business and the political arena. seeing that he possessed gifts so of that eminent person. So with the votaries of E Artemis at Ephesus . They perform good F part of public first life. instead of leaving him to despond. and the third for teaching. when they began by incurring ill-odour and a bad name for forwardness and recklessness. since he would soon be dictating to his audience. At Rome the term stages performance of the ceremonies. not in some petty inconsiderable his but in one to which Lycurgus devoted and foremost attention — training the young to give to . Whereas to superintend the athletics of others no part in them oneself. Euripides bade him keep up his courage. and — as riding-masters do with see that at first the people shall docile for them to mount. In the same way the complete during the first part of his public career still engaged in learning the mysteries . —one of the Vestal Virgins is divided into three one for the and then a statesman is past-priestess. when he was in great distress at his failure D in the Assembly.90 their horses On Old Men in 'Public Life a distinguished — tone of mind. sure that for the good of his country he shall who train and who make Be speaker of words and eke doer of deeds. Cimon the spirits and courage were revived by Aristeides. he was taken to task by a very old man who had heard Pericles. we may rouse and comfort him. was in And this if so be a young be gentle and man should make of a failure. much like those So when Timotheus was hissed for his innovations and treated as guilty of an outrage on music. for learning. during the last part he is engaged in teaching and initiating. It is also said of Demosthenes that.

his pastimes. hold. Such a position makes them an object of fear to wrong-doers. but take active cognisance of everything a young 796 man may do in connexion with his training-school. * ambition ' —in b an old of place. as it were. free man it is a coarse and vulgar sentiment altogether out The aged statesman should therefore be entirely from jealousy. or of ? Surely not. or when . because of the way in which they encourage steadiness and nobility of character by sympathy and approbation and without jealousy. The of life. lead them by the hand. and twine about him. For young men make a point of cultivating their society. He and yet welcome and gratifying it is When a task is a stubborn and arduous one. emulation '. and foster them. who not only look after matters of state. but should give them a kindly welcome and every opportunity to cling to him should hold young people upright. when he declared finest that the form of old age that at is to be found at Lacedaemon ? Did he mean Lacedaemon elderly people had the best oppor- tunities of doing nothing. but by surrendering to them political tasks which bring honour and distinction. that they are. in a sense. public fathers or guardians. not only by wise suggestion and advice.On Old 'Men every old in Public Life 91 lawgiver. unequivocally snubbing the shoots and checking the growth of plants which spring up beside or beneath it. of sitting together meeting together at an early hour to He meant that all persons at that time of . last-named feeling is not a becoming one at any time But whereas in the case of a young man it finds plenty of respectable names — ' ' rivalry '. man the same unfailing obedience as to a What had Lysander in his mind. or his style of living. He should be no malignant old tree. of lending and playing drink life dice. and of respect and affection to the wellbehaved. or which afford scope for services of an innocent nature to the public. a magisterial position money.

should be regarded in the same Statesmanship Foolish persons. acting as envoy. or light.92 like a On Old its Men in Public Life medicine which stings and gives pain at the moment. a ' which has is and conduct. walk '. or making . he should himself accept the unpopularity By this means he will render also youth both more well-disposed and more zealous in other duties. even if they are Ministers of War. philosopher a discussion or discourse. or platform-speakers. beneficial effects are not produced till afterwards. but as courting the mob. Instead of subjecting while them in their inexperienced state to the uproars of an un- reasonable attaching to salutary measures. or observing a fixed time his associates He played the while joking with you. He was to thus the show that life affords scope for philosophy at and circumstance every moment. For Socrates to play the philosopher there was no arranging of forms. and in prison and drinking the poison. just as they think that talking D from a chair and delivering lectures based on books make a philosopher. in every feeling Secretaries. a mob. But they fail to discern the sustained statesmanship or philosophy in actions peripatein. in every detail. whatsoever. E or possibly finally —for —arranged with when he was first campaigning with you. perhaps. he c should not prescribe it for young people. Meanwhile it must be remembered that statesmanship does office. should not be considered as a acting the statesman. The generality of people may not consist solely in holding think that these make a statesman. who are walking the same with acting the statesman as it is with acting the philosopher. the word to now come be used of persons taking It is into the country or to see a friend. shouting loudly in the Assembly. or at market with you. As Dicaearchus used revealed consistently day after day to say. seating turn in the colonnades rather than of those himself in a chair. or drinking with you. and indulging in a fine frenzy of speeches and motions on the platform.

Aristeides at Athens and Cato at offices . The enemy was attacking them with his missiles. pleased or vexed as the case may be. and error '. means present in spirit . It as he might at a show or entertainment. took the advice. one of the * elder Spartans shouted out that he was proposing to mend one * meaning (as Thucydides says) that his c present unseasonable ardour was intended to repair the discredit of his retreat from Argos. Once when King Agis was in Arcadia. and is Rome held few public but they made their whole life a perpetual service to a distinguished their country. he a in the literal He playing the does so by stimulating men of f is ability. ' by another . he did in Thessaly at a time when he held no command or The generals had plunged the phalanx into a difficult situation. Men a in Public Life 9^ display. keen patriot and a state's man he has never worn official garb. and compelled him to change his tactics and retire. even if not present in body. giving advice to those who need it. after allaying the panic of the army by words of encouragement. or But when is man doing public service because possesses public spirit and broad ' ' and sense. Though Epaminondas won many he is success as commander-in-chief. b and they were in confusion. no less famous for what office. that. And this and fortifying persons of does not mean that he goes to the Assembly Theatre or Senate House out of pride of place when canvassed or pressed. and. merely puts in an appearance — is if he does so —by way of pastime.On Old they must. lending his help to deliberation. posted it so as to confront the enemy. interests. or creating dissension. sense. he 797 that he asks how the business goes. even if statesman all the time. Agis listened. Epaminondas was therefore summoned from the ranks. he proceeded to make an orderly disposition of the phalanx which was in a state of turmoil — — extricated it with ease. and. and was in the act of leading his army into action in full order of battle. when he gets there. discouraging bunglers.

For what time takes. and ' thought discreet '. so great was his reputation for wisdom and shrewdcompletely lost all The story goes that.91 retired. judgement. as the poets say. For though zeal should not fail so long as ability lasts. in a public way. our house and farm and other goods and and wisdom. It is chattels should get the benefit of them. whether in the field or in politics. Once more. He has the best of means thereto reason. And Cicero himself acknowledges that the greatest and finest of the successful measures of his consulship were devised with the help of the philosopher Publius Nigidius. Most unportant are the mind and the beauties of the mind temperance. . nothing to prevent an aged man from advanc- ing the public good in many a department of statesmanship. it we must not put pressure upon when left helpless. while. away from . and asked them anything more binding than to obey a master ' ' ? Do you know Upon their replying.' his reason told him that this an end. and the Ephors first frequently rose and consulted him upon questions of the importance ness. he got up and set out to walk. On Old Men in Public Life a seat Menecrates actually had placed for him every day at the doors of the Government Office. stantly sought the advice of Gains Laelius to such an extent conas to make some people say of his achievements that Scipio was the actor. we make ourselves of no further use because of ' time '. Scipio. then. F slowly to their own. It is not merely our hands and feet or the strength of our bodies that are part and parcel of the possessions of the State. plain: speaking. as these come late and justice. brought his service to Lack of the power. upon the Ephors sending for him to the Agora. to our country and our fellow-citizens. — monstrous that. ' : he met D some children on the way. and he turned back home. but the author was Gaius. when he had all day to physical strength and was for the most part confined his bed. E There is. As he was toiling slowly along.

. though he has no feet. their power of reasoned speech is as it ought to be little — vigorous and generative. when Hermes hands or is represented in an elderly form. it adds to those of It for this reason that. his virile parts are tense is —an indirect way of saying — that there so long as need for old men's bodies to be hard at work.On Old Men in less Public Life than what is 95- our powers of active effort is guidance and statesmanship.

philosophy has many excellent sermons to give. In the musical world they used to call one of the modes for ' the flute the Horse-and-Mare '. By in that key it she exerts a spell life. When people in olden times assigned a seat with Aphrodite to Hermes. upon those who come together as partners and renders them gentle and tractable to each other. Well. if it is their pany of Philosophy.ADVICE TO MARRIED COUPLES 138 B To POLLIANUS AND EuRYDICE WITH PlXJTARCH's BEST WISHES. the was duly applied to you by the priestess of I When Demeter. because. apparently. brought up as you have been in the comin I have arranged them in a series of brief comparisons to make them easier to remember. the strains were provocative of union between those animals. it reason also were to take you would prove of some service. province to see that a lyre or a harp shall be in tune. it was in order that the married . it was because D the pleasure of marriage stands in special need of reason when to Persuasion and the Graces. pair might obtain their wishes from each other by means of persuasion. taken the main points of the lessons which you have repeatedly heard. they were shutting you in your bridal chamber. it is no less so to provide that the music of the married home shall be harmonized by reason and philosophy. In doing so I pray that the Muses may graciously lend aid to Aphrodite. in ancestral ritual believe that now. but none c more worthy of serious attention than that upon marriage. . and not by contention and strife. I have. therefore. and would support the tune as prescribed. and am sending them as a present to you both. since. if hand and join in the nuptial song.

if the in disgust because groom does not run away and vexatious at panionship. unless it is built round the moral character. As that plant yields the sweetest eating from among the roughest prickles. First experiences disgust her with the bridegroom. after veiling the bride. In Boeotia. the parts. to the bridegroom's that. after enduring the sting of the bee. as a first Solon bade the bride eat a piece of quince before coming arms apparently an enigmatical suggestion — requirement. a pleasant and inviting impression should be gathered from an agreeable mouth and speech. Fire that fierce blaze of passion which is produced in the newlymarried by physical enjoyment. and so obtains a permanent Doctoring the water is no doubt a quick and easy way of 139 catching fish. and she makes as great a mistake as if. they crown her with a wreath of thorny asparagus. So when 5. dry rushes. 2. but quickly goes out unless it gets a further hold upon someSo with thing capable both of keeping it in and feeding it. gets a hold vitality. it is much time goes on and they become solid as fire and iron can do to separate f is readily kindled in chaff. You must not rely upon it nor expect it to last. Let them note how vessels which have been mended but as will at first easily pull to pieces on the as at the seams. 4. so a bride. but it renders them bad and uneatable. Many a young bride is affected in the same way.J^dvice to Married Couples : 97 The Rules 1. upon your rational part. will afford One who as sweet and gentle comshows no patience with the girl's first e a him bad as those who let the ripe grapes go because once they were sour. It is abandon the honeycomb. friction. bickerings is he finds her difficult first. 546«19 G . she were to 3. especially at the beginning that married people should beware of quarrel and slightest occasion. or hare's fur.

. in love with some women find a strict that Pasiphae. When the moon is at a distance it from the sun. Herodotus was wrong in home and out of sight.98 women work spells. it fades and is lost to view. put indignities upon their wives. is like a traveller who would rather lead a blind man than follow one who possesses sight and knowledge. c 9. In the same way some men who marry high-born or wealthy women. who as much a mass of ungoverned dog or a goat When a rider is too weak or effeminate to vault upon ahorse. Why should people fell consort to a king. bright and luminous. On the contrary. and disbelieve is ? prefer to live with one sensuality as a 8. Between married persons the token of greatest regard is greatest modesty. they have but crazy simpletons and dotards for their partners. itself he teaches the animal to bend its legs and crouch. instead of improving themselves. we see it comes near him. . to mainfull height of the horse. though an ox. tain the dignity of the wife. The proper course is. in the belief that they will be more easily ruled when humbled. she found the greatest pleasure in the rational companionship of the wise Odysseus. With a properly conducted woman it is the conShe should be most visible when with her husband trary. as one would the while using the rein. B 7. when they see that and continent husband wearisome. Jldvice artificially to Married Couples their husbands with philtres upon and and control them by the agency of pleasure. a chaste wife puts on modesty in its place. 6. saying that when a woman lays aside her tunic she lays aside her modesty. A woman who is more desirous of ruling a foolish husband than of obeying a wise one. While Circe derived no good from the men she had bewitched. and made no use of them when turned into swine and asses. When in his absence she should keep at 10.

they give it up peaceably and 13. well-conducted reveal the it will When the wind 12. they show e fight and temper . A wife is a poor thing in the and out of place if she dumps when her husband but is is disposed for frolic or love-making.Advice 11. if her conduct does not represent that of her husband and harmonize with it in character. it surely more unseemly to be scolding and quarrelling in com- — — This. The Sun vanquished the North Wind. a Cato expelled from the Senate man who had kissed his own wife in the presence of his daughter. generality The their parable applies to the of women. while treating your love-passages as a sacred secret fault. When at last he sweltered. the man began to grow warm. husband's leadership and priority of choice. When husbands take violent measures to do away with extravagant indulgence. 14. after the wind. and. A is stones. ^ In the former case she in Made of polished bronze. If the reflection which it offers is glum when you are joyful. If to Married Couples a 99 two is two notes are taken In accord. G 2 . he took off not only his cloak but his tunic. was pany. too severe a step.^ though decorated with gold and precious of no use unless it shows you your form true to life. the mirror faulty is merry grin when you are gloomy and and bad. the lower of the d though every action in house is performed by both parties in tune. to make an open display of finding and reproach.f between you and your wife. the sun became hot. Similarly there is no advantage in a rich wife. he only tightened his mantle the more and held it the But when. the dominant. all is fun and laughter disagreeable . But if as is the case fondling and is it is unseemly to be kissing and embracing each other in company. practise moderation. mirror. So. when he is serious. but if you reason with them. perhaps. endeavoured to take off the man's cloak by violence and blowing a gale. closer. but wears is a distressed.

she answered. the wife should not be indignant and resentful. he finds some other woman to share his riot and lasciviousness. at least to the extent that they to take part in do not permit their wives So. but should reflect that. The practice is a right one.^ Such. she slights us that lines and make no movement by themselves. 15. they make many musicians when of learning. nor shares in her sport and laughter. teaches her to satisfy her appetite Similarly one is when she gets by herself. when the husband a lady — begins them. is the right attitude for not to shun or dislike caresses. if wanton and licentious scenes. from him. she becomes lewd and wanton discreet 18. . indeed . 17. No. .loo 140 the surfaces Advice to you. when for pleasure. a private man. they send those wives away and summon their When minstrel-women and concubines. but only in conjunction with the bodies to which they belong. A man who who dislikes to see his wife eating with him. never a merry companion to her. So when the love of be all a husband is for the person. learned men when of athletics. When Lacedaemonian girl was once asked whether she ' had already embraced a man. the Persian kings are dining or feasting. teaches her to look for private pleasures apart B 16. she shows herself and chaste. in his preoccupation and his laughter. . In the same way a woman should be free from peculiar states of mind of her own. But when they wish to amuse themselves or get tipsy. but should act as the husband's partner in his earnestness and his jest. his wife will for dress . guilty of a lapse with a common woman or a menial. who is lacks self-control or good-breeding in his pleasures. The . out of respect for her. when a for goodness and virtue. gymnasts. I believe. but he has embraced me. 'Married Couples Geometers tell latter. their legitimate wives sit at their side. nor yet to begin them of her own accord. c When kings are fond of music.

men tell us that a blow In the same way. it is proper for a wife to sympathize with her husband's concerns and the husband with the wife's. however. just as ropes. a portion * Nature blends us through the body in such a way as to take f from each. ' ' * ' ' * though it may contain a greater proportion of water. so the property of the house should be said to belong to the man. and it is therefore right for the wife to reverence or acknowledge Her only those gods who are recognized by the husband. but treat it all as own and none of it as another's'. community * 20. In when interwoven. and blend it in such a way that they never think of one part as own and one as another's '. through goodwill. the other disdainful unaffectionate. so. and greatest are the gods. . own part from ' can define or distinguish an sort of partnership exist in respect of another's '. Much more ought such language to be abolished from the possible.Advice one course is to Married Couples loi and d bold and immodest. even though the wife may contribute the larger share. 19. The same between married persons should assuredly They should pour it all into a single fund. in which medical on the left side produces an answering sensation in the right. inasmuch as the citizens enjoy. The woman ought not But to possess private friends. lend each other each party reciprocating the other's strength. married state. And as we call a mixture winej'. money « also. Plato holds that a is ' in a state of blissful well-being when the expressions mine and * not mine ' are scarcely ever heard. as far as e the common use of everything worth considering. and by commingling produce an offspring so that neither ' common to both. street-door should be kept shut to out-of-the-way forms of worship and alien superstitions. in ceremonies which a No deity finds gratification woman performs in secret and by stealth. this way. the partnership will be maintained by both combined. first but to share those of the man.

by treating everything ^ philtres. than of those for which there is a great and manifest reason. and this looks and new. ' 22. upon presenting herself. she conquers affection by means of character and virtue 24. When the having divorced stretched out his shoe and remarked fine Roman was admonished by his friends for a wife who was chaste.T02 Advice to Married Couples : 21. these harsh matters in which she touches her husband most closely are Instead of making and vexatious day after day. Olympias remarked. So it is these little. became eager Olympias thereupon to get this person into her power. when a youthful courtier had married a handsome * woman of The ' fellow has no ' judgement bad repute. she must render them B compatible. he * : Yes. Helen loved wealth. ! a married birth. The conversation. continual. 23. Hence the union of the latter 141 pair was happy and enviable. and companionship. desire.' if. the very girdle of Aphrodite — —dowry. of fevers Physicians are more afraid which spring from vague causes gradually accumulating. and sweet converse ' (Homer. but spoke with considerable nobility and good sense. : Which contained //. that do most to create King Philip was once enamoured of a Thessalian woman who was charged with bewitching him. How irresistible a and lawful wife. as lying in herself. she not only turned out to be a handsome woman. and grateful.' The wife must not rely upon her dowry. c Olympias witchcraft said lies ' : Those calumnies are all nonsense thing is ! Your in yourself. character. but no one knows where it chafes me. and Paris loved pleasure Odysseus was wise. which the world knows nothing the rifts which ruin married life. or her beauty. When. her birth. otherwise he would not have . xiv. and Penelope discreet. rich. every charm love. soothing. wife. . daily frictions between man and of. while that of the former brought upon Greeks and Asiatics an Iliad of Woes *. On another occasion. 214). and beautiful.

' and that which adorns that which adds to a woman's seemliness. . instead of d calculating the companionable quality. of the wife they are marrying. to talk ' And what if I show And what if I show myself The plain woman may pride herself on being discreet as well ? loved for her character. and modesty. ' myself indiscreet ' ? beautiful. 27. and frove thee wanton. he refused to accept them. "'twould not But to seem. is Adornment is that which adorns. To young men who Socrates are fond of looking at themselves that the ugly should correct their defects by virtue. if while she is is holding the mirror. but is f taken out and thrown down at the side of the altar — an indirect injunction of the legislator that gall place in the married state. while the handsome should avoid spoiling their beauty by vice. decorum. and. however. and the handsome woman on being to herself.' said he. is not done by gold or jewels or scarlet. to beautify. of ornaments. ' loved more for her character than her beauty. she if plain. ' As Crates used This to say. was Sophocles in the lines iVtfy. as \i is in the case who reckon up the amount of the dower.' neither should it Marriage should not be made with with the fingers. will rather take from my e ' daughters' beauty than anticipated by set it off. In sacrificing to Hera as goddess of marriage. It is a good thing for the in the mirror recommended married woman also. -poor fool. to Married Couples 103 his eyes. to ask. . 26. but by whatever invests her with the badges of dignity.Advice married with the eyes of some.' : Lysander. the gall is not burned with the other portions of the sacrifice. and anger should have no The austerity of the lady of the house. When the Sicilian despot sent Lysander's a set of costly mantles * daughters These bits and chains. unheautify. 25.

A wife who for fear of does not even wash it. not bitter like aloes or unpleasant like a drug. because she avoids and deprecates as she is quite right to do extravagant or — — meretricious demonstration. If. they practise every art to attract and stir the hearer with their matter. The same me as both a wife and a mistress. thus habituating him to proper ways. from fear of being thought to use ointments on her head.^ and. does not even oil it. so that as Metrodorus used to say she may live * with him on pleasant terms and not in a temper because she is chaste '. So the lady of the house. is as bad as the woman who. Antipater required Phocion to perform an improper and c degrading action. than to be neat because she is is thrifty. to avoid seeming to rouge her face. I cannot serve you both as your friend and your toady. and their moral quality. 29. ought all the more to bring the graces of character and conduct into play in dealing with her husband. when a woman is staid When and strait-laced. should be wholesome and palatable. morals stands in special need of the graces in dealing with her 142 husband. but in a pleasurable manner. though otherwise a high type of man. A woman should no more forget to be amiable because she is — — faithful. Xenocrates being somewhat harsh in character. 28. is afraid to laugh and joke with her husband seeming bold and wanton. a wife shows herself strait-laced and rigidly austere. her husband must put the best face upon ' it. woman ' cannot behave to our reflection should be.104 like Advice to Married Couples the dryness of wine. Decorum in a woman rendered as disagreeable by harshness as frugality is by sluttishness. he answered. however. their treatment. We find that when poets and orators avoid appealing to the vulgar by bad taste and affectation in B respect of their diction.' In the same way.' ' The use of oil to soften the hair was practically universal. . Plato recommended him to Now I take it that a woman of strict sacrifice to the Graces.

A woman her husband should talk either . in putting on her mantle. to deprive them of gold-worked shoes. 32. but like the mind dealing with the body It is —sympathetic and desires. like a silence. to please and gratify objects are Compound by follows. meant women a symbol of to. they are a revelation of feelings. they do honour both to themselves and to him. should not be like an owner dealing with a chattel. but lowering his own. of. from d publicity. not only her forearm. possible to care for the with the sympathy of organic union. bangles. in representing the Elean Aphrodite with her to take it as foot upon a tortoise. Meanwhile it is only right that the husband.Advice to Married Couples loy no shoes. When rich or royal persons pay respect to a philosopher. will keep. as in a fleet philosophers as or army. But when a philosopher pays court to rich people. A ' ! beautiful forearm ' ! she retorted. Theano. 30. submission to their husbands they win govern them they demean themselves worse than the men so governed. Pheidias. purple. f . She will be as shy and cautious about her utterances to the outside world as if they were an exposure of her person. in controlling the wife. Upon some one ' * saying. once showed a glimpse of her arm. In some the parts are distinct. 31. In the case of most women. and disposition. she finds a more impressive utterance through another tongue than through her own. anklets. and pearls. is to make them stay indoors. But not for the public A well-conducted but her speech. by seeking By to regard . character. body without being a slave to its it is pleasures and possible to rule a wife her. home-keeping and or through the it if. classified and yet do things 34. By a national custom the Egyptian women wore so that they might keep at home all day. when she talks. he is not conferring e distinction upon them. woman inasmuch as. The same is the case with women. 33. medium nor should she resent player on the clarinet.

so that. 36. We may the same of marriage. With persons marrying. a trait of I no importance. on the day after marriage. as in a house or ship. because those sons are able to help them. and relations. as in all living creatures. B treatment to The its wife should understand this fact and apply cause. The latter refuses. When the Roman legislator forbade married couples to property. more disagreeable happens afterwards. the marriage for a dowry or for children ' is that of persons conjoined . is is This. there should be a mutual blending of bodies. but there wife's respect another which seen to incline mean. 35. In other? they form an organic unity. which is. because daughters need their help. but that they should look upon everything as joint presents. according to the scientists. is is to each other that both parties desire to be seen making much charming. friends. when the . means. to send to the bridegroom's mother to borrow a pot. she must avoid detaching or lessening his affection for his mother.10 (J Advice to Married Couples In some they are conjoined. for There is but one treatment for this state While winning the special affection of her husband herself. but not to live together. the mixture runs through the whole. of mind. The intention is that the bride may realize from the first the * step- mother ' attitude of her mother-in-law. The marriage of love is the ' organic unity . Maybe also it is out of compliment perhaps. Mothers appear to be more fond of their sons. and fathers of their daughters. that the mother is jealous of her son's affections. in the same way as. she may anything not be vexed if or irritated. saying she has none. who may be said to 143 dwell together. of that which is more akin to the other. ' when liquids are mixed. marriage without sharing the say ' ' much same couch is that of persons distinct '. At Leptis in Africa it is a traditional custom for the bride. exchange he did not mean that they should not impart to each other.

await them in silence . she soothes him by talking to him in a coaxing way. meet in love and in union. in the vexation of her throes. . Music is more properly called in to cure anger and grief than to encourage further abandon- ment on the part I of those who are taking their pleasure. c in case of anything troubling her. used to say to those who were which putting her to bed befell : 'How can this couch cure a trouble So quarrels. when he makes Hera say Ani When to their their tanked to strife will I loosen^ couch I bring them. The Greeks who accompanied Cyrus received the follow- If the enemy come shouting ing order from their commanders to the attack. she refers it to them and conceals it from her own people. it ? me upon ' 40. to sleep apart.' When a husband has his fits of anger. At all times and everywhere a wife should avoid offending the husband. and tempers which are begotten in the chamber are not easily got over in another place or at another time. a sensible wife keeps quiet . e 39. who is the best physician for such cases. Euripides is right in blaming those who have the lyre d played to them at their wine. f . is if he raises his voice. That is exactly the time to call in the Goddess of Love.Advice to Married Couples 107 rather to the husband's parents than to her own. when you are angry or fall out. and when. if they come in silence. the wife. In the story. if he silent. recriminations. 37. This is : practically the teaching of the poet. There appears to be a truth in Hermione's plea : ^Tis wicked women^s visits have undone me. 38. and a husband the wife. So would have you believe that it is a wrong principle to share the same bed for the sake of pleasure. If you are thought to to love. trust. but especially should they beware of doing so when together at night. and yet. you are trusted if you are thought ' : you are loved. charge to meet them with a shout.

at Sciron. So. And in what better place ' could I have wished to find you than where you are ? ^ So let a say to herself. before. grieves you. though he treated them well. keeping pure from unholy and unlawful intercourse with others. keep out of the way of slanderous whispers which add fuel to the lire. he observed. when he Aphrodite 'fair-fruited Cytherea '.'Married Couples This occurs in more than one way. calls ' A common punishment for a slave was to put liim to hard labour in turning the mill. but especially when connubial quarrels and jealousies offer to such women not only an open to door. the . badly ? when Well. and be ready to apply the io8 Advice well-known saying of Philip.' you ' 144 should retort. but an open ear. . in place of a horse or ass. than ' harbouring a grievance. Man and wife should therefore be especially scrupulous in this connexion. and what. therefore. at feud with my husband. the the second in the Rharian district Buzygian all festival is — and the third —^known as close to the Acropolis. and ' took refuge in a mill. The Athenians observe three sacred ploughings first . should a sensible woman shut her ears. And what. At such a time. More sacred than of these the connubial ploughing and sowing for the proIt is creation of children. if we treat them * Your husband the scandalizers say. in spite of all your affection and chastity. pray. and actually ' abandoning the house and the marriage-chamber ? B 42. they abused — him — ' ^he ' remarked. We are told that when his friends were trying to exasperate that monarch against the Greeks on the ground that. pray. When the slave was too quick. if I begin to hate and wrong him?' 41. me ? woman who is declaring for a divorce through jealousy And where would my rival be more glad to see And what would she be more pleased to see me doing. A man caught sight of a slave who had run away some time and gave chase. a happy expression of Sophocles. in memory of the oldest sowing of crops .

it is not asking too much for women to leave such things alone. and not harass . Here a man harmony. they go as mad and tear themselves to pieces. appears. inasmuch some men cannot bear to see scarlet or purple clothes. giving us advice about peace and c he has failed to harmonize three his maidservant. A man's house ought to be in tune before he offers to set in tune a state. and and For Gorgias. of the domestic. at When ' Olympia a discourse Gorgias the rhetorician once read to the Greeks upon peace and harmony. when in private people it life —himself. Of tigers it is said that. it is them. are ashamed of it and seek to conceal it. husbands should come to their wives pure and untainted by other bees. 43. since the animals in question are particularly infuriated by those colours. his wife jealous. or friends. it would have been a monstrous thing for men not to abstain from unguents. or. his dealings with other women unjust to cause such vexation and distress to a wife for the sake of a little pleasure. wives suffer so cruelly for the sake of a trifling gratificaNow since. 45. 44. The public is more likely to hear of offences against a wife than of offences committed by her.Advice to Married Couples 109 to grow. They say that the cat If it is driven frantic by the smell of women were provoked d out of their senses by the same means. a public meeting. if you beat drums all round them. intercourse. and some are irritated at cymbals and tambourines. just as they to would approach show disgust and hostility towards any one who are said who has been so engaged. On the contrary.' his wife. and forbearing to sow where they desire no crop if it does. Melanthius is exclaimed. though the husband's use of afflict unguents does not so do. Surely. People never dress in bright clothes when approaching e an elephant. nor in red when approaching a bull. had been the case that let their tion of their own. was enamoured. and to unguents. then.

decorum. is as bad as the man who bids his wife fight on against an enemy to whom he has himself surrendered. Let me go. And you. read and endeavour remember what Timoxena wrote to Aristylla. Eurydice. but practise quietude and consideration in their society. by listening to careful reasoning and demonstration in improving company and conversation. Plato used to recommend that respect should rather be paid by elderly men to the young. When Philip was once seizing ' upon a woman against her she said. therefore. Adorn your Carry it home in yourself. mules with decorated harness. rooms with painted walls. will. to As to love of display. 47. B matters. and horses with neck-trappings. so that the latter might behave modestly to them in return. since the nuptial chamber 145 to his wife than will prove to be her school of propriety or its opposite.no F 46. has the free run of the You are at the right age to cultivate philosophy. and natural affection should make themselves palpable. PoUianus. and show more respect to any one else.' the young acquire no modesty or scruple. must not expect your wife to refrain from showy extravagance. You cannot it banish extravagance from the women's quarters when men's. if she sees that you do not despise it in other but that you take a pleasure in cups with gilding. The husband who indulges himself in certain pleasures. Her person may not be visible. Gather valuable matter from every source. ' A husband should bear this in mind. said he.' While sensualists. while warning her against the same. Be like the bees. All women when are the same when you to adulterers is take away the light. Advice to Married Couples or exasperate their husbands. For. it is this applies well enough and particularly the light taken away that a wife should not be the same as any ordinary female. where old men are shameless. 48. chastity. character. do you. but her modesty. and share it with your wife by .

but the admiration of other ^ A frequent pretence of ancient witches. the daughter of Hegetor of Thessaly.^ she will laugh at the ignorance and silliness of women who believe such things will . and how she thereby cheated the it women into no believing that she was fetching down herself. you will not only be a joy to your husband. above all things do your best to keep touch with the sayings of wise and good men. and honoured mother. say. If they are not impregnated occurring with sound doctrines by sharing in the culture of their husbands. and have heard at which it must be caught in the shadow. e many an ill-advised As for you. When any one promises to fetch down the moon.Advice discussing it to Married Couples 1 1 1 familiar to her. for she will possess how Aglaonice. thou and teacher of the noblest and divinest keep a to It is studies of this kind that tend to woman from foolish practices. and making While all the best principles agreeable and c Thou unto her it is art father. when she is listening to those of Plato and Xenophon. no less a matter of pride to hear a wife lessons. how she knew beforehand the date a knowledge of astronomy. they will of their own accord conceive intention or irrational state of feeling. .' unto me art guide. though there are shapeless and fleshlike millstones which form themselves spon- — We must beware of this taneously from corrupted matter. Eurydice. philosopher. in women's minds. 'Husband. is She will be ashamed be dancing. and brother. We are told that woman ' produces a child without the participation of the growths —called ' man. and to have continually in your mouth those utterances which you learned by heart in my school when a girl. She will lend no ear to the incantations of sorcery. when she learning geometry. By so doing. thoroughly understood d eclipses of the full moon.

This rich woman's pearls. which the Muses bring as free gifts to will assuredly You those who prize culture and philosophy. for nothing and of Cornelia the daughter of Scipio. you can adorn distinction and dignity. of Cleobuline. . if you have a portion. But the ornaF ments of Theano. . name For no portion hast thou in the roses Pierian. 146 Sappho thought addressing a much of her skill as a lyrist that she wrote wealthy woman so — — When thou art dead^ thou shalt : lie with none to remember thy . . are not to be worn without paying a large price for them. when they yourself with so much no expense. of Gorgo the wife of Leonidas. have more occasion to think highly and of yourself. as it is distinguished. how. of Timoclea the sister of Theagenes. proudly but also in the fruits.112 Advice see to Married at Couples women. not only in the roses. you may wear and with this adornment your life may be as happy . that foreign lady's silks. of the Claudia of ancient history.

which sent south wind blowing down upon was thought. it is said that my ov^^n native town. and make it face inwards. we should reform and readjust them by to breathe. and more wholesome. since there are certain injurious and unhealthy states mind which chill and darken the soul. out of the district. For others* faults.CONCERNING BUSYBODIES If a house is stuffy. For instance. which used to face the west and receive the full force of the afternoon sun from Parnassus. it would be best them to make a clean sweep to the foundations. once blocked a destructive up it and pestilential the plains.c proved by such rearrangement. mountain gorge. Even cities have sometimes been im. to get rid of — turning them some other way about. the natural philosopher. shift the stairs. and pure air d If not. light. you will find plenty to occupy you at home. dark. or it. it is perhaps 515 long association makes you fond alter the lights. open if there. best to get out of of the place. he shut the plague a of Well. 546-19 H . was turned by Chairon so as to front the east. By this means. a disease tainted —we may believe—with both envy and malice. a love of prying into other people's troubles. fresher. fVhy so sharp-eyed^ my most malignant Sir. If you are so fond of the business of inquiring into defects. and give ourselves the benefit of a clear sky. and so make it brighter. yet overlook your own ? Pray turn your pryingness the other way about. chilly. Empedocles. We may take the vice of the busybody It is as an instance in point. a door here But you may and close one unhealthy.

? neglected ? What deed have I done? What duty it is. the living-rooms of the servants. instead of a useless and malicious. Outside. another from meanness. faults for These are the Block up the windows F and alleys of your inquisitiveness on the side towards your neighbours. In your own case you have one stock of faults arising from envy. we are all of us like the Lamia in the fable. of whom 516 we are told that at home she is asleep and blind. While censoriously reproving their shortcomings and showing them what they ought to avoid or amend. because we provide ourselves with no light or vision to perceive them. — the male quarters. and in dealing with others. the female quarters. he is so taken up with faults outside that he overlooks most of those at home. a good householder has a special place for the utensils of sacrifice. of which we are unaware. another from cowardice. with her eyes stowed away in a jar. agricultural implements are stored in one room.114 * Concerning Busybodies as haves on the oak or the water that rolls from Alizon Abundant will you find the errors in your conduct. and a special place for those of the table . B his Odysseus refused even to talk to his mother. we furnish our malice with an eye in the shape of our meddlesomeness. kind. the disorders in your heart and mind. It follows that the busybody is a better friend to his enemies than to himself. and the lapses in your duty. E According to Xenophon. if each one will say to himself : How As have I err^d. weapons of war in another. and open others which look into your own house you to inspect and examine. Our busy curiosity will find occupation of a profitable and salutary. but that when she comes abroad she puts them in andean see. until he had got answer from the seer concerning the business which had . but we are continually being tripped up by our own misdeeds and vices. another from jealousy.

to whom their But there are some spectacle. When he had received the information.Concerning Busybodies 1 1 y brought him to Hades. and cannot pay the interest. and goes prowling round other men's concerns. all manner it what lies within. Socrates. away from home.' We also make it our business to inquire about such matters as his and where So-and-So got his wife from. when he met Ischomachus carry conviction ? at Olympia. While treating our own concerns with the greatest ignorance. and slaked his thirst with draughts from the fountain-head. he turned to her. one barley-grain in a dunghill. own life is a most distressing d Their soul is so fraught with and who therefore cannot bear to look at it nor to reflect of vices. will slink into a corner and scratch Whereso appeareth. darts It often happens that its a domestic fowl. more than seven hundred pounds. studying the man. asking who Tyro was. shuddering with horror at the light of reason upon themselves. though there is plenty of food lying at disposal. of which the aim was to recognize one's own vices and get rid of them. In the end he set sail for Athens. proceeded to ask by what kind of conversation Socrates affected the Athenians as he did. and the beautiful Chloris. mayhap. where it lets its malice batten and grow fat. he was so moved that he suffered a physical collapse. H 2 . Tying a sheer-hung noose from the height of Not so we. that. and neglect. indifference. When he had gleaned a few seeds or samples of his talk. his discourses and his philosophy. and also began to put questions to the other women. and became quite pale and thin. and why Epicaste met her death by the lofty roof-tree. went about inquiring. and what private talk was that between A and B in the corner. we begin discussing other people's pedigrees a Syrian — how our neighbour's grandfather ' was So-and-So owes grandmother a Thracian. *By what arguments did Pythagoras ' So Aristippus. on the other c hand.

ii6 It is Concerning Busy bodies much the same with the busybody. Ignoring the topics and questions which are open to all. ' is why in a wrapper.' And why. ' That. pray.' said he. her dances. in the courts of kings and the chambers of the newly-wed. prying and sneaking into 517 her bacchic revels. E he goes picking out of every house the troubles which it is endeavouring to bury out of sight. are a thing which is undesirable. and business of . about you had not been something so inquisitive It is not usual to walk into another man's house without knocking at the door. and which no one prevents him from asking about or is annoyed with him if he does ask. But these are exactly the things which the busybody steals in to see. * 'The winds which vex us most. As Cleon in the comedy had His hands in Askthorpe and his thoughts in TheftoUt 80 the busybody's thoughts are at one and the same time in the houses of the rich and the hovels of the poor. and makes his way like a piercing wind through the maiden of tender skin '. or the handmaids screaming. But surely it was a neat answer which the Egyptian made to the man who asked him what he was carrying it is in that wrapper. but our walls he spreads . At a staid and quiet household he would have no pleasure in looking. and the street-door owe if their existence. and her all-night festivals. His object is to uncover and make public those things to which keys.' But the busybody strips not only our mantles and tunics. even he were invited. bolts. or come upon a slave receiving punishment. ' our doors wide open. are those off which pull up our cloaks. there being concealed ? If it would have been no concealment. Nowadays there are doorkeepers formerly knockers — were beaten upon the doors in order to give warning —the inten- tion being that the stranger shall not surprise the lady of the F house or her daughter in the open. He searches into everybody's business —business of strangers.' saysAriston.

If any one is not satisfied with the beams which the sun lavishes 30 abundantly upon unabashed at the orb the result is all. where he and as if whence he rises. pomps and if a king has any secret. Inquire into the changes of the moon. . unsmiling. or suspicious of his son. and. So those who pry into the troubles of the b great destroy themselves before discovering what they seek. or sea. keep away from joy it and leave it alone. What can I give you of mine ? to reply. but your secrets. and that means that he has been storing up anger. itself but audaciously insists upon gazing and probing the light to its heart. Sire. things. as then. air. A when prosperous. time for alarm. It was therefore wise of Philippides. wealth. earth. are inquisitiveness far as — as we to escape we have said If —the to this vice ? other possible. a When he hides it is thing. Anything. How. when King Lysimachus once asked him. pry into connected with sky. he would find that he had 117 If one were as to its to take a taste of aconite because he was inquisitive properties. or that he is sullenly meditating a severe or that he is punishment jealous of his wife. You ask are by nature fond If at big sets of looking either at little things or at big things. killed the learner before he got his lesson.potentates. directing our minds to By turning our way round. festering . nor his laughter king does not conceal his c when jocose. unapproachable. when he It it is . nor his intention to do a kindness or confer a boon. run from that cloud possibly miss the is now a secret which is gathering so black ! You cannot thunder and lightning. apply your curiosity to the sun . or distrustful of a friend. Concerning Busybodies Nor is his search without danger. is glum. you are pry.' The finest and most pleasant aspects of royalty are ' those displayed outwardly — its shows. blindness. the ' ' comic poet. Run. But banquets. graces and favours. when the matter which bursts out in storm. better and more questions d interesting objects.

like Why. men and assaults spurnings-off of seductions of women. For there it will find life. but at another have squandered their abundance left all at once. bare and beggared. do some plants produce elongated fruits. are secrets E —the secrets of Nature . but Nature has no grievance against those who find them out. beauteous. Well. -passes into and naught again. like a maggot among dead matter. and are again. These. slanderings of friends. she first comes forth and makes Her young face And. and supply it with bad things is ness absolutely in abundance and without Fallings of stint. Take your fill. proudly displaying their wealth at every season. however. if inquisitivemust be always browsing and passing its time among things sordid. enjoy yourself. Ask how it is that some plants are always flourishing and green. while others are at one moment as good as these. concoctions of poisons. some round and globelike ? But perhaps you will have no curiosity for such concerns. and cause no annoyance or pain to any of those with whom you come in contact. Concerning Busybodies human being. Are the big things beyond you ? Then pry into the smaller ones. some angular. inquisitiveness finds no pleasure in scandals which are stale . some human spendthrift. F because there nothing wrong about them. gathering to the full. when Fades out.1 1 8 she were a light. let us introduce it to history and story. And 518 while enjoys the spectacle of a novel tragedy. it takes no sort of interest in the comedy or more cheerful side of life. or a complimentary . overthrows of rulers. envies. Ask where she loses and whence she gets it back how . it wants them hot and fresh. by slaves. shipwrecks of homes. jealousies. Conseit quently the busybody lends but to the account of a wedding. a a careless and indifferent ear sacrifice. too. her greatest splendours she hath shown. so much of her Once dim. Apparently.

' To ' vary the figure gates. He says he has already heard most of the and urges the narrator to cut them short or omit them. is reach the ear of ! man flesh happy As a cupping-glass sucks from the itself what b worst in it. to the busybody. the disease from which he malignant gloating is —own brother good .Concerning Busybodies * 119 details. the one all Muse and pleasant of music to is his ear. so the inquisitive ear draws to : the most undesirable topics. Siren of the busybody. malignity is harm and the parent of both pleasure at the d ill-nature — feeling of a savage or a brute beast. while nothing sacred or undefiled goes in or out through them. the busybody suffers is troubles that is eager to discover. and proffers his ears to receive them. but More words still As applied doth he ask. there is no sleepiness or hurry about him. No That is chance brings other minstrel to my roof. he will pretend to . the most For his vice is a love of finding out whatever thing secret when he has one and concealed. and no one conceals a good on the contrary. Since therefore it is one which has no existence. cities have certain through which they take out criminals on their way to death and throw the refuse and Accursed or ' * Dismal offscourings of purification. to envy and is spite. c But always Lamentation. So with the ears of the busybody. the to words How much more aft An ill thing than a are a true saying. farewell '. with their load of foul and polluted gossip. but serve only the pathway of gruesome communications. But if any one will sit by him and tell him the news about the corruption of a girl or the unfaithfulness of a wife or an impending action at law or a quarrel between brothers. . They as give passage to nothing fine or useful. For envy another's pain at another's .

We are annoyed and indignant with the collector of customs. every one would have scouted such a person. the busybody lets his own concerns go to ruin. and he is the the other hand. too lonely. he has a keener eye for his neighbour's vines than for his own. On after a time. Says he Then^ while he digs. but merely of disclosing he deserves the hatred he gets. loser if Yet the law permits him to do so. a and asking whether man had a fistula or a woman cancer in the womb ! Inquisi- E may. He rarely takes a walk to the farm . None the less. save a life. he ransacks among baggage and merchandise which are not in F question. but when. or how much is of his wine turned sour. He proceeds to ask how many off of his neighbour's cattle have died.Concerning Busy So painful do we all find it to have our troubles revealed. the treaty. in the search for hidden goods. and he cannot bear the quiet and silence. ailments and. After a good meal of such news he quickly and away. round and poke his nose in things like that ! 0' ' These were farmed. or even worse. since he does not by way of curing them. : Your true and genuine type of farmer has no desire to hear even the news which finds its own way from the city. Yet our busybody . or Asclepius he was a mortal man calling from house to — house with a drugs and his instruments. And if. I presume. I20 bodies himself —^when his Imagine Herophilus or Erasistratus.^ so not when he picks out and levies on those articles which we import openly. heHl tell 519 The terms Go He must now. it is true. he does chance along. searches out precisely these. confound him. while he is occupying himself with those of other people. that there are many who would rather die than tell a physician of a secret disease. them. for coming to investigate other people's ailments without tiveness in their profession waiting till he was required and sent for. . it is he does not.

while inquisitiveness is the illicit denuding and corrupting of a secret. ' Is there any news ? ' * ? Why. the Market. . is But if some one meets him and What ? nothing fresh. news ' after being ? magistrates therefore did right in fining any one ' out of town. supply of calamities. down his horse. besides its other drawbacks. Is there any As the butchers pray for a good supply of animals. adultery being a sort of inquisitiveness into c another's pleasure. grasps the he gets from there ' man's hand.Concerning Busy bodies 121 But to your busybody country life is a stale and uninteresting thing with nothing to fuss about. they delight take pains to gather hearers. for plenty of troubles. and says : stands there listening. and pushes into the Exchange. came up and asked. and a prying search into matters protected from the general eye. he exclaims. and therefore Pythagoras enjoined upon the young a five years' silence. any one has a piece of news to tell. so busybodies pray for a good changes. about what they from others. While a natural consequence of much ' learning is having much to say. What the curious delight to hear. or the Harbour. and fishermen for a good supply of fish.Room Italy?' And haven't you met the new arrivals from b The Locrian who. ? imagine there has been a revolution in three however. He therefore flees from it. as if ? kisses him. they D joy in giving out to new It follows that. who forbade the lampooning of citizens on the stage. their disease actually stands in the way of its . with the exception of adulterers and busybodies. weren't you at market early this morning hours ' Do you If. The one class bears a resemblance to the other. the necessary concomitant of curiosity is speaking to talk evil. for novelties and They must always have their fish to catch or carcass to cut up. which he called Truce to Speech '. Another good rule was that of the legislator of Thurii. Haven't you been at market ? he were annoyed Haven't you been near the Board.

box always empty. would not broach it. and discredit always. therefore. or seals to a slave or a stranger than to an inquisitive relation or friend. if one were to open the store-room of inquisitiveness after an interval. Bellerophon. and incurring danger often. is when a secret matter is in the doing. he found the fee-box always full and the thanksSo. Well. towards. Often. People put off looking. papers. the busybody will find 520 listening to slaves nothing so helpful as to think over the discoveries he has hitherto made. Simonides used to say that. He passes by much that is admirable to see and hear. and womenfolk whispering together. and such persons are out of the way. hands off the king's letter as in keeping them off Yes. Concerning Busy bodies is For every one is on his guard to hide things from reluctant to do anything when the busybody is or to say anything when he is listening. as they would a piece of victuals when the cat comes past. To pass by so many women who are public property. in opening his boxes after a lapse of time. he is the only person not permitted to hear or see find no what others may see and hear. one to trust We would rather trust our letters. For the same reason the busybody can him. a busybody E appears upon the scene. to dig into another man's poor little letter or clap his ear to his neighbour's wall. inquisitiveness is as incontinent as adultery. a consultation and postpone the consideration of business until them. who is expensive. or an important action If. and to contemplate all the .122 own desires. though the writing which he carried was about himself. and to struggle to get at one F who is kept under lock and key. if he wishes to get rid of his vice. and perhaps ugly to boot. many an excellent discourse or discussion. is the very height of insanity. The busybody is just as bad. they take it away and hide it. and not only incontinent. but showed the same continence in keeping his his wife. but terribly silly and foolish.

he would probably become sick of the business. and uninviting things with which it is filled. disturbances and delinquencies in their homes. solecisms b in the tragedians. till and the c — — mens with no calves to their legs. blots on their pedigree. the indecent and licentious language to book full of women by which Does he not deserve the execration Archilochus makes a sorry show of himself. The most effective way. examining specisolecisms. or ostrich-heads. they will soon become surfeited and sick of it all.bo dies Concerning Busy 123 useless. is not from lines of poetry. filled with other men's faults. and which he called Knaveborough. three eyes. Philip founded with the rudest riff-raff. but who haunt the monster-market. futile. of preventing this weakness is to form a habit — to begin at an early stage and train ourselves . or with weasel-elbows. thou ficker-up of miseries I Execration apart. or failing these the handsome children or women on sale. Commingled shape and misformed Yet you keep on showing them such sights. but that he goes gleaning and gathering blunders and the dullest and dreariest record-box. It is like the town which possesses neither beauty nor use. With the busybody. At Rome there are those who set no store by the paintings. will do well to remind themselves how thankless d and unprofitable their previous discoveries have proved. it from slips lives. and looking out for the appearance of any -prodigy. compiling and keeping a ' such things as headless * lines of Homer. however. in the tragedy : Perish. so nauseating and senseless would it appear. however. the statues. In the same way those who if make it their business to pry into other people's failures in their affairs. memory which he carries about is crammed with ugly things. Suppose a person to run over the works of our old writers and pick out their faultiest passages. his treasury.

doubt it seems it the reading of them does you no harm but harm you does. without your ducing a habit of inquiring into things knowing it. Similarly 521J walks. So-and-So described as the best of friends and much mere twaddle of the same as if kind. or from letting our inquisitive . habit that the vice increases. the tendency of an inquisitive person to I run off the track and wander after everything that he can \ see or hear. In the next place let us train ourselves. How this is. a Let us make beginning with comparatively trifling and insignificant matters. or in diverting to useful ends. s ing the inscriptions Nor in the promenades can there be any hardship in refusing to let the eye linger upon the writings on the walls. and refrain from wasting or blunting it upon objects of no value. Hunters do not permit young hounds to turn aside and F follow up every scent. to refrain from looking in.124 Concerning Busy bodies It is by systematically to acquire the necessary self-control. let us treat the inquiring spirit as the keen edge to our love of j / I learning. so as to keep their power of smell in perfectly clean condition for their proper work. The same 1 watchfulness must be shown in suppressing. by inwhich do not concern you. T On the roads it can be no difficult matter to abstain from readon the tombs. There is A expressing his ' ' kind sentiments ' . the advance of the disease being gradual. we shall see. You have only to tell yourself that they contain nothing useful or entertaining. and make it stick more keenly to the tracks : With nostril a-search its for the trail that the least gives forth from ( body. when passing another's door. An eagle or a lion gathers its talons in when it so as not to wear the sharp edge from their tips. but pull them sharply back with the leash. No . in discussing the proper method of practice. ' towards B .

It should c not go gadding about like some ill-trained maidservant . Xenocrates said and we shall do well to keep the remark in mind that whether we set foot or set eyes in another man's house makes no difference. This furtive throwing of sidelong is a saying which is — glances. when they once develop Inquisitive people. it runs away. the case is as in Thereon the Aenean driver'' s hard-mouthed colts Break from control. or servant-girls sitting about. which ugly. When the faculty of vision has not been tutored and trained in the proper manner as above described. unfair and improper . but when the mind sends it upon an errand. generally true of what we see inside a litter of pots and pans. — — See how a bit of a girl gets the neck-grip on our great athlete ' ! be seen gripped by the neck and twisted about by any kind of sight. it should make haste to reach its destination. — — Not only is such prying from the spectacle. stranger. Instead of this. deliver its quietly home again to wait upon the commands Sophocles : message. and then come of the reason. we get no pleasure Unsightly. ' glances in her direction. When the Olym- pian victor Dioxippus was making a triumphal entry in a chariot. drags d the mind with it. but nothing of b any importance or interest. and often brings it into disastrous collisions. story that Democritus deliberately destroyed his sight by fixing his eyes upon a red-hot mirror and allowing its heat There is a .Concerning Busybodies gaze clutch at what is 125* passing inside. Diogenes but kept turning half round and throwing side ^who saw it all remarked. This is assuredly no right use of the faculty of vision. are the sights within. however. is and the habit demoralizing. are to a habit of squandering their glances in all directions. at the same time gives is a kind of squint to the mind. and could not drag his eyes from a beautiful woman among the spectators.

If I took your advice and went to see : her. Though the story nothing make most use Note how our E of their more true than that those who mind make few calls upon the senses. . There is no advantage to be got from mixing yourself with busybodies. is When to a certain spot. Cyrus refused to see Panthea.126 to be focussed Concerning Busy bodies upon them. all Socrates used to urge the avoidance of foods and drinks which tempt one to eat when he is not hungry or to drink when he is not thirsty. it is said. ' halls of learning are built far and how night has been styled the well-minded '. We may now go a step further. was to block up the windows toward the street. It is good practice. to take no notice. It requires no great effort of selfa crowd is running towards remain seated. there is a roar in the race-ground or the circus. from a belief that quiet and the absence of distraction are a powerful aid to intellectual discovery and research. whereas you will derive great benefit from putting denial to keep at a distance. to decline when the . that people are quarrelling and abusing each other in the market-place. she might perhaps tempt me to be visiting her again when . it easy for you a forcible check F upon your curiosity and training it to obey commands of the reason. though they are no business of ours. and when Araspes talked of her * All the more reason for 522 remarkable beauty. and thus prevent the disturbance of his intellect by repeated calls from outside. and tax ourselves more severely. their attractions prove too much for us. his answer was keeping away from her. when. out from the towns. to get up and go away. Suppose. again. In the same way we shall do well to shun carefully all appeals to eye or ear. or else. His object. enabling it to stay at is home and devote a fiction. itself to is pure thinking. to pass it by when our friends invite us to a performance by a dancer or comedian. when a successful entertainment is going on in a public hall. if you lack the necessary strength of mind.

put the matter off . with the throne for dowry. and the old man cries I stand on the dread brink of sfeech ! he is nevertheless in such a blaze or spasm of passion that he : replies And I of hearing . . the secret. began his search once more. Remember how Oedipus was brought into the direst disasters by over-curiosity. but an alien. and in the most peremptory way. Finding he was no Corinthian. Endeavour occasionally to When miss hearing or seeing things which concern yourself. Though he visited the mother an elderly woman he would not bring himself to see her young — — litters and beautiful daughter. and to be sitting and looking at her to the neglect of much important business. and so he met with Laius. when circum: stances are already bringing ! him to suspect. temptation from another's. something happens at home. and so accustom yourself to keep aloof from dishonest ones. He killed him. who was said to be strikingly handsome.Concerning Busy bodies I 127 could not spare the time. man who was in Alas And at last. But what we do is to peep into women's and hang about their windows. The him question the old endeavours of his wife to prevent him only made still more closely. refuse to hear them. while apparently blessed by fortune. you should sometimes hold aloof Apply this habit to inquisitiveness. Note how you may justice train yourself for other virtues. and so secure yourself against learn continence. To learn you should sometimes forgo an honest gain. he set to work c to discover who he was. and yet hear I must. finding nothing improper in encouraging our curiosity and allowing it such dangerous b and unchecked play. to from your own wife.' In the same way- Alexander refused to set eyes on Darius' wife. and then. and a person wishes to tell you of it. Similarly. married his own mother. and when things have been said which appear to affect yourself.

If a letter is that hurry and eagerness brought to open it which most people display. Meanwhile if we are free from that malady. we must not run to meet him. he refused to do. But when one feeds material until he makes his it inquisitiveness upon permissible robust and headstrong. nor get up from our seats.' let us reply ' ' : if you have something useful or profitable. train ourselves to this end. when they bite the fastenings through with their teeth. is — the excitement of curiosity the tickling of a wound. nor would he open it. how wise art thou I We must therefore to us. all we must not show When a messenger arrives from somewhere or other. which it is an impiety to see.' lecturing at Rome. at which one tears till he makes it bleed. the famous Rusticus —who When I was once was afterwards put to death by Domitian out of jealousy at his reputation was among my hearers. — and I made a pause. friends' missives. he no longer F finds it to master. There was a hush. Concerning Biisybodies so uncontrollable. The incident caused universal admiration at his dignified behaviour. to allow of his reading the letter. however. if their hands are too slow. is nothing that makes ears ' him ' compelled to know everything so detested as the crew known Listeners ' — and jackals were first instituted . If a friend E says. a king. and pry into the doings and sayings of Now with there as his is ' a despot ' —'who '. when force of habit urges it towards easy Such persons will stealthily open their forbidden ground. we shall ignore a disagreeable thing and say : Sovran Oblivion. and mild like by nature. will tread will in hallowed places. This. will will get a view of rites push their way into a confidential meeting. until I had finished my discourse and the audience broke up. I have something new to tell Better. A soldier came through the audience and handed him a note from the emperor. you.128 D So bitter-sweet.

Concerning Busybodies ' 129 by Darius the Younger. when the revolution came. Jackals were 523 the creation of the Dionysii. It was in the same way. these were the first to be seized and cudgelled to death by the Syracusans. instead of bringing stock. people of Syracuse. mills. But. and when those who first were in possession of wheat. those who gave information {fhainein) and impeached the offenders were called sukophantai. who it in to the public night in their houses. It is said that the outcast derived his name of aliterios in the It appears that when instance from being a busybody. they are members of the family. we are told. a severe famine once occurred at Athens. by went round watching for the noise of the b were in consequence called aliterioi. The export of figs {suka) being prohibited. who distributed them among the Naturally. whereas the informer looks to see mischief. who had no confidence in himself and ' looked upon every one with fear and suspicion. the if his neighbours have done or plotted any busybody brings to book and drags into public even the misfortunes for which they are not responsible. Blackmailers and informers are a breed belonging to the Busybody clan . that the informer won his name of sukofhantes. Busybodies would do well to reflect upon this fact. their It may make them ashamed of the family likeness between own practices and those of a class which is a special object of loathing and anger 646*19 . used to grind it {akin) secretly certain persons.

he does for a moment. The remedy is reason. while others K retain what is said. the first trouble with an inability to keep silent . for philosophy undertakes to cure garrulity it has a difficult in hand. the loquacious person lets it all leak away. but to his tongue.ON GARRULOUSNESS 502 B When and intractable case c does not listen. Euripides is. —or D not rather poured over them. he immediately makes up for it several times over. The passage through the babbler's ears leads. There is a colonnade at Olympia which reverberates a single utterance time after time. . It is the deliberate deafness of a person who appears to find fault with nature for giving him two ears and only one tongue. it means an inability to listen. apparently. and immediately dins you with its echoes : Stirring the strings 0' the mind that none should stir. Q)nsequently. For even listen if. since he talks though you do listen. and refuses to listen when you talk. thanks to some ebb in his loquacity. gnd ^oes about like a vessel full of noise but void of sense. But there is more reason to say of the babbler : / cannot Jill a man who takes not in My wise wordsj poured and poured in unwise ears. : of course. Say but the least thing to set garrulity sounding. which requires that the patient should listen. and is therefore known as the Seven' Voiced it '. But the garrulous person Herein lies he is always talking. not to his mind. right when he says of the unintelligent hearer / cannot Jill a man who cannot hold My wise words^ poured and foured in unwise ears.

and slapping you in the ribs. they catch sight of him approaching. when they are sitting in a lounge or taking a walk together. and foremost. For the same reason he finds no welcome from neighbours at a dinner or from messmates on a journey or a voyage. when the North wind blows the headland that juts to the deep. When the latter was himself once worried b a by a chatterer. result can hardly happen. first in silence many a virtue lies. they promptly pass each other the word to shift camp. If. But with the babbler that desires listeners. When a silence occurs at some meeting. is the prospect of being tossed and seasick so distressing that up they get and out they go.On Garrulousness Nevertheless. : the babbler : Hush^ boy and. for 503 fear of giving him an opportunity. then As By ere the storm. when a chatterer comes in to a wine-party or a social circle. Similarly. Then are your feet most as precious. They merely tolerate him because they must. and makes a miserable failure of the very thing he is aiming at. The garrulous person can get the benefit of neither. love at least a chance of gaining the object — pursued. And if he begins of his own accord to open his lips. let us say to if 131 we are resolved to leave no stone unturned. who bored him with z number of silly stories 2 . love of glory. but that wise man Aristotle. everybody grows mum. For he sticks to you and everywhere. f get. for they What he all and listeners he cannot run headlong away. upon the scene. the two virtues of hearing and being heard. it is said that Hermes has appeared. seizing you by the clothes or the anywhere beard. Archilochus would say— and not only Archilochus. In other mental maladies of pleasure —there is is ^love of money.

Not at all . For as wheat. and yet to possess a mouth without lock or door. if it obey orders and pull itself together inside when reason ' tightens the silence-zvorking reins till '. who.' To he after a great deal of talk. but of an unchained mouth To recognize that a storea fastening. into relation with a«7^ brought. that such a person meets with no belief. so. The ' phrase of Euripides that disaster is the end ' not of an unchained '. A babbler's talk is as barren of effect is as the seed of a person over-prone to sexualities said to be. though all speech has that object. when another person of the kind. Aristotle ' ? he retorted. is to set the lowest possible value is The result A when he tells the truth. at that. treasury or store- room. no part of us which Nature has fenced with In front of that organ will not has planted a guard in the shape of the teeth. Sea. I was not Precisely so. If a chatterer insists on talking. credibility is it generates a large addition of falsehood and ^ thereby corrupted. opening c and reading to itself a book of quite different thoughts. . ' Master.' replied.132 and kept repeating. the mind surrenders the ears to him and lets the stream pour over them on the outside. a story finds its when way its into a chatterer. is of room without a door.' my chatter. is (' The Homeric aiydKocvra ('glossy ') a deliberate pun. And it yet there is so excellent a barricade as the tongue. It follows that he can get no hearer either to attend to him or to believe him. its final cause being to create precisely chatterer is disbelieved even such credence in the hearer. remarked. either in error or by silence '). but at any one tolerating you. when shut in a bin. I have wearied * he owns a pair of legs. you with listening. is found to increase in bulk but to deteriorate in quality. The wonder is not ' On Garrulousness ' Isn't it wonderful. but with as perpetual an outflow as the mouth of the D Black on speech. so that. or a purse without no use to the owner. while inwardly it goes its own way.^ we may check ' its rashness is by biting ' it it ' bleeds.

Zeno said once entertaining envoys from for him to get together At this the visitors. laughing. and dancing there would be. he made every effort to gratify them. but more culpable.'' Hence when silent Bias once kept stupidity. drunkenness lives in the same house. While the rest took part in general discussion. Yet — — f And he letteth slif some sfeech.On Garrulousness Again. as being in a measure voluntary. asked him. silent at a carousal. of shorter duration. it is true. pledging him in friendly and nothing. is that there is one old man at Athens who capable of holding his tongue * when drinking. nothing very terrible. to which each contributed his quota. and. pray. if he were a fool ? A certain person at Athens was 504 a king. till he It loosens him that he laughs with a feeble laughter^ and danceth. courteous terms. that is the which were better unspoken : — We as where the mischief and danger begin. so far. e — — Or rather it is madness. indeed. What is in the sober dling.' . and a chatterer taunted him with over he retorted ' : And. Zeno ' ' ' ? Merely. ' man's heart is on the drunken man's tongue. 133 any self-respecting and well-behaved person will beware of drunkenness. who could keep ' his wine. believe that these lines of the poet give the solution of the question discussed in the philosophic schools to the distinction between mellowness and intoxication : mellowness produces unbending. seriously urged against drunkenness is its But the charge most intemperate and irre- sponsible language : For though right shrewd he a man^ wine eggs him on singeth . 'And what are we to say to the king about you. but drunkenness foolish twadAs the proverb-makers put it.' replied he. as they were eager the philosophic teachers. if this were the worst singing. For while as some put it anger lives next door to madness. may.

Lysias once gave a litigant a speech which he had composed him. but on taking it up a second and third time. on the other hand. is not for drinking. than the disease as your shipmate. and therefore loquacity. will be talking. On the contrary. the tactlessness of his talk spoils and nullifies anything acceptable in what he may do. As your doctor. in endeavouring to soothe him. in the theatre. But those are not our feelings towards the twaddler. Nestor. when c Ajax is beginning to use rough language. when he first went through the speech. After reading it several times the man came back. means folly and witlessness. the when walking. man talks nonsense at his wine. goes with depth. for In a despondent tone he told Lysias that. it appeared wonderfully good. says politely : / blamg thee not . . for though thy words are wrongs Thine acts are right. when he is a greater infliction by day and by night. ' isn't it only once D that you have to speak it before the jury ? For he persuasive and charming Lysias is ! And is consider how another who Hath goodly fortion^ I trozu. Well. Well. for it fact. In Sophocles. Drunkenness.134 ^^ Garrulousness Silence. while the drunken babbler talks it everywhere tipsy. more disagreeable than the sea-sickness his praises are more annoying than another person's blame. Of Of all the Muses violet-tress' d. the capacity to keep a secret. B and sobriety. the foolish talk that converts mellowness into drunkenness. he found ' it extremely weak and * ineffective. —in the market-place. then. is things that are said about the great bard the truest . A tactful rogue is more pleasant company than an honest chatterer. one can drink and yet at the same time hold is It his tongue. ' In stlh the philosophic definition of intoxication calls it talk in one's if cup \ The blame. therefore.' said Lysias laughing. .

It is derided for what everybody knows it is news . exclaiming always new. since he Nevertheless. while talk plays the most pleasant and those who part in our intercourse. be the first thing of which we remind them. hated for bearing bad endangered through blabbing secrets. only makes them a nuisance and wins them ridicule and dislike. lead us into offensive and wanton behaviour. bore us to death with their our ears were palimpsests for them to scrawl rubbish upon. on his own account in the words of * Odysseus But to me it is hateful 'tis told To uU o*er a story again. Let It is this. He believed —quite rightly— . then. make a wrong and rash use of it render it inhuman human and insufferable. e with talking as it is with wine. he was seen to be holding his right hand over his mouth. as satiety by his constant freshness. This is the 505 it is reason why. carrying his hearers from one story to another. on the contrary. is to drinking . when once right plainly yoUy he is continually avoiding that tendency to surfeit which threatens talk of every kind. The means by which they imagine they are ingratiating themselves and gaining admiration and friendship. if repetitions. and relieving their Our babblers. The purpose of wine is to but to insist upon our create pleasure and friendly feeling it in great quantities and without qualifying it. when Anacharsis went to sleep after being entertained at dinner at Solon's house. and his charm always at its height. How destitute of charm would be a person who alienated his company and drove them away with the very girdle of And how destitute of culture and tact is the man f charm ' ! ' who arouses annoyance and hostility infirmities Other by means of speech and disorders may be dangerous or detestable ! or ridiculous.On Garrulousness this 135* —that Homer is : alone manages never to cloy the appetite. . relating Garrulity is all three at once. So.

as cities and dominions which have been brought to destruction by the divulgence of a secret. for instance.1^6 It On Garrulousness member. to the effect that no watch was kept upon the Heptachalcon and that the town was heard by in danger of capture at that point. our friend came up close and whispered to him. sprinkled o'er with barley-meal. who gave information to Sulla and he promptly brought up his forces at midnight. they brought a ' that ' very light a very heavy penalty phrase of Plato thing. and the Marian party B being again masters of Rome. As he was bewailing his fate. difficult. ^ince other labour was urging. — upon them' * for one man that prevented freedom by the removal of Nero. the talkativeness of its Rome from that the his man who was to way to the theatre. It was. They were . When Sulla was besieging Athens. their words. to that the tongue requires a firmer control than any other persons ruined by sensuality. —to number use of similar scurrilities. led in his army. he could not afford would be count up as many who have been to spend much time upon it. and only a single night was It happened. words than to their deeds. however. due more to their walls. over- spies. left before the despot was to perish. saw a prisoner at the palace doors perform the assassination. when on on the ' point of being brought before Nero. It happened. Mithridates having seized upon Asia. and almost razed the city to the ground. good My D man. A and a selves mulberry Sulla. His anger with the Athenians was. again. filling it with carnage till the Cerameicus flowed with blood. and to-morrow you will . that a number of old men were talking at a barber's. however. obtaining All preparations had been made. only pray that to-day may pass. however. They would c leap and by jeering on to the at him with is and abuse him and Metella.

which was mistress of — all a woman could do. For she ' also was inspired with the bacchic frenzy of that glorious bowl of love '. after they had failed and met their death. chose the surer rather than the more righteous himself. kept silent. way of saving That and is used. The man he informed Nero of the expression was thereupon promptly seized. bit through tongue and spat it out at the despot. and underwent to say. that holds. what he had betrayed without any constraint. but gods to teach us how to . No uttered word has ever done such service as many which have been unuttered. mankind to teach us how to speak. Leaena. for fear that bodily suffering might him to reveal some secret in spite of himself. that courageous animal representing her indomitable firmness. I take it. and reflecting. Well. has been gloriously rewarded for her self-command. and has run abroad. She was the e Harmodius and Aristogeiton.On Gatrulousness be offering me thanks. in the face of constraint. to who forgoes what he pursue what is out of his keeting. The force his philosopher Zeno. and the God had caused her also to be initiated into the secret.* the hint. there was nothing unworthy of themselves. and set up in the gates of the Acropolis. She refused. 'TiV ajool 137 The I prisoner grasped the meaning of suppose. in the love of those heroes for such a woman. The Athenians therefore had a bronze lioness it made without a tongue. and the firmness with which she bore her sufferings f proved that. we have . rack. fire. Hence. and the absence of a tongue her power of silence in keeping a solemn secret. again. she was put to the question and ordered to inform against those who still escaped detection. You may some day utter what you have but you cannot unsay what has been said it has been poured out. lash while denying. and she shared in their plot against the despots to the best of her hopes.

was not far out. On Garrulousness our lesson in that art being received at initiatory Odysseus. In the case of Odysseus himself. . speak safe. Though Self-command and loyalty could no further go than in their case. upon the King of Egypt sending him out the fairest and • a sacrificial foulest as ' victim and bidding him pick part of the meat. they would not denounce Odysseus to him. when. Pittacus. but they chose to be eaten raw rather than tell a word of the secret. and was sore at her weeping. his wife. Most of his comrades very breath and blood amenable to its also were of the same character. the tongue to utter a sound. that it forbade the eyes to shed a tear. who . making bold to speak for herself. he took out and sent him the tongue. she says secret the poet has made most and reticent he has done the same with hear his son. They would not betray the plot against his eye and the implement which had c been sharpened in the fire for that purpose . Though in his heart he pitied his wife. 506 rites and mysteries. B So full of self-command was his body in every part. possessed most eloquence. Steady within their lids stood his eyes as horn or as iron. and endure with a patient enduring. therefore. his nurse. under such perfect discipline and control did reason hold it. You how : Like stubborn oak or like iron will as I hold your and keep it. the heart to tremble or cry out with rage . inasmuch as reason had extended even to his irrational movehis ments and made authority. says that she knows how be where speech is Silent in season.138 kee£jilent. And his heart once more did obey. he sat beside Penelope. harried and dashed upon the ground by the Cyclops. being the instrument of both the evil. greatest good and the greatest to Euripides' I no.

If you let the secret it.' So is a second . through finding another person more faithful to you than yourself. it was wrong to tell it to any one else. replied. indeed. What are you afraid of ? ' That you may be the only one to miss hearing the ' trumpet to ? Was it that he did not trust with a secret the man whom he intended to bequeath his throne ? Rather he meant to teach him self-mastery and caution in dealing with such matters. and so formidable the opponent whose presence instead of blaming disguised. on being asked a similar question during * campaign. 139 who are blessed with a noble and a truly royal education. whereas they entertained a great respect for the reputation of Craterus and a high esteem of his ability. whom his e soldiers despised. when his son asked him at what d hour they were to break camp. Even if better to be accused when mistrust you than be the accuser when trust proves your undoing. 'But So-and-So is my friend. As. the victory. he told the fact to none of his friends. not forewarning them. answered. if better. but pretended that it was Neoptolemus. they joined battle. The famous king Antigonus. no one else found out the truth. and only discovered won who he was from Eumenes him to it his corpse. killed Craterus without knowing him. know first how to be silent and then how to talk. And if he turns out as bad you. The aged a I Metellus. and yet ask another person to keep you take refuge in the loyalty of some one else while as abandoning loyalty to yourself. you are saved by a miracle.On Garrulousness Those. you are deservedly undone . that his friends admired for it is some one does has saved find fault. What excuse can one possibly find for himself when blaming another for not holding his tongue ? If the matter ought not to f have been known. would take it oif and put it on the fire.' When Eumenes heard that Craterus was advancing. So good a general was the silence of in the battle. slip from yourself. If I thought my shirt knew that secret. however.

wind.140 On Garrulousness person his friend. and thus the talk will go on 507 increasing and extending in link after link of weakbetrayal. But '. once and for all. be silent : if not. and It is . for long as a piece of information ' is confined to the first possessor. they put a check upon it caught by but let a speech speed with cables and anchors a from one so to speak —out of port. as a report Winged words^ says the poet. the Roman said. but still a woman might ' —kept woman —otherwise irreproachher husband As it gave rise to much and pestering imploring him to tell her the secret. a curse fall On upon '. till he who has uttered danger. it finds a ride at anchor. so^ tell it. from your it flies impossible to seize and secure but away and on nimbly-whirling zving. She wept and bring wailed because she was not trusted From ' a desire to home her folly by a proof. her oath. a able. The Unit never goes beyond its own limit. whom he again will trust as / trust him. she would her. circulates in all directions a ship its is When run B and deaden — set of people to another. If you let it go from your hand lips. to get slip back into your grasp with wings. . May And The Roman all be set all the ablaze but one^ town will know Senate had been engaged for a number of days c in debating a secret matter of policy. it is a thing . it is not easy and if you let an observation it. so indefinite beginning of difference. Have your way. But the number ' two ' is the by the duplication it at once shifts in the direction of multitude. but is. In the same way. So with that person and a third. mystification and conjecture. carried away with no place to cast and roar. if it * it is really it and truly a must be classed secret ' '. it is dashed and sunk upon some great and terrible little From but a torch-light Ida^s heights . passes by him to a second. * oneness ' —whence its name.

and he was met by an acquaintance.' a laugh. The wife at once seized hold of d the first maid-servant to enter the room. on going home. with the help of the augurs. wife has got to the What a speed Forum ahead of me First he ! man To exclaimed with think the story ' ! interviewed the magistrates and relieved their anxiety . he retorted all ' Pooh for your three hundred '. but hold your tongue. who said. And so I am to be exiled. who was paying her a reached the The story went rolling on so rapidly that it man who had invented it. We are therefore discussing the portent. ! I invented it to try you. exclaimed. visit. because of your persistence . But the news is and are inquiring. all because of your loose tongue. and country give the ' ! What will become of us ? ' poor husband her wish being to pened ? maid the opportunity of asking Why. f he proceeded to punish his wife by saying. what has hapAt any rate she took the question as put. then. Tell no one about it. and told the ' tale.' With these words he went off to the Forum. and the magistrates are about to hold meeting on the matter. whether it is good or bad. and e imparted it to her. Why ? Is there any flying about with a gold a helmet Senate and a spear. We have been informed by the priests that a lark has been seen flying about with a gold helmet and a spear.' he replied. But mind you tell nobody.' Upon her attempting to deny ' it by arguing But there were three hundred who heard it as well as you '. 141 terribly ominous. She in turn told to her lover. you have been the ruin of me. * Wife. Then Forum before the ' ' ' * ? you haven't heard anything ? 'A lark has been seen news ? ' ' * No.' The girl no sooner left her than she looked for the fellow-servant who had it least to do. adding the invariable refrain of every babbler. Have you just come down from home This minute. beating her ' own breast and tearing her hair. O my '. and the fault has been traced to my house. The secret is public property.On Garrulousness wife. ' At this the ! O wife. and.

The emperor in his old age was lamenting to him over his desolate home and grieving because. his secret. except your secrets. and Postumius. not send for his grandson. Caesar knows that I have betrayed ' and Rightly too. he neither likes to . Especially must he go round tracking and hunting out hidden secrets. compassion B for his grandson and was considering the question of recalling him from abroad. he did of enmity ingly. if you please ' — the sword she despatched herself first. Fulvius divulged what he had heard to his wife. whereupon Livia took Caesar this bitterly to task. so as to provide himself with a miscellaneous stock-in-trade for his foolish D talk.' c I propose therefore to put myself to death. two of his daughter's children being dead. The comic poet Philippides therefore acted rightly when. after living with me so long. Fulvius Good morning. asking he had been so long of mind. instead of putting her in a position and strife with the successor to the throne. but was otherwise with Fulvius. ' him — as morning and bye. test. But after me. seeing that. you failed to discover the looseness of my tongue and seizing and to guard against it. like a child with a £iece of ice. he replied — * in the Good- sent for his wife. so that he the other hand garrulity goes with the equally objectionThe babbler must find much to may have much to tell. he was being driven although he felt adopt his wife's son as his successor. Then. ' Fulvius took the hint. if . Sire. Accord- when Fulvius came to said '. the close friend of Augustus. On Garrulousness man took safe precautions in putting his wife It by pouring into the leaky vessel not wine or oil. * and said. hear. went away home at once. On able vice of inquisitiveness. the only one in exile left.' * ? '. and she to Livia why.' answered his wife. Caesar he regularly did '. being to on some calumnious charge.142 In this case the 508 to the water. in answer to the friendly civilities of King Lysimachus and his ' question he replied What is there of mine that I can share with you What you choose.

After a long and circuitous ride away from the by want that he approached person. In doing so he recognized the king's face. however. At this the king. it is true. on taking Good-bye. and fled away on horseback with three or four attendants. Most all babblers. have no excuse at for their own For example. but which he cannot hold tight. The man not only friendly gave him these. instead of and playing up to the king's desire to be unknown. Garfish and vipers so — we are told —burst in giving birth to their young. gave a sign to one of the attendants to cut off his head with sOy a sword . when the king i subsequently won success and power. he accompanied him as far as the road. So overjoyed was he at his fortunate opportunity of rendering restraining himself ' him service. that. Seleucus the Victorious. tore off his royal circlet with his own hands. asked and being fortunate enough to find the owner in him for bread and water. he was at last so overcome a homestead. and so is devoured by them. have earned a larger return for his silence than for his hospitality. his head in the dust lay whereas. holding out his right hand and drawing the man towards him as if to kiss him. — lips. if for a little while. the secrets are reptiles. but supplied him liberally and in the most way with whatever else he had upon his farm. is So the escape of a secret ruin and destruction to him who lets it out. people were once talking in a barber's undoing. the formed some excuse for his man's hopes and kindly feeling lack of self-command. having lost all his army and resources in his fight with the Gauls. shop about . highroads. which he grasps and puts in his bosom. And with the word on his mingled. Or rather. and. he had then had the patience to hold his tongue he would in all probability.On Garrulousness keep hold nor wants to let 143 go . said. King Seleucus. In this case.' his leave.

' B from the spot.144 ^^ Garrulousness the despotism of Dionysius. When at a late hour towards evening he was set free. and saying how firmly established it was against all assault. and the people were gathered to an assembly. to occupy themselves with their private leaving the poor wretch bound upon the wheel. but could only give as his authority a person unnamed and unTo the known. How quip that Archelaus After putting the towel ' shall I cut your hair. Sire ? a neat he replied. How 509 razor at his throat can you say that. where they set to work to trace the rumour to its source. round him. Thereupon the audience shouted in anger ' : rack and the wheel with the wretch ! The thing is ' a pure con- coction ! Who else has heard it ? Who believes it ? The wheel c had been brought. It was once gave to a loquacious barber. by the way. he having been the first to hear it at the Peiraeus from a slave. Barbers. when there appeared upon the scene the bearers of the disastrous news. they catch the bad habit themselves. are generally a garrulous crew. when every few days I have my ' ? No sooner did Dionysius hear of this speech than he impaled the barber. he did not even know the name of his informant. to town. the barber was brought forward and questioned. however. they all dispersed. while he might come hut the second. who had run away In silence. who had At this griefs. At this the barber remarked laugh' ingly. A panic naturally ensued. Abandoning his shop. escaped from the very midst of the action. and the man had been stretched upon it. Their chairs being the resort of the greatest chatterers. When. the man * * asked. It was a barber also who reported the great disaster of the Athenians in Sicily. he hurried at full speed Lest another the glory might win by imparting the news to the capital. he proceeded to .

first drank hemlock. if you are the bearer of bad news. they were to die an from the poison. when one of their number flask. they were to neutralize e the effects of the poison by drinking the unmixed wine. seek thus to define where lies my fain ? ""Tis the doer grieves thine hearty I but thine ears. and so get away in safety. He was therefore surrounded and questioned on every side — * Who are f ' you till ? Who finally. and they whispered laughingly to one another* * Here are the avengers of Ibycus ' ! They were overheard by 546>19 K . before they could be put to torture. and then brought wine with them. had met his death '. If easy and painless death they were caught. the incorrigible failing does garrulity commander. I said. glib tongue. Hence a pretty discussion in Sophocles : in ear or heart that thou art stung P Why A. Such a hopeless and become through force of habit. a speaker causes pain as well as a doer. you are regarded with disgust and hatred by those who hear A. I will tell you my notion as to the fancy the robbers.On Garrulousness ask the executioner 'whether they 145' had also heard in what manner Nicias. Neveris no stopping or chastening a loose. a number of cranes happened to come in sight. Is B.' The of appeared to come theory was so ingenious and acute that it knowledge rather than conjecture. After drinking a bitter and evil-smelling medicine. If they managed to escape detection. it it. In the same way. we are disgusted with the cup as well. If you like. empty was found lying * run together could make nothing of The crowd which had it. knows you How do you get to know all that ? under this searching examination. he confessed that ? — he was one of the thieves. and an inside. as it d Be that theless there may. it On * one occasion Of the Bronze House flask was discovered that the temple of Athena ' at Sparta had been pillaged. realizing all the danger they were to run. Were not the murderers of Ibycus found out in the same way ? As they were sitting in the theatre.

And let us show that we possess no less B sense than certain geese of which we are told. Instead of any one thanking him. it must keep drawing towards secret or other which ought to be concealed. For as in the body. and as a search was being made for Ibycus. By this means the matter was brought home. who most unredeemed of men. Perpetually some throbbing and inflamed. Euthycrates (as Demosthenes puts it) roofed his house with the timber got from Macedon '. received lands a traitor who volun- without pay. to restrain flow or prevent its slipping. Let Reason its lie like a barrier in way of the tongue. the traitor who would always be named before any one ' Well. when they That and is cross full of eagles — they from Cilicia over the Taurus Range —which is clap a bolt or bit to say. Philocrates received a large sum of gold and proceeded to buy is * strumpets and fish '. It is said that. But the babbler teers his services Eretria. who betrayed c from the Persian king. but of divulging secrets connected with lawsuits. the words were seized upon and reported to the magistrates. who had been missing for a considerable time. he actually has to thank people for . party feuds. not in the way of betraying horses or fortresses. so is it with the babbler's tongue. where their punishment was due. and the assassins carried off to prison. Now if Who it is else. when a part is diseased or in pain. not to the cranes. Euphorbus and Philagrus. which played the part 510 of an Erinys or Spirit of Vengeance in compelling them to divulge the murder. stone. itself We must therefore make the ourselves secure.1^6 On Garrtdousness persons sitting near them. were asked that is it is the vilest. but to their own garrulity. so fly over at night it without being discovered. they take in their upon mouths a good-sized their utterance. the neighbouring matter gathers towards it by attraction . or political manoeuvres.

but by the man of short pithy speech. is derided where he thinks he is admired. when to be liked.On Garrulousness listening to him. : money by giving ' indiscriminate presents to — — Not fits His your disease . they resemble a citizens to skilful javelineer. it is first step. who can pack much sense into few words. The second to consider the advantages of the contrary behaviour.' 'Tis your disease you love to be These remarks are not to be regarded of garrulity. He wrongs The upon the his friends. you also. ing this disorder. and ruins himself. applying The Celtiberians produce steel from iron by first burying K 2 . No one can be trained to avoid or to rid his mental constitution of a thing which causes him no distress. and compact utterances. constantly hearing. as They are an attempt to cure simply an indictment An ailment is d it. and the fact that it is not by your unbridled talker at large that admiration. assists his e enemies. friendliness and goodwill.giving the piater You do not give this information out of . terse. That distress we learn reason leads us to perceive the injury and shame which result from them. and and reputation for wisdom are won. annoys where he wishes to ingratiate himself. Lycurgus. again. Thus in the present instance we perceive that the babbler is hated where he desires to feel at our disorders. and saying that. and keeping at our call the praises of reticence. forced his fellow- acquire this gift of compression and solidity by the pressure of silence from their earliest childhood. therefore. overcome by diagnosis and treatment. you love he a. in physic- to reflect is disgrace and pain which causes. We find Plato commending such persons. in f their deliverance of crisp. lessly 147 man who was reck- The line addressed to a squandering his generous. regard. the solemn and sacramental associations of silence. a-talking and a-babbling. but diagnosis comes first. and spends without gaining anything by it. remembering.

Thyself : Nothing in Excess : Give fledge. ' ' sent only one envoy to me B One to the men ' one. by means of a symbol and without speaking a word. the envoy replied undismayed. And this knack of theirs of saying a pithy thing. or making a keen and nimble retort. when Philip wrote to them Ij I enter Laconia. And does not the god himself show a love of conciseness and brevity in name of Loxias from the fact that he would rather be obscure than garrulous f Do we not also particularly praise and admire those who can his oracles. deriving his ' ' say. in order to show how pretty and effective they are. again. to Philip : Dionysius at Corinth * . For instance : The Lacedaemonians and. It was not the Iliad or the Odyssey or the paeans of Pindar that the Amphictyons inscribed the temple of the Pythian Apollo. in the is it So is with Lacedaemonian speech. he mounted the platform. when his fellow-citizens insisted necessary ? upon Heracleitus proposing some measure for the promotion of concord. 511 We must not omit to give our chatterer examples of such brevities. but steadily hardened down to absolute effectiveness by the removal of everything unessential. and went home.148 it On Garrulousness ground and then clearing away the earthy surplusage. our ancient worthies also we admire of few words. is the result of a great habit of silence. I will turn you out '. they wrote back. took a cup of cold water. This was his way of intimating that to be satisfied with the commonest things.' Among ? '. and to have no sprinkled it . stirred it with a slip of pennyroyal. with its closely-hammered thought in small compass. //". It has no surplusage.' When King DemeHave the Lacedaemonians trius shouted in his indignation. all that c is For instance. with barley-meal. drank it off. but the maxims upon Know nigh. and Mischief is which they admired for their simple and compact expression.

king. who constantly recalls these and the like examples. he himself drew the spears out one by one and snapped them all with ease. and not a word more.' Because he Then why has he not appeared ? Because Then why did you not tell me so at once ? will tell you did not ask me that question. who it left behind him eighty When he was dying. the Scythian sons. will cease to take a pleasure in chattering.' So much for the slave at Rome. When the hour arrived. and bade them take and in pieces. a splendid banquet. not wishing to be troubled. way and concord. The orator Pupius Piso.' he ' ' answered. being anxious to welcome Clodius in his official he gave orders for him to be invited to dinner. a When how they gave up the task. whereas at Athens he his master while digging What so great in all things let us terms are is named j* the treaty^ the force of habituation. Piso said to the ' slave. thereby demonstrating d invincible was their strength if weak and short-lived Any if harmoniously united. careful of our when make I reflect how hard it is to be words as to sure of our purpose. position.On Garrulousness expensive wants. and in the mass. one. how they did not hold together. and prepared what was. he called for break bundle of small spears. tied together as it was. The slave who regularly carried the invitations was repeatedly sent out to see whether he was on his way. To habituation now turn. refused. . Of course you took him the ' ' invitation ' ? ' * 'I did. But speaking for myself there is a story of a certain slave which — so — greatly discourages me. When evening came and he was given up in despair. the other guests were all present and waitng for e Clodius. of course. Another case is 149 in peace the to maintain a is community that of Scilurus. ordered his slaves to talk only in answer to questions. I believe. Subsequently.

to divert attention to yourself and wrest it from another. and so win credit for good 512 feeling. What do you want him for ? '. nobody else should be asked that question. In the therefore. and so has speech or answer. the victor is the man who comes in first. To take the answer out of another's mouth. services. train yourself failed to answer. improper for us to so push him aside and our own By doing as if we shall appear to be casting a slur on both parties the one were incapable of performing what is asked. The malady can only be overcome by habit. and as if the other did not know the right quarter from which to get what he asks for. If another makes a satisfactory reply. If he fails. When / am present. But above all things let us be on our guard. is as bad as if. but a person. few words to converse. by way of eliciting from him or from a wish to lead him on nature. In running. when a question is put to another person. says Sophocles. or ' What does he know ' ? '. or in supple- menting his deficiencies. not because a we need of a friendly as Socrates did with Theaetetus and Charmides. But it is especially in connexion with answers to questions that such impudent forwardness is an outrage on B manners. To give the answer before the person questioned has * time. that we do not anticipate him and take the answer out of his mouth. first place.' Yet we often put a question to the information. the proper course is to lend approval and a word of support. implies the remark. .F ifo We on the On Garrulousness cannot check the babbler by taking. as it were. of course. there is nothing invidious or inopportune in giving the information which he does not possess. when a person desired . or. to keep silent until they have Counsel hath other ends than running hath. when questions are asked of your all neighbours. In any case in which a request is made of another oflfer it is. a grip reins. but here the case is different.

is accustomed to deliver . he must make a habit of waiting and some interval between question and answer. he becomes an object of positive exultation and second item of our regimen concerns the answering of to ourselves. when him round in your own direction. you ran forward and kissed him he was looking at another. of promptly Against this trick he must be on his guard. is to wait. hurriedly giving first one answer and then another while the question is still going on. while. ^ Sometimes persons who require no information simply concoct a question for the it amusement and fun of the thing. whom a question a is asked makes answering he meets with due measure of insists indulgence. but one who pushes himself forward and on answering if first. and for himself to reflect upon his reply.On Garrulousness ifi to be kissed by some one else. The questions put cularly careful with these. even if the person who is asked for information cannot give it. you twisted yourself. and submit to a character of this kind in order to set his foolish tongue wagging. he should consider both the character of the questioner and the And when it is clear that informanecessity for the question. There leaving will then be time for the inquirer to add anything he wishes. overrunning and muddling the question. Instead jumping at the subject as if he were grateful. The right and proper c course. he is wrong. of course. to take your cue to answer from the wish of the questioner his invitation not having been addressed to you and then to meet the situation in a modest and — — mannerly way. receives no welcome if he is right. a mistake in If a person of it. In the first place he must not be deceived into giving serious replies to those who merely provoke him into a discussion in order to make a laughing-stock of him. ^ The Pythian priestess. or as if. instead of tion is really desired. Our garrulous friend must be parti- derision.

when Philip had written to ask. answers. if he is disposed to adopt the Laconian style. his irrational part to wait until reason named ^Ij There are three possible kinds of answer to a question — the ' barely necessary. our inordinate chatterbox — at any to have read Antimachus of Colophon — him at the bankers' tables. he will omit in ' and merely utter the negative. but you will find as him * at the bankers' tables ' — . Not at home . to add. In any case that ravenous greed to be talking must be checked. one person may reply. staying with . inas- much as God whom she serves Understandeth the dumb.' But. even before the question is oracles asked. you must wait for the questioner's thought to be expressed. Is Socrates at home ? '. and discover F precisely what he is aiming at. Thus the Do you Lacedaemonians. * to the inquiry. if ' from Ionia. principle. * receive me into your city ? \ wrote a large No on a piece of paper the at * * home ' and sent * it back. you wish your answer to be to the purpose. thereby training the time. with more politeness. disgorge is taking joyful advantage of the question to Socrates used to control his thirst on the same He would not permit himself to drink after exercise without pouring away the first jugful drawn from the well. the Great who near Miletus. concerning is whom he has had a letter from Alcibiades. and the superfluous. or. waiting for some strangers. No. itself. perhaps. Tissaphernes.I f2 on the the On Garrulousness instant. which has long been banked up at the tongue. the polite. they refused a tub. will find he happens also No but you ^will say. B third. For instance. and heareth a man though he speak not. Another. Otherwise it will seem as if a stream. Otherwise it will be a case of if But the old saying : Asked for a bucket. agoing so far. an offhand and apparently grudging way. waiting for some strangers rate.

was once discoursing in the gymnasium. or who have surprising success at the courts of governors or kings. Take. and to confine the answer within the circle of which the questioner's requirement gives the centre and radius. before he has done. are the subjects which the babbler should shun. those scored a victory in the law-courts. and in which he are not indulges most immoderately. again. how they played their parts. speaking with you '. military men are given to prosing about wars. how they confuted some opponent or accuser. own deeds who have met with Generally e about it. Here especially should loquacity be repressed. before he became famous. speaking. in making an answer. Homer intro- of prowess duces Nestor in that character. and to describe over and over again how they came how they were introduced. which was a very loud one. When Carneades. For example. So those subjects in which he most delights. the superintendent sent and requested him to lower his voice. making him relate his time after time. person who is let the limit d In the next place remember how Socrates used to urge the avoidance of those foods and drinks which mduce you to eat when you hungry and to drink when you are not thirsty. until. how they talked. the officer aptly rejoined ' The So. Upon his replying Give me my limit for ' reach of voice '. and what eulogies . sides. they are chronic sufferers from an itch to talk in.' In fact he will will is there to change whole eighth book of Thucydides deluge the questioner with it. for Alcibiades who used formerly to help the Lacedaenow attaching himself to the Athenians. the same lyi monians. and whose advances he should resist. war with Miletus and Alcibiades has been exiled for c is and therefore working talk the upon Tissaphernes the second time. be the wishes of the questioner.On Garrulousness King's Satrap. It should be forced to follow in the footsteps of the question. but who is thanks to Alcibiades . is anxious to be recalled from and exile.

And greatest god thou art. with the B expert in letters. it me thinks. and is perpetually fanning itself into new * they won. night flame and keeping itself fresh by telling over the tale. the same also with amorous who chiefly occupy themselves with such conversation of the object of their passion. Through egotism and vanity to such a person Giveth the most -part of the to the day that Wherein he showeth most advantage. Nevertheless. They are therefore prone to slip into such subjects at every pretext. These subjects also . For not only Where the fain is. It is from dwell perpetually on the theme. they do so to O or bed most dear ! Bacchis thought thee a god. No doubt makes not a pin's difference to the chatterer 514 what subject of conversation may arise. F no less does the part which draw the voice and a desire to twist the tongue in its own direction. there also goes the feels pleasure hand . If as brings up some mention : they cannot talk to inanimate things human beings about it. accounts of foreign parts. if he has a greater predilection for one class of subjects than for another.1 5' 4 ' On Garrulousness Their delight is more loquacious than that sleepless in the comedy. since those are the subjects which can always tempt him furthest into prolixity for the It is the same with those matters in pleasure of the thing. the rules of literary art . with the muchtravelled man. With the much-read man it is general information . which the talker thinks that his experience or ability gives him a superiority over other people. persons. thou blessed lamp . he ought to be on his guard against that class and force himself to hold aloof from it. through her.

until We he earned the nickname of are to choose ' however. way about. being — He gained his as it — • attacks made by Carneades upon the Porch. in conduct of Cyrus he challenged them to compete at something in which he was not more.On Gamdousness loquacity. this Epaminondas '. They are an enticement which is led on to them like an animal towards in the his wonted fodder. One admirable feature was that. e . he cannot even pay so small a fee c for it as merely holding his tongue. In the next place such persons should habituate themselves to putting things in a written or conversational form when alone. them. be as with dogs. is Talkativeness will be d disagreeable when its excess in an expert connexion. ' would appear unable and unwilling to come out and meet the vehement sobriquet of Pen. have had an example of this among ourselves. by everlastingly describing the battle of Leuctra and its sequel. the occupation will keep him from attacking people at large and It will will render him daily more bearable to his company. and they are less ferocious to human beings. he chatterer also it is the other derived advantage from a lesson. If. and put any convivial party to rout. iff to its must therefore be shunned. The case is not ' as with Antipater the Stoic. is the least. If any subject With the is mooted which gives him the opportunity of asking and learning something he does nor know. expert than they. but less. Let them vent their anger on sticks and stones. he kept filling his books with written disputations against him. But if the babbler turns to writing and valiantly fights shadows with his pen. Thus. where a person who happened to have read two or three books of Ephorus used to weary every one to death. we between evils. working steadily round till he drives the conversation into the well-worn track of stale old twaddle. and we must divert loquacity into less this channel. but he blocks the topic and elbows it aside. while he caused no pain by eclipsing matches with his mates.Valiant because.

to be engaged. or it is to help the hearer . spoken. We should remember also ' is a potent thing and overcomes all difficulties. we should keep in lively recollection 515 the saying of Simonides that he had often repented of talking. it is either for their own sake. contains nothing pleasant or interesting. when we are on the point of What talking and the words begin running to our mouths * : is this remark that is is so pressing object my tongue so impatient and importunate ? With what ? What honour do I get by ' If the thought were what harm by keeping quiet ? an oppressive weight to be got rid of. as Hippocrates says. it also prevents pain and suflFering. As part and parcel of this training we should always vigilantly apply the following reflection. or else they seek to ingratiate themselves with each other by seasoning with the salt of rational they happen advantage to the speaker nor of importance to the hearer. the matter would be F different but it remains with you just as much. that practice silence not only. adopt is out of respect for whose standing they will develop a habit of holding their tongues. is as much to be avoided in Over and above all this. . whereas resisting them. conversation the pastime or business in which But if a remark is neither of if it why is it made words ? The as it is * meaningless and futile in deeds.ij:6 On Garrulousmss beneficial course for talkers to Another extremely to associate continually with their superiors and elders. * prevents thirst ' . because they want something. When men talk. even if it is speaking. or . get rid even of the hiccoughs or a cough by resolutely People Yet this involves trouble and pain. but never of holding his tongue '.

Some young men of restraint is are so ill-informed as to suppose that absence as the same thing it freedom. With No you it should be otherwise. follow God and to ' obey reason are the Understand. slave. that with right-minded persons a coming of age does not mean rejection of rule. ' You have been ' told over ' and over same again that to thing. because they alone have learned to make the right choice. by unchaining d slaves to a set of masters the passions. Herodotus says that when women take off the tunic they also take off shame. makes them all more tyrannical than the teachers and mentors of childhood. an attendant his conduct. Only those who follow reason deserve to be considered free as for they alone live they choose. therefore. In laying fear. It is the same with some young men. but change of ruler. This is 37 c ' an article upon The Attitude of the Student '. For the hired or purchased ^ director of conduct they e substitute one that is divine —namely. Its purpose is to teach 70U the right attitude towards your philosophic teacher.ON THE STUDENT AT LECTURES My dear Nicander. ^ The paedagogus. . who accompanied the boy and watched over . now that you are a grown-up man and are no longer obliged merely to obey orders. reason. which I have written and am sending to you. whereas. but great scope to repentance. aside the garb of childhood they also lay aside shame and sooner do they unloose the cloak which controlled their conduct than they indulge in the utmost misbehaviour. whereas ignorant and irrational desires and actions give small and paltry scope to the will.

or ringing fall upon the ear. while the former have their characters by words. whereas those readiness. however. will often Note what happens Entire irritably from another country grumble who have previously been denizens of the state. I believe. clashing. It is but a warning to beware of wrong communiears disfigured disfigured cations.if8 F foreigners On the Student at Lectures in the case of naturalized citizens. inasmuch as nothing that can be seen. But the only hold that virtue can take is upon pure young ears B which have at all times been protected from the corruptions Hence the of flattery or the touch of low communications. Theophrastus asserts that it is the most susceptible of all the senses. and have therefore lived in intimate touch at their experiences. tasted. From the first you have been accustomed to a taste of philosophic reason in everything that you have been taught or told as a child. . of who alone can adorn a youth with that finish manhood which genuinely and rationally deserves the name. It is. Vice can find many places and parts of the body open for it to enter and seize upon the soul. with the laws. For a long time you have been growing up in the company of philosophy. or touched. that ear-guards should be worn by boys more than by athletes. rather than more emotional. more rational. will accept their obligations with cheerful So with yourself. You will not. than the other senses. advice of Xenocrates. and to see that others of the right nature have first been fostered in our character by philosophy and have mounted guard in that quarter which is most open to influence and persuasion. It should therefore be in a well-disposed and congenial spirit that you come to Philosophy. inasmuch as the latter merely have their by blows. is the cause of such strong emotional disturbance and excitement as takes hold upon the mind when certain sounds of beating. object to a prefatory remark upon 38 the sense of hearing. Not that he would wed us to inattention or deafness.

just as conception prior to parturition. then. but they well up naturally from the therefore they are left free to take their natural course are not if . — Whereas and how in ball-play one learns simultaneously is how to throw is to catch. man will prove beast. pleasure and dislike of labour the springs of innumerable forms are not of external origin. I The believe it a discussion. obvious that a youth cannot be debarred from any or every kind of hearing. This being so. any kind of listening is attended with profit. to a young man. thought that. on the ground that speech can do both the greatest harm and the greatest good. It is a general practice in fondling little children to take them by the ears. . nature is not thus brought under control. in the business of speech the right taking in prior to the giving out. may be of great profit.On the Student at Lectures if 9 Bias. if If they done away with. he will actually be perverted in the direction of vice. by sound instruction . was once bidden by Amasis to send him that piece of meat from a sacrificial victim which was at the same time the best and the worst. of course. the ancient sage. both with oneself and with others. Otherwise not only will he remain entirely without fruit ears the instruments to or growth in the way of virtue . and to bid c them do the same ing that to us —an indirect and playful way of suggestespecially fond of those we should be who make our our advantage. But not so. good thing to make the matter one of constant In most cases e we may notice a false proc^edure that of cultivating the art of It is speaking before being trained to the art of listening. but at the same time of great danger. soil. more unreclaimed than any brute hearing of lectures. or from tasting any discourse at all. or turned aside. He replied by taking out and sending the tongue. It is. his mind being an idle and uncultivated patch producing a plentiful crop of weeds. nor imported of trouble and disease — Propensity to — d from teaching. while speaking requires instruction and practice.

and sans note in the clouds and dispersed. so as On the contrary. a 39 describing a dinner. If possible. He will take a vessel and tilt it in the right direction for receiving anything to be poured into it. was that we should do less speaking than hearing. or a brawling-match in which he has been engaged. We may quote the remark of Spintharus in praise of Epaminondas. off Otherwise he a is and away to discourses of filling his ears —the poor leaky a different vessels — rubbishy kind. with anything rather than and the thing they need. Moreover. So when a young man lacks the ability to listen.1^0 On the Student at Lectures hen laying a We are told that in the case of a wind-egg her labour and travail end in nothing but an abortive and lifeless piece of refuse. the speech which he ^ans lets fall is wind-begotten indeed it is lost : all regard. but to avoid much speaking. From the right kind of breeder a horse obtains a good mouth B He is taught to for the bit. or to urge him to some duty. F or the training to gather profit through the ear. he is out of all patience. A youth is at all times sure to find silence a credit to him . or to soothe him when angry. but only one tongue. his behaviour is If he happens upon a person in the last degree ridiculous. and a lad a good ear for reason. to admonish him when wrong. to miss no valuable point. do much listening. he listens in silence and is eager for more. the reason why nature gave each of us two ears. a dream. But he does not learn to lend own attention to a speaker and meet the lecture half-way. tries to But if a teacher to whom he has attached himself impart something useful. procession. but in one case it is especially so when he can listen to another — . and is ambitious to get the best of the argument. and so ensure a real * ' in-pouring his instead of a pouring to waste. that he had scarcely ever met with any man either of greater judgement or of fewer words. we are told. he shows fight.

and unwelcome by the fact that there is nothing which an envious man likes so little as an e excellent piece of reasoning. he is envious and nothing more . thereby d showing that they are lovers of truth. of course. an unseemly performtrained to ance. he does not immediately come to the attack with his contradiction. even c if what is being said is little to his liking. when. when. envy of born of inordinate love L . that there is more need to expel the wind of vanity and self-conceit from the young. what annoys him is another's good fortune. neither party listening is to the other but both talking at once. he waits patiently for the speaker to finish . when a man is piqued by fame or beauty belonging to others. Words which ought to do him good are rendered vexing. or quarrelsome persons. distasteful. But when he is irritated by admirable argument. never to good purpose. To take instant objection. It is therefore not bad remark of some. but always an impediment to proper In the case of a student at lectures it is the most action. those who have been with modest self-control will accept a valuable argument and make it their own. in other matters is — • Envy S46'19 the result of various coarse or low a speaker is attitudes of mind . his vexation is is at his as of own good. at the close. listen Qn the other hand.On the Student at Lectures \6\ without becoming excited and continually yelping . perverse of prompters. or perhaps to adjust or qualify his position. while they will be in a better position to see through a worthless or false one and to expose it. since reason if he has a mind to accept it— much to the good of one who hears as light is to the good one who sees. in case the speaker might wish to supplement his remarks. than to expel the air a from a skin. but (to quote Aeschines) waits a while. and not merely contentious. And note that. The presence of envious and malicious jealousy is. headstrong. when you wish to pour in anything of value : other- wise they are too swollen and flatulent to receive it.

person so disposed is prevented His mind is perturbed and dislistening to reason. but takes count of the expressions and attitudes of the audience. and at the rest of the company. be brought to terms with the love of learning. In the same way those . to see if they are wondering and admiring.idi F On the Student at Lectures from of glory and unfair ambition. it makes comparisons with others who have spoken better and more eloquently to the same purpose '. . disgusted at their applause. and exasperated The previous portions of the speech it forgets and ignores. A At one and the same time it is looking at its own endow- ments. but emulate When pattern by it. Let us listen to a speaker with friendly courtesy. observes that good managers derive profit from their as well as from their friends. to chance or accident. and at what point he began to go astray. a let us consider that his rightness is due not learning. Let the love of glory. others by means of the arguments which have convinced himself. it thinks of stop. said. as guests at a sacred banquet or sacrificial Let us praise his ability when he makes a hit. to see if they are inferior to those of the speaker. for prove better still. In the end our friend has so cruelly mishandled the lecture that he has made it of no use B or profit to himself. When he goes right. It is at their approval. he is at fault. because the recollection is irksome. but to painstaking effort and Let us take it. From those who and away in a frenzy to form one of the herd. to those who give praise it dances carp and distort it runs ' If there is nothing to distort. it is most When the lecture is over. to come it awaits with trembling anxiety. The parts yet fear they may 40 eager for him to nothing that was When the speaker is at his best. or be satisfied with the mere goodwill of a man who is making the public a present of his views and endeavouring to convince regarding ourselves offering. then. tracted. let us stop and think for what reasons he c Xenophon enemies is so. and not only admire it.

In that way should find a picture of our own speech in that of we shall avoid treating others with over- confident contempt. is There purpose. ^ we make a large In his Phaedrus. to take the criticism and apply it to ourselves. ^ doing. While to argue against a certain deliverance is not difficult. to original contribution to the subject. vulgar delight and excitement at applause. to correct. ' of similar faults. as Plato did re-word. and shall also look more carefully to our own deliverances. which we apply to him. on the contrary. or to attempt an entirely as the case may be — with the speech of Lysias. we some point which appears to have been wrongly or unsatisfactorily treated. very easy. let us always be prompt I. and the like. : ' • Yes. L 2 . to set up a better in its stead is an extremely hard matter. when we get by ourselves serves this useful e after the lecture. It is the easiest thing in d the world to find fault with our neighbour. f when we but little find that in dealing with the same subject we can do better than the speaker in the case. As the Lacedaemonian said on hearing that Philip had razed Olynthus to the ground create a city as good is beyond the man's power '. unless made to bear in some way upon the correction or prevention ourselves in the phrase of Plato. When ' lapses are committed. in fact. to exclaim to Am As in the eyes of our neighbour we own. asking whether we commit any mistake of the kind without being aware of it. but. Paltry thought. but it is a futile and meaningless proceeding. but to Accordingly. so perhaps. another I mean way in which comparison if. as bad ? see the reflection of our we another. therefore. are more palpable own. doing our take best to fill in. It is to a listener in another's case than to a speaker in his well. and attack the same theme. empty phrase. but also when he in the wrong. affected bearing.On who only are attentive the Student at Lectures and alert derive benefit 1^3 not from is a speaker when he is in the right.

as opposed to contempt. in singing to the accompaniment of the flageolet. certainly betokens a fairer and gentler nature. He 4^ For while / too little contemptuous and over-confident person derives benefit from a speaker. as in war. when it and when it streams upon the question in a delightful flood.1^4 On the Student at Lectures reduction in our contempt and speedily prune down that selfsatisfied conceit which has been exposed during such process of comparison. But in philosophy aside the reputation of the speaker and examine the speech in and by itself. contains a measure of studied art and the grandiose. it famous for his conduct and character. the shouting. In lecturing. applauding. B While we thus escape dislike from the speaker. a kindly and candid observer of the diction and delivery of the arguer. we escape harm from the speech. The speaker's grey hairs. There is deception in the language also. but a sharp and exacting critic of the truth and value of his argument. after examining a measure false ! How many suggested by a man of evil life. his self-glorification . above the audience all. his vocal c affectations. instructed another person. to move — a very proper and statesmanlike encouragement to the people to be led more by we must put much the character of an adviser than by his speech. it is a thing which. jin its own turn. Nevertheless. an enthusiastic and guileless I admirer derives too the rule of Heracleitus that One forms no exception to dictum will flutter a fool \ Any should be frank in yielding praise to the speaker. his supercilious airs. mistakes are generally undetected by an audience. there is that is mere show. and pernicious doctrines we unawares accept through esteeming and trusting their exponent The Lacedaemonian authorities. and dancing of overwhelm the young and inexperienced student and sweep him along with the current. requires no little a —perhaps greater —caution. so an elaborate and . As. though admiration. but injury. ' much cautious in yielding belief to the assertion .

Diogenes' tragedy. promised who. smoothing. is one for the quip given by Dionysius. said he. then. on the ground return. frequently skim through meadows coarsest of violets.Oti the Student at Lectures idy him to the pretentious diction dazzles the hearer and blinds sense. all this It is empty show of language. and better to imitate the bee than f The latter looks for the bright-coloured by twining and plaiting them together. ' * made '. produces an object which is pleasant enough. the garland-maker. to settle bitterest upon the and thyme. It was he. Their case. when asked about d ' : I could not get a sight of it . I believe it was Melanthius who. and. roses. As soon as no more pleasure is forthcoming for the ear. player. So a student who takes his work in real earnest will pay no regard to dainty flowery words nor to showy and then . strip aside make for the actual fruit. replied it was hidden behind the words.' But with the discourses and declamations of the majority of our professors it is not merely a case of using the words to screen the thoughts. For as long a time was enjoying your singing you were enjoying your expectations The deliverer of the lectures in question finds that they represent a joint contribution of the same kind. and are paid with an emptier fame. but subsequently gave that he had as I e him nothing. and intoning till the — — away with a perfect intoxication. in fact. Let us. the other his professional life. during the performance of a distinguished harphim a liberal reward. fragrant petals. Bees. there is no more glory left for him. or hyacinths. To this they devote themselves Contriving yellow honey^ fly home to their proper business with something worth the getting. on the contrary. He receives admiration as long as his entertainment lasts. They give an empty pleasure. The one party has wasted his time. is hearer carried I think. They also dulcify the voice modulating. but short-lived and fruitless. a sufficient '.

while profiting from a disBut he must not treat the the lecture as its end. pleasure of philosopher's school with a beaming face and humming a tune. nor expect to come out of the let a a lotion or a poultice. immediately on leaving a lecture in the philosophic school. enthusiasm case. to see if it has got / any useless and uncomfortable growth and become lighter There is no use '. For his own part he will probe with keen attention into the sense of a speech and the quality of the speaker. It is when they engaged in drinking will turn a no longer thirsty that persons cup about and inspect the chasing . He must not ask for scented unguents when what he needs is young man.1 66 On the Student at Lectures 42 theatrical matter. the case are may be D different. but to a classroom in the schools. He will remember that he has not come to a theatre or concert-hall. inspecting the trim and arrangement of the hair. no doubt. Therefrom he will suck such part as will be of service and profit. Later. the lightening grief ? Has it been courage. rid of ' ' a bath or a speech. find pleasure in the process.' c By all means course. Hence he should form a critical judgement of the lecture from his own B of a himself. No less should he. in either and more at ease. says Aristo. that should be a matter least regarded by the young student. that for excellence and virtue ? Upon rising from the barber's chair he will stand at the glass and put his hands to his head. Though it is quite right for a speaker not to be altogether without concern for an attractive and persuasive style of language. unless it cleanses. firmness of spirit. is to say. look at himself and examine his own mind. from a calculation of its effect upon Has it been the chastening of a passion. at any rate in the first instance. and that his object is to get his life corrected by means of reason. and clears out all the darkness and mistiness that fill it. On the contrary. he should be grateful if a pungent argument acts upon his mind like smoke upon a hive. These he will consider as fodder for drones who play the sophist.

but keep drawing the speaker topics. to taking of the lesson. phrase. But if from the very first. he advance difficulties. Odysseus. When it the feast consists of a discourse. 43 They regard it as a sign of lofty-mindedness not only to give. instead of taking a grip upon the substance. preferring to sit. and fine method of statement. fill the Student at Lectures during a 167 after Similarly breathing-time. Persons who cannot listen in a pleasant and sociable manner. Perversities of this kind are responsible for a plentiful e the schools. if there is an understanding to that effect. in the thin napless mantle of the style of . when in the suitors' company. The next rule concerns is the propounding of to accept difficulties. but . good sense and an abundance of loquacious claptrap in Young fellows keep no watch upon the life. any one who comes to should listen and say nothing. while they possess neither the ability nor the desire to find out whether the statement is valuable or worthless. the a philosopher. A guest at a dinner bound what is put upon the f table. or the public services of but merit of diction. who wool is ' Lysias lack of '. practical action. whether a great it is vital make or a mere futility. you are like a person who refuses to take an antidote unless the vessel is made of the best Attic good pure Attic or ' earthenware unless the declines to put on a thick cloak in winter from Attic sheep. we may be permitted examine any uncommon elegance in the language. and not for a sword or a cauldron.On upon our it. When. incurs ridicule through Begging for morsels and scraps. however. and neither to ask for anything else nor to find fault. stubborn and impracticable. interposing questions o& to other and mooting side-issues. invites the audience to ask questions and any that are proposed should prove to be useful and important. you insist upon * expression. get no benefit themselves and confuse both the speaker and the speech.

and a healthy how you are to plant your and sober-minded life. but who had been talking to him for some time about requiring some little thing to cure a whitlow '. to ask for. feet on the way to Especially are you bound. more a case for with petty little problems of the kind often are talking claptrap in order to logic or propounded by young men. to accommodate yourself to a speaker's range of knowledge or natural c ability to his special forte. nor should one attempted to chop your wood with the key and to open your door with the*~axe. but you incur condemnation for malicious ill-nature. if you ask of a speaker a thing for which he has no gift or training. something of value. Be careful also not to propound difficulties yourself in too . swaggering about love-affairs.' Nor in your case. Philotimus observed My good sir. Perceiving the man's condition from his complexion and breathing. but how you are to get rid of conceit.af you were making sport of these implements. but that you were depriving yourself of their respective powers and uses. it would not be thought tlb.1(J8 On when the Student at Lectures It is. and such-like nonsense. concerning ' ' division of the indeterminate B motion. young sir. in putting your questions. is it worth while to be discussing such questions as yours. In the same way. and the nature of lateral ' or ' ' diagonal proper answer to such persons is the remark of Philotimus to a man who was suffering with abscesses and ' The consumption. ridicule a hearer poses a speaker however. D you not only do yourself harm to that extent. A philosopher who is more con- — cerned with ethics should not be attacked with difficulties in who prides himself upon his scientific knowledge be dragged into deterIf you mining hypothetical syllogisms or solving fallacies. a whitlow is not the ques' : tion with you. natural science or mathematics. when they make a show of attainments in mathematics ' —for example. while you make no harvest of what he possesses and offers.

On the Student at Lectures 16^ great numbers or too frequently. attitude But towards is a philosopher in the real sense their a wrong. when he from books and his introductory manuals. a sophist their attitude is Towards natural enough . after all. and makes his appearance in the practical departments of life. a sign of approval or disapproval. you must not run away from a discourse which searches it home. lays aside his person. be else is and a student. in a sense. no mental disturbance to be conurgent trolled or malady to be comforted. another way of showing off. Heracleitus says) better to conceal ignorance '. But when he leaves those others I alone and frankly administers some important reminder to themselves personally. they think F a philosopher is entitled to a hearing inside his school. a smile or a frown. It may not. his hearers delight and admiration. they are disgusted with him for not minding tragedian his own is business. as the . On the contrary. Generally speaking. The long as are all opposite course is the one too generally followed. but to bring If your mind is upset by a fit of it into the open and cure it. to listen equably when some one mooting them. . They do not recognize that tone of earnest- ness or jest. So the philosopher is dealing with other persons. Meanwhile. a violent quarrel with your (as ' friends. anger. both at lectures by privately approaching the lecturer afterwards and asking for further light. an attack of superstition. shows that you are a clubbable person This is assuming you have no harassing and trouble of your own. or a mad amorous passion which e Stirreth the heart-strings that should rest unstirred. in the theatre but in matters beyond for it they do rises not consider him in any way superior to themselves. This is. he ranks in the popular mind as an unimportant and inferior his chair. ^nd and fly to others of a different nature. these are the very topics to also which you should listen.

but punctuates with . it does not destroy a generous appreciation.170 44 on his part cases On the Student at Lectures all. and are free from jealousy. j the opposite type of hearer the fluttering^ feather-head J who uses no discrimination. philosophic reason does away with the wonder and awe due to unenlighten- * nothing ment and ignorance. The fact is that there are many who take up the well-known saying of Pythagoras and sing it to a false tune. —are —and. and attitudes of pose. own gain from * philosophy. and that whatever amount you give to another you take from yourself. above fruitful in his direct handling of their individual good to those who have learned the art of listening with submission. A hearer shows churlishly bad taste when nothing whatever in a lecture will make him thaw or unbend when he is diseased with festering conceit and chronic . whereas those who are niggards of praise to others are in all probability pinched praise of their own. Such conduct implies that they have fame enough and to spare. A gentleman bestows neither too little nor too much of it. by means of knowledge c and the ascertainment of the cause in a given case. he said. and the way to be dignified is to be disdainful. has its duties. and hungry is for On the other hand. the highest distinction to bestow distinction. which call for a certain caution and moderation. under the notion that applause is like money. where honour and distinction are due. and is all the time thinking he could improve upon the deliverance . Applause. nothing His ' . when he neither makes any appropriate movement of the brow nor utters any sound to prove that . again. self-complacency. he is B a considerate and willing listener when he is seeking a reputa- tion for solidity and depth by means of silence. With them wisdom lies in contempt. Those whose excellence is genuine and firmly seated find it the highest honour to bestow honour. was to wonder at ' * whereas theirs is to praise nothing or to honour ' '. an affected gravity. While.

in arrangement of the matter. Thanks to his applause good from It is deranging the lecture and making an imbroglio of it. when hearing we must lean e towards hostility nor towards favour. for exhibition purposes.On the Student at Lecturer While he 171 loud cheers at every word and syllable. a snub nose ' ' piquant . a philosopher cannot absolutely fail to afford a well-disposed or courteous audience some opportunity of finding relief in applause. virile 45 A hook-nose ' is regal '. But at a lecture on a subject of learning there is neither law nor oath to debar us from neither granting the speaker an indulgent reception. or. As among There urchin-foot or mid coarse broom The tender snqwflake springeth into bloom. a reference to others. true that. He worries them on is frequently d invariably a nuisance to their feet against their is judgement. and drags them willy-nilly to join in the chorus because they are ashamed to refuse. but towards justice as we best understand it. he to the hearers. he gets no it. white he calls them if saint-like swarthy. but goes home with one of three descriptions to his credit — fleerer. and surely a deliverance by a man who has some sort of claim to be thought. * ' If ' . the mere choice of theme or purpose. or even a pot . obnoxious to the disputant himself. a sallow skin . According to Plato young persons in the bloom of always manage are life can they '. Graces was that speaking has a special claim to a gracious It is impossible for any one to be so complete nothing deserving of the shape of a thought. can lend a fair measure of plausibility to a panegyric upon vomiting or fever. a case in court. or to call himself. in the wording or a failure or so utterly astray as to offer us a cheer. P are persons who. possibly. sycophant. or ignoramus. The reason why the ancients placed the statue of Hermes in the company of the friendliness. somehow to excite a lover's passion.

to a speaker. with no sign. another exerts no passion. . / countenance. then. he nevertheless commends him ' for his manner of statement. In some instances has ample scope for showing good feeling it is sufficient if. The hearer. composure of the speaker . eyes kept directly upon an air of businesslike attention . we contribute a kindly eye. and though he has no praise for its inventiveness. speech of Lysias. though Plato objects to its want of arrangement. a friendly I by word of mouth. I need not say of insolence or peevishness. and Love has. clinging to any pretext. and agreeable mood. not only is there impropriety in a scowling brow. a third is lacking in grace and charm. Similarly one of the orators has no characterization. He uses these pretty names. a roving glance. indeed. a disagreeable expression. his versification. but of being taken up with other thoughts. Much less will student of letters ever fail in inventiveness. Phocylides for his common- placeness. There are which even the man who is certain things for look. Nevertheless each wins praise for a power to move and sway us in his own peculiar way. an eager and earnest In every speaker In the he will discover some grounds for reasonable applause. And in this If in every exacting task beauty factors happily combined in a particular matter of listening. ugliness is the prompt and immediate outcome of the faulty D omission or addition of this or that one element. Euripides for his garrulity. is made up of a number of due proportion and harmony. our chairs. Sophocles for his inequality. and because there is a clear round finish in the chiselling of every word '. a total failure may jb / / and which are but ordinary items of common etiquette I mean an upright posture in for any and every audience. an ivy-like gift for a * complexion of is pleased and satisfied. with no lolling or lounging .172 is On the Student at Lectures honey '. B might Parmenides for We find fault with Archilochus for his subject-matter. without further declaration a genial expression.

They a duty.' But what of those who nowadays introduce such outre expressions into our lecturerooms ? The Capital ! Well said ! and Very true ! which were the terms of commendation used by the hearers of Plato. and he has no right to be sharply criticizing the mistakes. In ball-play the catcher has to regulate his movements according to those of the thrower. With their exclamations Divine ! An inspiration ! or Un- approachable ! they commit a gross impropriety. are censurable and should be studiously avoided. there is a certain consonance of action solecisms which he in which both speaker and listener are concerned. Yet even a polite table-companion has his part to play. We give them a rattling clapping. and Hypereides. and actions of a similar nature. are not enough for these persons. and a crossing of the legs or whispering to a neighbour. So. There are some who think that. though the speaker has the hearer has none. Highly obnoxious also are those who accom- pany their attestations with an oath. in the case of a speech. 173 but nodding the body. * in speaking of the little epistles an unpleasing phrase of Epicurus from his friends. they drop casually in and take their seats. yet. be used without discrimination. the former to present expect himself with his thoughts studiously prepared . as if they were in a court . he says. Our expressions in applauding F must not.On a twisting of the Student at Lectures . without a thought or care for their own obligations. if each is to sustain his proper part. libellously making out that the speaker requires far-fetched eulogies of an 46 outrageous kind. looking at the ground. however. and taking every phrase and fact to task. smiling. It is when. much e more a polite hearer. while himself free from responsibility for the impropriety and the frequent commits as a hearer. for all the world as if they had come to a dinner to enjoy themselves while others are doing the work. He is a partner in the speech and a coadjutor of the speaker . Socrates. yawning sleepily.

174 of law. a speaking. for instance. you could not have ^ laughed while I was teaching you a mixolydian piece. or arguing concerning religion. * with an original setting for the benefit of the members of his chorus. when a philosopher and the shouting and hurrahing inside the building make people outside wonder whether it is a flute-player. in the mixolydian mode. a serious and practical philosopher might very well affectations of a hearer by saying. or the duties of about at c office. where the speaking is not serious but merely an exhibition of adroitness. presume your case is one of foolishness or ill breeding . statesmanship. and uttered in D a playful and tactful way. To offer call out. put expressions used at academic exercises. of courage. There are some who bear the philosopher's reproaches with an easy-going indifference. and one of them happened to laugh.' is Just frankly consider what it means. harpist. If I take it. when I was teaching. or an old man and they exclaim Cleverly thus misapplying to a philosopher the /. Meanwhile. ^'^ ^^^ Student at Lectures And terms . laughing under the correction and applauding the corrector. or admonishing. the pupil must be neither insensible nor unmanly. The shamewhich such persons display is no proper or genuine proof are abused When a jibe containing no insult. in listening to admonition and reproof. otherwise you would not have been piping out and jigging ' make short work of the airs and I my remarks. e. or a dancer who is being applauded. equally so those who blunder in their descriptive when the lecturer is a philosopher and they /. ! A shrewd. hit or Brilliant B to a sober discourse such meretricious praise is like crowning an athlete with a wreath of lilies or roses instead of laurel or wild Once when the poet Euripides was going over a song olive.' So. just as parasites applaud in sheer when they lessness impudence and recklessness by those who keep them. . is borne cheerfully and without ^ i. which was of a sad and dirgelike character. he observed : * you had not been an ignorant dolt.

he abandoning philosophy after feeling the sting and the pain but before deriving any advantage therefrom. exactly what a gentleman But it is different when of the true Spartan style would do. misconduct having made his soul no e more capable of a bruise than a thick callus in the flesh. While nature has given them. It a is no less youth of parts true that the sting implanted by philosophy in 47 is cured by the same reasoning that caused the . and futile as who charms them with melodious phrases as useless they are pleasing. Unable to put up with reproof or to accept correction with spirit. he is unperturbed. Youths of the opposite disposition. if them. if is he will not permit it to close and dress the wound. If a man runs away from the surgeon after the operation and objects to be bandaged. If a young does not cower under the lesson and feel his soul burning till with shame. These form the one class. he breaks into a sweat and is ready to faint . turn deserters from philosophy and run away without a glance behind them. gives a broad grin of self-depreciation. they are so squeamish and timid that they throw their chance away. in the shape of modesty.On annoyance. he is submitting to the pain of the treatment but refusing to put up with its benefit. So when a lesson has lanced and probed his f folly. of a stinging man if. then he is a constant habituation to an extremely vulgar creature beyond all sense of shame. they turn away to listen to the soft and agreeable utterances of some time-server or sophist. an excellent a single is hard word said to start towards moral salvation. Euripides says that the wound of Telephus was Soothed by the filings ground from the same spear. it the Student at Lectures neither a it 175- shows want is of spirit nor a want of breeding. remedy in the shape of rational reproof. on the contrary. admonition takes in hand the correction of character by means On the contrary. and refuses to take the matter seriously.

to be resolved on making progress. course For though the reproof may appear to be unjust. Opposite dispositions D lead to the same mistake. . through bashfulness understand. and by B a request to reserve for some real fault all the vigorous candour which he has shown in the present instance. however. after undergoing the first discomposing rites of purification. as we advance step by step. and unsure . It will not be long before it arrives. playing laborious. and then to wait for that familiarity which converts all right action into a pleasure. he must not be crushed or dispirited.i7<^ wound. On the contrary. contain something both hard and strange. right that the subject of reproof should feel some pain from the sting. to persevere. or wrestling. a flood of light. but. the obscurity and want of comprehension are due to themselves. but. our duty is to grapple with every question. he should look for some sweet and splendid revelation to follow the distress and confusion of the moment. the proper is to endure it with all patience until the speaker con- cludes. casting upon the study for excellence. much as in dealing with mankind. therefore. No doubt the language and matter. be without such passion life because one is is to be a miserable We may also expect that at first the argumentation will prove somewhat difficult for young and inexperienced students to For the most part. It is the same with manageable. Then he may be met by a plea in self-defence. By all dint of frequent and becomes pleasant and and every word or action easy. and inspiring an ardent passion To and to put up with the ordinary type of driven from philosophy by a lack of mettle. In reading and writing. Thus one class. But we must not take fright at the rudiments and prove so timid and spiritless c as to abandon the study. or cowardly creature. the lyre. philosophy. as first met familiar acquaintance find that it we with. it is To proceed to the next consideration. On the Student it is at Lectures While. the first lessons are very harassing.

and march e intelligent \ on towards grasp learning. when will the former —the modest and The consequence kind is that silent — worry themselves with their perplexities.10 infliction. Unwilling to trouble themselves when 48 M . though to all appearance slower than their fellow-pupils. Some do so from sloth. inasmuch instruction in. ambition and meaningless rivalry to make a show of cleverness and quickness. upon valuable And let us put up with the I j laughter of those who are thought to be clever. We must. home. Oft-times he baulked of our hope while seeking goodness j to come unto we must and * also oft-times' be laughed at. meanwhile putting wearisome 346.On and the Student at Lectures 177 a desire to spare the teacher. led by misplaced if they quite understood. their own On the contrary. Not only bottle or a brass tablet. though slow at taking their and sure at retaining it. pretend to have mastered a thing before they take it in. Remember how Cleanthes and Xenocrates. as Phocylides puts it. when they will feel still more ashamed. refused to give up or run away from their studies. they were the first to joke at expense. they and in the end ^go they will be driven perforce to trouble the speaker by harking back with their questions at a later date. Let us then thrust aside all this pretentious silliness. Meanwhile the bold and ambitious kind will be perpetually cloaking their ignorance and hiding the fact that it haunts them. and bear with scoffing f all our heart and energy into winning the struggle against our ignorance. they were safe must we. and so will not take it in at all. be quite as careful not to err in the opposite direction. which makes them a jeering. and will ostensibly assent as The others. however. comparing themselves to a narrow-necked as. Let our business be to get an instruction. will shrink from putting questions and making sure of the argument.

which simply requires kindling-wood to eagerness for original thought and ardour start the flame of \ for truth. Till a short journey so becometh long difficulty or B — as Sophocles says —not only to themselves but to every one else. When let they have managed to comprehend the main points. And let them take the reasoning they hear from another as a a seed which they are to make grow and thrive. By continually arresting the teacher with superfluous and futile questions. and then. enchanted . Hieronymus) like wretched cowardly puppies. and does not . perpetually mooting some unimportant demanding some unnecessary demonstration. Like unfledged birds in the nest. a pile. realize that he must kindle sits own in the shape of thinking for himself. Another kind. Suppose someone goes to borrow from his neighbour's fire. they are perpetually agape to be fed from another's mouth. on finding a large bright blaze. It is the same when a man comes but to another to a light borrow reason. in the misplaced quest of alertness and acumen. them piece the rest together for themselves. they keep troubling the teacher by repeatedly asking for information on the same questions.178 On the Student at Lectures alone. let us give them this advice. persists in staying and basking on the of his spot. . but who never touch the animals themselves. worry the lecturer a reputation for Virith their fussy garrulity. ) beginning— It is The mind is not a vessel which calls for filling. As for the former and lazy class. using their as a c memory guide to independent thought. and expect to receive everything ready masticated by someone else. as if they were merely chatting with a companion. they interfere with the continuity of the lesson by a series of checks and Persons of this class are (to quote delays. who bite the skins and tear the odds and ends of wild animals at home.

a He derives from the lesson d the ruddy glow or outward brilliance. We shall thus attain. it is to remember the rule just given to practise independent — j j \ thought along with learning. Right listening will be for us the ' ' I introduction to right living. but he fails to drive out mould and darkness from within by the warming power of I philosophy. M2 .On f f the Student at Lectures 179 with enjoyment of the lecture. but to a deepseated philosophic power. not to the ability of a sophist or the well-informed man. If therefore any advice is needed for the hearing of lectures.

it he begged to be excused. he replied Nay.ON MORAL IGNORANCE PLACES 779 D IN HIGH up a When Plato was invited by the Cyrenaeans to draw code of laws for their use and to organize their constitution. deprived himself of just so much as he But when philosophic reason becomes the established it colleague and protector of a ruler. greater. duty make a slave of him and curtail the advantage he derives from power. and therewith its dangers. on the ground that : was difficult to legislate for so prosperous a people — nor so impracticable and headstrong— For nought so arrogant as human kind. full in diverting into other channels a portion of the gave away.' By relaxing its excessive absolutism he escaped the ' : F consequent ill-feeling. — merely removes the perilous a process as necessary to power . Theopompus. when grasp. whose law of will rule. who was the first to modify the powers of the throne by means of that of the Ephors. element and leaves the healthy as to sound health. stream of power. the Spartan king. he fears. When his wife re- He proached him for proposing to leave to his children less authority than he had inherited. has yet to learn a lesson from Theopompus. But note. E — prosperity or what is so considered — ^lies within its No less difficult is the task of advising a ruler how to To admit reason. is to admit a ruler. because more assured.

these a shape and form of warping heavy materials serve to keep it erect and prevent it from whereas. Pindar says tables. the . To the King of Persia every one was slave except his own wife. and then begin adjusting his subjects You cannot set upright. character firm. b His foundation being out of plumb. in High Places 1 8 1 as little however. appear massive and imposing. watching him. and make that his own thereto. is the ruler to be ruled? By the Law. when you are falling . . Sovereign of mortals and immortals as all. So a ruler must begin by acquiring rule within himself. when disobedient govern. abiding his soul destitute with him. Indeed. . stone. strained muscles. and comparison with.On "Moral Ignorance In most cases. it can make other things true to line by adjustment to. and gaping mouth. teach. with an unschooled governor or chief. harsh looks. Let him set his own soul straight. By whom. In reality to make they are not a bit better than a colossal statue with the outward god or demigod. short temper. when unruly command. while the inside is a mass of earth. itself. then. monarchs or rulers show wisdom a figure is as a tasteless sculptor. who fancies that to represent with it a huge stride. when ungoverned. in the case of the statue. Now it is only when the builder's square is itself faultless in line and angle. or lead. the very person whose master he ought to have been. not a wooden but a living law written outwardly in books or on law of reason in himself. unreason within is often the cause of instability and collapse. a is common to be a error to suppose that the chief blessing of authority c above authority. . when you are ignorant discipline. the lofty power which he builds upon it is correspondingly unstable. and never leaving . and exclusiveness give them the true regal air of awe and majesty. And yet it is . They imagine that 780 an arrogant tone.

1 8


On 'Moral Ignorance
The King


High Places
one chamberlain whose

of guidance.

of Persia kept

special function

Rise, Sire,

was to enter in the morning and say to him and attend to matters which Great Oromazdes

D meant


your concern.'




has learned



self-control hears the


same voice of exhortation from within. saying of Polemo that love is serving the Gods in the
protection of the

it might and protection of men, by dispensing, or safeguarding, the blessings which God gives to mankind.



young \

With more truth

be said that a ruler serves


in the care

See^st thou


in sojt

yon boundless sky and air aloft^ arms it clasps the world about P

descend the

principles of seeds in

due kind



them forth their growth or the warmth of moon and stars



rains or



while the sun brings everycreation with that peculiar

thing to beauty and tinctures


But though the Gods may lavish these love-spell great boons and blessings, who can enjoy or use them rightly, if there be no law, justice, or ruler? Justice is the end of law





the work of the ruler



a ruler


an image of the


all things. He needs no Pheidias or Polycleitus or to fashion him, but brings himself into likeness with deity Myro F by means of virtue, and so creates the fairest and most divine





In the heavens the sun and

moon were


by God

beauteous image ; and, in a embodiment is to be found in the ruler



the same shining

who justice




to say,

when he

the reason of



holds, not a sceptre, but a mind which not when he holds the thunderbolt or

some represent themselves in statue or picture, rendering their folly odious to Heaven by such impossible assertion. For God visits with righteous wrath him who

trident with which

On Moral Ignorance
but when
a pattern





makes pretence of thunder or thunderbolt or darting sun-ray


studies to emulate His goodness,

and to take 781

by His virtue and benevolence, He delights in furtherhim and bestowing a portion of His own righteousness, justice, truth, and mercy. Not fire or light, not the course of

the sun, the risings and settings of the



and immortality, are more divine that these
not by reason of length of life that reason of the virtue which rules. This





happy, but by







the virtue whose part

it is

only to obey.

When Alexander was in sore distress at killing Cleitus, Anaxarchus told him, by but the assessors


of comfort, that Right



—making out that any act was right

and Justice were b

and lawful

for a king.
sin, this

A false and pernicious salve for his repen-

tance at his

If we are to encouragement to repeat it * ' use such figures of speech. Right is no assessor of Zeus, but He himself is Right and Justice, the oldest and most consummate



the ancients


and write and teach



without Justice, not even Zeus can properly to Hesiod






the incorruptible partner of feeling, self-control, and beneficence, c Hence are kings called merciful ', for mercy best becomes those


are least afraid.


ruler's fear should

be of doing harm

rather than of suffering
of the latter,


for the former action

the cause



kind of fear on the part of

a ruler is credit-

able to humanity.


nothing ignoble in a fear for his

subjects and of possible injury to them.


rulers are like

Dogs that keep ward watching

o'er the sheep in the farmstead,



sound of a fierce

wild beast—

their anxiety being not for themselves,

but for their charges.


On Moral Ignorance




Once when the Thebans had


abandoned themselves

D to feasting and carousal, Epaminondas went the round of the walls and the military posts all by himself, remarking that he

was keeping sober and wakeful so that the rest might be drunk and asleep. When Cato, after the defeat at Utica, gave orders that every one else should be sent to sea, saw them on board,
prayed that they might have a prosperous voyage, and then went back home and stabbed himself, it was a lesson on the text,

For whose sake should

a ruler feel fear,



what should


the other hand, Clearchus, despot of contempt? Pontus, used at bedtime to crawl like a snake into a chest.


E Similarly,

Aristodemus of Argos crept into an upper room entered by a trap-door. Over this he would put the couch upon which he passed the night with his mistress. Meanwhile her mother dragged away the ladder from below, bringing it back and

putting it in place in the morning. How, think you, must he have shuddered at the theatre, at the Government offices, at
the Senate-House, at the banquet,

when he turned



bedchamber into

a prison?

Yes, kings are afraid /or their sub-

despots are afraid of them. It follows that, as they add to their power, they add to their alarms ; the more people


they rule, the more people they fear. It is an improbable and unworthy view to hold of God as some philosophers do that He exists as an element in matter

to which all sorts of things may happen, and in entities which are In subject to innumerable accidents, chances and changes. ' reality He is stablished somewhere aloft on holy pedestal (as

Plato puts it) in the realm of nature uniform and constant, and there moves according to Nature in a straight line towards the accomplishment oj His end \ And as in heaven the sun. His

beauteous counterfeit, shows itself as His reflection in a mirror who have the power to see Him through it, so, in the justice and reason which shine in a state, He sets up a likeness
to those

On Moral Ignorance
of that




1 8


by copying that likeness, men 782 whom philosophy has gifted and chastened model themselves after the highest pattern.

in Himself, and,

acquired from philosophy.
of Alexander,
delight at his talent,

This condition of mind nothing can implant except reason Otherwise we are in the position

when he went
' :

to see Diogenes at Corinth.


in admiration of his

he exclaimed

If I

proud and lofty had not been Alexander, I would

have been Diogenes.* And what did this virtually mean? That he was vexed at his own high fortune, splendour, and b
power, because they were an obstacle to the virtue for which he could find no time, and that he envied the cloak and the wallet,

which made Diogenes as invincible and unassailable as he hin\self was made by armour and horses and spears. And yet by the practice of philosophy he might have secured the moral character
of a Diogenes while retaining the position of an Alexander.

Nay, he should have become all the more a Diogenes for being an Alexander, since his high fortune, so liable to be tossed by stormy winds, required ample ballast and a master hand at the

In the case of private

men without

strength or standing, folly

so qualified



by impotence that in the end no mischief is done. with a bad dream, in which, though the mind is excited
it is

with passion, no harm results, inasmuch and act in accordance with the desires.
hand, vice

unable to


When, on the other c

adopted by power, the passions acquire sinew and Dionysius spoke truly when he said that the highest

advantage of power was to give speedy effect to a wish. A most parlous thing, if you can give effect to a wish, and yet wish what




sooner the

word had been was accomplished.

uttered, than straightway the


when enabled by power

to run rapid course, forces every

iS6 On Moral Ignorance




passion into action, converting anger into murder, love into adultery, greed into confiscation.


sooner the

word hath been


than your opponent has met his doom. than the victim of slander is a dead man.


sooner a suspicion,


Scientists tell us that,

whereas lightning really follows and

blood from a wound, it is perceived first because, while the hearing waits for the sound, the vision goes out to meet the light. So with rulers. The punishment outlike

from thunder

strips the

charge ; the condemnation does not wait for the proof.

For forthwith anger slips and loses hold. Like anchor^s tooth in sand when seas swell high,
unless reason with
unless, that

all its

weight puts

the ruler acts

a heavy drag on power ; the sun, whose motion is least





greatest, namely, at the time of its northern

altitude, its course being steadied

by the diminished speed.

Vice in high places cannot be hid. When an epileptic is placed upon a height and made to turn round, he is seized with
giddiness and begins to totter, his malady being betrayed thereby.


After a brief So with an unschooled and ignorant person. by wealth or fame or place, the same fortune which

him up immediately reveals how ready he is to fall. To another way when a vessel is empty, you cannot detect put the crack or flaw, but when you begin to fill it, the leak appears. F So with a mind which is too unsound to hold power and




leaks are to

be seen in


exhibitions of lust,

anger, pretentiousness, and ignorance. Yet why speak of this, when holes are picked in eminent and distinguished men for

the merest peccadilloes?
. .

Cimon was reproached for his addiction

to wine, Scipio for his addiction to sleep, and Lucullus for his

extravagance at table


rest of the essay is missing.




dear Antiochus Philopappus,


Every one,' says Plato, that he has a strong affection
chief weakness



for himself,'

numerous other defects to which he

—not to mention f — one subject there



for admitting

which precludes him from giving

a just


The lover is blind where incorruptible verdict in his own case. the beloved object is concerned,' unless he has learned the habit
of prizing things, not because they are his
himself, but because they are beautiful.


or related to

opportunity for the flatterer to obtain a He delivers his attack from an excellent point of vantage in the shape of that self-love which makes every man his own 49

Hence, there is ample place among our friends.

and greatest


ready and willing to welcome such

external testimony as will endorse his





For the

lover of himself.

reprobated of fondness for himself he not only entertains the wish to possess, but also the conceit that he possesses,

man who


as a lover of toadies is

an ardent




of qualities


enough, the conceit


and though the desire may be natural fallacious and calls for the greatest

And if truth is divine, and


Plato asserts

— the




good things both with Gods and men ', the toady must be an enemy of the Gods, and especially of the Pythian. For, in

perpetual antagonism to the doctrine of Know Thyself^ he produces self-deception in a man, self-ignorance, and error as to his

the . the vices he renders incorrigible. but sapping and debilitating great houses and great fortunes.e. You should possess friends as you possess coin when — E before the occasion. . virtues The virtues he renders defective and abortive . however. and had victims. So with the time-server. the insignificant. not waiting to be proved by the occasion. it is their circumstances change out of them that he makes capital . and he promptly beats a retreat. wait for that test it is then not merely useless but fraught with injury and danger. Discovery should not come through injury. Consequently no slight effort or common precaution is required in considering how it can be most readily detected and so pre- vented from doing injury and discredit to friendship. ' * Zacynthus^ hut with wheat-hearing plains. characters access —characters with a love of approbation ' —that give and supply nourishment to the flatterer who fastens upon The breeding of the steed^"* says Simonides. a person You will never find him approaching warmth. since the discovery does not enable you to exchange the uncertain and counterfeit for the genuine and tested certain. but injury should be prevented by our acquiring a scientific insight into the ^ i. and it is estimable and capable things.^ Similarly we do not find toadyism in attendance upon the poor. But it is into soft and sweet kinds of wood that worms prefer to bore. sorts not with c them.I 8 8 Favoner and Friend and vices. It is a grievous thing to find out who is not your friend only at the moment a friend is needed. . and frequently subverting rulers and thrones. a rough and mountainous island. We should not. It is whose fortune is destitute of sap and the famous and influential whom when he attacks . Now if the flatterer had been like most other mischievous solely or chiefly attacked mean and petty harm would have been neither so great nor so difficult to prevent. or the uninfluential. D Vermin quit a dying man and desert the body when the blood which feeds them becomes exhausted.

indeed. and never opposes or contradicts you. by making friendship an ingredient of seasonings is fire \ life. nor does the high respect we pay to friendship depend upon harshness or austerity. we shall meet our death in the effort of judging. nor yet of those who. because they regard a 'friend' as implying a high and wholesome influence. Friendship in season as it is to blame. One can neither approve of such a course. the fawner have wormed himself into our pleasures. Nay. to suspect at once that he is simply praise a flatterer. No . if he had seen that friendship refuses all admittance to what is pleasant? The thing is absurd. For there is nothing disagreeable or uncompromisingly severe about a friend. actually And close at its side do the Graces and Longing Desire set their dwellings. sweet is to look into ajriend^s fond eyes^ as but friendship a comrade who adds it much gratification to our blessings as brings relief to pleasure and the pains and ' perplexities of our mishaps. fault-finding is quite as much called upon to In fact. the negation of friendship and sociability. b is when a person praises you. could through its presence and participation. Otherwise we shall be in the position of those who distinguish a deadly poison by tasting it . the toady is like the mock-gilt and It is tinsel which merely mimic the sheen and lustre of gold. God has rendered all things bright and sweet and enjoyable How.Fawner and Friend 189 nature of the toady. imagine that an agreeable associate is immediately and manifestly proved to be a time-server. with Euripides. Not only may the unfortunate man 'iT/j say. therefore wrong. According to Euenus the best of $0 So. . its high influence and claim to respect are F an agreeable and desirable thing in themselves. in order to imitate the attractiveness and charm of a friend that he makes a constant show of agreeableness and It is amiability. perpetual peevishness and.

' with those who * besiege an opulent table steel. and to be privy to acts the role of . if they are equally pleasant and equally laudatory. when affection bestows zealous and ungrudging praise upon our good deeds.1 90 Fawner and Friend whereas. especially when we find that toadyism is often more than a match for friendship in the tendering of services.' we may be told. thinking it his business to take part in all your confidential — the man. who begins to declare himself with the first course. that is. being is satisfied with the ' belief that the man who It is glad to praise will only blame because he must.' Naturally so. '. into my belly. were steps from the fact that they used to allow the carriage over their bent backs. nor to be caught watching the dial with a dinner in prospect . with a past-master's skill at the business . we do not adopt the common view and mean by ' * ' as your poverty-stricken trencherman. the parasite of Pherae. we also submit readily and cheerfully to its candid remonstrances.' he replied. who your doings. Nor yet with those female toadies of Cyprus. and whom Not fire. nor from making E called * nor bronze can keep their way ' to a dinner. one who is not to be made tipsy and then pitched into any corner . to distinguish between flatterer and friend. king's wife to mount her Against whom. needed no It was enough that. Through the ribs. one who not to be found hanging about the kitchen. * the genuine toady. pair o' who. we reply. in short. when asked *how Alexander was stabbed.' Nor is there any such need to expose Melanthius. after their transference to Syria.• but one is who for the most part keeps sober and talk bustling. are we to be on our guard? Against the man who is not confessedly or apparently a toady . then.' and some one has said toady — — ' whose lickspittle character betrays itself first by gross It and vulgar test D buffoonery at the dish and the first glass. c * a hard matter then. if the object of our search is if.

According to Plato. similarity to complicate the fawner with the friend that we must tear the find it a most parlous business to one from the other. To follows that the toady also uses pleasure for his b give pleasure is his main concern.Fawner and Friend friend. bring us to grief. if so perish foe J There are so many points of as what to do. every when blends itself with every in movement. are There are are similar in shape and size to wrong one wild plants of which the seeds those of wheat. And since agree- ableness and usefulness are concomitants of friendship ' —whence the saying that afriend is more indispensable thanjire and water it follows that the toady insists on rendering services. feeling. one falls less difficult is it it we may mixed as it is difficult to sift these if through smaller holes. through much as the other. need. When the Mage was trying to escape and Gobryes had plunged with him into with him. and habit. But the surest foundation of friendship is similarity of pursuits and A ' ' satyric drama was a half-comic interlude or sequel to tragedies. not in the satyric^ or * 191 but in the high comic style. bait. .' So with time-serving. but when tragic. the extreme of dishonesty is to f appear honest when you are not.' said With us it is not so easy.' we can by no means give any sanction to the maxim : Perish Jriend. when it wears a serious. unless we are careful. No to separate time-serving from friendship. undetected . When the two out. Stab. It is to be regarded as dangerous. or. and is — all ^ eagerness to show unfaltering promptitude and zeal. they will not fall the holes are wider. inasmuch * though you stab both. in trying to spare the right thing. 51 let the We may either be casting out the good thing along with the bad. Friendship being the most pleasant and delightful thing it the world. Darius stood at * a dark a loss room and was grappling * Gobryes. not when confessed. In this form. the points of coincidence being numerous. not an amusing. and. air. it casts a slur of discredit even upon genuine friendship.

Since. his genius for mimicry. it is given. so great that a case of Thou art Achilles* selj^ and. The result is that he is as hard to detect as one of those creatures which possess the natural power of altering their colour so as to match the spot on which they happen to lie. the sick. not Achilles* son. Fawner and Friend The foremost of temperament — the agent in mutual attraction is similarity liking and disliking of the same things. therefore. friendship commences with similarity of temperament E and disposition. Let us begin at the very beginning. As a skilful chef will use some therefore. and therefore he adapts himself like wax to the proper shape and form. our proper course is to find in the non-resemblances a and showing that as Plato puts it he is beautifying himself with borrowed forms and colours through lack of any of his own *. bitter or piquant juice for a sauce in order to prevent sweets from cloying. It is not genuine. occupations. and serves simply as an excitant. and one who meets disaste Brings solace to another suffering it. He does not fail. it He observes that candour is called (what '. In most instances. c This the time-server perceives. as it were. to imitate this quality also. so with the candour D of the toady. nor is it useful . with a wink. and woman pleaseth tvomatt. And ship note his craftiest device. and implied in the lines is : pastimes.19^ character. endeavouring by imitation to mould himself so as exactly to fit is his victim. His supple it is versatility. Such Most welcome Child pleaseth Sick the old old men^s speech . — means — of stripping off his disguise ' and a delight in the a similarity to is same pursuits. we remarked. child. a taste for very much the same habits and principles. appears to be) ' the characteristic note of friend- while lack of candour is the negation of friendship and spirit. men . it is under cover of resemblances that he deceives us.

Fawner and Friend


The toady knows that it is natural to find pleasure in one's like and to be fond of his society. This, therefore, is his first device f
for approaching

you and getting neighbours with you. He acts herdsmen on a pasture. He works gently up to you and rubs

shoulders with you in the same pursuits, amusements, tastes, and way of life, until you give him his chance and let yourself

grow tame and accustomed

to his touch.

He condemns


circumstances, such conduct, and such persons as he notices you dislike ; while of those that please you he cannot say too much in praise, exhibiting boundless delight and admiration 52 He thus confirms you in your loves and hatreds, as for them.

being the


not of feelings, but of judgement.

How, then, is he to be exposed ? By what points of difference are we to prove that he is not, nor is on the way to be, our like, but only a pretender thereto ? In the first place we must look
for consistency

whether he

takes pleasure in,

and permanence in his principles. We must and gives praise to, the same
whether he directs and
establishes his

things at
life after



one pattern, as a frank and free lover of single-minded friendship and fellowship ought to do. A friend does act in this


fixed hearthstone to his character.

the other hand, the time-server possesses no one He does not live a life b

chosen for himself, but a

life chosen for another. Moulding and adapting himself to suit others, he possesses no singleness or unity, but adopts all manner of varying shapes. Like water

poured from one vessel into another, he is perpetually flowing hither and thither and accommodating himself to the form of the



we are told, man by copying



captured through endeavouring to motions in dancing. The time-


on the contrary, is one who allures and decoys others. does his mimicry take the same form in all cases. One person

he will help to dance and sing

with another he will share a taste

for wrestling

Farmer and Friend

devoted to hunting, he- follows his lead, and words of Phaedra,

he gets hold of a sportsman all but shouts, in the




ye Gods,


cheer the hounds

Close-pressing on the dappled deer,

whereas he




setting his toils to catch the

whatever in the animal, but is huntsman himself. If his next

quarry is a young man with a taste for study and intellectual improvement, he is all for books, and grows a beard down to






case of


his air of

indifference ^}

wearing the philosopher's cloak and of prating about Plato's







happens along some easy-going bibulous person with plenty


Then forthwith are

his rags cast

of by

the wily Odysseus,


goes the cloak ; shorn off is the beard 'tis a crop that bears no corn : to the fore are wine-coolers and wine-

cups, laughter in the streets

and mockery of the philosophic
that at Syracuse,



are told,

for instance,



visited the place and Dionysius was seized with a mania for into philosophy, the host of geometricians turned the palace

a perfect whirl of dust.^ But when Dionysius came to loggerheads with Plato, had had enough of philosophy, and abandoned

himself to drink and
E behaviour, in a

women and

to silly talk

and wanton



as if

Circe had transformed


and every one, and there came a reign of vulgarity, oblivion, Examples are also to be found in the conduct of timefolly.


a large scale, such as


Greatest was


In the Stoic sense of adiaphoria. Since diagrams were often drawn with sticks. in the dust.

Fawner and Friend
a wit


At Athens he

joked, kept horses,

and lived





of the world.
a short cloak,

At Lacedaemon he cropped
and bathed in cold water.


hair close,


Thrace he fought and drank. But when he attached himself to Tissaphernes, he indulged in luxury, effeminacy, and ostentation,

and sought to win the good graces of


company by

adapting himself in all cases to their likeness and becoming one of them. Not so Epaminondas or Agesilaus. Despite f all their intercourse with so many persons, communities, and
standards of conduct, they everywhere maintained
speech, and behaviour their own proper character. So with Plato. He was the same at Syracuse as at Athens, the




same to Dionysius as to Dion. Our easiest method of exposing the polypus-like changes of the time-server is to make a show of frequent changes on our


part, finding fault with conduct of which we formerly approved, and all of a sudden countenancing actions, conduct, S3 or talk which used to fill us with disgust. We shall then perceive

loves, hatreds, pleasures,

that he has no sort of settled and specific character^ that his and pains are not matters of his own


that he


is merely a mirror reflecting extraneous moods, and emotions. For observe the man's ways. Should

you speak disparagingly to him of one of your friends, he will remark You have been slow in finding the fellow out ; / never

did like him.'

speak in his praise,

on the contrary, you change your tone and he will declare that he is right glad and thankful on the man's behalf ', because he believes in him '.
' '



you propose to adopt a are converted from



of life—if, for example, b



a political career to a life of quiet

will say,


We ought to have got quit of brawlings


jealousies long before this.'

appear eager for


very proper spirit

If, on the other hand, you and the platform, he seconds you with, A quiet life is pleasant, no doubt, but I

N 2

it lacks

Fawner and Friend
honour and


ought immediately to

answer that kind of

man with

the words

Different, sir, dost thou wert erstwhile.

show thyself now from the




do not want

a friend

nods when


—my shadow can do that better—but one who


shifts his

ground when


do and who


and sound judgement.' one way of applying a test. There is a second point of difference to be watched, as against the points of resemblance.
to truth






not in





matters that a genuine friend but only in the best.



to copy

his to share our hates, but share our loves,


Sophocles has

Yes, and to share our right conduct and high

principles, not our
as a result of

that of

wrong and wanton deeds, unless perhaps some contaminating effluence, familiar association affects him to some extent with a ophthalmia,

blemish or a fault against his


For instance,

it is

said that

D Plato's stoop, Aristotle's lisp. King Alexander's crook of the neck and harshness of voice in conversation, were tricks borrowed

There are persons who, without up from both the temperament and conduct of their friends most of what is characteristic of them. The As the time-server, however, is exactly like the chameleon. by
their respective intimates.



latter assimilates himself to every colour

but white, so the time-

though utterly unable to arrive at a likeness to your valuable qualities, leaves no discreditable one uncopied. He is
like a

of his

E a

lies beyond the reach painter, who, because beauty weak capacity, makes the strikingness of his portraiture matter of wrinkles, moles, and scars. So the toady becomes


an imitator of

dissoluteness, superstition, irascibility, harshness

to servants, and distrust of friends and relatives.

Not only


Fawner and Friend
he hy nature and of
it is




accord prone to the lower course

by imitating

a baseness that

blaming it. A man who takes and vexation at his friends' misdeeds,
a fact

he appears to be farthest from the higher line, and shows distress

dubiously regarded


which accounts

for the ruin of

Dion with Dionysius,

Samius with Philip, and of Cleomenes with Ptolemy. But when a man desires to be, and to be thought, agreeable and to be

depended upon, the worse the thing is, the more display he makes of liking it, as if the strength of his affection will not
permit him to
fore insist

even your


natural sympathizer in all circumstances.

but makes him your f Such persons there-

upon sharing even involuntary and accidental shortcomings. When toadying an invalid, they pretend to suffer with the same complaint. In company with a person who is somewhat blind or deaf, they pretend to be dim-sighted and
hard of hearing,

so dull that they stumbled against each other

the flatterers of Dionysius, whose sight was and knocked over

the dishes at dinner.

Sometimes they work themselves into closer and more intimate touch with a trouble or a malady, till they come to participate in afflictions of the most secret kind. If they see 54 that the patron is unhappy in his marriage or on bad terms
his sons or his relatives,

they do not spare themselves,

but make lamentations about their


children, or wife, or

relatives, or friends, on certain alleged grounds which they Such similarity creates a closer divulge as a miserable secret.

understanding with their patron. He has received a sort of hostage, thereupon betrays to them some secret or other, and, because of that betrayal, keeps friends with them and is afraid
to leave his confidence to
its fate.



of one time-server

who, when the patron divorced his wife, turned his own wife also out of doors. It was, however, found out through a dis- B covery of the patron's wife that he was visiting and sending


Fawner and Friend
to the

messages to her in secret.

The toady must have been but man who thought that the lines


all belly y

and an eye that

its teeth,

All round

a thing that crawls upon

description for a crab as they are for the flatterer.




that of the parasite


7he friend

of saucepan-time

and dinner-hour,

Eupolis expresses

This point, however, we will reserve till its proper place. Meanwhile we must not omit to mention another shrewd
played by the time-server when he imitates you. If he goes so far as to copy some good quality in the person whom he c toadies, he is careful to leave the advantage with him. Friends

in the true sense are neither jealous nor envious of each other,

an^T^whether they reach or



same degree of

excellence, they accept the situation fairly

But the toady
at everything

—who never forgets to play second
short of equality, and

and without

lets his



In vices,

owns to being distanced however, he insists on first

the patron

' ;




all bile

' ;






mass of



I am frantic*



was wrong of you to laugh,' he will say, but / was absolutely dying with laughter.' But where virtues are concerned it is

the other






a tolerable

our friend here.'


I am a fast runner, but you positively horseman, but nothing to a centaur like have a neat turn for poetry, and can write

a line better than some,




not for me, His work for Zeus J


thus appears to do two things at once to give an air of merit to his patron's tastes by imitating them, and of unap-

proachableness to his ability by failing to match


Again. action should be to make himself the toady thinks the purpose of his every agreeable. a medicine may have it also. Just so with the case before us. Where is the difference? for Clearly our distinction will lie in the end which they are used. Since. it is hisr function and end to be 55 perpetually dishing up something done or something said to please. in a spicy form something amusing. pleasure is another point in a friends as a good type of man taking as much delight in his weak man does in his flatterers ^we may proceed — make a distinction here also. wine. the table. a painter mixes engaging colours and dyes. Thus. not only unguents e have an agreeable smell . whereas the friend k . while in the other case the purgative.Fawner and Friend So much as 199 in the for the differences between fawner and friend midst of their resemblances. warming. But tion there is and nothing the difference that the object of the former is pleasure else. In the agreeable relations of f friend with friend the pleasant-giving element is a kind of gloss upon a substance of high value and utility. The distinction lies in the rela- between the pleasure and its end. with the time-server. or flesh-making quality happens to be combined with fragrance. by them high and serious purposes. Hence such expressions Then bad they joyance other . in talk and in speaking the one to the or : Nor should aught else have farted us twain in our love and our joyance. which pleases and is meant To put it briefly. and there are also certain medical preparations with a taking appearance and an attractive colour. common to — we have observed. . But. and even mockery and nonsense are used as a seasoning to as :. Sometimes sportiveness.

though often agreeable. In the same way there are times when a friend will lead you in the path of duty by inspiriting you with praise or gratifying you with courtesies. as the speaker does in Teucer. but will shake in a dash of castor it. Neither the unpleasantness in the one case nor the pleasantness in the other is the end in his mind. dear prince of a warrior people. on the of a guardian : contrary. if His so. you need calling to attention. Or polium foul B of odor. Shoot as now thou dost. Telamoti's son. When it helps matters he will throw in a pinch of saffron or spikenard. to He was reconciled his him. when he taught the prodigal and son of his friend Asclepiades a wholesome lesson by shutting the door in his face and refusing to speak to him. Menelaus Zeus-foster' d For folly like thine. he often the contrary. when he repented and made peace with .200 will only Fawner and Friend do what is right. and that object is his good. but because. But there are times when he will have none of these. are also times like dissolute when he makes the deed accompany the Menedemus. or in : How will then should I. he does not avoid it. he upbraid you in biting terms and with the plain-speaking c Foolish art thou. and therefore. It is as with is the physician. : no time is this f resent There word. that men. and will frequently order a pleasant bath and an inviting diet. not because he wishes it. when it is the proper course. but in both cases he has only one object in view for the patient. he forgetful of godlike Odysseus f But when. however. for having Similarly Arcesilaus forbade Bato the lecture-room attacked Cleanthes in a verse of a comedy. e*en shudder to smell Or he will pound a dose of hellebore and make you drink it oflF.

therefore. '. In the case of a man of ambition. But a companionship which is uniformly pleasurable and main. and praise not only us but every one else who does the like . we are told. Particularly. How can a man be honest. It is given to the thing when men praise us in our absence more than in our presence . he welcomed praise from those So we should regard that and gratification as in the category of can also on occasion oppose us and give us pain. The sting should be used only as a medicine. the time-server with his flatteries takes hold of his ears and sticks so fast that it is hard to rub him off. that the gadfly gets into a bull and the tick into a dog. and strive for the and —most important of —when our all sense does not tell us . in fact. who harps in a single key and is accustomed to strike no note but that of your pleasure and grati- no notion of any action to check you or word to pain merely plays the accompaniment to your wishes. In converting us to right and salutary courses he will sometimes loosen and sometimes tighten the strings. the time-server. He Xenophon which * says of Agesilaus that less who were no friend if it ready to blame. friend is therefore d A like a musician.Fawner and Friend Cleanthes. Pleasure you will get from him often. while giving the pain. calls be ready to ask. when we do not find them doing and saying first one thing and then the opposite . 201 pain For though one must give a friend when it does him good. fication. On the other hand. profit always. make an end of the friendship. It must be on the alert to see whether the praise is given to the f thing or to the man. with which both his time and his words are invariably in accord. when he cannot be angry even with a rascal ? ' graciousness unqualified for suspicion. for the care and salvation of the patient. like the Laconian on hearing praise of King Charillus.E gives pleasure by any sting. to ' It is close to the ear. has you. when they wish same objects themselves. in such circumstances must we keep our judgement vigilant. tains a perpetual We ought. one must not.

but when they are guilty of a blunder or a fault. 'caution'. and their they are as flatteries to affect your character. whereas. if as a loyal friend you eulogize their and receive you with Now when people give you praise and applause for something B you do or say.202 that Fawner and Friend are repenting or we are praised. or wishing that ashamed of the things for which we we had rather done and said the 56 contrary. the arrogant and irascible person. But when as servants their praises go so ^ far as to influence your moral being. . flattery and This inward judgement. * a man of spirit ' . is immune from contamination. an excuse for cowardice in disguise is moderation. when they meet with a misfortune. they think you an enemy and an accuser conduct. when is flattery at work. light-headed caprice. if you make them feel the sting of repentance by means of a reproof or a reprimand. weakness inertia . and proof against the time-server. moderation . the harm they do is only for the moment. c cautious hesitation. they regard you open arms. It is a strange thing that most men. cowardice. from the stack y but ftom the seed \ For the moral disposition and the moral character ^first principle and fountain-head of conduct are the seed of pilfer bad who not — * — and these they corrupt by clothing vice in the titles of virtue. which testifies against a refuses to accept it. cannot bear to be consoled. but are better pleased with those who will join in the lamentations . Thucydides tells us that in the midst of war and faction actions. * life * and vigour ' meanness. civil D Remember how Plato us that the lover —the and obliging '. complete \ So. whether in sober earnest or in careless jest. amiable and affectionate'. and only affects the matter in hand. we should warily note * ' how prodigality called 'generosity'. the customary acceptation of words was arbitrarily changed to suit an end. a poor tells meek * creature. flatterer of . Reckless daring came to be thought devoted courage i . the amorous man. complete insight. .

of Dionysius and Phalaris a ' hatred of wickedness It spelled ruin to Egypt. and bangings of tamIt came once within an ace of utterly subverting Roman morals. the when it gave to Ptolemy's effeminacy. Such flattery But may teach e spelled destruction to the Siceliots. and to rejoice in them instead of sorrowing. Remember how Strouthias makes a hobby-horse of Bias and dances his fling upon the man's stupidity by praising him with: Tou have drunk more than or : royal Alexander^ / laugh to think o' the quip you gave the Cyprian. a Dionysius if he gets drunk. virile '. He is himself alive to the fact. It may remove all sense of shame at misconduct. that there ? of disgracing himself to if is he no way It is which flattery will not lead him ? therefore in the matter of praise that we should chiefly beware of the time-server. when it called the cruelty '. a hook. regal ' '. and 57 is deft at avoiding suspicion. a Hercules And is he not so pleased with it. him to treat vices as if they were virtues.nose '. and the harm which he flattery sustains is slight and easily repaired.f stinted power and fortune '. Yet when an ugly man is persuaded that he is is beautiful. when it glossed over Antony's dissolute and ostentatious self-indulgence with pretty terms as a ' festive and genial appreciation of the boons of un. What made Ptolemy tie on the mouth-strap and its pair of flutes ? What made Nero cultivate the tragic stage and don the mask and buskin ? What else but from flatterers ? Is not a king regularly called an Apollo praise if wrestles he warbles. he fools him to the top of his bent. or a little man that he is tall.Fawner and Friend the beloved—calls a snub nose a swarthy face ' ' 203 ' piquant ' '. a white face saint-like while honey- colour ' is a pretty name simply the coinage of a lover who indulgently invents for pallor. bourines. to his hysterical superstition. his deception short-lived. If therefore he gets hold of some dull-witted and thick-skinned grandee. to his shriekings name of piety and worship. .

when you are so liberal with your own '. ' * By qualities. using the public speaker's device of putting the words in another He will say. again. * ' visitors —or some * ' elderly people —were stories relating a good about you. To a spendthrift they disparage economy and call it stinginess. and ridiculing the opposite they give a concealed praise and encouragement to the defects of the person flattered. that in this quarter they keep a special watch. To a grasping knave D who makes money by mean and shabby practices they depreciate honest self-support and capacity. seeing that it is not ' your nature to do so even of an enemy . know where you said such-and-such a thing or did he at If you deny them as you naturally will — — It did surprise c once has you in the trap for his compliments : me that you should speak ill of a friend. or that you should have designs on other people's property. are like a painter who brings the light and bright parts into relief by the juxtaposition of dark and shaded portions. Others. belittling. but fetches a circuitous course from B is a distance.204 Fawner and Friend But with persons of more discernment he perceives that in this direction they are particularly on the alert. He does not therefore adopt a direct line of attack with his flattery. and noiselessly^ as Advances when a beast tentatively approached will describe and fingered. At another time he will concoct a number of trivial and fictitious many admiring and complimentary charges against you. blaming. and he will say that he has hastened to find you and desires to so-and-so. abusing. which he purports to have heard from others. that he had the great pleasure of being present in the market-place when some person's mouth. call it want of enterprise and business When they associate with some careless idler who shuns . At one moment he how you have been praised by some one else. for instance.

a philosopher Sometimes. or the favour of profligate * women vincial is won by miscalling faithful and loving wives and unattractive '. in order to flatter a public is belittled. and is so desirous of being severely matter-of-fact that out of what he calls straightforwardness — — he is always on the defensive with Tyieus'* jon. whom whom to I am more we to intimate. never ruffled. after listening put confidence ? say. about affairs of * ' his own. advice ? In we what he has an oracle to Then. he will take his leave with the ' remark that what he has received is '. he gives you something he has 58 written himself. When if And he sees that King Mithridates had and cauterized. Most pitiful in its baseness is prothe fact that the toady does not even spare himself. he. it you make pretensions to being a judge of literature. He a peculiar person. hefraise me not muchy nor. He will come and consult him.' says neighbour by disparaging himself. the artist in flattery will not adopt this manner of approaching f Such cases are met by another device. As a wrestler crouches his body in order to throw another. him. they are not ashamed to style public meddling with other people's business '. frantically angry. and public spirit a ' sterile vanity '. so he insidiously contrives to ' compliment his I am a nervous wretch at sea. some of his courtiers actually put themselves in his hands to be lanced This was flattery by deeds in place of words. and asks you to read and correct it.' he will say. But if a man thinks always good-tempered. there are others with Though. is not an opinion . a fancy for doctoring. speaker.Fawner and Friend life a ' 2 of the busy centres of affairs. But our is friend here nothing troubles him. prithee^ upbraid me. as a person of superior wisdom. I am For where are are to take refuge when we need ' compelled to trouble you. . e * I cannot face trouble.' himself particularly sensible. Hard words make me has no nerves .

addressing the Assembly or Council. Fawner and Frimd as a sufficient $ince he accepted their. confidence voucher for OJ many and shafes are means divine y this negative class of praise requires to be countered with some craftiness. he exposes himself as Good one who * * Capital ! The watchword asks. Such persons may therefore be seen taking possession of the front seats at an entertainment or in the meeting-hall. His silence indicates more clearly than the loudest acclamation that he regards the person in question as a better man and his intellectual superior. Or seat. The sportsman's better concealed from the game when he pretends way of praising ^walking. c at table. * ! says Yes ' to everything. tending cattle. and subsequently give way to superior argument and shift if D greatest readiness to the opposite view. —those So there aims being to encourage your self-conceit with his case. by silent flattery. and making corB rections which are absurd. not because they claim any right to them. while other are his aims. ' Or you may ' see them begin the round with the discussion at a congress or a board-meeting. he may stop his speech and yield him the It may be by giving up his when you appear upon the scene. but in order that they may play the toady by giving up their places to rich people. Take another is Painting has been styled * silent poetry *.20 6 his skill. The way to confute it is by deliberately offering counsel and suggestion which are nonsensical. their opponent is . if or his place is he platform. * If your man * objects to nothing. laudations. and exclaims at every item. or tilling In the same way a toady drives home his eulogies most effectively when the eulogy is disguised under some different — form of action. a purpose is to be upon other business the soil. and notices that some wealthy man desires to speak.

an Athenian of rank. on the contrary. a toady will make out that the rich the same time an orator. the painter remarked. Do you * yonder grinding my mixing-earth ? When you they were all eyes of admiration for your purple and your jewels. and if he so wishes — — and a musician. strong of thew by — Carneades used to say that the only thing that kings' and rich men's sons understand is how to ride they receive no proper . whereas a horse. or a man in power. w6alth. or note. were Solon. not only avers that a king. pitches you head first if you cannot keep your seat.Fawner and Friend a person of influence. a poet. He makes him out swift of foot and f letting himself be thrown in wrestling and in running. noble. as well as Cleobis and Biton. man is at a painter and king '. but to riches ' and reputations. a rich man. who neither knows nor cares whether you are in or out of office. he also declares that he pre-eminent in wisdom.' Similarly see those boys silent. were more favoured by fortune. and every form of excellence. instruction in anything else. When Mega' byzus took a seat at Apelles' side and wanted to prate to him ' about line and shading *. would . ±07 The clearest exposure of such complaisances and concessions is to be sought in the fact that it is not to knowledge or high abilities or age that the deference is paid. and their antagonists in the wrestlingring by courting defeat . when Croesus questioned him about humble ' happiness '. A flatterer. declared that Tellus. art. poor or rich. is prosperous and fortunate. For their teacher flatters them in school with his praises. beautiful. as Criso of Himera did in a race against outstripped Alexander much to Alexander's disgust when he detected it. Hence while there are persons who have no patience to listen is when the Stoics describe the sage as at the same time * rich*. they are laughing at you. It was ' therefore a silly and stupid thing for Bion to say : If by 59 eulogizing a field we could make it bear a prolific crop. But now that you have begun to talk about things e you do not understand.

On is point that of candour. But in and fun may mean his betrayal. who leans upon it to make himself more The genuine candour of a friend attacks only our . . Heavy and huge and to be wielded only stubborn^ his fear that laughter. on going out to fight. if irrational for you to praise a human being. merely stings our sores in cleansing them. we must apply our tests. which. trial it you will find that like a soft and without weight or vigour that behaves woman's cushion. this we have said enough. In a comedy of Menander. we find him c putting a solemn face on the business. its false and merely meant to shrink and collapse. its general uses . the Mock-Hercules comes in carrying a club which has no strength or solidity. ' one thing he let alone spear. then. So. actually yields it more of its own way. so induce the person comfortable. its D This spurious candour. jest. flattering with a frown and administering dashes of blame and admonition. while seeming to offer a firm support to the head.' A field suffers no injury from being praised. with superficial pufiiness. dressed himself in armour and drove his team. with its proper tokens and badges. On . Here again. So it might dressing himself when up carefully for the part of friend '. by friendship.20 8 it Fawner and Friend man to go digging and moiling instead ? is it not be a mistake for a Neither. the one thing he would leave untouched and uncopied would be plain-speaking — a special attribute. The next consideration B When Achilles' Patroclus. as to is hollow fullness. your praise is productive of good fruit. strong drink. with the it is flatterer's plain-speaking. misdeeds it it hurts only out of care and protection like honey. whereas insincere and undeserved compliment puffs a man up and ruins him. but is merely a hollow sham. I take it. the and did not venture to touch was the Pelian have been expected of the flatterer that. therefore.

it becomes no business In such circumstances not a word does he venture to is but he like a trainer is and dissipated. when there is something and seriously wrong. e . or a fault of domestic management. It 548«19 . discussion. oil-flask or a scraping-iron who permits an athlete to get drunk upon him in the matter of an or like a grammar-master who scolds and pencil. in dealing with others than yourself. and waste your money. or lack of proper attention to a dog or a horse. But should you slight your parents. The but pretends not to toady is the kind in dealing with a ridiculously incompetent public has nothing to say about his matter. he pretends to be completely ignorant and unconscious of it. In the first it is place. hard upon the misdeeds of his own relations he shows no admiration or respect for a stranger. utter. bating other people. of his. and blames him severely for spoiling 5o his larynx to peruse ness by drinking cold drinks . or negligence in — the cut of your hair or the wearing of your clothes. while he will pounce upon some little immaterial shortcoming and take it rigorously and vehemently to task if.Fawner and Friend being grateful and sweet. for instance. while he severe . or who. He is severe upon his own . really candour in your behalf. or to do or say anything In the next place. when he servants displays sharpness or heat or inflexibility. a boy for the state of his slate slips hear his of of grammar and expression. with his voice-production. but finds fault speaker. neglect your children. when requested some miserable composition. he sees an implement carelessly placed. humiliate your wife. is a With the flatterer it is different. despise f your relatives. and that he would not consent to abate a jot of his to curry favour. but treats him with contempt his scandalizing is merciless when exacer- he is terribly . finds fault with the roughof the paper and calls the copyist a slovenly wretch. 209 theme for special This. however. detests His object is to make it appear that he low practices. man who.

There a still who make jester. their plain-speaking and fault-finding an actual means of was once making large gifts to a pleasing. and some one taking a surgeon's and cutting ^his hair or his nails That is what the — ! flatterer does. to bawl out. The matter . they were and to treat important interests without reticence or reservation. Listen. feel He employs his candour upon those parts which no pain or is soreness. one his a of his flatterers got bound to speak frankly up and said that. as free men. C indignant when I see how much alike all you sons of Zeus are in your fondness for flatterers and ridiculous persons. however. Heracles found pleasure in see what One Cercopes. But to his indulgence in cruelty and would keep and B outrage.210 Favpner and Friend was so in the case of Ptolemy. not one of all their number offered any opposition. the orator Cassius Severus is said to have * exclaimed. Dionysus in Sileni. They would fight with him about some out-of-the-way word or it bit of a verse or point of information. Such plain-speaking will be the man's death ' ! These devices. are of minor moment. Imagine a man suffering knife with tumours and abscesses. craftier species.* was the to being annoyed and you say? reply. interest When silence and had secured * he had thus aroused every one's and the attention of Tiberius. sacrificing your health and wearing it out by perpetually working and thinking for us.* day when the emperor Tiberius entered the Senate.' As he continued with a good deal more same strain. * * * I confess. he said. up till midnight. Caesar. and we can high regard you have yourself for people of the kind. ' How utterly absurd * ' What is that king turned upon him angrily and asked. but D no rest in the day or night. and giving yourself against you. You are neglecting yourself. to his tambourine-playing and initiating. the Argive. to the charge which we all make which no one dares to utter openly. When Alexander envy and vexation ! The drove Agis. when he made pretence to literary tastes.

If he sees at variance with your brothers. he offers neither remonstrance nor reproach. he may take him to task and raise objections. a toady reproaches e a prodigal spendthrift with sordid parsimony.Fawner and Friend becomes grave— is 211 as meaning ruin to foolish — people when a man accused of the opposite disorders to those with which he is afflicted . * No : you don't appreciate ' yourself. as Titus Petronius did Nero . bent on bringing himself and his children to starvation . for ' it is a of even quite insignificant people. Or if an ill-conditioned person who delights in perpetual fault-finding and scandalizing does happen to be led into praising some distinguished man. as when the parasite Himerius used to scold the meanest 3nd most avaricious plutocrat in Athens by calling him a reckless prodigal. weakness of yours. or when.' or. when Antony was becoming passionately enamoured of the Egyptian queen. on the contrary. for always playing the humble servant. this praising f What remarkable thing has he ever said or done ' ? Love-affairs are favourite upon you his victim ground for the flatterer to play by further inflaming his passion. or neglecting your parents. and adds fuel to the fire by pleading cause and accusing the lover of all sorts of unloverlike. his friends did their best to persuade him o 2 . but actually intensifies the bad feeling. all that gentle- To some the same silly class belongs the man who nincompoop as a clever pretends to look upon rogue of whom he is afraid and wary. or contemptuous towards your wife.' you that are But if anger 5i and jealousy provoke a tiff with a mistress of whom you are enamoured. It is to blame. and unforgivable conduct : O ingrate I after all that rain of kisses ! Thus. or when he urges a ruler who behaves with savage ' cruelty towards his subjects to divests himself of ness and ill-timed and mistaken clemency '. in comes flattery at once with a fine blaze of frankness. unfeeling.

' It would have been therefore truer to say that. exciting. — . Among wild animals. mendacious and passionate unfailing supporter and champion of the better part a physician — — who promotes and acts as watches over good health while a flatterer prompter to the passionate and irrational part. Though unmixed wine hemlock. c you make it impossible to counteract the power of the poison. and you leave her to suffer as she will. while aware that candour uses * is a potent corrective of flattery. the bite of a lascivious woman . arouses a provoking sensation of while pretending to give pain. But. the heart in thy breast is past all moving or charming. Bias was ' ' : is What animal wrong in his answer to the question * * the most dangerous ? when he replied. yet. So.' It gratified Antony to be thus put in the wrong . the other — and that a friend is the irrational. if is. and unconsciously he became perverted to the standard of the man who pretended kind is For candour of this like it to be reproving him. no praise could please him like these accusations . the despot. and they upbraided him with ' * cold and supercilious '. generally speaking. the heat driving it rapidly to the heart. the toady. like any concubine. among toadies. pleasure. your rogue actually candour as his instrument for flattering you. while those who thrust the D tentacles of their slanderous and malicious meddling into bedchamber and boudoir are savage and unmanageable beasts. The lady has forsaken all that royal state and that life of delightful enjoyments to go wandering B about on the march with you. among tame animals.212 being Fawner and Friend that the love was on her side. a corrective of you add it to that drug in the form of a mixture. those who merely frequent your bath and your table are tame. The one method of protecting ourselves appears to lie in recognizing and never forgetting that our mental being is made up of two parts one high-principled and rational. for thee.

' Are you afraid ? Then let us run away. If does nothing to help sane thought and judgement . which he proceeds to feed up . and put no vigour into muscle or marrow. the toady b of a sum of money.Fawner and Friend 213 titillating. and you will find it cosseting an amorous pleasure. begging you not to keep so tight a hand upon your body as to be cruel to it '. a friend will try to check you and will urge you to be cautious. There are some kinds of food which yield no benefit to blood or breath. you . and whenever there is a festering or inflammation of your mental state. and divorcing it from reason by inventing e low forms of self-indulgence on its behalf.' — — reason as these hard to catch him in connexion with such affections their strength being so overpowering as to baffle the give you a better opening in smaller matters . where there is a tendency to be ill-natured or mean-spirited or mistrustful. coaxing. he will say that there it will no immediate hurry. making the f feeling by constantly suggesting perpetually in wait for some passion or other. aggravating a foolish fit of anger or provoking an attack of envy. but have your scruples. bringing it to a head. whereas the toady will drag you to the bath. but watch it.' Are you sus' * picious? If it is Then trust the feeling. So with the advice of a. else. after you postpone the matter or send someone promising a friend to make him a loan or a present repent. If he sees you inclined to just as well if shirk a journey. If you are apprehensive 62 ^he will of a headache or a surfeit. you more bitter or shy or suspicious evil. for he will be just the same with them. ' Are Then punish. but simply excite the sensual appetites and make the flesh flabby and unsound. puffing you up with vulgar and empty pride. encouraging your doleful dumps. or a piece is of work. fawner. a voyage. and that do If.' Do you crave a thing ? Then buy you angry? it. and are doubtful as to bathing or taking food. or. and anticipating For he is will always find ' him a kind of bubo. or ask them to put some novel dish on the table.

open. and plenty of them. calling his witnesses and taking his oath. piqued. Such he when he * advocate to those passions and deviate from them. But the other is persistent. he disappointment. if you catch sight of him and speak to him first. and gathers from yours. indeed. he does not insist upon serving you at every turn. he always appears so prompt and indefatigable * in his zeal. so. and. and unaffected. he simply manifests by his expression. like the ' speech of truth ' by Euripides. that of the flatterer Sick in itselfJ needs antidotes full shrewd —uncommonly a friend. may take these as some . greets you from a long way off. a we is shall also be able to see when man is a toady. But the toady is on the run to overtake you. so * seeing that many persons to support. as described While a friend's way. unremitting. is single '. and. we are able to perceive our own covetousness. then. shamelessness. the kindly D understanding within. he excuses himself over and over again. and makes short work of your shame by urging you you have so many expenses and sense of If. to serve you . if he does is not get them. and with no more than a glance or a smile . unwearied . matter of actions. When you meet he sometimes passes on without uttering or receiving a word. is always playing the ' speaking his mind when we Enough having been said upon this topic. In this c respect the flatterer makes his distinction from the friend a very obscure and perplexing matter . to be economical. absolutely heart-broken with sensible A man. he leaves no opportunity or room for any one else he is eager to receive your orders. he corroborates * the argument of the purse *. or cowardice. A friend will neglect many a trifle he is no precisian and makes no fuss . we may next proceed to the question of the practical services rendered.* therefore. nay.214 Fawner and Friend throws his weight into the less honourable scale . So in the .

but when a man will for thy pleasure Make himself knave. or of an audience who give applause. Merope Get in the tragedy advises : thee for friends such men as. Lower than beggar. Even if you do grant weighing the matter and expressing an opinion not only so anxious to gratify you with his com- plaisance. that he leaves you to take your course. in promises. no matter. lock thou thy door against him. about he is Not so the flatterer. a beggar nay. . a rich It : is not easy to find man or a grandee who Is ready to say Give me a man. — — "3 friends Like the tragedian. The is first place.Fawner and Friend indications that a friendship is 11$ but is like a harlot who not sincere and single-minded. Pll make his face Softer than sponge . and speak his heart to me. It has already however. if he means me well To put fear by. and if His : a thing for achievementf while a time-server will put Foice it in this me the thought in thy mind. In the next place no friend will be a party to your actions f unless he has first been a party to planning them. ril make ripe pulp of him . or only lends spurs to your desire. him a share in it. but is in such dread of leading you to suspect him of unreadiness to face the action. E forces her embraces upon you before they are asked for. He must first have looked into the business and helped to it on a right put and proper footing. in which to look for the difference been well said oy previous writers that a friend will put his promise in the form familiar in IJ I have power to achieve it. then jiog me soundly. he must have the support of a chorus of who keep his tune. : The comedians present us with such characters Nicomachus. Tield not . : if not. when they speak. pit me against the soldier.

his assent. he exclaimed. Arcesilaus was a man of this type. It jof a friend. with the time-server. . therefore. and so consults your interests without your knowing it. are always dependent. he will exclaim. The simple kind of flatterer. but that they are bent. they abominate ' ' ' ' you . stretching. his opinion. Djdeep. What he asks in such important matters is not to be your adviser.manner in which a service is rendered. * when you speak ' you yield not '. even his pleasure and Here. How just managed to anticipate me. it is true. strange ! And You c if you give your own idea. but your minister and servant. So you will discover that. have in themselves no such thing as bending. being mental perceptions and incorporeal. but oppose them for their good. as jlike ja more apparent in the With the good feeling a physician who a friend does you is doctoring you. does not aim at so much. when Apelles the Chian was ill and Arcesilaus had discovered how poor he was. There is nothing here beyond Empedocles' four elements ' : Fire and water and earth and the gentle air of the heavens. and changed in position along with the bodies of which they are the boundaries. If. It is it is perfectly still .' Mathematicians tell us that lines and surfaces. with a living creature. was about to make exactly your suggestion. anger.21 6 ' Fawner and Friend B But such persons do the opposite. stretched. Not to mention other instances. they receive you not merely inside their locked doors but inside their most secret passions and concerns. its most vital functions lie is marked by no ostentatious display . but if for their pleasure you are a knave and a servile charlatan. but very often. But the more crafty person will stand still puzzling over the question with puckered brow and — appropriate changes of countenance —but I will ' say nothing. easv to detect the difference. or motion. he came hack later with twenty drachmae. turn by a word of intercession or by good conceals the fact that he [bringing < about an understanding. Taking a seat close to him.

It is a case and of a tense look intended to convey the impression of The thing resembles. and angles. wrinkles. enough to relate how the business has meant running about and anxiety. bustling. he laughed and It is that thief Arcesilaus. face. The accuser having asked for his ring. The same word may mean both theft and a ' stealthy act '. one of them. When Cephisocrates. you declare that the thing was not worth Any obligation thrown in your teeth will cause an unbearable and distressing sense of annoyance. single-minded. put his foot upon it and hid it. one of the coterie of Arcesilaus. and that for the most part they confer their benefits unperceived. with the rest of his friends. who had apparently f seen what occurred. after his acquittal. 6^ which strives to secure realistic effect by the use of blatant business. upon the arduous and urgent colours and affected folds. made askew. even your bed his pillow is and Friend all 217 that he it. bade him thank Lacudes. amaze- ment. bawling. and beside him. stood Lacudes.' With moved the e and meanwhile slipped the coins under ' When in ^ old woman in attendance found them and told Apelles said. We may believe that it is the same with the Gods.' * And here like unto we may note how philosophy produces children their sires \ Cephisocrates. and he goes on to describe how he has got into trouble with other people and had no end is He also offensive of worry and some terrible experiences. until it all. and gave an account of the affair. which Lacudes had mentioned to no one. it being their nature to find pleasure in the mere act of bestowing favours and doing good. Cephisocrates quietly dropped it at his side. sincere. On that ring depended the proof of the charge. .Favpner Why. ^ The Greek ' jest ' does not admit of translation. in fact. an overdone painting. went shaking hands with members of the jury. who had been impeached. was on his trial. and Lacudes. But in a deed done by a flatterer there is nothing honest. or generous. who noticed the action. of sweating.

though not in his misdeeds. there is virtue in Phocion's answer to Antipater. . to their expressions of admiration of the kindness. D should not choose even to be privy to the baseness of our friends . ! vote the forgoing of one day's dinner for ourselves and our beasts. were making terms. We and toady must help ' — a friend in his need. not in his knavery his plotting . an easier criterion consists in not. not in with testimony. he will dissuade courses. not conspiracy.21 8 Fawner and Friend but with an obligation from a time-server your sense of reproach and shame is felt at once. however. they stipulated that. qualifies his account of and about himself he says nothing. as A friend will not. Rather. not the folly. and in the different character of the pleasure or benefit. For example. him also from improper And. expect his friend to render him honest services and yet himself oblige that friend in many ways which : are not honest ^Tis his to share the wisdom. how then to be a party to their misbehaviour ? When the Lacedaemonians. from the very moment that the service B is being rendered. Gorgias asserted. to speak of the matter. Yes. ' if he fails. if he has occasion it. they * Not at all To scrape this together we had only to replied. both as friend and not friend. by the flatterer's offensive way of rendering nor by the recklessness of his promises that one c can best recognize the breed . and. his services the creditable or discreditable nature of the service. A friend. though he might impose any penalty . on the other hand.' A favour so rendered is not only a generous one . You cannot use me both as friend that is to say. and we must We share in his misfortunes. in his planning. it is made the more welcome to the recipients by the thought that no great harm It is is done to the benefactor. after their defeat by Antipater. the Lacedaemonians once sent the people of Smyrna some corn at a time of need. therefore.

you bid him show insolence to your wife's relations or bundle her is out of doors. therefore. and. with a He is unequal to any form of and incapable of helping you by effort. contribution. but when disgrace attaches to it. Order him to do any disreputable and discreditable thing you 65 choose. It is the same with Should occasion call for expense or danger or hard he is foremost in his claim to be summoned and take a work. The one is delighted to have many others giving and receiving affection with him. He cannot watch the house like a dog. he beyond is all pity or shame. prompt and zealous part . — a most competent f agent in an amour. nor carry like a horse. In services of difficulty and danger e he cries off. he thinks. alert no sloven in the ordering if of your dinner. he a friend. and his constant aim is to make his friend widely loved and honoured. He is therefore the bearer of scurrilous insult and buffoonery and the butt of sport.Fawner and Friend he liked. trample on him . This. if you give him a tap to sound him. promptly beg to be spared and left alone. . A very good indication of the wide difference between our fawner and a friend may be found in his attitude towards your other friends. deft at attentions to your mistress. his excuse will as fawner — whatever degrading it may be —rings false and mean. another easy means of finding him out. Precisely so with the toady. or in a fight . labour and serious a speech. But in vile and do as you like with him . But with the it is the reverse. little jobs. nor plough the ground like an ox. He holds that ^friends have all things in common '. an adept at ransoming a strumpet. and he is ready to spare no pains in gratifying you accordingly. 219 he should impose no disgrace. Look at the ape. and. his function being to serve as a tool for laughter. but in business which shuns the light he is promptitude itself at checking the bill for a drinking-bout. nothing shocb or insults him. and their friends.

If he fails. But the realizes.' was through these because he was eaten up with gangrenes and ulcers. therefore. in a picture were wretchedly done. And if the word in secret has given a scratch without at once absolutely producing a wound. Parmenio. Of his betters he stands in and dread. he is his like that he gives his only against jealousy play. and Philotas . bastard. therefore. the slander scars. the painter whose cocks his canvas as possible. so to — speak debasing by nature. that Alexander put Callisthenes. he cannot bear the test. This Medius was what may be called the D fugleman or expert conductor of the chorus of toadies who surrounded Alexander.226 B should be Fawner and Friend other —the more 'in common* than anything false. if Be bold the in laying is on and biting with your slanders. better than any one. and spurious article — else. and must Consequently he acts like be detected. not e*en lead the pure refined gold. for even man who It bitten salves the wound. and was at daggers drawn with the highest characters. light in weight. in secret fawn upon them and pay them court and deference as being he will throw out calumnious hints and suggestions. he never forgets Medius's maxim. while openly he will his betters. surface-gilt and counterfeit. his slave to drive and who therefore ordered from any real cocks as far In the same way the flatterer drives away real friends and prevents them coming near. or rather will leave its scar. and mint-made. While. as Simonides has it. by how he is himself sinning against friendship by — jealous it is its coinage. he finds himself c full-carat put in close comparison with genuine friendship. we cannot say because he is Plodding on foot against a Lydian car^ but because. His maxim ' was. striving to surpass them in grovelling fear and lickspittle tricks. he Hath To match If.

from outside : we come prepared. we recognize how all-important is the maxim Knozv Thyself to each of us. But only then. we shall be very slow in allowing to abuse us at his pleasure. are difficult of approach or assault for all who have designs upon them. and education. So powerful an effect e up has complaisance. his excesses in those things below his own standard. and apparently most of all with those who think them to give him a fall after the fashion of most of themselves. On our own part we shall 6S always discover that at many a point and in many a way our qualities are ugly or a source of pain. Their wish for the finest qualities goes with the belief that they possess them. and find that what we pay us compliments and eulogies. render us more f flattery amenable to if. defective or misdirected. a Bagoas. and allowed by salaaming to him and dressing him an oriental idol. There are in any case very few with the courage to treat a friend with candour rather than not a friend need who . and observe how all alike fall short of excellence in countless ways. but one who will bring us to book when we are really doing wrong. or a Demetrius. if we therefore examine our own nature. contain a large admixture of weakness in the things the flatterer Alexander remarked that what made him was give least credence to those who called him a God his sleep and his sexualities. Meanwhile he surrendered himself unreservedly to an Agesias. and so the flatterer For while lofty places acquires both credit and confidence. As therefore we urged at the beginning of this treatise. falling We shall see ourselves in is our true will light. conceit. But in obedience to the God. a 221 Hagnon. and how they all we do or say or feel. the lofty conceit produced in a foolish mind by the gifts of fortune or talent offers the readiest footing to those who are small and petty. by flattering us in advance.' These. so we * Let us make a clearance of self-love and selfurge again here . training.Fawner and Friend to death.

B When it is given at the wrong time the effect is to upset and pain you to no purpose. . The light must not be and distress at the invariable so strong that in our pain reproving fly and fault-finding we turn away to escape discomfort and to find shade with the flatterer. The^gliestjwaj^f is to give useless pain. our object should always be virtue. who thinks that. divest it of excess must be tempered by rational courtesy. Candour. * speech on equal terms means abusive avoid if we were ' speech. not the contrary vice. Some plead to themselves that D knaves than simpletons. they would rather be irreligious than superstitious.222 as Fawner and Friend complaisance . he turns from the steep unyielding surface and glides away into the receptive shallows. It will be easier to find persons who imagine scold. which. In a certain sense it does painfully what -^ flattery does pleasantly. that their behaviour becomes furthest from timidity and cowardice when they appear nearest to impudence and insolence. rather Their character may be likened to wood. Some people think they that they escape escape being shamefaced by being shameless . which will and over-severity. being rustic by being ribald . Philopappus. More than anything which drives a man headlong into the arms Like water. else it is a thing of the flatterer. inasmuch as unseas onab le blame works as much harm as unseasonable praise. through lack of the skill to straighten they crook to the opposite side. to be properly enjoyed. therefore. Our social intercourse must be boorishly ignorant of all the rules of good feeling when it is by being harsh and disagreeable that we refusing to flatter any creeping humbleness in our friendship. just as the freedman in the comedy. yet among these few it will be hard to find such understand their business. a piece of it. c In shunning a vice. Yet it is that they are using candour because they abuse and with plain-speaking as with any other medicine.

he patiently gave way. candour '. the friendly purpose and good sense of the speech causing him to draw in his horns. by taking the greatest care not to let it appear as if your reproaches were due to a kind of injury or grievance of your own. The reason was that. but A terrible man. was only for the sake of Greece. but * —in . while a faultfinder provokes recrimination and contempt. When the speaker is concerned about himself. as grumbling. the vexation of Achilles was thought to be chiefly on his own account. We therefore respect and admire the person who is frank. as it were. who had no private 6y grounds for anger. The first thing is to divest it of its selfish aspect. For whereas candour is a mark of friendliness which compels respect. but when Odysseus attacked him bitterly in the words Madman^ thou shouldst have commanded some othery some pitiful army. not of goodwill . Though Achilles f imagined he was speaking lost his with but reasonable frankness.Fawner and Friend it as 223 an ugly thing when our striving to be Since. dictate the conclusion to our treatise. we find. is liable to be. tainted in various ways. who must blame^ e'en though it be blaming the blameless. and an ugly thing when. . lands us in flattery. grumbling is petty and selfish. Nay. we regard his words as the outcome of anger. and since we ought to commit draw as in other things — success from moderation mere logical sequence seems to t. Agamemnon temper . though possessed of no sweet or gentle temper. not as reproof. therefore. all the spirit of friendly sympathy is ruined by immoderate plain-speaking neither mistake. Achilles himself. while the plain-speaking of Odysseus. in the agreeable avoidance of flattery. Plain-speaking.

you discovered had made a voyage to Sicily with the intention of doing you an injury. but for what they propose to do. but that he could find no opportunity. By B so comes it thy heart is void of all mercy. the sharpness and severity of the admonition —other reasons — for which he does c being intensified by the kindliness of the admonisher. asked for an inter- view. ' The conversation. When pure gratuitous. Plato. it is on behalf of other victims of neglect that we give them a Plato.* away scot-free? ' ' * Plato. however. from any private face unabashed. Dionysius granted a tale of it. at variance with our friends that we should do or devise some' thing to their advantage or credit . some one comes here in a friendly spirit. it is casting aside any wrongs his friend may have that it is other misdemeanours on his part if. Doubtless. ' it is most of all when we are angry or as has been well said. it is a thing of awe. The orator Hypereides used to urge the Athenians to consider not merely whether he was angry. at a time when his relations plain-spoken reminder. with Dionysius were strained and dubious. when a man is bringing home not shrink from giving him pain such candour produces an irresistible effect. but we show no less true a friendliness if. which we cannot And is . Thetis no mother of thine . when we think ourselves slighted or neglected.' said do. in the belief that Plato was coming with grievance of his own. with the . but whether his anger was So with the admonition of a friend. manifest that he done to himself which he is speaking his mind.' said Dionysius : enemies must be hated and punished not only for what they * Then suppose. feeling. Dionysius. from the green-grey sea wert thou gotten beetling crags . took the following shape. D that some ill-disposed person Suppose. Would you allow him to leave the country and get * Certainly not.2 24 Man Favoner and Friend him many such hard blows : silently permitted Patroclus to give of no pity^ no father of thine was Peleus the horseman.

off as to badly Heaven forbid you should ever become know more about these things than I do ' 68 Epicharmus. you did not invite your friends '. compare with any fail cannot made of Socrates' associates. Though he has e a long voyage for the sake of philosophic intercourse left in neglect. but. ' Nay. when that monarch attempted to argue with him on ' a question of musical note so ' ! Sire. The words may equally mean You issued no invitation when sacrificing your friends.Farmer and Friend 2.'^ It ' also a mistake for Antiphon. so long as it is so prettily put as to maintain our respect . when invited Hiero. our candour must be cleared of all excrescences. so to speak. in admiration of his kindliness and magnanimity. In the same way candour admits of a dexterous touch of wit. he man who. ' : ' 546*19 p . if intention of rendering you a service. When a surgeon is performing an operation. he promptly embraced Plato with effusion and proceeded to pay to Aeschines the most distinguished attentions.' said he. Hence the harpist chose a polite as well as a forcible way of stopping Philip's mouth. when the question What : was * The point lies in an ambiguity which is possible only in the Greek. on the other hand.' said he. In the second place. but impertinent and insolent buffoonery utterly destroys that feeling. a certain ease and neatness f should be incidentally apparent in his work. a Upon Dionysius asking who it was.* with you. but that you afford him no chance. but there should be no supple juggleries of the hand in the way of fantastic and xisVy jioriture. ' the other day there was no invitation to your sacrifice of your friends. he has been These words stirred Dionysius so deeply that. and whose teaching to set any hearer firmly on his feet. Is it a proper thing to cast him aside with ingratitude and contempt answered. a feA^ days after putting some of his familiars to death.' and when sacrificing. will ' ' ? Aeschines. him to dinner. We must allow it no coarse flavourings in the shape of insulting ridicule or buffoonish mockery. in rightness of character. chose the wrong way.

' Harmodius and Aristogeiton No good is done by the stinging bitterness of such speeches. impart a cogent and moving effect to your words by your emotions. It is the same with the comic poets. with the result that the speaker was looked upon as an ill-natured buffoon. but c these were so food in a and ribaldry— good — that their plain-speaking hotch-potch of greenstuff much mixed up with farce like power and use. Language of the B kind comes only from a want of self-command which is partly insolent ill-nature combined with enmity. In other cases by all means have your fun and laugh with your but when you give them a piece of your mind. lost all nutritive friends. For whatsoever him thought might move the Argives advance some charge against his laughtery conduct as a friend. and tone of voice. and the hearer derived no benefit from the speech. to say. let it be done with earnestness and with courtesy. not because of any free word he ever uttered. To disregard it is in all cases a serious mistake.2 2 (J sort of bronze is Fawner and Friend the best ' ' ? of Dionysius. but is particularly ruinous to speaking your mind '. That we jhould beware of doing anything of the kind when wine and good results when you are ' . at dinner-parties or when walking. he would perpetually but to and with no serious purpose whatever. There is also the question of the right moment. Timagenes was banished from Caesar's friendship. merely by way of pretext for upbraiding him. And if the matter is one of importance. gestures. but because. statues of is That kind out was under discussion in the presence of which they made the at Athens. Their work contained many serious and statesmanlike appeals to the audience . they are veritably * dancing a dance at the well's edge '. Those who use it — — are courting their own destruction as well . Antiphon was put to death by Dionysius . nor any pleasure given by their scurrilous pleasantry.

and they trample upon him. grief. instead of showing spirit and courage. you moot which puckers the brow and stiffens the face. neither make any claim nor possess the courage to put restraint upon them. and tipsiness often takes command of candour and converts it into enmity. therefore. there is actually great danger in such unseasonableness. upon him.Fawner and Friend inebriation are to the fore. Wine renders the mind perilously testy. as if to defeat the Relaxing God \ who to quote Pindar over the bright sky. He is tame and humbled. Nay. however. Prosperity. There are many who. and they that they thoroughly enjoy his change of fortune and make the most of it. If Euripides asks : When fortune blesses^ it is what the need of friends? the answer must be that the prosperous man who has most f need of friends to speak their minds and take down any excess of pride. in the midst of fun and gaiety. is 227 to bring a cloud d obvious. no need to dwell further upon this theme. Moreover. to discuss this class also. it shows a want of manliness for a person who dare not speak his mind when sober to become bold at table. Most men require to import wisdom from abroad . like a cowardly dog. ' a topic — — Unbends the harassed hrozv of care. There are few who can be both prosperous and wise at the same time. There is. and now they let the whole flood so feeble. they require that reasoning from outside should put compression upon them when fortune puffs them up and sets them swaying in the wind. lies quite beyond But should one stumble and come to they set upon him. It is as well. when affairs are going well with their e friends. they think. He was once so disdainful. the reach of admonition. Let us proceed. But when fortune reduces their P 2 . It is if. The stream of their candour has been unnaturally loose dammed up.

is than the disease to be self-indulgence. Xenophon says of Clearchus that in battle and danger there appeared upon his which put greater heart into those who were in peril. the situation own lesson and brings repentance home. c ness and help.' ' What an unseasonable man you are ! I am writing ' my for will . your rich dishes. his drinking. it by exasperating For instance. his shirking of work to an eye suffering with inflammation or relieve the pain. When a little child has a fall. when a man is in health he is not in the least angry or furious with a friend for blaming his looseness with the other sex. and your women. washes off the dirt.2 28 Fawner and Friend itself carries its is inflated bulk. But to employ your mordant candour upon a man face a look of geniality who is in trouble. This It is more sickening the result of your reckless your laziness. when he banishment and was living at Thebes in mean and obscure It was with no pleasure that he saw Crates circumstances. his continual bathings sick. But when he is the thing ' is intolerable. consequently no occasion for candour or for language which bites and distresses. friendly There When 69 such reverses happen. She picks it up. the nurse does not rush up in order to scold it. What it requires is sweet reasonable- and you come preaching and philosophizing So. and ill-timed gorgings. man is in trouble. coming towards him. verily ^Tis sweet to look into a friend* s fond eyes. It is afterwards that she proceeds An was in apposite story is told of Demetrius Phalereus. while he gives us solace and encouragement. inasmuch as he expected to hear some . and straightens its dress. told. but only adds anger to sharp-sight drops It does nothing to cure and exercise. the situation is not one for speaking . the doctors are getting castor and scammony ready ! me when a your mind and moralizing. to reprimand and punish. is like * * administering B the sufferer.

He seizes upon your change of fortune with every appearance of delight and enjoyment. by such language. and how little need there was to be distressed. Crates. ought a friend to be uncompromising full ? ? When proper should he exert his candour to the It is when the moment calls for him . At the same time he urged him with their dangers and to have con' fidence in himself and his inner man.Fawner and Friend plain-spoken cynic abuse. to stem the to vehement course of . : full oft did I seek to dissuade In what cases. Cheered and heartened Alas. Such was the method of Cyrus with Cyaxares. Solon spoke his mind to him. anger. Such is the way of a noble friend. It put the curb on avarice this to f was in way that. It was in this way that Socrates was wont to put control on Alcibiades. when Dion's . uncertainties. however. d since it — meant getting rid of cares. then. or insolence restrain a reckless folly. to wrench his heart and draw genuine tears from him by bringing his errors home. when the precarious favours of fortune had corrupted Croesus with the. Such too. If you do require any reminder when your own ill-advised conduct has brought you to the ground. and then spoke upon the subject of exile how there was no calamity in it.pride of luxury. then you begin to feel them '. Demetrius exclaimed to his friends for all that engrossing business which prevented me from getting : to know a man like this ' ! To one in grief a friend should speak kind words. flatterer of the prosperous ' man is But the mean and ignoble like those ruptures and e * sprains of which Demosthenes tells us that ' when the body meets with an injury. But to great folly words of admonition. : it should suffice to say ^Twas not with approval of mine thee. pleasure. bidding him wait and see the end. accosted 229 him gently.

are often offered his friend by a man himself. For instance. being Philip was on way to fight the Greeks. . was defeated. should let these occasions Sometimes a question asked. But not so Euctus and Eulaeus. Upon Philip welcoming him and inquiring how far the Greeks were in harmony with each other. But when he met the Romans at Pydna. who Philip. reminding him of his errors and oversights and throwing them one after the other in his teeth.' his A good hit was also made by Diogenes. the associates of Perseus. was brought before him. while you allow your own house to be so It full of —remarked. a story told. had entered the camp. then. always assenting. always com- and fled. like ' ' the rest. and Diogenes. until the B man became so utterly sore and angry that he made an end of both by stabbing them with his dagger. they attacked him with bitter censure. Speusippus also urged Dion in his letters not to be proud because he had a great name among children and women-folk. and intimate friend becomes you excellently. was 70 the method of Plato. may serve for the general rule as to place and time. make glorious the Academy by adorning Sicily with piety and justice and the best of laws. This. Philip. In his prosperity but to take care and they followed him plaisant. to be asking about the harmonious relations of Athens and the Peloponnese. the cue for a piece of plain-speaking. praise of a similar action in the case of other people. and slip But opportunities no one who cares for or omit to use them. the gives you story goes that Demaratus visited Macedonia at a time when blame or c Philip was at variance with his wife and son. Demaratus * —who was his well-wisher feud and discord. who bade him keep anxious watch against Self-will f house-mate of Solitude.230 splendour was Fawner and Friend at its height and he was drawing all men's eyes upon him by the brilliance and greatness of his exploits.

Another good opportunity for admonition occurs when a man has been abused for his mistakes by some one else and is feeling small and humbled. spy upon the short-sighted foolishness which induces you to come. Meanwhile the glance he threw at us vinegar his own boy ' brought the reproach home to the guilty parties. Remember the case of Plato. if there least give his all these faults for which they abuse you ? By this means the abuser gets the credit of the pain. asked I 231 a spy. else. when Pythagoras once dealt rather roughly with a pupil before a number of persons. person of discretion will make a happy A use of the occasion by sending the abusive parties to the right about and himself taking his friend in hand. would you not have done better ' if you had The story goes that. * Would ' ' it not have retorted said that been better ' if this had been said in private ? And/ Socrates. f Socrates having handled one of his associates somewhat vigorously in conversation at table. ' Some know are more subtle. ' How can they open their mouths or say another word. and the admonisher that of the benefit. ordered his freedman to give a whipping. reminding him is no other reason for being careful. * Certainly ' I am a am. In the next place. he should at enemies no encouragement. aware that some of his class had not lunched as simply as they might. Plato remarked. Ammonius. if you cast aside once for e that.Fawner and Friend unacquainted with him. on the charge that he must have with his lunch '. Once at a lecture in the afternoon our professor. was perhaps somewhat too forcible. and from that time Pythagoras never . This.' he replied. without any compulsion. and risk d him if he was your throne and person upon the cast of a single hour. to me in private ? the youth hanged himself. we should be cautious of speaking plainly to a friend before company. They convert their familiar friends by blaming some one accusing others of the things they that those friends do.' however.

When not so much Cleitus enraged Alexander. In the same way the friendly candour which most abashes is that which itself feels abashed. it was. the fault of the wine as that he appeared to be . since regard is contagiously felt where regard is shown. or a teacher in that of his pupils. Excellent. is the notion : Putting his head hear it. therefore. He becomes frantic . but of off a sophist. showing before the company like those medical men who perform surgical operations in the theatre in order to advertise themselves. so sore and angry is he at being set right before persons in whose eyes he is all anxiety to shine. I imagine. And apart from the insult which has no right to — accompany any curative treatment we have to consider the contentiousness and obstinacy of a man in the wrong. a lover in the presence of the beloved. you drive any moral disease or passion into becoming shameless. if old men are to inculcate reverence in the young. Let it be gently and considerately that you approach and handle the offender . to use another's slips to glorify oneself. The uncovering and 7' prescribing should be secret. not an ostentatious display to a gathering of witnesses or spectators. It is not the act of a friend. to the end that the rest should not c Least propriety of all is there in exposing a husband in the hearing of the wife. then you undermine and destroy his vice. close down. Plato insists that. they must themselves first show reverence towards the young. be treated like a humiliating complaint. Not merely is it — the case that — as Euripides has it — Love^ when reproved^ Is but more tyrannous^ B but if you make no scruple about offering reproof in public. a father before the eyes of his children.232 \ Fawner and Friend A fault should again reproved anyone in another's presence.

Once. . your plain-speaker ought to bear in mind e the principle which Thucydides makes the Corinthians so properly express. desire is is another of the mistakes to be avoided.' said did drop off. you * ' we ought to set you right privately. they. In the next place. he sent Aristomenes a cup of poison and ordered him to drink it off.' As the result. in saying that they ' had a right to find fault ' was Lysander. thyself one mass of sores ? often happens that. It ' to back your talk. Aristophanes also tells us how Cleon tried to exasperate the Athenians against him by making it a charge that he before foreigners. your not so much to make a self-advertising display as to make your candour produce helpful and healing results. doubtless. the tutor ^ of Ptolemy. f sufficed to convert weight and When we lack to better ways. you need character but in no case is this so true as when you are admonishing and lecturing other people. thanks to hard work and want of sleep. and the mere sight of Xenocrates at lecture. In any case. If. and a glance from him. call it though a man's own Or what French would the gouverneur.Fawner and Friend humbling him before a large 233 company. who said to the man from Megara. d and affected to be indignant on the king's behalf. not lay hands on you before so many people. when he was delivering himself at the Federal Council concerning the interests of Greece. I believe. Another case is that of Aristomenes.' for plain-speaking. The flatterers seized the opportunity. then. Ptolemy fell asleep and Aristomenes gave him a hit to wake him up. You need a country with others. if Abused the country This. when an embassy was in the room. of character the result of any attempt at strength Polemon is plain-speaking on our part to draw upon ourselves the words : Why Nevertheless ^ physic us. Plato used to say that it was by his life he admonished Speusippus.

but as not be taken as being himself free from feeling it a duty to share with them in the cultivation of virtue and the quest of truth. . But if. since we yield more readily to a show of fellow-feeling than to one of contempt. He would ignorance. forgetting our prowess and valour f 72 and : But no match are we now jor Hector Socrates' alone. but speedily repented Lest the Achaeans should name his father it ' — me * the man who murdered Achilles.2 34 is Fawner and Friend as character drive weak as that of his him to administer reproof. introduced the story of his set to own misfortunes —how in anger : he work to kill his father. it is We inspire affection and confidence when we are applying to our friends the thought that. in reproving he claimed to be an impeccable person whom anger had no power to corrupt. Since a mind diseased can no more bear unqualified candour and reproof than an inflamed eye can c be submitted to a brilliant light. In such cases the moral effect sinks was of set purpose. circumstances In that case the civillest to imply that the speaker tone are the words : behaviour is to contrive somehow In this included in the reproach. one most useful resource . Tydeus^ sotif what ails us. when rebuking your neighbour. being equally to blame. . unless you are much the senior or possess an acknowledged eminence of I B character and reputation. . might not seem as if. you do no good and only make yourFor this reason. same correction as to our- selves. you put on the . is neighbour. Another point. way of quietly setting young men right was of the same kind. superior air of a flawless and passionless being. when Phoenix self offensive and a nuisance. that it in.

with the exception — of his parents. it sets a man at rivalry with himself. there is also a vigorous rallying power in such language as Where now Is Oedipus and all his far-famed rede? or : Is He who Not only inflicted hath borne so it many a H Heracles. thou^ whose sire was Greece^ s hero J . Thus Agamemnon can little like to say : Truly. where Where If a is thy bow. But when we make comparisons with others — ^with mates. instead of harassing ? must therefore beware of belauding one person while we are speaking our minds to another always. he is ashamed of those which degrade him. Then why me ' don't you go to my betters. hut with you is my heart exceedingly angered : Pandarus. brunt. If Hwere some other who thus might hold his hand from the fighting. of course. or is kinsmen ' —the conWe tentiousness which belongs to his failings piqued and exacer- bated. a son himself hath Tydeus begotten .Fawner and Friend among our remedies example : 23^ For is to add a slight tincture of praise. speaks thus ? does temper the harshness of the punishment d When by the reproach . : ^ or Odysseus. the which no man among us doth challenge F is man giving way. Ugly is this that ye do. It has a habit of retorting angrily. to cease from your valour and prowess^ All ye best of the host ! I would not move me to quarrel. Some craven man . reminded of the things which stand to his credit. and where thy feathery arrows? thy glory. when in Scyrus But thou Wool-spinner ! o^ersham^st the brilliance of thy race. and he finds an elevating example in his own person. fellow citizens.

No ! while a friend will. for his own part. the very thing which gives your plain-speaking it as were — to speak.' It is the duty of a friend to accept the odium of reproof questions of great when moment are at stake. It is better.2^6 Fawner and Friend By no means should we use reproof to answer reproof. Once when a man with an ulcerated showed the physician Philotimus a sore on his finger. carefully avoid such unremitting censoriousness. 73 Well In the next place. the doctor observed. you remind let his friends him that it When. For this. grudge. not as a return of candour. Otherwise we quickly produce heat and create a quarrel. F but as intolerance of it. such disputatiousness is naturally regarded. if at a later time some offence of his own calls for reproits bation. remember the saying of Thucydides advised is he who accepts unpopularity in a great cause. But if he is everywhere and always being displeased if he behaves to his intimates as if he were their tutor and not their friend. not anger and this fault-finding. He will have frittered away his candour. good feeling which prompt ' : payment in return. — right right. after the manner of a physician who takes a pungent or bitter drug B of a sovereign and costly character. or plain-speaking in counter-attack to plain-speaking. . your case is not a matter of a whitlow So when some one is finding fault liver ' ' ! . My good sir. and parcels it out in a large number of petty doses for which there is no necessity. therefore. the incessant niggling and pettifogging of some other person will afford him an opening to attack those faults which are more serious. his reproofs will \ possess no edge and produce no effect when it comes to matters / of importance. but to teach them better and set them he will be the more ready to give in and accept the . without bearing any has not been his own habit to go wrong. proffered correction for he will believe that it is and good intention. Moreover. to listen with a good grace when is a friend believes he is reproving you.

First we warm and fuse them with praise . intolerable even to a child or a brother. let our friend here dismiss his mistress or stop dicing. he will take it in speaks his mind against those good part when a friend which are of more moment. nay. in fact. on all occa- to be continually meddling and taking cognisance of is every action. minded friend. folly of unendurable even to Again. to be bitter and harsh sions. and we should keep an than upon their errors. What have his tippling and foolery to do with us ? My good sir. away ' I0 the mountain or to the wave of the surging tumultuous ocean ! and A sleep sensible physician will always rather cure a sick man with a right- and feeding than with castor and scammony . that Our eye upon these no less no more true of the our friends than it is — All things are wrong with friends have their right actions. quiet application of candour serves as a tempering douche. a slave.Fawner and Friend with a 237 ' number of insignificant peccadilloes. We should. or a kind father or teacher. and what nature is meant you with it for. the real friend will be offered the opportunity of saying to him. For a candid . it is — despite Euripides of old age. it. In dealing with iron we have first to soften it with heat before the chilling process d can impart to it the consistency and hardness of steel. for instance. begin by zealously praising them. So with our friends. the opportunity of saying. But to be everlastingly girding. and he is otherwise an admirable fellow. prefers to use praise e rather than blame as his means of moral correction. Is there any ' comparison between the other conduct and this ? Do you see what good fruit comes of doing the right thing ? This is what your friends expect of you . The other conduct abominable .' If a man finds that allowance is made c for his trifling errors. it is like you. then a We have.

not that but B Now Thou that thou hast the Trojan burghs in sight. nor try to stop him if he defends friend to cause least pain and himself. we must help him to contrive some when he refuses to own to the we must ourselves concede him a less says to his brother : heinous one. we wish him up and stimulate the matter We should do so by making charges which put is in an outrageously unbecoming light. For instance. and him. when Odysseus Achilles is angry at the affair of the banquet. manifestly * more courteous ' to say. more discreditable motive. F as if his retirement from the battle. Thus Hector Not well is this zvrathy foolish man. Do seduce the * candour . to say. to Flee from the woman's seductions.' or. ' think. — to about to do wrong and that we are called stem the current of some vehement that he is Or suppose inclined to be unready in the to brace performance of duty. there is nothing showing the least possible anger and treating the offender (with polite good feeling. . kind of plausible excuse and. Do badly '. '. was an exhibition of temper.' than Stop trying to the manner cultivated by curative the other belongs to vexatious candour. woman a This is Suppose person is upon to check him impulse. sharply confute him if he denies a thing. in Sophocles. that thus thou hast stored in thy bosom.238 1 Faroner and Friend (like work most benefit.' than ' ' You did not You behaved stop to or ' You behaved ' unfairly ' . You failed to perceive. instead of being a dastardly running away. working upon Achilles. art afraid.' than say. On the contrary. he makes out. not be jealous of your brother ' . So Nestor to Agamemnon : Thou It is didst yield to the pride of thy spirit. therefore. . We must not. not be hard upon ' 74 your brother.

and insistent. a man of magnificent generosity with that of miser and cheeseparer. we must show ourselves reasonable Where . Achilles is so off home : / know what His thou fly est not reproach Hector is nigh. or red-hot enemies. he eases it with gentle lotions and fomentations. and 'tis not well to stay. is past cure. For this reason d we must study tact even in the matter of candour. Diogenes used to say that.Fawner and Friend And when. — : In inciting to high courses and dissuading from low ones. the other will expose you. finally. He sting admonitions are to be tactful. is no more than we find if enemies doing to each other. we does not use his lancet and then leave the part to suffer . we must be vigorous. As it is the most effective drug that can be employed in friendship. a thing our candour c must display more sorrow and sympathy than blame. inflexible. much . so it stands in most need of unfailing discretion have said. and soothe e as sculptors and calm the patient with courteous language. But it is better to avoid errors by taking advice than to repent of an error because of abuse. a man of temperance and self-control with that of profligate . Similarly. if our should often cause pain to the person under must take a pattern by the medical man. But when we are preventing a misdeed or fighting against a passion. you must possess either good friends The one will warn you. we do not administer a sharp and then run away. it is in as to time and moderation as to strength. declares he in is 239 enraged that he answer to this. And. Then is the right moment for incorruptible affection To blame an action when it is done and genuine frankness. as I it the nature of plain- speaking that treatment. you are to be kept right. since. We adopt a different strain. we may frighten a man with the reputation he will win a man : of courage and spirit with that of coward .

plain-speaking and then leave him in the rough lumpy and uneven with anger it is a hard matter afterwards to call him back and smooth him over.240 Fawner and Friend put smoothness and gloss upon a statue where they have chipped If we strike and gash a man with it with hammer and chisel. nor allow the last words of his conversation to be such as pain and exasperate his intimate friend. is a result against — — which the admonisher must be especially on his guard. This. therefore. He must not leave the patient too soon. .

Diophantus. as a means of securing soundness of character. and fund of confidence for facing the world lies therefore in this must be a first consideration with all are anxious for a right is and proper procreation of children. Themistocles' son. 546*19 Q . See the Introduction. Perhaps the best starting-point is that at which they are brought into existence. whether on I Upon one who b mother's or father's side. is reported to have said on occasions and to a thing ^ Thus many liked. What he This article in all probability not the work of Plutarch. Base birth. and it is a wise saying of the poet that When Amiss ^ needs must the the foundation of a stock issue he is laid unhappy. stout-hearted though he he. natural that those whose birth is of base metal quite not bear scrutiny should tend to be weak-spirited which will and abject. it offers a handle to those who are minded to discredit or vilify him . i children desires to become the father of reputable would urge that he should be careful as to his consort. A sure who It honourable birth. no doubt equally the case that persons of distinguished parentage become full of pride and self-assertion. It sticks to a man all the days of his life .ON BRINGING UP A BOY' I PROPOSE to offer some remarks upon the bringing-up of free-born children. She must be no mistress or concubine. is an indelible reproach. To know It is his mother or his father base. many persons that he had only to wish for for ' and the Athenian people voted is it. The poet is quite right in saying : c It slaves a man.

It is that those who approach their wives with a view to offspring should do so either while wholly abstaining from wine or at least after tasting it in moderation. c the lessons and precepts are the seed. all Athens liked.' So much for the question of of upbringing. instruction without nature futile . the actual use. and what Themistocles liked. customary for right action three things must go together. the teacher the farmer. the consummation. whom and others who have won imperishable glory. men whose renown is universal —Pythagoras. we must say of virtue what to say of the arts and sciences — that . character must necessarily be maimed. It may be confidently asserted that all three were harmoniously blended in the souls of those Plato. In farming. namely. he was drunk. from practice . by habit I mean exercise. Nature without instruction is is blind . abortive. In this connexion there sors also is one observation which my predeces- have duly made. is the man on . . next. the farmer must know his business with education. By reason I mean instruction . third. We will now turn it is to that Speaking generally. In so far as any of these is defective. and divinely favoured. Socrates. of kings. Similarly is Nature the soil.' A most praiseworthy pride was that exhibited by the Lacedaewhen they mulcted their own king Archidamus for condescending to marry a woman of small stature. the soil must first practice without both is be good . their plea being that he intended to provide them with kinglets instead monians. the seeds is must be sound. from all combined. This explains the remark of Diogenes on seeing a youth in a state of 2 mad excitement ' : Young fellow. and habit. reason. from instruction . The ]} first elements come from nature progress. Themistocles liked .242 D his On Bunging up a Boy liked . Blest indeed. mother what his mother liked. your father begat you when birth. nature.

. whereas. it. You have only to glance at a number of everyday facts in order D : to perceive how complete is the success of persistent effort. when there are so many examples of the most savage creatures being tamed and made ? and full of amenable to hard work ? Q2 . Nor are these the only examples to prove the efficacy of painstaking. 243 a great. by dint of straining. Drops of water will hollow a rock of the hands . Indeed. and you secure it. its fruit when well and brings to perfection? properly trained. it will prove temper But why dwell longer on such cases. however easy take pains. iron and bronze are worn away by the touch wood bent by by actors is pressure into a carriage-wheel can never recover its original straightness. stronger than the natural. whereas. no right moral instruction and practice will lead one to improve his faulty nature in some attainable degree. Be careless. whereas a feeble physique gains immensely Is in strength through gymnastic and athletic exercise ? there any horse which a rider cannot render obedient by f if a thorough breaking-in.On Bringing up a Boy Heaven has bestowed each and is all. For while neglect will ruin an excellent natural gift. it bears Does not bodily strength invariably become effete when you take your ease and neglect to keep in good condition. teaching will correct an inferior one. and you miss a thing. but neglect it is and it becomes a waste. the unnatural form having become. when natural gift defective. Soil may be naturally e good. yet cultivation will speedily cause it to produce excellent crops. mistake to suppose that. the better by nature. To straighten the curved sticks used impossible. On the other hand. Instances are countless. Is there any tree which will not grow crooked and cease to bear fruit if left untended. it may be too hard and rugged . the more hopeless a wilderness will your neglect make of it. stiff-necked left unbroken. Yet it would be or rather a total. however difficult.

^ One more illustration. That * — The play upon words * {Uhikas. as the saying goes. will dispense with further elaboration of the subject. and it would scarcely be beside 3 the mark to speak of the virtues of the * mind and we as the virtues of minding'. who were not yet in the secret. The one he turned into a gluttonous good-for-nothing. his answer was a good one But it is useless to multiply instances. moral * and * ethikas. while the other made for the plate. but the difference in their education has turned the one into a glutton and the other into a hunter. . for their nursing will be of is more sympathetic and painstaking kind. Character is long-standing habit. The Lacedaemonians. He put down directly in front of then brought forward the two young them a plate of food and a and let the dogs loose . hare.' whereas the affection of professional nurses and foster-mothers who are paid for it—can only be spurious and factitious. Subsequently he got the A great factor B in engendering virtue consists of habit and education of instruction in the conduct of life as I am about to prove to Lacedaemonians together and said to them ' : — — you here and now. since their love heart. failed to perceive the meaning of his demonstration. are giving up war.^44 When ^^ Bringing up a Boy a Thessalian was asked which of his countrymen were : Those who the gentlest in manner. In my opinion mothers should nurse their offer own children and a them the breast . or. We may c proceed to the question of nurture. the other into a keen and capable hunting-dog.' dogs.' No more need be said of habit and conduct of life. until he told them ' : Both these dogs come from the same parents. ' from the down to the finger-tips. of habit ') is not adequately translatable. whereupon the one darted after the hare. The Spartan legislator Lycurgus once took two puppies belonging to the same parents and brought them up in entirely different ways.

e To begin with. As soon as children are born. with a pair of breasts. Here Providence further shows its wisdom. . or on the way. indeed. it seems to me. Moreover she will by so acting become more It can. Similarly their characters ought to be regulated \4^ I from the the first. inasmuch as it if has furnished a woman so that. But vented by physical weakness. a brute beast will yearn for its nursling. it and it is while for 1 acts as a mould instruction. there . also : sound advice which the poet child.On Bringing up a Boy it is 145* the duty of the mother herself to suckle and nurse her offspring is evident from the arrangement of nature. That otherwise their minds folly may become It is infected from the first with and corruption. it is she is preother children are speedily at least desirable not to accept as foster-mother as if — may sometimes happen — or nurse the first that offers. of a seal. weV \ have to mould their limbs in order that they may grow straight \ and shapely. but to choose the best possible. great thinker Plato is right. It is as with ^ the treatment of the body. If possible. mind is still For youth is supple and soft and yielding that is plastic. scarcely be is the connexion of nurse and nursling its the means of raising affection to highest pitch. even she bears twins. then. which has supplied every animal after parturition with the necessary provision of milk. whereas it anything hard. you tear them the mother should endeavour to nurse the if child herself. d may be a double source for them to draw upon tender and affectionate to her child. it hehoveth Phocylides gives in the words While yet hut a To learn such deeds as are good. so it is always difficult to knead into shape f wax that we make the impression in the minds of those who are still little children As it is in soft that we imprint a lesson. her character should be Greek. otherwise . in exhorting a nurse to use discretion in the tales she tells to young children . One can if see how even apart.

or money-lenders. because they are not . as to Before making inquiry the proposed teachers. and whose skill and experience c are of the best. first. maybe. through rubbing against barbarians and bad characters. or.24^ On Bringing up a Boy Another point which we cannot afford to omit concerns the slave children who are to serve the young master and to be brought up with him. A fit and proper attendant should possess the same qualities of mind as Phoenix. Otherwise. for saying If you have a lame man for a neighbour^ you mil : learn to limp. What actually happens often in the highest degree absurd. they put their children into the hands of frauds and charlatans. skippers. it especially necessary to take pains in the appointment of such a person. while any low specimen who is found to be a glutton and a tippler and of no use in any kind of business is taken and put in charge of the sons. that 4 they shall be well-behaved. and talk it with good articulation. the attendant of Achilles. As farmers put lessons stakes beside their plants. reach a topic more important and vital than any yet treated that of the right teachers for our children. stewards. Otherwise we shall have them entrusted to some uncivilized or B is rascally fellow. but also that they shall talk Greek. Pains must be taken. traders. of course. Respectable slaves are made into farmers. a The root or fountain-head of character as lies man and a gentleman in receiving the proper education. the behaviour of some fathers is contemptible. As things are. When becomes children reach the age to be put under a mentor. The kind to be sought for are those whose lives are irreproachable^ We now — whose characters are unimpugned. without knowing what they are about. so the right kind of teacher provides firm support for the young in the shape of and admonitions. carefully chosen so as to produce an upright growth of character. he will pick up some- The proverb-makers have good reason thing of their vices.

In the latter case their behaviour is not so ridiculous. when they know. while troubling so little about ' the sons to whom you are to leave it ? may add that the con- \ We ] duct of such fathers is like that of a man who itself. This reminds one of Aristippus and his neat and witty repartee to a foolish father. or for a man to dismiss the best ship's-captain and appoint the worst. In the name of all ' ' sacred. Questioned as to what fee he asked for educating Good heavens 1 said the child.' and the one you buy.' will have two slaves your son. he replied. but there is another case in which it is in the last degree absurd. it is surely absurd to train little children to receive their food with the right hand.On Brining up a Boy 247 competent to judge. how ignorant and * d bad certain educators them. because a friend asked for that is it. and to scold them . that.' ' What an extravagant demand For forty pounds the father ' ' then you 5 I can Very well. \ deadly earnest about making money. while his foot may look after Many fathers go to such lengths in the way of fondness for their money and F want of fondness for their children. can any one called a father set the pleasing of e somebody who asks a favour above the education of his children? There was good sense in a frequent saying of famous old Socrates. either from their own observation or from the accounts of others. and yet entrust their children to because they cannot resist the fawning of some obsequious flatterer . If it could be done. what are you after ? Why in such city and shout ' : \ . their object being anjnexpensive ignorance. Sometimes this is man to gratify a friend by rejecting the doctor whose science could save him. I mean. Forty pounds. to avoid paying a larger fee.' was the answer buy a slave. and preferring the ignoramus who will kill him. It would be just as reasonable for a sick are. they choose utterly worthless persons to educate their sons. is anxious as to his shoe. one ought to mount the loftiest part of the Good people. sometimes it is done to gratify the whim of a friend. ' * ' : ! : — To put it shortly.

but the boon depends on one's ancestors. Diogenes facts — —who.248 if On Bringing up a Boy shall they put out the left. the sons show an utter disregard of a wholesome and orderly life. Good birth is a distinction. and think death not too much c to pay for a single pleasure. is succumbed to temptation TJiey would have been told of the advice of probability not have in his language. all Had these last studied philosophy. and throw themselves headlong into low and irregular pleasures. which often carries it off from and bestows it on those who never hoped is Moreover. when they bring up their sons badly and educate them badly. What the consequence is to these admirable fathers. and last. is a sound upbringing and right education. and yet to take no precautions that they be taught moral lessons of a sound and proper kind. of them up with and parasites. On coming of age and taking rank as men. — me which D leads to virtue blessings are and happiness. great wealth a target exposed to any rogue . . Some spend recklessly on gormandizing. they would in of this kind. then. who have it on fortune. and you will find that the not a bit better than the cheap one. middle. is soon told. others with haughty and expensive mistresses and strumpets. Then B at last. whom they ransom from their employers. It is this. Wealth is a prize. when it is of no use. wretched nondescripts who are the ruin and bane of youth . as I assert —and it would be fairer to regard repeating an oracle than as giving advice that in these matters the one and essential thing. I say. the first. is right in his boy.' ' Go my * expensive article In brief. however coarse to a brothel. but its Other on the human plane possession depends those for it. and when Some their wrongdoing has having take brought him to toadies his wits' end. some are wrecked upon dice and carousals. vices — they some go so far as to venture on the more daring commit adultery. the father repents of sacrificed his children's education. they are slight and not worth serious pursuit.

On Bringing up a Boy of a servant or blackmailer 149 a purse ' who is minded to ' aim at it. * said he.' He assumed that happiness depended upon these. Let us tell any one who prides himself e prey on How manifestly under a delusion. And. it is of our mental culture alone that it cannot as it cannot impair them. the bull. asked him if he had lost anything. is imposing. but uncertain. When. that renews its youth The I \ — i rob us. but I once more urge that should insist upon its being of the sound and genuine kind. is short-lived . elements —understanding In the nature of man and reason. tearing and sweeping everything away. but it falls an easy to disease and age. made what seems memorable answer when Demetrius. as to the state of his character and culture. strength is a thing to be envied. it brings old age one gift that of knowledge. after enslaving the city and razing it to the ground.' The 6 reply of Socrates is evidently to the same tune and purpose. there are two sovereign It is the place of the understanding to direct the reason and of the reason to serve the understanding. is unstable . though highly prized. calumny cannot rob us of them. war comes like a torrent. . though greatly courted. It was Gorgias. such as the elephant. Beauty. a Stilpo. I believe. while time carries off everything else. worst of all. strength of the might of other animals. Fame. for virtue is not made spoil of war. and. and whether he considered him happy. ' knowledge. again. and gifts of fortune. again. health. who asked him his opinion of the Great O no ' ' ! ' I have no King.' said Socrates. the Megarian philosopher. and the lion Meanwhile culture is the only thing in us that is immortal his bodily strength that is he small a fraction is human ! and divine. Fortune cannot overcome them. even the basest of men have their share of it. not upon the as of Not only should the education we of our children be treated the very first importance. disease cannot corrupt them. old age understanding is the only thing grows old.

with the words. on the ground that his thoughts were * not arranged '. terrible prolixity Apart from other faults. an assertion in which I have the support of Euripides : / am not deft of words before the crowds More skilled when with my compeers and the few. as the proverb goes. Demosthenes. for if they have no regard to propriety when catering for the c gratification of other people. extempore speakers drop into a and verbiage. ^Tis compensation : they who *mid the wise Are naught. My own observation tells me that persons who make a business of speaking in a way to please and curry favour with the rabble. acted in the same way. he frequently refused the call. ' doing anything at random things are difficult.2fo From B as possible. I have not arranged my thoughts. to address them. it is not likely that they will permit right and sound principles to have the upper hand of their own voluptuous * self-indulgence. he would resist. And how Among admirable things can children learn from them anything admirable ? is the practice of neither saying nor and. Nor. it is true. surpass in gift of speech to mobs. speeches made offhand are . informs us.' was called upon by the assembly. indeed. who took him for his own political called * upon him If the Athenians model. On Bringing up a Boy pretentious nonsense our sons should be kept as far aloof To please the many is to displease the wise. whereas premeditation keeps D a * as tradition speech safe within the lines of due proportion. nor that they will cultivate self-control rather than enjoyment. When Pericles.' This. generally prove correspondingly dissolute and pleasure-loving in their lives. but in the speech against Meidias we have an explicit statement as to the advantage of . without a notion where to begin or where to end.' a mass of reckless slovenliness. may be unauthentic and a fabrication . admirable Meanwhile. should we expect anything else .

say. Though persons who have been in prison for a long time may subsequently be liberated. e be practised only on unimportant subjects. too thin a style is Just as the body should be not only healthy but good con"3ition. or. story of a wretched painter who showed Apelles ' a picture. I had paid no regard to what I meant to say to you on the subject. Keep on the safe side. f a protracted habit of wearing chains making them unable to step out. and you face some risk. trivial.' painted While (to return to the original matter in hand) we must be careful to avoid a style which is theatrical and bombastic. If ineffective.' said Apelles. One should . that I come preparation. are merely commended : I take the same view of the mental disposition also. we must be equally on our guard against one which is low and that it has been quick work. sitting. if. But when the ability has taken firm root.On Bringing up a Boy His words are * : 25-1 / admit. Similarly if those who have for a long time kept their it speaking under close constraint some day find speak offhand. that it should rejected altogether. I claim that there should be no speaking on the spur of the moment.^ That impromptu speaking should be failing this. have just painted * without your this at telling one 7 me. I have even conned over my speech to the best of my poor ability. gentlemen. after and amid such harsh treatment. necessary to style of expres- But become There is a to ' to let mere children make extempore speeches is responsible for the worst of twaddle and futility. so language must be full of strength b and not simply free from disease. with the remark. and I have no wish to deny it.' I I can see. I do not am recommending it is only right for speech to enjoy free play as occasion invites. also in the turgid style is unbusinesslike. they are unsteady on their feet. I a tonic regimen. and you are admired. It would have been insane conduct. they nevertheless retain the same sion. Before manhood. But my wonder is that you haven't more than one as good. prepared .

is is Here. The rule of course in all things. There no subject regular curriculum of which the eye or ear of a freeborn boy should be permitted to remain uninformed. is to be chosen or shunned. our parents. children. in the next. the most important place —complete all-round proficiency being impossible—must As the philosopher D belong to philosophy. when the suitors could obtain no access to Penelope they satisfied themselves with her handmaids.2 5*2 On Bringing up a Boy become brazen. We may explain by a comparison with travel. but good policy to settle in the best. wives. . should be put at the head of all mental The services which have been invented for the care culture. and so bashful. still and taste The middle While I * am upon the subject of this part of education there is an opinion which I desire to express. what is just or unjust. in which it is an excellent thing to visit a large number of cities. as too finical a thing ever to c be maintained in practice. Philosophy. and servants that . caters for ear or eye. is and so become mean-spirited. Bion wittily remarked. which are of no account. It teaches — to be prescribed. our elders. the laws. tell E us how to behave towards the Gods. A style consisting of single clauses I regard in the first instance as no slight evidence of poor taste. then. what course. is as in as monotony in the ' everything else that cloying and irksome as ' variety delightful. nor yet timid and art neither be over-bold. But while he receives a cursory education in those subjects in order to taste their quality. friends. the body are two— medicine and gymnastics the one But for the imparting health. the other good condition. in short. our rulers. and. weaknesses and ailments of the soul philosophy is the only thing of It is from and with philosophy that we can what is becoming or disgraceful. and when a man is unable to get hold of philosophy he makes dry bones of himself upon the remaining subjects.

' 3 the Gods. it warns us against excess of joy when prosperous and excess of grief when unfortunate . and the life of enjoyment. starvation. with the result Farmers stock « The Greek text is here corrupt the translation represents the is probable sense. I think. Of these Dion actually attached himself to Plato as his pupil. Of this kind was the public it is career of Pericles. it is it is When life is . dissolute and enslaved to pleasure. of Dion of Syracuse. the * modest mortal. fails to act. but should collect a stock of of keeping our knowledge ^ from . Perfect men I take to be those who can blend practical ability 8 . * The Greek text is again faulty. and who can achieve both of two best and the life of public utility as men of affairs. Above all. and greatest ends — the calm and tranquil life as students of philosophy.On Bringing up a Boy we should worship 2. — treatises. respect our elders. For there are three kinds of life : the life of action. be continent towards our wives. do our best to engage both in public business and in the pursuit b of philosophy. give way to our rulers. and brutality is in our anger. . wisdom To get the better of pleasures by reason needs to master anger requires no ordinary character.^ to bear prosperity unassumingly. ^ them. love our friends. There is no need. crude and blundering. The sense here given approximate. as occasion offers. with philosophy. Tarentum. obey the laws. and abstain from cruelty to our slaves. show affection to our children. To bear adversity nobly to act the brave man. further desirable or rather that we should not neglect to possess the standard It is. against dissoluteness in our pleasures. honour our parents. to deal at any greater length with mental cultivation. of Archytas of and of Epaminondas of Thebes. it is essential — however. We should therefore philosophy. the life of thought. or fury These I judge to be chief among f the blessings conferred by philosophy. mean and animal when it is all thought and futile when it is all action and destitute of .

Our boys must be sent to the teacher of gymnastics and receive a sufficient amount of physical training. both to secure a good and also to develop strength. the blame should be laid upon a fortune. in shooting with the The goods of the vanquished.' it has bow.2f4 0^ Bunging up a Boy and the employment of books exercise the is [their fertilizers]. he should make every possible effort . If possible. c Meanwhile we must not omit to body also. * Well but. poor.' There is a ready reply to the objection. D As Plato observes. however.' There is no place a lean war for the physical condition of the cloister. and soldier a accustomed to warlike exercises will break through E phalanx of fleshy prize-fighters. But if there are cases in which limited private circumstances make it impossible to carry my rules into practice. and in hunting. For this he must go through hard drill in hurling the javelin. Upon to the this topic I need not dwell. just as our preparations for wintry weather should be made while it is carriage fine. are prizes offered to the victor. but of will pass all most important consideration — the on at once necessity of training a boy for service as a fighting-man.' some one may urge. Physical exertion should. so we should store up provision for age in the shape of regular and temperate behaviour in youth. it turns out that you ' have nothing to say concerning that of poor and common people. I should desire the proposed education to be applicable to all alike. and. Good condition is the foundation laid in childhood for a hale old age. but are satisfied to confine your suggestions to the rich. not is Though man upon him who offers the advice. sleep and weariness are the enemies of study. while you promised us a set of rules for the upbringing of free men. * been in * said. be so regulated that a boy does not become too exhausted to devote himself sufficiently to mental culture. instrumental to culture in the same way.

Failing this.On Bringing up a Boy to bring up his children in the ideal way. however. while a flood of In the same way the mind will thrive under c reasonably hard work. and remember that all our life there is a division of relaxation and effort. whom the smart. which prove too great strength and end in failure. or even the humiliation. making their tasks eflfective The freeborn find praise a more stimulus to the right conduct. flogging and bodily injury should be out of the question. Hence the existence of sleep as well as . children should be led into right practices of ^-'"^ persuasion and reasoning .time from perpetual in moderation will it. come as near to it as he can. the use of such praise and reprimand there should be a subtle When a child is too bold.b fondness of a father has proved to be a lack of fondness. water will choke tasks. We must therefore allow children breathing. We may cry. I have noticed more than one instance in which the over. "3 v^ ^ Water make a plant grow. f now proceed with the connected account of such other * as matters And first. Such treatment is surely more fit for slaves than for the free. than any kind of bodily assault. of a beating deprives of all a horror to them. life and spirit. We must. but will drown if the work is excessive. it should first be shamed by reproof and then encouraged by by nurses. In alternation. contribute to the right upbringing of the young. lyf he must I will After thus encumbering our discussion with this side-issue. To make my meaning clear. but who afterwards comfort take a pattern it a word to of praise. avoid puffing children up with eulogies. I will use an illustration. who may have make an infant it by offering the breast. Being in too great haste for their children to take first place in everything. and blame a more effective 9 deterrent from the wrong. for their { they impose extravagant tasks. the consequence of excessive praise being vanity and conceit. besides causing them such weariness and distress that they refuse to submit patiently to instruction.

This. loosen a bow or a lyre. coming made up. do the same oft and again. but in that of the inanimate world. full soon it becometh a great thing. The fact is We so that we may be able to tighten it. its satisfaction. of fine weather as well as bad. whose attention to his pupils will be more conscientious if he is to be brought conIn this connexion there is aptness in the tinually to book. the memory should be trained in either case. or. In fine. — not only in culture. the body is kept sound by want and labour. it is rest that seasons obvious. of peace well as war. E is so fattening to a horse as the eye Above all things one should train and exercise a child's memory. Whether children are naturally gifted with a good memory. The former class will excel others.2^6 On Bringing up a Boy as waking. and hence the fable that Recollection is the mother of the Muses an — memory the best thing in the world to beget and foster wisdom. Memory serves as the storehouse of culture. life. and then entirely omitting to keep the instruction of such persons under their own eye or ear. the mind by relaxation and D There are some fathers who have a culpable way of entrusting their sons to attendants and teachers. not merely in the case of living things. toil. This is a most serious failure in their duty. groom's dictum that nothing of the king. are naturally indirect wayof saying that is forgetful. or the natural shortwill excel themselves. is mnemonic element another fact for fathers to recognize that the in education plays a most important part. The latter natural advantage will be strengthened. then. of holidays as well as business. but also in the business of inasmuch . instead of confiding in the character of a hireling. the As Hesiod well puts it : If F to the And thing that is little you further add but a little . on the contrary. Every few days they should personally examine their children. In a word.

however. Gylippus. The word. This was the case with the Lacedaemonian. have thrown away all the reputation won by their previous career. restraint of the tongue. as any yet These are modesty of behaviour. but on seeing that his own friends were in such a violent state of indignation that they wanted to prosecute him. 10 . mastery of the temper. And we will begin with the last. would you have condescended to 546-X9 kick him back ? The fellow did not. victory A When Wiser frofos I : may quote the testimony of that wise poet Euripides two men speak. We may take an illustrahome the notion more clearly. as * * 25*7 guide to wise as a Our sons must also be kept from the use of foul language. for secretly broaching the is who was driven into exile from Sparta c a quality of wisdom. There have been those who. Let —and more so—for the young to cultivate the time to remember certain other habits quite as us see tion to bring how important each of them is. we must render them polite and courteous for there is nothing so detestable as a boorish character. is the shadow of the deed. also ful. but by knowing how to accept defeat where victory is harmThere is unquestionably such a thing as a * Cadmean '. b who strives not to reply.On Bringing up a Boy the recollection of past experience serves policy for the future. money-bags. Absence of anger. again. This is necessary mentioned. and one the one is full of anger.' More than that. but finding himself R . and control of the hands. by lowering their hands to ill-gotten gains. get off scot-free.' says Democritus. Socrates once received a kick from a very impudent and gross young buffoon. One way in which children may avoid becoming disagreeable to their company is by refraining from absolute stubbornness in discussion. Credit is to be gained not merely by victory. he remarked ' : If a donkey had kicked ' me.

are you not indignant athis ridiculing you in this manner? D ' Not I. one of those present asked : * Pray. The notion was that. we are no match for either the moral mastery or the finished character of those great models. Moreover. and minimize any tendency to ungovernable rage. E as this. found that his land had gone out of cultivation. on his return from the war in which he had held command. As in other matters. for the control of the As — — F silence there is a wisdom superior to any speech. indeed. no man for this reason that . he called his sister's son Speusippus and I am said. if I had not been too angry.' replied Socrates ' . was once worked into a passion with a greedy and impudent slave.* : ' When Plato. It is apparently men in old times invented our mystic rites and ceremonies. he summoned his manager and remarked You would have suffered for this. Go and give this fellow a thrashing myself in a great : passion. we should secure the keeping of human secrets by carrying into them the same religious fear. through being trained to silence in connexion with these. it may be argued. all ' On Bringing up a Boy ' universally reproached and nicknamed Kicker '. though multitudes have repented of talking.' A close counterpart of this of attitude will be found in the behaviour of Plato and of Archytas Tarentum.' But. serving as hierophants and torchbearers of their wisdom and endeavouring to imitate in our we might towards way as nibbling much as lies in our power. he hanged When Aristophanes brought out the Clouds^ and poured manner of abuse upon Socrates. this banter in the theatre is only in a big convivial party.2^8 himself. to reach so high a standard am well aware of We can therefore only do our best to take a pattern by such conduct. ' again. as Nevertheless we may act towards them the Gods. When the latter. tongue the remaining point to be considered according to our promise any one who regards it In a timely as of trivial moment is very much in the wrong. I it is difficult it.

On Bringing up a Boy 25-9 has repented of silence. He thus purchased story is laugh in others by long weeping of his own. and ' — Theocritus made him excessively angry by a taunt at this disfigurement. who The last sent and put Theocritus to death. had but one eye. This is what is meant by Homer's " " words which earned him the enmity of Alexpurple death ander. When* of Philadelphus with his sister. it will ' be without your head. a but much more terrible. Antigonus.' Thereupon he reported the words to the king. Hereupon ' Theocritus observed I have now become clear upon a point : which used to puzzle me. who had become a person of importance. Then.' thus twitting the one with being disfigured. Eutropion. a similar. for you shall be punished for such mad and reckless language. My own disasters resulting reading affords countless instances of the greatest from an ungoverned tongue. On receiving repeated visits from Eutropion with this message. the chief cook. I am well aware that you want to dish me up raw to the Cyclops. consequences for a Alexander had ordered the Greeks to provide stock of purple garments. with a view to the thanksgiving b sacrifice on his return from his Persian victories. was sent to him by the king with a request that he would come to court and engage him in argument. Sotades com- posed a scurrilous verse. it R2 . The who * endured similar remark. and the various peoples were contributing at so much per head. and most sacred requirement is that children should be trained to speak the truth.' replied Eutropion. Lying is a servile habit . the Macedonian king. he paid ample atonement for talking out of season by rotting for a long time in prison. closely matched by that of the sophist Theocritus. it is impossible to recall what has been uttered. he c remarked. ' ' the other with being a cook. and while it is easy to utter what has been kept back. I will content 11 upon the marriage myself with mentioning one or two typical examples.

D So far I have had no doubt or hesitation in what I have said of the modesty and good behaviour of children. generally speaking. on the contrary. But upon the matter which now calls for mention I am dubious and undecided. chaste. but. when he Nay^ men may feel passion Love of a just. While we must have nothing to say to the connexions in vogue at Thebes or in Elis. while they have led youths on to culture. or to the . and who regard such association as an intolerable insult to their children. without finding direction. on the other hand. When. it possible to turn the scale in either It concerns a practice which I can neither recommend nor discountenance without great reluctance. that those who have shown special excellence should have the right to kiss any beautiful person they choose. I change my mind is and am inclined to copy those great exemplars. Plato. virtuous mind and soul. The question is whether a man who E a boy is to be allowed to keep intimate with him. give a sanction to those who are in love with the mind and soul. Aeschines. partly serious and partly humorous. Nevertheless one must venture a word upon it. and all those great men who have with one accord approved of love between males. Cebes.26 o a On Bringing up a Boy is deserves universal detestation and unpardonable even in decent slave. says : Euripides on their side. The proper course is to drive away those who are enamoured of the person. or whether. I have many scruples in recommending it or speaking in its favour. When I look at fathers is enamoured of whose disposition is uncompromisingly harsh and austere. association company with such a person is to be tabooed. of other sort. Xenophon. Nor must we omit the saying of Plato. my judgement swaying in the balance first one way and then the other. to public leadership. I think of Socrates. and to F a virtuous character.

it rejects control. threats. or trickery and inattention in school. As a matter of b fact. These two things form what hope of honour a greater eagerness fear of punishment. and of praise and good repute won by continence. the other a shrinking from bad actions. for dicing. drinking. whereas. and by pointing out instances of disaster caused by devotion to pleasure. having spoken of the discipline and good behaviour of the boy. alert moment when wise fathers when they should bring should be most watchful and their lads within bounds by warnings. may be and called first principles of virtue. or entreaties. When c capacity for at its prime. Every one is aware that the faults committed by a boy are small matters. kicks over the traces. will pass on to deal with the age of adolescence. If therefore and requires the curb. This the . gormandizing. One vicious persons general rule of duty is to keep boys from associating with otherwise they will pick up something of their . for I have often expressed my disapproval of those I will he has formed for himself. we are giving folly a licence to sin. now who encourage vicious habits by proposing to put a boy under the charge of tutors and teachers. we do not take a firm hold upon is this time of life. roistering. pensities of young manhood ought therefore to be carefully watched and kept pleasure is closely under the chain.On Bringing up a Boy so-called * 261 abduction ' of Crete. there is need of more anxious precautions in the case of the stripling than in that of the boy. loose passion or corruption of married women. namely. and. which can be cured without difficulty —such as paying no heed to his tutor. I shall do so in very few words. we may well imitate that kind I2 which is usual at Athens or in Lacedaemon. the one producing d for the noblest pursuits. But the sins of adolescence often reach a flagrant and shocking pitch stealing the father's — money. . with a striplings they would permit his inclinations to range at will. The proyoung girls. On as this matter it is for every man to hold such convictions leave it.

put victuals in a chamber-vessel clever speech ought not to be put into a wicked mind. filling the old age of the with vexation. and not fasten irritate a it to any chain. and see to the providing of daily bread. Do not E step over a he am justice must be scrupulously respected and not overstepped '. While. especially should they be kept every 13 from parasites. On Bringing up a Boy This has been urged by Pythagoras among a number of dark sayings. Do not turn back on coming life close to the border —when about to die. as I urging upon fathers. — F the mind with worry and brooding. Do not taste black-tails ^ keep no company with persons who are malignant and therefore black '. Do not clasp hands with every man we should form no sudden connexions. or even popular superstitions. I will proceed to quote them. and with the end of in sight. There is no set of creatures so pernicious — none which destruction — so quickly as and completely brings youth to headlong parasites.262 vice. is polluted by the wickedness in a Do — man. which is the food of thought. behave calmly and without losing heart. Do not wear a tight ring one should carry out the practice of — — * Do not poke afire with iron man (the right course being to let angry men go their own way) Do not eat the heart do not inj ure life. Do not sit on a quart-measure beware of ' — — ' — idleness. They are utter ruin to both father one and the youth of the other and son. but subsequently they received recondite interpretations. since speech. I venture to repeat here what I am continually this digression. To return to the topic with which we were dealing before observed. . boys should be kept from kind of vicious company. * To gain their purpose they offer an irresistible These maxims were probably in the first instance merely hygienic. adding their explanation. Abstain from life (office beans —avoid public in former times being determined not by voting with beans). Since these also possess great value as aids to the attainment of virtue. — do not wrathful .

The father says ' Be idle . not merely exist. And he must by all means do the same with vicious fellow-pupils. finds a way to work benefit through the medium of enjoyment. I have no all this word desire. who are capable of corrupting the most moral of natures. all . plundering and the provision for his old age. a string * of details possession of a mind. b parasite says : ' ' . therefore. of candour they have no idea . stripping the father of are an abominable crew woman. for life is only a moment altogether. If. In the case of rich men's the father preaches sobriety. ? father's threats He is Why trouble about your an old driveller with one foot in the and we will carry or with the seduction of a married him off to his grave. at one time giving the boy's desires a loose or . would have him frequently condone a fault in his junior and recollect that he was once young himThe physician mixes his bitter drugs with syrup. that a father's disposition should be altogether I d harsh and unyielding. are drawn those to young men feed like puppets on . In the same way a father should blend his severe reprimande with kindliness. to live. They live at the rich man's beck.On Bringing up a Boy bait in the shape of pleasure. and though fortune c has made them free. they regard it as an insult. I have to say upon a human aspect of the matter. and so self. and give a spurious imitation of real life.' promptly pick him up on our shoulders and One person tempts him with a drab. time. their maintenance in that case being without a motive. If they are not insulted. the parasite profligacy the Be industrious and extravagance. The father urges temperance and economy. they toady the rich and despise the poor. the parasite drunkenness. he must keep these abominable creatures at a distance. : One ought coflin. their own choice makes them slaves. a father is concerned for the obedient conduct of his children. They is their friendship a sham . when who them laugh they they counterfeit the . a While these principles are right and expedient. They grin. 26^ sons.

Smelling of perfumes ? Say nothing. The other day you refused the boy money . is theirs. turning to advantage the dim good thing to pretend ignorsight and defective hearing which of old age. when a fault is committed.2^4 ^^ bringing up a Boy it. be to any great extent his superior either in birth or means. F restrain your anger. by avoiding all faults of commission or omission. His life should be the glass by which they form all themselves and are put out of conceit with or speech. Has he borrowed the team from the farm ? of yesterday's bout? Does he come reeking Do not notice the it. and refusing to see or hear certain occurrences one hears and sees. there are times headed from to be lenient. he is disqualified from reproving to . be sharp-tempered than sullen-tempered to sulk and bear malice goes far to prove a lack of parental affection. The other day you were indignant . The woman who becomes however. if his become his own accuser while ostensibly life is bad. it is a ance. there are times to meet his requests. and I will conclude my list of principles. but the slave A few words more. Sometimes. easy rein. he should be season- failing that. Perhaps he has cozened you through a servant . his anger should able and should quickly cool down. that being the surest way young man down. without our taking him to task. strange to do so We put up with the lapses of a friend. at another time tightening E take misdeeds calmly . and a man who marries much above him finds himself. 14 not the husband of the woman. manage the restiveness of youth. If possible. of the dowry. It is better for a father to . maxim. Above in his all own things a father should set an example to his children person. Keep to your own level is a sound his wife should not. Indeed. For him to rebuke his erring sons ugliness of act when guilty of the same errors himself. A son who cannot resist pleasure and of tying a Such is way to is deaf to remonstrance should be put into matrimonial harness. Is it with those of a child? A slave is often heavy- a debauch.

and no attempt is made to better it in the English. who. An example to follow is that of Eurydice. Where there men without also. though belonging to a thoroughly barbarous country like Illyria. she won the skill to use ^ this — perhaps visionary well as a To compass the whole of the foregoing elements of success a counsel of perfection. . 26 y much more become are old their guide his son. though requiring good fortune as much care. he will naturally b and teacher in v^^rongdoing. * is at any rate a thing within the reach of The Greek verse is doggerel. Moreover. when mother to grown Her The souVs well-known desire lore of letters Eurydice From Hierapolis sends to each Muse}- — — boys. itself is * But to cultivate the majority of them. inevitably there are quite shameless obtain good behaviour from our children should therefore strive to carry out every moral duty. human being. nevertheless took we to study and self-improvement late in life for the sake of her children's education. young ones To shame. in the lines inscribed Her maternal affection finds apt expression upon her offering to the Muses : In that.On Bringing up a Boy even a slave.


coast of the Aegean.c. added only for the sake of those who have no Greek. His wars were numerous. Abaris to whom a legendary Scythian or Hyperborean : miraculous powers were attributed In the inhabitants of Aeolis. sonorous language and of powerful situations. his ability great. pupil of Socrates (hence Aeschlnes In the eyes of Plato he was a sophist. His character was not of the highest. . Like Plato. he visited Syracuse during the philosophic pose of the elder Dionysius. c. for the reason that he took fees.NOTES ON PERSONS AND PLACES The of information necessary for following brief notes are Intended to supply the bare amount an understanding of the text. constant opponent of Demosthenes. of course. An accent marks the syllable which should bear the stress in the English pronunciation. who charged him with being bribed by Philip. q. Aeolians : NE. the most important being with the Thebans. who spent some time at the court of Croesus and was sent by him on a mission to Delphi Aesop B. various sources. king of Sparta. . His fables were most probably of Indo-Persian origin. the ' ' priest of Apollo. c. Practically nothing definite is knjown of him. Those which now pass under his name are a comparatively late compilation from to distribute largess. the most the Greek world of his day. Died in exile 3 14 b. (2) Athenian orator. way of cures and prophecy. c. and the signs w -. Aeschylus : the first in date and most severe in style of the three A master of condensed and great Attic tragedians. = on that name. imply see the note that the vowels are short or long respectively. 620-564 : Said to have been an emancipated slave. His character was Agesilaus : man in noble. The pronunciation marks are.v. 398-361 b. : (i)a philosopher. with the island of Lesbos. 525-466 b. Aeschines Socratlcus). but his physique and appearance poor. the famous writer (or promulgator) of fables. c. important Agesllaus II.

Plutarch says that he lived to the age of 106. a despot who dominated Thessaly from 369 b. and Suidas that his plays numbered 245. ambitious. v. Becoming hostile to his country he first found a home at Sparta. who accompanied Alexander into Asia. Tissaphernes. handing over to them the town of Naucratis (q. . 427-399 b. He returned to Athens for a brief space in 407 B.). who had migrated from South Italy to Athens. his greatest exploit being the victory of Mantinea. and he cultivated (569 B. carried on wars with the Greeks of the Aegean coast of Asia Minor and had apparently some designs upon the : islands. Alexander : (i) the Great. who avenged his father by putting to death his mother Eriphyle. Ammoiiius Plutarch.C. and thence again to the Persian satrap. an insurgent Egyptian general who secured the throne His rule was beneficent and prosperous. A pious and just man.). Alcm^on : son of Amphiaraus (q.2^8 Notes on Persons and Places Agis : (i) Agis II. commander against the Athenians in the Peloponnesian War. speaks elsewhere of his great erudition. of Macedon. c. Amasis with Croesus. the friendship of the Greeks. A cruel tyrant. king of Sparta. * Alexis : poet of the Middle Comedy '. c. c). v. : : teacher of Amphiaraus Seven * legendary seer of Argos.). After a measure of military and political prominence he was banished from Athens for sacrilege (415 B. assassinated through the agency of his wife. ' who Peripatetic philosopher from Attica. thence migrated to Asia Minor and joined the Persian satrap. . (2) of Pherae. (2) Base and toadying poet of Argos. and unscrupulous brilliancy. whom he endeavoured to bring over to the Athenian side as a means to his own recall. Alcibiades : a handsome noble of Athens . then removed to Thrace. a type of ostentatious. The histories of the expedition agree with Plutarch as to his character. When reproached with his humble origin he converted his bronze foot-pan into the effigy of a deity by way of instrucHe was visited by Solon and had amicable relations tive parable. who accompanied the in their expedition against Thebes. Alydttes : king of Lydia and father of Croesus. c.

demigod) of Chalcis in Euboea. who wrote at great length on the story of Thebes. named. a contemporary of Plato. conceived as a historical personage. c. apparently unknown beyond Plutarch. e. Applies (i) of Colophon or Cos. . c).c.Notes on Persons and who was led into this false step T laces 269 who by the persuasions of his wife. of Alexander A war with a Greek league headed (2) by Athens ended first in the submission of the latter. He fell before a combination of the other Diadochi in 301 b. Both pieces were crammed with mythological and other learning. A pattern of the simple life and direct thinking. Anaxarchus of Democritus expedition. epic poet. about the middle of the century Antiphdn (i) (2) : several persons were so of the fifth century b. Antipater : (i) regent of Macedonia during the Asiatic expedition and after his death (334-320 b. : an orator An Athenian tragic poet. (3) A sophist. especially favoured by Alexander the Great. but afterwards extended his rule over all the Asiatic portion. c. at Delphi Amphld^mas * : hero ' (i. of Socrates. Lycia. A Stoic philosopher of Tyre a friend of Cato the younger. He was and Plutarch appears to treat him as a type of the diffuse. His maxim for draughtsmen nulla dies sine linea is famous. Antim^hus ' : epic poet of Colophon. c. He also composed a voluminous elegy on Lyde '. Thrace). and PamphyUa.^. v. The greatest painter of antiquity. put to death by the elder Dionysius at Syracuse. AntigSnus : a general of Alexander. b. Anacharsis : Scythian prince (of N. 335-305 b.) an easy-going and witty philosopher of the school in the suite of Alexander on his Asiatic . had been bribed. g. : (q. Amphlctyona : members of a religious Council meeting and representing the older Greek communities. . (2) Of Chios. On the partition of the empire he received Phrygia. Said to have visited he Athens about 600 b. To Greek literature is the type of the observant and critical visitor from abroad. : and antagonist c. Amphitrite : wife of Poseidon and queen-goddess of the sea. c. e.

but took an independent line in philosophy as founder of the sceptical New Academy. answering generally to the Roman Mars. c. king of Macedonia 413-399 of Euripides b. and his recension of the divergent manuscripts. an eminent scientist of student of astronomy.c. censor 312 b.C. of antiquity . Aridn : c. 600 b. His favourite abode was at the court of Periander. and supposed inventor of the dithyramb. v. friend Panthea (q. c. c. A man of amiable character and a wit. Chiefly known for his commentaries on the language and matter of Homer. originator of who became enamoured first ArcSsilaus : latter part of third century b. a disciple of Theophrastus (q. II. Archimedes : the Newton . Archytas: of Tarentum. c. He his city from the Romans.). /. Ares : the Greek War-God. by whose soldiers he was killed in ignorance. . Aristarchus : the prince of Greek grammarians and critics . : Archelaus literature letters. : c. noted as a mathematician and philosophic statesman of the Pythagorean order. of Cyrus. afterwards governor on the Hellespont. c.270 of the Notes on Persons ana V laces Appius Claudius (Caecus): Roman Appian Way.c. king of Sparta.. applied mathematics.v. (2) A general of Alexander.146 B. There were several other kings of the name. c.). the famous bard and harp-player of Lesbos. Both in generalship and civil business of state he was eminently successful and was trusted with extraordinary powers. . and engineering. 710-675 b. served as mechanical engineer in defending Aridaeus (Arrhidaeus) : (i) feeble half-witted king of Mace- donia after his brother Alexander's death. 469-427 b. ArAspes : a Mede. a lover of art and of and a patron : and other Athenian men Archidamus Archlldchus only fragments Archidamus of Paros. particularly famous for his lampoons. Syracuse 287-212 b. A lyrist of whom iambic are extant . flourished at Alexandria 181. in the early part of the fourth century b. . . joint regent in 321 B.C.

His whole tone of mind is strikingly unUke that of teacher. v. Asclepius: (= Aesculapius). converted by legend into a son of Apollo and ultimately into a god. son of Sophocles. Ari8tdpli5n : painter. v. c. is and scientific. c. : of Stageira. For a time he was AristippUB : at the court of Dionysius (q.c. but not imitator. Eleven of his plays are extant. and the arts (384-322 b. ' A (q. Aristotle Macedonia. century allied : = ' son of Atreus '. 444-380 b. AristomSnes : practically regent of Egypt from 202 b. or personal-political type. of Socrates. logical.). 470 b. In general he may be called a smoother : and weaker Pindar. 470 b. and founder of the Cyrenaic philosophy and its cult of pleasure fl. king of in the middle of the second b. conduct. the Just . His comedy was of the Old '. Died c. statesman and general. but commonly domiciled in Athens or in Pupil of Plato and subsequently tutor of Alexander.c.). : student and teacher of ethics. and probably himself a tragedian. Atreides (Atrides) and Menelaus.c. His writing without literary charm. Founder of the Peripatetic school. a title of Agamemnon of Eumenes) : with the Romans Attains Philadelphus. by far the greatest comic poet of antiquity. being eminently precise.) of Syracuse. a figures in the stirring * A of Cyrene. who put him to AristophaneB : of Athens. a sound adviser of the young Ptolemy Epiphanes death for his frankness in 192 b. 380-366 b. who times of the war with Persia.^. principally at the court of Hiero of Syracuse. Aristo : (i) the chief bearer of the name was a philosopher who became head of the Peripatetic school about 230 b. Att&lus (brother Pergamus. disciple. Anciently considered a writer of (2) more elegance than weight.Notes on Persons and Places Aristeides (Aristides) : 271 ' with the sobriquet of noble of Athens. with its head-quarters in the Lyceum his (q. c.c. brother of Polygnotus (who fl.c. He aimed at sound and com- prehensive knowledge as the basis of right principles in society. v. . c Philopoemen was his controUing minister.c). 420 b.c. Baccli:^lides lyric poet of Ceos.c. c). the Greek 'hero' of medicine.

: noted for his keen sententious sayings. a philosopher fromOlbia on the Black Sea. on whose : island the shipwrecked Odysseus was detained for seven years. Bias : of Priene . but fl. He wrote an account of the expedition : Calchas the seer of the Achaean : CallisthSnes and other historical works. 234-149 B. c. but Has been called the Greek Voltaire '. Bdthycles : an artist in metal-work. army before Troy. c. where he used over-bold language in reproving him. satirized philosophers. 550 b. soldier. precise date unknown. a student of Stoicism. was much inferior in gifts.^. He was was of dissolute character. : Cal^so nymph. orator. 280 b. the elder (or the Censor '). CamS&des of Cyrene.272 Bagoas : Notes on Persons and Places a handsome young eunuch of Darius.C. He is invariably included in the list of the Seven Sages. tried various systems. the domination Julius Caesar had become in Plato's CSbes Pbaedo.c. The type of severe old-fashioned Roman morality . philosopher and rhetorician . accompanied Alexander into Asia.c. his great-grandfather in respect of the modelled himself 95-46 b. Put to death 328 b. ' Briseis captive woman him by Agamemnon when BuBirites the people : assigned to Achilles. but . where he delivered striking discourses on ethics. Cato ' : (i) and on writer. afterwards taken into the service and affections of Alexander. or * : of Thebes. but leader of the Academics. and ended by being a Peripatetic. (2) The younger ' (or Uticensis '). but taken from he surrendered Chryseis. Bato comic poet of Athens. Committed of suicide 46 b. when the struggle against hopeless.) to Rome. c. but probably to be placed in the early part of the age of the Seven Sages. . a pupil of Socrates is and a persona his) He ' chiefly known for his (If it is symbolic picture table of human life.C. who settled at Athens. His cardinal doctrine was the withholding of assent to doctrines. about the one of the tradirional birthplaces of Osiris. c. : . 2i3(?)-i29 b. c. middle of the Delta . He was ambassador on behalf of Athens * ' (155 B. moral and simple life. 250 b. statesman. c. of uncertain date. of Busiris (modern Abousir). c. c. Bi5n: fl.

Chares : Athenian general. gaining some successes by land and sea against the Spartans. He effected little against the Macedonians. 263 Clednthes Stoic philosopher. man of little principle. The only fragment of his writing still extant is from a Hymn : to Zeus. Cinesias : Athenian dithyrambic poet. His verse.000 Greeks in the expedition of Cyrus 546*19 S make . Cledrohus of faction to : (i) of Heraclea on the Black Sea . able tactician. c.Notes on Persons and Places CSr&meicus : 27^ a suburb without. c. pupil and successor of Zeno (q. and a broad street within. adventurous. Chilon of : of Lacedaemon : ft. of whose various operations we have records for 367-333 b. Cercopes : mythical gnomes.).C. liberal. in full to vindication of her chastity. Chryseis captive woman assigned to Agamemnon. but somewhat self-indulgent person. surrendered by him at the bidding of Apollo. CMrmides : dialogues after him. in order to check a pestilence. who annoyed Heracles by their monkey-like tricks. and often followed Independent and useless A lines of action. who names one of his Socratic At the supposed date he was a beautiful and * charming youth. His chief exploit was the victory affable. and character appear all to have been of an Inferior order. availed himself himself despot and tyrant (365 B. became prominent as a commander against the Persians in 477 b. Claudia was enabled it : Roman maiden. c. Chdbrias : Athenian commander at various times between 392 and 357 An B. A handsome. Despite the precautions described by Plutarch he was assassinated in 353 b. '. mischievous and thievish. move the vessel containing the image of Cybele when stuck fast in the Tiber. 600-570 Poet and coiner maxims. leader of the 10. and the discussion Is upon self-control b. Eurymedon. of c. who. : Chalcis chief town of Euboea (Negropont). (z) Of Sparta. c. and shrewd man : of affairs. c. c. v. once a most Important commercial centre. much satirized by Aristophanes and others.) B. music. but of somewhat dissolute life. c. uncle of Plato. (-1-) the west walls of Athens. Cimon: son of Miltiades. 466 b.

Crdtfirus generals. high-minded king of Sparta. after a quarrel at a carousal. v.c.c). the word may be suspected of being an afterthought. A citizen of Lindus in Rhodes.). Clodius Pulcher a daring and unscrupulous person. CleisthSnes : Athenian noble. with whom he was in aUiance. 610-560 b.v. a noble type of Macedonian . v. 401 b. mother of .C. CleomSnes On his Cleon (q. the type of matronly virtue. He was killed : in (328 B. a Macedonian commander under Alexander. who adopted the popular cause and made important democratic changes in the constitution fl.).C. (Philopator) suspected and imprisoned him. 240defeat by the Achaeans he fled to Ptolemy The next Ptolemy Euergetes. one of Alexander's : After the death of his chief (323 b. Though her father is said to have named her Eumetis (* sagacious '). which he had spoken with excessive freedom to his chief.c Colonus a suburb of Athens outside the north wall.c. grove. His position may have been similar to that of : Pittacus (q. in one of \ . Cleomenes HI.) he became colleague . the Younger against Babylon Persians. who became quaestor in 61 b.2 74 Notes on Persons and Places . an able but coarse-grained leader of the popular party 428-422 b. A special enemy of Aristophanes which he whose fiercest political attacks are delivered against him. Killed by Milo on the high road 52 b.c and tribune of the plebs in 59 b. from . : 222 B.c.). daughter of Scipio Africanus the famous * about ten miles north of Ephesus. c. dignity. Cleobulme : daughter (as the name implies) of Cleobulus (q. : a tanner of Athens . with a small : hill.). A self-sufficient slain. was Clodius P. and sanctuary. : amateur in military operations.v. : . cultivation.) by Alexander with a spear-thrust. : Colophon Cornelia the Gracchi ' Greek town of Asia Minor. The notorious and relentless enemy of Cicero. near the Aegean coast. Cleobulus c. Cleitus (Clitus) whose life he saved at the battle of Granicus (334 b. c. 510 B. who became its despot. The retreat decoyed and put to death by the was led by Xenophon (q.C. and high example.

This was the expedition related in the younger to Xenophon's Anabasis. Darius: B. and were made in consequence of an 656 b.. founder of the empire. Cydxares king of Media. (3) Darius Codomannus. and subjugator of Babylon. S 2 . c.) at Athens . relations defeated and carried off in the power he was in friendly or hostile with various Greek states. chest oracle foretelling danger from the child. who sought. Croesus king of Lydia 560-546 b. he 320 B. This is the Darius mentioned in connexion with Gobryas. A wealthy and powerful ruler. '). (' : father of Periander. A Cynic philosopher in practice as well as theory. v. who made war upon the Persians when their empire was growing rapidly under Cyrus. Daphnus side not far a river running into the Corinthian Gulf on the north : from the entrance. but the whole book is something of his liberality to the : a romance. but it is not impossible. train of the conqueror. &c. 424-405 b. and was particularly noted for Was While in Delphian oracle. CypsSlus Corinth cypsele c.C. : satrap of Lydia. (2) Darius II (Ochus or Nothus). or Darius the Younger. Whether Solon ever actually had the famous interview with Croesus is chronologically doubtful. Cyrus : (i) the elder : the famous Persian monarch. (2) him in failed.c.c). Phrygia. Died 330 b. strong and able king of Persia (521-485 previously satrap under Cyrus the Great. fl. but dispossess his brother Artaxerxes with the assistance of a Greek force (401 b. (i) Darius I. Crates : of Thebes pupil of Diogenes (q.). . a weak monarch endangered by perpetual rebellions. established himself as despot of of His name was commonly associated with The designs upon him in his infancy were those a Corinthian noble house.C. c. A philosophic writer and : a tragic poet.Notes on Persons and Places 275* with Antipater in the Graeco-Macedonian portion of the empire.c. The stories told of the Cyropaedia of Xenophon are largely romance. overthrown by Alexander. appears in Xenophon's Cyropaedia as uncle of Cyrus the Great. renounced his wealth and led the simple life in a cheerful manner. See also under Eumenes.c.

Whether or not he ever lived in the famous (earthen* ware) life. the gathering-place of a great religious confederacy of Demaratus : of Corinth. A great and student. : Dioaedrchus history : philosopher from Massana in Sicily . (2) Demetrius Phalereus : Athenian orator and writer (345-283 an able and cultivated man. 460-360 b. who developed (though he did not invent) Atomic Theory '. v. of several Macedonian officers in the army of Alexander. and his caustic tongue. He was his c. independence. First highly honoured. His character was of the highest writer on for truth and simplicity.c. with a temple of Apollo. (2) Tragic poet of Athens.c. king of Asia. then expelled. 317 b. and after being captured by pirates was sold as a slave to a Corinthian.C. and geography. sent him in 307 B. 300 b. to annex It was at this time Greece. put in charge of Athens by the Macedonians.27<^ Delos lonians. then under Cassander and Ptolemy. Assassinated 353 b. The younger Dionysius resented his reputation and his harshness.). : Nothing is known (i) of such a person outside Plutarch. On the visit of Plato to Sicily he became a disciple of that philosopher.c. and was himself appointed practically dictator. and interpreter and expiator of omens and dreams. A follower of Aristotle. tub ' is doubtful. : 404 b. His father Antigonus. Dion therefore removed to Athens and other parts of Greece. brother-in-law of the elder Dionysius (q. made (3) his way to The name : Thebes and subsequently to Alexandria. expelled Dionysius.). : Notes on Persons and Places central island of the south half of the Aegean. DidgSnes: the Cynic philosopher of Sinope. king of Macedonia. whence he returned with a force. in friendly relations with Philip and a mediator between him and Alexander after their quarrel in 337 b. fl.C. that he took Megara and met with Stilpo (q-v.c. . who migrated to Athens. Ethically his aim was cheerfulness of mind ' (hence the laughing philosopher '). c. distinguished for his plainness of his shrewd good sense.). Demdcritus traveller the * c. Of Abdera in Thrace.c. Demetrius: (i) Demetrius I (or Poliorcetes). he B.c Dion of Syracuse. Didcles the narrator of the Dinner of the Seven Sages professional seer.

school. under the influence of Dion (q. l^phdrus years. The legend went that he threw himself into the for the cure or him purification crater of Etna. dawn-goddess . c. EmpM6cles qualified : Sicilian . c. once very famous and much discussed. and himself wrote bad verses. Insecurely restored ten years later he was again driven out by Timoleon (343 B. After inviting Plato to Syracuse power over a great part of Sicily. 450 B.C. physical and practical philosopher of His studies of nature specially ' Acragas (= Girgenti) ji. who succeeded his father. His history. - Eos : = Aurora. where he said to have taught an elementary Dodona : in Epirus.Notes on Persons and Places Dionysius 405-367 B. For a time he was (2) the younger. especially (371 B. is slain in the attempt. Dryopians a people of Central Elephantine = Djesiret-el-Sag Egypt towards Ethiopia. a garrisoned island in the Nile (First Cataract) opposite the modern Assouan . c. covered a period of 750 . 340 b. Of weaker character and more licentious than his father. . Like many other despots he afiFected literature and philosophy. parts of Greece. the opponent of Achilles. mother of Memnon. In the end he became a veritable Its he quarrelled with and dismissed that philosopher. wife of Tithonus . historian of Cumae. particularly to his compatriot Plutarch. The greatest of Theban commanders and statesmen. Dolon : a Trojan in the lliad^ Achaean camp as a spy. ' of epidemics due to His travels took him to Athens and other insanitary conditions. Epdminondas : a type of patriotism. the frontier town of . : 277 ') (i) the elder : despot of Syracuse (* sole general He extended strongly fortified the city tyrant. c). c. c. famous for his victory over the Spartans at Leuctra So far as he applied any philosophy to life. ji.v. near the seat of the worship of Zeus.) assisted by Plato. The remainder is of his life was spent in poverty at Corinth. it was that of : Pythagoras. but : modern Janina a very ancient to penetrate the who undertakes Greece.). and itself. he was compelled to abandon Syracuse after a rule of eleven years.

C. and was anciently. 540-450 b.2 78 Notes on Persons and Places : Epich&rmus Epicurus : c. . 6r8suB : a town on the south-west coast of Lesbos (Mytilene) little . made head against him with the help of Craterus. See Lelantum. EratdsthSnes : librarian of Alexandria under the Ptolemies . priest-prophet and bard of Crete. c. and grammar.v. and the self-indulgence of the sect was either a parody or a misconception of his teachings. about 196 B. It is. b. a south of Chalcis.C.) to cleanse their city of a plague. Many fables were current concerning him (e. His own life (as his tenets re342-270 ' ' ' quired) in later days was simple and wholesome. : a very distinguished physician in the earlier part of the third century b. c. I chiefly associated with the court of Hiero (q. of which the aim was peace of mind or freedom from emotional disturbance '. governor of Armenia. one of the date of Socrates and one earlier. He practised and taught in Syria and eminent student of anatomy. after whose death he obtained (322 B. c. whom he expelled through a selfish desire to rule alone. * too late '. Euenus : two poets of Paros are so named. c. Athenian philosopher and founder of the Epicurean school. His subordinate Neoptolemus. Epimetheus: to mean ' After-thinker brother of Prometheus (q. Their defeat. Erinys : a spirit of vengeance sent up from the underworld to punish unnatural crimes and offences. of his sleep of fifty-seven years). the great comic poet of Sicily. An Died a writer on mathematical geography. but with a bad style.). EtimSnes: an eminent and very able general (and also secretary) of Alexander. joint king of Thebes with Polyneices. with peculiar knowledge of medicine and methods of purification. : voluminous writer on physics and ethics. g. A Epim6nides He was called in by the Athenians {c. difficult to distinguish between the two. The name was taken and hence arose a notion that he thought '. history. birthplace of Theophrastus.v. !^te6cles: (legendary): son of Oedipus.) at Syracuse. Er6tria : the second town of Euboea. . 596 b. Erasistr&tus Alexandria.) the chief command in Asia.

and Athens 427 b. Hecuba : Hephaestus the aged wife of Priam. tactics against who saved Rome by his waiting Hannibal . c.c. Euripides: 480-406 b. 49. Though Athens was not liberated till four years later. third in date of the three great Athenian Eupfilis His works were numerous and uneven. was Q. His poetical tragedians. Gylippus and that city.. Darius was : raised to the throne and Gobryes became one : of his lieutenants. who served against Macedonia and in Spain. but the one who was associated with Polybius.c. rhetorical teacher. was widely imitated. F. which was highly artificial. r^ibiuB Maximus : the best known person of the name was Q. In the article 279 in on Garrulity. He opened the seams of the sacks. Aemilianus.C. took place in Cappadocia * ' one of the three chief poets of the old comedy of : Athens. a master of smithcraft. wisdom and sagacity are told by Herodotus (6.C. . as pupil and patron. brother of the despot Hippias in 514 b.Notes on Persons and Places mentioned 321 B. : Spartan general fall of who came to the rescue of Syracuse chiefly caused the utter collapse of the After the Athens (404 b. who : of Leontini in Sicily visited orator. : Harrnddius a handsome youth of Athens associated with Aristo- geiton (the older man) in the assassination of Hipparchus. filched about one-fifth of the amount. He is the Gorgias of Plato's dialogue. consul in 145 B.) it Athenian attack upon was his business to convey to Sparta the 1. Qobryea one of the seven Persian nobles (Darius being another) who conspired against the usurper Smerdis the Mage. His style. a contemporary of Aristophanes (q. these tyrannicides were canonized as saviours of their country. c.). . and subsequently.239)- : of Sparta Stories of her wife of Leonidas and daughter of Cleomenes I. but was betrayed by the inventories enclosed. but sturdy and somewhat humorous deity. and mother of Hector.500 talents of booty. : practically the Greek equivalent of the Latin Vulcan or Fire-God.v. merits were (and are) variously estimated. Fabius Maximus Cunctator. Qorgo 7. Qorgias sophist. M. He is represented as a lame.

Babylonia. The proverb. c. Persia. a mythological personage. His desire is to get at the facts. for the most part. 322 b. Put to death by Antipater (q. v. the father of medicine the most : renowned physician and medical teacher and writer C. on Lydia./. Egypt. patriot.C. fl. of antiquity 460-357 B. Hypereides (Hyperidee) : Attic orator . Hermidne : daughter of Menelaus and Helen . Aeschylus.28 o the Notes on Persons arid Places Heracleides (Heraclides). he invoked a flock of cranes.C. supporter of Demosthenes in his anti-Macedonian policy.). ino : or Leuc6thea . despot of Gelon and Syracuse (478-467 B. : of Rhegium. He was something of a hermit and favoured the simple vegetarian life. of dubious private life. became so cryptic that he earned the title of the Obscure '. The ' ' weeping philosopher '. a pupil of Plato and a miscellaneous writer. the cranes of ' Ibycus '. ' whom she tried Herdddtus c. and most powerful Sicilian of his day. to avenge his death. 484-400 b. which 515 B. at the court of the despot of poet of the erotic type. c. '. 540 b. daughter of . f bycus Samos a . c. married to Neopto- lemus (son of Achilles) and jealous of Andromache. The best known was Heracleides Ponticus. the so-called Father of History He travelled widely in the East and in the Grecian world. lyric c. Pindar. c. Xenophanes. It is not clear to which person of name Plutarch refers. Hipp6crates : of Cos . when being murdered by brigands near Corinth. to put to death. arose from the story that. but he displays a naive fondness for story-telling and : for wonders and miracles. Poets at one HerdpMluB of Chalcedon discoverer in . Heracleitus (Heraclitus) : physical philosopher of Ephesus. An elegant speaker. a most eminent physician and a anatomy and physiology fl. Plutarch tells the sequel {Garrulity). c. c). time or other associated with his court were Epicharmus. Hiero I : or the Magnificent. Famous for the compression of his style. . c. contemporary and. and the great Persian war. then flying past. Hieronymus : tragic and dithyrambic poet ' of Athens and ' . apparently a writer on poets. Simonides. 300 b. and Bacchylides. and wrote : .

the future emperor. . by whom she was the mother of Tiberius. 371 B.-a. a Phoenician settlement and afterwards a Roman colony. orator. c. Ijeuctra : Boeotian village the scene of the great defeat of the Spartans by Epaminondas. and writer a native of Lesbos. LaeHus Sapiens. 705 b. who made ilHcit love to Hera. De Amicitia is otherwise named his Laelius. and scholar. she was carried to Corinth dolphin. . the people of Odysseus. Laelius Consul 140 : C. with which in length. Married to Augustus (then Octavianus) in . Such a philosophically disposed person may be the associate of Socrates mentioned by Plutarch. . Ijesches : of the Little Iliad one of the post-Homeric (' Cyclic ') poets.ISIotes on Persons One and by a Places that. south of Corfu. Cicero's B. 29. 281 leapt Cadmus and wife of Athamas. c. Ixion : mythical Thessalian king. the famous Spartan king. Laertes : aged father of Odysseus Ithaca. An Athenian general In early part of the fourth century : innovator in tactics and military equipment. j^. Hence the allusion in the story of Arion. and was punished by being fastened to a perpetually revolving wheel in Hades. Livia : Livia Drusilla. was connected fertile and a half miles : Lelantum a river of Euboea. noted for his prudence and foresight. : * Leonidas Leptis : a town in Africa near the modern Tripoli . c. 480 B. d. which was long a bone of contention between the two cities. Ischomaohus : a character of the name appears in Xenophon's Oeconomicus as lecturing his wife upon the principles of domestic management. Philosopher. c. iphicrates B. : Ithacans wife of Zeus. 56 b. who so stubbornly held the pass of Thermopylae against the Persians with his Three Hundred '. superannuated king of it LSchaeum by walls one : the port of Old Corinth. one of the Ionian islands. c. Her first husband was Tiberius Claudius Nero.C. friend of Scipio Africanus Minor.C. king of Ithaca. flowing through the Lelan- tine plain (between Chalcis and Eretria). story went when she into the sea.

. The majority . and having no children by him. Spartan admiral. son of Dryas. Iioxias : Apollo as ' God ' of Oracles. The story is much varied in particulars. during which he killed his own son. c. whence the name Peripatetic Lycurgus: tion-maker of became applied to his school. Later his territory included the western half of Asia Minor. Lucullus Roman command by Pompey. * The name was commonly interpreted as : Riddling or Indirect '. Famous for his wealth and luxury. Ijocris : a Greek community lying along the north side of the middle of the Corinthian Gulf. c. a legendary Thracian king who resisted the worship of Dionysius and hacked down his sacred plant. thinking him a : vine. 404 He was afterwards distinguished for his ostentation and arrogance. A woman of strong character. Dionysius punished him with madness. byword for self-indulgence. Lyceum particularly for his lavish feasts.C. (i) the more or less legendary lawgiver and constituSparta.C. distinguished for the purity and lucidity of his diction and his grace of style : fl. and he (2) is not improbably as mythical as Heracles. an exercise ground with terraces (' walks ') and colon: It A nades just outside the wall to the east of Athens. Lysias : orator and professional rhetorician of Athens. an important Greek town of South Its constitutional about the modern Gerace. His date and personality are quite uncertain. but failed. she was anxious to keep the own family. of his 230 speeches were written for litigants. : Locri Epizephyrii. A . she exerted a tactful control over Augustus and attempted one more imperious over Tiberius. an able soldier. Locri Italy. c. Killed in battle 281 B.C. Lysimichua : of Macedonia became king of Thrace on the man of powerful physique and partition of Alexander's empire. 403 B. and conqueror of Mithridates. code was often regarded as a model. the vine. Aristotle discoursed on the * ' * was here that Walk ' (peripatos). succeeded in his 66 b. who won the battle of Aegospotami against the Athenians and concluded the reduction of Athens in Lysander B.282 Notes on Persons and Places succession in her 38 B.

one of whose best known speeches is a violent. and : possibly a rather scurrilous. c. zyj b. His reign was long and he died at ninety. culture. To moralizing critics of a later age he was to comedy what Homer was to epic. He made a special study of poisons and their antidotes. his ambition and daring .. Caecilius Metellus. No offers could induce him to Menander : chief poet of the Athenian New Comedy (or comedy of manners). M6rope the name of several mythological semi-goddesses. Metellus : Q. 342-291 B. inferior tragic Mel&nthius worthless character Meledger brothers. of the Megarian school.) arid almost co-master of his school. a Hellenized oriental famed for his physical and intellectual ability. first a supporter. Meidias (Midias) an Athenian citizen and bitter enemy of Demosthenes.C. mostly who successfully conducted the b. His sententious writings lent themselves to quotation and were much read in schools. was cursed by her. c.. Mithriddtes : Mithridates VI. he : and elegiac poet of a contemporary of Aristophanes and Plato. c). he lent great assistance to the Romans from 204 B. Having slain his mother's : of : Athens : an part in leave his chamber and rout the enemy. a polished and easy-tempered man of the world. then an Carthage. until he yielded to the prayers of his wife Cleopatra. Died 277 b.Notes on Persons and Places Maslnissa : 283 enemy. taken It was he who urged Themistocles as his model. : to force on the battle of Salamis (480 b. king of Pontus 120-63 B. by Themistocles Mnesiphilus Athenian statesman of sound practical ability. or the Great. military ability. MSnedemus ' ' : philosopher and statesman of Euboea. Numidian War against Jugurtha (109 by A man : of high character.) until superseded connected with the heavenly bodies. legendary prince of Calydon. .c. Marius.C. : Died c.C. and intellectual Metrodorus favourite pupil of Epicurus (q. of to 148. attack upon him. In the Dinner-Party Plutarch borrows the name for an imaginary friend of Solon. king of Numldia . and thereupon refused to take further the war against the Curetes. v. of importance in history for his wars with the Romans under LucuUus and Pompey.

Gulf on the north Boeotian sculptor fl.v. thirty miles a trading-station./. in earlier half of : tht Theriaca on venomous animals. particularly noted for his chiaroscuro and for improvements in encaustic painting. with good reasons for jealousy.v. 310 b. In a sense she played the DeUlah to his Samson. second king of Rome. He was put to death by (2) painter of Athens. Orch6m6nus : a very ancient town in Boeotia.c. the great God of the Zoroastrians. wife of Philip (q. and the excellence Olympias : Olynthus Thessalonica. of disastrous Athenian general in the calamitous expedition against A man of wealth. to whom Heracles was for a time enslaved and for whom he played an effeminate part. An imperious and vindictive woman. who often figures in Macedonian feuds. it At first only : was granted privileges of internal self-government see NeoptolSmus Nestor the typical wise old man of the Iliad. Nicander poet and physician of Colophon fl. The verse in itself is poor. : : Plutarch. superstition a commander of experience.) and mother of Alexander. though wanting in promptitude and the victors. with Numa Numa Pompihus. Much of his history is legendary. second century B. famed for his piety of his legislation. 430 b. His work included animal forms. : a Greek town on the Chalcidic peninsula. Oromazdes: =Ahuramazda. . and Myron : human figures in a state of : muscular activity or tension.). a NildxSnus a character probably invented by name geographically suitable. south of 6iiipli&le : queen of Lydia. and the Alexipharmaca (or 'Antidotes') on poisons and their remedies.C. as opposed to Ahrimanes. see Pittacus. c. M^silus from the sea. by Amasis Eumenes. Nicias : (i) Syracuse (415-413 b. but religious to the point . Best known by his Discobolus and his 'Cow'. : lyTaucr&tis a Greek town in the Delta of Egypt. c. self-reliance. Two of his poems are extant : : . (q. .c).284 Notes on Persons and Places : Molycrea a town just Inside the entrance to the Corinthian side. deity of light and good.

His early mildness is commonly ful ruler. c.c. Parin6nio : general under Philip and Alexander. drawing and proportion. ') = Achilles. son of Peleus : . c. : Panth6a to his side. c.^. famous an archer. Peisistr^tus : a younger relative of Solon intrigued himself into the position of despot of Athens 560 b. but Ministers' of Athens. Pasiphae a bull : and mother : (legendary) wife of Minos of Crete of the Minotaur. Queen of the Dead. reported to have passed into tyranny (see Thrasybulus). who had captured showed her such respect that Abradatas came over Parm^nides : philosopher and legislator of Elea. and a lover of Uterature. he was assassinated at the age of seventy in 330 b. . An able and power: patron of Uterature and art. c. Periander despot of Corinth. c. c. His wife * was MeUssa. . e. enamoured of Patroclus the * ' squire and beloved friend of Achilles. generally (but not invariably) included among the Seven Sages. Killed by Hector in battle. king of Macedonia. but his leadership became most pronounced about 444 b. 625-585 b. Peleus aged father of Achilles superannuated king in Thessaly. and philosophic tastes. His career of an aristocratic and exclusive temperament. and right-hand lieutenant of the latter. and avenged by Achilles. His writings were in the hexameter verse then usual as the vehicle of literary philosophy. but re-established himself. c. : Parrhdsius famed for his accurate painter of Ephesus. A highly capable ruler. on whom the Romans made war . : . 476 b. Accused of taking part in a conspiracy against his chief.c. He was twice expelled. king of Susa. * Peleides (-1-) : (i. Persephone Perseus : : in one of her aspects.Notes on Persons and Places Pdnd&ruB skill as : 285for his a Lycian warrior on the Trojan side. daughter of Demeter. A man of large conceptions. and therefore. beautifier of Athens. 400 b. Cyrus. wife of Pluto. domiciled at Athens.c. As a man he was arrogant and luxurious. Pericles : the highest name among what may be called Prime may be dated 470-429 b. her. beautiful wife of Abradatas. brilliant oratorical powers.

c. in a large measure.c. /. hard-working. tutor of Ptolemy II. c. Pheidias (Phid-) of Athens.). At first he attacked the Macedonian rulers. vacillating was defeated at Pydna by Rome and lived for and parsimonious monarch. : A weak. c. and wrote ninety-seven Philadelphus : Philemon plays. one of the better Athenian poets of the New 335 b. in some legends proverbial for cruelty. ' Petronius Titus (or Gaius) Petronius. a hard drinker and a ambitious.c. Aemiiius Paulus 168 b.). especially fond of rude jest. home to Ithaca he was hospitably by him on Phaedra: whom she became enamoured. v. : but later became a friend of Lysimachus (q. king of Macedon. Demosthenes' Philippics and other speeches were directed against him. wife of Theseus and step-mother of Hippolytus. His thinness was a matter of jest for the comedians. see Ptolemy (i). Philip : 382-336 b. Lived c.c. 570 b. reckoned second only to Menander. : Athenian poet of the New Comedy. He was carried to some years taste ' at Alba. . of the Pherae : a town in Thessaly.v. but with intellectual tastes. somewhat west modern Volo. traditionally identified with Corfu. Philippides Comedy . 300 b. but possibly Crete. and rather unscrupulous man . Phdl&ris : despot of Agrigentum in Sicily c. he L. of The allusion in Plutarch refers to the fondness of Hippolytus for hunting. which became dominant under the despots Jason and Alexander (q. the famous his pleasures. and. But he is sometimes represented otherwise and as a student of letters and philosophy. Parthenon and his colossal statue of Zeus at Olympia. c. When Odysseus arrived at the island on his raft entertained by King Alcinous and sent a ship. sensualist.28 d in 171 B. Notes on Persons and Places At first victorious or equal. arbiter of under Nero and director of Whether he was the author of the famous Satyricon is doubtful. conqueror of Greece. An able. 360-262 b. Philetas : of Cos. Phaeacians : seafaring inhabitants of the rich and fertile island of Phaeacia.c. His name was and with him is associated the legend of roasting his victims in a brazen bull. . elegiac poet and critic. father of Alexander. c. c. the most eminent sculptor of He is best known for his work upon the antiquity: died 432 b.

He was frequently opposed to Demosthenes.). and was put to death by his countrymen on a charge of : treason. of Demosthenes. Ph6c. He he is said to have been imprisoned for his scathing criticism on the despot's verses. .v. the submission of Athens to the Macedonian power under Alexander (335) and Antipater (q. His policy was consistently to abet the pretensions of Philip of Macedon. Philotas : there were several Macedonians of the name in the service of Alexander.v. v. .). exile. : 287 : Athenian writer on the history. and were so intended. first a supporter. a man of culture and high character. 530 b. He had quarrelled with of his lines passed into current his own father. then an opponent. c. c. 300 b.^.v. to the detriment of Athens. legends of his country. but found guilty of conspiracy and executed . chief (i) The two were Philotimus : a distinguished physician and writer on medicine of the date of Erasistratus PhiloxSnus 400 B. c.). though probably not in an unpatriotic spirit.C. by whom : : Phdcion 402-3 1 7 b. who favoured. He was ultimately impeached and compelled to go into 330 B.). c.C. who had bribed him lavishly. the son of Parmenio. Many maxims. An upright Athenian general and statesman. where he suffered deprivations and the agonies of a gangrened foot. and Ji. Philopoemen: (i) the most distinguished Greek soldier of his day . and Herophilus (q. antiquities. (2) controlling minister of Attalus II (q. Phoenix : a fugitive kindly received by Peleus and entrusted with the bringing-up of his son Achilles. c. head of the Achaean League several times from 208 b.7lides : epic and elegiac poet of Miletus.Notes on Persons and Places Philochdrus 260 B. c. Philoctetes : Greek hero (in the expedition to Troy) left desolate on the island of Lemnos.c. a dithyrambic poet of high repute ji. whose young mistress he had corrupted at the request of his jealous mother. (2) a general who subsequently became governor of Cilicia. c. at Athens thence moved to the court of Dionysius (q. a favourite of Alexander. and on miscellaneous subjects 300- Philocr&tes : Athenian orator.

P616mo : (i) of Athens. dirges. 650-569. composer lived c. traveller. &c. The chief representative on the other side had been Myrsilus. &c. which was itself sometimes called the Canon '. more massive and PraxitSles ' ' majestic. c. c. the second greatest name in Athenian sculpture j : 365 B. Pitt&cus : of Mytilene. Priam : aged king of Troy. (e. 195 b. He accompanied Greek historian from Arcadia. particularly distinguished for his representation of hvmian forms. c. . During the struggles of the oligarchical and popular parties he was appointed by the latter elective autocrat and legislator. ' ' and cultured philosopher of Athens. ft. and geographer. whose dead body he came to Achilles to ransom. of Greece.c. and taken under the patronage Maximus and Scipio Aemilianus. Fabius Scipio against Carthage and in Spain.c. 522-442 b. whom he succeeded 315 b. Polycleitus first (-clit-) : of Argos.v. carried to Italy by the of Q. He * the Venus particularly excelled with his statues of Aphrodite of Cnidos '). useful. Contemporary of Sappho.C. who in his youth abandoned profligate : Plato the aristocratic follower of Socrates. c. who wrote Pol:^bius : Romans 167 b. founder of the habits for the cult of the Platonic philosophy under the influence of Xenocrates (q. These were best typified in his Doryphorus ' (' spear-bearer '). copiously on inscriptions.c. and writer of the Dialogues which go under his name.^. a sculptor of the rank. to which he imparted his ideals of strength and beauty ' according to a canon of proportions '.28 8 : Notes on Persons and Places of Thebes. : : in two senses (1) the Black Sea on the eastern half of the south coast of that Pontus . . unimaginative history of the years 220-146 b. c. He is the head of the later (or more graceful) Attic school. g. the Pindar of songs. fl. A philosophic poet and the originator of moral maxims. province or region sea. Wrote a sound. Academy. His chief colossal statue was the chryselephantine (2) a Hera of Argos. . father of Hector. A practical statesman and a student of the military art.) representing the earlier. c.).v. (2) a Stoic philosopher. choral most eminent lyrist and processional odes. 450-412 b. c. Pheidias (q. .

a man . Pupius Piso : Roman orator. called in by the people of Tarentum : against the Romans. a vicious and Ptolemy IV (Philopator). Ptolemy 247 B. besides mathematical knowledge (in which he made some advances). 546'19 T . Prddicus notorious. Pyrrhus king of Epirus. Pytliian: belonging to Pytho '. and there became the founder of a close and aristocratic philosophical brotherhood. king 205-181 B. c. Many = * chief oracle of Apollo. . c. 540-520 b. of Ceos.Notes on Persons and Places Priene Ephesus of Plato .C. king 222-205 b.c. as became a Pythagorean. king of Egypt 247-222 b. c. he sent his eloquent minister to Rome These were rejected. His bodily weakness was Prometlieus : mythical semi-deity. of great and mathematical learning. i. (4) It Publius Nigidius scientific : contemporary of Cicero . After a dearly won victory in 280 b. and by the invention of the civilizing arts. a contemporary Athens.j^. and from Italy. c. He came to the throne at the age of four. mystical theological views and protravelled in the East He migrated bably also his doctrine of the transmigration of souls. Ptolemy V (Epiphanes). gifted with great foresight . king of Egypt 285- Ptolemy IH (Euergetes). after a practically equal contest he retired Pythagoras: of Samo8. the seat of the sufficient {ipse dixit). to offer humiliating terms of peace. 289 south of : an Ionian Greek town in Asia Minor a little the : home of Bias. c. He had apparently and acquired. was in the early part of his reign that Egypt became a Roman protectorate. ruled by his minister Sosibius. (2) (3) : (i) Ptolemy H (Philadelphus). sophist and a frequent visitor to and rhetorical teacher.c.e. a supporter of Clodlus and therefore hostile to Cicero. His name was commonly interpreted ' Fore-thinker '. See Aristomenes. to whom the word of the master was legends gathered about him and a mystical interpretaton was put upon his rather compressed maxims. to Delphi. and consul in 6i b. a benefactor of mankind by giving them fire stolen from heaven (an oflFence for which he was cruelly punished by Zeus). sensual monarch. to Croton in South Italy.


Notes on Persons and Places
the promontory on the south side of the


of the

Corinthian Gulf, the north promontory being Antirrhium. Rusticus : L. Junius Arulenus Rusticus, a Roman noble of the
Stoic school



and champion of liberty, so far as that was possible under emperors. Put to death by Domitian (emperor a.d.



and writer

of epigrams at the

Macedonian court,
the brilliant


B. c.

Scipio and almost

(i) P.

Cornelius Scipio Africanus Major




(2) P. Cornelius Scipio

who conquered Hannibal in 202 b. c. Aemilianus Africanus Minor, who completed

the conquest of Carthage 146 b.



a student of letters and philo-






a spot on the Sacred Way from Athens to Eleusis. Here island in the Aegean off north-east of Euboea.

was for a time hidden by his mother in woman's dress, and occupied in feminine tasks to keep him from the dangers of

Victorious ') ; king of Syria defeated by Antiochus with the help of Gauls (= Galatians) at Ancyra, and it was for a time thought that he had perished in the rout. He managed, however, to retain his kingdom.


called Callinicus (the



B. c.

He was

Sildnion : Athenian portrait sculptor c. 324 b.c. His Jocasta represented her as dying, her pallor being realistically rendered by the unworthy device of mixing silver with bronze.

a class of tipsy satyrs associated with Dionysus.
in a sense the Falstaf? of



Greek legend.

Simonides : a most distinguished poet of Ceos, writer of elegies, choral and processional odes, epigrams, and drinking songs (556467 B. c). He spent part of his life as a kind of court poet in Thessaly
and at Syracuse, and
visited Athens.

a high order, and his moral maxims


His compositions were of in vogue, but he was

notorious for worldliness and a love of money. Sisyphus : legendary king of Corinth ; type of fraudulent and
criminal cunning

a stone up a

hill for

punished in Hades by being compelled to ever and never establishing it at the top.



the Athenian philosopher (468-399 b.c), from whose

Notes on Persons and Places


thinking most of the later schools were in some way descended. His object was to bring philosophy down to earth, and to arrive at true and universal definitions. His simple character, his whimsical irony, and his dialectical skill formed the groundwork for many stories. His method was conversational and non-didactic. He wrote nothing, and what we know of him is due to his disciples Plato and Xenophon, and to later writers.

Solon : of Athens, c. 638-558 b. c. ; aristocrat, trader, traveller, poet and thinker. Chosen at a time of political and financial crisis as mediator between parties in Attica, and as constitution-maker,
he behaved with
strict impartiality and self-effacement. may believe that he visited Egypt, but his intercourse with Croesus (q. v.) Author of much proverbial wisdom. is of doubtful warrant.


the world.



b. c.


second in date, and perhaps in merit,

of three great Athenian tragedians

a genial and practical





satires of a lascivious kind.

a poet at Alexandria c. 280 b. c. He wrote songs and One account states that in consequence

of his abuse he

was thrown into the sea in a leaden



of Athens,

nephew and

disciple of Plato,
b. c.)



successor as head of the

Academy (347-339
His character

a writer on ethical

dialectical subjects.

said to

have excelled





the best

known person

of the

name was an


tragic poet of Heraclea

on the Black Sea


by Aristophanes

and other comedians.

a high-minded and sane philosopher of great dialectical Founder of the Megarian school, which made a cult of

virtue while denying the possibility of knowledge.

See also under

Siilla: the distinguished Roman general, 138-78 b.c. He took charge of the war against Mithridates in 87 B.C., his capture of Athens taking place in the next year. His love of pleasure resulted in the

pimpled face referred to in Plutarch's Metella was his fourth wife.


on Garrulity.




of Italy, once large, prosperous,

the oldest Greek settlement in the southernmost part and a by-word for effeminate luxury

T 2


Notes on Persons and Places


afterwards completely overthrown and de') ; place being taken by Thurii (q.v.). Taenarum : now Matapan ; cape at the end of the middle prong

of the Peloponnese.

TelSphtus king of Mysia at the time of the Trojan war. He was wounded by Achilles, and could only be cured by that which had wounded him'. The remedy turned out to be the rust of Achilles' spear. ThAis a witty and beautiful courtesan of Athens, first associated


with Alexander during his Asiatic campaigns and then with Ptolemy
in Egypt.



of Miletus,



b. c.


as a physical philo-

sopher, mathematician, and shrewd practical man. mentioned first among the Seven Sages.






a high-minded Athenian youth, eager for knowledge, plays his part in Plato's dialogue of that name. Theaggnes : Theban general at Chaeronea (338 b.c). Theano : wife or pupil (or both) of Pythagoras (q. v.), herself a

writer on philosophy and a pattern of virtue. Themistdcles : became political leader at Athens 483 b.c, and commanded the Athenian contingent at the battle of Salamis.

Subsequently (471 b.c.)
extremely honest,
in the service of Persia.


man was


extremely able, but apparently not His last days were spent

His son Diophantus


no note.

The6critus of Chios, rhetorician and sophist, noted for his caustic The Antigonus who put him to death was Antigonus the wit.





elegiac poet of the sententious order.



at Megara c. 550-540 b.c. Amid the feuds of his country he sides with the aristocrats, and allusions to political injustice are frequent.






wisdom were fathered on


as a matter of course.




painter of Samos, contemporary of Apelles (q.v.) and spoken of by Pliny as next to the first '.

and successor


of Lesbos

and afterwards





of Aristotle as


of the Peripatetics (322 b. c).


encyclopaedic writer on logic, physics, history, biology, zoology, &c. His best-known work is his Characters.

Notes on Persons and Places


To his reign king of Sparta, fi. c. 750 b. c. belonged the change of the form of government by the establishment * of the popular ephors to control the royal power.

before Troy.


misshapen and virulent demagogue in the Greek army






of Achilles.

(q. v.),

despot of Miletus, contemporary and friend of over whom he exercised a bad influence, as in advisthe

Greek city in South Italy on the west side of the Gulf of Tarentum, noted for its special democratic system. TimagSnes : an Alexandrian or Syrian rhetorician and historian.

him to Thurii





He taught and wrote at Rome under Augustus, whose friendship he obtained, losing it, however, through his caustic freedom. Timoclea : of Thebes. Plutarch tells of her noble and daring
spirit in his Life of


(c. 12).



painter of Byzantium,


century b. c.



Ajax and Medea, which were bought by Julius Caesar. Medea was represented meditating the murder of her children. Timdtheus (i) an able and spirited Athenian general, who
for his


obtained several rather roving successes, chiefly against the Laceof popular character and daemonians. Something of a free lance

considerable culture



378-354 b.c.


poet and musician of Miletus, settled at Athens fi. c. 400-360 His poems were mainly dithyrambs (high-flown and wordy

compositions) or cognate lyrics.

His music, at



received on

account of

vulgarizing innovations, became immensely popular. See Tissaphernes : Persian satrap of lower Asia Minor.




him immortality, but

a mortal beloved of Eos (Aurora), who obtained for forgot to obtain him immortal youth.



a town in the east of the Peloponnese near the entrance Castor and Pollux, the traditional preservers

of the Saronic Gulf.

Tyndareus' sons
of seamen.


Typhon =



Egyptian malignant deity


brother, enemy,


slayer of Osiria.

of Plato,

Notes on Persons atid Places

396-314 b. c. philosopher from Chalcedon, disciple and philosophic teacher and writer. His earnestness of character and application to study atoned for his lack of the Graces. Became head of the Academic school next but one after Plato.




philosopher of Colophon, and afterwards of Elea in

Italy, in later part of sixth century b. c.


for his high conception

of a Deity as neither

anthropomorphic nor subject to human passions. His doctrines were embodied in hexameter verse.






the retreat of the

Ten Thousand

the well-known historian, and leader of as recorded in his Anabasis.


philosophical adherent of Socrates

and a voluminous



444-359 b.c.

Cyprus and subsequently of Athens; founder of the Stoic philosophy ; a man of simple, if rather dour,

Zacynthus Zeno (i)


Zante, the southernmost of the Ionian islands.

of Citium in


ethical, physical,

and capable of an apt retort and other philosophic


fl. c.


b. c.


writer on


Philosopher of Elea

disciple of


(q. v.)


of popular liberty against a usurping despot.


. .



eldores alaOofxevois fiaXXou avTols tovto XfyovTcov.

Read 5 C

et^ores, ^i)) aladofievoi ^ koI

aWoav avTols tovto
ovdev 8ta0ep6i.



oTi t5)v dva^lcov

to. Tifxia



requires d^iav cheap '. 6 C TTpos de TOVTOis Ti av Tovs TToidas




The cause
7 7

of the lacuna




we read

koKop yap toi ktX, rt av tovs Tvaidas

(^KaXop didaa-Koiep ;) koKop yap toi ktX.



ert pepvrjfjLai ttjs Traideias.

Rather. .^Tavrj^y)

ttjs naibeias.




evyepcos evruxflv dp8p6s, to 8' dveitK^dovas evrjviov



to pep yap €vyepS>s drv;^fti/ dpdpos, to

S' dveTri-

(f>d6vais ev6r}pe7p dpdpoiTrov.



. .


ttjp e7ri(TTr)pr]p Tripelp







Icrxvos 8e aTpaTioiTtjs rroXepiKOip dyapcop edas dOXrjTap Kal

Read . . ddXrjTap KaTampeXcop . . . TToXepidp (fidXayyas Stco^et. 8 F Koi TavTa pep 8f] tcS Xoyco 7rape(f)opTi(rdpr)p, ip e<pe^TJs Ka\







S' e(f>e^rjs.

. .

Ipa 8e

yeXara irapdaxj)

fols aXXois, avTos ttoXvp xP^^op



require the antithesis yeXoDTa (^^pax^py rrapdaxj]'

oTi del TOP ^lop eTriTTjdeveiP Ka\ pf) de'ip decrpS TrpoaaTTTeip.


koi prjbevl 8e(rpxS





eK XvpiKrjs Texvr)s.

The sense

requires pevpocnraa-TiKrjs,





be equivalent.
tcis 7rpoeipr)pepas
. .

t6 pep ovp nda-as
irapaipea-eas epyop

avpjrepiXa^elp ev;^^?
easily lost


The word most


be {evrjpepiasy.

Also (^pdXXop)

to be supplied.



ep T(o KaTa<f>poP€'ip Tidepepoi

to aepvop vnepo'^ia diaxovTes,



KaTa(f)popeip {^t6 (j>popelpy Tidepepoi



w8t)P TiPa





{peas} or the

. B ort TTpicr^vT-qs €(tt\v iv ^Adrjpais Trapa itotov (ncorrdp 8vpd. . . appendix A fj The ei depmrevriKfj napp-qtria CrjTfi Tponov. . 6' For Koi t/)s crov (Secrou) read ttjs (SeSousi. . . OaKaTTH fcrX. D . . . Trpea^vTrjs {<??) . ds xdprrjp There would be more point in els Moreover. Oxford : Horace Hart. fj tois . .?) dncop ktK. xdpTT)v (rrjp avrqp} . M. what they wrote was simply O.6vov . rj 8( 152 152 <}>(t)vrjs A D €t fiT) fiopos ett] <f>p6vifios. 515 D Perhaps oacrop v8(op KOTaxe^ p6tos ^ .. . 158 D D F deivbv ovv . Read . fi' sense would be given by TeaBai.z^6 TOiovTov yap 74 npaKTiKr) top ivavriov. . The e-rrea-Oai kt\. Rather aXX' . Probably dXX' 513 ^t6 tou 'OSucrcr^'a. . . .ivr]V.) Aidovs fxev . oaarop v8u>p kot ^AXi^opos ^ dpvo'. .aTi rrju S^v\rjp eyKfKa\vfip. . . Printer to the University . . . .A.€PTjv. OY p. koI e'fc . Read npoaeKcWe. 159 a)aiT€p iv fivkatvi rid (ra>p. ovx ^ttoi' (^evXa^rjTeop/ eV epyois eaTip. Read 160 163 iyKeKKrjp. A f^iKinTTOv ypdyjraPTOs el bexoprai rfj TroXtt avrov. dnavTrja-ai p. t^j Se aov ovK aKpi^a>s i^oKovfis.e. The sense requires avrris.. . . dnavTrjcrai p. ..(p\ neTTjXa. . to yecopyias avrfj. sense requires f) 8e TapaKTiKfj . Probably fie el ifxfiovas fiq . eVt Tov TOTTOV 61 TTpocrefieWe. dp. 514 F TO yap fMTTjp Kal diaKeprjs ovx rfTTOv ev Tols Xoyots . 504 C ojxtos eiVcof koi o/zcds dpa<pa>pfj<Tas exeii/o nepl avTOv to . arv be deivos KopaKoau inaUiv kcu KoXoim.6vov (^3apprjcraif to diraXXaT- t^?) daXarTrjs eTreoBat 504 fiepos. . .tya ypdylraPTCs direaTeiXap. .


-.^^ n ! - i"^ .


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