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UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA

THE MUSEUM
PUBLICATIONS OF THE BABYLONIAN SECTION

ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS FROM NIPPUR
BY

PROFESSOR AT THE PHILADELPHIA DIVINITY SCHOOL

JAMES A MONTGOMERY 4

1

*

AXD ASSISTANT PROFESSOR AT THE UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA

ECKLEY BRINTON COXE JUNIOR FUND

PHILADELPHIA PUBLISHED BY THE UNIVERSITY MUSEUM

1913

PJ"

630411

TO

MY FATHER AND MOTHER
FIRST

AND BEST OF TEACHERS

HISTORICAL CONCLUSIONS 14. AND LANGUAGE 26 27 INTRODUCTORY THE "RABBINIC" TEXTS THE SYRIAC TEXTS THE MANDAIC TEXTS 32 37 III. 7. ETC 67 95 IV. 11. 9. SCRIPT 4. 10. 15. 13 SURVEY OF THE MATERIAL 1. THE DEMONS.CONTENTS PAGE PREFACE 7 INTRODUCTION I. 2. THE THE THE THE THE PRAXIS OF THE INSCRIBED BOWLS EXORCISTS 40 46 49 51 CLIENTS INCANTATIONS 13. SOME NOTES ON THE TEXTS HITHERTO PUBLISHED. 5. THE MATERIAL IN THE MUSEUM THE MATERIAL HITHERTO PUBLISHED AND IN OTHER COLLECTIONS 13 16 3. AGE OF THE BOWLS RELATIONS OF THE BOWL-MAGIC (5) 102 106 . DEITIES. 6. THE MAGIC OF THE TEXTS 8. 12.. OBJECTS OF EXORCISM. 23 II. ETC PROPITIOUS ANGELS.

PREFATORY NOTE TO THE PLATES REGISTER OF THE BOWLS. 41. 1-30. AN INSCRIBED SKULL A FORM OF THE LILITH LEGEND 256 258 GLOSSARIES: PREFATORY NOTE A. ANGELS. Nos. DEMONS. TEXTS: Nos. "RABBINIC" TEXTS 117 117 Nos. 38-40. PERSONAL B. 309 319 . PAGE TRANSLITERATION. 31-37.321 . PLATES TEXTS ALPHABETIC TABLES .. NOTES Nos. 267 269 NAMES PERSONAL NAMES AND EPITHETS OF DEITIES. . No. TRANSLATION. SYRIAC TEXTS MANDAIC TEXTS 223 244 APPENDIX: No. 42. 1-42.. PHOTOGRAPH OF BOWL . ETC 274 281 C.CONTENTS. GENERAL GLOSSARY GENERAL INDEX.

I of all the earlier have accordingly not only given a description material but also collated it as fully as possible both in the Glossaries and in the references of Introduction and Commentary. has grown to greater dimen- sions with the enlarging perception of the intimate relations between the bowl-inscriptions and the broad magical literature. notice of these connections with Analogies with the Talmud and possible connections with the Kabbalistic lore had been pointed out. The Introduction. thus extended beyond still the field of the Nippur texts. but the bowls still remained without definite place or links in the general field of ancient magic. with and necessary notes. had taken little a wider world. both for my own advantage in securing a larger material for collation and also it for the convenience of scholars by presenting in one work a survey of a rather remote and scattered field. now in the possession of the Museum. working before the present great development of the study of magic. fields of ancient Previous editors. Withal the relations of Jewish magic to the larger whole have not yet been ascertained. the incantation texts inscribed on bowls from Nippur. But soon became apparent that full account should be made of all other published texts of like character. But within the last few decades an immense advance has been made in our knowledge in importance as a study magic and of its prime the history of mankind.PREFACE The primary purpose translation of this publication was to edit. The chief of ancient (7) . in which many have labored but none has attempted a treatment of the subject at large.

actually talked and thought. and in any case that earlier influence was mediated to this special field through Hellenism. chief contribution to the study has been in these two direc- tions. and have found an interest last them as revealing how the ancient "man of the street. where at every step the student faces the problem of the identities and differences of magic and religion. the classical philologists have at in condescended to examine the vulgar magical records the Greek and Latin tongues. from the anthropologists and the students of comparative religion. magic was wholly at second hand. first. the relations with the cuneiform religious texts and the The writer's knowledge of Egyptian Greek magical papyri. who have taught us not to ignore the of the in the most primitive spirit. of capital Magic within Judaism has been the subject monographs by competent Jewish scholars. stimulus to this has come. Further. with magical ideas." and wiser men as well. BABYLONIAN SECTION. is The Christian Syrian literature nections. human most degraded manifestations Then there have been the rapid strides or advance of Egyptology and Assyriology. except so far as to show the absolute . being thoroughly infused. in modes in different tion. and in I that direction have not been able to do much more than to appropriate their results. I from the traditional standards this of the classical civiliza- Of large increase in material and understanding have been fortunately able to avail myself. shown to have its close conas was the early Church.8 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. with the result of the discovery of innumerable clues proving that the bowldescendant of the old Babylonian sorcery while at the same time and this is the more important because a less expected discover}^ it takes its place in is magic in part the lineal that great of the field of Hellenistic magic which pervaded the whole My western world at the beginning of the Christian era.

in the history of magic we must pursue not the genealogical but the analogical method. it is not Jewish but eclectic. the facts of the texts as possible from the have been illustrated in as objective a way and contemporaneous magic. for. MONTGOMERY ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS.J. the conclusion must be drawn. If I appear to have gone into much of detail in the treatment of these non-literary texts. My work would be a contribution from a very small and limited field to the study of magical thought and practice of locally inherited within a definite age and region. on account of its dominating civilization. At least there has the writer the satisfaction of finding a place for disjecta of these out-of-the-way come to the membra of texts in the huge colossus that system of magic which was once almost the actual religion of our western civilization. we call Hellenistic. that the magic of the bowls. as indicated in 15 of the Introduction. and of the Jewish magic. in a general way. I trust that the results will justify my work has proceeded naturally and subtly much beyond the editor's desire and undertaking. as someone has remarked. phenomena with the intent of establishing the immediate bonds of connection. has come out of the crucible Graeco-Roman world. the Hellenistic magic. 9 community and Gentile of ideas sorcery. the philological point of view these vulgar inscriptions are of as much interest to the Semitist as are the From . the expansion the convenience. With a single eye. this would have been but to confuse my work and cloud my results. As a result of these comparisons. A. and terms and practice between Jewish It remains a subject for an interesting investigation to discover just it what Judaism gave to. with this broadening of the scope of the work. it has been the fixed purpose not to attempt any general study of magic. but probably a hope- less study. all However. and what received from. which.

whose books are late manuscripts. be set And as to matters beyond philology. examination in order to test hypotheses of interpretanot. the obscure and crabbed condition of the texts compelled an exact philoin that line logical tion. BABYLONIAN' SKC'TION. almost entirely to the school-literatures of religious preserved mostly in literature is all of the Jews. Further.10 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. magical papyri to the with the exception of classicist. we are confined sects. and they are of importance as original documents of the dialectic forms of the speech of Babylonia about the eve of the rise of Islam. the words and the syntax of the texts are the autograph representatives of the language of their Three different Aramaic dialects. yet in their totality. The Jewish magical documentarily late or uncertain as to age. and our texts have a historical worth as almost the earliest records which can be exactly dated. passages. these epigraphic results furnish us with plenty of material only one should not expect too much it of them. to work out very small In such work as this there it is is no immediate compensation on the surface. it will down to wilful acriby if I have attempted clues. 82). Other original monuments are well-nigh lacking for this field. Careful study shows that. each with its own and one script a peculiar variety of the Edessene. I hope. or too little" (Bible Studies. only by following out the fine tendrils of connection that results worth while can study is well expressed by some words of Professor Deissmann: "It may be that hundreds of stones. have only the value of a single authority. are offered in the bowls from Nippur. unintelligible intentionally like. Christian Syrians and Mandaeans. tiresomely repeating the same monotowriter's The experience in his nous formula. In regard to the representation of the texts might have been technically more correct to present them in their several . and be obtained. mystic phrases and the writers. script.

MONTGOMERY.J. THE UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. MONTGOMERY ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. The peculiar Mandaic relative particle is represented. for his made. February 2. JAMES A. A. taken as beginning from the radius where the inscription begins. K. according to convention. In the Glossaries words containing this its common indicate character are arranged according to as etymological distinction inferior n or H. is far better subserved by presenting the texts in the well-known Hebrew character. The Prefatory Note to the Plates describes how the similes were fac- my have to express my deep obligation to friend and colleague. Yerkes. R. while those who desire the original scripts can satisfy themselves with the facsimiles published in the second volume. H But apart from the difficulty of procuring two of these types in American printing houses and compositors who could set them. but have departed from the usual custom of editing by representing the pronominal or H. it must be patent that the general convenience scripts. the Rev. I careful reading of the volume in proof. Dr. superior points are used for the diacritical marks of the Syriac texts. The numbered lines of the texts represent the spiral lines. which two sounds used H for the radical suffix in I"! -h by Mandaic texts and have I"! fall together in the dialect. In the transliterations points doubtful readings. 1912. I by the diacritical ~j. .

.

1889.I. they are two campaigns. in several places. intended for foods. 28 x 16 cm. SURVEY OF THE MATERIAL i. slip or glazing of any kind. According to Peters' account. thus giving a surface when set down it balances itself Some few have the boss expanded into at the bottom of the bowl. THE MATERIAL Museum at IN THE MUSEUM number of inscribed THE so-called size University contains a large earthenware bowls found "Incantation Nippur belonging to the category of the Bowls.. of the Museum. and are wheel-turned and 1 kiln- dried. in Babylonia. 1 1 Many I am such large specimens are in the British indebted to Museum and late at Constantinople. Mr. The most that full common is size is of about 16 cm. and in no way differ from the simple vessels which to this day are made in the Orient for household use. he says "was covered with a Jewish settlement. Randall-Maclver. D. They were a domestic ware. or in the first strata of the mounds. for the characterization of the pottery. by 5 cm. except that is most cases the bowl in a state somewhat cone-shaped. The bowls the finds in the Museum were excavated at Nippur. a rim. so flat of unstable equilibrium. amidst . or more. conducted by Professor Peters in the years 1888. 13 . these bowls were found on the top. the Index to which. sub "Jewish incantation bowls" gives the references. and in almost every house we found one. There one large bowl. * See his Nippur. They first 1 appear generally to have been discovered in the ruins of houses. by University of the of Pennsylvania Expedition so far as I know." These vessels are generally of the in and shape of a modern porridge-bowl. . diameter at top. they have no surface. 1 depth. the houses of which were built of mud-brick. what Peters suggests were Jewish settlements the whole surface of one hill. The bowls are made of a good clay.

a Again there are which neverthe- few texts which are fairly written and without those self-betraying combinations of less are letters that suggest a mock inscription. that this is but another "fake. IS3. one case bowls were found in ourselves in Jewish incantation bowls. They may I be in some non-Semitic tongue." At . see 14. containing only four circular lines of inscription. xiii. cf." produced or wag. For further discussion of the date. interested me as presenting a novel alphabet but I soon came to the conclusion . Jewish and Syriac were found but the Museum contains no Arabic specimens. illiterate scribes that made out. cases the inscriptions were written by laymen. 2954. or even in I judge that these articles were palmed on the unlearned public as "quite as good" as true incantations. between one and two metres below the surface. but not Semitic. f . ' i. In many PSBA. 183." of the most extensive finds of inscribed bowls was in the strata above the seventh "Court of Columns. in Pahlavi. least in connection with a cemetery It "we found a graveyard was 1 interesting to find.' and one in the bowls. . we may suppose by some learned impostor 4 ii. One of the neatest of the bowls. . whether. p. Cufic coins were found in the houses of these "Jewish" settlements. p. No. 182 245. 7 Hilprecht. or with pot-hooks. Schwab notices some forged bowls at Constantinople. who thus saved themselves the exorcist's fee. . 194. they offer only some magical jargon. Others again were inscribed by so so far as they can be that I have not been able to use them. Explorations in Bible Lands. and off would call "original fakes" they are inscribed with letters arbitrarily arranged. 4 BABYLONIAN SECTION. inscribed Hebrew As for the chronological light thrown upon these bowls. for example. On the following page the writer says that Arabic bowls along with ii. 595. About 30 of the bowls are what some cases with mere scrawls. 447. . which adds nothing to our knowledge.' Peters holds the century to be the latest date for the Jewish settlements over where Cufic coins were found.' A still larger number of the bowls are so broken and their inscriptions so defaced. 183. ' * i'." a Parthian building.14 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM." The Museum Catalogue specimens. immediate neighborhood of slipper-shaped coffins. am not able to say. 186. counts 150 numbers of this class of but the enumeration includes a large I number of fragments.

a human come skull inscribed with a magical inscription of like character to those on the bowls. the largest and fairest. but with original now lacking in the Museum. or an extensive portion of the interior. The languages of the inscriptions are three Aramaic dialects: (i) the language with which to we are familiar from the Babylonian Talmud.J. As an appendix. which belong Nos. 1-30. Nos. I publish. (2) a Syriac dialect. of this collection has added The inscription being spiral. and fragments are on the whole too illegible or too undecipherable to make it worth while to add them to this material." A large segment of the spherical surface may be missing. probably through the action of water. and that the scribes used such excellent ink that what for they wrote has largely survived in defiance of "the powers of the air. illegible. for every break in the text and every effacement necessitates speculation as to the missing contents. 7). 31-37. such mutilations intrude their annoyance into every The damaged nature much hand to the toil of decipherment. 38-40. 15 from Xippur came to the University as the gift of the Sultan of Turkey. A. . and No. Nos. MONTGOMERY ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. all the bowls I have deciphered have been put together from fragments into which they had fallen. At all events those in Philadelphia almost cases prevent complete decipherment because of mutilation. a side. 42 is a text of peculiar magical contents which has its to my hands. 41. and in the matter of these incantation bowls I understand that the best specimens. as No. Each of these has its own script. As a result of the investigation of the whole collection I have selected 40 bowls for publication. or the upper or lower portion of the bowl may have become line. in the Museum. " With few exceptions. the Mandaic. On the other it is cause remark and gratitude that these fragile vessels have been preserved as intact as they are. to which number should be added the one pubThe remaining bowls lished earlier by Myhrman (accompanying No." the elements and the corroding chemical agents. have been retained in the All the relics Imperial in Museum all at Constantinople.

the bowls appearing there in Plate xx. 6. 3. and one in Syriac.2. Discoveries Mesopotamian incantation bowls appeared in in the Ruins of Nineveh and bowls of Babylon? explorer In describing his finds at Tell Amran. covered on the inner surface with a kind of ink" (p. THE MATERIAL HITHERTO The first PUBLISHED.' Subsequent in scholarly investigation proved not only that Ellis was wild interpretations of the bowls. Layard committed his bowls to Mr.' Layard himself takes up the discussion Ellis's p. gives a good review of the See also although requiring some corrections and additions. with criticism of results. Stewart had been deposited in the British eight Museum. but also that the facsimiles were unreliable. London. letters and fragments of others. similar bowl. There a German translation by Zenker. Jiidisch-babylonische date. viii literature up to Zaubertexte. the great tells of discovering "five cups or earthenware. along with many fragments. Was this the bowl which Layard reports was found at Xippur? ' 1 Ellis's first Layard leaves it somewhat bowl turns out indefinite to be a duplicate of (16) . Hence the latter can only be used with caution or with the aid of later 1 Stiihe. our No. written in He notes that like material had been discovered Two from the collection of a Mr. 5. (1893). Thomas Ellis. which had also acquired through Colonel Rawlinson specimens obtained at Bagdad. these Of his only four were given has facsimile. I. 1895. 524) Layard records the discovery of a unknown. appearing pp. 523 ff. the precursor of the collection in Philadelphia. 509-523. 509). of the staff of the British Museum. 1853. Wohlstein. in 1 ZA. near Hillah. nos. with summaries of fragments of others. their provenance however being In a later passage (p. AND IN OTHER COLLECTIONS' publication of Layard's notable volume. The in latter presented five Judaeo-Aramaic bowls. under which I am able to present the restored text of the former. whose results are given in Layard's work. at Nippur. before. 313 is f. which bowls were treated by Ellis. n.

while the less as scientific copy. the second (no. 507). MONTGOMERY ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. with commentary. The Russian edition of this work (St. He re-edited his material in his Melanges de Comptes rendus de critique et d'histoire. St. 1884) publishes five bowls and considerably varies from the German edition (so Wohlstein. . viii. M. 1882. 21. Paris. I'Academic des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres. i. and the jassen. gave an elaborate treatment of the palaeography of the bowl. with Ellis's facsimile. Petersburg. and religious The first scientific treatment of this new material Ellis's came from M. The facsimiles are reproduced at the end of the volume. s. Landauer comments on these bowls (p. 113 f. Levy. same bowl on the eration basis of the facsimile. who devoted a long essay to in the Dcutschcn Morgenlandischen Gesellschaft for 1855 first to He was He also the (ix. 19. 1878). 20) is is Ellis no. 3. and translation. under the 7 Observation sur un vase judeo-babylonien du British Museum. 315). ZA. 114- vol.J. and in his commentary drew largely from Judaistic and Mandaic stores of learning. bowls published without facsimiles are absolutely worthLayard's publication therefore did little more than attract the attention of scholars to a fresh field of philology lore." in the Jahrbuch f. Ober die von Layard aufgefundenen chalddischen Inschriften auf TopfgeBin Beitrag zur hebrdischen Paldographie u. Four of the bowls that had been published were presented by the great Hebrew epigraphist Chwolson in his monumental Corpus inscriptionum hcbraicarum* The first (Chwolson's number. Religionsgeschichte. In In TSBA. the bowl published by Rodwell and Halevy. A. 229. ii 5 Juden. of Breslau. overthrowing the claims that had been advanced for a pre-Christian origin. Halevy was induced to take up the and to give it a scholarly translittitle. Rodwell published a bowl from Hillah that had been procured by the British Museum. In his review of the Corpus in the Gottingische Gelehrte Anzeige for 1883. ' (1861). Levy again treated the same inscription under the title "Epigraphische Beitrage zur Geschichte der Juden. under the a Terra-Cotta Vase. * For nos. sole merit lying French scholar J. Petersburg. 465). no. with a photographic facsimile. ii (1873). 266. v (for 1877. i. col. Geschichte d. d. Chwolson made use of improved transcripts prepared for him by Halevy. grasp the peculiar lingo of the inscription. 288. bowl. Zcitschrift d. 6 title. 17 copies. series iv. Twenty years later J. A. 294. 19) is Ellis no. 18) the third (no. Remarks upon This second English its venture at decipherment was no better than the in the fact that the first.

Between the articles appearing in the two volumes of the 12 PSBA Dr. of two bowls to the Revue d'assyriologie.. in collaboration with E. 20. xiii. BABYLONIAN SECTION. seems strange that the English scholarly world rested content with the poor facsimiles of the relics in the British Museum. no. 1885. fourth (no. made almost forty years before. Une coupe series of He then presented a large bowls in the -Proceedings of the Society of Biblical Archaeology. no. and. Chwolson. PSBA." He included several bowls already published. : was 1891. 3. D. 18. no. The material thus presented by Schwab in is as follows xii = Ellis. in PSBA." without facsimile. d'archcologie orientale. 165. and that Schwab did not avail himself of better texts than his predecessors had used. . B. At the end of the first article is a glossary to the bowls published therein. This material . but failed to offer photographic copies of It the bowls he brought to light. In 1882 he published. judeo-babyloniens. The most extensive editor of the material under discussion has been Moise Schwab. and his commentaries is are valuable as a restraint upon their theories. xii = Ellis. no. 292: Les coupes magiques et I'hydromancie daus I'autiquite orientale. in PSBA. first presented to the French Academy of Inscriptions in the years 1883. Chwolson adopted a skeptical position to- ward the speculations and guesses of his predecessors. Chwolson. (1892). xii = Ellis. with introductory remarks. 117. under the title Un vase judeo- chaldeen de la Bibliotheque Nationale' along with a facsimile and com- mentary. 19. i (1886). no. C. 21. et 10 11 In Revue de I'assyriologie In vol. for the years 1891 and 1892. i. Chwolson. discussion of the age of the bowls Of special interest his from the palaeographic point of view a subject which I take up in 5. 21) is Ellis no. no. Levy. 583 Coupes a inscriptions magiques. no. ' In Revue des etudes juives. p. a bowl in the possession of the French government. 136. 296. with the old facsimiles.18 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. the author of the French translation of the Talmud. under the Schwab contributed studies title. a description of the 22 bowls then in the British Museum in vol. "Deux vases These he numbered in the : F and G so as to align them with those appearing other publications. . Babelon. iv (1882). xii. 5. in PSBA. A. " ii . In 1885 he published a bowl at the Louvre in an article entitled d'incantation. xii = Rodwell Halevy Chwolson." etc. 5.

ii (1885). three bowls in the collection Dieulafoy from Susiana. working contemporaneously but independently. M. also in Rev. I. 295 Noldeke expressed some comments on the text. ii bowls in the Louvre. five bowls." Unfortunately . 2426. the photographic facsimiles are barely legible as published accompanying however there is 15 doubt as to the text and " its meaning. PSBA. viii (1893). it (without note that he had published L. in PSBA. xiii a bowl in the Musee de Winterthur. In vol. 15 Rev. Schwab also refers to a bowl published by B. Ueber einige aramdischc Inschriften aitf Thongefassen des koniglichen Museums su Berlin. xiii . a bowl in the Louvre. iv. ii. 2417. 313. also in REJ. with introduction to the general 1' subject and commentary. d'ass. The exterior inscription on F. a study of a bowl in a provincial French museum by H.. This publication received criticism from M. 113. in xiii. which A few years later have not been able to procure. N. and on p. in Rev. especially for its dependence upon Kohut's notions of lewish angelology. Washington) Sur un vase judeo-babylonien du musee : Lycklama little de Cannes (Provence}. PSBA. a Museum. . and ix (1894). d. 217). under the title. Museum in Berlin was made the subject of study by two young Wohlstein published. in in PSBA. in PSBA. 2422. Griinbaum on a subsequent page of the same journal (p. 137. G H. PSBA. 19 E. (without note in the Proceedings that he had published it before).J. in xii. n. is given under G in PSBA in (p. Q. Keilschriftforschung. in vol. 11 14 And R. especially animadverting on its age. d'ass. a bowl in the National Library at Paris. a bowl in the Lycklama Museum at Cannes (other than that published by Hyvernat). Markaug iv. in xiii .. xii . . the collection of incantation bowls at the Royal scholars. 2414. O. in PSBA. A. . J. acquired by Heuzey. R. ix. Hyvernat (now professor in the Catholic University. xiii a bowl in the coin department . of Archaeology. 327). G. in 1885. P. Assyrlologie. of the Bibliotheque Nationale. ZA. nos. viii appears no. 2416. before). i bowl the Louvre. Stiibe published a Berlin bowl in his In Zeitschrift f. PSBA. Meanwhile there had appeared. in the I Zapiski of the Imperial Russian Society 83. a bowl in the British xii. MONTGOMERY ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS.

18 1895. and is furnished like the earlier monograph with fifth full apparatus. on the right bank of the Euphrates he visited the locality but was unable to reach the site where the bowls were found. His work. II and is given there in parallelism. iii. Three of the texts are in the Berlin Museum. xii." The in the a duplicate of my No. some in Estrangelo. Chabot. 43. 20 Societe de Linguistique (Paris). bowls in the square 7. Stiibe gives a description of nineteen bowls in the British Museum. is The text he published. published from the same collection no. reviewed by Noldeke. 1898. 1899. 1907-8. his monograph appeared in Lc monde orientate. full glossary. of wider interest than the title suggests. p. In 1898 the same an elaborate work upon bowls found at Khuabir 55 km. and in separate Paris. with commentary. Revue critique. Uppsala.20 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. Lidzbarski. contains some valuable appendices. of Uppsala. character. of these texts is 89. French consul was purchased from Arabs at Bismaya. 12 below). viii. 182) a translation of one of the bowls at Pennsylvania (= No. by Lidzbarski in his Bphemeris. Five more Mandaic bowls were published i. Judisch-babylonische Zaubertexte" edited. In my citations to Pognon. 171. broke the ground of a fresh dialect of bowl-inscriptions with the study of a Mandaic bowl Une incantation The bowl contre les genies malfaisants en mandaite. 1909. xlix. . Professor Gottheil contributed to Peters' Nippur (ii. I cite his two books as and B respectively. in the Unfortunately neither publication enriched with facsimiles. la " In the Memoires de print. appearing in 1892. scholar published Musseyib. TLZ. 342. . Pognon." Bagdad. and two Louvre. Schwally. Myhrman. 141. with facsimiles and col. and some which he presumed might be in Pahlavi (p. i). also OLZ. Dr. 308. WZKM. his treatment is fuller than that of his contemporary. 193. Subsequently S. ZA. A * Leipzig. ii. 484. Fraenkel contributed some notes to Wohlstein's bowls same journal. to whom is he is able to refer in his printed notes. the longest yet the same as the second given by Wohlstein. and with revision as a contribution to the Hilprecht Anniversary Volume 21 under 11 Halle. Pognon saw some 458. ix. entitled Inscriptions NW of mandaites des coupes de Khouabir. 16081. BABYLONIAN SECTION. "Mandaische Zaubertexte. xlvi. in part on the basis of at his own transcription.

there are Stiibe gives a description of museum two inscribed skulls. Casanowicz. Through Professor Ranke's kindness there are 69 bowls with learn that in the Berlin "Hebrew" (i. also learn. . no. Museum Museum 9 with Lycklama. A. Despite a query addressed over a year ago have not received any information acter from the the authorities as to the number and char- of the bowl-texts at I Imperial Museum fine. one of them containing a Syriac this text I text similar to those published in this in the volume . L.J. are of very large size. three bowls at Asshur. 13. 41. Cannes also one in private hands. It is in place here to notice the location of incantation bowls I in the various museums. its collection from what hear must be large and and has been particularly enriched from Nippur. Tempel von Babylon speaks of numerous Aramaic bowls found at Borsippa. Washington. and Koldewey. similar doubtless to the one published below as No. 2 in the . I e. four in square script. 58. Mittheilungen. King I has kindly informed me that the British bowls of our class. for the year 1906. me by in the These bowls are said to have been found 23 at Hillah. Incantation Text. have prepared for publication Journal of the American " Journal asiatique. MONTGOMERY ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. the bowl-texts in the French Schwab thus sums museums H : 2 in the National Library. of the Catholic University. Wm. The texts are in the square script. and three which Mr. 21 the title An Aramaic 7. 7 in the Louvre. this text is given below in parallel with No. 8. up. I note one unpublished Syriac text in the possession of Professor Hyvernat. Syriac. ** vii. Syriac (presumably inclusive of 19 of these. p. In the same Mandaic). T. exhibited in the Babylonian Room. Dr. X. two of the former are to be designated as "fakes" sense used above. one in Estrangelo but from photographs kindly lent Dr. 43. The German Orient-Gescllschaft has recently announced the discovery of u. Ellis purchased at Nippur in 1911. Of bowls in private hands. in Constantinople. Mandaic and Arabic. Aramaic?) inscriptions. tains 61 W. Washington are found five bowls. Borsippa. At the National Museum in . Museum conSome of the specimens.

310. 24 Asshur on the north." The provenance of this material is thus confined to a small region. . T.. on which he would find some magical syllables. 83) to be a late Arabic forgery. has been Pahlavi proved by A. The "Roman bowl from Bagdad" described by O. A few citations of this 1' text are given in the glossaries under the abbreviation "Montg. Tonks in the Am. bowl inscription reported by A. to extending from Nippur and Bismaya on the south and lying on both sides of the Euphrates. 1912.22 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. where it will shortly appear. does not belong A to our category. V. JAOS. Journal of Archaeology. S. 345. Olmstead (ib. Jackson. W. xxviii. Oriental Society. 1911. BABYLONIAN SECTION.

the scribe intended to TH inadvertently he broke into the is word with for and then leaving cf the error uncorrected (as first the rule of these scribes) continued with the word.. Mehperoz first son <l of ? Hindu but see Glossary P>). After the xmD'N word = xmnD X 'B . Ellis I has been recovered. up these Glossary write C . 1. . see to No. in f . is pmi3E>o ( ?) pmntro . through a duplicate in collection. The texts would in many the editors had recognized that there is no distinction in the script between n and n. n:'n |D 13 |inbi3 nTBito jinbw '33 (2) pox DIBI '[I]TJ nj'n of 13 rnsno pox xtwx 2 ^3 The (see discovery the clears proper names. 4. In Read 1. (23) . No facsimile is given for In Ellis 3 the opening lines should read (3) 'ji :' nynBi [o 'JtDD "i nana H pnm xmo'si nan nsTia xriD^i ^3 . but here I present corrections necessary for the construction.. 4 there a parallelism to the opening lines of Schwab G : Ellis 3 Schwab G msn 3313 scmvtr '3'Bn rroe> (?) ' miD ns'Bn man '3Bni DIKO 'Ji3 njnx ro'Bn sntoib 'Ji froc? roan nssn ro'sn ns^Bn ^3T nrryB' 'Ji nys>n 'bm xs'Bn ^ro n^sn N3KT xnmb (?) rv-iBTt KCTJX X3ST snoib KS'Bn introduces a magical formula which can accomplish the bonleverse- ment 1 ' ( ns'Bn) of all things and hence of evil arts.3- SOME NOTES ON THE TEXTS HITHERTO PUBLISHED some critical I offer in this section notes on the texts described in the cases have been simplified if last section. and most often none between land \ The glossary will indicate emendations of simple words. under latter word. n. 'J13 == 3313. as remarked above. and must The numbers This reading in the text represent the spiral lines. lines. the Ellis Pennsylvania 2. Krm3t?D in glossary. is certain in 1. 8.

which appears also in Schwab E. the one which teaches arts to witches. what is found in country or city of what is is found in the country is loosed. Towards the end is to be read : KDK 1 N'DiDO 13 iVDE"3 Enisn K3t.. some star potent in medicine and black arts. 4249 What follows is to be read thus: "The curse of father and mother. ppl. that the evil spirits are to read the kamca and depart. e. and what curses ( ?) in the city loosed. "in the name Name. Then follows an apostrophe to a certain star. Pael pass. what is far and what is near. Cf. f." etc.. as Halevy suggests." In Ellis n'Oitsn it). ? Schwab E. and translate read it name (i. or do these characters belong to 'Sin In the parallel." that is. BABYLONIAN SECTION. I For the bowl edited by Rodwell. Chwolson and Schwab. and what 5.panpti pnotro pb'Ki pb'N pnbisi oby "W P" JD 1 nD1|> n^sbia ppsai pn^m n^rrp^i pi^n n ti pn^noip 'onn 6 ba pi pn-su pbt3aDi p^ps? pram 'ix 'Sin mis is by nbxbia (for n-ojni '"Nnnm) n^oyi "smani n'nvm pn I So much clear. * 4 6 Perfect. the following transliteration : give i>3 Knobe>Ni '1TJ1 xncibl pB'pn pl3ljn pe3 penn pp'nm 4 "xmnb rvb pajrn n'b 3 mjn 'twni na:n Noxom 1 x'b'in . we have ' h K'Sin. followed by futuritive ppl.) any vows. Not an Arabism. xnij?E>. Mai. which may be invoked for good or evil. be the Assyrian keivan (biblical p'3 ). falls by the way. In the middle of the inscription for rrnlp 'cnn read 'p 'Din . woe). pnw. see notes on the bowl just discussed. * A Syriac interjection . ' Cf . the great Ineffable For Schwab E. 1.). 3 : 20.24 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. read Kn'3 (for K'D3) and the following word possibly "a house." of Bar Mesosia (a master-conjurer evidently). . With this parallel to our aid read : S3313 'IN Nn'tnnb 'enn KB^O 'Kim mos wan 8 rvbin: i. the star on which rides salvation (healing). Thes. the Rabbinic mj. used in the general sense of planet. even who dwell in e. whatever depart its |D. etc. are used in the sense of derisio. (see Payne-Smith. Halevy. The jussive with b exceptional. all 2. from it ( nw is ipia'bl is. "Oh (or. . col. e. whoever owns let them and (i. np'b rip'b). daughter and daughter-in-law and mother-in-law is loosed (K'-ie>).

(the spirits) read xn>O3. Then nm 'OK = "my grandmother. 1. 8)." I. "false deity. Jinjvobl to depart = "whom have cursed. 9 again 'Din for jot vnn." In Wohlstein. 'M D'yet? n^p xo!?j? = "wherefore have etc. read mBJK 'mx L. Kmpia read ." line. L." oil. ij?t5. MONTGOMERY ARAMAIC INCANTATION TfiXTS. ':$ being the name oil of the demon. same plural meant in NnytO. '3^y. xys xaso pw woj ny : "(ye angels go forth from him) until the consummation of time and that time is known. 1. for Tin read 'ran." the 16. the demons are bidden selves to to 2 : from the sorcerer's client and transfer them- 2. see 13 7 and 26 4.J."In with reference to the day of judgment. 2417. no. 2426. 11. might contribute much to the understanding of nne> ("strong one") is an epithet of the "evil spirit. . I 9. 5. see below. 31) = = 6 (W. In Berlin Museum 2416. 25 A Schwab Read new F. 22).." 20. 3. of. Targumic 1. they are dipped into the vessel of his heart. n. 5. read L. Mesarsia. (W. 5)' and repeatedly below." and for rrann 22 For 1. exorcise. L. L. hydromancy. 1. 1." Stiibe's text is much the better. 4 (Stiibe I = Wohlstein. 1. Schwab G. 2422. KH by. any persons he has cursed. 6. etc. the man's inwards are suffused with diseases as with L. 3." The transliteration of Schwab in M is almost untranslatable. i. 2. ji[3]viBi naviB : . Schwab "sorcery I i. 15 (W. "like i. "of Yahwe. in the is name of the Mystery. "I adjure. : : "on ground 1." which disposes of one of Schwab's proofs that these bowls were used no." 'Jl NDB> D'BH "inscribed the name whereby heaven and earth are bound. rvjntrx collation In 1. at end of L. rP3T. 10. e. In 1." and ' 'n xnnbx = "the great goddess. As the first word read sroio . A. is KHIVD plural of the no. and occurring again below. In no. 'oinn for 'oinn . fOio is f|iE"D. I heard a voice? have heard the voice of a man. 12. 1.

" might be used. . SCRIPT 4. Bowl inscriptions of the first no Syriac text has and third classes have been published but so 6. as the discussion will show. (26) . 16 and in far Some apology may be used here. are frequently of non- Jewish origin. a novel form of Estrangelo script. As any 1 does not imply that the rabbis or the Jews in Babylonia had they spoke the native dialects is . a special dialect. (3) of the Mandaic dialect in its peculiar alphabet. appeared with the exception of one essay noted p. 2 "Babylonian" or the old-fashioned "Chaldaic. myself almost entirely to the The absence of facsimiles or of good ones in a I shall confine number of the published texts prevents a proper control over those is Moreover there some advantage in confining the study to a single collection of texts the case of the whose age and provenance can be exactly fixed as in bowls from Nippur. at Pennsylvania. it necessary for the term "Rabbinic" dialect. these texts is found to hold good for other published Our of a material three classes: (i) may be divided epigraphically and dialectically Of the "Rabbinic" dialect in the square character. the Syriac is (Edessene) and Mandaic. in into (2) Syriac dialect. At the same time what is true of inscriptions. nor that there is unity in the language of the Talmud. The name chosen a convenient handle. But the Talmud practically our only source for a certain family of Aramaic dialects in Babylonia. but each is equally indefinite and the former would be most confusing. AND LANGUAGE INTRODUCTORY In the following notes bowls large texts.II. which is alive with dialectic varieties. easily distinguished from the two other literary dialects. 2 1 Our texts themselves.

140. 2 ZDMG. and fourth centuries But Chwolson's own method It is somewhat of a reductio ad the various variations of absurdum' graphical hazardous to assign a date for these bowls on palaeo. aneous character of many bowls at Nippur is For instance the contemporshown by the recurrence . 525. Chwolson severely criticized Levy's resources. even a beautiful hand. p. 474. method. ' See Hyvernat. to assign from the interrelations between them. personal and phraseological. op. not palaeographical. Ellis. antedating the Christian era. for three others he gave a graduated third is chronology. and on the basis of the palaeographical material in his Corpus assigned the bowls of Ellis to various early dates (col. but many were written by careless scribes. p. who made was the first attempt at decipherment of bowls in the to find in square character. Indeed they might all have been written same year. of the same persons and families in the texts indeed the same persons appear in texts of different in script. a neat. cit.. and 1 many by illiterate ones. probably often by In Layard. placing them in the second. so far as palaeography may say anything. so Layard himself for no. inclined 1 them a very primitive script. ix.5- THE RABBINIC TEXTS Script and Orthoepy A. at least in the Nippur bowls. respectively. i. grounds it is impossible to relate script to each other by a chronological scale. (27) . in a scholarly fashion and analyzed each 2 character to with rather scanty epigraphical he came to the conclusion that the bowl he was treating was to be assigned to the seventh century. Some of the scribes wrote The differences are chirographical. on Levy and Chwolson's arguments. 510. 118). am inclined to assign in the them to the same period. Levy proceeded be sure. dialects. no reason. yet these inscriptions differ greatly But there is them to different ages I . Ellis i he assigned to the first Christian century .

the differentiation. for D eight. but there is no consistency 1 . is it KD3lt? or NtsaT and it is of grammatical Zeits. ii. In the palaeographical table attached to this work I give specimen alphabets results drawn from the bowls. But a fine analysis for chronological would be For a round date the bowls might be placed on palaeographical grounds at about 500 A. In fact the ruder the letters are. the more archaic they appear . The comparative 3 in plate of characters presented by Levy offers a large number of variations in the forms of many six. the may be written both ways. 4 many The confusion throws doubts on ? of the edited texts.28 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. forms.. but this date might be carried further back or further down according as other evidence might be adduced. whereas earlier there was far more room for variation when this family of the alphabet was not confined as a vehicle of a school of religious scribes. according to Euting's showing. C. some the difficulty is the practical identification of In case of the former pair. while in the long centuries of scribal reproduction the Jews have developed as it were a conventional ductus. g. it letters : for 3 and 1 eleven each. by a long stroke ' . 296. The < finial letters are used. is impossible for palaeography to give any nice chronological estimate..' certain vocalizations. yet they may be mere degenerations of the standard type or survivals of an elder one persisting in obscure quarters. for and e> etc. e. f. but with few instances of finial V. laymen. . they are often being then represented by a short stroke or sometimes 1 by a small angle. unprofitable. Now when one short text offers so many varieties forms. BABYLONIAN SECTION. One need but take a glance at Euting's alphabetic tables at the end of Chwolson's Corpus to recognize that the Hebrew square later character has era. A 1 phenomenon and and of n and distinguished. but apparently first all Thus 3 is one of the most Protean of almost every century of the varieties are found in millennium. in this and the line is easily prolonged into a stroke like ' within the same text or or even word. the ' that presents n. who affected to write their own prescriptions. This confusion has led to the barbarous appearance of on which Noldeke has animadverted. remained essentially the same since near the beginning of the earlier evidence is The drawn from monuments. Keilschriftforsch. the from manuscripts.

* The phenomenon is unique in elselate Eastern Aramaic. suffix. MONTGOMERY endings ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. It g. This is a primitive type of Aramaic orthoepy. n has been retained only as a pronominal This identification the representation of actual speech.J. because of the recession all of the stroke of the the vowel letters are not at distinguished. On the whole K is sparingly used as a vowel letter. but the Samaritan dialect has preserved it. e. is use the latter consistently. zgb. goes without saying that there are no vowel points. and especially when the word contains an N. always in terminal there is and for long vowels. one of 2. and B has a unique form in No. the same phenomenon that appears in the Mandaic. max. these are generally magical combinations. hence the The Rabbis preferred this form. where. . JAOS. A. two letters appears in the Assouan papyri of the fifth century B. we may surmise that the better educated preserved the difference at least in spelling. njx. 13) a kind of pothook has been used to separate words. e. and there instance of this spelling. In No. even as in the Mandaic. g. p and p. The vowel syllables letters 1 and ' are used abundantly. and here and there a point has been used. rvW. plural. published by me same features. 30. yet indistinguishable Kn'W is as frequent. There is no distinction between n and n in the Nippur bowls. and the I same is true of the other published bowls. shows the and an early Palestinian amulet. 29 moment in the verbal |. 22. Yet variation in this respect. 1911. Some texts hardly a text which does not give an less frequently used regularly for certain common words. ntrW>. It is by n. in which our scribes no longer dis- As the tinguished between the two gutturals. g. but this is the extent of the punctuation. Sometimes a scoring is found between the lines of script and by means of vertical lines phrases are blocked off. 272. the left leg confusion with n was easier. where. In one bowl CXo. in is 5 In the elder type of n. 5 The final a-vowel is expressed by X.2 one word is written in a clumsy Syriac script and bowls a Syriac n is once used. and very commonly for short vowels. The 6 close assimilation of the was attached to the upper bar. so far as It is can observe. even in the same text. C. see Men. Quite a peculiar script Ellis's found in No. preferably to indicate the feminine e. The n where is includes n. Babylonian Talmud distinguished between them in its text.

hand. V nay. imriDJ In 28: i appears a Syriac Ethpai'al. g. pi. As its for the verb. ' 13: ending in rp are probably Mandaic forms of spelling. No. Maud.30 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM.' their suffixal For the pronouns I may refer forms may be noted ni>y to the lists at n'33. as common Mandaic. in the As notice firrD'K. and like the latter On the one hand they have close they present various dialectic types. which has other The as snj?. sing. "their mother. Mandaic orthoepy the seiva is frequently designated by '. N'llD 8: in '- and in j<- indifferently. irrntTi. in "his sons. A Nifal with Aramaic ending appears in 25 2." = wfyy in duplicate texts (see to n: 9). 'VK . For the 2nd per. along with as dominant prefix in the impf. The ist pers. MOTwi). n: 9 (etc). connections with Mandaic and on the other they show some Syriac idioms. 25. as in Syriac. along with the ppl. B. N^Tl (a punctuation also Targum Onkelos. BABYLONIAN SECTION.is also in the Talmud. In general the gutturals are preserved. yet e. pDnrvn. . a I may circumstance which throws light upon the minor vocalizations. 25. 1.(see to 7: 3). n are no longer distinguished. The n of the reflexive is g. 6. indeed V has become a very rare character.." and with appearing Nrm'l. pnD'J." "their etc. with prefixes: nanB'3. For particularly characteristic of Mandaic. KpB'J. 2: 4. There is found a 1 r6t3p or rp^Dp. end of Glossary C. T-njBD'N .. e. ]in2nB"K. used for pa.. "and daughters. rarely lost. and even m3. appears as we have rpp^O. in ." in jnnbB'S. Mandaizing characteristics. prprva. of a new vowel. pi. the yielding of the harder sounds. with the intrusion is = V VpS.. 19. pntap**!. Grain. and appearing '3. Noldeke. The Language The grammatical phenomena in the bowls from Nippur can for the most part be exemplified from the Babylonian Talmud. 28. for a verb of {-stem perfect plural. plural is The masculine association. 13 (along with two cases : '). house. j takes place in Nos. varying with 'pD'N. though n and In one bowl. ppm'n . i even in close 6 and the nouns e. Kn^'N. see to 3: 3). are found NMN same bowl offers poiwn. is In the consonants there KHQiaD'S. fern. "U'J. left twi3'p':. 6.

we have. Talmud. e. I i : note the occurrence of an old. are found of p- . 1 1 8. is singular or plural.. cf. as in Mandaic. noxnK. It is uncertain whether i?lpE>. is termination (as in Hebrew) to be understood preference to : which would be the fern. the plural evident. . sen.n. h As to the prepositions there the interchange of in and of by.6:6. A. is not always possible to decide whether is singular or plural.J. from NnD. Also observe the occurrence the same line TtlOTp and Totnp . Latin. 'DDTI. "and also. in the 31 Second feminine a form p-. (both in the same text). also the unique the text is correct.3:7There is almost nothing peculiar in the syntax. The masc." i : 3 (cf. simul ac). -i D'jn. Tin. if 6 . Unique is the final loss of the For forms of Kin we have of i>tx in the participal form xrrK . g. see above. 188. In i> For the few cases of the quiescence of y in verbal forms. in. is inn. which are lacking it is Talmud. plural of the participle appears as . in the duplicate text to No. Grammar of the Aramaic Idiom Contained in the Bab. and there the awkward confusion and doubtless in and In 6: 9 ptraan'n is certainly plural. "their house. II. unfortunately as the notes show. MONTGOMERY ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. jot. ' See Levias. spelt elsewhere pn. is the masculine plural -in. singular.Aramaic idiom in pnbn'3. plurals." idiom. 26 : 6. S"B roots 'rrn irrn.

accompanied with an unintelligible transliteration. the last but occasionally . The script reveals itself as belonging to the i. and latter. and with the former . Nineveh and Babylon. 1 Edessene MS. 521 f. and that we are dealing not with a mere autographic "sport" is clear from the fact that two or three hands have written our seven texts. this mark generally written space. generally for reasons of on : earlier character. 33 they may include the points of two points are and in 34 6 1 : have the two points one above and one below. But there is marked distinction from the appears to 2 Edessene type in the absence of ligature . but evidently and o approximate the our novel alphabet has had a history independent of Estrangelo. but they are not purposely written together. agree with the types of the Estrangelo alphabet. of 411 * Chwolson thinks that the script of (CIH. In examining the individual characters (see my Alphabetic Tables) we 2 find that 3. an ancient distinction in literary Syriac. this bowl is of older type than that of the to In 34 4 XB>ID "Moses. n. suffix n with an upper point. col.6. A. the first of this category to be published with the exception of the poor facsimile of a probably similar bowl. letters may touch one another. Once the 1. Tug SYRIAC TEXTS In our collection appear seven bowls of Syriac script and language. in Layard. or double points are used letter. in The Seyame on an 5 . 116). : . Script and Orthoepy Palmyrene-Syriac type. T. 1 p. The script provides the pronominal fern. written vertically." is written with a point over K represent the e sound? (32) . j. It agrees with the Palmyrene and Edessene in pointing not distinguishing n is .

Sachau. 24-28) in D. from Turkestan published by Sachau in the SiteHltgsbtrichtt of the Berlin Academy. 1882. (with parallels in Euting's table only in cursive Palmyrene. in 1 (with the head almost a right angle) in n (our character is practically identical with the Estrangelo." ZDMG. his tables s. 33 It reveals a family likeness with the types found in early Edessene (where the characters are independent and no points used). p. 142. the with its long stroke recalls the Estrangelo but terminates in a fork. Syrische Grammatik. also stands by itself. so that this feature becomes the characteristic 4 and the head degenerates to a point. Palmyrene) is . viii-xiii. But the genealogy for the peculiarities of our script is to be found in the cursive Palmyrene script. in B closely (a small to half-oval figure. in b in ' reduced to a small stroke or coarse round mark on the line. b. the medial character finial may be related the finial Palmyrene 3. in Chwolson CIH. n. 8. 193. a unique phenomenon. form. the atlas to Lidzbarski's Handbuch nordsem. is Of the remaining letters. D. script. the curving stroke of the head) . is the replica of the angular form presented by Euting. and primitive. in is (preserving the ancient type against the Edessene development). Epigraphik. This relationship appears in in 3 (n. and the Syriac types presented n by Euting. A. representing the fifth to the seventh ligature. and for the history of the cursive Edessene the latter work. see . "Edessenische Inschriften. 1905. 17-28. n (the type in No. but the origin of the type to be found in Palmyrene. in . but the figure of both characters faces to the right. MONTGOMERY ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. 36 at is identical with the . in cols. g. Noldeke. 32 . I am inclined to think ' * E. but here again the Palmyrene type may be compared. it There is a general resemblance between cols. corresponding most B> the cursive Palmyrene) in p. and a type col. in Noldeke. century. V not found. 964. But those Syriac forms have arisen from the tendency to whereas our n is innocent of any such purpose. cols. J is sui generis. in 3 No. 1 distinguished from T by the diacritical point as in Palmyrene. 26) . to The letter . no. b. The character 3 is unique. inscriptions* See Euting's alphabetic in tables.J. . with its long curve extending far to the left. which tends to a closed figure. The nearest approach to this type appears in a similar character with a long tail in the Syriac MS. with which the Estrangelo is also to be connected.

1077. most pronounced relationships are with the cursive Palis to be regarded as an independent sister of the Edessene distinctly late type. Miiller in the Sitzungsberichte in of the Berlin Academy.). this. though other evidence way of an early may induce us age. of the same journal. of script itself does not stand in the century. although the peculiar alphabets assigned to them by Arabic writers are fictitious or kabbalistic (ii." In 14 the age of the bowls will be discussed. K. This analysis of script presented our Syriac bowls exhibits accordingly an older type than the literary Estrangelo and the Edessene inscriptions . 258 f. The Turkish a script is very much younger than but has steadfastly preserved the type inherited from Babylonia. may refer here to the discussion of the script by F. Mani came from Babylon. existing in have been a commercial script which spread from the Babylonia. Withal no character shows a Epigraphically then this script early local is of much interest. and the facsimiles published g. adopted ' by Mani and sect as the vehicle be worth while to suggest that we possess in this peculiar script the Harranian pagans. its it myrene. vulgarly known as the Sabians.. Die Ssabier und der Ssabisinus. perhaps the fourth to date the texts some centuries later. may metropolis Palmyra. 348 ff. suppose that our script few miles distant was the his local use of that region. Our type has simply reversed crosspiece comes making the stroke downwards the in to the right. It may script of the . e. and script. In correspondours. that facing p. in I subsequent volumes the volume for 1905. 845). As Chwolson has shown in his monumental work. and I find a striking resemblance in many characters is of the alphabet there used (which an offshoot of the Syriac script) to I those of the Syriac type before us. BABYLONIAN SECTION. my Alphabetic Tables at the end of this work shall present the ence in parallelism. Since the above paragraphs were finished and regarded as closed. attention has chanced in my upon the Turkish Manichaean fragments from Turfan Chinese Turkestan. form of n which consisted of a that it is to be related to a rather primitive downward stroke to the left with a crosspiece near the top. and we must which came to be of their literature. 1904. the It form of Aramaic alphabet. from Nippur.34 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. W. while the at the bottom. as exhibiting an Palmyrene type. these heathens spoke a pure Syriac (i.

single point m^s? (with Scydthe). cf. nm 38: HTna 32: 4. n . etc. We : have observed the same phenomenon in the For other similar Mandaisms we may note form p^'yj the equivalence of *? and . Aramaic texts and in the in Mandaic : n for n in pivno 31 5. g. the construct DiE>. 37: 8. plcne writings are xsx^D. be noted : in the pronoun pbn 31:5. 34: 10 (see my comment) the pronoun ni^'v. 34: 8. in articles now in press for the It have given further discussion of this matter Museum Journal and the Journal of the American Oriental Society. etc. etc. KJD'N. KT3 for NTJD. 34: 6. in the Mandaic confusion of n. the participle B. . etc. This appears. There also occurs at times the confusion of n and characteristic : in the square 3. carried 35 The a history of script it is thereby well back to the third century. WvW>.J. sniB for KiniB. But there is extensive corruption from the type of dialect which has been literarily preserved in the Mandaic. plural. a fate which has so often happened to various forms I of the Aramaic alphabet. may be added that there are no Manichaean In the matter of orthoepy. Rabbinic the same for "her sons" (with 8." 33: 13 (with Seyame). (e. The pn extensive use of the Seyame in all plurals is to e. What was thus script came be perpetuated as the literary instrument of the Manichaean sect. sopJTO. 37: 8. The 3rd over n). e. by. and n for n pnnno'K and pnnmN 36: 5. masc. The same sorcerer or family appears to have written bowls in both the Rabbinic and Syriac dialects (see Nos. jvru 31:6. the verbal (from bby). "his sons. TanrvN36: i. sing. as we have seen. There are also some peculiar . local by which time to was established. 37: texts. and hence the natural contamination of the one by the other. g. this is evident from the forms of pronouns and verbs. 33-35). nrn. or fern. NDNS. NDJns. pans* e. xob'n. the plural of the verb g. MONTGOMERY our ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. for 37: 10. 34: 10. A. The Language The dialect belongs to the Edessene type. suffix to a plural appears as nj3. while the forms without matres lectionis abundantly appear also frequent. traces in the bowls. g. g.). e. n and n.

Palmyrene. e. but is in Targumic. BABYLONIAN SECTION. The numeral with the Jim-m 34: not classical.36 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. is KTariDt. : unknown words suffix s^ajn 4. KrmatfO 34:2. . g. sti'DlD 35 (tiaflo'Aoi). is NJCm found . }'Dinn : 34: i. In 33: 10 pspsst' Afel infinitive of ps:. and Neo-Syriac. and a few rare or forms. 4.

39 has the primitive form of two strokes at left the foot. D has the later form. in a free curve. an angle. 350. 39 it drops below the is generally an angle lying upon the line. <j*. as noted in these bowls. with others. a large letter rising well above and dropping below the the drop in the is line. n has. in approximating the p. and the editor's notes. peculiarities of certain characters them from those in the MSS. and so allowing of ligature to the In No. Except that vertical. 1 appear likewise The 3 is a large letter dropping its shaft obliquely below the line and recovering itself by an up-stroke at an acute angle. and Orthoepy is The script of the Mandaic bowls exactly similar to that of those published in facsimile distinguishing by Pognon. 3 is a zigzag figure. of the fifteenth and following by that scholar (Une incantation. is from n . B has a large head. His facsimiles are too indistinct to permit satisfactory comparison. in Nos. 1 (37) . 40. y No. but leaning backward. but does not drop below the line. In No. the latter to a curving form like the end of a loop. Compare now the early Mandaic amulet published by Lidzbarski in the de Vogue Memorial Volume.7- THE MANDAIC TEXTS Script A. 3 is n appears in angular form. and also in a balloon-shaped figure. the body two rough curving lines. often indistinguishable. 39. similar to the Arabic fuller.). The left foot of O projects itself obliquely in a straight line. 349. 12 f. The centuries. a long leg to the right. round flourish at the top. V is not found in these but in line. or has an open. it is similar to b we may compare the like similarity Palmyrene. Following the traditions of the early alphabet ~\ and n are similar. T is ligatecl at the top with the preceding letter. sometimes 3. by and the extended stroke at the top distinguishes the character 39. p. the former tends to a smaller head and a square angle at the top. p.

Apart from the bowl-inscriptions and Lidzbarski's amulets. appears to be a survival of the older tion di Aramaic had survived until would argue that the pronunciaIn these the formation of the Mandaic script. But it must be asked why such a special sign should have been used. may perhaps be intended in one or two other cases in these Otherwise it cannot be distinguished from x however. always appears as a separate word. the relative when n internal (e. See the arguments of Noldeke. except as is the vertical stroke at the left hand It often written without attachment to the the first part. the former are therefore important as the earliest monuments of the to script. The D has often the simple form of the Hebrew The scribe n. with the bowls. T .. edition of the Ginza. as in the MSS.38 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. suffixal n (which I represent by the same character is in my trans- literation) occurs at the beginning of No. The peculiar sign for the relative. then dropped by the it bowls. The w consists of two rough loops. a preceding vowel the vowel of the relative was The acters it characters are spaced unevenly and in the case of unligated charis often difficult is to ascertain with which word they are to be is combined. . A similar . that has the shape known from is the MSS. to the following word. or below. BABYLONIAN SECTION. after l) is expressed by "i. Mand. but this does not prove that = 1 . and . 92. only that with the support of rejected. have followed the common editorial use of attaching it. which on top. there no consistent attempt at consecutive chirography as in the later texts. or on opposite sides. 14 I give evidence the prove that the Nippur texts are to be dated circa 600 at that period then Mandaeans had elaborated their own alphabet with its peculiarities. left p appears as a closed figure. all the Mandaic texts are preserved in late texts. H and I texts. Pognon's bowls the distinction generally preserved. following . like a roundish Estrangelo p. 38. the general practice I have always indicated the appears in suffix uncertainty of distinction is Lidzbarski's by n amulet in . . for regarding the 1. case in Codex B of Petermann's I and apparently in Lidzbarski's bowls.. Gram-. g. In . stroke failing to reach the upper line and curving back probably for lie distinction from D. The ligation haphazard. sign as a peculiar development of not as a ligature of H It . like the Aramaic relative in general.

g. 143. the or second syllable or both we actually find snnt. wont of the various 1 oriental sects of that 6. Compare the remarks on the Manichaean As Pognon says of his text from Bismaya. the in regimen being "the apposition to the suffix.) published by the writer in also a parallel instance in the Palestinian amulet JAOS. The sect itself must have arisen in the age when Gnosticism was rife in the Orient and before the domination of Christianity. not 39 Investigations. v. . which may . snonn. Pognon's bowls are much more colored with Mandaeism. p. after the age. probably in the compared secondary to the Rabbinic their community dialects. where later x was used 'Kt. in his review of Pognon. The Language We of the particle may note the following syntactical peculiarity : the apparent use anticipatory "I. p. 21. A. A similar construction occurs through- out Nos.' may cite NDN'jrn. 'Sir. the Mandaeans got magic Nippur from the peoples of other In Pognon's texts the spirit of the ancient Babylonian magic more strongly than in any other of the bowl-inscriptions. Which Pognon strangely enough regards as "errors. MONTGOMERY I ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. appears * * ' Une incantation. The only KJVIBJ. 23 (q. that the language of the bowls is later than that of the Mandaic classics. is 1 1 it is to be observed that the Mandaic text there texts. expatiate on here. first "y\ NV. 22. the sparse or varying use of the matres lectionis. in xmaj. is 1911. N'n. have led me to the belief that for the most part the Mandaic alphabet represents an early type it of the "Syriac" alphabets is indeed often closely connected with the Palmy rene and Nabataean scripts. . the language of the bowls is identical with that of the Ginza and Kulasta. 13. E.. 40: 3: '3 nnB ns nn^JD word of B's granddaughter. in alphabet.J. may be noted here." . pronominal suffix n without the following relative the suffix itself creating a kind of construct case-ending. Under No." Xoldeke's expert judgment. : In 40: 24 rtJX'3'3. difference I is : formal." these bowls are not specifically Mandaic in religion. and we have to suppose that it early developed its own peculiar calligraphy. 4 B. 278. see note there. Kor6n. such a "construct"' form in n used before a plural noun ? nnx'JKVn Was it in the way of becoming a stereotyped case Apart from the references to "Life.

2417 appears to be directed against the ghosts of the dead.' which argument. . and in no case a bowl intended the service of 1 the dead. 7. they were filled with a liquid which was drunk off by the patient who thus absorbed the virtue of the generally given up. etc. and p. is not conclusive. and which has magic. 5. PSBA. Ixi. Layard. "Becherwahrsagung i. pp. Of. A number of Pognon's bowls are in fact endorsed with xmap JT3T "for the cemetery. * * ' * 526.. The incantation belong. though repeated by subsequent scholars. THE MAGIC OF THE TEXTS OF 8. 3. following an ancient and widespread therapeutic device. Cf. for the magic vessel may have been preserved as that they itself a were used in places of sepulture permanent prophylactic. Iv. Ellis. Schwab argued for the hydromantic use of the bowls. Hunger. written charm. few exceptions. in various forms. 114.' and proceeds to quote a 1 ' Rodwell expatiates on this kind of magic. C." 1903 in Leip:iger Seinit- ische Studien. Nineveh and Babylon. 292 f. Inscriptions mandaites. Semitic Magic. advanced the theory that. nos. TSBA.III. R. cit. to a straight genealogy from Joseph's drinking cup to the spinster's teacup of our own 1 day. is spread over the world. 511. bei d. xii. Babyloniern."* and Wohlstein's no. He makes number of reference to Babylonian hydromancy. THE PURPOSE bowls THE INSCRIBED BOWLS with one very They spontaneously suggest the art of "bowl specialized form of magic. Layard himself thought and were charms for the dead. 2 This explanation has been Layard objected that then the inscriptions would have been effaced by the liquid. (40) . apparently relating them to the utensils placed in primitive graves. Thompson. ii." which.. Cf. the first commentator on the bowls. But the bowls is at Nippur were found for in ruined houses.

41 Talmudic passages referring to Joseph's cup. generally. viii. The expeditions of the University of Pennsylvania to Nippur have corroborated this theory by ocular evidence. u * i. who were confined by the virtue of the magical praxis. MONTGOMERY ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. 447.. the mouth of the one fitted to the mouth of the other (p. 38).. A.J. Sur une vase judeo-babylonien. while at times bowls were found superimposed upon one another. the bottom of the bowl uppermost. etc. i. one of the Pennsylvania texts demonstrates that this was the '^B'O > conscious purpose of the bowl magic. Referring to the find of bowls above the Parthian temple. Pognon did not himself he published see in situ the large collection of bowls which ' in his Inscriptions mandaites. from the field of Jewish demonology.' Wohlstein attempted another explanation in the line of a kabbalistic dictum that no work of magic can be effected without the aid of a vessel Oba). 15 (= Burton's tr. 4 opens thus : byohl ' For the correction of his hydromantic interpretation of I'WD f\iV3." He refers to the Jewish legends of Solomon's magical ability to confine demons in vases. ."" in this position. Finally. 10 Comparing Thousand and One Nights." It was Hyvernat however who first. 325. and. obtained the clue to the right interpretation of the practice we are considering. etc. but he shows no connection between his numerous inscriptions and the method and purpose of hydromancy. see above 3. but he learnt from a native that such bowls were found buried just below the surface of the earth. i ff. and he gives a photograph He draws the same conclusion Pognon concerning the magical use of the vessels. 137 f. magical beverages. but suggests in accordance with that the inverted bowls Pognon does not guarantee the them the theory were prisons for the demons. reversed. Bulak. * ZA. quoting from the book Raziel. 10 and the parallel fables in Arabian lore of bottled up jinns. Hilprecht reports that "most of the one hundred bowls excavated while in I was on the scene were found upside down showing some of the bowls as the ground. etc. ed. truths of these statements. As we shall immediately see. this is the cor- rect explanation. Explorations.). which the affects to give an oracle to men by movements of oil or other floating objects in the liquid contained in the cup. 32. No.

the Semitic Magic. 23. Thompson. 2. Ixiii. p. xxxvi." 12 M i. a like Jewish and Christian use. xiii. e. around a group of small images of the gods. 2. nos. 6. 30. the inverted bowls symbolizing and effecting the repression and suppression of the evil spirits. it is called a This magical method in fact gives a special name to the KB^S. see Reitzenstein." The same term opens as follows 'Ji 'Te6 pr6 pe>33T NKOO down upon demons. Layard. the cylinder and prism texts deposited at the four corners of great buildings in ancient Mesopotamia. 15 Cf. Monument de Nineve. ii. . no. which as circle cornerstones represented the security of the house." PN^D= "covers to hold in sacred (accursed) etc. 169. Religion. Classe. See the commentary to the text. Assyrian Discoveries. BABYLONIAN SECTION. Layard and George Smith discovered under the pavement of buildings small receptacles in which were placed magical figurettes. appears to have been practised by sprinkling a circle of lime." etc. the bowls also explains the frequent recurrence g. The circle of the magical seal possessed the same efficacy. and further PSBA.42 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. etc. 16 The use of the circular lip of the bowl is also in line with the magic circle which etc. Nineveh and its Remains.. Smith. 11 For Zimmern. 114 37. the house appears also in Pognon."" bowls. Poimandres. 78. Botta. 4) "who ever transgresses against this press" (1. 3. which : "a press which is .' In the Babylonian magic we find a similar use of phylacteries buried under the pavement of the house. we have also a reference to the formal depositing of the bowls. 24. v. Cf. formed a of magical influence about the dwelling. client. " Botta. . and cf. The theme is continued pressed throughout the text: "This press I press down upon them" (1. The same inscription announces to the 12 demons that they are "bound and sealed in each one of the four corners of the house. Vienna Denkschriften. translating usurtu "circle" (Zimmern. 165. La magie assyrienne. charm with a circle made by a ring presented in the Papyrus Anastasi. In a word we have to do appears in No. 54. See Fossey. which literally means a "press. 21. 34. 9 and 14 be correct. n). B. 'Ji KnK3 'nil i>3! pe>np angels and evil spirits. 22. Nos. The binding at the four corners of 4. 168 f. "Gebilde"). Kenntniss d. bob. with a species of sympathetic magic." The quadruple use of of identical inscriptions. flour. placed 5 all made out for the same The four charms thus at equidistant points. Wessely. p. of composite human and animal form. 14 If my interpretation of the introduction of Nos. f. Beitrdge z. hist-phil.

37: 2). 377. is A different application same magic in found in the bowls published by Pognon. MONTGOMERY ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. iv. etc. in the beams and on the : thresholds (e. e. i. 10." may The editor in his note has recognized the it form of magic indicated. variously spelt). is a Babylonian text: by gate. with a bason (kakkultu) without opening it. Was there a duplicate buried in the house? u. g.g. 84b)..'' and bolt and threshold are exorcised.J. 2Qb (= #//. 1. and door special hall. Mef. cate inscriptions am inclined to think that dupli- were made out. g. frequently appears in our texts. for the house and some for the D3 in B." i. ii. A. nor under the bed nor under the door nor under the gate nor under the beams nor under vessels nor under holes. "for the cemetery" ( NTQp some JT3i). 1513. is a reference to our magical art it could be translated "the cup of the sorcerers and not the cup of those who break sorcery. 93. 1S is proof that the praxis of bowl magic existed in ancient a In passage of the magical Utukki series presented by Thompson.. I must leave it open whether the phrase D3 Si 124. g. xlii. 66. which were found inscribed a cemetery. Tallquist. 12. Maqlu. etc. 6: 4). I them being many is This the worldwide of practice of laying the graveyard ghosts. ii. * E. door. Especially spirits is the threshold named as guarded against the intrusions of 22 evil (e. of bowls used for malicious (cf. g. 19 The bowl is then primarily a domestic phylactery. 2. The bedchamber in that the object of care. "of the room of the may refer to a bowl which was deposited of the apartment. 43 But there Babylonia. where the full translation given. as also in the Talmud. Tanhuma makes the second cup mean an ill-prepared brew which I'llPCT " " Devils and Evil Spirits of Babylonia. p. 21 see Levy. the Jewish Mezuzoth. M Denkschriften.. Religion Babyloniens Assyriens. " is Jastrow. Thompson. 12) or for preventive magic. i 6). An exorcism given by Wessely wording of our texts that evil : 20 from the papyri spirits "~* recalls much of the very may not injure the wearer of these exorcisms. bolt. 123. lintels. without comparing to the later bowls. . Hwb. p. they cover we read a ban on an evil spirit: (a demon) "which roameth loose in an upper chamber. \<v~im (the last word is : is ground for divorce. and the endorsement on No. The means of entrance 23 are extravagantly detailed in hinges. to be classed with e. hide not "in the earth. The lurking of devils in the house (e. the abundant forms of this species of magic. Devils.

also occasionally njnDp that it = pended or ^-a/m^w. This is the only literary reference to bowls of this character I have been able to discover. a detailed exorcism of ghosts. g. applied secondarily to a phylactery worn (V 5?Dp) . modern times. 31pJ? " So . contained at his day in private French 1828. defi. and are elaborately provided with quotations from the Koran and with references to holy n). with Koran quotations Nashki. this would explain the reference etc. One reference indicates that legend and the power of God (cf. they are love charms such as we meet in an early age only in the Greek world. a small. . BABYLONIAN SECTION. B. 2. is not sus- as a magical instrument. v. sorcery and dysentery. they were inscribed at the propitious astrological moment. The text has been translated by Dr. to the graveyard . and a reference to scorpions found in Pognon B see Glossary C. 13 and 28 pass from prophylactic to aggressive magic. 28. J. is See Blau.) a careful description of several Arabic magical bowls of brass and glass. I. Reinaud has given (ii. Philadelphia in is In the possession of the Hon. 2 They are introduced "in the name of the merciful and compassionate : God" (cf. as a ban of evil It is interesting to note the Greek charms for defining a rival in the circus or a lover were often buried in cemeteries. persons ct litres.44 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. and "Amulet" in Jewish Encyc. . Das altjiidische Zauberwesen. 3 i and note). 87. the similar formula in our texts. arabes. They are talismans (to quote one of the bowls) against snakes. ND3 or soia. nos. below. the Cypriote charms published by Miss L. e." For other terms applied to II. Fellow of 31 and the Hadrumetum 25 E. is four corners of the house in Pognon. 2417 None of the Nippur bowls are so marked. see The to fairly tradition of this species of bowl-magic has lasted down into Islam." The bowl amulet itself is called simply. g. collections and at the Vatican. II. in Schwab L and Q charms against dog-bites. But Nos. Macdonald. 159.rio. tablet. B. Wohlstein's bowl no. 337 ff. scorpions and dogs. PSBA. to use the words of that classical magic. discussed in No. cf. I leave their consideration to the commentary. enteric diseases. against fever.' pangs of child* birth and maladies of nursing. xiii. and only note here that a love charm is as much a Karafiea^ or spirits. Charles. for the powers of evil were in any case invoked. In his Monument Paris. finely engraved brass Mayer Sulzberger of bowl.

facial for lack of blood (insufficient blood supply). allowed 45 the University. mad dog." an efficient phylactery. . and in it are assembled tried is for the sting of the serpent and the scorpion. for fever. for fever of the liver and spleen. for contortions. MONTGOMERY has kindly ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. for dysentery (?). disappeared itself with its magical inscription has become is "blessed. when the imams of the religion and the orthodox caliphs are thereon agreed for the advantage of the Muslims. But the use of the bowl doubtless a survival of the magic we are discussing. for indigestion. or for harm to enemies and for poison in the conclave of (two) lands. A.J. and it all poisons. and for the eye and the sight. for annulling magic. and for use in giving to drink of water or oil." Probably holds. for the colic. many such the vessel phylacteries are to be found in oriental house- Evidently the peculiar practice of the inversion of the bowl has . as "This blessed bowl wards off virtues. for stomachache and for headache and throbbing. follows : who me to present his rendering.

10 see Abt. Vorarbeiten. Whether authentic this magical tradition 3 concerning is the venerable Joshua tendency their be in may be dubious. 32. 9. p. Rab Jesus bar P. Helm). The assumption of charm in well illustrated by a Jewish mortuary which the the plate magician thus introduces himself: "With the of wand of Moses and shield of Aaron and 1 the seal of Solomon and the David and the mitre For the Babylonian asipu and masniasu. 2. e.9- THE EXORCISTS The exorcist is in general anonymous . xlii. xc. magical p.. 21. Das altjiidische. "cousin" of Joshua and there is reference to his "house. * Nos. 32). 23. whose spells have become the stock these quacks is in trade of their successors. 37. 91 . see In 34: 2 the sorcerer claims to be a Blau. contain magical formulas Several of the Nippur texts worked in the name of Rabbi Joshua ben Perahia (Syriac. xxxvi and 10 (I shall hereafter refer to these volumes simply as Also Apuleius gives a similar list. (ed. (46) . and to use names as though their full powers were possessed. Semitic Magic. Taan. By or 1 the age of our texts he had long been differentiated from the temple priest. 33. cf. Beitrage. 8. Thompson. 100. but the case illustrative of the magic to appeal to ancient great masters of sorcery. list of such 2. or maintained connection with a cult only in out-of-the- way shrines in the new theosophic 2 circles that sprang up in the Hellenistic age. iv. Zauberwesen. xlii). school in 8: II. 34. 1. 23. We may compare 4 the many references in the magical papyri to such ancient masters. igb. who is none other than one of the early Zugoth or Pairs who handed down the Tradition from the Great Synagogue to later ages (see to No. see Zimmern. A few points however may be noted. his personality is lost in his professional possession of occult powers which range far above personal limitations. Religionsgeschichtliche Versuche v. * * See the 2.). Vienna Denkschriften. authorities in Wessely. in Dieterich and Wiinsch. xxxvi. including Moses." i." 244. Compare the inherited magical powers of Choni the Circle-maker. For the Talmudic doctors and others who practised "legitimate" magic. 17. "Die Apologie des Apuleius.

Aegypter. Poimandres. deify Barnabas and Paul. it is difficult to decide whether we have to do with men or divinities the line was not drawn between the Moses with where the people of Lystra sorcerer and the deity. Blau. g. I have commissioned me. g. Religion u. Or the sorcerer may identify himself with some mighty demon. Mythologie d. . Bel has commanded me. 2 is a mutual charm in which two men. and Reitzenstein. the survival i.' mestael in the latter In some cases. this spell) 47 of the chief priest" (I . "I am Papi Shila son of Sumka. of ff:' well Babylonian formulas. not a misunderstanding of a Gnostic term. cit. two and instances in No. in the respective instance. "I am Amon. alt. Cf. 279. Also cf. xxxvi. A. Nannai has is me given me power. IQH. Against the might of sent me. The "word of power" had become the essential element (see n). also see Dieterich." Brugsch. 52 I known old "Anu and Antu sent. Prangin exercised some sorcerer of in if not a figment of the imagination.J. T /. has its parallel in our text No. Abraxas. 1. 725. : : e." is In 7 : 12 the authority of Prangin bar the hazy past. 50 4. the Harris papyrus. 'The great Abbahu' 9 is to be explained in the same Bar- way. as in the Hermetic identification of Hermes' and in the lively incident in Acts 14. Gift. In one case. g. .. exercise each his powers for the other. sorcery halves of the text. Jer. Hermetic phrase. 37. JAOS. 83. p. 6ga. 272. 27 9 with 2 6. and my strength is in him who created heaven and earth. 68. the exorcist presents his commission from the deities : "The lord Shamash has This sent me against thee. .' and this Palestinian charm fire. my sorcerers Marduk the lord of incantation has am inclined to think that some of the texts. i. and so too 13. and the adoption of soothsaying formulas cf Num. am speak. the Montgomery. Tallquist. 24 4 and Is. 36. . literally the 'son of the oracle-giver. For the Egyptian use. MONTGOMERY perform ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. : : ' Dieterich." cf. op. . tyu ei/tt Mutxnfo. No. c. might be copied by anyone. the I Maklu series. the commission of the Old Testament prophets. Sina (the said to moon) has Nirig has sent me." I am ordered." e. e. if it is 1. or even invented in for along with the belief For always goes a subconsciousness of its hocus-pocus. 129. 19. g. clad in iron and vested with garments of Hermes the Logos. 109 ff. 2: "I Pabak come. the pagan text No. Are they " For the identification with Moses cf. Wessely. 1. 1. cf. I go. e. and like a physician's prescription illiterate ones. especially the more were written by lay people.

48 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYLONIAN SECTION. But in general there is a breaking down of the distinction . we recognize it here. the Maklu series. g. In rituals. 7 appear as making the charm. inserted into the middle of the text. g. No. ' e. may correct for has been written for me - (or 'p sjj'Dp?). in which one place Wohlstein calls attention to what appears NO'p It = to be an attestation of the incantation. 2. the attestations of the scribe in the Babylonian magical texts. ZA. Pognon 24. ." The be obscure passage translated: "It is is : mis jrjn* it N3H px ^ 3TO Kim . between personalities in magic compare the Babylonian priest and suppliant appear to fuse in one another. ix." Cf. 27 the clients of No. and use the form of No. shoulder? in The texts are often indited in the first person. 36. professional magicians or not rather laymen who evil felt they could make a stronger defence against the powers of by standing shoulder to e.

so as to a good example from the long list of it appears that the charm was landlady of a lodging house. On the other hand sometimes a single individual feels that a whole bowl is woman who procured the necessary for his client of own maladies ." The "sacred" name of a person includes that of his mother with the Mandaeans (Brandt. and their property. as well as for those that are. the individuals is As must be exactly 1 specified we have find the a rich list of names. would seem where women are concerned. 9 for : examples and literary references. Frequently it is the wife and mother who procures the charm. Nos. 24 a is charm often that for the safe delivery of a pregnant specified ( woman. p. 116). extended to a wider scope. see Wunsch Antike Fluchtafeln (Lietzmann's Kleine Texte. The practice is now attributed to the original (49) . The same rule appears in the Greek magic. No. Religion. etc. 36 gives an exorcism for the bridal-chamber. the greater part of magic has to do with the The Lilis and Liliths which mysteries and maladies of the sexual life. 36. 66b KO'in tmvz 'J"JD hs: "all repetitive incantations are in name of the mother. in the categories of demons are personifications of sexual At times the idea of the family .io. which enlarged by the required naming of the mother. more rarely the father of the client. g. the charm made out for that the children that shall be. Mand. with or of the inscriptions there is without reference to the husband. some of them of foreigners. 20). THE CLIENTS Most of the inscriptions are of domestic character. And so No. their children. being made out for a married couple. predominate abnormalities. is . 37). no. special In many intention against the evils that disturb the domestic sexual is life. cattle. There is frequent reference to the is demons slay the unborn babes (e. their house. so in the case of the invalid who is the Schwab's bowl F. 29 male names enumerated. The bed-chamber often It K33C"O JT3). In the Rabbinic texts we Aramaic names 1 Shabb. is include a large household No.

'His-hope-in-Jesus' in a text of may be of Indian cf the frequent name Hinduitha. 3." in his Gesammelte Abhandlungen. See Zunz. Timotheos. is The argument Jews by no means stickled for their native have adopted foreign names with great avidity. B. of the names of obscure etymology KnayD. such charms are frequent in the Graeco-Italian exorcisms published by Pradel. also Pognon." matriarchal condition of society rather than to the elder principle.50 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. see Blau.' My texts contain one evidently Greek name. pater incertus. his In like manner Greek phylacteries provide a general e. nor Jewish of a clientele clients. but also the cattle and possessions in WJp). Naming of the father probably occurs where the mother is unknown. in Religionsgeschichtliche Versuche u. BABYLONIAN SECTION. familiar in the Martyrofilia . or house or his vineyards or lands or cattle. For amulets worn by cattle. 86. probably more frequent than the former. Persian names even in the Rabbinic texts The large proportion of might lead us to think that the clients were non. and only one son bears a Jewish name (No. Talmud. Poimandres.Jewish. etc. . by it^ Some . so in one family of nine souls the names are Persian. But as we shall have reason to conclude ( 15). mater certa. Vorarbeiten.Jewish. to which the religious affinities of the magic were indifferent. anno J"Q. the magic of our bowls is so eclectic that even a "Jewish"-Aramaic text somewhat fallacious as the in fact seem to does not imply a Jewish exorcist." And names. We have to think partly Jewish. Reitzenstein. the Pognon's. for instances see to 10: 1 ' 4 I. In the Syriac and Mandaic texts the names are by a large majority Persian. property insurance. 97. origin . "Die Namen Juden. 294. d. the former latter is paralleled in a text of Lidzbarski's by tvnNQ'B. and but few typical Jewish names. is But the power of the charms and its also extended beyond the actual house client. Astrobas.. Das altjiidische Zauberwesen. partly non. 12). ii. xanDDX. no. iii. that the demons "shall not injure or 4 approach N. and a Christian name. See Glossary B . p. Persian names. or M. inmates so as to include the whole property of the Not only are house and mansion general ( detailed. g.

of our texts. irpafa. b. into fetich. 26 E. the word of power. serve"" (late It is the Hebrew ntry (cf. (51) . Wellhausen. Magic consists of two elements : the physical operation or praxis. ZA. There remain for consideration many details. "work. see indexes in Wessely's two volumes in the Denk- Dieterich Abraxas. Latin. Arabic umra." the epesu "work" (also kikittu ' 1 They 1 "}. I snay ('abdda). "the are distinguished in the Babylonian as the siptu. its cultus. and words which appear for rubrically in the magical texts. often equivalence the technical terms of religion and magic. The same the practice. THE INCANTATIONS. pp. Budge. Egyptian Magic.ii. used of the cult at Mecca. This Hebrew-Aramaic root is more religious than N. . nB>y) is used of common Hence f root also for the service. 28: 2: nnsj imaj? najA is contrasted to the magic arts of the necromancers. and the incantation. xp e iai . xvi. In the Greek incantation terms the practice are Ttpayua. The root lay. For referf (Dieterich. II Myhrman. 8 the particular praxis of our magic the inversion of the inscribed bowl. 14: i). I have discussed in for elaborateness simple it field magic and even in our comparatively there are many phenomena which are suggestive links binding is characteristic of with more complicated magical science. feitigo (Portuguese).' So in Latin facere is the word for the operation. 136) 12. for xp c a the Kno^B-K together in Dieterich's text p. 141. where the divine operation magical connotation of this root may exist in Is. and this fact illustrates the parity. 4 distinction and similar terms are found in our magic. see = * Cf. Skizzen. iii. fattura. 4 165. or to use the Egyptian term. in the Labartu texts. 136. 204 f. g. 160. p. for the (iepof) Uyof. epesu. etc.. A . All three words occur close schriften. the worship of the gods in West-Semitic. 1 For the first ~' two words . and it has had an interesting history through factura. with idea of service. colo.

the charm is an tOD'S. in Baer and Delitzsch' text. See Davies. xiii. ist "1m Namen Jesu. ~\D\ 1DD." In the Babylonian the "binding" power I cite as prominent as in the western magic. The incantation as written also a is magic and were avoided by called a xn3TO and by the i. "words. sorcery. though as we most of these words came to be regarded as part of black our exorcists. the modern fine distinctions between magic. Eze. A frequent attributive M'pn. see ' 10 Cf.' The spoken Word technically by ?. : the root *|BN his KDn NBC"N3 is XiS'^S." exactly equivalent to the practice Also the Greek Karaieiv. is avoided. synonymous roots are used less frequently : "Mf. ('ubbada). . 212: "Der Ausdruck KOT' e^o X!/v Our word nnp is the liturgical equivalent in the Syriac for in his I iKiKal. 296. is f." 3: is A very large number of terms used to express different practices and nuances of magic. as against etc. exorcisms). 2: 3. Magic Divination and Demonology. witchcraft. = in the Greek . 55. but xnajJD . g. 308. See 32: 4. d. such passages as ' For inaPSJ and the Syriac use see Noldeke. pb'O . Delitzsch." unique word dastabira* and XP. Kiayo (ma'bada). is probably from a Babylonian root of of magic is like import. epiklesis." magic (see exorcist gives himself none of the technical names. and Kent's discussion in JAOS. TO After summing up the various terms used for exorcism Heitmtiller concludes. 133. |B>3. occurring frequently in the bowls. "bind." and he employs the correspondrlO a more frequent equivalent is yx> Afel. but most of them only in the lists of dreaded black The 12). W. "mystery. tnuy. from the roots His adjuration ei^N . and in such expressions as snay Nrray (9: 2). of Philology. is a NIV01O ing verb the Babylonian mamitu. But his favorite terminology for derived from IDS. eucharist. The last root is used of magical practices in this sense in the Old Testa10 ment. and Frankel.-//>/?/<? (also ) used magic arts 6 and also the shall Christian liturgy (in see. BABYLONIAN SECTION. 1911.. also Krnp. 13: 18. "it3p. xiv. in Journ. nan. XilD'S own . iii. and hence they are avoided by our exorcists. 1VD." p. R. 123.. Z. and inin Tajn Kiny.i?<nf is represented by Nrte. p. Keils. Latin dcfigcrc. "ban. where also the obscure ninoa. Smith's view II Friedr." etc. word (= " AETV/ ) appears in its designation of black arts. . he speaks of his tnujj.-forsch.52 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. * ix. 359- * The original use of this 12. Once he uses . once xnpn ^p both in m 16: 10. Z/4.tladai bvopa. e. baptism.

" Din. TO. in expressed by several synonymous verbs. Cf. Perahia is NniDX. the seals of the angels of the an 8OT K'DK. the unhewn describes altar. As to the praxis of our 8. 6: 13). Blau. 249. "the defence. Wessely. engraved on a of Enoch. 12 mentary. The Evil Eye." in." 17: 12 34: 2. "be in taboo. the 341. A. cit. 143. 11 " 'llB'ty in his text denominative from 1E1B" For sealing as equivalent cit. The roots 5>t23. e. 25. "great healer. "annul." with the sense of sealing the demons with the magic word or device . 1. 31. see Heit- muller. xlii. 20: ff. in this wise were manipulated so as to do the sorcerer's as Most of the Stiibe explains the equivalent the horn of excommunication. and involves the breaking of counter charms and wiles of the devils: ipy. . etc. . lett. op. ssvtt.). 9. 13 occurs an aphrodisiac recipe. no. op. fnt?. and their whole effort is for the 15 The great magician Joshua b. " This includes their ntlt (cf. Our magicians will work only white magic." salus of their clients. ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. 107)." Eph.." not? frequently appear. B>33. "lay a spirit" In the Talmud 1B>B is the technical opposite to 1D. to placing the magical name on the object. = The incantations largely consist in the monotonous repetitions of these equivalent roots. g. is frequent Pa. 19: seal often with explicit mention of Solomon's Seal hence Solomon (Hyv. Ex. 12 "lay under ban. "prohibit. 'jcn. cit.. Peal and Pael. and designs which can hardly be said to adorn the They come down from the earlier and more 18 age when gods and demons were represented by simulacra and will. 11 And see the comis a bit of rubric for forming a figure of an angel probably at end of No. " In No. WB.J. etc." magic we have little information additional to that presented in was a new one (B. Also Dnn. MONTGOMERY 1. which this idea is 53 the Maklu-series iv. or the seal of the house 13 Most High (Hyv.. 157. Cf. New Testament a&t^eiv. . and for the primitive aversion to iron. 8M1BO and supernatural arming panoply of God.. vii. 24) From Pognon's texts we learn that the bowl and that the sorcerer sat upon an uncleft rock. see Elworthy." The rude realistic figures bowls are part of the praxis. .IBT. In this prophylactic nature of the magic. our texts differ favorably from the western Karadeapoi and defixiones. 66. etc. a survival of primitive religion. 220 " came Budge how to be used in place of material objects in the as far back as the third millennium in Egypt pictures magic of the dead (op.). itself is " is The charm called an niD. the reference to the 70 seals of 17. ourr/pia used in the papyri.

opposite p." No.54 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. op. indicating the protective character of the charm. . in Persian style. 64... The specimen is presumably 23 at Constantinople. " For e. and p. or the circle divided into segments with a seal. op. These signs probably represent the magical There also occur rough rectangular figures divided into compartments. generally as bound and hobbled i. the figure its tail in its is the design of the serpent with mouth. * a Budge. g. cit. 39 f. 24 * 17. also the seven evil Utukki. cit. For Ibid. I suppose after the plan of a double-walled and many-chambered castle. Magic. 303. Palestine. 20 Some of the gruesome caterpillar-like designs are intended to "raise the hair" as did the demons of elder Babylonia. 148. For Egyptian usage. represent- ing the walls of protection which magic casts about the client. 8835. 150. p. 53. In one specimen.. similar sympathetic magic in old Babylonia. doubtless through a figure is Hellenistic medium. military-looking demon. Especially the liliths are so represented. 83. see Jastrow. The like design appears in a bowl depicted by Hilprecht. No. 15. TDX . words of the incantation. 8. Pauly-Wissowa." of this Ptolemaic compilation. the most elaborate that appear in the bowls. etc. Cf. This 21 is surely of Egyptian origin. Thompson. The Evil Eye. Sem. i. cit. the former being divided into three compartments. BABYLONIAN SECTION.. . op. in Myhrman. of No. cit. and prescriptions for drawing 22 magical figure are found in the Greek papyri. See the description ii. tablet 16. Within the circle so formed are a number of magical figures. xlii. 69. "Defixio. see the figurettes found in the Seleucidan debris of Tell Sandahannah. Devils. 79. g. in Bliss and Macalister. but also there are masculine figures like the 3. 83.. Real-Encyc. e. cross in each. and so indicate one of the magical forms of defixio or fastening down of the evil spirits. a cross-shaped figure 28 may represent a dagger. figures represent the demons.. Myhrman. Such a described in the "Book of Apep. Excavations in Palestine. 2373 Thompson. no. In one case. TJ"). to use the e. the operation performed on the figure of the Labartu. 2* Wessely gives a facsimile of such a magical design:" a square within a square." col. op. 447. see Elworthy. 149.. For modern instances of this kind of sorcery. 20 Budge. Explorations. 154. Wessely. is Very common is so in the Syriac bowls a circle with a cross in it.

apaf tf upuv. Among fiijvas the numerous passages qutpaf ef faepav. in which a branch of the datepalm or tamarisk was held aloft to repel the demons." this belief that the great turning points of the year. . an auspicious day for expelling demons. We have fuller information of this notion from Egypt 3Oth. cit. tablet viii. pomegranate or tamarisk. in a 2" . iQth. for lists of the deities of times and seasons. MONTGOMERY ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. and compare the magic time of midsummer calendar Nisan i night and the Christmas season in more modern 28 superstition. the mutilated (and probably misunderstood) form of this formula in 17: i. Persian religion. this year out of all years" cf. p. Eranische Alterthiimer. 571.J. TOV( " Thompson. note the <5p/c/fu following: iravraf ff fa/vav. go away. . 25th. in the iii. 399. Devils. x Zimmern. was probably due to the the solstices and equinoxes were times of supernatural determinations of human fate. Surpu text. when responsive action on the part of man was especially effective." etc. papyri are preserved giving all the days in the year according to their 30 character as propitious or unpropitious for magical rites. 2Oth. 224 ff. Philopseudes. Spiegel. The same use continuators of of seasons appears in the Hellenistic papyri. The earliest appearance of this system among the Jews is the angelic calendar system in Enoch. 4 it is evidently the sorcerer who is depicted. 16. 24 ff. waving in his hand a magic bough. with references. of the month.. See Carl Schmidt. ff. among them the 7th. In Wohlstein 2422 a day Nisan i was is given: "If you come on the first of Nisan. 197. ii. c. those I Egyptian magic. A. eviavrove ef eviavruv. religious use of the barefma. demon at full moon. and they are listed. . 82. In old Babylonia certain days were propitious for exorcism. op. xix. in the Babylonian was the day of Destinies. Thompson in his note draws attention " a to p. Aberglaube des Mittehlters. Compare the bunch of datepalm. in Lucian. So 6 : 5 : "this day out months. 2" One of all detail of universal magic appears in the praxis of our bowls : the assumption of a suitable season for the exorcism. our design. Gods of the Egyptians. the exorcism of a (on Die Tage- wahlerei). 205 Cf. This is the use we find in Babylonian magic. 55 In No. 23. Wohlstein. a and instances pp. ** Budge. the Jewish New Year's day in Tishri has the same character. xlix. in. 1884. I5th. as personified.

. we may judge that no horoscopes were cast by our sorcerers. Ancient East. 81 day. 92. the like stress laid 5r/>-series. Fossey." 3* God who an appropriate magical time are power in our texts however quite conventional. and there can be no reasonable doubt that we have here the reminiscence of the Hellenistic formula. No. 3000 (given by Deissmann. Generally deities however appears the formal adjuration of Deity or of genii. It consisted in the utterance or writing of certain phrases. 315. exorcised. 251. 341 ff. 1. My colleague Professor Heffern sagaciously notes the illumination thus cast upon the difficult reference in Rev. 11 1. which possessed in themselves a magic to bind equally the favorable power and the demons. * Even as in earlier tnagie assyrienne. 1932 ff. 1. 65. securing their assistance. 1.* This may be specifically the Jewish deity. appears in g: 5 = phrases. La value of the use of the name in religious rites . 53. At least the later magical calendar connected has the with astrology. g. 1. the texts being illuminative of the action. pniwo *nn Knen TTV pnbwo pn Krm in w 6:5: NQ1* pnbia'D pn iv ry finTWD. Wiinsch. This is pn 'JTj. without invocation of. The magical times the images of the gods were used e. syllables. . g. e. The reasons for this shifting of the center of 15. 4. almost the all in all. and other favorable 3 the invocation of their name e. Light from the 665 ff." in the Paris Magical Papyrus. BABYLONIAN SECTION. no. words. Wessely." etc. the inversion of the bowl and the monotonously repeated declaration that the demons are "bound. silenced. B. is in itself sufficient. countersealed. one Greek exorcism adjures "by the of the hour. the spell. "in a good hour and a good and auspicious phraseology. Nos.56 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. = xlii. iv ry 12 apn up?. upon " " "this day" in the Babylonian exorcisms. xxxvi. gravity I shall touch upon in is In the bowls the incantation. g. to These references But the praxis is a minor part of the bowl-magic. month. day. In this it differs from the Babylonian in which the praxis was primary. 3. Antike Fluchtafeln. or reference to. Wessely. magical sense. iv. The conscious manipulation of words. 9: 15 to the angels appointed for an hour. year the verse is reminiscent of magical Note also the phrase. the divine powers. e. . pronunciations to extract their 32 : 6. g. N:TJ?I w exactly the equivalent of the passage cited above. 20. 2. 14. 1. xxxvi." This use of spells powers has gone so far that magic appears to have divorced itself from religion. N. aiiiicpov So again the papyri is : wipa. 42. hobbled. sealed. 255).

discuss under No. the early and frequent use of the For Jesus as a sorcerer in the 13. Namen u. phase of divine personality..' and an essay Theol. 19 with reference to "the one true God. 1898. 9. and op. . p. Egyptian Magic.) names of 13). Urgeschichte. by W. spondenzblatt xxvii (1896). Zauberei (D. celestial beings into that of mere names or words but this illustrates losing the religious the arrant nominalism into which magic had fallen." . noted and analyzed by Giesebrecht (see below) . A." as in the pagan text No. d. Die alttestamentliche Schatzung des GottesW. kabbalistic Many down of the odd names which are invoked may be angels or gods (see ligible (gematriac. F. Heft Namen. Noticeable is the easy passage from the invocation . ** For the adjuration of angels See 13." " " Acts 19: Cf. cit. 180. i i seq.J. "In thy name. mand. Talmud. according to Wiedemann. They may soon have worn into unintel- 365 becomes D'313K (and other forms) 40 We have the without reminiscence of the numerical value of the letters. "Im Namen Gottes. Nyrop. on the use of the Jesu. the Egyptians from of old worshipped as god "the Magical Formula. 4). Ethnologie . 87 According to Budge. 23. namens 'In u. Brandt. be quite indefinite as in the 57 "in thy name YHWH". 14 : from Egypt. 1901 Cf. 107. 17. 176 ff. may recurrent introductory formula." Vierteljahrsschrift f." the former is the Jewish phase while with polytheistic adjurations its there may be recognition of "God. see Blau. op. 109-127. Navnets magt ("the power of the name"). inherited perversion. words just as A/tyaf<z f = has been established in late years by a series of discussions from scholars working I name: K. 3 the origin of the phrase. (1903). the same form also appears in the pagan text No. O Lord of healings. v. " See Pognon. see Heitmiiller. MONTGOMERY or it ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. in Judaism..' Gottingen. 88 Of this "the 9. Andrian in Corre1887. (on the philological origins of the baptism formula) Giessen. 1903 (especially Part II). ""Ovofia en de doopsformule in het nieuwe testament. cit. Konigsberg. in various fields. is 29. deutsch. holy Agrabis" may be a Great Abbahu" may be 2. Giesebrecht. F. also. etc. Gesellschaft f. Das biblische J. Tijd- 'Im schrift. 19. name Jesus in the papyri magic. Heitmiiller. In y: as noted in "the a magically deified sorcerer. Magie u. name. (which I have not seen in full) Boehmer. Inscr. 1891. Alte Orient. vii. Anthropologie. cf. In 34: 19 he "mighty lord. Bibelkunde. originally the name of a form of the sungod." . So Abraxas is invoked though probably here 88 we have a very ancient divine name. Jacob. Name." of 1. There is nothing new even in the adjuration of 30 many angels or deities along with the appeal to some one of polytheism. great Healer of I love". ihre religionsgeschichtliche Grundlage.

for fear lest no one name exhaust the potentiality of the spiritual being conjured. 1. BABYLONIAN SECTION. iv. similar names of Marduk. the list of invocations in a "Christian" amulet: Adonai. 43 For the text and literature see to No. The aggreall gation of divine epithets in the Old Testament. 166. 1227.58 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. the exorcism "in the name of Abraham. Isaac. Jastrow. published by Gaster. Theologie. i. Origen Cels. 293). Eisenmenger. etc. I suppose the formula read originally "in the name of the God of Abraham.. cit. overlaid magic in this eclectic character of our texts... 39)." barbarous specimens for the patriarchs A/ipaav. the Gaonic maxim that there are cit. The invocation of angelic names in Jewish magic may be regarded as pagan invocation of many deities." Both Jewish and pagan magic agreed in requiring the accumulation in part the parallel to the of as many names of the deity or demon as possible. 45 1806. Entdecktes Judenthum. liturgy. the MY<H In this accumulation Wessely. (Reitzenstein. Religion Babyloiiiens Assyriens. cit. p. Jiid. u. (c.Adonael). 291. Jacob. . These are of eclectic 43 with Christian. Michael. Wiinsch. Ant. that they part company from the old Babylonian magic and relate themselves to occidental conjuration. (Lueken. the names are 4' if Allah. etc. " 47 Budge. g." Egyptian the this practice was established. the fifty cases. meral existence of the angels 92 who many things in which the angels are with which contrast the notion of the epheproceed from the Dinur of God Weber. called It is pagan and Jewish elements. xxxvi. as in all sowith Jewish magic. ii. cited many 41 names of Hekate. op. Thodonael (= Toth -f. Sabaoth. independent of God. in same unintelligent invocation of names the magical papyri. Fluchtafeln. Poiitiandres. 6." See Heitmuller. 171. the hundred names of 45 and also in the In the Babylonian magic For Hellenic magic may be exariKiot. e. Jesus Chrestos. 35 ) appears to admit its efficacy. 371 all but Michael and For the Gabriel according to a dictum of Bereshith R. equivalent efficiency of divine and angelic names see the magical text. Holy 41 Spirit. 180 for the invocation of the patriarchs. any more than is we can say that the its erotic charm from Hadrumetum spellings Jewish : in its present form with lapaa/i . 44 " Cf. Emanuel. the holy angels. . op. goes as also in the Christian back to the root-idea of the efficiency of a knowledge of possible. : 28. 75. Blau. and in part as invocation of the infinite (personified) phases and energies of the one God. Cf. etc. lanov. . The Sword of Moses." This is not Jewish magic. op.

61 f. 197 ff." xvi. .'" One primitive source of this usage is the mystery which is thrown about magic rites "the . . n. which by psychological necessity would tend to even greater corruption. 8: 19) are universal. the Babylonian . Abt. xxxi. 152. the title masmasu) the solemn parts of Christian rites have likewise tended to inaudible pronounciation. 188 (cf. and we must suppose that in general something intelligible was once expressed by the now unintelligi- " For the mysticism connected with Rhein. Blau. There exists a tendency toward intentional obscuration of the formulae. Jastrow.. names of as many beings. wizards that squeak and gibber" priest generally (Is. But magic is in its purpose a scientific exercise. The practice is rare in Babylonian magic.. K 51 Budge. 77. Apuleius. 5. cit. and the origin or etymology of specific cases mostly defy is explanation. But except in the case of accumulated magical "barbarous names" of Greek magic. as so many potencies. see Kuhnert. The roots of this usage are many." and hence it was reflected to the Jewish sorcery. . 1886. 269 f. op. i. this is due to the fact that the reference to the syllables. cit. Ivi. " Griinbaum. j. so-called kabbalistic names letters. 339). letters see Dieterich's interesting discussion." but common in the sorcery of ancient Egypt" and in its lineal descendant the Hellenistic magic. (the papers of Welcker in his Kleine Sclmften. Vienna. of. Mus. the Talmud abundantly illustrating the use of these barbarica onomata. where the second (Myhrman's text) turns the three names of the Jewish God in the first into a polytheistic trinity." syllables. "ABC Denkmaler. MONTGOMERY ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. " see A case in Myhrman. in Pauly-Wissowa. op. I have not seen).. However is it the names of the demons must be exactly known.. cit. for the text of which 15: 4. p. See Heitmiiller. the Deity is not in our texts given many names. the Lilith who she is akin to Hekate and the "Hekatian names" are showered upon names I refer to 12. iii. 59 of divine names there lurks the uncertainty whether they are names of one being. A. or. v. c. For the demoniac The use of as potent charms. This confusion appears in the parallel texts under No. ZA. For the Ephesia gramniata. g. and of Wessely in Program of the Franz Joseph Gymn. 172.J. ZDMG. and especially receives an extravagant accumulation of designations . her. whispered his formulas (cf. the Deity is not much more than a passing compliment. e. phrases may next claim our attention.

lost Much of the later nonsense was the rise. Probably too the forms. etc. g. v. abbreviations are N. I ff. . " 55 Abt. g. 14: 2.. and the great western sorcerer Apuleius recognizes the origins of his magical lingo as magica nomina Aegyptio vel Babyloniaco Said to alymTtafctv. "quick" (off with you). in Pognon's texts & (sh) is often inserted between words. Or 6. 58 etc. 31. 3. ble term. e. with abundant parallels in the Babylonian and the Greek magic (the repeated Ta^). which especially on this word: the repeated times. as Jfl. the SamarAgainst Jewish orthodox use. op. nj?nx. from yyt. 36: 4. Many such syllables or letters are surrogates for the divine lent itself to this treatment. e. g. 6. It is to be observed that raucous sounds. etc. our texts do not hesitate to write itan usage. ]'SSD (Stiibe. in 20: 2 : it is extravagantly repeated six a play on the three 8 eight times. survival of phrases of the 5* tongue in which the charms had their Such a part may have been played by Sumerian phrases in later Babylonia. name used nirp. But the great majority of the forms are unintelligible. 31 we have vowels as in Greek magic. 29: 10. 66) forms themselves became corrupted in course of time perhaps unintelligible MS MS. nr. . See Deissmann's remarks on the distinction between hocus-pocus and survivals of Egyptian and Babylonian magic in the vocabulary of the papyri Bibelstudien. See to 14: 4. the introduction to Schwab's Dictionnaire d'angelologie. 117-146. Cf. and in magic. irp. BABYLONIAN SECTION. 1. == CPR^M ^X 'nx. 152. In one case it is vocalized in a proper name. nirp cf. 14: 2. PS PS. 3: 5.60 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. Apuleius. The reminiscence of the ancient pronunciation survived in the lower classes and certain . cf." are very frequent. 35. = . ritu and the Hellenistic sorcerer is Some of the phrases are 55 still intelligible. or nt. such as Bin. i: 13. rvaira'ia. 25: 5. Then various there enters in the use of the principle of Athbash. list see Nos. cit. " give a 58 For extensive magical formulas based on the Name. YP (has) and especially sibilants away. q. In irvnn'." "'. the forms Ia/fr. Such prima facie e.. in 31 : So we find the changes rung like nv. sects. "fly also brief imperatives. are from the former theme. I of these terms at the end of Glossary A. among the Samaritans. in all its nirp. 56 May we compare Er6 and BTI3 the hissing implied by the ancient ? Hebrew sorcery terms. M In our texts cf. Blau.

964. a case in 4: 4). 25: 5. For assonance and rhyme in Greek magic. xlii. cit. 544 ff. occurs a rhyming "nonsense" couplet used with In one case. xlii. For Wessely. the gradual 45.. cf. Abt. "Ninib the Marduk of strength. 1814 Jahrbiicher ff. in this as noticed to the For the Assyrian magic. Nergal the Marduk of battles. see Supplementband xix (1903). 318. Apologie d. " " '* Schwab. "Magic in Theokritos and Vergil. 23. adam alam betur alam botum." doubtless refers to the abstraction of such hidden meanings and values out of words. INCANTATION TEXTS. A. I . : . 14." and magical intention." in the Studies in Honor of B. " = Wessely. Jeremias. Deissmann. 59 61 principle of in 60 (mathematical) gematria but also may of old standing Judaism. Light from the Ancient Bast. passage there is one example Assonance of succeeding words is found. 13.. " 26. 72. 275. 15: 4 f. see A. Gen. b. M. 15: 2 and 14: op.J. . . in character. Rhyme appears in the lines : TOVTO }'pa0f : f/f 65 Qvptrj/. g. Gildersleeve (Baltimore. 42. The passage which speaks of name out of names. M This identification of the angels recalls the assimilation of the gods in the famous Babylonian passage. and erroneous I letters or words are often erased or repeated correctly. MONTGOMERY -ARAMAIC in the 5 f. 1. M Found by ancient tradition in Eliezer = 318. 35 5. " See Wessely. Wiinsch. Sutphen. L. Monotheistische Stromungen." Both assonance and rhyme are found in the western magic e. 1. Heim. 1. classische Philologie. xxviii. from Marcellus. In fact a good deal of care is exercised in this regard (n." and similar astrological identifications. f. 35: 5. Greeks. 747. Apuleius. 61 found in 9: theosophy and current use of the "letter out of letters. g. most of the apparent cases are cleared up on inspection of the text.. do not find much proof of intentional misspelling. xxxvi. peeling off of the The Talmudic shabriri briri riri ri is different word finally destroys the demon. in form most of the texts compare favorably with the magical papyri. e. 1002). 154.. be supposed. interpretation out of interpretation. opdu ftavflu voqpe Kofrjpe avpe ovpoe iravKtorq 64 <$<j(fr/c<z/a<TTv. C. in Fleckeisen's 90. similar cases in our texts see 19: 18. a case in No.

. 327. 83." largely consisting of myth. the use of the weightiest "word" to be inscribed Shema. Or certain passages appeared palpably appropriate. op. 125. 105. 71 cit. Eze. and the Legend of Ra and In the Greek magic we have Isis. op. G (exterior). Thompson." themselves potent. Satan. each had thesaurus of sacred legend. Cf. f. the : King. i. Jastrow. Magic. Greek. etc. xii. i. 44: 5. 363. 88 Is." These are "the ancient K'Olp NTS?.. 74 PSBA.' H. Sem. 91.. A are few of the bowls mostly or largely published Schwab." in Fleckeisen's Jahrbiicher. op. use of the same root in Arabic 'If in Ju. Is. BABYLONIAN SECTION. . I2ob. with their fast fixed canon of sacred scripture.. of occidental magic. The book of Deuteronomy ordered or at least suggested the in the scriptures. For 'V. ZA. . 5 spirit.. were used in Egypt as magical texts. legends of the people. cit. etc. 141 for remarks on this magic." in 4 Zech. Egyptian." Assyria inscribed with quotations from the legend of Ura the pest-god and there are other traces of the use of epic portion of the In the same way that myth in the Babylonian magic. Sabb. see Blau. 50. Gal. 13: 16 f. 137. The practice was continued into Talmudic times. eirwAai carmina. Jew. n See Heim. Jastrow. 55: n. of An important part of the Word Power in developed magic is the use of sacred scriptures. O." the prophylactic and divinatory use of the Homeric verses. 119. Budge. " Cf. 2 ft. or the divine scolding of the evil "YHWH by rebuke thee.. op. so Ps. . as in n. 70 " xi. as a phylactery on the hands and between the eyes (in place of totemistic tattoo-marks) and on the sideposts and gates of the house (where earlier prophylactic amulets like the Babylonian had hung). cit. K. Nor were the Jews behind their neighbors. 66 and Wessely." Early house amulets have been found in . g: 4. 6: 17. the epics. and p. incantamenta. "Incantamenta magica graeca latina. of 32: 9. op. 5 12 has this sense. etc. xlii. Cf.62 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. Fossey. Book of the Dead known as "The Chapters of the Coming Forth of the Day. which age had consecrated as veritable in words of Deity and hence runes. just as the Ura-legend was used as a prophylactic. especially v. 285. cit. cit. and the citation of appropriate precedents. cf. his Babylonian. 3:2. Rev.

Very frequent is "The Lord rebuke first : Satan. YHWH.. K contains the whole of Ps. A." in Jewish Encyc. Diet. noticed in the several modern studies appears also as Sa/lo on an Abraxas gem. see Blau.. E. with the the latter. Griechische u. Selah. etc. op. the intentional confusion of lines in a Greek defixio. in These are also Yah. Is. 29: 22 and then reverses the order of the But these genuinely Jewish effusions are exceptional. I think. The spelling is power approved by the Talmud. g." The magical Halleluia recalls the probable use of Hallel-like forms in incantations. Amen. find in them the Aaronic blessing. 32: O is an amalgam of Dt. apvv and aWetoma are 80 frequent. 28. 93 f. Ib.. sa. MONTGOMERY verses. Berak. Yah. 31. Cf. 9 23 a frequent and potent theme in is Jewish magic. 23 and Zech. op. 144. and may be The Nippur bowls are marked by their lack of comparatively late.. 22: 8. Num. presenting a Syriac MS. kanti. " This magical use of Selah of the It not. 16: first 17: 8. kaloros. Amen. used and of good magical tradition the use of Amen (generally twice or thrice repeated). i. 91) in the late Italian magic. 91. in which the sectarian doxology.. word of the former followed by the of G reads Dt. g is of value as containing the root Biblical ~KXff. 1. 279.. : No.. and reference. in is the Talmud. 6: 24 1 ff. d'archeologie chretienne.r.* 1 this : ^o/fytftvra r6 a^v Kal TO ak'kekovia. Fluchtafeln. and we have a case of syncretism such as evayychiov. published in Wiinsch." These Jewish terms is are not found in the Mandaic texts.. cit. Cant. e..J. Antike . 94 f. 3 2. * " E. followed by Num. see Blau. Num. both together. called JHBB. tit. also Kayser." ZDMG. 4. and his article "Amulets. 63 composed of scripture We i. With the attempt at disguising the plain meaning. 85 the practice reversed the hostile charm. : "kanti. f. no."" at the end of the inscription. For the use of Psalms (especially Ps. nal TO But any Jew " For 70 this use of scripture is not such as we should expect to find from even moderately versed in the Old Testament. g. cf. 69. 456. Sabaoth. xlii. ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS." Halleluia. 3: 7 Ps. xlii. words. "Life In the Greek papyri victorious" replaces them. " A formula recommended word. Blau. 1. 66. 26 opens with the : words of the Shema. 121. Cant. " On this practice in Jewish magic. see Pradel. f. cit. 3: 7. Talmudic charms. scriptural quotation thee. Wessely. first 6: 4 and Ps. 44: 25. . Yoma 843. containing the Psalm verses useful in magic and divination. 7. suditalienische Gebete. biblical verses of prophylactic op. "Gebrauch von Psalmen zu Zauberei. Selah.

although the crossing of the Jordan precedes the passage of the Red Sea.... Gomorra" 54:4. with which were charmed "the seal with which the the Seven Stars and the Seven Signs". Light. * Cf. 34 4. . "My two hands lie upon this child. often by the wonspells . " Wiedemann. that this paraphrasing and variation in was intentional magic which perpetuated the pronunciation of the Great Name would not have hesitated at using the exact words of scripture. BABYLONIAN SECTION." "O Isis. Hermon. the "Jewish" text of the Great Magical Papyrus at Paris. Noah of sealed the ark" ." also see 34: 4 All sacred and legendary history is is a series spells. no. Ea or Marduk appearing Egypt the epic of the gods gives assurance of present magical help. even as Isis laid her two hands upon her also in the high priest of exorcism." There are several references in the citation of great spells. 10: First 5. 1. the : history. Bibelstudien. even as thou is didst save thy son Horus. "the curse. Zauberei bet den alien Aegyptern. Talmudic charm against the toothache. Cf. p. works of the God of which are regarded as see the great Magical Papyrus." or "with which f. scriptural quotation ". 26. 69. the two hands of Isis lie upon him. 14 2. save me . just as the as Babylonian epic literature magically used. the quotations are not exact. 82 not Massoretic. "the spell of the sea and the spell etc. p. . 25. 83 This contains a brief summary of of our bowls often less God's great acts for Israel. "the seal 3. ." derful 87 And so in the Greek papyri the adjuration Israel. in which portions of the pericope of the Bush were recited Blau.. ** I cannot agree with Blau. Sodom.Light from the Ancient East. Deissmann. "the seal which Solomon laid on the tongue of Jeremia. op. published most recently by Deissmann. the . which has its parallel in the charm with which Enoch's brothers charmed him. The quotations have often come through eclectic mediums.." in the great Magical Papyrus. and the latter is In the Greek papyri there is far more citation of the sacred confused. Sabb. 3039. myth and apocrypha. 673. which fell especially So 2: 6. is than that of the papyri. M "Man kann den Aberglauben der Kaiserzeit nicht in die verschiedenen Der Aberglaube ist Kategorieen heidnisch judisch und christlich einteilen seiner Natur nach synkretistisch" Deissmann.. 250 "* ff. Leviathan. Adam sealed his son Seth. Magie u. So son Horus. 1905. 1. 22. on Mt.64 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM." The "Judaism" to ancient 4. 257. to There are but two references : supreme history of the Exodus. 3: 4. cf. of the monster Leviathan" . cit.

the examples in is Wiinsch.ojm Multiplication increased the efficiency of the of the Gentiles (Mt. its parallel in the 5. or the poetic description of the angels in 12: 7: "They are sit filled with glory who endure and keep pure since the days of eternity. also the similar Syriac charms published by W. 284 ff. 14: 3: "I adjure you by Him who lodged His Shekina temple of light and hail". . JQR ix. where with slight changes the exorcism least it is three times. Then follow is the various Names in which the spells are invoked. repeated at the charm. . g. is a dreary monotony in these texts. Noticeable the frequent repetition of the same form. the amulet celestial in Reitzenstein. 65 In this connection may be noted a few passages which appear to be derived from apocryphal or kabbalistic literature. But the relig- " Cf. and they the and stand in their place. the cohorts of I-am-that-I-am" in the . Scriptural and legendary narratives are found in the Syriac charms published by Gollancz. Hazard in JAOS. op. /3arro?. and their feet are not seen in the dances by the world. lightning. There details. 10 of the god's power or the praise of his glory were "words of power" against the fiends.. Actes du uime Congres International des Orientalistes. 8: 13: "holy angels. H. 3. No. Abraxas. comes the name of the client and family. op. the Herodotus notices the use of a theogony or divine Dieterich. MONTGOMERY ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. and then the categories of detested demons and ills. cf. 10 Fossey. yet much variation of After possibly an invocation. nos. 294. the of His throne and in the water. 13. An important part of magic was the epic of the god and the praise of in the spirits compare the insertion of the Hermetic Koofioiroiia Leyden magical papyrus. sect. 4. cit. 77. E. This insipid use has cit. 6:7). Cf. * and for the western magic." beneficent Annunaki later ! blowing like the blast. Cf. 96. 182..J. where the ranks of hierarchy are enumerated as standing by the great and lofty Deity. xv (1893). Wiinsch.. 93 f. g. history in the incantation of a magus (i. Poimandres. lightening like These passages. reminiscent both literature. Karatea/iot . and the epic of the attack of the rebel against the gods in the i6th tablet of the Utukku series. iv. op. the chariots of El-Panim before beasts worshipping in the fire Him standing. even three or more times 3). fragments snatched to decorate the lean skeleton of incantation. The story his glory. 1887. are recited of the Apocalypse and the 8* kabbalistic with magical intent. (e. 132) see in general Conybeare. A. hosts of light in the spheres. cit.

the <*>? ^<tyof has suffered reductio ad absurdum.66 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. The spell. personality human and divine is thrown out of doors. ancient Babylonian and ious imaginativeness and poetic invention of the its Egyptian magic has disappeared. BABYLONIAN SECTION. .

The Christian Church followed the tuition of her mother and her pagan converts brought along with them the superstitions of the Graeco-Roman world. ETC. often regarded themselves standing fact of evil agencies. Our sorcery de siecle.. 35 for literature. THE OBJECTS the OF EXORCISM. Tambornino. came to occupy the center of the stage of the spiritual drama. and the in the political convulsions city gods that once were near to men disappeared which marked the passing of ancient tribe or the spirits of and the domination of a world-empire. Abt. Reitzenstein. and diabolology entered into the formal 2 Christian theology to an extent unknown in official Judaism. see the works of Heitmiiller. The Persian and antidotes against the great outfaith was boldly dualistic and magical in its rites for was too tense. 313 ff. salvage from antique polytheism. Bousset. When the old-world religions began to decay. 326 ' For the diabolology of the Hellenistic world. Jewish monotheism and the cardinal doctrine of the one God was saved by that unfortunate. development of the superstition concerning the powers of in the negative light of prophylactics for they did not deny them. Die ff. or suffered under the strokes of philosophy and skepticism. cited in the previous section Wendland. Christentum. (67) . Die hellenistischromische Kultur in ihren Beziehungen zu Judentum u.12. Religion des Judentums im neutestamentlichen Zeitalter. 1907 for Jewish and Christian demonology. . though possibly necessary. also in general P. but recognized their existence. and the superstition that feeds on the fears of men. in the shape of angels and devils 1 who were nearer and more real to man than distant Deity. of too late The magic of is bowls is an age to require here a dissertation on the rise fin and spread of the belief in evil spirits. . the doctrine of the Incarnation seemed to embodied demons. were not banished. see n. entail the foil of 1 Cf. THE DEMONS. overcoming the powers of ill. ill Nor did the rise of the great spiritual religions counteract the tremendous evil.

or even granddams are given. Also the personal description exactly efficacious.. cf. See below under (i)b.. ix. Bab. 44. have noticed above the magical efficacy ascribed to naming the names 3 Personal names for demons. a similar text 5 See the opening of the Labartu texts as published by Myhrman. Nevertheless the analysis of the different kinds of demons may produce here and there a note of interest. 42 is an exorcism of the evil Lilith and its virtue consists in the knowledge it gives of her many names I refer to that text for comparative . This is the female demon represented in the old Babylonian texts by the Labartu. 4 JQR.68 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. of deities and demons ( n). 6 7 Thompson. and recall a like process in the similarly fication 8 names of Satan Rev. Our text Jewish by the Lilith. for this indicates that the sorcerer knows whom he is exorcising. C. Budge. I are not very common . it is true. Our magic is a degenerate survival of the religious and magical develop- ments of ancient Egypt and Babylonia. epithets attached to demons in 2: 2 in f.. of Judaism. e. 24 f. ZA. 12: 9. on an amulet published by Weissbach. No. g. for every specification enhances the is power of the name..'' A reminiscence of these hair-raising pictures appears in the Mandaic bowls published by Pognon and Lidzbarski. 154. Miscellen. we are dealing with a mass of time-worn and banal demons. of the Hellenistic world. the Demon. 9: 11. the Satan. which do not promise much for fresh investigation. 8: 2. details. etc. . i. xvi." etc. and the summary of his argument given by Conybeare. One class of demons however seems always to have enjoyed the privilege of a long list of names which it was the sorcerer's duty to know and to conjure." Also for further identiof the demons the names of their parents. as in the delineation Such magical descriptions sometimes rise of the Seven Spirits in the Babylonian Utukki-series. 45 f. in the in the Greek by the Gello or Baskania. they are generally epithets or generic terms. v. 171. also Origen. 65 f. Likewise the Labartu has her six (seven?) names. and in the study of its demonology. to almost epic tones. 24: 13. in which ' Cf. while Egyptian magic amassed the names of the demon Apep. which are to 4 We may also compare the accumulation of be carefully pronounced. Celsum. Egyptian Magic. i. "the Killer. 51. Devils and Evil Spirits of Babylonia. BABYLONIAN SECTION.

' find the more frequently those under (2) and (3) are paired. in a text where the several spirits are named (Utukki. as personal beings. v. this decadent sorcery made up for the lack canny terms. fighting of is depicted in un- our texts do not extend much beyond the mere registration of categories. sorceries. Wessely. dreams. and so on with a all celestial of diseases. 1443.). namely: (i) sense of the term. especially physical maladies. but comprehensive encyclopaedically accumulated all the terms of evil not all which new races and faiths had to offer were gladly accepted. list fj M/hvfov f/ amiavTri/ta irovr/pbv voaqpov KtMpov TV<J>). witchcraft. Hence in our texts the naming of the devils and ills results in the registration of an indefinite number of species. Religion.OV. 332. j/ t/ flaaKavia. or as themselves with personality. Kenntniss d. to be Superstition in order ." then "sickness. MONTGOMERY ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. 10 11 Anecdota graeco-byzantina. (3) natural evils. g. But in general of poetical imagination by a mathematical tabulation. E. Vienna phil. Compare a papyrus list. * La magie assyrienne. 161. 81. only the inherited demoniac categories.-hist. i. An analysis of our general category evil spirits. evils This tique. 23. g. but also such mental and moral affections as loss. witch- crafts." All the three categories do not so often appear in the Babylonian magic. A. which have been potentized into almost personal existence. etc. . etc. And it is anevil appears in the Babylonian. (2) evil agencies. Zimmern.J. Surpu-series. bans. especially the species of black magic. It is the order we find generally in e. sins. our present texts. shame. f/ charms published by Vassiliev <ftof)epiaiib<. in which are and terrestial spirits. in the strict may start from a threefold division. 8 then "the enchantments. maladies which more exact diagnosis of the At the end of the develop- ' Fossey. 1. fy fi QapftaKeia f/ f) fypiKTj rj vvptTtx. 55 ff. but here again various we ills. spirits to their then the opposition to mortals who have bound malicious purpose. finally the are specified in secular terms. xxxvi. although often the demoniac element is vague. the Lilith-witches 69 the hurtling. Beitrage z. babylon. Denkschriften.. same order the bans (mamitu) and then the :" r<i human This order appears also on the whole in the Byzantine aKa-Sapra irvd'fiara. which are regarded as instigated by demons." : This is the natural order of the evolution of magic first the animistic the evil fear of demons. scolding. 1.

from may be due to Persian influence. The supreme declaration of Second Isaiah that the gods are naught and nothing. BABYLONIAN SECTION. Cf. unfortunately was not sustained. where the ancient spirits of the devils." The old proper shrine-spirits idol-spirits name of the goddess Istar had already in the Assyrian become a common find in 38: 8: "Charmed be and " So O'Ws Kpoaiarvf. 8 [Greek]. i as capable of disobedience and subject to divine wrath (Gen. Baruch 4: 7: TO. appear as lieutenants of Yahwe. when banished. and Satan)." The fullest develop- this theory found in planets have become the chief Mandaism. or finally as evil spirits. and so we and and temple-spirits all gods (S'n^K) and goddesses (WuonDjr). although hardly any of the details can be traced to that source. Scun&via in the Septuagint. more thoroughgoing assimilation with monotheism. 82). though the angels at first have an independence and sovereignty recalling the Sons of God (e. So also Mohammed reduced the pagan gods to Jinns. 24: 21 ff. (i) (a) The most honorable and the place in the first division is to be assigned to the ancient gods spirits still haunting their temples. 21. and cf. may here be remarked that the never-ending enlargement of categories of evil spirits. Is. the Babylonian Hani limnuti. the D'fl^Kn 132 (Job. 6atfi6via eiduAo (also Rev. . Dan. y.20). 9..). A classic expression of this demonology Paul "the things which the Gentiles sacrifice. 10: 13. returned as is demons found in to vex the : faithful. 6: ff. Ps. as the a planetary spirits (Dt. and even onetime beneficent gods. These discarded deities may therefore head the list 11 of evil potencies. ment this last category may alone remain. g. there survived the One God many deities who i). in the into demons. Even with the triumph of the belief in the Old Testament.. as in the Babylonian medical It texts or the modern Jewish and Arabic charms.') and not is to God" (I Cor. The religion of yesterday becomes the superstition Polytheism died hard.70 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. 10: 20). they sacrifice to demons ment of (Sat/tovioi.lv 13 had become KOL TO.. which the de- velopment of religion and especially the monotheistic trend had depotentized and turned of to-day. apart eclectic causes. as angels.

: and the charms against sun.. and two Nabataean inscripthe also notice the Arabian goddess al-Lat. Heb." Once the rare is found.. are the spirits of the pagan shrines and simulacra.. see Baethgen. that of demons which Isaiah. iv. 30: 15 ff. in Cf. Sayce-Cowley's Elephantine papyri. (Zimmern. Judaism. ii. " So Hani u. MONTGOMERY in general ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS.). : with Moore's comment. Mic. 35 and 64: the localities especially haunted by the shrines where they can enjoy the incense. Ass. Also n. Pesh. f. ib. In the heathen text No. see Lidzbarski's glossary Babylonian Allat. B. Origen. blood.. moon. 19 (1. 184. 60) sufficed by way of abbreviation Jastrow. Zeits.J. goddess of the nether-world. the "eighty" feminine spirit swings (in the Syriac. see Griinbaum. of Mandaic origin" see Pognon's be added from Ellis stars. a service tree near a city has not less than 60 demons " According to old Semitic use. 199. cf. 5: 4. C. 2. find nrftx . . 38 cf. In No. 19: 4. ]NS mntrj?. Sometimes the number alone . 58 f. Lidzbarski's amulet just cited. 289. etc. A list of 50 gods Reisner. 180. Rel. " = " a *" See Brandt. the old myth of their fall cited in 4 6 . I ff. this mystical " For the survival of Keilschr. 1.. the 1' Mandaic form of Nergal here is = the evil unlucky planet Mars. of Ps. 115." we learn of the sixty gods and the eighty goddesses a survival of the ancient sacred 8) . demons are temples and vii. Bab. no. given in one Babylonian hymn. Dt. Brandt. "the 7 sealers and the 8 brothers" in the Mandaic amulet published by Lidzbarski in the Florilegium to de Vogue I (1. . 7 f. the former figure number is for the fulness of deity." Probably it is under Mandaic influence that we find the planets regarded as baneful spirits n. tions. Sumerisch-babylonische Beitriige). Beitriige. hence the number of Anu 15 . etc. 13. Mand. 51. see cf. n. nib. 152 ff. Hymnen. of ewes. 71 name of goddesses is (istarati) . i. N. the 366 Uthras in the Mandaic are mentioned the 360 broods of evil spirits religion and the 360 gods which Islamic tradition claimed were housed at Mecca. 24.. b. For a 1. 34: 6. b. who transformed into an genius. 93 to these may i : 3 VTJ. (6. and 20 11D3N.17: 5). 7: 13. seq.. 15. 2 Again the forceful protest of Second istarati. used of a female (Wohlstein. in .) merely cumulative. A. 247 " Cf. 1. Ju. Inscriptions Mandaites. planets. Celsum. KAT. According to Pesah. etc. 43. For other demons . 68 viii. list. 10. Manddische Religion. Schriften. cf. ff.-forsch. u. For occurrence of rh in Phoenician. Under this head there 21 is one interesting species. no. Also . Prov. in it. the Sr/>M-series iv. Cf. and so are regarded as haunting them. list of these planetary spirits in the Mandaic ff. number is 222.

was a virtue the satire of Bel and the Dragon. n. appear rather far down. The Persian word was early introduced into the Occident. KAT*. later superstition retained the idea by regarding the ekure as the e. Delitzsch. Wohls.* tWuAov . 25.. . Ass. ix. gods of the temples. 7: 21 and now the many similar names in the new Elephantine papyri published by Sachau.. cited by Joel."" In some of the 'ini 'Ttr lists . Sum. the name Bethel-shar-ezer. B. where they occur after demons. g. Mand. iv: DIE'S rve>. properly "images. Lidz. xmaj? nans. like character are the "npris). in Schwab Q: in general . cit. 5: 2. Beth-el Reisner. Marchalianus) as gloss) translates the V!-6 10 According to one iraraxpa (+ ei6o/. appears in the same use in West Semitic: the god Bait-lie. erd. or nrma . quoted from the Ginza." 24 Assyrian become applied to The temples themselves were personified and practically had already deified .. had failed. as in the Mandaic books. no. lower and middle regions.. Schriften. liliths. spirits. " " Hwb. Zech. BABYLONIAN SECTION. idols. * The word also survived in its original sense. 81. iv. both phantasm or ghost. Der Aberglaube. Hand. p. 2: 7. the cf. 75. Kna'T NHiay 19: 8). 5." % t and so as gods as in general. Pognon. 22 the reality of oracles at those shrines is admitted. 86. there cults in the and sanctuaries of the old 23 religions. ZDMG. 21." but used at large of gods 'B. in Pognon B. no. ekurrati.72 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. 2422: " 29 Pogn.-bab. in the The word ekurru.a found. MS. 13. see the argument in Cf. op. B. once the name for a temple deities. where 26 the number 60 shows. g. devils.. = naTiNE (once. 467. 165 Jastrow. 5. e. where the unintelligible varpia is generally See Nestle in Transactions of the IXth International Congress of Orientalists. (1892). amulets. 4. Of 5 e. I Cor. 282. p. So the ekure appear in our bowls. 437 f. = jonijtf (cf. Brandt. * For the form. magic of the word by Gespensterf in the Levy time the word may have come to be identified with translates the idol. i. . e. and Symmachus's testimony (margin of Cod. Gram. 553. g. as established deities. There are they the 'S of the upper. 10: 28. and the goddesses. g. of Is. i. 8: 21. NTVJI 'El new Mandaic passage. 2* we read of "invocations of the gods. being thus much reduced eclectic in grade. 27 see Noldeke. ii. 58. Lidz. and There is the distinction in the Talmud apologetically. although explained Aboda Z. 25. Hymnen. 1.

religion they mostly appear in tribal demons which immemorially had Like the utukki of the Babylonian groups. "Feldgeister. Grundriss d. xvi Thompson." WK. MONTGOMERY 'D ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. Poimandres. in Glossary. In Islam the false gods were called asnam. sem. i3<ne ? 8: 3. A.J. are cedence in the lists indicates a higher rank than that assigned to the little known (so Spiegel) and insignificant Pairikas. = "error. "shrine" comes to mean a god. Philologically. 1880). Jackson in Geiger and Kuhn. Noldeke. which may be of a definite expressed by "devils and demons. (b) 88 now to those groups of stood as the evil spirits par excellence. neu-syr. Gram. A. and also according to de Harlez are companions of certain genii invoked by magicians. the use of a-ijfia. 7: 3 translates nnntS'jr. inter al. the word having an obscure history in connection with the sedu. Duhm." with as idea as these English words convey to us. Semitic Magic. Ass. much The or as D'HE' little occur in the Old Testament.. du Pehlevi. Jastrow. ii. in the (sing. c. Sprache. and snsinD'j?. Bab. cf. p. "tomb. Religionsgeschichte. d. 113'M'Sn. u in function the "IB* is the Babylonian sedu limnu. cf. 131. Die bosen Geister im Alien Testament. this would be the most fitting etymology for our word. Or an assimilation to or Mand. . See.. Most constant among these classes are the pH and pT' . Fossey. These creatures are described as beau- connected with comets. "evil p'tr are the hobgoblins. and his art. H." as grave-demon. 293. " " 2.sniyo etc. . parakku). but its pretiful seductive witches.." Assyrian sedu. 138. where they are between the xmaj? and xmay 8' The word would then mean first "shrine-spirits" (Syriac p'rakka. La magie assyrienne. 1JH3). and in Peshitto of I Sa. i. 73 between male and female I). "idolsj" 6. the In the later Jewish demonology the *" With 'D =r a deity or demon. iranischen Philologie. pass Old Testament. for the Babylonian demons.*" I : : Nrronsi nans and Kmpu pmana (Schwab sons sna^riB am inclined to associate with these patkaras the listed of 38 or the : 8 and 40 19. false For the used like I gods also appears Nnyo . * " Cf. W. V. See. de Harlez. 43 ff. iii. ii." in Hauck's RE*. and see his note 2. so in a Greek amulet published by Reitzenstein. See Spiegel. Also in the Syriac nn'JJ. Eranische Alterthumskunde. 20. Rel. But from the Persian pairika Pahlavi = modern Persian 82 Peri). without personal distinction. Baudissin. Manuel .. The change of the another etymology may be proposed Ass. parik (the vowel (a to t) is possible. c. Studien z. s. 665 C. a false god. Gram. u. v.

24. . Die paulinische Angelologie u. Life and Times of Jesus. a K'TBH K3^O occurs. so once we find reference to the 5. cit. has evidently the meaning demons or no. 20. . (The word does not occur in p'T The inherited a good name from the old = Targums and Talmud.." 3 The "spirits" or "evil 40 spirits" ( njn nn. not found to in " Ace. 40 Baudissin. As Judaism KnsoJTt? M . -j: i4. Dieterich. ix. SO1D "sons of shadow. 482 T. 759 ff. they are the 85 Sain&vta Peshitto returns to the Jewish term. also v. Hagada. n. Ellis 5: 4. J"t^3 pnnLevy both masc. Witton Davies." the *i?B Aryan theology ( were depotentized in the Persian system. 50.) form a triad with the preceding species. while the in the same 13. Thompson. <5ai/wvef daifi6viooai. 408 ft. Conybeare. 1. Levy. p. ii. in his admirable "Beitrage z. for which the prevailing class of demons .) Testament. Baudissin and H. Harclean version replaces trwv of the Kin Cf. Fossey. Griinbaum. But in these texts his name is given as N31J3. '33. Magic. . BABYLONIAN SECTION. " Also simply the king. Damonologie. "Demonology" in Jewish Encyc. op. Peshitto w. ZDMG. Das altjudische Zaubenvesen. KaSo Eisenmenger. ii. . . name 6. . 131. Weber. = Lidz. op. 422 (a tradition of the "Molek" of the Old Testament?). 26. 1. of the Greek. NJNTJUN. Entdecktes Judentum. xnt"3 unn. Tallquist. . 86 " According to Levy. Fossey." with which compare Asmodaeus. Blau. op. Jastrow." in ZDMG. cit. thus indicating something distinct from the sedin. and came into Semitic gods). xxxi. the art. of an evil deity ( b&on 13). napai -137. viii. 194. " For these and the following demoniac species in Judaism. 10 ff. quotes IVR 6a. Cf. the Jewish literature. . Zimmern (Beitrdge and KAT*). the king of 37 demons. cf. we learn of a the "king of demons and devils. In 29: 9 the sed'm are described as of the Targum. Divination. Abraxas.74 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. 271 ff.. Duhm as cited above. logical p. 11. has its feminine : niTK>. note 34. is found in 19: 10 as text. and Demonology among the Hebrews and their Neighbors (London. of the Leyden Papyrus. . ") In the Peshitto use of the term it appears to apply to the demons of mental and moral disorders. Semitic Magic. ix Everling. 49. 488." JQR.. Edersheim. 19). and fern. ii. Jiidische esp. vergleichenden Mythologie aus d. see Eisenmenger. to the effect that the sedu is the demon of the evil eye another proof that demons and their functions were interchangeable. Theologie. . 242 ff. cit. and the discussions by the students of Assyriomagic. 43. which plural deities.. 10. . In a broken text (Pognon B. currency through the Mandaic and Syriac. "Demonology of the New d. In ii 5 = 18: 4 = Ellis i.

136. labasu. c. These devils. . But it is the Liliths which enjoy the greatest individual vogue in our demonology. op. that demons were ghosts of the dead indeed later existed. Apol. ahhazit.. 18 and for spirits Judaism. whose malice is specific and whose traits and names are fully known. p. . ii. evil spirits in their juxtaposition recall the e. see Jastrow. 44 For the distinctions i. B. 12 f. the utukku. as listed more than once in the Afa&/M-series.. Syriac and Mandaic use of the word shows. MONTGOMERY ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. spirits. 14. Satan such potencies easily passed into malicious demons. in con- The only reference to the "seven spirits" of Babylonian magic nection with the sr6a30 (see below). -are The Mazzikin which the general category for all prominent in Jewish lore. Babylonian (1^). op." appears as an agent of Jahwe. Blau. 2. labartu. c. " Opf. i. between the Babylonian I. cit. Die ass. no equivalence in name (with one exception). They may have been specialized as the temptation (see Blau). dt. p.. xxiv. as the Rabbinic. 75 and Blau regard them as ghosts" but without warrant." appear but seldom. followed is registration of several categories there But beyond the by the liliths. vi. Tallquist. no. the Hebrew (nil). g." "the evil spirit. Beschworungsserie Maqlu. ckimmn. 1. demons and several species so frequently enumerated in Babylonian demonology. v. to whom the general compliment of a spell must be paid. The view i. evil Many are of the charms culminate in that objective generical. see Justin Martyr. 43 sedu. 77. the other spirits most often merely anonymous. Thompson. cit. 427. They are the -nvti-^a-a -n-muipd or ( aKddapra of the liniiiHti. 482." A certain amount of distinction can be drawn in the Babylonian field. Fossey. but in our texts no differentiation exists. 1. 278. Persian is (NTl). where they are demons. but the Liliths are definite terrors. in definite character. For the relation of of demoniac possession and moral \>nn and irvei'ftara see Baudissin in . Indeed the three species are rather tokens of the several sources of our particular magic. Devils.J. Semitic Magic. " " So Weber. Hauck's RE'. 1894. rabisu. i. A. the equivalent of the Babylonian utiikki This development of nn we may trace in the Old Testament New where "a like the spirit of evil. Eisenmenger. Testament. N. just seven species.

life." etc." R. i.. C. lilith. Hence bowl made out in the for the protection of homes and concerned. = paramour of lilu. 9) occurs TB3i and the decent lilith"." may have had its part in shaping the peoples . 460.76 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. along with an ardat lili. etc. to Zimmern. 48 Semitic Magic. survived in Jewish demonology and both occur abundantly in our bowls. : may be referred to especially for the : Liliths. ardat lili as the more Lilith. (Devils. lascivious. etc. et seq. BABYLONIAN SECTION." In the Babylonian the Lilith (ardat lili) . the spirits haunting waste ruins. g." 4 nn in Job 4: 15. suggested. Lilith in the M The single appearance of Old Testament. this recalls the good demons of Jewish wvW. Texts Nos. 459 xxxvii." Zimmern.. 5i6b. "storm. et al. i. is fable than the Babylonian Liliths. 34: 14. 66: if Semitic. n. Thompson. in the maidens. /. 8. They haunt the house. Semitic Magic. Cf. 7. and her realm is the sexual sphere hence women in their periods and at childbirth. and though the Lilm are only pendants to the Liliths. the resemblance of Sumerian HI to W ." with Sayce. iv. 1<31B "the J'TB 1 . the peace of family it most often name of the women is We an amulet against these noxious spirits that is particularly desired. Jinns. So in the Talmud they dwell in the beams and 45 crevices. the cesspools. who regards the specialized marriageable) 145. from root rtt. She represents a just one of c. or from the Sumerian lies HI. with Schrader. lurk in the arches and thresholds. 6." Lilis and Liliths are specialized forms of prm. Is. 6 4. 65). even as in Greek magic demons Better Thompson. 11:5. etc. p. who discusses the demonology of marriages with nB"2 lore." feminine. nighthag. KAT*. is the ghostly paramour of men. the wind-draught easily passes into a ghost. KAT. " n. as masculine and The two former words lilit.. 9. = Halevy. 52 evil Jewish Encyc. children. whether Semitic from y*f "nightmare. The genus appears lilu in the Babylonian incantations. one dwells in the house concerned. "be abundant. may say that the Lilis and Liliths are the demons of the family life. 1. i 6. but I : phantom of Lilith and her troop among Semitic-speaking would suggest that the prime connection is not etymological but semantic lit = wind = nn = spirit . (cf. 51 more primitive stage of the See Thompson. are the special objects of her malice.." inscriptions. (e. 17. In 29: 6 f. Probably as others have "night.. hence the original of the Jewish " Hibbert Lectures. The origin of the word. ." beyond my present scope. Ace.

xvi.-Forsch. their own and 8.. 66. JQR. for the Liliths were the most developed products of the morbid imagination of the barren or neurotic woman. for the Lilith had her Cf. Eisenmenger. 8 gives the picture of a typical she is depicted with loose tresses. ** 255. like a Jewish rabbi. 147 See Wohlstein's note." In No. the mother's name '0'. Bath. 57 " See above. figure on No. xlii. 1123. is "Murderess daughter of Murderess. of.J. At the beginning of is Wohlstein's text 2416 (= a whole brood of demons named. 36: 9. 57 Especially in the case of this species their foul most exact descriptions are given of ways and 58 apparitions. The nuptial rights or powers. The later Lilith thus lilit The partakes of the nature of the elder children. 19: they are bidden "not to hide in this earth nor under the bed or gate or beams or vessels or holes. Brub. ii. B. and the good and bad sedu of the Babylonian also so the utukku. ed. Nos. ZA. MONTGOMERY ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS." throws light on a passage in Pesah. 5). cf. 226. Nidda 2^0. folks." In the Jewish demonology the Liliths have affirms that they kill chil- Bcmidbar Rabba 16 is In No. Fossey. 449. 1. dilittle vorce-writ. by which the sorcerer." and of the Labartu. even the granddam's names are given. ff. according to Griinbaum. the tales of the female Jinns in Arabic folklore. the enemy of The Liliths are intimately known. " Wessely. ii the Lilith associated with the personifications of barrenness and abortion. Cited by Weber. . 18: 6. "* ii. the demon Ahriman bar Lilit. n : 8. Keilschr. 733. their parents'.. g. A. 431 f. cf. 8: 3. in No. xi.. e. f. separates these obscene from their prey. i they are described as generating off- spring with human night." the like fiendish character. cit. appearing as phantom the interesting men and women to women and men by Hence phenomenon of the magic get." " See to 8: 7. they plague them. n. 36. one of the characteristics cf. Zeits. in So also in the Testament of Solomon. But not the Talmud. . ofcit." and "strangler. obscene Lilith of the species. separation had to be legally effected. loob. The name for one of these demons. Stiibe) g. "little mother." Especially children as the detested offspring of beings throttle do they vent their rage on human wedlock. 16. Conybeare. 77 are given the like habitat. In general these names are epithetical.. dren. suck their blood (e. Lidz. and devour them. See Myhrman.

" 34: 13. " lilith-name and as probably equal to Ass. a rural as well as a domestic terror. I take occasion to refer to the Lamia." In connection with the text No. g. BABYLONIAN SECTION. s. "evil spirit banning the magical papyri. Very interesting is the similarity of the Semitic Lilith. Maklu-series iv. ** For the psychological c. s. Mt. vol." As Wohlstein notes. p. 1. 66). xx (1900). belong to this phase of the Lilith-idea. Iva harbi. ii. see Abhandhtngen of the Saxon Academy of Sciences. v. the latter clause is a most interesting commentary on the anecdote of the Gadarene devils which asked the liberty to enter the swine. 42. Wohlstein 2422 (1. 17: is 3. I 2 men Graeco-Roman demon- the Empusa.. Dictionnaire. I. 28). cf. 12: 43) is frequent in e. 152. faun. This developed myth a later accretion to the ancient inchoate ideas of these monsters." Thompson. but his vogue is far more extended." e. etc. The epithets "cursing. gallu. 60 Cf. and the incubi and succubae. The of the demons into the desert and mountains (cf. 62 Daremberg and For Gello as a Saglio. The Lilith is the Baskania." and "undoing. e. etc. 42. 22 (Tallquist. v. see notes to No. the descriptions of the species in the Mandaic bowls uncanny scenes of the witches' nights which are the theme of still existent folklore.' present the parallel forms of this is conception as found in the western world. 8: 28. ekimmu an amulet published by Reitzenstein. RE. 42 which presents the legend of the Lilith-witch. 191 ff.78 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. of the sleepless child. Roscher. 167. i. and in course of time her assimilation to the psychological horrors which haunted elsewhere. 81 See at length under No. especially to the identical forms in the ology. i. M For the incubi see Roscher. Poimandres. the mother in the time of maternity. witchery) of the Greek charms. "go and fall on the mountains and heights and the unclean beasts. the Gello. He is in form goat. The special demon which is the of this classic treatise corresponds to the male Lili of our texts. A further development of the Lilith her assimilation with the witch recall the . in airfh&qre iv aypioif dpeatv . g. 26. 294: nal exe'toe Qvyafievtiqaere Cf. Mt. 60. 63 Pauly-Wissowa. and the exorcism. to thy desert. satyr. subject ." the Marmolyke and Gorgons. Ephialtes. Devils. "Ephialtes" in basis and subjective fact of these apparitions. (i. mm JvW>. 27: 7." Somewhat of the elder and biblical notion of the Lilith as denizen of the desert appears in the expressions K131 xroa.

Theol. 438." We read of the tbs^D MXI . "take demoniac possession of. n: "the devil and his angels. Mt. Is. also "the Satans." and incantations." terms Kart^fDoi and KO. and an inscription cited by Cumont c. Ibid. 192. The word in used of pagan 71 deities in 36: 5 (cf. Jud.. g. 06: 7.oi appears the papyri." 16: Spirits of Babylonian mythology. an evil spirit Bnpn nil. Schwab "The Satan" appears and Rabbinic" and Arabic lore. 23. in Eisenmenger. demons 79 A long list still remains to be considered. see Volz. There are the 69 evil angels.. with reference to the myth in Gen. 10. and other reff. "the synagogue of Satan. the "angels of wrath and the angels of the house of assembly. eKi&iiaia. Pirke R. 350) compares Assyrian kabalu used in venture to suggest metaplasis with the Syriac 13^. note 112)." so that we may compare this I 1 } Cf. Abraxas. Jiidische Eschatologie. even as ayye/. De antique daemonismo. 69 Cf. Karafa/ipAvetv Mk. = 2:9). 37 is : 8. ** 47. Wohlstein 2422. may refer to the conventicle of a magical cult (cf. MONTGOMERY of species of ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. p. See Tambornino. A. 14: 13. and the species with the Babylonian ahazzu. 59) suggests derivation from 733. 12: the word in this sense in I Cor. most of which are not much more than names. 43. 10. 6. indicative of supernatural possession. e." quoted by Weber. " E. in 4 : i . rites in which angels were bound to angel of death F. 'ID'K evidently equals '3So (see below. e. so also in the n. cit. without citation. : The who shudders at the Great Name appears in 3 6. the assembly of the gods on the Semitic Olympus. Eliezer. 25: 41. For evil angels.. Ps. seize. Rev. 2. Or '3 'a iii. n Debarim R. 11: "Sammael the head of the Satans. 7. g. op. The editor makes no comment on this or the parallel phrase The 7: KnB"33 Iran no'X. p. p. 19: 13). "house of assembly" recalls the ancient Semitic idea of the 1J?10 in. 38. hellish operations. n. Walhalla having become a conventicle of demons! (Demons are located in the north by Jewish legend." and the absolute use of Blau 10." recalling the Stiibe (p. .. of. is One f^SSO of the most frequent and or 7. Dieterich..J." as in is Enoch (40: 7) and There no amplification of the doctrine of " Cf.) avvayayri.TOXOI. 56. But the phrase is probably to be interpreted from a passage in a "Christian" amulet published by Reitzenstein. top 6pKt^a vft&e TO hanfata tgf/KovTa : JTveifftaTa TJjc fKK^Tjfflac rov irovqpov. all LXX. 266: diis angelis. 253. Myhrmann (p. notes. " etc. g: 18. evidently most dreaded the class of the xrfoaD. ii. 1. cit. who are called pC5>Hp = sacri. Semitic Magic. "bind. 295. Once they Seven are spoken of as the "seven 'D of night and day." i." Rev. in 1. Thompson. "hold. Oriental Religions..

** In 5 : 4 the satyrs are Probably to be read in 37 : 10. mischievous or obscene purpose is universal. of Schwab The cf. 5 4. Reste des arabischen Heidcntums. with the same root-meaning. are black devils. a reminiscence.. of the title Old Testament.. PP't?. For the word see 12: 8.T. D < Tj>B> appear once. . 4. note . 55. 135. 89. Cf. and the spread of the word may : well have antedated the Muslim Conquest. the in Epistle of Barnabas. 4. J'p'to. see ibid. 27. "seducing spirits and doctrines of 1. Diet. 13: I. cf. The Syriac pp'T" appear in association with the meteor. Wellhausen. the root is common-Semitic." of Satan &peMt t The pint? G 9. etc. 29 f. Nn3lie>) of 73 Cf. 77 But the idea of the hairy goatlike demon which obsesses its victim with " Muss-Arnolt. 1174. BABYLONIAN SECTION. 1. the Arabic ifrit. son. . The Rabbinic and it Np't is a in the Mandaic has the more general sense of a plague. devils.80 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM.'" the latter the almost unique Semitic transliteration of <*i/?o. devils molest their victims in bands. The &1JJ of 37 6 is to be explained from the Mandaic K13U (Syriac K1U Arabic fund).. voc. 28sb. Efliialtes. i. asabb. "blast. 136. which Griinbaum most plausibly translates "the Jinn of Solomon. Baudissin. as the form shows. cf. the Fiends and Foes. Once with the Satans (35 : KO'BID and i6i3xn. the sunu zikiku." <pj. as Noldeke tBTOTt?. Lexidion. blast of wind. " 15 So probably read forj'pp Norberg." ThompFor the simile of demons to storms. i. "troop" . also cf. represented as haunting a particular stretch of road. i. Devils. ad ii. the former a class of seducing spirits (metaplasm of V NBD ?). and the "tribes" demons in 38: 6. 4. See Roscher. for the goatlike form of the Ephialtes." The word would then be one of a few terms in our texts which suggest Arabic connections (see But the reserve is to be made that. for similar representations in the superstition of India. and p. 4) are associated the the individual Satan. maintained. in Hyvernat. vii. . in 19: 13. The same phenomenon is abundantly vouched for in the Greek Studien. Satyrs." a demon. and then death-demon. demonology see Roscher. "roaming windblast.w. the name "Legion" ( assumed by the demoniac in the Gospel. We may compare the god Gennaios cited by Cumont in Pauly-Wissowa." idea The Mandaic has as : inherited an old Babylonian of the sakiku. i Tim. and compare the etymology of lilith (see above). 4: In Hyvernat's text occurs the phrase tttchtn 78 WJ.. and compare Pan and the Fauns. 62 for its epithet pilosus. In 2: 3 are mentioned the uai^jni 'JD. below).

nne> Schw. Lagarde's editions of the Targums have everywhere 1'SlS' appears as a variant in one place. typical of desolation. . probably from root Cl^ "curse. The Babylonians 80 * represented their demons in uncouth shapes of birds and animals.'" (cf. 1. According to Jastrow." there remain several rare or obscure species: the '3Db. 20. 82. possibly "familiar spirits. (see p. Clay. Inscriptions semitiques. MONTGOMERY ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. See Pognon. and English ''howl" and "roar")."" or a form of the Targumic "shadecites demon. 34: 17. "undoer" . the uncanny creatures translating D'in. For the 'D'3. JVjnon Schw. In the Syriac. N. Besides the use of certain generic terms. probably metaplastic for battala. an eye-disease (see below) because of the uncertainty of the spelling of the two words the 'Til at end of Schw. B. There are also names of individual demons. Amurru. are found the pIT. A. 4. npon 34: 10 for a possible interpretation). "plagues" 80). ./"'<! . Is. translating tVTV by tniT while Symmachus gives This equation gives the key to our present word. : (see to 8: 2) : 10 a depo37 : tentized deity. (q. 221) the Arabic sifut. also 'QXab. The second 1 sure variant to my SOW . Xit'tS." see to 6: 2. F. corresponding to the Arabic ghul Some can 8H3K 3 2. these are probably on a " form * . Enn 3: 2. the interpretations of the uncanny creatures in passage as demons by both the Greek and the Targum. Others defy etymology: f|ipmpnE'N Pogn. K Some are recognizable epithets : wane 10. probably to be read ptDDB*. " " Cf. this this See Field's Hexapla. but in the Targums it generally translates the Hebrew D"V. akin to the ruins. be identified ."" and this connotation appears in the Syro." The pt3BB> in Hyvernat. is Griinbaum (p. N11T it jackal. the root is onomatopoetic bV 1 . the NJKO^ (alongside for which KJKDD) No. B. Jastrow's and Levy's lexicons give the word as a "ostrich. But the Rabbinic references indicate that liliths. . 3. 2 81 In is 15: in 6 and Myhrman 1. the KJVatsn. ** This word is to be distinguished from I'll. Stiibe. G. v. species daemonis. G may be the one or the other word. conso the Tosefta noting a howling creature and was applied to the ostrich (see Jastrow) D'Jn is . "oppressors." but doubtless the former is the correct spelling . text. 1.Long lists of such obscure names are found in Schwab F and G . 162. the Syriac ttiixv.J. satyrs and vampires that haunt hexaplar to '. such as XQVy. was rather a fabulous than a zoological species.

charmed [the shape of ?] Tata her the defiling ghosts. 20." Here a definite ghostly apparition is really a diabolic delusion. no. doubtless the Talmudic "mtr. i. * See Roscher. to ghosts. Devils. Ephialtes. g. The and last is of Wohlstein's series." and in the Greek There are comparatively few certain references etc.. (Pognon A). for the etymology. 2422 appears the 1JVD soa'p JTO nn. xnsioi. 39: "charmed the lilith all lilith that appears to her . to be directed against ghosts m There is constant reference to dreams (Kob'n ) and apparitions ( xrnoi. iii." which are the milieu of demoniac and ghostly apparitions. dreams are frequent in the Greek papyri thus against . KJ'Tn ) . listing 54 individual names to demons may be in imitation of Persian Geiger and Kuhn." in which phrase the noun is a category of evil spirits. which dreams of nights and visions of day. in in which 'in are impure conceptions D^n Syriac) . a kind of incubus. * E. xlii. * Wessely. Pradel. the second word." their parallel in the Babylonian. Also in Wohlstein. VBfJyp (see to 8: 2}." One case in point [in pnn. We have such a compractically personified . harm.. i. Babylonian incantation against ghosts.formulas for demons who are named and who are not note named. and which have magic. 48 f. 1. Der Aberglaube.. see Joel. cf 7 13. iatfi6viav KCU pi) * For a typical 37- * 153. Also Nos. "leaper.82 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. top. Gebete. 22. " For oneirology in later Judaism. i. see Thompson. siidital.. Devils. which Pognon does not explain. Thompson. may include them. some shape] charmed the niece." This distinction of the dream from ghost or demon represents a later psychology. 103. in No. that have entered. demon names. BABYLONIAN SECTION. bvofia&fievov . 25 contain general charms against ghosts. : bination as: NWni of the Kntoun night is trntnn (cf. found . u. Grundriss d." exactly the Ephialtes of the Greeks. unintelligible see Jackson in 659. hence U5W 'Pi "disturbing dreams. One technical term for ghost possibly apappear to her in pears. 2.. appears an interesting example of necromantic Familiar names are given to the spirits and they are cajoled to do no spell.. par with the mystical names of the angels (see 13). Charms against * This giving of diabolology.. Griech. . 31. . especially p. the is as spirits of the dead. that appears to her in . 2422. iranischen Philologie." Finally we may the blanket.

efficacious if the sorcerer It was most were known so that he could be named and the "tables turned" upon arts. xxxvi. robbers. The Mandaic texts recall somewhat of the ancient dread of witches with their description of those uncanny and obscene persons. bpnot. MONTGOMERY npof ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. 1." In like manner. .. and and ^avraafiara ot*>jv. Dieterich. bveipo-rro/ivoi e. A. op. But inasmuch as the sorcerer's names are not generally known. means of simulacra which are consumed in the the Greek magic has the same defensive purpose. . Wessely.. g. But examination of the name reveals that fictitious.i QvfaiKTtjpiov . vdaav v6aov 83 OF . 42. a/iapriai. and.. (2) Respectable or "white" magic includes not merely the laying of evil 2 spirits but counter magic' against the machinations of hostile sorcerers. The 5wr/>M-series illustrates the prophylactic practice. the lilith as I have noted above. * Zimmern. 191. its third tablet" is con- " /&. the incantations content themselves with listing the various kinds of magical practices and putting them under the potent spell. 64. 8l. * Probably technically expressed by 1'^3'p. are commanded to return NTD1K means "spellbinder" and SOX simply means "mother. The writer of the bowl has satisfied his client by assuming that he knows the adverse sorcerer's name. cit.. Trpof ^avraafiara. ** e. in Wohlstein 2416. 8l. 1.J. all for no curse "returns empty. etc. the witch and are practically identified. Dream-magic was highly developed among the Greeks. we have charms for sending dreams. g. Hence dreams are listed with other maleficent agencies. 6veipoi. Just so the Babylonian Ma&/M-series devotes the witch by itself to the rites of destroying fire. 13. These dreams and the similar panic fears of day and night are also referred to in extenso in Gollancz's Syriac charms. flaaitavia. Magic is required as an antidote. all evil works. 15. for instance. /6.." against their instigator. Beitrage. : irvebfiara xftltvia. It is nothing else than the legal "John Doe. f5/3ouf Ttpbf icai Trdtfof another against enemies." him by casting upon him his malign Such a case appears in Schwab G. etc. it is the evils that have fallen on the victim are bidden to fall on the head of KDK "13 STD1S. mj/wzTO^Maf iJaf'/iovaf.

with the sense of poisoning. perhaps also Ti^K (Wohlstein. also in It is Abt. grandmother. already in which all possible kinds and origins of curse are listed in sister. be peeled off like this onion. the the sin. no. Pognon was the first correctly to interpret this term. tablet: grief. the of the Greek magic . maleficent "vows" and the the Syriac 5). used of the "white magician's" Ellis 3 own work. B. where the authors of these bans are prostitute. Cf. * " In 2 : 6 we find list Hfimrw. the misery.^actf 4 . naturally is regarded as homeless and miserable. Die Apologie des Apuleius. A similar in = Schwab B. e. the tfSpra. maleficia. e. the sickness." etc. malae artes. the impiety. the transgression. brother. 44 ff. posterity."* "black 95 arts. hence a malignant wraith. II. "invocations.o}w 7 = ^a/j/MKOTnxm." * So the Syriac. . See above. mother. abundant parallel in the Babylonian magic cited. mother. which is also the frequent 'HTJ. artes nefandae. the mamit of in the Babylonian. literature with magical tinge. infant. Davies. nefaria sacra. Kni'M. . e. In the later magic these classes are listed in exorcism of the evil eye. xnnD "sorceries. 15: father. (the singular also mp in 16: 10). 112. Magic. brothers NQ'in. beginning. grandfather." except in the Mandaic. the sickness. in But tyappaKov survived in a good sense in 7: 13. the ban. Apuleius. see be a $. w" etc. "Thy name For an extensive discussion of the word. or icpn) of maleficent magic. penn (+ pna). KJVip. the Unoi?. foetus. the third tablet of the Surpu-series. 19."" Christian equivalent of avd&e/ui. the pain." 39 ImK/. g. BABYLONIAN SECTION. for health and soundness. see Abt. p." The unborn child. with evils of the find flesh." termed the 'pi There are the bpnoi various terms or kinds of curses. 2426: its This listing of the bans and their originators has . Hence a recurring phrase "may in which is my body. this Accordingly we against exorcism effected with prudent intention perhaps generally M : payo." . snntr. g. see 30. We mark here the union of curses. who has defrauded him. Divination and Demonology among the Hebrews and their Neighbors. laborer. 30 of Bishop Serapion's prayers. formally impossible to distinguish between the words Cf. may have in the praxis of the fifth the curse. the misdeed. classed in the Babylonian magic M * For 94 this and following technical names for sorcery.. * For these words see the convenient summary in T. master specified. . the use of the adjective "sorcerers" and "sorceries. in no. 165 etc. tnin. g. ** II.84 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. the Latin equivalents. especially Pognon's Mandaic bowls." >. cerned with breaking every possible kind of ban (mamit) that befallen a person. W. just as they occur in our bowls. 39: 6. lines: of father.

" PSBA. See Jastrow. the Ti. IV. So the Greek Kartiieofiot and the Jewish "Folk Lore of Mossoul. no. Fossey. and at last appeared exclusively to be. i. see Joel.J. enchantments effected by priests (pen). "* Berak. accusation. Light from the Ancient East. L : dz. "None open his mouth to Satan.""* in for By a natural passage of thought the tongue and the e. 336. found coupled with the above terms. " *" 6i. Antike I. A. 6oa. 285."" and the current Babylonian phrase. 2) and noa (Wohlstein. its use in the bowls is Kno^tc. Halevy and Wohlstein a delivery to 100 10 * " evil. iQa. MONTGOMERY ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. 4. in Thompson. 1 " pTO "words. "Bound and held be the mouth. the evil 10* lip. 70 (but rationalizing). Attic. 292. cit. i. op. the names of Hecate in the Greek Fluchtafeln. The difference between the Babylonian 1 mamit and these KHDI^ is that the former has rather the sense of taboo. "mysteries... An amulet of later age Deissmann. are for 10 binding this "unruly member.. of curses Bound be the tongue in its mouth... Der Aberglaube.. e. sycophancy. of hostile invocations. the evil tongue. g. used cit. a magician. Karaiea/toi. On the second of Wiinsch's Fluchtafeln is the design of an altar. 1M * collection of charms e." curse formulas. 50. op. including the informal imprecation. xxviii-ix. . cit." Further objects of exorcism are the rites of maleficent cults. mouth come exorcism. shaken . 373.. 101 367. op. magic. "* "* Comptes rendus.. with citations. and so too the hierodule or prostitute. 295) analyzes the evil tongue into the lie. held be its lips. viii. KnTOie 1 . 8b. ZA. (Reitzenstein. Ketub. cit. sacramental NmDSK (Stube. Then and the there are the "names. i. . . 85 as in the Mandaic 100 citation with the causes of ban. the latter of a malicious curse effected under foul auspices." .with Talmudic instances. 1 A unique word in 2426: 5). 1' in Wiinsch's Appendix of defixiones to the Corpus Inscript." the 1. : teeth and stopped the ears of curses and invocations. compared form IV of the Arabic verb and rendered it as But it is to be compared with the Targumic lOptfK. Jastrow. Wunsch. op. "the evil mouth. 307. v. g. 16: 8.." The binding of the tongue is a frequent element in the Greek magic some thirty of the naradta/toi ." The Talmud has the principle. and bound the tongue. Poimandres. Compare "the evil word" of the witch in Babylonian magic. w * Cf. the g. So rightly Stiibe the heathen priest was. and Blau.

282. Rel.. So Fossey." ii. "I deliver them. Cf. 210). p. while in the Talmud 'K "genius. translated "prince. 2426: 6. all are listed for exorcism. 37) first offered the explanation given Dieterich. n. Also the snaip^ (once NnaipnC'X ) have aroused question. . think the word must have some conknockings and with magic arts . Mand. 'Jnm A proof of this is a genius to be invoked was himself called an incantamentum. Its counter- part is found in the Mandaic system. in 1.. from sin and guilt (Knxt3n. and Wohlstein. Jer." the ^O"p. angel" '. "* hit. Lidzbarski. 5. 7. 299. to Lev. *ipE> Stiibe. etc. 299. "hyp. p.OI. the Mandaic genius "Great Mystery. Probably our noun is to be understood here. Noldeke. 170. 70). reading the nominal suffix 11 for the verbal fU 1 . 'i = KlB'p = 1D'K. demons : "The man they strike. More obscure are the NrnnD (Ellis 3: 10) = "hidden arts" with which may be possibly compared the turns? of Schwab R. 7. Also the usual terms. Mand. 29 f. 111 and it is the exact equivalent of the Greek the the (magic) rites. 94) rightly takes exception to such a form and translates." "' Wohlstein: "bose Schickungen" sadaru. where the retenfr. where parallel to X3in and I N'ip(l. of cit. 8: 28. (cf. cf the modern spiritualistic xii. appears to approve Hyvernat. animadverting upon Hyvernat holds that Now the parallelism in always means "charm. 112 N'JKO^B' are the T#. the women they . Lilith. where Hibel = Ziwa is the NBB-m SIBJ. 8. 36. angel. in a Babylonian text. But from nection rappings. Keils. Robertson Smith's note on the mystery idea involved have added the Hebrew O'D^B )." Wohlstein 2422 between KJWJ3 wan >1D>K.. BABYLONIAN SECTION. 6). n. f. Rel. p. etc. 349. Our word may be a translation of the Greek in rtterii. "write.. 1. i. But Noldeke's etymology is doubtless right. n ff +) wasting and mishap. b. 111 xxviii. Sem. Mand. aslama (he might "" Noldeke."' Schwab proposed ii IM : f\pB>. Probably the exorcism in the fragment published by Schwab. PSBA. in Targ. Abraxas." or it may be related to Assyrian sataru. but n. 49)." of the evil eye. its peculiar intensive form . connect with the root "to knock". Schr. and '3 'zi 3Sn. op. Gram.. Stiibe (p. immediately after "arts" and 110 Brandt. "countercharms. 136. 15 (see above. g.. the nD's. "envisager. 80." of a written charm.86 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. 1." which is unsatisfactory. n. KD'B'N). translating "and their adherents. i. found in the Mandaic amulet published by Lidzbarski in the Florilegium dedicated to de Vogue. (e.." Lidzbarski treating the same phrase (Bph. angel of nourishment). Pognon discusses an obscure phrase in his bowls JUKHD^BW '13'nB (B. used of a This meaning it is is corroborated by the amulet of Lidzbarski's just cited.-forsch. above. in sense of dedication. "the True Charm".. KID'K. (not understood by the editor cf. 1. = 1n. Wohlstein. 120.

a dreaded means of revenge. 2 adversary. the pain. m "' "* ** 160. 60 f.. 1443 ff. M Compare its the symbol in Zecharia's vision of the removal of wickedness and is curse to the land of Shinar (Zech. 106.J. in which the gods are constantly invoked to suppress the wrath and anger and power and might of the * A tablet to provoke such malice against an enemy is no. 81. which themselves came to be personified The most frequent of these objects of exorcism are the noin (sing. Thompson. cit. flaoiiaviat. the sickness. and very frequent in ancient magic. the offence (hablati). Heitmuller pertinently remarks :"* "Die Siinde ist ein Art our texts. KmDin). "' 117 Wessely. 1. Ib. Mand. tablets published 11 in Wiinsch's small collection. where the summary the is made of "the curse. etc. xiii. The malice (SWD = xnsOD") of Lidz. 77 ff. Gram. the sin (ami). m small carried singly. the ailment. amulets.. For their character as spirits. see Noldeke.. etc. but coming to possess at least in the Mandaic superstition *" Op. the misery. 5). so frequently in tablets 5 and 6 of the ^wr^M-series." irvci'ftara And so sins are listed in the Greek objects of exorcism."' Compare the Jewish charms from Mossoul and for the Greek world the Cypriote leaden 11 ' by Miss L. 116 e. primarily used as amulets. (the Paris Papyrus). See the editor's comment. opuot. PSBA. 1. But there doubtless a reminiscence here of the old Babylonian forms in which a sense of personal guilt appears in the incantations. ovcipoi. stones.. xd6via. MacDonald. is exercised against practices which magically placed "sin" on the shoulders of some innocent person. xxviii. etc. Cf. spirits. 87 "vows. the ban. or on strings and necklaces.. beads. . (hititi). xlii. g. 76. having this specific object. the charm in Wessely. transgression The above would be the only case then of a sense of sin in but from the point of view that the sin has been inspired by a demoniac force. 8. afiapritu." with which compare the 55*2 DjrB'K in his text 18. 4 is the enmity which magic could conjure up against an enemy. A. MONTGOMERY ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. g." misdeed (serti). (30: 4) is a summing up or personification of all this kind of evil Particularly dreaded were the material means of into evil sorcery. the e. 307. p. 5. Besessenheit. 108. 120 The K"3 b'D or pe3 ^n potency.. xxxvi.

33. v. manner.. 8. For the use of stones in Babylonian magic.").)." in like 2: 7 The Nnpjy pa'tf "neck- charms" are exorcised .. According to in Joel. ideas of the virtue of the circle." We might think of the manipulation . cit. 338. i. ii and to the use of wax.) The <no of 7: like and the *ni of Pognon B.88 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. = p. 9. evang. Their standing epithet e. Buxtorf and Levy. ZDMG. Cyranides ii. which are often composed of stones of the shape of a drop or an eye prophylactic against the evil eye? See for example. Semitic Magic. the Ai'tfof fidyvt/f irviuv. but he appears to have stood good repute with the orthodox. and Griinbaum. Thompson. 151 cf. "Amuletum" in Daremberg 21. a baneful influence. For Hellenistic references and bibliography. etc. 218 ff.. Ixiii. and Hp'jj (?) one reference to the magic circle of the doctors of sorcery. 47. ant. Dictionnaire des antiquites grec. also ttnpJN... The 'B'T of 7: 13 (q. Praep. v. the prescription of parvum asini freni anulum in digito portandum. (q. v. an opal to bring another joints of ill-luck but probably the objects are more obscene. Mely and Ruelle. .. vertebra ed. see Blau. op. see Abt. Jastrow. op. Talmudische Archaologie. v. for instance. 83. ** For the Babylonian the famous rainmaker in the Talmud. v. Apuleius. 203 ff. x^toi isrn. fig. et rom. because . cit. 2 BABYLONIAN SECTION." . see Abt." Ellis 3: n. b. tstn = may be explained circles. ii. xvi. The Evil Bye. c. and "bowl. 33. There 126 is and so the magic knots.*). 115. are among the evil influences . The magic bowls themselves perhaps Ellis 34: 10. op. ZA. op. no. 3:8. Choni. '** Once. 24. 15. and Saglio. of his use of this device. For the use of stones and bones as prophylactics against the evil eye. op. see Seligmann." may be the hairs of the victim as used " The museums of antiquities possess many such necklace charms. 263. see the 3d tablet of the Labartuseries and Myhrman's note thereon. q. dead men's bones.* also the m (15: 6. Taanith cit-. 1885. The mystical properties of stones in Egyptian lore is well known. Paris. /. understand these charms as . quoted by Tambornino. 'p3N. Les origines d'alchimie. Choni was an Essene. in their dictionaries. the illustrations to the art.. . 25 121 For these articles see Krauss. cit. Blau. De daemonismo. and they were associated with the metals and planets see Berthelot. 6. and n. entered between the "arts" in magic. is also used of the joints of the the sappu of the ass as prescribed in the Labartu texts. would belong to the same class. cit. as though misunderstood. El worthy. Paris. xxxi. 115. Cf. masculinized. 1898. of. 27. In Syriac iBW 6. trrp. 2* is "impious. (7: 13. i.) it . etc. Les lapidaires grecs. g. the baitulia described as ). NS'3 "pebble. Eusebius. was called ^JlJ?Dn the circle-drawer. and . s. see above. With this cf. pearls or corals.i$oi l/j^v^oi by Philo of Byblos. both in 39: 7 (q. WViTt lace 'n and we read of their "tongue. but is prob- ably to be read NDia. i. 121. 91. . 141 ff. ne<p 7: 13. Der base Blick. 12. i.

p.J. is The longest pertinent passage in the Nippur texts 30 : 3 f ." e. women. 12 ' looks thinks right is the heart. ancient demonology survives but The it is reinforced by the hypostatizations and fancy of the later mind. 152. 20: 15). Nature's 89 To that very malignant potency. Zauberwesen. virgins . but which ancient thought regarded as actuated by demons. ailment and shame and spirit eye m For Talmudic m A Palestinian "* notions.. sometimes at the service of the 1 free and philosophic imagination. Wellhausen also notes the connection of the evil eye and envy in early Arabian thought. Griinbaum is doubtless right in holding among Jews the evil eye was of a different char- acter from the western Jettatura. see Blau. It is a question how far we have in this phenomenon the survival of ancient animism which evil. Cf. A. " M1 Reste arab. 281: "from the of his father. 41. men. 143. : "the eye of into man or woman. 128 meant one who 58: 9 and possibly that Code Hammurabi. cf. B. also Aft. mother. (3) We come now to those objects of exorcism which to modern science and "common sense" appear as natural physical or psychical maladies. the amulet published by the writer in JAOS." ZDMG. it Or from its idea of "beckoning" be connected with the malicious "putting forth of the finger. peopled the universe with spirits good and siccle and how far in the fin de magic of these bowls we have the result of a (poetical?) personification of evil which comes to be taken as real by the superstitious mind." In the Old Testament the Word. and so and moralized. the Evil Eye endowment not the sole of sorcery in the later there is comparatively little it reference in the bowls. (cf. 74. Held. i. the eye that word KtKDl Pognon. xxxi. 260 f. hatred. g.. may Is. to the moral the evil eye is rationalized powers of envy. MONTGOMERY ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. 1911. even to the extent that the malady in question was personified as an evil spirit.. Joel. the issue of the Platonic Ideas into the Gnostic Aeons. . referring rather. although is magic of East and West 121 often the chief." By the the eye of contumely. if object of exorcism. as also in the Old Testa- ment forth . and demons. the 123. Aberglaube. working someand personifications of the play times in the field of a worse superstition. casts the evil eye..

shame. Greek text. sevenfold gift of the Spirit in Is.) '** Mand. Wheels and the Beasts that accompany God's 2 theophany came under the same treatment of mystical personification. 22) becomes end an evil spirit antagonistic origin. called taiftfota (Kara)M\ia. is The old exorcisms . Probably the more intelligent man regarded this as a it rational substitution for the elder demonology. while he may be Probably too as the exorcist ("medicine man") was also the physician. and medicine was born out of magic rites. already catalogued." etc. B. the assignment of the several . ified. not only Gnosticism worked out this line of thought but also the Church took this : heavenly hierarchy seriously. the name of a certain 61. demons. which the Protestant Spenser dramatized in his perfect For various psychological reasons there was an increasing multipoetry. loss of property. Rev. Hence in our lists of exorcised ills we have in addition to the actual devils. Beitr._ Strife. Ahhazu becomes z. dominions. BABYLONIAN SECTION. the vices of the tongue are cf. n. the g: 4. or the thirty-six elements (oroixeia") are hypostatized into moral essences. and social evils such as enemies. issues in the Spirits about the throne of God. etc. powers. series of evils which are somewhat on the borderland of diabolology. plication of the evils against specific which exorcism might be practiced . 1 " and in the same manner the Church personified the Seven Deadly Sins. ix. rational spirit. Hermas. 2: 3 2 : 7. xii. Battle. 3: 24). the evil spirit of Yahwe Seven (i Ki. 1 " JM So the "thrones.90 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. ass. * JQR. At of the hypostatization of natural all ills events in the later magic we find more is how seriously it is to be taken not always certain. i : 2." of Paul (Col. principalities. we may observe in the naming of the actual maladies an intrusion of the skeptical as to the existence of Tiu. like might be exorcised. fever (a "yellow" fever). even to its his Sword (Am. still are effective but the old demonology not ample enough a man wants to exorcise headache.-bab. and their commonplace names are simply given. are personin the Spirit of Yahwe. 4. And seven demons brought to book by Solomon give their names as "Deception." It is a similar phenomenon that we find in the Testament of Solomon the so the Chariot and the . but diseases under other names. Kiichler. cf. Medezin.. N. v. while to the superstitious merely meant more demons. So in . whereas the old Babylonian magic would name the demoniac germ of the malady. ii. 34. 24. i 16) . not only Tiu the Babylonian fiend of headache. 2: 2. Gen. Kenntniss d.

gall- bladder. The New Testament our era." aodeveiaf 13: n. see Reitzenthe Rabbinic HiD'.." the like identification of diseases with full Mt. curses. 5894. 10. the Trpb^ title of a charm given by irpbf cuftaro^tv^a^ Ttpbf dai[tova<. et al. asakku.Mk. find there devils of 17. series is introduced by a list of ills broken affection of liver. 583. A. Kveiifia 12: 22. Cases cited by Budge. 206 xlii. Poimandres.w. the text is etc. vaaav v6aov Kal by Gollancz"' we samples of Syriac charms published have the same summarization of "all manners of diseases" So in the along with the demons. be "all demons.J. n.. "' Actes du uieme Congres des Orientalistes. g. devils. it an interesting predecessor of our inscripfirst. Bab. ff. head. 1 A long and interesting example physical " presented by Jastrow. 112. Devils. viii. " and the Greek magical papyri are \VeSSely. . etc. 1. discussed above. xvi." examples. certain Then follow the evil eye. 79: Exorcised. stein. etc - " "' = An Hebrew angel 1J?J. cruel dreams. and then named demons. every practice. Myhrman ZA. case he rebuked the wind.. etc. dumbness and deafness and blindness (Mt. i. etc. Thompson. unclean spirits. we gain here "a further insight Rel. "" As Jastrow says. namtaru.). Simon's mother-in-law was seized with a great e^frifaiacv fever and Jesus rebuked the fever. Cf. "* "* 140 See at length Conybeare. u. JQR. 91 In the Babylonian ing of find cases in the magical texts of the summariz- specific maladies is along with the demons. The limbs. calumny. QavTaofiara. demons. clean spirits to cast r irvpeT<f> even as in another And Jesus gave his disciples power "over un- them out and heal every disease and every malady. 17. Section 77. gives a first-hand insight into the popular demon- ology of a representative portion of the oriental world at the beginning of We . Other into the connection between the medical calling and that of the exorcist. mitfof . contortions. to the different parts of the body. 146. heart. Egyptian Magic.In the Egyptian magic there 1 is demons. appears in Byzantine charms. 19. 145. throat. . dark etc.'" (pvfaKTfjptov of it. tions except that rationalistic places the maladies Is this the consequence of a tendency? In the texts published by Kiichler we find semi- magical prescriptions for diseases alone. It is of fever.. p. Ass. ayye/lof. etc. e. all temptations. phantoms. MONTGOMERY we ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. one woman had 136 "a spirit of infirmity. 39. 9: Z. \. 367 ff. etc.

snnp. pestilences. e. Cf. )j df/'/. in Wobbermin. fever-panic. Of in It is a minority of the bowl inscriptions which refer to special diseases.. g. . lists of diseases appear in 49 Wohlstein 2422.. . when a child troubles all mother with pains of sicknesses. "" op. "' The NDKDn. F. fj fifj'&fi^ (sic) d^otol'fievov.. to the jealous Lilith. here. Dieterich. 125. so also a clause Lidzbarski 5 . apparently mostly cutaneous affections. 1 : irdvTa fl ra dudptfaTa !/ Kvel'/jara. II. terror apparitions . 24. Untersuchungen. Die 147 Hellenistic personifications of disease. Cf.. 7T//3oi>Xoj' I awavrq/ia fidvarov. 308. also see Reitzenstein.^. all. So in Schwab explained by Pradel as of a demon's G. 13. are of this character. 89: 33. dread.nip. e.. r/ . 86 f. Tvty'Abv. 65 f. see Tambornino. xvii. Km no. anxiety. in Texte u." etc. . right after "arts" and before B"3 ayvx tortures inflicted by magical operations. = . i. 1. 332. and surprise. tertian fever. . xlii. . Poimandres. Siid-ital. The NriB1p' E> l treated above may = paifta/ia. revenges ./ <j>pin>/. N. Wessely. g. 25. p&Tfiafjia Cf. . For a survey of the 62 ff . rpyJB 16: 10... 17. fear " and trembling. Stiicke. M> 144 This in earlier magic would have been ascribed Anecdota graeco-bysantina. De ant.92 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. "sufferings. if dpaev.v. 2. all its kinds of fever. Kfvno. our texts Nos. 1 BABYLONIAN SECTION. Fears are a frequent object of exorcism in the Greek magic./ !i>M~Anv. f/ f/ <j>ap[iaKeia. 1. p. 64. Altchristliche liturg. ij fj Kuyov. a psalm and a verse which the Jews regarded as a valuable phylactery. i/ irvperof. Wendland. 148 21. and cf. pains and all wounds and all oppositions. voatpbv. surprises.. febrile excessive weeping. Mand. the prayer of the Bishop Serapion directed against vaaa nti. and collation of the subject by Tambornino. insanity hellenistisch-romische Kultur. ix. 96. 1 r/ ftaaKavia. etc. Febris.. 29."" be included 5. ^ ?/ Kovqpbv. the nine sicknesses. 58. Schw. 196. occurrence..t/viaKur. f/ Qofteptafibf. Abraxas. travail tumors. use of verb =. M: may refer to "' See Frankel's criticism of readings. . NB31B>.*" etc. i/ oe/."' also the SDDH. 39: 4. ZA. [lofxpvi'ftevov. 91 : D'B> (t3lB>?) 34: 10. inflammations.. see also Dieterich.* 141 and at the end of Schwab G. etc. iraaa fiaarit. ills. daemonismo. 19. b. plague" especially epidemic disease. 34. Gebete. and Ps. And Vassiliev has published a number of Byzantine charms directed especially " the first of which is a general panacea <VJ/"f" ty"? against specific diseases. Mania. KJMJ and n.. Abraxas. Ps.. ""JOB. cit. . 16.. // voat/fidruv (sic) The most common of the demoniac categories bearing upon physical : maladies are those with the general significance of "stroke.

op. a form of our word. cit. No. 517 f. e. p." It may be the eye-disease known to the Jews as "water. treatments that have since appeared are Krauss. fever). 93 We find listed a large lso general names of diseases." Rabb. >M The Talmudic formula against blindness. Many terms IM in the bowls are not to be found in the Jewish literature. 13-15. may be consulted with profit. Kn'E'K." see Preuss (cited in next note). 6: (cf. with bibliography. A long of fevers presented in the first of Gollancz's Syriac charms. 305. 2. 1 (with extensive bibliography). for demons of diseases. '3'3. snisan. 413 art. . 309) eft. see Glossary C. cc. Kiichler. as the sacrificial jugular vein which he supposes was used as a maleficent charm. Biblisch-talmudische Medezin. ^3n. malarial xonj? ("swelling"?). I2b. dysentery. Sttibe reads it '3 Til. in it = Til Jastrow in his Lexicon gives both leucoma of the eye (again the same confusion of 1 and 1 1 the is word SIIT discussed above). MONTGOMERY -ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. probably fevers. see Preuss. Preuss. a series in 24: 2: HJ1S.. Wohlstein. cit. is so^y. it "boser Fluss" . D'HUD . bright" the Assyrian) 1M . DiD-in. xne"x and KriSinc? scnC'N (neo-Syriac. viii. "Medicine. rmsn. is may be the spirits of cancer. "' A disease asu in Assyrian. f.. disease T1. eye. or from the dazzling sensation suffered by those affected with certain optical diseases.. The Jews. and explains as "water from which a demon has drunk. ri.J. interpreting by a desperate solution. n: v. G we read of np'N (= Wohlstein. the sense of blindness in connection with this root arose from the fact that the sun produces blindness (eye-diseases are most common in the Orient). and closely related to is "blindness. iosb. xmyE. In Schwab rrnn. p. and in 1.." noteworthy 104. "Yarod" disease. notices also the eye- riri. The root parallel to 113 "be clear. 19: n. 151 "' and iv. Til In the Berlin bowl 2416 Wohlstein reads a certain affection as Nntra. and as IIT. number of cutaneous diseases: XJVTN. " The correct spelling is Til 18. translating it. Frankel (ib. sonn. Talmudisclie Arch'dologie. ("con- sumption. 191 of the medical Fishberg. <o np\ 151 "fevers"). 2 Ki. g. 13 palsy of hand and 1 foot. . "C'p 'Jmn. Shabriri. 1911. i. 29 : 7 we have a characteristic magical prescription for a woman who is exorcised from the various categories of devils and charms 150 For these and the following terms. is formed from this root. Ab. N31J. Z. A. 310.~) possibly "fever/' " The demons tumor of the list referred to in 34: 10 (q. 197. For this He briri. dropsy or urinary affection? Hull. op. while J. nsntr) "t"a (?). 2422: 20. etc. 308." Gen. For the diseases in the Bible and Talmud see Jewish Encyc. 15. 131.

12. "the genius of poverty. In these the spirits have but the ancient magical practices remain effective.. "pollutions" (fluxes?). and Lidz." i. 281. Thompson. and the t6fl'J . Cf. Dieterich. So poverty NniraD'D. 1911. fled. literally "the spirit (= breath?) of stench and asthma. the constant personification in Greek magic of E. 4: snps Nmpx where "distress" in and "sickness" are epexegetical to "invocations.njnr in 7: n are troubles involving shame. foul or labored breath symptomatic of diseases (see ad loc. charms of the Greek youths Another figures in in the papyri for health. xrtoao "^31." PSBA.}. Cf. 15?S1 1. practice in this field see the collection For modern magical of Jewish charms published by R.. 9) the ns nn epilepsy. 16 we find (1. of the 3 f. 1906-7. 'Ef\. takkaltd). e. C. "Folklore of Mossoul. . class of evils are those of a social nature. after the list of demons appear xmpj? and Kr6an which we should translate "barrenness" and "bereavement." found an exorcism against. We mark that the rationalization of maladies had not gone very far. with which compare the 1" good looks. and then from soa'a Nian XHJ31 a menstruation malady ( ?) then are mentioned which are evidently the causes of feminine irregularities. followed by 'DIB. probably In a badly arranged series in No. xnopi 'H = Which the original of these forms? "ugliness and distortion. .94 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. 3." understanding them as personified. Abraxas. all Again K3irn 34: 12 is kinds of losses: 15* XJ'T sODim ."* But in the parallel Mandaic text of Lidzbarski's (see to No. n) bereavement has become a is Lilith (*n*W Nnioxn. g. 12. etc. the decadent Babylonians were satisfied with the exorcism of devils and witchcraft and avoided the diagnosis of diseases. 197. . it is 34: but from two other passages we see that life the hostile witchcraft that would effect poverty in the victim's which is exorcised: piB'n '! mDK. In n: again a charm for a woman." 16: 10. the anna of my amulet published in JAOS. BABYLONIAN SECTION." In 34: 10 pnjnK might be rendered.

Bab. the word "angel" is not used in all cases in the usual Jewish sense (often = deity). And finally there are the invocations of evidently pagan origin in which deities are named. are invoked. seven gods of destiny. u. In the Babylonian exorcistic system the beneficent gods and spirits were arrayed and invoked against the demons and ills that affected human kind. It is not inevitable then that we must go to Persian dualism to discover the origin of the its desire that the one God Jewish angelology. 152 ff. although unfortunately most of their names are obscure or perverted by the text tradition. be exalted alone broke down before the specious and alluring argument that there must be more who are with us than those who are against us (2 Ki. 1." fifty great gods. Hymnen.. reliance placed upon bans and formulas with often no reference to Deity or other personal agencies of friendly character. mostly with names of outlandish formation. i 289. representing so are those in There which the well many distinct known names and name- formations of the Jewish angelology appear. 1.-bab. iv. 68 ff. may be divided into three classes. Then there are the genii of the Mandaic religion.is- PROPITIOUS ANGELS. iv. (95) . although. inscriptions in Those which such supernatural agencies apart from God are invoked origins. as remarked above. 12. 300 Annunaki of heaven and 600 of earth. ETC. 1 deities Jastrow gives a specimen of such an invocation of some twenty and discusses at length these various lists and their orders. given by Reisner. Further these different elements are confused and what appears like a good Jewish text at times admits a pagan deity into its celestial 1 1 From the Surpu-series. ' Sum. Absolute monotheism with 6: 16). DEITIES. Ass. In 2 another example. It is to be premised that in is many of our texts the religious element is very deficient. i. Rel.

g. Dictionnaire de I'angelologie. Royal Asiatic Soc. the occurrence of this name as Wohlstein. . Raphael (Nos. 1897 Mf moires of of Inscriptions and Belles-lettres. necessary precedence. called "angels" (No. As a rule the although other formations appear and quite un- Jewish potencies are brought in as angels. (1) We need not dwell long upon the Mandaic 4 genii. of the names are pativj?S"nj? terned after the Jewish angelic nomenclature. Myhrman. in -ai. Michael. v. 1898. Church hierarchy somewhat as the mediaeval came to canonize the Buddha.. JAOS. corresponding to the form occurring in the bowls. 34. i In Ellis the Mandaic genius Abatur is an evil spirit. Some e. Bell. Nos. Josephus. 8: 7. e. 'sorUJ. and in separate imprint. ct al.96 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. 7 Moses' or the Sefcr Rasfe!. vol. the bulk of which consists of of of angelic names. the ghostly spirits in ' Caster. A 5 number of the names are not found in the known Mandaic literature. or we a name D'Wictcp patterned after the obscure Mandaic principles Piriawis and Sindiriawis. g. and is classed among N. Raphael. Gabriel.. Abyater in an Ethiopic apocryphon. Nuriel. Journ. jud.). 28. Academy * The Essenes See Lueken. 1896. 38). (e. 93. B. g. 29. land of Jewish angelology and not within Our its texts stand on the border- orthodox development. but as often has Gabriel first. we find that in sometimes appears by Gabriel. The most common names are formed angels are Michael.. or Gabriel occurs without Michael (e. Michael does not have first Taking up first the known angels. in -el. g. e. Michael. especially 4. 2416). (in * Schwab. 2417: 6. Afriel. ii. ib. Hyv. see Glossary A. in general. (2) The angelology of the apparently Jewish texts and the angelic nomenclature are not as elaborate as we find the lists Sword in later Jewish literature. Series i. Raphael. (= isKBll). 20. j. I3th cent. See.' the He the place followed 14. Pognon has be added a given a survey of those occurring in his bowls. or g. 10. laid great stress on the names of angels. Gabriel. 4 order B. 'tnya. xxv. 7. Littmann. 5 p. * Composed by Eleazar of Worms. part 2)." The majority of our texts have no such names. BABYLONIAN SECTION. to which may few more from Lidzbarski's and have forms find my texts. Wohlstein 2422. is a form of Raphael.

Schr. identifying him with Hibel Ziwa (Norberg. B. presum- ably standing for the seven archangels. the latter. MONTGOMERY The latter ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS.. Other angels may pre- cede these or occur without them." the "healer" sug- gests that the frequent opening invocation. i. For Gabriel we may note that the Mandaeans gave him high honor. In 34: 7 he is called the "healer" ( SODX )." which not a regular Jewish form of address tion is to Deity. g. the dictum of Sefer Raziel is of the seven e. its title peculiar to Michael in Jewish lore. the later Jewish notions concerning Michael as almost Cf. first. varying vowels. Mand. and the end of No. at appears J in 5: 3.. ac^iovu x v X P'X 1"!^ vvaev. oosbtt and rrmon (so W. see notes to No. where the seven angels are named in one column. u Lueken. is O Lord of salvation (sniDK).. so the application of the epithet is uncertain. I5). -ic?n 12. we find Michael's full ( glory expressed "the mighty. The (Dan. while they appear to have ignored Michael. Armasa "the great lord" nat's text. 1 1. ^"Un 42!). 36 f Raguel. 33. Michael. in the list which in is occurrence at the beginning of the text names Gabriel . II. a form of charm in Wessely. the many mystical or magical names of the deities or "angels" in the Harranian philosophy. Aniel appears as the fourth in a tetrad (Wohlstein 2416). Dozy and de Goeje. Onom. . A. the kabbalistic forms in 24: 4 (of angels?) and the group of seven barbarous names in Schwab M. Dictionnaire. 65. In Wohlstein 2416 kabbalistic surnames are given to Gabriel and Michael. 21). Raphael "relievtitle N^HD ) and Gabriel the "servant of the Lord. Cf. Actes of 6th Congress of Orientalists. but without specific referof angels. may refer to Michael. xlii. genius of the law" 1 S3?D N12J Nrmisi er" ( triD'X). Dalai. See for early precedence ibid. For the epithet referred to. "likeness of Yah." once. 297. 7) that in necessary to pronounce the mystic names of the planets. In Hyver- which appears : to be comparatively late. 12 (quoted by Schwab. is price of love.). would read). the Great Prince. Brandt. . Gabriel." corresponding to fodf trfpof. ence.. Rafael. Aboda Z. in the introduction to Stube's text 10 Reference to the latter is made (= . Salal. great Saviour (N'OK) of love. 87 : M. order is of course that of their appearance in the Jewish literature (Old Testament and Tobit). the king. etc. Sarakael. Wohlstein 2416) where exor- e. permutations g. 3. 97 Nos. Michael." but the supposi- not reinforced by the position Michael takes in these texts. p. and parallel to them two rows of barbarous mystical names. N. etc. . in Enoch 20: Uriel. Malal.J. w 10. "In thy name. the first column containing divination it Cf.

"* 315 ff. the titles applied to Michael in Hyvernat's bowl). Michael the Angel. Hence he is described in terms like those given to is Michael. IS ff- " Cf. add Eisenmenger. Metatron" appears Jer. an angel. 36 ff. ii. Prince of kings. 304 ff -=nd the interesting critical discussion of this later (Gaonic) development of Judaism by Joel. Gabriel. . Nuriel. such a figure more sympathetic than the archangel the argument of the Epistle to the Hebrews!). the patron of Israel. a "second god" between Deity and man. ma xwbv who Aands before "the true God" in the pagan text of No. see Lueken. hence 15 Metatron is in origin call it. 15 For the extremes to which ideas this notion went. Uriel. op. Religion des Judentums. etc. 348. 37. ii. Michael remains an angel. 7. springing from a difis ferent religious concept. and his identity with these human beings may be described as an assimilation of them to Metatron or as his incarnation in them .} 1' "the great prince" discussed above in connection with Michael. in Uriel. Targum Michael. cit. may We Most of these names are plays on evident roots. the representative of deity. kabbalist. Bousset. see in cit. however we may produced by the necesis sity of a Demiurge. 56. Jophiel. an idea. cf. Metratron. the (cf. 396) a long list of appellatives: he Prince of the Presence. Jiidische Theologie. Yephephia.. name of Metatron.98 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. cf. par excellence. Eisenmenger quotes (p. 383 ff. while elsewhere (cf. Mehafkiel. ii. Prince of wisdom. Bousset. 34: 6: earlier as one of the (six) archangels. cit." It interesting to watch the somewhat unlike histories of the rival ideas.. BABYLONIAN SECTION. See Weber. a For references and literature on the planetary angels see Lueken. to Dt. " Both are associated Philo's mind. Prince of the Law. and so he replaces or absorbs Michael. Platonic. Sasgabiel "who are the seven angels that go and turn around Hafkiel.. the title (Eisenmenger. Hadriel. and for origins of the idea Lueken. Philonic. 19. Der Aberglaube. * heaven and earth and stars and zodiac and moon and sea. op. M op. Entdecktes Judentum. but Metatron becomes more and more a mystic being." cism is made in the 12 * 1 In this last series Metatron takes the place that should be given to Michael. . he is associated with the Enoch and Elija legends. He is really a rival figure to Michael. on the Uyof apxayyetof of Philo. ibid. 17 To the mystic. he is called the Prince of the world. 17 For later legends see Eisenmenger. he is is both divine and human.

see 2. 25.. . A. where gods. or Christian atuvat wherein the exorcist shows bad orthodoxy. Hermes. Thus a welding together of the esoteric Jewish Metatron and the equally mystical Hermes of aware what KDD1S meant. K. the word. 3). n. 1227. we come upon an interesting NDD1S. angels and formulas are mixed up just as unintelligently as in the incantations from Nippur. 3. Rafael. See above Ibid. As for the literature. it Abbahu. *" cit. is identified with Metatron. the name of" was taken for.. whether a surro- gate for a divine name. more identification. 19. 144. In their " So Michael was identified with Hermes. category of angels or intermediate beings. 1. a pagan deity. impossible Abraxas. of. There we find The same phenomenon now an exorcism in the Holy Spirit name nvev/ia. 1. xxxvi. 99 suppose that on the periphery of Judaism as well as in its esoteric circles the idea of Metatron would be especially acceptable to those who were not weaned from polytheism.. MONTGOMERY ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. 28. g. the 20 names or words were put So in 7 8 the invocation : in name Michael. was the essen- thing. 19) and in 25 : 4 f. an intermediate being. in. especially the Hermes the of the mystic Egypto-Grecian theosophy (see to No. It gave them one Hellenism.J. of Abraham. ence to Hermes-figures bearing Michael's name). only so far as the tial The expression "in name was concerned . 78 (with refer- For some of the angel names in the papyri. Asiel. so other Hermes was dragged of Gabriel. Lueken. and reference for them may be made of angelology. op. whether as Jew aw &eov aa/3aa& deov or again an incantation in the name of &eov am'paiJi &eov fux arl^ deov yaftpirfk i?eo pafyarfk i?fo o/Jpamzf. 75. T. Agrabis. seriously the name. Glossary A lists the angelic names minor angels most of them can be found in other Jewish to Schwab's dictionary in the bowls... 17: 4).. Just as in the is Whether our magicians were know not and I doubt it. n 22 Wessely. cit. 22 ?. we have here (No. Comparing Nos. 3. Vienna Denkschriften. Jesus Christ (xpn^of") and (ij>f sic) . to decide And so with many terms in these invocations is what we are dealing with (e. Lueken. 31 Isaac. He 1' is Word. I more mystical name and combination. is the Greek Hermes. which appears in No. etc. 71. not the prosaic object it stood appears in the magical papyri. Jacob. 144. or perhaps a sorcerer's name.

in the "with 70 exalted priests. of Marduk sage magician. (verbal) element the formation they follow the general rule of making the express the object desired in the incantation. to the and again Abraxas. my spell is the spell of Ea. and reference is 60 gods and 80 of Salvation. the presI ence of Jewish catchwords tion to a not a sufficient criterion. etc. incantation the incantation Pognon B. (3) It is difficult to say is how many of the bowls are Jewish. p. 28..100 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. the angels invoked are Rahmiel. 133. can identify some Greek divinities Zeus. in which the exorcist declares he has been empowered by certain deities: "The lord Sames (sun) has charged me. sorcerer-priest that Thus from the Utnkku-series "The clear the ordinances of Eridu am I . and fem. No. the change of the beneficent into an evil spirit in Ellis i. first Thus in love-charms Nos. 93." Other names have a very : non-Semitic sound. peculiar interest No. 13 and 28. Of such the last one cited. where along with the angel Rahmiel appear the mighty (passionate?) Dlibat (a Semitic Venus) and [blank] No. my cf. deities. the messenger . 103. Bel has commanded me. : of Marduk am a I. Also we find angelic names. etc. would call atten- nature is few of the Nippur bowls which are definitely pagan. Nannai has said to me [blank]. the exerciser of Eridu. and we Okeanos. 7). 17." is 1. Sina (moon) has sent me. . herald am I. in the (perhaps a priest. Habbiel and Hanniniel. Akzariel." who appears as a demon (Abugdana) Mandaic bowls. n. 4: 2 (p. 19 has the longest list of invocations of apparently heathen gods. Devils. (JvblTS. 36. Protogenos (see the commentary).. we makes find the expression of like assumption by the : exorcists in the Babylonian magic. Mandaic genius Abatur " Lidz. Yet the opening invocation is "in thy name Lord who Of also the "true God. BABYLONIAN SECTION. 3a*M) Bagdana. most M cunning in magic am I" again "The man of Ea am I. Thompson. Hermes appears probably two words (masc..) representing the Gnostic Aeons . eldest son of Ea. and Nirig (Nergal) has given me ) power." goddesses. I. Only a few of them can be certainly identified. there. X1D13 professes to have Apart from the striking parallels of the prophetic commissions Old Testament." In quite antique received wise the sorcerer oracles.

A. Cf. these forms doubtless were cherished long in the Harranian religion. 158. 11. . "I go on Marduk's com: mand. MONTGOMERY Cf. ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS." 2" also the Maklu-series shall I commissioned me." 21 In our text we have doubtless one of the latest survivals of priestly exorcism in the old forms coming down from the asipu priests of Babylonia. JS Ibid.. end. 26 Tablet ii. 23.J. whom "The god and goddess have send?. also 9." and. 52. 101 of Marduk.

Halevy. from the second formed to the fourth or fifth. to place the But most of the students would be inclined siderably later. by comparison of the scripts. to different centuries early in this era.' contents.. 5. (102) . Keilschriftforsch. Rev. in general a And I chronology obtained from epigraphy is most dubious . Levy. between the fifth bowls con- and ninth centuries. may refer to the current opposing arguments over the Siloam inscription and the Gezer calendar tablet. AGE OF THE BOWLS Very diverse views by students. HISTORICAL CONCLUSIONS 14. Levy and Halevy thought. unnecessary to consider the hypothesis of their preChwolson as an epigraphical expert submitted the texts he was acquainted with to a careful examination and believed he could assign them. f. 292. from the impression made by the itive proofs. but detect Arabisms. ix. d'ass. 474. which only their certain provenance compels us to ascribe to the Omride age. or note the remarkably fluent. Comptes rendus. It 1 as to the antiquity of the bowls have been offered is Christian origin." assigned his Louvre bowls to the fourth or fifth century. ZDMG. almost cursive script of the potsherds from Samaria. 295..* 1 ' See above.IV. and quest. basing his opinion on the forms of the Persian names. although rather by conjecture. than through posfallaciously. no certainty from epigraphy can be obtained. ii. Zeits. in which antique forms of writing have survived. et d'arch. that they could were inclined to date the texts after the Arabic con- Noldeke would place Hyvernat's bowl not earlier than the eighth Schwab century. Especially in the case of rude popular texts. "vers le pieme * 4 siecle. 136. But epigraphical evidence is in the case of a script like that of the square character fallacious. specifying more exactly." ii. 1877.

Some bowls may be considerably than others. A. been destroyed. This building had they lay above the stratum of the Parthian temple. for instance. speak more exactly of the archaeological conditions. Fortunately more certainty as to a unity of time can be had for the texts from Nippur. The lowest To . one or a few texts threw any light upon the chronology. may have extended over a later series of centuries. in which. While written in three different dialects and as appearance of the same persons and families that they all many age. Mandaic elements. a lower stratum only Parthian coins. And so our texts. repeated possibly by laymen long after the special school of sorcery had ceased to exist. Jews and Mandaeans. The provenance of the bowls from Nippur was described in i . and upon the Tell settled small Semitic communities. in the "Jewish" houses discovered by Peters an upper stratum contained Cufic coins of the seventh century. Magical forms are peculiarly persistent we may think of the uncertainty as to the age of the Greek magical texts. a Christian theological phrase may not define the age of the magical formula. Jewish bowls being found also in the latter. Indeed we may suppose that these bodies. was covered with sand. drawn to the deserted place probably by motives of religious community life. take a datum from any one and so literary fix the chronology of the whole species. . g. nevertheless the in the three classes tends to show belonged to about the same We are not therefore to suppose a stratification of Judaic. MONTGOMERY ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. Syriac. copied and recopied as precious magical prescriptions. made a practical use and profit out of their religious prestige in the pre- paration of magical texts. scripts. noted levels These were found by expert scholars in situ at certain of the ruins. can only give a clue to that of the particular document.J. Hyvernat's with its reference to "Ispandas-Dewa the Jinn of Solomon. 103 It is evident that. representing so many . separated from the main currents of their larger societies. us to assign them to different ages There and if is every reason to place the Nippur bowls within rather a brief period. e. in the case of a large number of texts it is coming from impossible to different localities and in most cases not observed in situ. different ages or even distinct racial Nor do the variants within the texts of the square script compel these are but calligraphic variations." and Schwab's H and O composed of biblical verses. we could place the age of the whole collection. layers.

dastabira. because of the ease with which small coins down through soil." is now found in the Elephantine papyri. and has exercised its influence. for in the majority of cases facsimiles are not given. There are many words which can be illustrated only from the neo-Syriac dialects. the epigraphical As I have evidence is a weak reed on to lean on of for chronology. certain evidence from epigraphy is nil. . But these words may be old and only by chance have failed to make their appearance in literature. BABYLONIAN SECTION. But again case of survival. this script in have discussed 6 and there came style to the conclusion that it is an early type of the Edessene of alphabet. e. * * is not at Noldeke's argument that the element -duch for -ducht speaks for a late age all stringent for a Semitic dialect which would naturally abhor a termination in a double consonant. with a fair leeway back into the preceding century. say millennium. the Syriac texts have -ducht. does not appear it till later or is a hapax legomenon.104 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM.' the discussion I is The only new fact I can bring to bear this feature the novel Syriac script exhibited in seven of our bowls. the Rabbinic and Syriac. or from the compilations of the Syriac lexicographers. g. or they are poorly made. slip if it be modified at the all. is not proof of late age unless can be shown to be of late Persian formation. dialectical variations. dialect is fully formed. Thus the late The Syriac form NT35? "goat. at least in spelling. The "Jewish" Aramaic of just such as we find in the Talmud. a result corroborated this by its identity with the Manichaean alphabet. The majority of them Namenbuch. and this dating is to be pushed back. fact that a Persian word. who is a layman in this branch of science and who must upon toward the end of the the authority of Justi's first appear to be necessarily late. The Mandaic dialect. is The archaeological evidence then for the terminus ad quern of our texts the seventh century (probably its beginning). said. on the basis of the Cufic coins. and with evidently like few forms appear representing the "Palestinian" remains of which occur in the Babylonian literature. may be a There remains the the texts is philological testimony. the proper names compel rely mostly are Persian. a upon the other two. dating then is the seventh century. and do not.* It is impossible to make an epigraphical examination of all the bowls published. us to assume a late to one Nor do I find that any of date.

the elements of Sefer Razielour texts are contemporary and authentic documents of the late pre-Islamic period in Babylonian history. My that is. also probable Indian the names. recognized as one of "the peoples of a book").J. MONTGOMERY ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. ultimately drove away the Jewish and Mandaean south (they were I think. As for the two words NJ'J. when b.u) to include every possible of evil spirits (n. the latter to their recesses in the not. the former to the towns. there none of Arabic A pair of common nouns and use of & for the conjunction in two cases do give us etymological connections in that direction. and more particularly Jewish magical While the great mass of literature. the adoption of at and inas- much as the good Semitic word may long have been that the home on the Arabian frontiers of Babylonia. we may but speculate as to the age of the Sword of Moses. we may assume. and p't? (and I cannot grant that these loans must have taken possibly N)V^e>). magical. is known to us only in late documents. evidence which 105 There is one line of negative is the only clue to a terminus ad quern which of names. of the magic late de- of the elder bowls. but B in this usage is found in the Senjirli inscrip- and the Elephantine papyri and is a spelling ad aurem it is corrected in one of Schwab's texts. approximately 600 A. they are but the continuation. the Wisdom of the Chaldaeans. they afford us one result of comparative value. D. the ifffht list I can discover on this basis. the Seal of Solomon. which we should in 2. my conclusions from the data of the Nippur bowls are justified. settlers to other abodes. Jinn. and as scendants of the species. If I have noticed towards the end. expect. as ment of the Tell of Nippur may have been caused by the Arabic conquest. As for those texts from other quarters that appear to be later. . place tions after the Mohammedan name conquest. H'SHSO'ta ). sorcery was so eager &a/3<>. only as a terminus ad quern. A. Despite the variety of which includes two Syriac Christian names ( xnayo ( Nino m) is and a Greek name origin. The abandon- which. consequent conclusion is Nippur texts should be placed in a period not later than the sixth or the beginning of the seventh century.

into What are the historical connections of our texts. which throughout 1 Hence our rude and vulgar early texts are of philological importance as almost the dialects. while the majority are certainly eclectic in their theological tastes. 1 The subsequent discovery of similar supplies of texts Mandaic in composition and contents. in the following Cf. only ' contemporary documents of these The paragraphs analogies have been set forth in the preceding sections I can only speculate on the genealogical relations. Deissmann. and what light spiritistic do they cast upon the religious or thought of cosmopolitan Baby- lonia in the age of the Sassanian empire?' In the magic-wild age at the beginning of our era. as also the majority of those now known. and to the earlier strains which entered it. enlarge our vista concerning the diffusion of this special form of magic among the races and faiths of Babylonia.15- ORIGINS AND RELATIONS OF THE BOWL MAGIC "Jewish incantation bowls" to our species of magical texts. despite the severity of an ethical monotheism. as we know it for the first centuries of the Christian era. n. along with the Chaldaean and the Egyptian. Further. are in the script and dialectic forms of the speech of the Talmud. and withal appear preponderantly to bear the earmarks of Judaism. These observations require that we extend our study beyond the domain of Judaism to discover the relations of these bowl-texts to the general field of magic. notions of primitive The Jews had inherited the rites and magic from the Arabian Hebrews and from ancient Canaan . and now the presentation in this volume of a number of Syriac texts. the first is the title that has been generally applied written It arose in consequence of the fact that bowls interpreted. . 2. (106) . we find a number which are out and out pagan. over against texts of whose Judaism there may be no reasonable doubt. the Jewish magic was recognized as one of the three great schools of sorcery. 261. Light from the Ancient East.

' In which direction was the give and take. through and through Egyptian and Hellenistic. forms and anagrams of the Ineffable Name. A. we have stray glimpses of the persistence of ancient rites closely akin to magic. 47). quotations from the Scriptures. 70. entitled the Eighth Book of Moses. as the great mystagogue and magician. 28. viii. which still claimed the adherence of renegades (Eze. 65. which Dieterich has published at the end of his Abraxas. to be identified with Hermes-Thoth. Is. bibliography). and Montgomery. and yet the former may be right in claiming its phraseology as preponderantly Jewish. 3. d. ' 1 See notes to No. Blau and Deissmann have published a delicate erotic charm." Rev. and there how much Here appear various is Greek and how much Jewish we know not. and was regarded as the teacher of Orpheus. Gesch. Volkes. (with See H. 294). In the Book of Tobit are given magical remedies for the expulsion of foul demons with the concurrence of angels. But apart from the hoary forms of Mezuzoth and Tephillin and some mortuary charms. vii magic and a large bibliography. see iii. For a survey of Jewish 32. . JAOS. what were the connecting links? Dieterich would find in the Essenes and Therapeutae the bond between ' A. by whom do your sons cast them out?" inquires In Acts we read of well-established sorcerers who bewitched the Jesus. 107 its feature nevertheless survived.J. The New Testament 3 the possessed with a root indicated by the first .' our first literary specimens of Jewish or Judaizing magic are found in the Greek papyri of the Christian age. in u. 382.' who came. 19". "If people and even Gentiles in foreign parts. ' (ed. Josephus the tells of his sorcerer who could pull demon out of the nose of Solomon. 5. Abraxas. this While the Second Isaiah is deriding the Babylon and exposing their helplessness (c. a Simon Magus and Bar-Jesus - Elymas. historical references to Solomon and especially to Moses.' He is made the author of a Hermetic book. Jiid. 272. bibl. as a continuation of the Pentateuch.. Schiirer. composed in true Greek spirit. Vincent. 8. 2. gives extensive I and intimate picture of the magical conditions in Palestine through the finger of God cast out devils. 66). sorceries of growth had placed a unique ban upon the practice of sorcery. 1908. "Amulette judeo-arameenne. * ample See the analogies presented Dieterich. MONTGOMERY ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS.J.

the sections C. and the subsequent authoritative stitious fears literature some of the magical phrases.' the commentators to the occult practices described in Eze. * i37 ff. for the reason that we have no early magical documents of unimAnd if we possessed documents from the peachable Jewish origin. Palestinian life we do of the Hebrews. 2. mark the super- neighbors. 182.108 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. 26. learn something of the practices and beliefs in demons. the "holy word" in the Eighth Book times. if we may contrast successively Mishna. with one another. its sway more or less over all. if not its legality. see Blau. to who allowed and practised magic. the Talmud. know. 55. with caution. BABYLONIAN SECTION. According to Blau. pp. in which Dieterich. is fessed by the spiritual masters. of the Jews as well as of their their inscriptions are rude and unlovely. When we pass to the eastern home of the Diaspora its marvellous encyclopaedia. and are precursors of that sea of magical literature which has ' come down to us under Jewish auspices. I. and Eisenmenger's Bntdecktes Judenthum. p. they are autograph evidence of the superstitions which Talmud. the Babylonian Jews were far more addicted hymn of Moses. ad loc. D. cessors They yet are degenerate suc- of the elder incantations of the land. and its existence. . Das altjiid. 10 See Joel. the Gaonic period. came more and more to 10 We catch in the Talmud recognize and legitimatize the practice of magic. 54. 2) For the Talmudic teachers for this comparison. with none of the sombre dignity of the Babylonian incantations. reveal." but these bowls are of prime interest as giving us for the first time extensive texts of the eclectic Baby- lonian magic of the first Christian millennium. with malice.' particular contribution of But just wherein lay the peculiar type not Judaism to the world's magical faith. E (pt. magic than the Palestinians. how far even then could we decide what was specifically Hebrew and not Canaanitish or borrowed from the spheres of culture to the east and west? What different origins are assigned by 8. and Jewish and Hellenic magic. with glimpses we have that into the common magic holds con- life of the people as well as into the discussions of the schools. pt. See Kraetzschmar. Zauberwesen. Gemara. u Cf. 64." and each smile was an act of creation . /&. who. the noble Hermetic " 23. p. or of the often lyric beauty of the Greek magical literature . pp. "God smiled seven of creation.. 84." Our bowls and of the people of Babylonia. Der Aberglaube.

J. "the Lord of love and healing. indeed are devils and are treated as personal essences. Even the quotation of Scriptures and references to sacred legend have their ancient myths as further parallels in the Babylonian incantations. one chief god. in others the evil all charm reversed upon the head of the sorcerer." large quantities by the most distinguished My notes to the texts and the Introduction show how apparently numerous are the connections between the object of our study and the magic of Babylonia. Bab. other gods or their angelic equivalents are invoked in large accumulation ( 13). 296 ff.. Ass. and they are forthwith assumed to be "bound. and his Religious See p. and our evident primary to discover the relationships of the bowls with the ancient last Babylonian magic. A. In fact our spells far outdo the Babylonian repetition of the . line of The order of investigation is the day to Babylonize. i. Beliefs in Bab. 109 And withal they give a sample of the medley and fusion of peoples and religions in the land which the Jews had long is since called Confusion. he follows definite and repeti( tious formulas. ch." as in older days when simulacra sacramentally sealed the operation. Rites and words and the instruments of magic. Diseases and all human ills are inspired by devils." just as the Babylonian called on Ea or Marduk. the literature of which in the published in decades has been Assyriologists." still method of defixion is quite congruous with the ancient magical operations. which are personified. are as much the object of detestation as in the Makluseries. While there is only one instance of the specific bowl praxis in its that earlier literature. MONTGOMERY ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. and Ass. In the Mandaic texts the terror of the witches is appears. Jastrow. xvi. seven classes of evil spirits. 43- . or at least primarily. the sorcerer appears as the ( commissioner of Deity or of the gods 9) . so in our magic these are specified in long detailed ( 12)." and "tied. the spell of the mighty god. but enough has See for the literature. as in the elder incantations. The magician's ban. Pel. the registration of the devils. Most striking in the correspondences is . which used the ( potent charms n). As of yore. is laid upon them all.. as in Babylonian magic. 14 " u. similar to the Babylonian siptu n). It is unnecessary to proceed with the summary of general correspondences. but. black arts and maladies to be exorcised as in lists the Babylonian. He invokes most frequently.

" but these have their Semitic words. give allowance for the interfusion of factors geographically most Of the old Babylonian names of demons. are open to criticism. This fact compels us to recognize the possibility of eclectic as well as of immediate Babylonian influence exist upon the Jewish magic. mind that to bear in we are dealing with parallel workings of the human spirit operating in a universal and amazingly uniform field.110 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. 13: 17 11 f.. originally The utnkki biblical pre- KnE3 pnn ."" The study of magic is still in its beginand students are too prone to find a genetic relation when we have nings. The Z. as observed in the preceding sections. liefern in Weise ebenfalls den Beweis fur nachhaltige Einstromen babylonischer damonologischer Vorstellungen in das Judentum. surveying the material from a different point of view : "Die Verbindung mit altbabylonischen Aberglauben diirfte also ziemlich lose sein. " The Knots' may be Babylonian. 2. Keilschriftforsch. been noticed to dispose our minds to the dictum of Zimmern: 15 "Diese (the incantation bowls) im Ausdruck oft iiberraschend an die alten babylonischen Beschworungen erinnernden den mit jiidischen Beschworungstexte. even In the first if not intended by the writer. disappeared 15 the inversion of the bowl. particularly for the age when Hellenistic culture was dominant. bei denen unter Namen ihrer angefiihrten bosen Damonen auch Lilith haufig erscheint. while at the same time. in the accretions. secondly. fields. in limnuti are the cedent. There remains a large degree of substantial reason opinion earlier expressed by Noldeke. but these. the sedu and Lilith Babylonian. see to 8: . 463. place. between the changes in the center of omissions.'"" Yet the implications that may be drawn from this judgment. by the Jews of Babylonian magical rites is portrayed in Eze. only two appear its in if our texts. ii. "evil spirits. ' actual adoption f. we must distant. still And then. 297. marked differences gravity. BABYLONIAN SECTION. similar correspondences with the Greek magic are to be noted in almost every instance. (with ancient times had pervaded the Semitic world. The Babylonian vocabulary has been suppressed by genuine The extensive praxis of the Babylonian has also almost . and KAT. male counterpart). some rudely scrawled designs.

Cf. XOI See p. Lord " of love" and two obscure. that is. the "confessional" in the second tablet of the 5r/>w-series. even spells. if The use of a deity can a word like Abraxas illustrates the extreme consequence. here their or the angels' names are simply used. are all that remain in our texts of the its The use of /mrdffor/iof the bowl in a love-charm has parallel only in the Hellenistic or defi. "Lord of healing. he needed to dress in sackcloth and wallow in ashes. with magic appears more mechanical. is which the elder rites prescribed. name of" can be used before At first sight this name- it actually proves to be more absurdly invokes a binding of the gods and heavenly powers by a cheap and easy formula without any of the "service" of the gods. There thus a change in the spirit of the magic. " 30 See Nos. probably traditional references to sin and guilt. and these are sufficient to invoke their potency. laymen borrow and lay the The mere "word" or "name" has replaced the practice." 20 We have in a word a purely magical system.vio. one whose efficacy con- sists in doing or rather saying certain things without a prayer or lustration or confession. so a word can become "in the numen nomen! The formula and phrases as well as before divine names. 1' Ill one or two magical prescriptions elder practice. because it litany and priest. The old Babylonian was that religious in his incantations it is only in the so-called religious medical texts we find the passage from the sphere to that of entirely mechanical operation. MONTGOMERY ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. and we often question whether we are dealing with magic or religion. apart from the stereotyped introductory formula. in the Babylonian magic the gods were prayed to for their assistance. 13.J. may issue either in empirical science or in The sense of sin lay heavy upon the Babylonian devotee. he no longer is professionally independent like the dsipu priest. without appeal to the heart or mind of a a deity letters living deity. which absolute magic. A. become a name. likewise buried in the earth. while the incantation required rites of purification and confession of sins in pathetic and ethical But any such religious element is entirely wanting in our texts. . litanies. 86. . 12. The sorcerer invokes the names of ancient masters (as in the Greek magic again). spiritual.

M See 12. He dared not make simulacra.112 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM." And so holy images words and names became the province of the Jewish sorcery. categorically explained. found its outlet in who might logology. 3. rite is must have incapacitated the Jew for the rites of the magician. roots. very scanty. Joshua . and again some factors that are not so We may think that the comparative absence of due to Jewish influence. in Rabbinism with its logomachies. and often all that we this have reminiscent of the Bible or of religion are the stereotyped Halleluias. when it passed out of the naturalistic or the ethical sphere. invocations of the attributes or activities of came to be but plays on deity. and a god unlike any of the pagans. the a the later In these particulars Jews may have contributed and in the to Mesopotamian magic. Along with unreligiousness of the magic goes a certain impression of impersonality throughout attention tiality. regarded itself as a potenis and the mechanical danger met by mechanical means. Perahia. Nippur collection b. which were imported as a kind of humanizing mythology into Jewish monotheism. with their manipulation of words and Even the angels. It may is which ( be further noticed that in the use of the Jewish Scriptures. . a frequent reference to the venerable Jewish master. so that finally angel was merely synonymous with charm. Amens and common there is property of the magic of the age. as also the large use of name-sorcery. in magic and kabbalism letters. 14. paid to the operation of witchcraft. find In these differentia is from the old Babylonian magic we much that apparently or evidently Jewish. 5). the passages of real religious import are not employed n). as well as bowls there to that of the Hellenistic world. and who in lieu of and many sanctuaries was revealed in his Names. This is especially true of the Nippur texts. D. who once had spoken (Dt. as a revealer of heaven's mysteries but as he appears also in the " Kabbalism appears as early as the present text of Ex. 112. many practices were out of question because of their But he had evidently heathen associations ("the ways of the Amorite"). magic The cultless condition of the Jews since A. a general lack of reference even to personal sorcerers . a holy book made up of sacred words. His religion. In our we is find Jewish families as the clients. 70 and the long previous term of six centuries in which the official cult was confined to one sanctuary. n. not be seen. is . BABYLONIAN SECTION.

identified in Babylonien. The Jewish magic here in Nippur. For the names of the numerous Jewish settlers there see Clay's Murashu texts and his summary in Light on the Old Testament. 1. among whose obscure names we can identify Zeus and Okeanos. Berlin. pagan forms. have discussed under No. at least so far as the bowls testify. discussed in the Introduction and the texts I may refer especially to the a For the river Chebar hard by Nippur. just and in at Talmudic times Sura. even while we recognize numerous texts are Jewish elements. Die Juden lob. 404. The religion and the self-consciousness of the intelligent orthodoxy in rejecting or at least minimizing magic as part of the Jewish system. is none else than the Hermes of lovesick No. see BE. is eclectic.J. as of the Jew cannot admit that it itself elsewhere. A. There are other clues of connection with the . Daiches. and the Hermetic theosophy. London). he may have already become a common of traditional figure like Moses 23 in the papyri. 113 Syriac bowls. Nippur had it been since the Exile a center of the Jews. ix. their science is as much cosmopolitan as native. the terms of which find their closest correspondence in Greek charms. " * See Funk. 28 is a magical philtre for a wife. 2 of the Jews' College. Mandaic. Yoma with the biblical Calneh . interesting to observe that the Mandaic truer to the theology of the sect than many of the so-called Jewish bowls. 153 (with no reference to Nippur). MONTGOMERY ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. 3 the frequent references to the genius Armasa. among whom This the identical magic flourished under Jewish. ii. was eclectic. Greek magic. a mixed folk. approves itself when we study our specimens of magic I . Jewish the settlement which the Pennsylvania expedition unearthed on the top of its ruins was. No. and perhaps the names of the Aeon-pair. interchange of magical property precludes us from specifically speaking of many texts as certainly It is Jewish. 25 seat of importance. the Kabar of tablets found by the Pennsylvania Expedition. plate 84. The Jews in Babylonia in the Time of Ezra and Nehemiah according to Babylonian Inscriptions (Publication no. is who identified with Metatron and called the Word. and It is mentioned but once in the Talmud. 2. 19 names a number of deities. 1902. also S. lay east the famous 2 Rabbinic school between which and Pumbaditha to the north of Babylon the spiritual life of Babylonian * But Nippur does not appear to have remained a Judaism circulated. I pass now to another clue for the origins of the bowl-magic. S. which are probably of pagan origin.

212." hardly The Jewish development in independent of Egypt.114 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM." our thought to the great western world and the imposing magical fabric of Hellenism. Religion alt. Egyptian "mumbled a few unintelligible syllables" In matter of fact . and are speaking proofs of the eclectic and cosmopolitan character of Hellenistic magic. tradition it hailing from the Jewish and Babylonian theologies must be traced back to the Egyptian magical science. Wendland." This phenomenon " " See p. And further the accumu- lation of barbarous syllables. col. ZA. 268. 316 hardly a trace of technical Kabbalism is to be found in them. i. a people older than the worshippers of Yahwe. see Budge. Essai. the use is not to be dated by the Kabbala.. Deissmann. f. /. Adonai. thinks that here we have traces of the passage from the Talmud to the beginnings of the development of the Kabbala. who held that our magic was a product of the Babylonian academies). and like sacred titles. Zauberei im Agypten (1905). Budge.). see the excursus in Heitmuller. 32. of the Ancient Egyptians (1897). 55- recent rapid development of the study of magic and the increased application to the magical papyri have aroused in various quarters the question concerning the nature of the Jewish magic and its relations to that of the Hellenistic world.. I And this system directs us to Egypt. Wiedemann. Egyptian Religion (1907). vowel permutations. The This investigation appears to have been first broached in a critical way by Blau (pp. etc." 218. . day out of a month and a Such terms as Abraxas direct identical pharaseology in the choice of a certain year as auspicious for 27 working the charm. It existed on the periphery of Judaism long before it was taken up by the Jewish doctors. 115) denies any special relation of these texts to Talmudic ideas (against Lenormant. Erman. mixed pell-mell with those of Egyptian origin. v. Caster (in introduction to his Sword : of Moses). Egyptian Magic. remarking on the kabbalistic use of letters (p. has no behind it known . " For "Im Nam en " Jesu.. ch. we this regard was find in the Greek magical texts the fusion of the with all its two theosophies. But as of Egyptian origin or kinship. viii. 154. 37 ff. the influence of Egypt in the Hellenistic magic. the Jewish Ineffable Name. The Greek papyri are faithful repeaters of this Egyptian art. Conybeare (who considers the Testament of Solomon to be of Jewish origin). 96 ff. the Egyptians. Indeed Chwolson (CIH. Sebaoth. quoting Synesius's words: the also his Magie u. Heitmuller. And yet there was another people which equally cultivated the mystery of ineffable names. such as appear in our texts. Reitzenstein. BABYLONIAN SECTION. However this may be. Wohlstein was the first to observe the eclectic character of our magic. c. Our specimens of magic hail from the eastern confines of that world. In addition to the observations in II. followed by several writers whose works have been constantly cited in the above pages Dieterich. even from beyond its political borders. Stiibe. 54). cally have spoken of the permutations made on the Sacred Name as typiJewish.

and the product was useful to any body of magicians. Hellenistic Jewish development on Babylonian soil by the had grown into luxuriant life on the theosophic magic soil of Egypt and thence sent forth its waves of spiritual energy to all the homes of the dispersed race. and there again this form of magical spell falls in with the Jewish currents. and those who received their magical traditions adapted them to the changing fancies of age and clime.J. indirectly Egyptian. Christians. and Babylonian. every kind of sect. Our bowl sorcery is connected it doubtless by many lineal bonds with ancient Babylonia. Our texts exhibit a like eclecticism. even as it was in demand on the part of every class And of clients. Jews. and from which they received still more. his Scriptures and apocrypha and liturgy. Gnostic. Gnostic. The beginnings of this invasion of western sorcery into Mesopotamia may have begun with Alexander's armies. there can be little doubt but that pervasive Hellenism it soon domesticated It doubtless its magic. were storehouses of magical lore. A. Persians. All this was fused with like elements from parallel sources. wherever in its settled. of our texts is true of all the Jewish magical literature. each outbidding the other in the effort to attain the same ends and arriving at an indistinguishable limbo of monotonous sameness. for the spirit of magic produces like fruits spontaneously everywhere. his Divine Name. as everything else Greek. The texts were written for all who would use them. tion over the Greek magical papyri. mysterious formulas. 115 is continued and flourishes with abandonment in the Greek papyri. and the impression made upon me in my study is that they resemble much more. that It is difficult in was reinforced the field of magic to decide which is cause and which effect. Jewish. bits of sacred history. in various contributed a certain quality of monotheism and combinations. pagans. MONTGOMERY ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. all contributed each one his magical names. but shows as unmistakable links with the Hellenistic magic. Christian. Greek. Mandaic. elements are there. This Egypto-Hellenistic magic is one of the prime sources of our texts. Hellenistic. what is true . this form of magic than that of ancient Babylonia. The problem of these texts is the same that confronts us in speculaWho wrote these ? Egyptian. The Jew by made it palatable his angelology. to which the Jews contributed. Jew.

471 f. are closest in spirit to the old Babylonian magical literature. Had the Zoroastrian influence spent itself and. and 3'iB. is impossible to decide . in point of literary tradition. all follow common In the case of the Mandaic replica to No. n. ZDMG. illustrative of a special The bowls then as of the eclectic are not so religious much Jewish magic . p. those in the Syriac appear to be expressive of the current paganism (e. The Oriental Religions in Roman Paganism. the former has the secondary text. ix.116 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. etc. did the more virile currents of the original stock and of the West reassert themselves and triumph in Iran's territory? Or has the influence of Persia been overrated? As classes. . " N. are now antiquated by the Babylonian literature. It is stition. of the three it "Jewish. The Mandaic charms No. 36). BABYLONIAN SECTION. types. Bousset. This is the more remarkable as it belongs to Persian soil and flourished under the Sassanian empire. while the dualism. that I am surprised to find hardly a trace even in a word" of the Zoroastrian system upon our bowl-magic. not Judaism we have been studying but a phase of fin de siecle super- In recent years so much has been made 80 of Persian origins for western religion. to the comparative age. philosophy. divorced from content of real Mesopotamia here the religion. The arguments for Persian influences advanced by Levy.. conditions of its later ancient magic. Whatever be the y religion. in our special and confined field we may observe the break-down of the ancient noble religions. 37-39. See Cumont. or innate rivals. possibly the Persian Peri. holy writings formulas. Die Ursprunge der Gnosis. or the one the parent of the other. g." Syriac. rites esoteric and selfish and malignant. whether they are twin sisters. and magic. esp. after it had given itself to the world. The fashion of interminable lists of demons may come from Persia. Mandaic. demonology and magical practice of Persia would have been so natural a nursing mother to the superstition we have been studying. * 266 f. nn. the Ispandas-dewa in Hyvernat's text. B. came to be rein- forced by new currents of superstition from the West. gods have be- relation of magic and come names. .

'i innnsi snais Exterior n3Ji> . na 1 (CBS 8693) ma[K pi]ni> KDIDK (5) (3) jini> m3 'irvrn [imn]^ na (2) matn rump pn (4) Jnn!>i [ma]K pnr6 niD Trm p[] rm pa^ Krvi"Sn nyop ptn (8) n^o XBD ru [injDJnn *nn!n po KDD (6) Tninm m n^3B> 11 KOD '3ai> m iiuenn n>1B nni>i imatJ' ^3 msx pnni> (7) PDD tnu 'I i j Kn^'5>i (9) n't? '3BB'1-nK3 oi'3i p5>3HO M rn B "> pn^n parent [aijB'a mii> (10) KPM JO '1 linnm NHinj (11) 5> J^K PB'JB'BI E> pnaaoi pojaoi pa!>vi poon . and also (4) salvation. an against this the that 5. haunt I the house of all (7) this Ephra b. ) Phrases in translator. namely Ephra b. and Bahmanduch (117) (8) adjure you. TRANSLATIONS. represent the diacritical marks of the No.TEXTS. wherein salvation shall be (3) for this Ephra for b. 5. in the Syriac texts. indicate suppletion of lacunae. Points on the line indicate missing letters or words. . poon ^ poa NBTK 'jni 1 POTBI noicl' PTD' pirnm pl'm '33 jisnnsi (12) 'B0i>l (14) Q1D3 KDB'31 H^'i'n p33B> Kt^J'S D^VI '"133 niBna (13) B>3 n'oen K33na (15) Njnjs '3^n'sn Ditf^n nB"3 sn'!"!" '3'!>j? n^nna 1^3 i'X nyi ni'iy max TO' TRANSLATION This the amulet of Ephra (2) bar Saborduch. Selah. Amen. ( Numerals in radius where the Brackets. ( in the translation represent amplification or interpretation by the- Inferior points attached to Hebrew characters indicate doubtful readings. points. Superior original. for this Bahmanduch bath for this Sama. 5. that there be this is them (5) b. and for This Bahmanduch amulet (6) Amen. S. NOTES CBS = Catalogue of Babylonian Section University of Pennsylvania. Liliths b. . [ ]. ) number the lines of the spiral inscription. starting from the text begins.

Iranisches Namenbuch. . p. woe. woe. (i) hypocoristic from nnax.and The name may be Jewish or Persian. "and withal. a unique adverbial development of the preposition. art. XOD in No. Bib. duch for ducht. bound to my ban. 147. 4. simul ac. iruona: : see Justi. "Names. For the general magical and the following texts to the Introduction. Abraxas. and where you stand. Dieterich. see above. 13. have I written against thee. mas: in No. woe. for the prothetic vowel. . both forms in the Rabbinic. COMMENTARY A the phylactery in the name of a man and wife which haunt the home. And name shall save thee. '1 = TTTI. name of the mother by no means determines the race of the . We (15) have written. 'inn 3. . evil Lilith. With his the formula. Warsaw. -. blessing of children. the likeness of women lie (13) and to who appear to mankind.. (12) and where you stand (sic) fearful and affrighted are ye. or fyoi xai t e. The Persian family. from the (10) fast-flying. 13 written with both n. oppressing with your foul wounds . Maskileison. 1883. . 6. A frequent Jewish name. and with mankind they by night and by day. No.. . is begotten by and Liliths to the children of light who go their astray: Demons Woe. 296 f.' r= "Sapor's-daughter" not instanced in Justi .118 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. cf ibid. ii. TITOS. see Justi. n. see Heilpren. 104. who rebel blast and transgress against the proscription of Lord. or (2) a hypocoristic reduction from one of the numerous names in Fra-. The two forms are hypocoristic. 2. 6. . . 13 also 'NDD. 374 also in Pognon B. whatsoever name be thine. destroying. D'jn unless a scribal error. ed. in for protection against liliths and their broods The same couple are the subjects of the charm in which the woman invokes the love of her husband and the details I refer in this 1. p. who do violence and trample and scourge and mutilate like ( 1 1 ) and break and confuse and hobble and dissolve (the body) water. nnnn VID (Seder ha-Doroth). see Noldeke. . TWM (14) g'S GS GSK.. woe.. to men in women in the likeness of men. 4." Enc." = f. BABYLONIAN SECTION. 101 ff. : 1. g. forever and ever. Ephra. which species of Liliths in respect to (9') your posterity.

The etc. but the 10. 119 50 f. 371 ff. "Sons of light": X113 is primarily fire and the term would indicate the angels. . The full name was N'DD.). Brandt. MONTGOMERY ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. Lidzbarski. also KnN'W ppls. "blind. ii. The predicates follow- ing recall the myth rna of Gen. ff. Hauptprobleme d. mp translated: "Your head be balder. cf. ii. 8. 1. the results of Ranke. but masc. Zohar.. the Arabic). 6. and other Eisenmenger. the charm would obviate the demoniac procreation described. rm / xm : . 13 ff. cited by Payne-Smith." flesh. Cf. Jewish and Syriac. is In 16: 7 the demons are "sons of darkness.). Pesah. The redeemed come to share in the light-nature of the angels.J. liliths are the only in 1. 38-39. Thesaurus syriacus. Rel. pn^rra: cf.. cf. A.. 13. and also to men predestined to life. Maud.. cf. Early Babylonian Personal Names. Gnosis. [Di]E'3 if a correct restoration.. 202. as in Syriac. prriB Kp'T jn '1: is only the sewa. (For the early form and history of these terminations. in fire under God's throne. ' pn'io.. your crumbs [with which you conjure the anecdote . etc. Dan. expressive of the legend that the angels emanate like sparks (cf. cf. 19. in the pronominal suffix expressed with the intrusion of 'btO31 ^"13 ^. interesting cf. But as the reference to demoniac unions with human It is the expression appears to be transferred to mankind.. Job 5 : 7) from the dinur. f|En '33 . generally '3'Tna ma cf. "the hosts of fire in the sphere. the viol <t>uT6f Enoch of the NT. 9. Schr. the Assouan papyri of Sayce and Cowley. man was pose that originally a being of light (Bousset." name given in the Mandaic religion to the Uthras. : (F. Pcsah. 6. 7 ff. 372 S113 Hence we must supand has been reduced from is sirtu "light" (cf. named objects of exorcism. 12: 3. the expression to be correspondingly rendered. i loa-b ttmn spmob Np't xma ^"Ji^n -im'N. are found 10 ff. Mand. 143. It occurs as a feminine name Catalogue. for the Kabbala.. 9). 7 ff." 8: 13. Karppe. Hag. probably by technical phraseology. Ephemeris ii. In the myth of Adam Kadmon. wvW : pi. Brandt. 30. nib : "TVT\ "ma 'n : "those which haunt caper- berries are spirits. An parallel : to a well-known '3"rnp Talmudic formula against witches." occurring in (as here) in Asseman's col. 2655. the stream of reff. a then parallel to "sons of light.

pTD' (cf. With. a dittograph induced by the scribe turning over the ' bowl to write on the exterior and repeating the word. in general cf. . 27. Ps. your 1 of Abaye in Hull. For mp in the Talmudic passage. "that have no name. Joel." are not mentioned. KDJVN3 jt3D n*b "DTK . "be blown away with a gust. Gebete. a Hebrew reminiscence. 8ia. 15. The connection of this Talmudic passage with Eze. spices fly off. 20: 2 f. 14: 6: demons whose names indefinite invocation are mentioned and who The same in the Babylonian. lo^b." presenting a blanket formula for names //? not 22. '3^. found in the Targums. 69] be blown away. The combination in the middle of the line is obscure. 1 bx. 61. cf. BABYLONIAN SECTION. B." with reduplication of the verb. e. of the in description the worst and most obscene of the plagues the same phrase Pogn. is Kiddus. : metaplastic form of root IDS. Zauberwesen. following the Talmudic tradition our phrase would mean "your breadcrumbs away with the gust!" By itself the words could simply mean. u. Cf. O'by: the form (see is many names is of a lilith it and the phrase refers to the u. D1D3: in Ellis i: 8 EDO appears in conjunction with the Tetra- grammaton. known. the same accumulations in Lidzbarski's Mandaic bowls. 9: 14 ff. Griech. 42). 6aiu6vwv KOI OVO/M^/UVOV t Pradel. is difficult to determine whether the singular or plural cf. the action of the demon E> of epilepsy in Mk. away i. For "lilith of whatsoever name. see to 18 : 9. The meaning is stay banned where you are : ! 12. Ps. ff. The climax . Heb. no. 13. 77. n. 12 and No.120 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. has not been observed by the commentators. ' i> 153) spirits Utukki-s&nes (Thompson Evil Spirits of Babylonia. etc. Eze. For the see above p.17- frpiJK'O : 1131021 pa'nra . 14. singular. 2. 13: 17 See Blau. The in the first form represents the sewa. g. sudital. the wind carry the fresh saffron. noiD). 1. POTO : cf. for the relaxing effects of disease cf. a verbal middle noun from oen? The participles 01 pbano portray the fiendish assaults of the demons." I doubt if so much sense can be made out of the doggerel. Der Aberglaube.tcrp^ meant. p3 7. 22: 15.

my figure of pure fire. my head of iron. in my own will fell right I Abuna bar Geribta or against Ibba bar Zawithai (6) bring the curse and the proscription and the ban which down upon you upon Mount Hermon and upon the monster Leviathan and upon Sodom and upon Gomorrha. whereinsoever you sin against the house of Pabak and against his property and all the people of his house... Dabya and the Word. In order to subdue Devils (7) do I come. Again. I Abuna b. I will you sin against Abuna b. (2} I am clad with 'the garment of Armasa (Hermes).No. 2 (CBS 2945) isp-ip S^PET KVVJ incip3 ^en '!n3 <srvBi3 nn pass rux [N'at] (2) :!>m ain ea KJ^TVI K^QOI NUT KDOIKT Ktpui' K:B"3i>i (3) tain nnip sbnan K'OB> moK nne pa!) 'aa-i^yai '"3 ijoa pna n<jBi rpinx njnxi na winxa rv2 pn^nn mai Kjsti"K 'Kirn la sa'K3i Nmnj DVTD ni (4) in n'33 njusn nu 3in pai> pn'tsn inonnn DJTPD CST KJ'jn jn'v!>i NSB^KI KDH DVTD HJD^S snn^ ui (5) pa!) KJn^j xnt^p ^ noam rrnrvx:n nn xa'sa is xnanj 13 nji3 !>yi HJX nn'3 rprm ^j'K !>33i NIID PCTH !>j/ rurvxT xnmnsi srnnai xnotr pa rux KJ^TK (7) n^a pna piano nani jmo m^o po'p xnapu xmno^ai nansu TRANSLATION Again I come. I Pabak bar Kufithai. I have come and I have I smitten (3) Fiends at all and the malignant Adversaries. and against his wife and bend the bow against you (5) and stretch the bow-string at you. and my strength is in him who created heaven and the evil if earth. in my own might. and all evil Sacra(121) . on my person polished armor of iron. (I say) that if at all his sons. G. have said to them that Ibba bar Zawithai. G. you sin against Abuna bar Geribta and spell (4) of the against I will lay a spell upon you. the Sea and the spell of the monster Leviathan.

Tallquist. Tt generally connects the several members of an incantation series. .u. Hebrew pupa. Semitic is a potent Magic means against devils. X'Ol I supply from the parallel inscription. 26: 3. which letters are repeated to make the following word. Arabic Babek. : KVVJ = KDX'VJ. An almost exact replica of the terms of the charm A in is found in the first part of No. 8: . see Pauly- Wissowa. It is parallel in For the hypocoristic termination meaning and form to rPpnpa. . 5. Josephus' exorcist used an iron ring. Thompson. is 27. Neh. Real-Encyc. Greek 7ra/*/?or. BABYLONIAN SECTION. BE. i. in such magic. 50. other metals. L. 3. in the Testament of Solomon is an anecdote of a devil afraid of iron (JQR. each invoking his powers in turn the other's behalf. Hilprecht and Clay. in Index. in No. xi. 2. Xofcfof. 39 = "wine-pitcher. 68. and "white earth. "a shining spark. COMMENTARY mutual charm of two sorcerers. The two men named appear cf. like the Thompson. "and" introducing the mortuary charm published by 273. 27 : 4 ." I understand this word in nba the parallel the sense of "polished armor. Cf. cf. p. I have come and smitten the Demons and Devils and evil Tormentors. and excelling them." gypsum. the subject of exorcism. Blau. for other examples in Semitic magic. 'N see to 4. the 1911. marks the gradual In Babylonia obscuration of magical formulas. Syriac KJVBia is a water-flask with a small mouth. ix." etc. After it appear traces of bl. The name occurs 'tWVBia: in late Babylonian. a fault in the bowl required the rewriting of the characters. 241 . cf. For xro i : the character of the name." join noip = snm 'noip . . in 17. For the western world.122 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. Comparing the Rabbinic pa. 25 ff. "polish. where Pabak's household 1. It me in JAOS. 3in: apparently a formal term of introduction. Fire is the potent element against witches their arts. see Iron. and demons.. the Gods (Idol-spirits) and female Goddesses standing in serried rows and encamped in camps. may be correlative to 3in in 1. ments and the tongue of impious Charm-spirits. pass: the Persian Papak. II 27:3. Justi. p. as the ancient means for destroying the fire-god Gibil was the chief god of exorcism p. 18) in Index." and yrtli. 159.

NDO1K . Solomon. But this Hermetic theology was not mediated to the Orient through 13). Patrol. and Reitzenstein has now trenchantly pointed Reitzenstein.' and the Metatron. See now Dozy and de Goeje. in 25: 8. 43 . Thrice Holy Hernias. 1906. The forms give the clue. A. 9. TOV vapa &eov ayyefatubv teyavaiv (Apol.. D'Din also occurs in Syriac. .. but through the Hermetic schools. D'DTit. cit. I. S. g. the divine inating study agent of human illumination in a word the is Logos of the Egyptian e. Apologie des Apuleius. * In his Die Ssabier und der Ssabismus. 123 swob: his powers.. vi. Harran. K^DOI N'3T KDCns. MONTGOMERY -ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. 1904). &eoi>. religion. gr. one of the Syriac spellings for the Greek 'EPHK. Judaism. Abt. that mysterious intermediate agency between God and his creation in Jewish Gnosticism (cf.. 57-). The 'Ep/iifc Uytof or Uyiov : op. also to G. London and Benares. with the rest of this phrase) in the spelling in 19: 7. the messenger of the gods. 1. David. 4 pB^D in n : 7 D'DtK. is found in the parallel bowl No. He the word x^oo (= xWo. Mead. and see above. D'mx e. 118. and in 7: is D'DTK = Myhrman. This figure was also adopted in the syncretistic mysticism of is the farther East. This mystical function of Hermes-Thot Justin 'Eppijv evidenced. which appear to have held out. NDD1X is then the extensive mystical cults and literature the Hermes about whom gathered towards the beginning of the Christian era to which is given the epithet Hermetic. while the invisible is magical which renders the common property of folklore. Summary reference may be made here to Reitzenstein's illum- Poimandres (Leipzig. 1. Aaron. in that obstinate center of paganism. 19: 7). etc. as the expressions cited from our bowls show. 4. by a passage in Martyr Uyov : f< yeyevfia-&ai CK i?foi "Aeyopev A6yov KOIVOV TOVTO lara vfjlv roif TOV . in to be recalled the magical garment of Marduk robe in the fourth of the Seven wearer Tablets of Creation.J. 22 Migne. into the twelfth century. i. 1856. Chwolson has Greek 1 collected the evidence for the survival in that region of the 2 religious philosophies. The Greek Hermes. Peshitto to Acts 14: 12. the garment of a potent being carried with it Compare the assertion by the magician in the charm noteci to which he professes to be clad with the magical paraphernalia of There is also Moses. g. 27 (along NDD[ns]. was identified with the Egyptian Thot. R.

The form is shortened from Abba. cf. Nouveaux documents pour * Actes of the 6th International Congress of Orientalists. R. The K^oo Stiibe's text. p. 16. and a passage in the Mandaic Ginza throws light upon the expression. i. . "clad with the clothing of Armasa" . Joel. where Hermes and Enoch are identified "by Greek books" also a reference in Reitzenstein. KmnJ: "scabby". I'etude de la religion des Harraniens. p. (cf. 5. Ps." and. Aberglaube." Compare 3. in the II. bearing the name of Idris . 89. I 5. see Brandt. in the Ginza 4 we have a tradition that the angels invested Nebo with a dress of fire. Ephemeris. 144: 12? NJB'B'K: the verb is found in the Aramaic only in the Syriac. so the probable reading of cf . to a Hermetic MS. 4:4). cf. * 19. Enoch. and the Palmyrene K3nJ." an ancient mystical expression for the Logos.124 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. Ginza. biblical 'D nno 100. ii. 45. lira w. 3. 54. n. reminiscent of the aop. Bar-Hebraeus. thus: rw mt6o suggest that nun (sol) means "who-is-in-Yah. Jarba. ii. Kirsch. of our text is then a proper epithet of NDcnN. For this Enoch-theosophy see Joel. 281. 23: 38. Syrie centrale. BABYLONIAN SECTION.) the essential Hermetic quality of this last remnant of the old pagan philosophy. : 8." NJVU . "I am in the Father and the Father in me. also the Arabic Juraib." with Hermes was the equivalent of the Babylonian Nebo. and also in jntSD'O.. and the description of the Son as "in the bosom of his Father. . and note. for which see XJUK: a name of two Amoras. the biblical name here and below. and in the bowls occurs only here. Petermann. the hypocoristic from Xp3"i. and but rarely. 2 Sa. p. the biblical Enoch. see Lidzbarski. out (p. K'31 It occurs in the parallel text. Chron. i. "corner" . = ii. 172. Mandaische Schriften. The magic of the Euphrates valley has caught up it probably from Harran the figure of Hermes and easily identified the Jewish Metratron. ed. de Vogue. Gareb. 166 ff. daughters of Israel as Is there here a pious allusion to the polished corners (JWt) of the temple. ? What is meant by the preceding epithet 1. It is name Ribka = Aram. etc. also 7: 8. the Johannine ^pot rbv &e6v. no. 141 WS: "KlTir the same name in Seder ha-Doroth. ed. "stall.

is a frequent magical allusion in the papyri. Marduk's slaying of Tiamat Targums and Talmud (also The terms are reminiscent of i). The contrast . 207) . 'Jl a Mandaic and also Targumic idiom for Noldeke. in the same way as these are burnt. is 3in the other part of the mutual charm now 5 further expressed by 'TT3 "op my part. who dead . A very similar passage is to be found in one of himself invested. begins. also numerous.. p. : participial : form from 333 . 1908. Ex. A survival of this mystical aspect of creation appears in Job 38: 8-1 1. cf. 144. NnnrN. Tablets of Creation. the Manichaean texts discovered in Chinese Turkestan. cited. Eschatologie. the praise ii. 32: 41 (where Gressmann. mutilated. was the great act of "white magic" . Blau.J. 83. (Dieterich. Dt. MONTGOMERY the spell it ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. Deissmann. i with the clothing of Deity. his side" . The e. : Ps.. cited to in the 1. subjection of the abyss g. p. Marduk legend. 63. . 11 Ps. see Glossary. 258). 113. Light. 4. 125 01 NDH KSE"X: for on the sea and Leviathan was mightiest first in the.. parallels: Isr. 78. Seven and fragment . Jon. Abraxas." . at the in which the falls conjurer shoots with his bow and arrow demon. magical history. 401. a symbolical shooting at simulacra. incnnn the scribe began to write the perfect. cf . etc. Kne>p '3: '3 a form of -3 found in in the Palestinian charm . passed into the imperfect (which we should expect here) with the second letter and re- turned to the perfect termination. the Great Magical Papyrus of Paris.-jiid. Babylonian creation legend "Marduk : made ready bows cf. 'H133.. In general the scribes aimed at carefulness. v. which concludes: "And He said: thus far shalt thou come and no farther. rvnJVK: for the various forms. 104: 6 ff. X33'J . Job 38: 8 ff. A. 140. The sealing of Tehom : is referred to in Targ. v. is A word so corrected sometimes deleted with a line. peeled off. s. 28: 30. the Peal is unique. BBBT3). Mand. 3062 ff. Sitzungsberichte of the Berlin Academy. m33: Gram. so here with arms the magician declares But the phraseology may be based on magical practice. would read nae>N for his magical As in 1. biblical Hob. 3: 9. he amended his mistake by rewriting the word. 5 22. The bow and the quiver he hung at of Marduk's bow in the fifth tablet (King. 1. . and here shall thy proud waves be stayed" cf Jcr. 7: 12-14..

in its WSO 6. Gram. Rel. the Talmud. the interpre: 5 whose name it is anathema. but I find the reference. parallel to 'D nTD. 10: 7. perhaps of mythological origin. where among several meanings found in this sense (cf. b. Brandt. Praep. cited by Rabbinowicz to Mcgilla lob h& 1TB10 JV3. because they had sworn and bound themselves by . V myth of the confederation of the Din) see Enoch 6: 5 f. is probably the correct form. ' Hilary to Ps. : the mount Hermon. assembled on this very high mountain. etc. ' So on Jastrow's do not authority. so that some of them are called Kassion and Libanos and Antilibanos and Brathu. Dictionary of the Targurnim. |1DTn by: a fallen angels reminiscence of the upon Hermon also 14 (n. the anointing of Nebo by the evil gods in the Mandaic mythology. 1476. 24. Philo of Byblus also connects the Titans with : the Lebanons and other mountains of Syria size "These begat sons of greatest and superiority. text in C.. Eusebius..' The variant in 27: 11. eccles. The allusion to the serried battalions of the demons ' WK is epical. 566. .. hist. HBIO nam. 132 : 3. "they named . see Corpus script. Mand. when they descended from heaven." 1B1 is very rare in Hebrew and it Aramaic. the angels after daughters of men.. latin. Miiller." knowledge of the tation of And Hilary of Poitiers adds something to our myth "Hermon is a mountain in Phoenicia. i. Mand. 689. 7. IX: this name was omitted N proper place and is now inserted. : curses upon it" 7 ff. Fragm. Ev. but is frequent in Assyrian.'" Cf.126 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. in "IBID HB1: "camping camps. Moreover that it is the tradition lusting from the whose book comes I know not. 126 f. xxii. NDDiriN: for the prosthetic see Noldeke. where 'O = Hebrew nrat?. iii. the biblical place-name : D'TBl). grace. whose names were given to the mountains which they occupied. IBID occurs in a MS. pno nTD: is construct of accumulation. BABYLONIAN SECTION.

the great Saviour of love. O Lord of salvations. (127) .De>a XB"a JDDI Kea Kin rpjpn pnnnM mn nripanin na MTIK (2) pnnn nwan ntoa niio <yiaB>Ki nn<Ki n^nn'K miD snaa (3) iDpn Knaa pai max poysv n>Kna IOIK IDIK K'Wai Koon pn^'K pmaK po n'nn'K nnK ni^o int'min na MTIK pin rv hop^n n'l sh n^ pn^ja n 1 IJIBPTI K^I (5) n^ya 'ITIK K!>I m^o 'lana na nnx KBD^a K^'b K!> nhyi>i (6) oys ion ntntnt IDE' tap: ion pn KQV po pn5> pm pai p. na MTIK nnp po] nnos oitrai ICK K'B'oia pn5> [n*r]D i"nnn xan pnni pn> n<tn paii pja nnp poi (10) iiana na a[n KDE' Kin pnn] yi>ann:i po pa 'monp pa nnK (12) noNJtj' pn pni> pny swa Kin.No. pni> popo IDPD Knn'p' Kne"K pa n^nav nai> nav i"nn (11) n^n' yaB> nai nora 5"nn snia ixbon pia'i pnyi i>im' an KDty pnn oitra Knt^n *IN en?Dia pnni n^Kn pan pja ba onp poi nana na nin^ n-nn'K nt Kl>n] D5>E>in'3 n^man ia mrr nyr \oon ia nyr itaon i>K mni nox 11 ! [IDK IBK B'K'a !>xio nin TRANSLATION In thy name. n'onp poi 'manp pn ybn'm pny n'nn^K nnK anp pai n. Kan Kotr [Kin pnn] nu WIBTI IK Kn^a pnnn. 3 Knanni> Kine> (CBS 2963) Konm KPI KID'S pnn JBTO 'ami nan K'DN KnxiDK no n. Designated is this spell and mystery and strong the evil Satan.mK nnK DIEQ JDK Km^P' Knt!"K PD pnna n^nsi' nav inoK pp PDPD JDPD sj'E'Dia im not? n'O' yoB* (9) nai n'j^a I"m Kmo IK^DI. seal for the sealing of the household of this (2) Ardoi bar Hormizduch. that from him depart and remove the evil may Demon and who is called SP'SK.n5> n^T pa nan tan ysDysoyD non ion non yryryti n'nfiV nSl 11 rr VP 1DK PD JVPD 'n' yaa' nai PD PD pDpD Km'P KHtJ"K pD (7) IHDK pp n^ro ^[']m Knia isten an KDB* Kin inn [ai [p']Tjn bim^ nnroiin 13 mK pirn iTaxip ^a JDI Tiienp po y^an^Di pny I'D pmi jvpo tin!> n^xn pnnja !>a (8) pm pn^a Mais na nT.n[t'Dnin.

The the consists in magical syllables constituting "this great is name" and formula repeated four times. from this day and forever. H.] and from Ahath his wife b.. Amen. it is said: "And YHWH who Amen.). (6) TMR. when afraid (9) he hears frightened he flees and is swallowed up before and before this household. those they have and those they from Ardoi (10) and from sons have. etc. P'SP'SP'. TMR. Moreover now he shall in this great flee name b. YWPTYH. and is YWPT. TMR. Satan: YHWH rebuke thee. H. [This the great name] before which the angel of death frightened he flees afraid.]" COMMENTARY A charm charm for a man and his family against a murderous spirit. HSR. In the name of Z'Z'Z'. walking. SYN. [This is] SKSN. YWPT. bath P. (4) I adjure thee that thou do not kill off this Ardoi b. from Ardoi her husband. the angel of death is is afraid. daughters. is YWPT. KIC. a the Mighty Destroyer. SKYWN. it Amen. shall all he fear and their sons and (just so) [and from] Ahath his all their and from and from (8) shall have. HSR. TMR. omo. NKT. neither by night nor by day. 'STW. swallowed up before flee before this Ardoi wife. see p. P'S. In the name of 'STW. his name KS his name. chooses Jerusalem. great name before which it. and daughters. In name of KK. BABYLONIAN SECTION. H. from the burning fire. of which is [the angel of death. P.128 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. whether those they have or those they the PWTSS. According as Satan. YHWH rebuke thee. SKSYN. HSR. (7) and it when he hears frightened he flees and b. YWPTYH. [Is not this a brand plucked from the burning? Amen. HSR. 'STW. SYN. is . who their kills (3) man from the side of his wife and a their woman from father and the side of her husband. and that thou do not kill off Ahath bath Parkoi from mother. (5) and that thou do not kill off their sons and their daughters. and sons and daughters from by day and by night onto. 65. This is the . said to etc. etc. name before which it. shall is PWTSS. SKYWN SK. and when he hears (n) of this great name shall swallowed up so moreover now on the authority fear and flee and go forth the evil Demon (from Ardoi. the angel of death afraid and it the great from the burning fire. PWTSS. ZHZHZH. from Ahath his wife.. SKSYN. . whether those they have or those they shall have.

of the phylactery. i i. 1907. also the Phoenician xsio ^>j?3. KB. who became K3T X'DX is identified with Gula. "this and black magic. and Latin nym. Hermes. 323. being distinct from the numerous It is biblical epithets expressive of the love and power of God. I. 219. g.' This invocation doubtless pagan. Beitr'dge z. JAOS xxviii. xvii. I have not parallel discover the masculine epithet for Ninib. IXST nirv '3X. the common epithets for 1 ' ' 4 La magie ass. 78. He interprets it as en-usati. Ass. n. i. these bowls of the deity invoked. etc. the bowls coming from that locality. col. Cf. asitu gallatu. 1908. and is an epithet of the Deity in the N.J. PSBA. b. for which modern English offers no synogood old word "health" having been specialized.* And the 'exact equivalent of 1 found as an epithet of Gula. ' Radau (BE p. help. while Clay's explanation appears to me the more satisfactory. Delitzsch. Apollo. 41. 63. "lord of 135. T. 2: 29. Delitzsch. 2426: i. Ea is a-si-e. and Ex. "Great Healer. no. g. Schrader. I b. but Radau omits to explain the Aramaic rendering of i (or e) by V when the Aramaic has the root D. along with 'Dim xai WDK. Wohls. "10: construct = Syr. g. III R. for equivalence of with asu). xxix. Babylonian theological there we have. Fossey. 01 129 I. The word remedy against evil spirits concretely. 15: 26. C." our very title (cf. xnxiDN no: a frequent epithet in i. i. IWIJK (see Clay. iv. Asklepios. 369. MONTGOMERY ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. I Tim. 365. 204). never associated with the Jewish Divine Name. It is also used The epithets here used are interesting as being probably one of the in these inscriptions of the ancient few survivals terminology . I97a. ix) endeavors to find the same title for Ninib in his explanation of the Aramaic rendering of NIN-IB. R. and Montgomery. his title remenu. numerable appeals to the love and curative powers of the deities thus Marduk is god of love and life. : 379. e. and with the same root. 7: Cf... Zeus. Hwb. Z"r^> is a common epithet of the Greek gods. in the penitential and magical literature in. CIS. ibid. This reference have not been able to verify. SOD. Mighty Mistress". German Heil. the implies a The theme nox is equivalent to "^u i n the New Testament salus.. e. the frequent invocation in Pognon's bowls : K'DXDT N"DN DiOK. The interpretation would be very agreeable to = AZU me in view of the above remarks. Thompson. Ninib was domiciled at Nippur and these epithets of his consort in and so have survived been able to is may have been particularly Nippurian. N'DX HXJX xnKD'EJ. pt. . Also n. '". 1 e. and of Bau.. A. the consort of Ninib: azugallatu beltu rabitu.

' God (V nrn) has in the O. with variants in -di and i. 3. The "charm. -oi.-hist.. For the etc. !T. Pael. g. in Sitzungsberichte. and Koran. Beitrage. Handbuch. seal. 115. K13J max is : abbdda gabbdrd. 10. 3. Hebrew trnpn. 28: 28. see the forms Jimr. and merciful character of God. Jer. text. sudital. i KmXDJOi xnwisri xnDsnxn. p. it formula in these bowls (with KD2. the religious connotation of the parallel root ly. Ex. 6 for the forma- tion cf. or rip Justi. Class. 14: 6. 150. the Mandaic forms and formula cited by Lidzbarski. Lidzbarski.). but as np. = j?P.or art-. Mand. 2 Sa. there iarpof iln>x" v Ifor/pav." e. identity of name and seal. B. 58. 01 joto: a standing introductory etc. and : refer to the Great Name of the incantation. "7m Namen Jesu. cf. Cf. 2. The epithet rrne>on. Nnwnx. = p^l: for the vocalization of the conjunction cf. Satan. Heb.. Destroyer. in the the love of texts.130 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. from nnr (found in Jinp." are identical. by as though the original Jrnt'on ixbon. not an abstract. occurs in Myhrman's irvOTin: a frequent Persian name see np. of the Vienna Academy. see his note. 12: 23. E.io:6. n. from the jnr or yyt. Pradel collected in his Gcbete. 82 f. Grant. "sanctify. T. p. Notice that the a. abbdd not otherwise found Gram. The name it is formed from one of the numerous Persian names in ard. etc. also Griech. np. 387.. cf. u. Pognon. Eph. . Palmyrene f. 31: all "Demon. above with reversal of the alphabetic order of the first four letters to indicate the bouleversement of the demon? . the Samaritan N^ano. in these texts (see Noldeke. BABYLONIAN SECTION." 143. appears to be used in the sense in which the Peshitto has as the rendering of the 3. 24: noun of agent. phil. Hebrew and Greek was a 16..." pp. Persische Studien. TTIK: hypocoristicon in abundant. K^TI. i. Abaddcn represented in Rev. 349. etc.r. mystery. 42 a number of the he is epithets denoting the healing . PDJJBS : epithets of the one demon. 68. 1888. Josh. 96.). 121. 7: 13. p. 153.Kok'Kvwv. Noldeke. 12: Cf. sec Heitmiiller. Syr. ' Baethgen. 12: 10. Aramaic rw). For Nnonn as a pa"al formation see Noldeke.

Ahatsuna." i. Dieterich. hist. For u bwtT see Noldeke. xlii. p. jno. Berliner). Gram. 21. piVQ'K: the half-vowel after D f|^m. also similarly pointed in ii. 6: 4. ed. with future sense." cf . tremble and The Great Name." phil. as in Mandaic. (ed. and no. and similar names in the Glossary. see Berliner's note. "brother of his father. pm = hawen. 94 cf. 21 13. 1. (Tallquist. 7. no." a frequent name Talmud. The angel of death appears in Schw. 44 (with editor's notes). Wunsch. the two prepositional forms 'niDtnp and rvmp along side of each other. The conjunction is Targum Onkelos. of hell. in so 16: 13. nns: probably the first element in such a name as masonns. etc. 4. is a common thesis in the Greek magic Wessely. JOT. A. 55 ff : the name at which trembles the Gehenna of 4. 78. Justi. Onkelos. 140. the Sabbioneta : text of in Targum . 19: 20. ppl. 1. fire "Neue Class. 1. at which devils and all things created flee away. MONTGOMERY ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. etc. pi.. ad infra: the God of Israel whom the heavens bless and (the : oceans?) fear and every devil trembles. Berliner.' 65. 219. the Paris Magical Papyrus. Neubabylonisches Namcnbuch. xxxvi is cited as "xxxvi. Dt. B. 14: 37 (ed. daemonismo. F. jn: appears only in this phrase. Mand. and the Babylonian Ahatbu. 2 : his earlier publication in vol. 181. Zauberpapyri" in Denkschriften of the Vienna Academy. '1313: hypocoristic of Persian Farruchan. Num. to Ex. 5. Aramaisch. "sister in the of her father. biblical 3SHK. as common seldom 6. p'Tjp: for the second ' representing the sewa. and see in general Tambornino. N. is archaic and Talmud the . The charm of which he is afraid is d potion more fearful to the demon. 35 : 26. see Pradel. 'mnx . griech. ff. cf. in Syriac. I^KflD 1O1K 1O1X : thus the uncanny stealthy movements of the demon are expressed.J. 5. indicated. Antike Fluchtafeln. or True Name. the latter attributed d.-pal. xlii. De ant. n ff. 3). for the threatening of demons in general cf. 1227 ff. For the threatening of . 1. jild. Abraxas. 14: 7. e. for the ptonouns see end of Glossary C. is 140. * and every mountain trembles. Gram. to the "Palestinian" dialect by Dalman. Ahat-immisu. 131 l. Cf.- . demons with pangs of hellfire. "From burning fire. Wessely).

this 40 f. hell. for citations p. It is almost identical in text with this one. Cf. also made out for the clients of Nos. and Pradel. the primitive ^purevov~) name of Typhon at which trembles earth.. 141. pp. 21.132 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. p. 244 ff : "This deep. but shorter. for Greek magic. ( 1. from the Fathers. xxxvi. heaven. 32 and 35. The bowl CBS 16093 bears the same design. It is is not necessarily a Jewish phrase. 1. 32 and 35. with the same design." etc. 231. Dieterich regards trembling before the Name is as of Orphic origin. . Also another bowl (unnumbered) practically the same as the present text. Heitmiiller. BABYLONIAN SECTION. Wessely. 50. 148. and Its clients are the is about two-thirds as long. couple named in Nos.

all evil Spirits and the tongue Now you are conquered. against Abiina bar all do b. . neither by night nor by day. nor shall any by night nor (3) by day. you are charmed and sealed in each one of the four (2) corners of his house. and none shall at : .nna 13 tn*n TRANSLATION Covers to hold in sacred Angels and of impious Amulet-spirits. ma N^I 'Kiveia na pa^aa pai> ma perm xoo^a (3) am KTIS? [xonnai] stj^a (4) xno^a 'tj"a KJIDNT i>it^D am 'ins TIJHS nn n'onn pa^j] NiiD'xa pa5> prn 1 paaia nyaB 'nan nn nonxi KHVB' nyi N-iiD[''iu NJTDN am xnnDi wm nmn (5) xan KDT iv p^SMte iion'n B'J' | K i>33 pna pbaoj s<b 'boaxi nana na NJiaxa pna K'S"i>3. Again.. you are charmed. and with a great wall of (133) .JVTDK PTDN pri'Tox pn'eaa &6 bi rpri'3 'WK i>aa. great day (5) of judgment. I have charmed you with the charm with which Enoch was do folly against him. folly against them. nor sin against them.. nra rrnu n[nno ]Dinmbio'o pnx (7) oou K!>I 'xn^eia 13 (6) paxan rrrva KB'njT xa^ Kmtyi H3DJ n'i>mBni n'BpJ rpjm HJK n^ nnn n. charmed. and to the great hour of the redemption of your heads you shall not Geribta. 4 (CBS 2923) Nrprnt rnrva K^I 'rm tnon (2) ttr^i ID Kwa pioo: wii ioi pa^ip paste mr yaiN Nina piraTim P. .. because I have bound you with an evil charm and a sure [seal].No. because his house and well armed. I seal. You shall not sin against Pabak bar Kufithai. . (4) charmed the Seven Stars and the Twelve Signs of the Zodiac unto the his wicked brothers. either charmed by Again I charm you with an evil and charm you with the seal with which were galling Again. against all the people of his house.i> !>. namely the people of the household of Pabak (6) well sealed is K.

. cf. or matt e lef the ba'O is probably represents the pronunciation the infinitive of mctt le. p." pKTD: See 1. S 59. 231. Peter- mann. i'. general charm against all evil spirits. cf. The : design represents the sorcerer waving his bough. middle voice meaning. TO. even against the later in the sense of holding with force. bronze have take.." In the present case the participle has assumed a completely active sense. 32. I surrounded it. and what I ask I (7) You are in the place of Abuna G. Gram-. There reminiscence here of a cycle of personal legends concerning in the Arabic. An But approximate use of this participle in verbs meanis ing "to carry.?. BABYLONIAN SECTION." whose original in retained in the Jer. g. in these instances the participle is (Noldeke. Gram. The second word meaning is e. and in the place of Pabak K. Tini: the first letter was written by inadvertence. "his brother" and "his brothers" have the same in -ui. The introductory lines are of interest as they definitely settle the use of these bowls see p.. Hebrew. snKC'Hsp snoin. see Noldeke. Biblische Enoch which have been preserved only 1 See Noldeke. xn3>ns: for the prosthetic 3 ." and also with IDS found in classical Syriac Syr. . and also Palestinian. N. differ- ing as -tihi and ohi. 55.134 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. and the Mandaic SCHlpn snn. Gram. over 79. . etc. Gram. also meaning of "measure. in 280). passive participle. of Karmsedinoi. thus S^ba TDK means. neusyrischen Sprache. Noldeke. from the lexicon DiBDna'CJS. ed. with an object other than the subject. 113ns : this spelling is found in a passage 266. Syr. Ginza. what I I grasp. desire b. 143. (8). 103. I. b. "he bound himself with a crown. 10. "contain. see Weil. as in Neo-Syriac. i . c c m e talle. made out for the Pabak of No. 'Ji ira n^oso : we find here the idiom of the active use of the d. 'ins : col. 6: p. the forms is Mandaic. ^OTen ^n'O 'D is to be identified with the plural of the Syriac ' m e tall tha. quoted by Payne-Smith. 6i are spelling. Hand. KfPJTr 'JTT : case of dittography. pe'Hp n. COMMENTARY A 3.

" A spell laid by the wicked on a saint was a fortiori potent. 19: p. minus that of the 1 Bull. Marduk became stress is monarch. In process of time they came to be regarded as "spirits in prison. 64. once have been brought into subjection to a higher god. with the creator of the kosmos. "the hour. see above. Enc." Hexaplaric Syriac to Is. Gram. where. while. Gram. autonomous. Tim 1:13. 583). in the polytheistic in what we may like the monotheistic trend thought. as in Israel's faith antithesis Yahwe is the sole God. Mand. who foretold the flood. The Samaritans. g. The present regulated orbits of the planets and the fixed positions of the zodiacal constellations signify that these beings. . the eleven Helpers of Tiamat are the twelve signs of the zodiac. KAT . mythology But . the sign of Marduk For the later Jewish Enoch literature see Jew." Thus Tiamat became. in which one of the gods. which may have contained these tradifor his faith. cf. A. first case the scribe emitted then inserted correctly. 676. -yun for -un. for other apocryphal examples. For Enoch in incantations.. we are introduced to an extensive and ancient cycle of myths concerning the relation of the Seven Stars (the planets with sun and moon) and the twelve zodiacal signs. the fixed firmament (or the zodiac?). Testament "that day and that hour. In lines 4. tions.. and the Arabic T)3"i. when slain. according to Zimmern." the Syrian Ephrem's Lamy. 223. There were two distinct developments in of this development the planets became highest call deities.J. ' See Montgomery. phenomena noticed by Noldeke. even as Abraham was made a martyr Our passage must refer to some spell laid upon Enoch by his adversaries. the word it is written twice. pPiWD: the X. 1 According to these legends Enoch (Idris). MONTGOMERY ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS." For the feminine form 5. 145. "the hour of judgment" (ed. p. The early Samaritan theologian Marka (fourth century) cites a book of the Wars of Enoch. 224. above the the and on second thought rewrote the word is It is Syriac and Mandaic KDK^NO. The first ' unique it is to be classed with the e. 17. a compilation from manuscript sources. "the great day. or. . in the line. New expression. i. suffered at the hands of the wicked Cainites. see Noldeke. 502. laid upon the between the Creator-God and those celestial divinities. the Nnytr. iii. 135 Legenden der Musselmanner. xm NOV : cf. 62. Mand.

c. When inquired about the angel said This where heaven and earth are host of heaven." or when "their sin is ac- npB' complished" (with Enoch}. i. 6). 24: 21 ff. of the Seven Stars and the zodiacal signs to the was was for a fixed for 10.000 shall According 5 passage quoted from Enoch. Hauptprobleme der Gnosis. according to which "the host of the height on high.. witness. (cf. The "binding" term. prison is differ over in Isaiah. taken up by magic. There appears to be applied here the idea of a universal Apokatastasis." system the seven planets and twelve signs have become utterly evil. Exegetes the verb is to be understand favorably (of a visitation for release) or unfavorably (of chastisement). there is." as well as the kings of the earth are punished. 21 : the time i Then he became angry at them." In Peter the ancient myth to the spirits in prison.000 years. In our text the term of "the great day" and "the great hour" is evidently to be one of release to the stars bound in prison. this is a prison for the stars fires and the The stars which revolve over the are they which at the beginning of their origin transgressed the did not command of God for they come forth at their time. 18: I 13 : "I saw there seven it. ancient. revived in the notion of Christ preaching shall It is left somewhat obscure what take place when "they shall be visited. depending directly upon Is. In this line of thought. a term fixed is : "after many days they be visited. as great is burning the place mountains. 34: 6. I think. Now for this notion of the redemption of the imprisoned celestial deities 4 we have a basis in Babylonian In the Mandaic See Bousset. and we may compare the invidious use of "planets" in Jude 13. years. later theology the Book of Enoch stars : is a good g. e. 3: 18 ff. 24: 21 ff. an open anthesis to astrological fatalism.^ But our text also bears witness to another development of the myth. in the expression amep^ ^avjjrai. and when their sin is accomplished" Pet. whether Also the Petrine preaching to the spirits in understood by commentators in equally opposite ways.. BABYLONIAN SECTION. at end. KanplBS. The "spirits in prison" of is in line with the same notion. and in line with we have the passage in Is. "Die Sieben. This unfavorable attitude thus The it monotheistic trend was native to the Hebrew theology. There is possibility of confusion between KJpllB and . being bound in prison. is it In the Isaianic passage. There is literal reference to this passage in No. till bound them for 10. For the ff .136 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. toward the celestial bodies is himself.

mr) found elsewhere in these bowls. mm {iriK: "hoist with their own petard"! .) which is a late supplement to that epic. Abuna is intruded awkwardly. In Tablet vii. "a great wall of bronze. all of them. 50." and Lidzbarski (Eph. 53 ff. Then the captive gods looked upon him. and : apparently continues the theme of the release of the captive gods to the prison. Pauly-Wissowa. O1 JTjOT nJN: our magician displayed the same assurance in No. 6. like the other metals. A. The verb means the Aramaic dialects "to arm. Paul may have been making use of well-known magical exhorted the Ephesians to "put on the panoply of God. 74) assumes for the also in those of noun NDTJOSt ing from the the the sense of "binding up" a meaning "admonition. among mercy upon dach. n. But there is no necessity letter. 25.) in depart- common meaning. Seven titles Tablets of Creation). This mythical trace probably descends from the Enoch 5 . armament of persons : and things with power to resist the forces of evil (ed. f. possessed atropaic use in magic.J. nro TOT: root nt (nto. Kindly the whole of them regarded him. 1908. It used in parallelism with nox. MONTGOMERY 27 ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. i.. 6: following phrase. 96. He (Marduk) goes down opened the gate of the prison. 2. a Talmudic instance. of the Epic of Creation (King. he rejoices." Eph. He looked upon them then. etc." in the captive gods his enemies." And Pinches given to Marduk are: "Who had who removed the yoke from upon the gods has now published a text ("Legend of Merothe . he comforts them. bronze cf. etc. 137 mythology. 20). 66b. Sabb." is when he The 13. is. with it. "He he rises to approach the prison. and see equally parabolic. so a passage in the G'mza "Arm That yourselves with arms not of iron" Petermann. At least this confidence had its psychological effect on the client. in preventive magic. it is the magical equipment of a person or charm against language evil.. the ^3DK is for *7UDK. 15: 7. 1. and is in Pognon and Lidzbarski (see Glossary C). and probably the i passages from Isaiah and Peter are also to be explained in consonance literature. refers to the magical . PSBA. 1." The "day of redemption" of our text is therefore in line with this Babylonian myth. it i.. p." But Pognon (B.

. li mrr *?* KJDD sriB"3 wy n S>y ro injvj n'i '3tyia 13 'a ^y (5) 1 r6o ptc p^ n3 '2 mrr c. . Selah.. (138) . Ye are bound with the seven spells and sealed the (3) with the seven seals in name of Eldedabya Abi Ponan. name of and from the many Satyrs in the road of Hamad. Amen. 'H. and evil Arts and mighty Works and everything hostile. and the Vow and the Curse and the Invocation. B'H. (5) "According . (4) from the Evil Eye and from the mighty Satan. in the YHWH. n5>ni> nynx (7) JDK pax TRANSLATION Wholly charmed and sealed and bound and enchanted [are ye]. rrrp3 nanai noxi TTI Knt53 5>3i (V) xn^' pi3W !>3 (2) pnj'D nwv rvTDK Kt'3 'JD nvnj'o ptru pt^im snnpi pis ^s IDT nunii'NT rrospu penn nyatra (3) pn'D'nm p (elided n3 ine) t<2ipn TV niDB^ntr 5>njn non 01^3 w'ty n^y[3t5'N] ID uB'ia (4) . and that there depart from them (2) all evil Liliths and all Demons and Devils and Spells and Idol-spirits.No. P. 5 (CBS piD'p 2952) penrpm jnrn na meo 'acna pB>T6 pe"ni>i nwi po>nn vs'nm n i> ..n .. and from . Amen. . that ye go away and be sealed and depart from the house [and property?] of Farruch bar Pusbi and Newanduch bath Pusbi and Abanduch bath Pusbi.T nyr p n^D pj [CN trxa bsio Two lines on either side of figure n^o JCK IDS ni>D in center. that thou keep Farruch b... P.. lord of spoil and curse .. and Newanduch b.iB'3 tauin torn S3B"3 nin iDK'i HB^D T>3 nw not? mrp nic-B'!: nx iyo' mn 1 (V) niK m K^n D'^n'S Tmsn 13 (6) nin' nyr jtson 13 rn. . I conjure against you in the name of the great Prince. PTDK n<[D] po ivmx m no m n<e> in:v:i 5>ai ana pE^pn 12 TOBI i .

which according to belief was the only tongue the angels knew. 3. COMMENTARY A The i . : rebuke (6) thee chose Jerusalem. A. nun: (also Talmudic) = Pint. while the following adjurations are in Hebrew. see Blau. fVfb. YHWH by YHWH Moses. the only instance of this verb in the bowl-texts. 73. is for intensity. 7 nails from 7 bridges. the observance of they mouth of according to the mouth ing to the YHWH rebuke thee. "twice charmed. general incantation against evil spirits for a man and his two sisters. latter half Hebraizes. above. n^T cf. see to 3: list noN : the place of the term in the entities. p. 2. 2 2. : "The great Prince": the technical is title for Michael (see p. 'Jl : . col. the fever-remedy in Sabb. 7 trees. For paternal relation 3 . Is not this a brand plucked from the fire?" Amen. inns: Justi. 3246. duces a mixed construction here. 139 to the mouth of of YHWH YHWH they would encamp. 66b. same time he adjures the All these terms evil great Prince. cf." pp. . pp. probably name of a genius \3K may indicate to another well-known genius. cf. whom is he addresses in the second person. The angel adjured in Hebrew. MONTGOMERY ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. For this magical number in the Talmud. The duplication of the ppls.. etc. Farruchan and composites 95 f. The double use of The verb generally is used But at the rpyaE'K intro- of exorcism. '3B>1B? i. and would march. : by heedlessness of construction nr: ." etc. with ^I? of the object. shows that the charms were regarded as personal Cf. 97). p. m 2. 86. 228. Satan. in farruch. "Seven spells. "7 twigs from etc. 1. denoting magical binding could be used indifferently of the good and genii. 1VWJ. It is to be observed that this bowl peculiarly Jewish in theological form. cf.J. Amen." fitJ^p error for p'tip. Justi. 86. = ffop/c/fu. who quotes the Jewish maxim his rraTiK obscure. ." YHWH they kept accord"And YHWH said to Satan who Selah. ins: cited by Payne Smith.

26: i f. etc. in these There is no evident sense words around the figure. ne>o = Moses. (1899).140 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. I22d. found in the theme the abbreet ninn Extraits of the Paris National Library. see Schwab. The reference is to the demons which in the text is 5. the Rodwell- Halevy bowl in which a geographical location is given.v. For the satyrs see p. 80. r6nb = "avaunt"?. of this quotation in 1. . rtynx and IK'S are reminiscent of the interpretation of the Name. "upon the road to Husi. Literal quotations from Num. the Aaronic Blessing. BABYLONIAN SECTION. 9: 23 (cf. bility some particular awkward. 288. lies in its triple use of the efficacious The word applica1DB> (as above 3). 7. Notices I as the I2ist. the many". beset road. "The hobgoblins in the way of Hamad. 3:14. cf.). xxxvi." and Wohls. Hence the magical use of such Psalms D'pno cne*. B. 4. a demon who dwells in Samki. viation of Later Kabbalism. 2417.

and lurk by their thresholds. And I come and put in down upon them a spell for them in the thresholds of this their house. and this month out of all months. . and this season out of all seasons. and dwell (4) in their archways.i n^'i'T Koi^na 6 ID pn5> (10) 'inwn na ^inxn na pnsS K!>I pnua 5>jn p5>op'n K^I pn^otyn Niti'D^ pnj^nn Kno^o!' panp'n son ^nrtra K^I [m D^iy^ in war Mmi piti 1 (11) n^sn pnj'jj'p ^aa poW'n ^T3 Dt'oa nt'Ji NJ'a u nos'ji stis 5>iKt? 'a NPS^J i2p (12) K^ pn pi>m na^j stj^a jnn pn nor IOT nan ya^a nnn inui K'OB> '^vja n^p n^o JDS JBN TRANSLATION A press which is pressed down upon Demons and Devils and Satans and impious Amulet-spirits and Familiars and Counter-charms and Liliths male (3) and female. 6 (CBS 2916) noini'i Kwa 'rmbi (2) narvaiM IJDD^ 'inl>i n^ pn!> pe>aan na nnKTi iinn 12 mm ^va (6) pro^y piin Knap'Ji (3) i'V nan Nrp^i'i ^a'Pi 1OT3 KBVI jwTjn w p5>n pn5> toTBi pnnaiaD' 5>aai 'rwa pni> pavn prrnaua JBaa (5) pnn 1 (4) tntjni pinery piin xtya^ai P^DPI t~n jnoi im ':E> pn^ia' nn xnc'i ini jin^a'n tnn xni'1 'or pn^ia^o pin sjo'nm sjnxvi SJT SJT p. and that strike and cast down and kill. Fastened up are their doors (7) and (141) all their roof. and this day out of all days. And this press (5) I press days and in months and in all years. and appear to them in one form and another. and I seal and bind them. that attach themselves to Adak bar Hathoi and Ahath bath Hathoi that attach themselves to them. and this year (6) out of all years.n^na nEJiao'xa pni> wnani wmi u^y jirvnn'B pn!>ia'D pn yap awa pni> NJtyaa pin wa'ai snj'j'n (8) oiB'a iai!si pDtt"3 rnt^a I>3 mm xn^^cn DIBO tina laE'o PTV pn^v (7) sin cwa pna p^'aa nyisi K'DBn p^o sn^ym Dwa i"anO' sn^n^n m^a i'ai pmrs pBoamn xh y tj"aa (9) 'DMI !>i pmn nan ptya^a sn^yae' dwa }ini> jitnnn 5>i xn^oi ^a^Pi napiji n^^i Kn^JTt noim nnsi'.No.

7: 9. 6n) : the sacrifices are "presses because they press 2. that they appear evil not to Adak b. n. Selah. Dieterich. And cf. (12) and his abode shall be in the seventh (?) hell of the sea. and that they approach neither their and that they kill not their children. and to Ahath in sleep b. will transgress against this press and does not accept shall split shall sound of him asunder violently and burst in the midst. v. COMMENTARY A and charm in behalf of a couple (each with a mother of the same name) their household. H. . Cf.. 1. of the second. 'J Out of hence several possibilities of interpretation (cf. and that ( 1 1 ) they have no power over their property. and the resound with the resonance of brass in the spheres of heaven." tabi'u. that accompanies the bewitched man. suggest that of is in the sense of "side" s. ( 10) and to neither in dream by night nor right side nor their left. bvcipoirofiiroi and Martyr. of the fourth. 34: 4). down 12: the sins. down upon them by means of these by which heaven and earth are charmed in the name of the this press I press : And seven words. all fifth.~). Amen. of the Masbar. In Arabic superstition we learn of the "follower. and its concludes with a threat against any ban. 18.142 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. 16 (Jastrow. They may be invoked by manipulation or rubbing of the amulet as in the Arabian Nights. BABYI/)NIAN SECTION. occurring also the genii magical papyri. i. also in I both places before ^3'p. Ardibal. and then one who familiar (Jastrow. Ap. xli. 1 .4:1. who destroy the bowl and ignore KB>3<3: cf. and what they from this day and forever. the . by day. the verb. similar use of t?33 in Pesikta R. the incantation consists in seven magical words. of the (presses). B. Noldeke. = the or familiar spirit of the Greek magic in Justin in the e." 9. Abraxas. 5. first. Gismin and Marbil. Marbil. H. 'D'J . E. third. And whoever these rites. the iv. is of the sixth. ZDMG. H. Morah. what they have shall have. N. and see 8. g. Amen. 161. p. of the seventh (9) Kibsin with which repressed with them are repressed Spirits and impious Amulet spirits and Liliths male and female and Familiars and Counter-charms and Words. ^B'O . Gismin and Marbll. 717. Eusebius. from this day and forever.

For the selection of a special btK KTK." cited by Payne Smith. see van Vloten. = pnrva. 13: 7. 10. 55. or four deities surround the sorcerer. treated in some forms as though and here metaplastically as Kmn The root jiirra : the only occurrence in the bowls of this ancient magical term. but the meaning given above 3. the Utukki-series 93 (Thompson. xrm : unique form. 670. 8. an appropriate description for a demoniac species. the special term in 7: 16. at right and iii. here with the Persian diminutive ending. WZKM. Mk.. "ilV is used here not in 1. A. 6. g: 14 ff. in the Koran (e. Lu. see Justi. cf. g. JD-I.. 1. 123 f. see "Sleep by day": cf. of the demons. n) . Greek superstition whose place representing sun- was taken stroke. Gram. e. "insn: cf. in the was the chosen time for in attacks by the satyrs and fauns. hand iii. ND'J could be the Syriac word for marauding troop. plK: cf. 143 Satan who is a "comrade" to an evil man. TTX. 142. the Syriac col. same phrase in see p. Noldeke. the Syriac K3U. in front and back.. 1012: the the Mandaic. cf. nib. left. and Roscher. vi. name Hathi. 4. and cf.. 1408. Cf. its Aramaic sense. etc. is frequently referred to in i. see p. The midday siesta was this perilous. col. : prprnu lintel. is day for the exorcism. 2. p. demon ZDMG. Ephialtes. 417. g. radically the word refers to the arch of the doorway. nj'N '31. 7. jno: cf. the Persian name Adaces.J. MONTGOMERY ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. 25. 'Tie 3Dp xxxi. is vii. Persische Studien. 216.. Noldeke. n : for the new vowel see Noldeke. IDT For the abodes of the demons. These magical words are wholly obscure. Mand.. Mand. n. Jewish legend by the See Grunbaum. Karin. 41 : 24)." hence probably door so Payne-Smith. ibid. "my sister. the Maklu-series. Magical protection at right and Babylonian sorcery. 6: 4. 251 left a f. more appropriate in in the context. Ammianus. 182 ff. Gram. "transverse beam. especially for those in the fields. 2. . 76. 5. Jimrx: Pesah.

3 of the preformative. BABYLONIAN SECTION. -im. For the seven hells. see Eisenmenger. A dialectic formula may be used here. "In the seventh hell" (with awkward use of the numeral) in ii.144 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. N. Mandaic forms. DPJ from Syr. B. ypsj also NHX = tiny. NpS'J : on 3: 6. bombastic enough! 11. and vJ'3 is Syriac over against the Rabbinic and . The penalty for infraction of the charm see above. 302. contrast to the seventh heaven. . Mandaizing spelling for -aw. DDT. 328 f. is For the threatening of demons. 12.

at the other end a pitchfork-like termination (the forked tail of the demon?). 16007 16081 (Myhrman) xnonn no "iea xniDX nc ICE" a (2) sw-ixv 'firm xai N'DK KJIKX 'firm pa? nm ITDK (2) T> KJB'nroi (3) KJO'nm i? (3) toanm pa? pirn n'J'J'Pi rvnu (4) n'tpsj li-mpK 12 IKTP nnnx 'iatj>Bi TJSDX 13 (4) "j 'ja ?ai ma MIIKI 'io'D na n?ia pn'nm mioxi pn? pm rp xan Konnai sai inai H^ST (5) met^a i^ nan sonnai nai NH^KT msasT n't? 'yvai KI^T 'X'vai (5) . for reason and also for the value of texts in parallel. latter is more perfect than my text. Myhrman this of Upssala (No. while four rays represent the limbs. see p. This bowl is 7 (CBS The 16007) a replica to that published by Dr. Myhrman's ably edited text. fact almost the only perfect one in the collection.v 1>3 ppE'i pytvir'i pjmn !>ai 'Tt? ?a ppe'i pyTirn pytn (6) pa'pn pjtDD (6) naim snstj"a 'nm nn'i 'vn 1'TT ?ai pnt? ?ai XJV:VT (145) . with which shuffled into Pognon's texts. see above in 20. 16081). which amount chiefly to the proper grammatical distinction yod and zvaw and he and heth. It may be observed that the designs in the two bowls differ: in 16007 merely a circle enclosing a cross. the Greek the tf's On either side of the figure are three characters like s. p. in 16081. comparing the numerous variants I give the two making such emendations as appear necessary in the first- published text. of a linear figure. we may compare For convenience of refertext as to ence I give the same line-numbering to I Myhrman's my own. . . the stem surmounted by a head capped.No. In the commentary make such few notes as are necessary on Dr. 60. or looked at from the side like &.

mas a poi nTiTi poi [Tnnt']K in KJD<nni twD'nm ^ K:IKV am 1 nw3 ro ism pim (7) i>3 IDI xnn pnn n!>i3 to 3in (7) ["Q (8) nnnx JJBDK 13 (8) "J pin xnui ni3 in3Ni (9) [inn n31 in3ST (9) 1PP3 <nm (10) [rpmn n'nn] pirn 13 IJTPP pm snm p^x MIIKI (10) P33 po 3i (11) (11) bi nsna i>3l 331 ^3i 5>3i n3]ns (12) (12) pnn ID pn!> n^nn IST pni> poi 13 IDT p"iit3 pwna 13 pwiapyn nnna jei 131 (13) S>y MIDIp D' yt I'DI P331B piyt pmtD >nnn3ci nn rim rrnvm i>sntro ^NHB'D 131 131 (13) n'DE 131 Ki n2y x^ n^nitso P3n[<] 1D131 'BMI BO'K i3y vb nimtDo !> {?j' si>Q3i> pin vbol? pin n [nnp]i nst!"3 n[3nsi] xnnpi Tim (14) .146 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYLONIAN SECTION.

I..J. to you) and seal and counterseal (M. the house and property of this Yezidad (4) bar Izdanduch. MONTGOMERY ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS.. A. and by the great glory of the Holy One that all . [In . life. and with the seal of Shadda El. (5) and by the splendor of Sebaoth. 147 <TB> xpaxi pP'tO >3[1] 5>31 'Jt3Dl 'VJEl (14) JDTBl xnin nioi3i Noam jrj svpie* mmu nimm Koom moT3i (15) niBi3i (15) KEI nnnsi Nina imi im 10 PBI rprnn pni rpnu pa 13 IKTP pirn nnas nn n^nn^s poi pnnji PDI tm 1 ?: pci pel iiniJ3 So p (16) KB" 3 K^3H pn3 P^R-'H K^l (16) (sic) pnn pni 1 pnnn'33 im'n K^I ns K je pn> prnn^n Keen TlJ/1 ID KODH n^o JCK IS n^D JDK IO pi3. I. (2) the great Saviour of love. TRANSLATION In thy name. bind to thee and seal (3) and counterseal to thee. this Yezidad (7) Again to thee I bind to thee (Myhrman. Demons and all mighty Satans remove and betake themselves and go out (6) from the : house and from the dwelling and from the whole body of b. to you) the Yezidad (8) in the b.. and life name of the angel 'Asiel and Ermes (Hermes) the great Lord. in and house and property and bedchamber of the name of Gabriel and Michael and Raphael. in the name of the great God. 1^3^31 nyoi leu D'DSC 3T KID i^v (17) n^D J2K IDK prpoij. I O Lord of salvations.

the name of Yahu-in-Yahu] (9) and the great Abbahu and the great spirits Abrakas (Abraxas). life. and from their sons and their daughters and all (16) that ye injure the people of their house. house. them not with any evil injury. whose the name of HH. swear and adjure (17) thee: May kill the great Prince expel he who all breaks thy body and removes thy tribe. HH. and from wife b. to you) the b. And I seal (M. and enchanted Bowls and Knots and Vows and Necklace-spirits and Invocations and Curses (14) and evil Spirits and impious AmuletWaters and Hair-spirits. Arts. nor bewilder nor amaze them. . this mystery for frustrating you. which appear and in the likeness of vermin and reptile and in the likeness of beast and bird (15) and in the likeness of likeness man and woman. and all sore Maladies and all evil Satans and Idol-spirits and impious Amulet-spirits and mighty Tormentors. Mysteries. Bar-mesteel. spirits. them) all all Arts (n) and all (magic) Circles and all all all all Necklace-spirits and . And now. Halleluia. B. (12) which under my own hand before in I banish from this house in the name of Pharnagin bar Pharnagin. Demons and Demonesses and evil Lilis and Liliths and all Plagues and evil Injurers Satans and all evil Tormentors. wherewith to Demons and impious Tormentors. from this day and forever. is Lo. Amen. nor sin against them. again I And thee. .. that there sin not all against you (M. are they cast prostrate in troops and Selah. the guardian of good spirits.148 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. I. Amen. in slumber by day. whom is trembles the sea and behind in the whom tremble the mountains. BABYLONIAN SECTION. Amen. nor appear to them either in dream by night or Selah. thrown on Amen. to you) the house and dwelling of this evil Merduch bath Banai. Invocations and all Curses and all Losses and . their beds. dwelling (10) and to thee property of this Yezidad life. and in every and in all fashions : Desist and go forth from the house and from the dwelling and Merduch his from the whole body of this Yezidad b. and name of (13) proscription proscribed and none trespasses upon his ward. I and destroyer of evil guard to thee (M. I. all And by evil the seventy to Men who destroy hold seventy sickles.

). Shaddai and Sebaoth. follows the Formally then order. Cels. M. A well comparison of these bowls. it reads. 149 COMMENTARY A charm made out for a man. as also the in the true reproduction of Hermes by Also my text more confused historical arrangement of the exorcised powers. in the other an appendix has also been added addressed against some particular unnamed demon. Sabaoth (p. 31) law. more archaic. avoiding matres is lectionis. or original. but has justly my text "to thee" This plural troubled I Myhrman. 1. 6). Ehuaiof. in 1. to be the elder text. 2. My text abjures polytheism. done "to you" throughout. the magician regarded them as a trinity of deities. but Myhrman's is text is shorter. but that it is secondary to the other is shown by is 9 and 10. appears inflated. M. }iab and I suppose made it refer to the following fem13^ 'sb 'a'^ comparing them in 11. Dieterich. Iao t vi. my text has clung to the form. awkwardly. pronom. among the seven planetary spirits of the Ophites (Origen. the gener- ally antique form n.. C. just as in the magical papyri these Jewish (and other) divine names are invoked as so many deities (see 1 n). inine traj. in which the invoked are the names of the Jewish God. text is polytheistic or rather a product of the common magic religion in expressing three names of "the great God" Elaha. = = = ") . throws light on the history of the transmission and development of our magical inscriptions.. each written by a facile scribe with a formed ductus. M. e. For the same reason Jinb. Za/3au#. its J133 10 for the correct deities Thus an eclectic text. Abraxas. A<fuva<of. But believe only explanation that . and Adonai are found among angel-names . the sealing etc. all M's text such then of eclectic religious character. the "angels" Aiuvai. his wife and household. :p'BJno is found is (1. used for The spelling in M. but misunderstanding it has read W5 (i. 182. against all manner of demons. retains its polytheistic plural. has fallen into more orthodox hands and produced our monotheistic 1 Cf. in comparison with which mine is more The most is interesting point of difference in is this: in (1. suffix being represented by n alone. BOOT/J^. n final a. 12. also in Pradel's Christian texts. and he the suggests is three his possible explanations. or to some feminine demon.J. MONTGOMERY ARAMAIC INCANTATION TfiXTS. A. 47). the masc. M.

cf. p. . 58. surviving among the modern . 1. the four gods sur- rounding the magician en. 407. 4 ff. of the half-vowel. 8. as s. Wessely. Vocabulaire. Myhrman's that suggestion. 147. Justi. p. no. 5. 16). Stiibe. VTV: plural. for four angels (cf.150 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. p. 15 rrarp 7. in cases cited earlier. plural The opening in M. see in 13. p. Michael. Jastrow. 1. thinks the Syriac form an error. the ^f/taimfrHw <ru/iaro^{)?. (the see to latter the closest to the Greek of our which I Hermes. Also note Izeddad in Justi. 5. Bibelstudien. 146. leaving but a trace or two of its Such are the com- plications of this magic! i . Payne Smith." This and the following term represent Hebrew 1133. see above. the word is Hormiz = Ahura-mazda. 589. 62. i : 3. in the Greek magical papyri (Deissmann. 1 singular invocation does not agree with the following IKTr : name of a Nestorian writer. but our text confirms Our word could be Semitic 4. = M. 13: ancient form of the divine Name. and probably in a text of Pradel's (p. fact that that element in our proper names is given by in' : irra cf. BE. appearing (apart from biblical proper names and probable Babylonian forms) in the Assouan papyri. Justi. PIT. London Papyrus. rrotrn irv . bto:j? s. 39. 1586. p.af. M: 6.) as law. 22. In Stiibe. X'3l. so the spelling surely. Babylonian magic. N'3 rr . For the following Hithpalpel. original source.) rra im. Clay. ruled out by the PDiin 1. N. "from the body": xlii. Pognon B. ^N"Dy occurs in Sefer Raziel. it. 149. (and is independently) favored. x. B. 1. 214. 128 ff. TfinrK: T3BDN. 1. all four names are D'Q-in made to terminate in -iel. D'DTS spellings) originally = = M. For the angels. \WV: with expression cf. Schwab. . With the cf. 34 f. BABYLONIAN SECTION. "the rays of light. name Aspazanda. Blau. text. v. Stiibe. p. on 6: 10) see LuekNuriel-Uriel is generally the fourth. col. Dan. above 2:2 (q. "n IT. the care with which the scribe rewrites the = name of Asiel . in addition to his reference to Aspenaz. where aaa and a$a doubtless Asael and Raphael. takes this place. see above. 81. 41. 2: 2.

1887. instances of the Syriac nominal formation from de- Tin : recalling the Jewish "good demons. in M. A suggestion possible for For the two in another line is Abbahu.." This impossible. 1906. 12. It is represented by three ppls... Amoraim Abbahu. would suggest to read n for n. hence These forms represent Abraxas as against the I use the former word in the present volume. possible that Stiibe's nurr = Yahbeh (IQ/??) = Yahweh." see 6ainuv above. see Jew. see above p. 26: inax. and understand the Afel. cf. 53. s. p. D'DSias and D'313N. translates. says that the Pantheus or representation of the pantheistic Deity of the Gnostics. It is xxviii. 246. At all events this spelling-out of the full Tetragrammaton 4. think the doubled term its here theosophic: Yah-in-Yah. in Variants in the bowls arc Dictionnaire de I'archeologie chretienne. 5). and especially the splendid monograph by Leclercq.. MONTGOMERY -ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. t p. v. and Kabbalism. and P 3 12 " below. 97). with a query. The expression magic. JBL. King in his Gnostics and their Remains' London. occurs in a proper 9. 76. occurring in Hebrew" found in or at least in a Jewish document.. : original Myhr- man remarks Enc. probably correctly 47. Jewish Encyc. = SOinjO. etc. and used I 151 Samaritans (Montgomery. form Abrasax.J. For Abraxas see above. ABAANAOANAABA. "is invariably inscribed with his proper name IAS2 and his epithets ABPAEA2 and 2ABAH6 and often accompanied with invocations such as . and for treatments of : the subject and bibliographies the articles "Abrasax" in Hauck's Realencyk. name below. w. n. Abraxas..' Our Abbahu may represent this epithet and the passage would accordingly preserve three of the Gnostic designations of Deity Father.. tW^ano. in the magical current at is Mossoul (PSBA. this i. 1. to be at least 'a single reliable instance' of I3ob) this would prove is name text is. which I M. Krioio rived stems. . 'thou art our " Father. diagnosed by Myhrman as exalted sorcerers' names. texts 50. suffix. (p. "pierce. Enc. as my Abraxas : Sefer Raziel. the Christian Logos-doctrine and terms. 345) "As over against the view of Blau-Kohler (Jew. is also reminiscent of the Greek dyotfdf frequent in twiBJB the second is (2d) : ppl. Yahu. A. 57. appearing on the Gnostic gems.

2918. cf. etc. SOJS3T istn. the epithets x"^^. pt. Dogme et rituel de la is haute magie. and is an epithet of deity. Justi. BE. SsntJ'D 13 = M. cf i 4. in Delitzsch. with which without modifying its regimen. p. Diet. "oracle-giving seer"? Some ancient phrase has been conventionalized and . is'ar. JBL. by Tambornino. = Mithra-ducht. cf. b& . cf. 15. ix. Bemerk. I93b. lists in Clay. Hzvb. devil-raising. of Vernacular Syriac. and see p. "under my own hand" : there much imitation of legal forms in magical formulas. The expression the following has the connotation of deciding the fates. VT. I interpret this 39: 7. There the corresponding form mustalu means one who gives an oracle upon being asked. cf. i. Paris. Or may the phrase = baru mustalu. name 11. pp. and fern. of the oracle. translated there "son of the inquirer must go to the Assyrian for the explanation. daemonismo. De is ant. See Jastrow. 10. 'N3N3 ii. Justi.7 : 8 . T3tn. a masc. KJ?T. Ass. viii. For the epithet cited "trp. violentus. the entire obscurity 1856. = (Rabb.. from the Syriac sono. as of the magic circle. in the latter as from root Nyt. Handbuch. 99." xix. above. 238. 23. x. an oracle-giver. We and the reff. p. v. 88. . 'p'BK priD occurring frequently in the unpublished No. 13. 94. "pITO: Mer-ducht. cases 12. The same name the But these names appear to be indifferently masc. 208.) Heb." and gin ( ?) comparing Pharnakes. The circle was used particularly for necromancy and Cf. and = the frequent Babylonian Bani-ia.152 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. Myhrman as from farna. see p.. 84. Eliphas Levi. phrase in our text KTT3 fWTT31 na may here be used like the Arabic ibn. p313: evidently a Persian name. cf. "good I may compare the Persian name Frenanh. s. ii. for the meaning. Justi. i. = K3N3 2. BABYLONIAN SECTION. of naming a person to a deity and so placing him under his protection. iosb. p. e. 1. 14. etc. Sefer ha-Doroth . njnr: for njnrN. 92-96. parallel to M's J"J?T. name among the Jews. : Lidzbarski. fortune. The objection to this interpretation of ip'SN. ivwiE'D "13. '33 is found in Nabataean and Palmyrene inscriptions. of the demons.. ITT. l^aclean. .

Lueken. and with abundant citation of comparative magic. g.?. 'ID: ppl. "shall not dwell. Apuleius. . also Mt. For the appearance of devils in animal forms. but generally in parallel occurrences. It looks as from Kin = TIB. M. 33E>1 (ib. Magic." Syriac zeppa. the inverting of the bowls. 13: 37 n'VB>: inf. The "beds" are metaphorical of weakness and subjection.}. A. ppl.." 15. "hair. Ass. has for these verbs in their house". where the Peshitto uses the same words as argues for a This coin- cidence (cf. ff. It 18. For the following expression concerning the cf. here." 179 ff. of 'X'B>. Michael in a text of Pradel's 23) : "I enter their houses metamorphosed as snake. sleep profoundly" (cf.y. cf. . Index. 14. bewilderment of the victim (see Jastrow.. nDTin) = Arabic sahara. M. Norberg's text. Any portion of a person's body. Sent. "int5> (Ginza. See Thompson. Targumic but not Talmudic. Heb. 'S't pass. see to 4: i. the 70 angels or shepherds." 6: Or possibly the Rabbinic meaning "put on a cover. of the Syriac and Mandaic root "prostrate. especially hairs. and the verb. 16. jm'n is for jmB'n. could be used in . common source of ideas. cf. 16. quadruped. Is. nails. I pbarvn. i. dragon." 38 : 8. 'B*l MyhrNnJK> 19). pl3 gawwamn demoniac or gaunin (?). p. means to "snore. 1. cf. the reply of the (p. pi'j = g e ivariin.J. inviolability of the "decree. sickles" but later legend regarded 14: 14 them as fallen). demon to St. G7F*. or actual insanity. "fTTrrt 8*6 vv. 32. angels. The root enn came to be used particularly of The are probably "hairs. (originally regarded as 14.. found in the Mandaic. Cf.) are an echo of Rev. 50: n. KnJ't^." would require fnnn. The same noun ii." with reference to i. 97. vermin. with of the ' for preformative half-vowel. Nmne': so also 8: man's text. Abt. 12). 'PNino poisoning. n. Michael. is e. 6: 17. J'BDDD : Pael pass. 161. D'DSO: e. 11. or an error for J1TVD. understand and jms'n. 153 personified. etc. MONTGOMERY ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. also Blau. 10. Schiirer. ton sno: cf. cf. cf. |lJB"n ptJ"n Paels. Myhrman's if translation. vs. as detachable.. 5: 31 and see p. magic directed against him. iii. The "sharp ff. Enoch 89: 59 good 198. . "70 men holding 70 sharp sickles": representing the 70 nations. pasasu. 1. : 1. v..

snpt'yai (12) HP ntra sn'Wi pa'by (13) SJ'BIO . . IVBI snann. a pia't? nnrsi n'ns . 8 'OSB sn'i"i>i (CBS irai 9013) 13 'Nova pirn rvn'ai snnnnb soa pin JBTB snsiox HDI (2) snan 'i"^ sn'W bs nirp rvBP'a sn"3 sn'W nre nrm nap>j sbi pn'rvi'p [j!"B-!y pa'np]'Bm pa'nyais (4) pa'by pa'n'im (3) sn'EDm sn'j^pi mat? 13 K^I Dni>a pa'asi yap i> pa'aa i"3 nns 'on panyo Tnoi 'mvi (5) pn'p'a!> 'WvJ pirn n'nni pei ~'n'a '. PD aim '[Pi] El 'niSI 'VBB> S132 S13 SJ111 K"3 pB'tT (10) P3s! 'SJi'j Sypi pel J'O nnsn na n'nn's '^^[i poi 'SBSB] la pirn si> n'nm rrn'a si> bsi n'npt'ya 'n'B'nni SD'B SBBH snintra s!>i SBi"na (11) pn5> prnn'n n ']i"b Kn'5>['S> 'n]js 'HIBIPT nyatfai STPE 13 ytfin' nui nxa nmas nasa pab sjyapa sn'EDni STTJ^PI snap'j . . 'ab . . n .PISI ^yntr noc nnl's 1 p'D'Ni rvmaa Kb pni> ptnn'n aim mso na yotn bwo pa'5>y (7) n'nn'N <utn pci 'KOSO [pn]'aat5"a yotj'i % S> nua S>i pn'nma (6) . . IB ^ IBP ps IBP n'ns an i>sHpyai S3i sas^B ^S'P3P3P31 S3i (15) S3s^B i>sHtyai Lxaxl^o mrsi [']p'a '>a'p snsp'a sn'5i> 'njs SIK snB"a (16) snpjy nnpy san [pi]a'tr n^D IBS IBS nbiybi pi SEV po pri^y jmn'n sb aim [snp]'a sn'i"i> s am (154) ..t3'n noa' nni>s pa'as or^s 1 [sip'a pa'i>y] n'2iK 1 KD'i>2 SD^EI n'BB"a panmni'i pa^yio ^'i> ^ rra a^na nana-'Ki s'BK po KH'!"^ ian sn'^b ytrin' 'n: pamtssi .a iB'p iatr n. . D'oai iso'a B'sa ninna"B ni'nn nnsiy % (14) CUE bs uiai a pt?"ip pastel snaiBai IBP . 'DSC 13 nbys . . . . . (8) pa'O'a 'in IBS pam N'niE ia ['ai] xnotra nu pnl' a'na y'Bty nana^w . 3 pniEDi l5>ai>ja 'aD'j .. - PBI mso na 'utn snn PB paDT. sii3 n[is]as '!>:in pa PJPHP i'as^B in nb^B BP .. .No.a apy . SB' na'y PB . xyirvs pa nets' nn!>s pa'O'si n'BB' on^a paus[n] . . . sns so'3 (9) s'rna na yt^in' 'an sji> .x na'r 'SJi'J n.

.. terrification. divorces Lilith. 1 adjure you [by the glory (= name)] of Palhas your father and by the name of Pelahdad your mother. P. M. male Lili and female the Seven ( ?) which are before him.. you]. 155 rnxo rn [/wi] sin po pprnrvn pi>op'n is ni>o . INCANTATION TEXTS.. nor are you clad. MONTGOMERY -ARAMAIC . whose father is Pelahdad. (3) the three of you. with your hair dishevelled and is let fly (4) whose father behind your backs.. Thou. [of Rabbi] Joshua b. because it is announced to you. : (9) A is divorce writ has come for you (thee?) from across the sea. whose father it is named Palhas and whose mother (6) Pelahdad. has spoken to us Rabbi Joshua b. It is made known to you.. because you are sealed with the signet of El Shaddai and with the signet of the house of Joshua b. the male Lilis and the female Liliths. this Geyonai And again. and there in it found written [against . in the name of 'YnwH El has scattered' the Lilith.. and from Rasnoi his wife (5) bath Marath. that there flee (2) . .. be in the ban . A divorce-writ has come (7) down to us from heaven and there is found written in it for your advise- ment and your Divorced'). . Perahia and by Thou Lilith. in the name of Palsa-Pelisa ('Divorcer- who renders to thee thy divorce and thy separation.... M. A. named Palhas and whose mother . again. Hear and they ( 10) dwelling of this Geyonai b. male Lili and female and Ghul. the Hag (ghost?) and the Ghul. they hear from the firmament and go from the house and from the from Rasnoi his wife b.J. M. named Palhas and whose mother Pelahdad Hear : and obey and come forth from the house and the dwelling of b. and you shall not appear to them (n) either in dream by night nor in slumber by day. JSK JOK n-??"! [p']rti> ^v (17) pnirpm TRANSLATION In the name is of the Lord of salvations. And . [naked] are you sent forth. because is announced to you that Rabbi Joshua bar Perahia has sent against you the ban. Lilith. this Designated Mamai. bowl for the sealing of the house of this Geyonai bar from him the evil Lilith. the four of you and the five of you . your (8) Hag And thus and your separations. their dwelling you shall not appear to them in his (sic) house nor in nor in their bedchamber.. P..

97. 17 is in large part very indistinct and towards an abbreviated and mutilated 1. COMMENTARY A in the charm for a man and his wife. M. Sealed upon him Gabriel (?).. Lilith. the Legions of I-am-that-I-am. No.. etc. sent through holy Angels . evil Lilith b. BABYLONIAN SECTION. made out form of a divorce-writ... by the Rock of his Isaac....el the great angel. Amen. hence "the .. the Hosts of in the spheres. memorial . and from Geyonai her husband letter M. and below 'NDND.. xnt}"3 Mami twvW>: the generic lilith is differentiated into several different species. Again kill (I adjure you).156 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. in corrupta ex yrfvof. 'tWJ: "color"?). the mother-goddess.. Amen. replica. and Selah. and by 'Akariel the great angel." Thes. n. And be they preserved for life! Amen. (17) . I. where it is or Ge(y)6nai (from J1S3. 2. 75 f. the male and the female. Lidzbarski. Eph. appearing with wald. evil Spirit .. The inscription is the end becomes almost illegible... or depart from this Rasnoi Selah.. by . this his name .. 419. I uproot the evil Necklace-spirits. "vox equated (cf. Budge in his edition of Thomas of Marga's that is Book of Governors (ii. and by 'Azriel the great angel. the ghost and the vampire. evil Counter- charms. this And again... (14) of his throne and in the water. or p3> Bar Bahlul's Syriac-Arabic lexicon. in 'DKO.. Gewanai 'KJVJ 7: 15).. No. 648) gives a note contributed by Jensen a name of belit Hani... Halleluia. to which Payne-Smith adds. Moreover you evil Liliths.. adjure (13) you to turn away from this Rasnoi b. 3 ... by I Yah Your ?) his name . I adjure you by the Strong One ( of Abraham. see Noldeke.. 15 KOND: one of the most frequent feminine names in these texts. vi. And by the adjuration of holy Angels. 309. the Chariots of the Beasts worshipping in the fire El-Panim before him standing.. Cf. to and the letter of divorce (16). do not return them from day and forever. 708. divorce and writ (?) and fire of separation . M. col.. Hag and Ghul. particularly against the Liliths (a picture of one of which obscene creatures decorates the bowl). (15) and by Kabkabkiel the great angel. by Yah b. WZKM. ii. by the Shaddai of Jacob. Amen.

"ravager. or plur. 1 also ' T1JN. as KrlKE*3 shows. 281 ." y.. c. atives in 1. 1. 39 the Lilith appears as the ghost of a dead does not determine the etymology. 7. "cough. 81." like the magical quotations from Scriptures. The probable identity of <n with the Arabic Ghul suggests connecting 'B> with the Arabic si'lat. e. should be read in many places. 2 are At end of NJTJ. WZKM. Ass. a similar case at end of No. and fern.>e> named the five different "modes" of the lilith. sing. 42. plural. u. elanu preferable in the context. 15. Bab. also cf. long neck her arms like . cf. Utukki-series. 1036 (from r6y?).J. i. long beak of Cyclops' eye jaws. which set in the thus described by Doughty "A midst of her human-like head. Dt. forms were given to the i. however in relative. Lane.). 17. it is a question whether the 2d per. and Nrvaon are unique demoniac names. 1. the 4." Muss-Arnolt. ii : or NJTS'Ejn is No. the latter a masculine of the feminine). and btf pi. Lexicon. MONTGOMERY ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. xmiX!?. Another possibility is = is Assyrian "ghost. . vii. 17. Also the confusion of and in our script the imper(inclusive renders the distinction between masc. the formation being originally selamtu (cf. Diet. Jastrow. In the following text 157 3. 21." represents the in Heb. p. the notes on the is Prob: exactly the Arabic Ghul. Horrible bird-like (where these two spellings also are found). We have then to to account for the loss of the The form would be comparable sulii. 179. such the tradition in Onkelos and 14: 15 LXX) Targum 16. like the case of the loss of W t verbal forms in is JTI in later Aramaic. found only here and in No. 35 The ostrich itself even in the rationalizing P"1W. so that the context from i"6y). end. n. the former possibly to be compared with the Syriac? My English "you" covers the uncertainty between sing. B. Do form 10 terminate in I or u. f. Dnn Jer. g. and the 5 of you" below. and also van Vloten. The witch or Ghul No. (The Arabic root sa'ala. 1365. and at length his Arabian Nights. Old Testament ably the 'n is is half demoniac. demons by the Babylonian imagination. But the obscurity consists in the equivalence of in the and pab. : a prophylactic "word. = Syriac hyV. among the unclean birds. TVD'nn. The two numbers are clearly distinguished in 1. ("ostrich"? to Lev. " itSl rPDB"3 cf. uncertain. who quotes an Arabic author to the effect that the Si'lat is the witch of the feminine Jinns. A. NJVBBn. n. 1. Rel. in the ends one or two great sharp tushes.

''PIS: vice versa often along with synonymous verbs. name-magic see in the invocation Cf the naming of . Sem. descriptions of the Nakedness and dishevelled hair are standing See references above. p. similar names also in No. see J^D-IJJ: is my notes on WHS.": see commentary No. and for Arabic legend. lilith." 1. iii. Reitzenstein. lilith 7. Cf. the fingers of her hands not divided big as a camel but in shape like as the ostrich . 32. chickens' fledgling wings. jm. where 1133 is also used of the human : personality. cxxiii). Wellhausen. 3..158 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. and below.. p. p3vj? yoE> : 7j? - : > as constantly in these texts and as in Mandaic. ass' hoof and a foot as an ostrich. P." (Arabia 53. Judische 3. 5. 88. JTIKO == wno (15: 2). 73. 60). etc. supplied from 17: 5. the Labartu called a whore . in is the Greek. the name of a Zoroastrian . g. Pap. Magic. This was a happy thought of the ." cf. i. Cf. e. add witch. b. . "Rabbi J. hardly an appeal to the demon's sense must be equivalent to "name. the parallelism and ip' the equivalence of the Name and the Glory in the Old Testament. psnyo sing. p. BABYLONIAN SECTION. see Justi. : JOwHll for the sharpening p. t e littai from flattai. Brit. 58. 295. 77. : 7. as TDD shows. the long series of impera- tives in Mafc/w-series. She has a foot as the Deserta. "Martha. from Mus. lilith e. 166 ff.. 9: 25. the body the sex is only feminine. 60. of the demon's forbears has a compelling power. The naming . Angelologie. of the vowel. as part of p. Mk. genius. 259. 17. 6. out- lawed position. etc. probably hypocoristic from Rasnu. The picture presents the abandoned character of the is g. n. Skiszen. etc. v. the Babylonian (Utukki-series. etc. 32. tt& Jvn: ND^ the separation of the from her victim is expressed in terms of a divorce-writ. in Gollancz's Syriac charms . The same names distorted and applied appear in No. and also her shameful. quoted by Thompson. istu biti si pmn'K. as also other bracketed passages. 158). 298 (where the demon 4. Kohut. Tnrwjri in Glossary. Poimandres. "by the glory of your father" of honor. names Tnrcri. 'lien : also bidden not to disobey). Acts 16: 18. the parents of the demon 'Saa>x<MM>x of his appearance in a charm of Wessely's (xlii.

1. and lilith are carefully used. W." sentence consummating the from her process. and also the whole brood. The names liliths both parties are exactly given. so as to include both the definite 7. that it belongs to the category of writs from foreign countries for special which there were forms. No. in sense of Latin reddcre. But there sary.J.. hence the parents of the specifically are here 17: 2: The very terms of r\p2Z> .. NDS NB^. 9. ( ?) may be from 3in i. only the were as submissive human sisters. xiii. Get. 1. divorce are repeated in 3W piece JVDim in cf. In the parallel bowl. affected that the writ has come down from heaven NO' -\yy 7). s. in 34: 2 the sorcerer calls himself "J. The commissioners and witnesses are is the holy angels. MONTGOMERY ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. Jewish Law of Divorce (Philadelphia. liliths is The logic of the procedure was very simple to divorce as their incantations. b. For a further phase of pi. 7. as that of is The magical the divorce court. hence the po etc. "the house of Joshua": of the school of sorcery. the facsimile of a Get given as a frontis- Amram's work "take (wv a Jvyim JVpSE' IVIED). It was necessary in 26: 6. appeared of any case of the occurrence of and first in Ellis's bowl. 1.. 7. A. who thus applied the powers of binding and loosing claimed by the rabbis to the disgusting unions of if demons and mortals. which was a named. a difference.'s cousin. requisite in a form of date given of I KDV fin). And is. . Divorce." 1 See D. 159 magicians. none other than the this famous master-magician Joshua "divorce-writ" see to 1 1 : Perahia. and then the divorced as demon must betake herself victim's property. Amram. this But I do not know magical Get outside of the bowls. 1896). e. vv. ND'^B SD^S the root ppl. (1. no. c. pa'jnD'E'. (1. first syllable pnrrn : : Pael infinitives with in j. against spiritual powers divine authority so it is was neces(1. esp. "Hear. = "split asunder. obey and go forth" 10). hence QD'J "^tftf: thy writ. rmtasi the legal Get. commanded by is the peremptory. 1 writ affects the same forms and formalism 17. A rabbi also at hand to seal as notary the divine decree. The decree frequent in these bowl I. Jewish Encyc. In both the sing. 9 f." 3TID ii. that the writ should be properly served on the divorcee.

78. . 01 on-DK T3H3: cf. e. to the Mighty One of Jacob... 49: 24.. n. . 14. "who is revealed as. cf.. Is. "the hosts of fire in the spheres". 17. is The reference to the manifestations. cf. be contained in the phrases. water. The scribe was not mighty in the But cf. ^&mty s. 2417: 22 the verb At least the vague idea of immortality may is used of the resurrection. genii. play with mpy. unique. b. 12.160 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. is known as an is angel of the divine chariot. Vocabulaire. "the chariots of fire El-Panim" < "the beasts worshipping in the cf. ..") The language is Hebrew and the allusions are taken doubtless from apocalyptic literature. and TMripP found ibid. Mandaic texts. of his throne and in the following term the 15. v. xnpJV indicates that witchcraft the lilith behind these devilish and the witch are practically identical. pITt? rrU'X: another term for the divorce-writ." then "cohorts") is a The common word in Targumic literature for the angelic hosts.. 13 to end the text largely mutilated or illegible . Is. is From istic 1. The "Shaddai of Jacob" Scriptures. (But the phrase may mean. for the Rock of is Isaac. ("banners.'the seven angels. . 3pr 'N. 51: 2: "give thanks to the Shield of Abraham. BABYLONIAN SECTION. see p. the finale of the in 12: 3." 13. 30: 29.? The seven planets are so called simply in Syriac. "may they be established for life".. etc. according to Shemoth Rabba = rnsax. Rock of Israel. Schwab. as there are traces of interesting apocryphal or kabbal- Viz. "Life is victorious. but in his no. Ecclus. : "by the Seven"? i. 15. to the Rock of Isaac." The same expression and the negative wish against devils in Wohlstein 2426: 9.. this is the more unfortunate passages." with which *74' 1 the glassy sea of Revelation.

in this (house of ?) Babanos bar Kayomta and of Saradust bath Sirin his wife. na nomom Knovp na i>i [p]pi3^ mssi . Exterior n i>y nja ma nainn !>KE-II bKa^oi ^wnaa msav D'n^N mn' 'n^y ISB"!' 'is i>jn (11) JDS IOK nnaiPD'N win xnnn TRANSLATION The bowl it is I deposit and sink down.No. and of pronunciation from pronunciations whereby are swallowed up heaven and earth. . for the Liliths who appear to them. and the work (2) I I operate. . the mountains are uprooted. (6) and of word from words. rvca sin mm Krray sivii> (2) snaijn i>ai> &o[w]i pn5> won N -a ptna pni> prnrpon 'B'j Njana Knysjoi rvi5n -pris 2^na mnnrx PTB> na nommi [n]crp DiB>i (6) nrnix nvniwi K'et^ snio nvixi ID ppueni [pmnj^an SD^I lean's pnan [nupjn] lino apji nio^n lino lino Dic>3 m mx H3K PH3 KJvW linn 11 '30^1 ilHV 't^in H'tf I1X (7) '. 9 (CBS 9010) 13 (3) yenm (4) (5) 'art . (7) .na b3 (8) 1-21 pn^y 'n^n'Ki Kane'!" prp5> jci nu nnx i> . and I have brought against you (161) . write for them (4) divorces. in virtue of letter (abstracted) from letter. Arts and Devils and Latbe. (10) pan' SJIDS [KSDH sn]: '^ n'i^i'T .. . . and in [the fashion of] all Rabbi Joshua (3) bar Perahia. and letters from letters. .. . . namely a writ of separation and divorce. ami rpnnrs pi^ .DOn'K pH3 KHDIl n'p'bo l[o ii]an' KP2^i n'33t5"s s^ani' s^ano . pn'nsipD'x pn^mn (9) 1 IDT pn'H3 [pn> prnn^n] ... perish by them from Therefore (?) I have mounted up over them (you?) to (8) a destroyer to the celestial height. in dream by night and in slumber (5) by day. Demons. and by them the heights melt away. . the world! Oh.

32: is 5. to be derived we have seen. besealment and Gabriel and Michael and Raphael. 3. No.. I Babanos b. BABYLONIAN SECTION. 4..probably EnJ3S3 8. at one of the four corners we must assume a parallel significance. and it is placed. Thy upon Amen. sin sin is 2.. Sebaoth. letters of separation (n. probably for in 1. cf. S. Amen. xrptJn K^Di Nils : the same phrase appears 'a is in 32 : 3 and 33: It is whence the obscure and "bowl. also 1. e. etc.. 54. For the loss of the guttural I in our present word. No. in the parallels nnjn Siny. K.162 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. originally it was a potter's vessel. taken from the Syriac parallel. a Syriac idiom. place of the wife. Justi. which are the largely colored by Mandaic idioms. n rvrvs pna. .. B>m3. you (10) . the second the Persian genius-name Anos. this God. 33. seal is YHWH. the bowl of the house. i. WOT was XJ'pK'. treated as IP?. COMMENTARY A charm for a man and 8." but goes back to the root ins. reference this dialect is justifiable. cf... X131J?: see p. as active in Rabbinic). giving the words for the potter and his art. 241. in the simil'ar sense "to sink" (the ist Form to is used as an As the phrase appears in our Syriac bowls. this threshold. destroy them (you) and to bring you forth from their house and their all dwelling and their threshold and . take in the common Syriac sense of laying a foundation. upon exterior) In thy name have I wrought.. and is largely parallel to (doubtless dependent upon) the Syriac text No. pp. 32 = I. In the lacuna snwirro might be read. his And do not dismiss appear to them. The first element baba or papa (Persian p often = Semitic b}. neither in dream of night nor in sleep of day ." and third I is word in the present text can be restored.. the Syriac and a synonym for ND13 to Mandaic Kims (puhra) which came mean "symposium. For from y\>v. The inscription is illiterate. cf. very propose the following explanation. (9) and of Saradust b. bedchamber of again. 51. pro: awkward. Mandaic NTie> for Kimr. his wife.

The name noiviD the signifies patrona. 4. in Pognon apparently a form of Zarathustra spelling see Justi. KDVp appears ." It is the question in Sank. The terms 5 . 35 6." In the present case it means "pronounce." to the sense "distinguish. 1 For this discussion see Dalman." and is synonymous to the Piel E""I3 as that appears in DE> KniDon. The general sense of these obscure phrases clear. 6. A. physical "prick. they refer to the magical use of letters and words and the manipulation of their nirr pronunciations. here is the words are Hebrew. the art. cf. and Glossary. Light is thrown . repeated 1 defies construction. f . 81. appear in No.. Pradel. 8. a Mandaic spelling for the plural in 7. 379 where is frequent Zaradust is cited to a in names. ed. 44 ff. name Sirm.J. prick out. 1. e. t'33: probably the Targumic "therefore. . lino nix 01 niK Dlt?3 : a parallel phrase appears in 32 : 6 . J'pnen piD'SI all NLW: the 8. 1- 9 '31 m the : name of these angels and letters. such for instance as we find in the treatment of " P- and in the Greek magic of the seven vowels. "pronounce clearly. 1 Mystic or traditional renderings of the Tetragrammaton are to. i. de Goeje. Tabari's Chronicles. the 1-3- name woman. 100. Der Gottesname Adonay. p. cf. s6a whether nirp D? 3pJ is so used or in the sense "blaspheme. bowls in B. 7: 12. But strange the application of this masculine PTE>: cf. MONTGOMERY ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. Cf. magician does not offer us samples of his rare There is a garbled form of these phrases jinan : : in 32 : 6." that in speech." 3p3i this root appears in the Bible where it passes from the is. see above p. doubtless referred but all this is only mysteriously suggested here. : The masc. p. 163 [xn]orp: n was legible to the original copyist of these 1." This and the following line are difficult by reason of an inconsequent use of the pronouns the scribe was writing by rote. '313^ a category appearing only in the bowls.

99. pp. . xbriD = rvntron. 3d person of the legend into the an instance of the attempted identification of the magician with deity or master-magician. where given the tradition of Joshua all on the passage from 32: 8 b. ?. the personification of . f. to be Afel. by which he obtained mastery over evil powers.). see above. (q. in cf. 58 f. is Perahia's ascent to heaven. 1 1 . Ex. 12: 23. first Our scribe boldly turns the person of himself. in the parallel the abstract x^an. NDiiD^r so the parallel demands. WTVK: appears 8.. BABYLONIAN SECTION. VI- is hebraizing. appears to replace one of the four archangels. and note the Greek parallels. S.164 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM.Myhrman's text. For the asyndeton connection of the angelic names with that of Sebaoth Deity.

and Zadoi her son. ir. Sabiel and Gabriel and Eliel (3) And sealed are Zadoi and Newanduch. Ah. his Newanduch wife b. It is decorated with a figure having a beaked. with that seal with which Deluge. i ... in the name of Yah.No. and Zadoi her son. from day and forever. (6) Noah sealed the ark from the waters of the And may their them and from this they fly and cease and go forth and remove from house and their abode and their bed-chamber. (5) K. p. (2) Sealed.. bird-like face. and her house and her whole threshold. and countersealed are this house and this threshold . 1VWJ: for the name see to 5: the same person appears in No.. . 44. COMMENTARY A charm for a woman and her family. in the name of LLZRyon and these. Yahu. with that seal with which the First Adam sealed Seth his son and he and Tormentors and Satans.. and Kaphni her husband bar Sarkoi.. the son of Sarkoi and was preserved from Demons (4) and Devils Again sealed and countersealed are these. (165) . 10 (CBS 16014) ma nn i npne> na ni>j.a 'jeai (2) 'jea na TTUTJ riB in' Kim n' nniD&6 ny'Dp pin nrva onnoi D'nn [i>]K'!Ki i>NnaJi DiB>a nina n n'i !>K"aB>i lintel n'SB"a KTH ma pi>n ntr^ ntoip DIN pcnnci po'nn nonm K?:nn Kin am PJDD ti p5>aan Kin na na IHJVJI vi] IDT [p]i>n ponnni (3) pin nnu'r!" nj iin['nT]n nsnm xcnn pnn'a ma 'nn 'Jsa (5) 101 (4) [pv]e> ID na nnnj'K inji'ji IDI IDI jinj'e ppmnn ION JDK ppsj'i Dbiyi'i pS>&a'i pmt'i (6) KJsim n'o n'a joi jo JH war ID jin'aats'D (7) TRANSLATION This amulet is for the salvation of this Newanduch bath Kaphni. ny'Dp: see Introduction.

to Gen. Sin Dan. 5. 296. against the rule. 6: 17. Lidzbarski 5. see 12: in Pognon B." and father had the same name. X3S1D: found in Targ.. cf.166 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. na: emphatic use of sin. ( )nt: the full spelling appears in 3. = rv^ov > frequent in the Greek magical vocabulary. '131 Tinrs: I can make nothing see out of these words. The first name is probably mystical. 382. For these apocryphal references to the seal of Adam and Noah. 7: 15.. Enc. and for the Jewish legends see Jew. for other examples.. v. cf. for the name. "the hungry one. For Sabiel and Eliel. and the name KSKQ. is in in. A Zaroi appears in 37: 2. 251. p. Vocabulaire. BABYLONIAN SECTION. 'JB3 : probably for Kafnai. ibid. 64. given. the Persian name Serkoh 1. Justi. 57. "Seth. s. ." "Noah. p. Schwab. 3." the Babylonian story not the Biblical that the hero shuts himself 5. It p. cf. p. "Ip-it?: H This is a case of The woman's husband the father's name being i. Onk. 98.

1 Another remarkably enough. 7. 4. published by Lidzbarski. having evidently transferred material from another script and In the following texts I dialect. especially as contributes nothing further to the understanding of their contents. and. n. the i. This process facilitates the verification of emendations. but for the interesting that one of four almost duplicate inscriptions. Layard. have slightly abbreviated the names in the in the 2d and 3d columns. Museum. would be is in terms of a divorce from the evil spirits. 5. 11 (CBS 16022) A charm for a woman and her household. until sense becomes nonsense. a simple task which doubtless would have allayed the Of this text the bowl from Nippur I is practically a duplicate. It I bowl but also of that Museum. We mark how magical terms which once had a meaning become blurred and obscured at the hands of generations of sorcerers and copyists. and none has taken the trouble to . able to restore almost the entire in the British 18. * 3d It is not necessary to give a translation of Ellis's As suggested in that section.No. and so place in have left it in its original it my arrangement of these inscriptions. or simple word or phrase receives a kabbalistic interpretation. Cf. have thought it worth while to present the three texts in parallel columns. collate afresh the bowl in the British difficulties. Ellis no. text not only of our am No. and omitted a few unimportant phrases (always so noted). inscription of this category ever . can be read only by com- parison with the three presented here. Nineveh and Babylon. with the help of Lidzbarski's inscription. first no. published. The fact text it legible only for a half. in The latter is given in see 2. The Mandaic its appears to have the latest type of text. the Mandaic bowl. is The longest and clearest of these is. the parallel texts in No. (167) . 512 ff poor facsimile. this was the bowl obtained by Layard from Nippur. There is also a fourth duplicate. while I the variations which present themselves throw interesting of light upon the natural history magical inscriptions.

V!!> (2) (4) xnipjn jso nit^a pni> Tn&n (3) to 1 13 nna JDI TIIJVJ na n^ns nJV3 1ST TDHJED'K (5) KJ1J3 IID'K ^N (4) X31 X31 xai mm (5) o^oan nnia m (6) nnia n3 H3P1J DN 131 i nnxia ns CX nn"xa 13 nrrviai nn^aa [san']i 'jsa [na] nnjvji ponn i nrvK3i ns xnxnxn xnebno VI XI XSpXtJI wnxpnxn . as the text is now almost entirely intelligible.168 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. rpe> ii Ellis i Lidzbarski 5 jo xniox 'Divm to ijs3 m IIUTJ (2) rpeB> 'nma IDX IOK xni'aaDi (3) n^!> 5>D3ivni jo nrn am pmrvni JB3 na pin 1]5>1 rim . bowl. BABYLONIAN SECTION. No. The enumeration of lines in Ellis's text is according to the spiral lines.

. A. 169 DS-ND3 pncrrrn (7) > onsiD3 pncnrn 013-1x03 '333'b D ^P. 1^3P1 'Ji oxnbn pnjn '3i ipn^yi (8) ipiai piai H3 '3 H3 'H3T SnQ13D''K [|D] T'Diim '31 nrpn3 jo xi>i ti'XD^nsxi' p^xtn^n XOXOH piKim3tbl x^'bi '31 nrvx3 D^n'm TDVT nn:3i naa n' pcp'n V (9) 51^3 TS n nnpnys > n noc' E>n:'o xcynxox i n eiK 3 xnx^N j'xn B' D" 0' TT r my TIJ? nxuxmx^x XHX3PU1 nnpr3 "13 (9) xr^x i^3 TV n3i NTp'l X31 n21 . MONTGOMERY ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS.J. pmn xn ." n 1 DPTTI nrpni23i xim D^B> in &O33 (6) rp3ro xn oxnbn 3JT moa xm ['31 nD3 JDI 'J KH rnaai 'n nn'3 nro H2 nrvN3 pi 'D na 'N rut % ni3 IEI (7) P3H31 (8) 13 aim xnB'133 prvbv i[m]n p3 .

" "Heaven" is used here and the in parallel passages as surrogate for Deity. Newanduch bowl. Amen. rpDt? b. since the days of the world. K. b. 'Dm : cf. here without mention of a husband. . Behold I have written for thee (i. and do not appear to her. name of Memintas (?) keeper of Habgezig (?). Demons] (8) Take thy divorce from who Newanduch and do not In the b. " JVB> jnv 's n:rm TRANSLATION Salvation from Heaven for this Newanduch bath Kaphni. in Again. . (7) that thou be the courses (?) of thy heart and with the lance of ... Yat. Amen.. By carved and engraved the Ineffable Name. that she be saved (2) by the love of Heaven from the Lilith and the Tormentor. . the [great] ruler of Liliths. who b. fly and refrain (3) and remove from Newanduch b. adjure thee.. the seal on which Y6. [with her]. Yad.]. Lilith Halbas. COMMENTARY i . 10 . Yat. And is do not (9) kill her sons and daughters. a divorce). [like the divorces for their wives. and behold I have write separated thee [from N. K.. Kaphni : the the same as in No. the six days of creation. and do not return to them. BABYLONIAN SECTION.. after ancient Jewish use. lie K. same use in 18: i and Wohlstein 2422: 3.170 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. and I ruler. the Lilith and the Tormentor and Fever and Barrenness (4) and Abortion the name of him who controls the Demons and Devils and Liliths. e. powerful . granddaughter of Lilith Zarni." their king For the binding of (5) Bagdana. "the great Lord of love. neither by night nor by day. [dwelling] in the house and dwelling Newanduch smitten in is K. Yat. the king of Demons and of [Devils]. and [plaguing] boys and girls. over you. . in the and name of "I-am-that-1-am. Ellis's It is also name of the mother of the client in 2. etc. sr 12 ne>B> 'D' rt!>D rppna trov JDK je JDX Etc.

will be Win: is so in Ellis. the in -ARAMAIC I INCANTATION TEXTS. rage. must be connected with our xrran above. no'v p3B>n ^>- DEiltS It = D1B1K = if it D11QNU : these various forms throw no light on the word. see on 19: fllfej^ft: 13. explained from the parallel which shows that was meant the unusual form ^K (= ^>y) was taken to be "god. At the end of this line begins the parallelism with the two other inscriptions. See Lidzbarski's attempts at explanation. which appears as one in a series of divine names. e. 8 sibility and 17: and Ttn^s. Proof of the imposlilith of etymologizing on these forms The accompanying appears to be better liliths in the is it Mandaic. the first ' is second represents the half. "Nirig" is indecipherable from the facsimile. sn^an: "bereavement. D3^n = D^Dan = DX"6n. . or poison. oni?B the names in the parallel texts Nos. with meaning "be hot. See the various derivative nouns shooting. interpreted by they are the male and female respectively. but in the Mandaic bowl where fOsnjnK (= tutolUK in Pognon B)." etc. known as identical in all three inscriptions. '3 is both generic and personal. The same process of corruption found below on the Mandate side. g. rtaxn. Lane." see cf. 8. looks as were a corrupted Greek anatomical term. KmyE> ~\yO. Arabic-English Lexicon. in the three texts. The two in the Mandaic are cf. 4. "burning. 7. .J. TTJ = 5. is on the Nerab inscriptions. MONTGOMERY new word. = and the passage became hopeless. 6. In trna -I1D3K." etc. For the "king of demons. It is unfortunate that in the first line of Ellis's inscription. : a would connect it s'r (Heb. the The scribe in our text has been con- fused and repeated his words here. is The granddam Ellis's text.vowel. bi:. below. "W). "demoniacal possession. A. Our very e. madness. i. Possibly fever. 1. sa'rat (our very form!) "cough. with the Arabic root 171 3. first is word. the name For following TTJ cf. But our SO133 the elder form. the reference being to a mischievous killing by magic of the unborn child. Yir6s and ! }r6a. r-n." . 74. = Nin-gal. abortion of the lil'ith personified. IID'K ^>S El-sur. the second word a careless repetition of the first. mange"." then used of abortion. The Arabic su'r connotes infection." su'r. 1363: sa'r. an error as the subsequent spelling shows. p.

rvnpPjD: with It the help of the parallels we can make out the gives its reading. Gram. '3 our bowl 2. ? 3^ = 33^>. The eniSD DB> is thus reduced to a travesty The well-known Jewish phrase appears also in Schwab. 18. JV3r)3 For &O3J DpVl &H3N. The Mandaic here a striking instance of perversion. BABYLONIAN SECTION. 3: Nn 2 : explained by the second column. Mand. e. divorce-writs must be as It effective on them as among human kind. n33 : (= is plural) Mandaism. Journ. E. of Biblical Lit. Noldeke. 9. Again no There considerable similarity in the following magical syllables. is different from the other two. The additional thought appears here that inasmuch as demons divorce their spouses. as a Curiously enough the Mandaic has taken the interjection Nn and rendered it by ptNil. the second goes over into the plural the same uncertainty in No. patdru. NDyDNOS the second text obscure. I : the latter has. = pauWi (Ellis) : our text explains the reading of the elder bowl 18:7.172 I. see Arnold. special lilith in the singular. which were raised to divine dignity to accom- modate the epithet snbs. pronoun cf.. moB: 'tra Ass. TV and IvJ . is The invention appears to have been prized. 8. 1905. Enron light! 01 DiBQ = Mand. as the deity Sir-Geliph also introduced above in the ! same inscription. so also below . the former a metaplasis of the latter. and Ellis's inscription are almost identical. as Lidzbarski recognizes. 'Wjf == roj." psron H^ XD3: cf. also No. first Cf. this took with the ppls." * Cf. 107 ff. UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. The reading cf. "break a charm.. equivalent) it The prepositional phrase r6y (or was understood as "God" and turned into xnt>X. 81. the same form in = opT) = D'WiBKp form. * For the true explanation of this term. a peculiar Manclaic am inclined again to hold that the parallel in shorter forms are more original. where plus N3H33 i. may be noticed here that the and third texts address a . the divorce-writ. 8: 7. .

developed the wonders of this magic Ac- cording to the end of our inscriptions this seal engraved with the divine Name was in existence since the week of creation (= JTE>K12). A. 448. See Jewish Encycl. 438 f. This is an addition to the ten things which according to Pirke Aboth. GJV. especially Arabic. MONTGOMERY ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. and at length. Abraxas. 68a. b. 1. . 5 8." legend. 303. xi. 139. 28.. p..J. mentioned by Josephus) of inscribed 173 Solomon's magic ring the (first with Later Tetragrammaton is the subject Haggada in Gift. 141 for bibliography. Schiirer. . were created on the eve of the first Sabbath among which were the alphabetic : script 4 and the tables of the Law. Dieterich. for the Greek magic. ring. ff. iii.

which may appear their property. 13 ppin spn pmn3 pann n^i3 ^D^ ^3 n^ pmpna pnK"i p!>D3' pr (9) (10) SD^ ^D !>3i xn^33Di nansi n'!i>i 'taaiB'i nm IDI n^n KH^DI ID ppE'i IDI n^nn^x iip-itj' mn 'J3 n3 (11) npia' IDI IDI nnjDDK n3 m-n -pine IDI pntn B"a PDD* . and they sit and stand in their (174) . the angel which descends from heaven there in the shape of a horn. filled heavens (7) with glory. and their feet (8) are not seen in their dances by the whole world. who walks upon the (throne-) steps of his se'u. on which honey is poured (6) the angel who does the will of his Lord and se'u. 12 tima^i rrruvs p-iDjrm (CBS 9009) -Q mm m (2) Mpne'in THDDK rrn-6 srci? ID KJTIDN p (4) ptnrvon (6) nb33D po'pm pm p:3 pni> prm pnrj<p!>i (3) JDI NrpW JDI xnmi' IDI <JDD ID' ^ait? pp noi3 S3J na K'DB> ID prrjvai>i IDI pnruabi IDI nn ITB> p5>r *rt rvi> rpnn nasi'D -fry 5>yi wow IDD pni (5) (7) !> s^D^ia nnnB"oi IKB 'JDD 'mnn i^a'a 'nnm Knin T3jn (8) jinnrji '3 SD^V IDT PEB*: ID pinDDi po'pi i [P]DVT n'rs PK^DH". that they (5) to them. for Sarkoi their Dada his wife.DI prprp3 IDI 'i^s' <UQ JDI nmss nioB" 'n^sn IDI IDI niK3X mni 01^3 oi>iyS pn KDV ID na pc^T nin3 pn'mn n n i^ao HS-IIDB" pnjuv mn nlD 1 (12) joi JDK IDS Exterior (13) TRANSLATION Salvation from (2) bath (3) and Heaven for Dadbeh bar \smanduch and . who endure and keep pure since the days of eternity. and for their sons and daughters and house may have offspring and may live and be established and be preserved (4) from Demons and Devils and Plagues and Satans and Curses and Liliths and Tormentors.No. I being kneaded (something) adjure thee. Lord and who they are is praised in the and his praise is in earth semft.

80 above. COMMENTARY A charm for a man and his wife and their seven named children. see King. the Armenian name Samanducht. 75. mxi- p. A. Nippur. i.. 16 and the Syriac Nos. and for the p. Palmyrene and Syriac X1X1. species. 2. Dadbuyeh. 1. xxviii. nail: probably abbreviated from ibid.J. Amen. "YnwH keep thee from evil. p. of the hall. 33. 5. Mand. Babylonian Magic. The Prof. 75." Exterior (13). for the f. 111. for 01 ^3313 (read niOl n1) into : n rubic directing an its operation compelling the presence of the angel through a simulacrum and lation. e. There is rubrical reference to a magical operation for compelling this angelic assistance. keep thy soul.. Gram. all ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. piJDDK: see 'ljne>: 281. A. lightening like the 175 place. from their house and from (12) their this property and from forever. blowing like lightning. 39: 19. in the wherein they dwell. and from Sarkoi (n) b. Dadd. from day and name all of YHWH Sebaoth. MONTGOMERY the blast. Amen. Selah. manipuappears be The insertion of the rubric the text of incantation p. Of the inner room.. It in the Babylonian magic. is may queried whether our sorcerer not reciting a form unintelligible to him. . but cf. in the form of an adjuration of a certain potent angel. 31. 182. ii. see 10: Justi. (9) These will frustrate and ban Familiars and Countercharms and Necklace-spirits and Curses and Invocations and Knockings and Rites and Words and Demons (10) and Devils and Plagues and Liliths and Idol-spirits and Tormentors and everything whatsoever evil. same family appears also in No. from root use of the father's 4. g. 2. see Justi. Dada his wife and from Honik and Yasmin and Kufithai and Mehduch and Abraham and Pannoi and Sili the children of Sarkoi and their dwelling. may equal K'l&n. p. 'D3ie>: The name looks like a masculine (for the name see to 10: i). form Noldeke. The name is Semitic. Gottheil has presented a tentative translation in Peters. that they shall flee and depart from Dadbeh b.

pmrJ: The a Rabbinical form. Job 38: 7. 169 = Thompson. some Midrash. For the description "blowing like the blast. Thompson in nno : for the plural. 1OD. Canaan d'apres vii. or the as parallel to form may be regarded 'man. Sent. probably a cone of wax or the like is kneaded. BABYLONIAN SECTION.. v. in j.. For an extensive collation of like instances in Graeco-Roman magic see Abt. unique Index. The description passes to a plural subject here. literally wherein the suppliant "smooths" the face of of deity (Heb. cf. it survived only in the word-magic. 112 (Fig. 54. appears to be a quotation from is. 374. Iviii). Probably idolatry has basis in this magical idea. paaiAevs. up in : worship"?). instance in Jastrow. Die Apologie des Apuleius. Ps. We have here a bit of poetic lore about the angels. 8. 381). doubtless domestic baitylia. 222 ff. niK3T <rv.176 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. choric dances of the angels are a pretty fancy. and Scheil. Who IKE?. awe the hearer. the magicgod whose image is formed for purposes of sorcery. 104 rvw: cf. and honey poured upon it. onto. 6. magic images of the favorable gods were is made and series. May the term in Apuleius. 1:13 = -\& = i>:n. 177. with which 1 we may compare rubric see is. Mand. are probably mysterious utterances to "hear. "Im the early Babylonian Namen Jesu. Magic. But in the present case a "horn" (symbol of power?). 3: 3 (from ye>. 34-37. see Vincent. cf. Noldeke. (a term much disputed by the commentators') = iSn = 1Sa. 4. the antique anointing of the sacred stone or bethel. Gram. the intrusion of rubrics into the Psalms." For b = 3 cf. Memoires de la a Delegation Perse. p. omo. "foot. describing their It worship and service of the Almighty. the angel invoked does not appear. 340 ff. 227. cf. For the magical use of honey." etc. 7: 5. ! The I think.. the word used here? . 834!). Michael ? The terms cf. 7. The ancient charm was for In binding the good spirits as well as the evil. the incantation as well as the exorcism was a Karaha/Mf (see Heitmiiller. cf. I'exploration recente. Reverence gradually obscured the idea that the gods were thus bound. f. used in the rites. Diet. r6n)." KBtf "lift . a good example found in Zimmern's Surpu no its 54 (p." 2d part). Jewish magic. 103. 1 Small conical stones are found in the oriental explorations.

etc. 5 : The two words: "of the room (recess. MONTGOMERY ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. cannot identify. 13. 208) compares the But Lidzbarski (Eph.. bedchamber. from nbKE> K^t?. ii. ybw. 315. Note that among these 74) vocalizes the name Nabataean name Sullaios. cavern)" evidently refers to the place where the bowl was to be placed. ii. see Seder haCf. 405. 347. = in "jasmine. Inschriften. a psalm admirably adapted for a charm. Doroth. A. Justi. inno: "I3B: cf. 86. idranu. For the 'D^ and xnaip'tr. 'pJX is a masculinized form of xnpjy 11. '5"T hypocoristic of ii. jnTN = current in the Aramaic dialects. see Payne-Smith. Tonne. TTS13: the same name Syr." cf. and 177 9. p. Justi. as is Ass. 121. KT|JBDK as especially its words might mean the same thing. Nab. 16) rejects this derivation and derives the hypocoristic from tfov. nine souls only one strictly Jewish 12. 186. Persiche Studien. 145. see Nolcleke. p.). or the two terms may be parallel. p'3in: I (see p. "hv. col. The scriptural quotation from Psalm 5. see 6: 2 p. No. POD" 1 : a Persian name. biblical r6t5>. name is appears. hall Cf note to . some discussion of .J. 88). CIS. of the (also. The Glossary shows two other men of the same name. 185. Jastrow defines a "sitting room in the shape of an open hall". for etymology. the Arabic Fannuyeh. also occurs in the nos. Noldeke (in Euting. 2 (in '-). name of several Amoraim.208. The and first word may be the in construct state. Sullai. Nabataean.221. and Berger (see to No.

Before all the sons of Adam whom he begat by Eve.p3iv . (8) the awful.no'y ci'iyi' (7) . from their clothing they will clothe her and from their garments they will will garb her. (178) .No. ruiD3' . . In the is name YHWHmystery in-Yah. o . S. (3) And the angel Rahmiel and the angel Habbiel and the angel Hanniniel. we will enter in before them.siul' nmstj' 13 HIEN in^i unj (10) ^nj 'on snl^ !>3nan 1 xnmn HDK n ^n^3K. (7) With her they as is right. on of and on that.pn'Dnp!> hyi mn (3) m n^n . (4) the. El-El the great. panacea. . . nw 01^3 TEtrns pn^t^o . pity arid love and compassionate and embrace Bahmanduch (5) b.i'pl'p nvi intfi n'p nom n inn . whose is word ever. a virgin travailing and not bearing. this side the garment of the grace of God. the voice of a woman. sit.e angels. driving away (demons?). 31 K!>P !>p mn N^P 5>p (9) n3 nnjonai nsu }DN 'S"l>3^ u5>i rpnu . 13 mnrpK (11) SOD SOD D3 1HJDn3^ CB' JD WlDS D'Pl inE'1 (12) [DN1 TRANSLATION Closed are the mouths of all races. 13 (CBS 8694) ri3 irunrm HOP ID rpJBi>i (2) rponjn rrosj. . pn^m pmois pxbn jtu^K (4) rbs^D i>K':<j[n]i rox^D bwnni ro^n iwrrn DIN ija ^>3 1BJX3 KDD (5) Tnjom m ppsm [pjrr]i !jno. legions (2) and tongues from Bahmanduch bath Samai. this confirmed.pnniD3'Di rmtni" . Quickly be enamored.TO nn'D .pn&raio (6) .IDK 5>3 nno'mi i"m (8) Exterior T KP Kmri n^ xisi . made fast and sure forever and Exterior (g) Hark a voice in the mysteries! Hark the voice of ____ .

28 are unique among early Semitic incantations. p. 28 and the a Jewish cast in its its Greek charms. press (?) . mouths means NOJn is particularly . whose names are expressive of love and in use of biblical divine names. 28. as (she fresh is was) a virgin myrtle salvation ( ?) travailing and bearing not. for they are love-charms. Amen.... leaven.. but without consistency. affecting not only the woman but also the man's love and At the end probably is given an aphrodisiac recipe. In this they bear the closest relation to the Greek erotic incantations. This text and No. i. fast and sure (13) A preparation (?) .J. (12) from Heaven for Bahmanduch b. But in the present text it is the barren forsaken wife passionate lover. Amen. and numerous Hebraisms. Salvation and peace from Heaven. it And made >S. The second word The passage an artificial enlargement of the Syriac tegma (ra^a) '5? for the sake of assonance with is (spelt in the usual archaic Syriac fashion). may love her and she may have is children by him. contains illiterate is and script. Do the words refer to classes of mankind.. or else is = Mandaic plural in X (see to 9: 6). (n) his wife. COMMENTARY A is charm for a certain woman No. that her husband the same . A. and the taking away of demons? their the to whom we woman's reproach among men? Or not rather to ranks of expect some reference. nan : for noD. : reminiscent of Dan. against the reproach of barrenness. union. The closing of forstalling their curses. so (may for crowns. It is Apparently the text in style is shortened from a longer model. on which I will speak more particularly under No. not the incantation has address to certain angels. who The speaks. iTODj? 11 rpDOJn : either antique emphatic plurals. 3 4. 85. A feature the use of a wedge-shaped sign (indicated in the transliteration by a comma). as in No. cf. MONTGOMERY ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. p. Selah.. I. 179 (10) be enamored and come Ephra bar Saborduch to the marrow of she be) his house and to the marrow of Bahmanduch b. cf. forever and ever and ever. The couple that figures in which particularly a charm against the liliths these are supposed to have prevented the natural fruit of the human virility. occurring as a separator between words. 80. S. Amen. Amen.

328. or a Pael of For this protection ^>s6x. The line is obscure . which contain many incantations for love. Wessely. ii. Mand. For nirp see to 7: 8. xlii. mr. 19061907). love between man and which the wife.) M : 3. for the pregnant meaning of their names. 269. xlii. the 8. 80). Rahmiel is the genius of love in No. no. and in the Peshitto trans- used of the cohorts of evil lates the "legions of angels" in (Payne Smith. also found in the Greek magic. 2: 2. v. as in Hebrew. 197. . 6 : 1 1 . Nni3O''S B^abs. tna^D assimilation of JD. Brandt. 447) otherwise nom = nxm. The following word may be a on right and left.180 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. The three angels appear (upon some reasonable emendation) to have names corresponding to the verbs in the next lines. Is. It Schr. 1896. (Heidenheim. actual investing with "grace" occurs in the : newly-found Odes of Solomon. 1. g. 26 53. 5 . XTDTI ^yo : a common Semitic idiom E>abb cf . and also for breaking marital love. so Raphael became the patron of healing. Angels were chosen. 7 : imTD Vlbl TJ TO rpp: rP3 again Hebraic. 61 : 10.. it appears to present a dramatic scene in which the sorcerer and his client. and the latter also in Sttibe. 1DK ^3: : cf. in the 6: 10. the reduplication of in the WK. 67. BABYLONIAN SECTION. Mandaic religion. shall obtain judicial vindication of love from the favoring angels. 4 7. Berlin. cf. and the Hebrew to be connected with Ellil of Nippur? see Clay. p. 31). graph. For a discussion of the word and its origin see Noldeke. and in one of Thompson's Hebrew charms from Mossoul (PSBA. for the idea cf. epithet of the sun-deity (Norberg. 24) . names signifying love and its passion (1907. in the presence of the adversaries. Salbabiel. God 2. 56. Opiel. ^soan and ^X33n are found in Schwab's Vocabulaire. this spelling occurs also in a neo-Syriac manuscript published by Lidzbarski (Die neu-aramdischen Handschriften der konigl. Neusyrische Gram. t. probably once a divine name South-Arabic plural. of Nippur.. O1 Eve's offspring has a sympathetic value. in the Samaritan. Bibliothek Weimar." AJSL. 1B3 133. 1907. ditto- sam.. Onom. 15: nom z. !> may be a magical reduplication. 386. or invented. . The reference to Adam and 6. once we find a philtre in angels invoked are Ahabiel. but cf. . Bph. Bibliotheca 13. pp. s. 28. "Ellil.

(= biblical Syriac on). so (her future state shall cases in the Hebrew. which primarily "body. rrrra *fi& I have tried in my translation to express the difficult word essential 113. 144. in "mourner" ? '3 . .. but there the reference to the curses of unfortunate souls bowl of Pognon's. Some literary form has been so rubbed down as to be almost For this correlation of '3 . The reference is sexual. 1 198 p. 28). also the biblical Psalms often commence in like manner. 18 ii. Heb.J. f. e." cf. thing. Gen." and so = "quickly. which of a on. see : is N2n. KDH. MONTGOMERY same formula ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. Then 'on would be from the Din = tnn . Studien. a lacuna: as she (was) in the joyless condition of child- be symbolized by) fresh myrtle for crowns. g. In the same way the Babylonian magical texts preface their rites with a description of the plight of the patient. 3iiK. 9. or possibly ppl.~). '3. : 20. use of clines aiyri in a text of Wessely's xlii.).* Myrtle as sacred to the goddess of simile. would refer to the stilling of her "tongue. The piteous plaint of the sufferer is thus expressed. v. There may be the reference here to such a ban In this case 'on virgin gone to her death without children. '3 are used correlatively. 11. fem. we expect 33H. end of the word would then correspond to the frequent ifa i/6r/ ra^i ra^t Hadrumetum love charm (see to No. Ass. 5. 181 Tien D'p: the in Lidz. is At the end of this line which has attempted to on the edge of the bowl. (see Jastrow. '3riJ: the verb used for "love" this triple adjuration. afresh on the exterior. A. A similar phrase appears in a is B 20. a6p bj? : i>p is used like the Hebrew ^lp. appears to be an error for Kr6in3. as yet unnoticed unintelligible. see some.. 9. w!?3K '3: this -te. and we must suppose lessness. the scribe continue and has written a few characters he then started . "hasten. and the word has such connotations j. where 28.) makes an appropriate See my notes in JBL. subject perhaps to miscarriage or feminine maladies. But the repetition in n inis me to the view that the virgin who "travails and does not bear" the wife. 10. alight on the living." (Cf. 1912. the magical 1. as in 1. cf. and see note 'mi '3PI3 as at the to 14: 4. to move the sympathy of the celestial ones.. '31 For No. 60 f. love (Baudissin.." comes to mean the essence.

'B 12." an aphrodisiac. is which as a ferment would be appropriate fem. imperative. obscure. are common in all erotic praxis. venture to suggest that = Latin praeparatum Or to it (the verb being used by Pliny for preparing drugs. etc. foods.182 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. philtre is '31 tnanSN : this line I is provokingly Since a magical here prescribed.). posn is leaven. "press it. BABYLONIAN SECTION. may the be the Rabbinic mans. . "hash. used magically or medicinally. salad" (which however does not explain D). TPp''^ Aphrodisiac herbs.

.. within the glowing light fiery flame (8). Gadriel. avaunt.. oh (5) in the avaunt. COMMENTARY A against charm for a some certain definite name of YHWH and the angels. in the name of Seraphiel. And all Blast-demons (6) and whose names bowl.T pin' . 11x2 ^T 1 ! inn KDDS 1 iin ":^ -o-pjn pe^a ppnoi (6) ppn (7) s< !>3i ^-in: xmv ton ui psn' ponm jon nan E>irp ' pnn scaa n^D tax pox ox TRANSLATION [This bowl] in thy name do I make. sitting are recorded in this bowl and oh. I May in this bowl be for the sealing of Hormizduch bath Mehduch. whose names are not recorded there! in this (7) oh. N IIDT xs' ^v rrnasno rv p'rm PI. sit down and And ye shall be cast down. . and his (4) .. Oh avaunt. Hall'eluia.. and against the woman. the his removed his chariot to (above?) Red Sea . evil Injurers. Shekina temple of light Halleluia. the name of holy Agrabis. in adjure thee ... Peniel. YHWH.. who (3) David. avaunt! And in the name of Michael and Gabriel . Amen. . (now obscure) demon in particular.. (4) i>K'DDnm !>Kmv ^N^IDI niot^a ^nm n^stfa (5) ... Again I adjure and hail. Nahriel... 14 (CBS 16917) nn sm me>a D' xni^s mrr ntny <:K lotra [NDS -|t>y pn] SID m m'e. Selah. in name of MS MS... the the great God.iB>3 a>np D^IJK DIPS KSJ"[a] (2) . Psalm of the Red Sea. . TH (3) . in the devils in general.. Amen. in the you by him who lodged . pno rrjne>K inno na nn mo to . ion 5>Knaji i^wa awai n^ins nn B'W HM^H 1 n'l^n KCI toi>a K !> .. (2) evil. the exalted king. Suriel and Sarsamiel... .... . (183) ... .No. name of Sariel. the name of SP SP the YHWIC YHWK.

For the curse at the end cf." For examples.the syllable is Athbash for rv. of 2. 1.). n. Abraxas. 292. and the editor's note p. 22. . by error to the Song of Moses? rpnraB' "mrta: the Targumic phrase. pirn is for niPP. abeat abeat abeat malum. Ps. 3. Bnn 7. 12: 5. 38 of S113 5>3'fi3 : and fire are frequently found together in the e. For magical refer- ences to Suriel. 18: 13 f. V Y'. 66 and p." '. nnaTs: evidently a confusion between the passive and the ist person active. a reference to one of the Psalms of David. But cf especially Rev. as applied to demons in the sense of "at once avaunt. charm in Pradel's. or. Stiibe. The syllable S)D seems to Til: the lacuna makes the reference obscure. Dt. The sorcerer spares himself the trouble of all . elsewhere here 7. 4. inn pDin: probably Etpeel. 6. 1 5. our iwoDTD being probably same as the bs^oiD there. 13. 3. BABYLONIAN SECTION. have suggested the sea of *11D. 1. see the endings of nos. g. Poimandres. rpnriN. KTUi Ezek. DU15X is probably also a mathematical anagram for the divine name or power. to the *<% ifa TO** ^0 the Greek magic. 72 : vemat sanatio celeriter. naming the evil spirits by applying a "blanket" charm to them si>Ti : cf. see Lueken. 57. cf. p. All these angel names are found the in Schwab's Vocabulaire. (see p. a Christian Fluchtafeln. Ya = interjection "Oh. 1. 6 in Wiinsch. D'313S. 14. Antika Cf. i : 14. cf. and there followed lightnings and voices and thunders and earth- quake and great hail. hail e. enn\ tnrv: cf. and to 7: 9). 71. 1 1 : 19 : "Then was opened the temple God that is in heaven. Michael. 5. 63.184 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM." Reitzenstein has called attention to the equivalence of these expressions of (commenting on Stiibe. 7: 17. peso = mrr. = which the present form may be a corruption. and there was seen in his temple the ark of the covenant. g. etc. pnn : the only instance in these bowls of this rare demonstrative. Old Testament : as manifestations of the divine presence. . see to 3 : 3.

15 rpn'3!> n^> (CBS 16087) 5>a 'inn K'otrn xniox 12 ^a-ai'i (2) 'onvi xnS'x nniDK (3) no NOD 13 13 '33' &m3i>i i nn 'sosi wmo os^ (5) n3 (4) nrn nmni>i nn"in[5>i] otn 's-itsxi p^o jo ni>i3 n^n nn'3[!n] i ETK1 !H3'n'3 njo (6) (7) BTK DSO >E1B1 P^D 'n'joi K^ DK^ B'J'N NJO pp'n pnn pyhv 'n..i nrsin'B'D [13] .... Spirits and Goblins (6) and Plagues and Circlet-spirits Howlers and Strokes and and Idol-spirits and evil and the evil Lilith (7) . ^s'Dn.. . M. ^n3ji i'KniDi b^sn DIEO "in TRANSLATION In thy name and in thy word. D... [! O1 Mno JDI .. of brass and iron and seal you with the figure of a seal of . '33'f-i3 pi i3 ^J"13 5>'omi ^n . (185) ...... (2) Salvation of Heaven Hormiz bar Mama and for the dwelling of D6d(a)i bath (3) Martha and for Bar-gelal bar Dodai and for Bar-sibebi bar Cirazad.. even for all her house and dwelling (4). Lord of for the house of all healing.. (8) And I banish you from b..No. [M. Las min selik : watrefe das min mena Enas Ids la selik: watrefe das enas (5) mena BHYBDYN Wenas I las las la selik : watrefe das enas mena. And Arts and mighty Works I bind you with bonds fire... '"in (8) .. and] Barin the gelal b...... b. and Mehoi bar Dodai.. God of love. . scan and rhyme ( ?) against you.'3 n:o ti'j'K DXT [nn]tj"3 nn^'^i pi^nei ps'pn pnsun ptj"3 ptrini P3' mo] 13 n3 nn joi SOD 13 (9) fnn jo tinjo psn' nntssi . Hormiz C.... and Bar-sibebi (9) . and Dodai b.

'DNO. Amen. uncle..] ." "oa^ena : etc. name nn may and it its variant the HIT. 12: The present name is feminine. and Rahmiel and name of Rophiel and Suriel and Gabriel [and . 2. then written above. p. p. Galal is a biblical name. IWirpB'B: the Persian Cihrazad. see Justi. lists a Dttday. couplet. in Lidz. 'Jl p'i>D jo DK!>: this and the following line contain a magical incantation expressed in a rence of the 'SnCNi. the 1 rhyming doggerel couplet.186 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. and finally word was all. . Amen. "love-apple" ? Justi. also Dada. see to 1. ." 2. . a serpent with its tail in its mouth. The figure in the center of the 1. 3 the . 4. to represent the Persian hard ch. 86. ossuary inscription (Lidzbarski. as in No. The mother has after the amulet whose virtue she supposed gave to her a or protects the babe. 318) WttT3: a proper = mso. Handbuch. "friend. excrement. whose relations to each other are not definite. etc. see Justi. BABYLONIAN SECTION.) is First of there a couplet rhyming at the caesuras and at the end. see p. 163. (In the first occurwas first omitted. Amen. wno: a Jewish name found in the Gospels and in a Palestinian 5. p. is The C'O is an attempt The name the same as that of the famous raconteuse of the Arabian Nights. 54. rewritten that there might be no infraction of the charm. 8. 8: name is after Arabic formation? b^J = "round lump.hatiel is it and Suriel and Serariel . virtue of the They may be members of one household charm lies in the use of a doggerel bowl is a kind of Pension. mean rfwrfai'. who appears to have procured charm for the household. COMMENTARY A The charm for several persons. HVl: 38: the biblical 'tan. hypocoristicon from 111. '& named her child form of necklace charm. cf. 98. the same name N'DXD = 'NDND. 4. nrP3 : doubtless referring to Dodai. pDiifi: for this abbreviated form of Ahura-mazdah. And by the seal of YHWH Sebaoth established forever. 6.

Cf. 9. cf. (ZA." 39: 4 Wiinsch. cf. a feminine ornament. no. all potent against demons. pw: see p. MONTGOMERY is ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. the "chains of lead. 87 f. see p. Papyrus. f. xvi. but probably a demon of weariness. etc. vii 180. Ant. where the uncontracted form survives. Jastrow. Mehoi : hypocoristic. one-half demon." p. 188. chain. 7. Mehducht. 6. 204 and note. i. "incantation. 1510). c. here between categories of maladies." and runs thus (following Jastrow's arrangement) ki | risti libiki risti la libiki la libi pis | pisti sa anzisti | sa anzis | su anzis | anzis. i. similar doggerel formula presented by Myhrman in his edition of the Babylonian magical Labartu series Rel. fire. A. 5. For Greek up by 'JVJDi parallels see p. the name above aa'Ena. 81 . Wessely. The roots fco and may refer to the scansion of the couplet. etc. i. n. 21. repeated in 1. xnpay. 1. 7. van Vloten. 1227 flf. . pp't? = the Arabic demon sikk sometimes interpreted as one-half (sikk) man. The repeated too of the couplet p3 is taken Tir3. Brass. 61. belonging to the category of noin. lead. also the "adamantine chains" in Paris The bonds of hell are called catenae igneae in a Latin charm. 5. Fluchtafeln. Targumic pMB> (Jastrow.J. introduced by the obscure combination is A 339). some kind of pendant Talm. see Lane.. see Krauss. xxxvi. Arabian Nights.. Cf. Archaologie. 187 then the last line pl3'rV3. WZKM. in Myhrman between "devils" and P'tr: the "spirits. It is there called a : siptu.

and for their house and their property. injury (7) under ban. plague under healing. .No.a ri'Ki PMD jina (5) yr xin jia'pm ! pj3 jin$> jinni mnn xnno Niim mnn naitrn B"33i (6) ivi> ^im Nt^np xni'N npn 03 pnbn pB"33 sn'j mnn sun Knot? mnn (7) Kn^3n srju mnn inn Kjn3 jo'pj nn PB-US PTDK n^tr(8) . and that they live may have children and in the may long and be established.nn KH^ST n'onia mnn t<ni>33oi '5>KJi no nm naitsTn (9) '3-a~n snnoitjn sn^in noim ^?ns^pnB'''X1 (10) snsisi snivel '^'pi snpjsi snoi^ oom si (11) 'JBDI 'ini H^I Kmj'3Dici moRi nnpi yat^i p'DK pi p'jm pn^n^a KDOHI rp5in Kn^aao joi ^vn naiyi [o (12) JDI n'nn'K isn na 'ipie> 101 nnjaoK na n3ii MJQ joi joi 'ipit? ^3 ^^ JDI nmas jjn joi (13) inns xn^aia JDI n^o JDK (14) JDS niJiyM nt !>n DV jo ni'ia jwrnn jm jinj'j'p JDI n^^nia Tman ia mn' nyr TRANSLATION jaon ia mn' iw joon i>K from Heaven for Dadbeh bar Asmanduch (2) and for Sarkoi bath Dada his wife and for Honik and Yasmin (3) and Kufithai Salvation and Mehduch and Pannoi and Abraham and (4) Silai the children of Sarkoi. in his great arts name. 16 (CBS 2920) rpnms KINI na i>i 'ipie>i>i (2) IIIJODK na nmi^ K^ot? jo RHIDR (4) np-it? m i>a <Wi>i amat^i MJDi'i inno5>i WBiaS>i(3) jin 11 'OE'-ai o!>j. anger under repose: suppressed are all And the sons of darkness under the throne of God. suppressed Devils gripped likewise are (9) evil Spirits and impious Amulet-spirits and Names and Princes of (188) . in whose ( ?) name (8) are bound. (6) ( ?) destruction under construction. whereby the holy God is called wherein are which suppresses darkness under light. and that (5) no Injurer world may touch them.

v." etc. Af. 10. 44!) is (an obscure passage) there interpreted as "asthma" a disease or s. They are bound. 256. (as in 11. (13) and from this all their house and from their property and from all their abode. English "lay a ghost. 52. roil 8. B"33: ppl.Plague and Demons and Devils and Satans (n) and Idol-spirits and Liliths and Arts and mighty Works and the seven Tormentors of night and day." the Rabbinic 86. 7. . cf. literally. "And YHWH said to Satan.). and 112. cf. etc. act. Bpll. 11. tfbprn: see pp. n. the original iVDE3: I have translated 'p form may have which magicians been : rrb 'Enn npT xnb>o "i 'a "the great name ." i: 9. 'bxJi no nn : lit. Amen. Cf the 12 of 29 : 7. mpi t'33K>0: 84. "Sons of darkness": contrast the "sons of XSlt'm '3^3^ : light. (12) away from Dadbeh. i. which is found in the same passage from Bekoroth. MONTGOMERY ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. It contains an extensive and repetitious <M of demoniac species. invoke. 6: 12. the Pauline roif KoafioKparopaf OT<5roDf TOVTOV. n. A. 'JITDT 'X. which (Jastrow. "foul and laboring is spirit" (breath called . suppressed and laid. Amen. 79. Kni3'3D'n mox: "genius of nourishment. cf." 6. i ff. charm for the large family list that appeared in No.J. 70. . Foulness of breath was cause n$>B'J for divorce. the Plague and the she.~). (14) Selah. from day forever. 12. COMMENTARY A 5. Krauss Talm. . . in Bekor. demon xbxj. . Enc. 189 darkness and the Spirit (breath) of foulness and fatigue and the Tormentors of night and day and Curses and Necklace-charms and tions Words and Adjura- the voice of Invocation." and see pp. and the Spell of poverty and (10) and Knockings and Rites.

in her house. the five of you. nor are ye clad. thou Lilith. and take your divorces and separations. (5) naked are ye sent forth. for so has spoken to thee Joshua P. in the ban which is sent (10) against you by Joshua b. I have warded against you with the curse which Joshua I bar Perohia (sic) sent against you. with your hair dishevelled behind your backs. ye Liliths Hear and go forth and do not trouble (7) Komes b. Lilith of the Desert.^ jn5>a nnos nrnna N^I nrpaa SHIDK K'DK n^nna sni>aae !>a ncs jnam rrmapynrvp'by (io)n^n KB' iayo (11) pa'D-mi a^na nanB" s^ xne^nc na B"B'a^ r6 xnpt'yai jio'on xbi Nmtiai p ynnn HB nS'D 5> snct^a pni> pp^an t^toa^i i^Da (13) tj^oia ua P'Jinbi nnrbi bi IBS IBS pnb TRANSLATION This day above any day. dismissed thee. Perahia. (4) Hag and Ghul. Go ye forth : altogether from her house and her dwelling and from Kalletha and Artasria (8) her children. come whose to thee from across the is sea. There is found written (in ye mother (n) Palhan and whose father (190) . (6) It is announced to you.. thy divorce and thy separation. the four of you. M. whose mother is Palhan and whose father (Pe)lahdad. : A divorce has it). b. The three of you.No. I Komes bath Mahlaphta have divorced (3) separated. 17 (3) rpp'st? (CBS 2922) (2) sne!>nc na t^ma n:s K^y xn<jit!> (4) mi w KBV n!"i> i'as BV p a'niri -JK (6) !> sna^om sin rvW ^i TUK '3<rv pa^aj ^V.ta^Bi p pa^y n^n xn^^a pa^y pai> a'Di pano^Ei pa^ou sai' sns HD^J n^nia p yanrv ipai ICDB sni'^ (12) IB rpnnm K'ot? mn^a paaxi n.D panyo TTID pneai> pnni>B> iBiy (5) maim pa^won pybv nina (7) iiD'Dn Kin IPBI lyst? nnW nnb 101 pansi i>a nca' ini>B p^c^xi (8) nnE>msoi nxn sn^ tci nmn 'ac'j nn^a is ytfini pns ps nnu3 xna^no na I'ao'Ni xnp'ai (9) KIPU pa^y TPDIK iTnns jnni>B> sai> 'a^. years and generations of (2) the world. adjure you by the honor (name) of your father (9) and by the honor of your mother.

For the corrupted formula. to pD'On: Afel of DDJ. For "glory" 66a. see to 8: 2. rrnriB: so 12. It is ated and often incorrect replica of No. e. C^'DIS . 35. Thwarted and frustrated are whom we have removed by the ban upon them. Bib. 5 . The word lilith For the x~m 'h cf 29 7. tion form of Artachsathra. a nntrmx: 8.. 14: 24. all The full I form appears in no. 3. 6 : 5 and see p. 7 C^03: the this name obscure. days. and 62. Selah. healing and release from Heaven for Aba all and Yazdid and Honik sons of Komes. ye Liliths b. MONTGOMERY -ARAMAIC flee INCANTATION TEXTS.J. p. its Knsbno: for name. p. the equivalent TTOT^ Wisdom. the lilith names following are also mangled. Justi. 1. . is spelt For the singular and plural number." Peal. cf ." see on 8:8. Injurers. i. cf. in cf. and 1. frequent s. Apramip'os. "bride". and see p. i . who appear an abbrevi- two different groups. these bowls. 16020 (unpublished) "this day out of etc. "Names. cited me by Prof. Ko/joaa/nti > Justi. 6.i. b. Perahia. : . Encyc. = "name. I seal bind (12) and b. rrp'3t?: v. Clay. COMMENTARY A in charm effected by a woman for herself and her children. . I in her house and her dwelling. the Babylonian name Ina-ekur-kallatu. with the seal of El Shaddai and with the seal of Joshua Perahia the healer. Honik. the following verbs Pael. in the name of Joshua 8. 165. but the correct spelling in 10. and n. equivalents. b. 191 Pelahdad. srta. cf. probably assimila- to Persian farruch. The correct grammatical forms are found in 8 : 3 . A. Amen. 1. Amen." 2. 55. : And now and go forth and do not trouble Komes M. 7. 78 the parallel has badly. see Noldeke.

impr. Seder ha-Doroth. but 1JW 1. 3. 3-18. of 3D:. : frequent Talmudic name. in 9. for another instance see Glossary. = \rbn. ppTB: Pael.192 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. ist pers. 12. 3'D: is f. plural. formation from Pael. = Rabbinic fOiDB. 7. . pi. 10. itSDB = IBID. B appears in the Senjirli inscriptions and the Elephantine papyri. 6. BABYLONIAN SECTION. ii. The following |nn|>E> ntn a perversion. probably a dialectic survival. Tir: probably error for IIT. see 7: 13. pa. K3^> cf. K'D: : the same title in 34: 12. />/MJ conjunction B. 1.

appears 1. msxi. rraxt: ppl. and would be in large part It unintelligible without the other texts. It is badly written and mutilated. From what ii. here. here expressed. my rrb (10) x^5 }in^> in tox n^B'xna w rnaax' jonno DiB'a noon nob'na x!>i (11) n'!"i>n n!>y no^m n'lb^n nB"e> (12) tw^y 'or to trusts ntr i^3i TVT xnpry]a n^D jox COMMENTARY This inscription is yet another duplicate to the three collated under No. n. In 9 it looks like 2. .. Dl^m : again this name differs . Seder ha-Doroth 47. hypocoristicon for Tomjavx. [Trjx 13 XIBXT jnn pn5> xn[u jo ip^l'in psnoio 5"DPi pa'B'J ['Ji 't3it3 pjai'i palnpvi xbi jiyrn x^i n^nn^x 'nj2vx5> nb x^ . . (7) n^ntrs smv 'o'D nvo i> . VUDtf'X : A prayer for offspring see 26: 4.K'anni (6) XT naxa naipo^x . .. i. it may be TPX.No. 18 (CBS 8695) ps'pm n<{> rvxn mtr i>3 (2) 5>ai TPX 12 maxn xrvni>[i xa>sji>] xrnpx 12 [pirn] pns pm yv x!>i po'pm xn'^i' (3) pm nnrvx (4) vnavx myaB'N [pja rp5>] 'vti ']T>trr prr2i>s xafo xpija iiD'x ^x rvnx it5x n'n (5) sn i i']ii' ijnn nnia m 5>i oa^na ^^y . e. cf.[npnn]i 'Pin X!OKI spjni santsi N^noni . ND'3 ps5> rrnro xn !>IPB> xn^^ x^ (9) i'vi nans (8) 5>jn 'in i>yi HIK* i>v D^tr in"! ^t" ^] 1 pn^y pmn 5>i aim pn't?^ xta'j H^ p[in3 xsa p3]n' nncsni inipi ptnn^n n'XT . pon xnijnrani ^n!"^ DBIO:: pno'm ^3^1. e. but the tradition of the granddam's name is accurate. 5 . father in is The name of Ephrah's uncertain. Aye? But is the strokes may be for abbreviation. 'iTXia. presents little that is new and a translation 1 . of xm. (193) .. XT 6.. "'X. mxa: i. is not necessary.

i: 6). spirit of foul streets. comLidzbarski in his parallel (see to No. moan: if for 'a sn. imp: we read noa. 9. BABYLONIAN SECTION. they are compared and are exorcised by the 1. by transposition. but read there Kip = mp. NJVV is biblical. XfPV <D'n nyo: the probable reading. cf. . . mon Mandaic. '3mp mp especially in (see to we may compare the magic formula in Pesah. see Utukki 46. v. B. col. so. n) reads xnp and translates "spring up". : if not an error.194 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. The dirty habits of these foul demons appear in the Babylonian magic to pariah dogs series. 5. The verb = P~iy. 8. this is a further development of a word with a history: dakdak = dardak = darak. 21.

. smeioi (11) i'san pon 'PPJNI na Njnja Dwai wnaai ron ij..K 01^31 13in'D nsno Koiyi n'^Kii po onnrvj wna^no 13 'Kam npn'oi n'Bnpo pirn Kam npn'oi po Koo'3 K^I (20) n'tntfoi Kn'a pin^i pn'j K^ K3^ n'!?'!)3 .... nepi3 0^31 prr DIBI poom o^yi i'snts SEP KDIP KpJitr DIJ^PIN (19) KJ'!>J> Dirncs '3i)'i) ii"V iisi'Ka n. .. K!>I DID K!> UTD n'^n K^> n'a ptmvj K^I n'i> inip 11 : pi>jpj KneS'no 13 .. (195) D^yi>i pi KOT .. . . 19 K'DK KDKIDX no pntro po'K Kai K!i>D Ksn'e>3 nprvsi rpent!>D (5) pirn n'J3eon'3i K3i Kata i>i3'K Kno TBBa piarvs K^n KnKino'Ki Krrn xro^o S>ia' ponn TJorai pnio Kno woto xno KHKT nitrai (6) n'i>ia'K (7) Ditrm onajx DIBQI a^s 12 . .. . nit^ai av:u i nc DIVIPJ (9) m^ai in5> (8) D"^yi KSJ snKinD' K 'Joni oT pn'^ DIB^I Ntsm KJH no S an xnn IJK mtrai n^nxua po wvp wvp xnao saomx n'i> nan inKT NH^ID n^H'^o i'B KJprroi KB'nji mtrai pa^yi \. K^PB (10) Dwai ov^ai (13) D'3-ias nitj>3i ojn n3 D-IK 01^31 me>ai jj t^jno onn^yi om 0113 Ditpai on j. 01^31 ^mcnpn 3i n'tanm Kintr pin D3i (14) SID^K 'a"3 ODDI P^SJ i> MH n^ 5>a 5>y nnn p5>m pn'DB^a TST K^ <niT ninn pn^v toi pi[m] nnaea H'KT (15) Kwa Kn^^i ^nJii KTB^ ton nonij PTDK 3in wee's pon'nai nyixa pio^K3 KnsiriD 13 K3m n3 'Kam npn^n (16) n'tntpn pirn nnae po la wana po^nm trjiNi | nmo'K po K3D1 xianai xmoini Bnm Kim KTtf 'TDK 3in i>y n'Ki TDK 31 n n'i>13'Ka (17) QTini i>13'K3 KHE^no 13 '3H1 npn'DI n'3 npt'V3 TDK am ut 13 pnK3 po'nni 't3J .nb3 TDK am KT:a D'nm K3i Kta^B'3 po'nm KTIE' Kn^Ka PTDK am xnvn Kai Ki"303 pn'nm jwn citf3 KnD^no ia 'Kam npn'm n'B'itro pirn nnaa po 13 ^nioipi (18) pirn nnas DJ'B3 n'n3iD n't?Ki5>D ...iai jnx (12) n^ n^s ^a^K K-nn .i> i> .. .. ....3 M^K sa..p (3) K^ia (CBS 16018) Konnoi Kernm KTDK <orm (2) K3i xna^no 13 'torn (4) No.

and fastened him fetters (?) of lead and the 70 exalted priests of Bagdana. and in the name of Ardisaba (or Ardi) the most ancient of his colleagues. surnamed earth and by seals in heaven. this In the name of these charms are bound there Demon and Danhis and the evil Lilith (15) which are Goldsmith. M. the of Leader and Armasa (Hermes) and in the name of Azpa and 'Alim. . . . . .. . and with the eight seals (5) which may not be broken. in the .. (6) great queen (shedemons?). from whose charm none ever goes forth and from whose control none sallies forth. lord Ibbol. and the goddesses in thy name. . : charm (14) and bowl is sure and its seals established against them. and in the name of Anad the lord of great lord to (10) cast above (him) iron and bronze. by charms in body of this Mesarsia. . the great king of the Bagdani.. . . . . . . BABYLONIAN SECTION. name of Bagdana son of Habal (destruction). and in the name of Sahnudmuk (7) and in the name of Ibbol son of Palag. ros herds delteros. the Word and . to Ariel he sent a message : "Lift up" ?). (n) . b. and in the name of Talasbogi the great lord of the Bagdani. and in .. with the seven spells which may not be loosed. In thy name. the great Saviour (2) of love. Against Demons. Devils and evil Satans. O Lord of salvations. and in the name of Palnini and Mandinsan and Menirnas and in the name of Iras son of Hanas and in the name of Abrakis (Abraxas) and in the name of Agzariel. to the great Ruler before him. . . TRANSLATION In thy name. our lady Ibboleth. bar Mahlaphta. and in the name of Angaros and in the name of the Lord.. .196 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. of the great name of Arion son of all God and the great Lord of the Bagdani in Zand Ye are charmed and armed and equipped. surnamed (4) Goldsmith. . judgment and of (divine) beck... and in the name of . and in the in the and the name name of lord Ibbol (13) the great angel of the Blast-demons. who is without compassion. and . (8) and in the name of Nakderos the lord of and in the name of Seraphiel. and in the name of the 60 male gods (9) and the 80 female goddesses. . and in the ( name . (12) and in the name of Arzan the . is Charmed and sealed and countersealed the whole (3) person and the bedchamber of this Mesarsia.

Protogonos." then. and sealed by Again. of Cf. charmed by the true God. Kapa. which are upon the body of by Ibbol. "mystical" names.. and some are purely charm-words.. MONTGOMERY ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. that this Mesarsia.. and perhaps the Aeons. nor appear therein. etc. of an extensive 4. Ant. and its is interesting list because of deities. may be made out. "body. Sunka. Again. neither by night nor by day. A. ?) of his head to the toes of his feet etc. Okinos (Okeanos).. be sealed from the top shall not be. SDrvn: error for tttrnn." as is shown by the phrase. Pluchtafeln. Okeanos. in a similar connection. Some forgotten cult to the may have given certain of the names . etc. Kosa.J. of Zeiiza (Zeus). Again. charm made out for a house. fire. as here. they nor this house of Mesarsia. etc. its certain man whose body is infested with evil with great elaboration of incantations they are exorcised from him and his The inscription is thoroughly pagan. Others again are of Persian origin. In the Azaziel name of Patragenos. word = "stature. Zeus. 197 Again. (17) and sealed by Ibboleth. charmed are the Demon and Devil and Danhis and Amulet-spirit this Mesarsia. and Idol-spirit. and sealed by the great Ruler (18) who is before him. invocation. his constellation ( ( J 9) (?). (16) etc. Again. Amen. and sealed by the great . charmed by Sinas and Mana. notice the reference 70 priests of Bagdana. in bowls published by Schwab (E) . 3. several others are of Greek formation. no.. its Unfor- tunately by reason of the coarseness of the script and general illegibility. from this day and forever COMMENTARY A spirits . (20) shall they enter nor approach. rrnoip: the 2. (ye are) charmed with a charm and sealed a second time away from the body of this Mesarsia. charmed by the seal of the family of Hanun.. male and female. for over half list length. Again. away from the body of this Mesarsia. most of these names are obscure. charmed by the great gods and sealed by Arion son of Zand. Some of them are definitely Greek. a similar long in Wiinsch.

269 e. p. in the' name Ubbulti-lisir. "god. the Enochian Samaeza. n) in the latter case he is charmed e. am Aluv. and JVTU'K would be a forma- tion to express the female itself. In W.. work the good of the sorcerer's client. g. and "generation. 11. BABYLONIAN SECTION. etc.. god of time. might also be read." is It is difficult to decide whether Bagdana . 4.. The spelling gives the vocalization of the For S. appears KJtnJ3 Hekate. "gamhiza the lord Bagdana. T. the names in Origen's at the beginning of his work Adv." or "the lord god"? penultimate vowel. : The same word occurs in the interesting magical passage in Ese. 18." etc. a frequent Talmudic name (see Sefer ha- Doroth. Toea : cf. 56. 1. deity. etc. 1. the word means some In 1. "Seven 5 : spells . In 1. Ellis's Syriac text (see 2) n Kpnot?. also in Schwab. class of in 6. The list syzygies of Aeons were male and female cf. etc. 7 he is :6a 13. contains the Indo-European element baga. It evidently which can be used individually or generically. v. Derivation from Apollo also suggests but the feminine "0133 : is not thereby explained. It is 13 WU3 is a divine name.. 64) : the is demon depart. from the 248 and Stiibe (11. Aeon. and his consort w6iyn Ubbulti is "our lady.. inclined to make the word = Syriac ubbdld. 276). a propitious or maleficent to demon (as in No. Mica 4 . and so For a discussion of Aeon as supreme ff. Abraxas. The Aeons appears . as in the Greek incantations.. = the demon n : 5 then a word like NH^N. G. this DVUJK: the ending Dl- in and other names recalls Greek formations. 5... Dieterich. 7. 7. magical texts. Comparing what precedes. demons. Poimandres. deities or (q. 140. cf. cf." in Professor Clay has cited to a I me a divine name P131K appearing Cassite tablet. see 5 2. haer. 16.). g. 28: i. 203. rrnoip of such a one (the word not recognized by either editor). 51 192. May this word = oy . 1. 'Karri: this surname appears as a proper name : in Hagiga 2a. ii. in the see Reitzenstein. 13 iTBHE'D : 18.. !>13'K: also below. eight seals" : for this cumulative expression. 21 .198 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM.

"command. but consequence of the failure of the context the text defies interpretation. followed by KtWp KD3D X3D SWp. i. Nerab cf. nod or intimation.. = ns^O. In his epithet. why 10. The Oriental Religions be noticed that (Jastrow). both being names of a potency : in Syriac. 63 p. Kton appears to be used. A. IwiTJ is found Schwab. inscriptions. It is . It may 'D is used in the Talmud of a "traditional word or saying" e. 8. as there inadvertently. "the shepherd" par excellence. see p. its may have been used 'y^n not Aramaic in present sense.the in 34: 8. Din. MONTGOMERY ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. lit 13 1. 7. of the divine 9. 199 and used nominally here associated with NDDIS. n. religion Cf. the passage is parallel to 2 : 2. DJn 13. 7: 9. see in Cumont. . = logos ? i>K'ETiD: also 14: 8. the idea in the late Hellenistic of a deity. especially Hermes. the Rabbinic ^Ti . Is ^KHtaK "God's meant? of words in ros is The accumulation S3K^D a charm formula. Possibly DJn is the verb used in the 11. the equa"basket. the Syriac. "logical." K3DH1K: or the name the fern. and so = PX3H. 61." correct. 1. 13. 'P'T with Mandaic spelling. but one client to this is charm. q. v. possibly SWlb'D here used of a metal cage." etc. n. which would be a fitting epithet Armasa- Hermes. 253. Roman Paganism. DTK:="Epuf." and tion suggests that our NJvb'D = "chains". = T hoyiK. or 'Apw? : D'313X: cf. 5. wf^wv. give the clue to may Comparing the Mandaic text in 39: 5. as a guide. in ^KntJK cruel one. is tOJlD: if the reading "leader.6v. in ND3D? In this and the following line most of the words can be read. Afel. W. is pnx it the plural problematic. 13. 1.J. as in i. and this X13KT KJV^D (rrrp^D written first erroneously). Vocabulairc. these deities are given a parentage like !>!3'N. i>K3n 13: = "Son of destruction"?. of souls. is e." 12. to be read m. three metals The may be referred to as having magical properties. may of give the interpretation. sotosn wiK^BO (KTDy). ~W 13 '31 jviK: : found also is which determines the reading here. 1.

"hair. = Syriac W. name of an angel. 16.. 19. 10. Praep. OWS?: i. Ephemeris. ZDMG. rra: the family or school of some magician like that of Joshua b. Protogonos who appears with Aeon as son of Ea The preceding name Kolpia and Baau in i. s ev. aW>: cf. 96. DU'plK = . n. 50).. Zeus. 1. otherwise bvt and x: }13n = the Mandaic genius Mana 1 See Norberg. 17. 2. 46. 251. 18. .. 1. Abraxas. it is evidently in the de the E":T listed with the planets in Libzbarski's Mandaic amulet Vogue Florilegium. Sanchuniathon's cosmic genealogy. xxix. cf. except that the word Nrm.200 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. Perahia. Ntiyt : 104. the Mandaic DWi'D. in DlT. Onom. Lidzbarski. E>'rui: this obscure demon appears again in 1. no. BABYLONIAN SECTION. in the Babylonian) recalls see index of Dieterich. J'D the same phrase in Pognon B. 'n/(zv<5f. Eusebius. see p. ii : 7. rTOtrto: an astrological reference? : frtU*1 namta . Jacob of Sarug (Martin. the parent deity in magical theosophy (cf. 14." appears there.

Amen. is is of better quality than the inscription. In the lower part of the body on the former side is inscribed the names of the sorcerer's client. prohibition and permission. Hallelia. that on the hand bearing the inscription NT. 3. Amen. 60. figure's right either side of the figures is an enclosed space. The most careless. exorcised and sealed (3) are the the Curse-spirit In the name of AAAAAA. For TiDDin I might compare the Pahlavi Ormazdyar. It The interest of this bowl lies in the figure decorating the center. see p. e.. is The picture spelling i . Selah.. as also the char- acter of the names themselves. etc. which very illiterate.. The pictures thus graphically presents the idea that the demon has no power over the lady in question. Amen. and appear (to) Tardi bath [Oni. According to AAAAAA. 20 (CBS 16023) men N5XDD1 (5) '318 i ) m mts KVTI KTS? (3) 'DTim 'TDK NNKKNX 'T1D YlDDin (2) (4) .]. KJDD. p. toinD.. (5) In the name of and Rophiel. tTB>. Michael.No. (201) cf. Gabriel. i. . Amen. COMMENTARY A On charm against ghosts. xoa. is The connection of the proper names uncertain. N1EH.DK. Demon and the Devil and the Satan and and the evil Liliths (4) which appear by night and appear by day. K. m mo nrpoti >eK2'2 tnsi '5>i>K3 xtnnm TRANSLATION Tardi bath Oni (2) Hormisdar Tardi. 2. that on its left. Justi. represents a demon with arms and legs manacled. artificial For the repeated tutmb: probably an form.

it mark error? first cf. representing in the Hebrew active ppl. has Mandaic fem. 1911. and rrb l^rim a Jewish charm. cf. the Massoretic Nikkudim. a^^ov Paris Magical Papyrus. Raphael. 274. in ^X'sn the vowel as in Enoch and Mandaic.UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. parallel to the equivalent : Aramaic form 8. . first X has a point over 5 . Ktnrpo pi.. JAOS. to : BABYLONIAN SECTION. in the for similar perversions see 24: 4. 3032. 31 rrty>n: 32: 12. ending. In S'^xa the 4. 1.

and from the Liliths. (2} and from the Tormentors. 22 Sealed and countersealed are the house and threshold of Dodi bath Plagues. 21. 23 (CBS 16090) (1) D[n]nm D'nn (1) nnnm ninn (1) nna H3 HITI nnBIPD'81 ^3 12 m nn nnsipD^i t pws nnx pmi D [J]D1 pS53 PPTJ i>3 nnx pwa I>3 i>3 IDI pB"3 pnn (2) (2) IDI DI pe"3 (2) IQI i> nn^ tmpn nn in (3) nnEipD'i>i (3) nnEipD'Ki>i D'nnn nn onnoi porv (3) a'nnn nn onn]oi ppriy na ^D'nnn nn m onnoi ppfj. that ye approach not to her. 22 (CBS 16006) niv3 No. to the house and threshold of (3) Dodi b. ponn IDI pnnn 5>a pnnn ^3 jo pB"3 pi [PB"3] (4) pws pnn joi i>3 IDI sn^^ p2 ppn ^3 IDI PPTJ (4) PPTJDI (4) nrp3i> n^ panpn si'T ni> impn nnsipD' i n [nnx na] [jei] nnx pti"3 jo (5) pnn ^o tai i>3 nov pB3 ppu ID[K ni>D JDK JDK TRANSLATION OF No. from all evil Spirits. 21 (CBS 16054) nrva No.. and from all Injurers.NOS. which is sealed all Ahath from evil with three signets and countersealed with seven seals from every kind of (203) . 23 No. 22. A.

in inscription. Amen. the characters B has a peculiar form. This appears at the beginning of combination. and from all evil Spirits and from Selah. 1 house. that ye approach not to her. p. COMMENTARY Three identical bowls. There are slight variations in the No. 4 not to approach. see 8. cf. Amen. out of the four which were deposited at the corners of the charmed inscriptions. is written in a clumsy Syriac script. 22 the writer found more room and made a longer . cf. t. and threshold of Dodi Injurers. but the same phenomenon 5 B. The word transliterated 22 : 5. vpoaeyyiaai. BABYLONIAN SECTION. Poimandres. in the other two. in the Mandaic bowls published below . the like prohibition v //) a late Greek charm (Reitzenstein. a Syriac charm of Gollancz's. Lilith and from all (4) Injurers. genitive with the personal suffix.]. and throughout. to the house [b. For the injunction in 1. 3 in No. see the Introduction. 93. A. also : ft . All three are most roughly and illegibly written are indistinguishable. is An interesting grammatical peculiarity the omission of T after a 1. 294) K. '.204 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. X. T. 22. all evil (5) from this day and forever. and p'"l. 1. in the same This might be taken for haplography before appears in HH .

Amen. ( (2) that she be saved by the love of (?) (3) . Salvation (5) for Zarinkas bath Mahlaphta. Hallelui.. nn E'ajiti' (5) union 'ibbn JOK n'nJK -na K'HJ nbxo JON JDK JON (6) . Med. KTS For the next word the root kind of fever... Amen. Kiichler. 197. Beitrage. 131... it is njn: the same name appears i.. nl?j<D ^ 'onn: ^on^m nsiric . NMX may be another In general see above. suggests a sweating disease. Amen. Bib.. SMTE'K doubtless fever. m yap? rna TRANSLATION Salvation from Heaven be Selah.. from Amen... 40: 14.. Amen.. in neo-Syriac = malarial fever. f. Selah . e. 184). Selah. that she bring to the birth her child . "Indian woman. b. Amen. Salvation from Heaven be for Kaki bath Mahlaphta (4) that there the evil cease from her disturbing Dreams and Spirit and evil Satans. cf.-talm. (3) KJI JOK IOK 'E"3 'JXDDi nsTQ Jtnm 'E'WK' 'B^n nj'o S>D3nn (4) '"2B> . to wit Zarinkas. p.. .'. 93 (205) . the general name for fever with the Jews.. charm for three daughters of a severally certain woman.. and n.-:K . that she be saved by the love of Heaven... the disease asu in Assyrian. KnE?K (Preuss.." is 2.... for Hindu bath Mahlaphta. 24 (CBS 2926) njni> n> <nn WVBK IG K'str ni> 'cma 'onvn 12 (2) Kns^na na *PE> j jo na '??!> 'nn K<OK xnios rtbxo jsx ..No... hypocoristic of sn'lljn 38 : 3. in The misspellings are numerous. made out in their and for specific maladies.... Heaven from Fever ?) and from Sweating. COMMENTARY A names 1..

" while the Egyptian Our name may represent col. p. "pelican. by Budge is in his edition of The Book of Governors.UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. (for a similar adoption of this Greek word. 82. 382. 3709). p. 3. . of an Egyptian sorceress in a Syriac biography of cited Rabban Hormizd i. see Payne Smith. The name occurs as that (c. see p. V N P: also in Hyvernat's bowl. 5. For the "disturbing dreams." Zarinkas: cited by Justi. word probably the nanf/ Syriac kaka. BABYLONIAN SECTION. 600). clxiv. 4.

No. . prvon paa 'Q I-PDPH 'sma n[m n't? o-p .. jn !>3i 'siaa ^y n" pi mn> ^K^JDB' i? np 5>'n' nnoe' ... (207) . 2417. of Tigin... his wife. They (6) will with the salvation of this house and property and dwelling of his sons b... mrr PDDDH n'3S^D pj> n^N DEYIB> DJat? o. salvation to all and so . that there vanish from them in their Demons and shall Devjils by the mercy of Heaven. YHWH on account of the name of . nns ina pn pi .. in the name These are the angels who bring the children of men. in imno^ ^ amp ID jinan^x namn^ Qin^ nbts> o^ssn ^a ^ D't? pnoD^B no2[i] IDK!' .. Sabgas.. 82. [Arjmasa Metatron Yah. In the name: Thou. alive to Whoever here has who become approach (2} and are found to be (actually) dead from these you are kept and these are kept (from you).. (3) .... Balbis.. from this day even for the sphere of eternity... (3) . 25 (CBS 16009) pnm]na pjvoi (2) pivj's panp'i nn paa rvnn'K pn!> B> Kin na rm^i >DND jin!> na 'ma!' PPDB> ID xrn[Dx] vnn i>. COMMENTARY The inscription is of interest because In this respect it is it is directed against the appari- tion of family ghosts. Behold.... Sasangiel. (4) Yophiel thy name.. send (to) them. Yehiel they call thee. no. and of (7) of this Guroi Selah. Trigis.... see above p...aba t DTID p^ (5) [nj]ani n'nn'tni nj^^pi [n]nu pirn sniDKa ppsn ID 11? 11 (6) IDN JDK o5> i'^ji'i pn KOV 'DND 12 ^nu pnni> (7) rprpaa ^J'K TRANSLATION Salvation from Heaven for Guroi bar Tati and for Ahath bath Doda dw[elling the dead. Sadrapas. Amen. Hadarbadu bar . them and shall contentions of them all. come and go forth his. Halleluia. names .. .. to be compared with No. YHWH..... the here. Amen. 39 and Wohlstein's bowl..... and daughters and all the people in his house T.. Blessed art thou... cit? nnx Ditra nno'j ^KI n [pn]i>an (4) rr DIEO pnnn nnan .

'1113 : identified by Justi. Jer. Nnsn. They are dominated by sibilant terminations for which see p.) iwav Law.. a companion of nirv. lists a number of Talmudic persons named KTiJ and also a famous Syriac martyr Curias is recorded. inD''J. as The Seder ha-Doroth |ini3 . 5: the Aramaic pronoun with loss of |. 'Ss. p. btf\n\ Schwab. we have such names six Muth. 356. 7. and r6'K : 1. ^K. here identified These magical words are mystical names of the angels . and prince a Talmudic surrogate for Zauberwesen. also of a cycle. along with Metatron. ^KTT> or bwrP: cf. cf. is 'BSD: Tata a feminine name found in Syriac.208 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. p. also the Palmyrene SOU Lidz. is navir6 Dir6 dead to r6t!>: the idea apparently to that a message be sent to the cause them cease their contentions is (tl. the word could be explained from the Semitic ( STU. 141. The name as Yodid. for the identification. 39: 8. col. 89) Apart from the Persian hypocoristic ending. 58. in Asseman's Bibliosee theca Orientalis and Wright's Catalogue of the British Museum. a new-Persian form of Waroe. Ith. see p. Syriac. Cf. if not a Hebraism. barski. and. 1456. Dabti. of the 'SV Schwab. imrtD''J: Hebrew Nifals with Aramaic inflection. 34: 6. "whelp"). Vocab. 60. see Blau. i . Cf. p. (ii.TOn) with the living. 145. (There 4. to Dt. NJ3T b^J . a fancy name. similar cases cited to 8 ' 1 2. it is named. rpaKPQ: Mandaic plural spelling. 249. Syriac WOCy. Handbuch. : One is of the in angels in Targ. JUT = pns'. referred to above. : oby ^J cf. 2. The following name is un- known. Hermes-Metatron with Yah. Payne Smith. M. . : cf. BABYLONIAN SECTION. 6. These angels are invoked as phases or names of Deity. 5 . not recognizable and evidently. as in Wohlstein's bowl. see to 2: 2. is then one of these departed spirits as a proper name. 97.

dora.s ni^nsi HTDN am &?sa i>vio IIK nr 5>n D'i'tj'Ti'a Tman urv "" !> tnn. Satan. (4) evil Spirit. pn'iW'i> P't? panan ( soa K3t3'B'B . rebuke (3) thee. and mighty Lilith. that thou appear not to Berik-Yahbeh bar Mame and this Ispandarmed bath day nor by night. 'aaivn ISDI oao'x (8) \ / IIH'CIP ID (6) 'yt pnS ptD'J K'TJ. Israel: YYYY our God is one YYYY. nor at any seasons whatsoever. nor at any evening or morning. which remains the contents of the Mezuzoth.313 D'nTK K sS Kova a n'notJ'i ni^.. [even as (7. nE"x K^ '. of dismissal.n na Tmnjavw snm '2o K^I KI ^a n'an'ana!> pn$> itnn^n x> sna'pn Kn^'^i (5) K'TV ^aa 'an' . aim . 8) COMMENTARY This charm.. their wives [I have divorced] thee. rrna'SNi nK"s xjra.x . Again. not this a brand plucked from the fire?" the word of YHWH they observed according said to Satan: YYYY who YYYY chose Jerusalem." "According to the mouth of YYYY they encamped. demons write] divorces for and return not (to them).No." rebuke thee. 'an a'an (7) pmn 1^ t'3'D . (5) neither by H. N'Ta . still The first is the opening sentence of the Shema. But flee (6) from their presence and take thy divorce and thy separation and thy writ . . is introduced by three quotations from the Scriptures.vn ova nrvm TRANSLATION "Hear. against the evil Lilith. nor at any time whatsoever. 26 (CBS 3997) 'a i>y ins "" irni'K "" ^NIB" J?OE> mosra nxi (2) IJ?D' "" 'a i>jn IIDB' "" -a "" nyj' joon ia (3) "" iw toon ^K "" noK'i ntro na'"" '2 nB"3 Knn (4) 'n. and according to the mouth of YYYY they marched to (2). bound and held art thou. or house phylacteries of the (209) . nnyn nnyty ^aa K^I iavi trm 'aiita'ai 'at3'j 'bipen !> 5>aa s6i n^^a K^I ao'a K^ . The observance of YYYY YYYY Is "And through Moses.

453. 4. iv. e. but adduces from the Mishna. . but I think that the tradition repre- sented here connects with the Hellenistic magic. name H'31T 31 2." 159 as also of the pronunciation of the name itself. also such forms as IT and VI. 56a) nov for the Name. i. Schwab O. i 11. " or w . 1 Also on an Abraxas gem. "Im Namen It Jesu. 5. The latter thesis is right. 12: i. Bibelstudien. JBL. but the scribe has taken client's name. circle at the In the segments of the of the divine i. some of which are forms Names n\ in\ n*ON.* although la/3?. As for rv- = 25 : -e. 141. 2746). and that the original pronunciation was Yahwe. 3irt: cf. the in for mrtv common scribal abbreviation. 1896. Sukk. upon himself to give this interpretation ( Here then is a clear survival of the ancient magical it WE} of his significa- tion ff. suffix for a parallel but also the plural -e 5. g. the surrogate which he identifies with the W ^v (citing Paris Pap. la? occurs several times (Deissmann. "": bottom of the bowl appear words.). that xxiv. ZATW. 7). [iTjam. or [rp]3'i3. and use of the personal name rv (cf. : 5-. Heitmiiller. Greek magical term be further proof for Blau (Zauberwesen. in the Talmud (Sank. may be retorted would hardly be used to represent e. it is rP3 irons: there is remarkable enough.210 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. in which. 9: 6. 27. among various I forms. we have and not only the masc. The other two have occurred in previous texts . 3. which Dietrich. pron. We cannot suppose that the name was thus ordinarily spelt or pronounced. UnfortunI ately the last two lines are too broken and obscure to be read. 152). 131) objects to e. no doubt as to the reading of this name and The second and divine component of the name which was an ordinary [n']3i3. see 5 Jews. represented in the same also the proper way in some of our : texts. as in No. 2: i. not c (see Arnold's valuable discussion. This would in the current magical pronunciation. BABYLONIAN SECTION. see Diet. have not found a case of appears as a surrogate Further. has been expanded so as to give the awful pronunciation of the Ineffable Name. de I'archevlogie chretienne. ne'D 13: for T3. also niS'K (?) and inW(?) Cf. have merely reproduced here the evident characters. would vocalize as Yose.

1880. (Is there a possible explanation in the ivan 11 noticed to 7: 8?). Morgenlandes. SJtD'E'S: cf. 1911. a proof of western connections for the present form. correct interpretation (as Spenta-Armaita. Kundc d. Kent suggests 112. which called forth some private criticisms from scholars (along with but no better explanation has been offered. Griech. . "Ausziige aus syrischen Acten.J. 2: 5. a daughter of Ahuramazda) being given by G. In the first amulet in my 16. to me comparison with 'Epu66upo(. paper "Some Early Amulets from Palestine. 272. p. see also Justi." JAOS." Abhandlungen f. 308. Personennamen. 486. cf. line rrarr is apparently to be read for the divine Name. 211 I can find no other interpretation of this unique name-form. 8. 470. MONTGOMERY ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. A. d. A note upon it was published in the Museum Journal of the University. ZDMG. assents). 1910 no. For the mother's name Prof. see Fick. 128. Hoffmann. The name ix. TOVUBTK: i. Glossary B for other forms. 2. occurs in Ellis its where it was first recognized by Levy.

note to 2: where the sorcerer says that he laid the ban upon Hermon. the inscription for lines 2b-n is practically identical with No. 8 the wife also takes up the exorcism. In 1.pab pai> DTD KJS^'K sjsa na IIITD KJK am nn'a n'a (8) prvon DVTO -\irr SJK IID HHU to (9) pjron ay-pa Ti* l>i porn (11) jn'n-i xnoinKi 'VT tj'aa'B^n am wjn inn^T smnj Nno^ pa'to wn toi 1 nain JB!>I wnKt^'a 'nni sj^tx ^B'D miny (10) ono Kn^Wa . cf. This portion does not need translation and commentary. appear in No. in 1. are so mutilated or obscure. . here Yezidad operates magic in his There they are the subjects of the charm. O Lord of salvations. The same Yezidad bar Izdanduch and his wife Merduch 7. (212) . my 6. 9." 2. and hence I do not present them. 27 na (3) IDT (CBS 16041) >DN (2) IKTP SOK xji"TN 'arm san (4) nnxiox ns Kim 'naip r6ia N^PBI TIBPIP S^IST snvvj 'noipa B>ia5> ^an (5) rpSnK KjnKi N'os? xnan tssa w!>ni 11 fei KUT KDantn ITS twisn am }iai> Kan NSr&o ia DNT pr6 nna nno 'san^vaai 'Ba 'KJDS pna (6) n^wa X^D'^S Kin '31 jn'sj SHB'P u nnjnr'K n3 "INT'I' ws 'nn (7) . own name. . can make out but few connected passages in them. 2.No. between the parallel texts. 'ina n^a pna rvws n^tw in^nt'K ia ixnn pa'p la nnsap^: nnKinD'sa KJK HBIB HBID m'D m^D nan nanaa COMMENTARY After the introductory appeal. this one The most considerable variation in text is There are a few slight differences being probably more correct. Cf. bath Banai.. "In thy name. I 13-24. the mutual character of the charm in No. that The remaining lines. etc.

......No..... Appointed is this bowl to Anur bar Parkoi.. ... sn^ri-inKi }-in by luno-iEn paw snorn . KiD'pi po PPDB .. ( and in lust and in the mysteries of love.... num N K^> moc"!' soa JOTO nsnxi K'D2> no aanB3i ^y ^TO (3) pox ^TSOJ ... the lords of the mysteries... the gods.. . .. that he be inflamed and kindled and burn (2) after Ahath bath Nebazak.. .. take pieces from his heart and the charm ....... .. them and the rites of love which thou (?) hast sprinkled upon .. here her lover to her side. the account of O Lord of heaven and .. XETX "in rp^oaae'i . a Everlasting presses which have only been pressed upon (?) man hrk. .. Amen. p. until that he be inflamed and burn after Ahath b. .. Amen. nn inn (2) npn KYI (4) .. ntny na^n not^m nax^a 5>s^onn TRANSLATION In thy name. 28 (CBS 2972) "an... his name .. 44... . . earth... for there one for a we find a charm passionate woman to bring for a childless. COMMENTARY A love-charm It such is the import of this sadly mutilated but interis esting bowl.TIJK] .... ......... belongs to the same class of magic as No... Amen. neglected wife. mtlln and peppers .... n^a wnwi jSbtio iva^a ... N ... For the use of a bowl for such a defixio see above The first copyist was able to (213) . and hot herbs ( ?) which they call sunwort ( ?).. . In the name of the angel Rahmiel and in the all name of Dlibat the passionate.... .. but more romantic.. (5) . in order that (5) ?) .. (3) Take b. n i>na pxnn xnorn i'V proven nxmti' mm ^i "m pnmp 'nb'K .. ['j na] nnx nnn aawji tn^ntf^n ny nana in 5> .... (4) She shall sprinkle them upon this Anur in his heart. "in na. 13. n n'3^i> mi [i]iru' [. P.

see p. 158. for "his heart to be scattered to be torn in pieces. 7: 14) without any note as to magical manipulation. phil. no. and Bible Studies. b. 1906-7. read more than I can now. DC incantamentis apud Graecos Romanesque (Ratisbon. 24. also see section 8 (p. buried in a necropolis. the in the text are tantalizing. Ant. while the beloved's name is to be formally pronounced. Blau. no. 1. 976 ff. to 96. "Griechischer Liebeszauber aus Aegypten auf zwei 1910. Africa. xvii . xli. App.. literal I may add now in F. Deissmann. N. 5." Sitzungsberichte of the Heidelberg Academy. philtres prescribed in Jewish use. Hirschfeld. 167. Class. Fluchtafeln. The lacunae legible. BABYLONIAN SECTION. Defix- ionum tabellae. earth." and on this is some kind of salad of hot herbs expressive of love's passion.-phil. Class. 233) of Abt. But the most graceful and famous 52. 42 herbs. . xxxvi.vionum Audollent. Wiinsch. in Blau has collected the Talmudic material on philtres wesen. Bibelstudien. a simula- crum image is evidently used. CIA. as. p. Wiinsch. Boll. between this Hellenistic charm and our bowl we find an almost 1 Now.. Papyrus 2622 ff. . n. since it was in his hands. So far as the text is charm which names the two parties adjures the passion of the beloved. n. continens defi. 52. 271 cit. devinctionibus amatoriix for aphrodisiac 1863) .-hist. later classical For But it is from the this and Hellenistic field that we have most knowledge of to mind. 30: 14 Cant. and the connections of the present text Of course Theocritus's second Idyll comes casts the various philtres into the which the love-lorn maiden with adjurations of Hecate. amatory magic. in the Paris e.214 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. 1. In the Old Testament ff. It is Blau's 271. p. we have mere references to this aphrodisiac (Gen." PSBA. the bowl has been cracked and then repaired. Wessely. 21. 52. Bleitafeln. 2 (with literature). his Zauber- the recitation of Bible verses over the love- apple. Vienna Denkschriften hist. it has been since frequently published: tabellas. Some is praxis is described. For this classical field I et may refer to the monograph of O. merit have specially pointed out the Jewish connection of this text. g. just as our bowl was buried in the First edited by Maspero. Die Apologie des Apuleius. 1 of these charms that inscribed on a lead plate found at Hadrumetum. op. see the numerous ''Folk Lore of Mossoul. in fire are found in that direction. In the magical papyri numerous erotic incantations are preserved. is in p. Thompson.

r. an eine Person Zueignung Namen . the Hadrumetum tablet is. bring him wandering without success ! O mastic. bring him to my and Etc. caraway. religion." 2. to determine. compare the longing of the Greek maiden Domitiana that cpuvra fi<uv/>iievov her lover come ip. rbv Stlva n-%r/po<t>opovaa ayavaaa. gum of terebinth. With our invocation that the man "be enflamed and kindled and burn after" the girl. but the fame of Jewish magic appears to have made its solemn formulas eligible for the desires of passion. lead him panting! side. verdegris.. and a piece of a broom hailing from a cemetery." 95 ff. fie Wes- May X ev Ti) do naught until e%&ai>oa 1. and the use of "heart. it Our text shows manifest ties with the love-magic is of the Hellenistic world and the eastern representative of the philtres is of which the North African text spirit of both these texts is the most notable western example. 215 correspondence in the trinity of terms for the passion adjured in the lover. How much is difficult Jewish. Magie the dans I'Afrique du Nord. O cemetery broom. For charm Algiers. 253 : "A woman who following gain the love of a man should procure materials from neighbors with whom she has never eaten: coriander. i. make him spend a frightful night! O blood of the victim. come epori Kal emdv/iia. MONTGOMERY ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS.iq.J. make his heart wakeful in disquietude! fire O kindle the of his heart! cummin. \. arepyovaa K. fiaa. is not at all Jewish in more simple praxis original type than the African charm. indicate Greek connections." 1. raise in his heart anguish and tears ! O white lime." i . A. : bring him mad ! O caraway. Paaavi^6/ievov ! or epovra fiaiv&fievav f}aaavi{6/ievov . bring him possessed! O verdegris.i>. wishes to 1908. Doutte. 1. how much Grecian. myrrh. "Im his definition of the phrase as indicating "die Jesu. it is to be noticed. or aypwvovvTa repetitions like those in our texts.Kal 4 there is an echo of Domitiana's wish that he while the formula "to the name. some blood of an animal whose throat has been On a dark night she cut. With this probably technical formula Sely e/tt. Also in our <t. The Greek rather than Semitic. lime. and see Heitmuller. rpoe"i> = <f TO avofia. the cited of our text et I may compare religion a Moorish love- by p. is of Our text. is to articles go into the country with a lighted brazier and throw these different one after another into the fire speaking these words O coriander. cummin. : compare the second of the charms cited above by irp6<. O myrrh.

. n'3^ fD rpoa is : 'Si a noun. The "heart" (also 1. unter irgend welchem Gebrauch ihres 100-110). 17 he quotes a Spanish Arabic poet to the heart. ending. nitr). not Semitic 37 bj? Hebrew phrase 15 131. 2303) its pungency was evidently regarded as possessing erotic power and symbolism. use. with the intent that he perish love . translate the ppl. the Kbj? '^33: '3 I translate i. Das biblische "Im Namen. PDJ. 782: "she has overturned my heart and torn my midriff. Ol fin: to this list of aphrodisiacs the is clue is given by K"ii3 (tr- = col." 2. pi. "rites of love" are the magical practices. if the reading be correct." . as in Mandaic). the ending d'a for ayaf 5. Cf. which . like p3D3. as imperatives. Rabbinic and Syriac usage. May }?7t2 be mushrooms? Aramdische Pflanzennamen does not contain these words. ff. As he shows. The phrase simplest interpreted as a reference to the lady's slowly tearing to of pieces the facsimile of her lover's heart. the reference could be to figure a moulded "press") representing the lover. 3. Le coeur. pp. for the late Semitic P. p. 4. The Loew's way from their roots. If For the words without any certain sense. BABYLONIAN SECTION. woman as the object). nsmtT: I compare Syriac snun'tr (sub "boldness. The latter part of name may have contained "image of. or better a ppl. cf.216 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. 4 the space before the man's like. the piper candidus (Payne Smith. See Andry. also Bohmer. cf again Theocritus's second Idyll. (with the possible exception of the times with a a Greek usage. I metaphor is that of a mortal wound. 107. 1 Cf. is and at length. the phrase quoted in Lane's Dictionary.. Then Tin." st^CW 'JJy doubtless lies in the same circle of ideas. Tin. 5) This is appears as the seat of sexual affection. sobx might be read. 1. the usage before us not Semitic or even 4. but the who speaks gallantly of being wounded 3. Namens" (p. "burn. noun see to 7: ( &5>33. used five 5. as also 5. for the Greek idea of the heart as the amatory organ. and smnns are to be explained in the same mn." or the the line is most obscure. Below in 1." j'pDB 1. lascivious- ness". Septuagintal.

Smith.). see Noldeke. 155. epithet As the goddess of love her patronage (cf. For the by Babylonian use see Jensen. 217 : the lover's For the angel Rahmiel see to No. was originally KTjnnc>y the morning-star. 45.. especially in her stellar capacity as see Brandt. 135 the Aramaic names and TymnET. in Assyria.. 18. xli. in the Izdubhar epic. Lagrange. Bahlul as m^t. a name of the Babylonian Ishtar. A. Sent. Gram. 13. to be pronounced. Kosmologie. So also to be explained neVi in Schwab.' The Edessene cf.. Mand. Handbuch. while Ishtar especially appears as the raging goddess. Mand. . . 347 * f. denied by al-'uzza.. 57). tudes. Schr. also in For the Mandaic forms. Hesychius as AeAe^ar. (Lidzbarski. R. MONTGOMERY name is ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. m'Vi : one of the Mandaic forms of Dilbat. or of love. 41. whether of war. 710. HI. Noldeke. The same epithet became the old Arabian name of the morning-star.J. a frequent epithet of gods. ZDMG. and in Bar Venus. Vocab. Rel. appro- Winy 38: 7) recalls the Babylonian ezzu. 85 ." For this form. latest discussion is ZA. Jastrow. priate. and the 25. the identification Pty W. The 1908. (Wellhausen Skizzen. 403.

. . BS. an amulet (6) from evil name YHWH for Metanis b. R. Demons and .mots' ID so-on pa^ji n'ns nt^s n^nx (11) D'pne'i' ra rp rp ra yo w VPT (12) mo^a 'Pntr <a tpno n'onm xmoK i ba no Nni>K Kin IDB nxivo xai Kai sni'K Kin nnaiyS'i mni:n' ni>i mnsnni'i mnu . whose throne established between the ethers his eternity (world?) (218) . BS. (n) and I-am-that-I-am. . name.. all the great God.No. and the decent We adjure you (8) whatsoever . the kindly and and all Goblins and evil Injurers whose names Demons. .. and the Necklace-spirits and Menstruation and Tormentors and the Hags of the wild and Impurities and Epilepsy ( ?). KS. R. Stroke. Plague.mninai ^n (8) N^B'J 121 Kian sn:ai sni'aaK mnua nt? sjT'ji Kjo'poi Kjyatroi r. . TRANSLATION [This bowl is appointed in the name of?] (2) YHWH of Sebaoth for the (4) salvation [and sealing? of Metanis] (3) bath Resan in the and Sebaoth sealed (5) for Metanis b. are the Plagues and evil . the Lord of Salvation. and the (9) Leprosy. woie pn'&ts' sjia[n (10) K^m p]. evil thing lodges in the house and and Darsi the foreigner and Astroba Lili. MS. from evil all her dwelling. And bound Lilith her. .. of KB.. from her children. KS. SS. Mesoah is his He is God. and adjure and make fast and bind and make fast (sic) upon you. ghostly Shades. from her the house. in the name of MW. 29 (CBS 16055) mTi PPST ie>sa itrtn na (3) (5) [c^sno D<nm jn'xi ] KniDs^ . msav mm (2) na K"jsnob irpi a ^rxp psw ityo IB>S (4) m'n ID nnu ID rua ID nj^o (6) fenn na B":noi' mxav mnn n'ot^a n^ia nyop r nnpjyi ni^ai (7) twitt^a tj"a Nn^^i pa^a pTtfi pe^a pyae 'DIDI ayro [pa^y] Njyatj'D NanDDsr 'Nia 'B>TTI KTtr ptyB' ia 'sa^m . I have mentioned and whose names [I have not] (10) mentioned: I exorcise dwelling of Haliphai bar Sissin .

the masc. Cf. But the o should be indicated. 303. London and New York. Fishberg Testament. the miracles in the New cf. 76. 13 : one might think. 6. 16: 8 for another disease rvmi: alongside of 'T1. the context. p. Bekor. the form appears in the Syriac and 'KB'bn PE"E> : = cf. Tambornino. p. i. b. "prince. the incantation praises are dwelt i . One of men is a The tone of piety in the charm is in is superior to that of the other texts. Most of 11. 4 is unintelligible. Palmyrene 'B'bn. p. and (2) for several men and These may be lodgers in the woman's house. Epilepsy was a most common disease in antiquity. no. 7. denies this. De antiquorum daemonismo. but admits the nervous pathology of the race (chap. riTEOi '3 see above. A. 404. ( Knsbnn. and for the Hellenic world . It has been generally supposed that the Jews were particularly subject to this disease M. Justi. in The Jews. Justi. "foreigner. SDB'3: Syriac kepsa. Sisoi. Syriac tE>ta. xxxi. 9. . cf. COMMENTARY A charm made out for two different parties. Pers.b . 8. But in the 4/j. 1. 5. the mighty God. to The charm appears have a double introduction. the epithet SOKO 3. for signification. on the etymology of Sisines see Noldeke. 1911. sba'J Cf. 262. Sisinnios. parallel Roxanes = <b: Persian Rosan. Studien. MONTGOMERY (12) in ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. n. Mandaic bowls. of abortion. xv). trrn in xnn: 17: 'D1B: Syriac KOIND. '3 may cf. Griinbaum ZDMG. (i) a woman the Metanis and her household. the name of YHWH Sebaoth alone. 332 for some discussion of the word. 57: often equivalent to insanity." their house and quarters. in 1. 6. 219 is established for YHWH and for his praise and the faith in him and his service. be euphemistic and then have developed into a distinct species. cited in Bekor. the Persian ?) names Sisines. He is the great. 44.J. 3. Talmud see D'^'DJ p is a demon of nervous trouble or epilepsy." One is tempted to compare the name of the famous Roxane. whose upon in almost liturgical fashion. B"JxnD:? |t?Ki: possibly the father's name.

Eisenmenger. Cf. Seder ha-Doroth. 9. . : Rabb.220 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. 93. 975. Grammar of the Aramaic Idiom Bab. For similar eruptive diseases named in these texts. 348 f. There follows a lapse into Hebrew D'pnE> probably a citation. : 12. : one of the seven heavens of Kabbalism. BABYLONIAN SECTION. For the dominance of sibilants in these magical words cf." Cf. Targ. tella. s6'B '33: epithet of the goblins. end of the line is supplied by help of 14 : 6. p. Cant. etc. t&B .. Talmud. Syr. '3: for pa. in the : 422. Also mother or father? ii. 60. DiDin . At the begining and end of the series are characters enclosed in square lines. for this formation. see p. "shadow. 3 at 8. the Jewish names KB*E> and WtW. yJO'K: the demon offspring ii. evidently a Greek name.. 11. of Adam are called DIN "02 'yJ3 in the Zohar. the <^Q. in Is Pognon B (where J'W?) it is the name of the parent KTB> an additional name? Of 'en we learn only that he Also sontaox is is a foreigner. The lacuna 10. see Levias. as also in the Talmud. m-Dcnn : for rvnmtnn? it is strange to find this word of magical connotation used of true worship in a Jewish text.

the Satan. : cf. from disturbing Vision. of this Ispiza bar Arha. the impious Amulet-spirit. and bath Simkoi. -im K-OH Kiri^ nn INT n IG K3'i> m Krrrpr sj'V sioin to pB"3 snn^pj xrv^ SIK nm 12 sn^nosn (5) KJ^y snap: (4) IB xnan KJK^V pnn KT[n]n KJMH W. the non-distinction of 1 and the N which often consists of but two finial 3 upright strokes.No. 30 TBVtJQ'D'K jo (3) (2) (CBS la 16096) 12 tWIJnn KmK 13 jo KPBP'K xti'Di KH "HI WV3 pnn Dnsnoi DTim 1DK . (UQDS occurs in Myhrman. and Yandundisnat bar (2) Ispandarmed. from the Sun and Heat. the Eye of man (or) (4) woman. i: 3. from that impious Lord. . in the name of COMMENTARY A charm for two men and a woman from inscription is certain specified diseases and demons. the lilith-Spirit male or female. evil Spirits. the Syriac raB'N (Aspaz) for the Hebrew I TJSB'K in Dan. NTon NIP KJOND ID jo KIH BOSKS' jo ^iSB^D n[n] jo . the Eye which looks right into the heart. b. The writer illiterate and the script particularly n.D B"3 Sn Knur son Kin pe"3 ^n nnuixr KID sin jo TRANSLATION Bound and sealed are the house and the life . the using a very individual 1 . in the I. the D. from the evil hateful Potency. chirography. 1. from evil Spirits. from the Devil. the Eye of contumely. where a finial is used. difficult. 1DK: for TDK. Lilith. that impious lord. and the use of one form for internal and except word JO. i. the mystery which belongs to the evil Potency. the male Demon (3) the female . to which cite the Babylonian (221) .

for 5. the unabashed (cf. i. Or is there a play on the roots. a post-exilic name. WJ? "The eye that sees (or of those that see) within the heart" is a reference to the uncanny effect of the evil eye. 6. NJT^b : cf. 121: 6. 1. the New Testament dwauat. etc. i. and correct Kni3t to Nnmw with (like the There is evidently a repetition of phrases. 294. N. 24: 5 4. Greek inscription from the Don. 4. BABYLONIAN SECTION. 3t2p. The Persian xrsrs is "house. 3). cf. The C"3 ^n e3 VV) the Cf. Observe the accompanying name Nrrm. is XD'31 BDNE>: the first word the is Mandaic spelling for "the Sun. 'lao'D : the characters are uncertain. 86. personification of the power operating these psychological wonders. ftwy 4. (?). JW1 fra is read E3 <n as farther on. 2. >obn. Cf. Der Aberglaube. ?. xxxi. 251 NT31: an error for sron Cf.)." SD'a which also in the Mandaic religion regarded as an 42. quoted by Payne-Smith under the latter word. Ps. There follows a list of various kinds of "evil eye. the named spirits. = Ktrp. In what follows some corrections are necessary. end. "silver". : so the most likely reading of the name. evil genius. ." for which see p. irvevpa fai/iovof. At the end of comes a long series of characters which do not appear to form words. sense of 3.222 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM.. and N'srst^S "steward. tano twn = icnats' 1. Cf. see Noldeke. 1 According to Karmsedin's Lexicon. ' i&n = im 1." May it be an abbreviated form of the latter word? : cf. the Rabbinic mroQoel. T. = Persian simikos." 1 Aspazanda. the biblical Arah. Justi. in lingua Nabathaea est oecononius et viatorum exceptor. SC^KOC in a p. Mand. Griinbaum's discussion of the 'Tic demon of the midday ZDMG. 80). Lidz. Gram. produce and 3p3 being used in the "name"? fill: e. 91: the and see sun. f. twvnDtcn wj>: so the most likely reading. KJK-IDin the last two letters are dittography. or intended for assonance with in spellings Samaritan literature to ~\31 rhymes. KD3'p3.

together (with them). (5) corroborated. that they may not lodge S.No. Charmed. Ahah.. 31 (CBS 9008) rue nrrn (3) ronjBDK 12 rp2t*n pnrc PTDK x-^a pi"ne (5) pviB>2i :m nnui XB2 fe^m (2) snsnni' NDND wn IB sriDi^ (4) nanJDDK 12 rm&n nnos ni2'2K"5' wm nnm nl>D (6) n~nn^> xosa pi>n piojm ponnm Knnnij ns* nis naio oyia D ipnainj (7) urnsT DTBO p-iBJ +++++ ++ rpWri PBK PBK SSXSXNN (8) nn (9) HK n nn^2 HJD nt'm roruoDN 12 ^2^t<^ wm fim snnjsi (10) Kni>'m xnoih Kn^nn nnu TRANSLATION This bowl is designated for the sealing (2) of the house of this (Dadbeh bar Asmanducht.. 8: i. I. Sealed and guarded shall be the house (9) and wife and sons of this Dadbeh b. 31-37). and following 1. '31 JDTO: cf. COMMENTARY For a general discussion of the epigraphy and language of the this 6. and see to 3: i. Selah. Hallulia. Amen. Muta. this Dahbeh A. MRMR. 'oth Sasbiboth. (3) that from him and his house the may remove Tormentor (4) and the Curse and the very evil Dreams. A. Ah. MR'S. AAAAAAA. Amen. The crosses in 8 are the same as those which occur in the center "seals" of these Syriac bowls. Syriac bowls (Nos. fortified and confirmed. Astar. (223) . strengthened and sealed and guarded are these bowls for the sealing (6) of the house of b. (8) YSHN'H. Ah. see Introduction. that there may remove from him and evil his house the Tor- mentor and the Curse and Dreams. Ah. Amen. In the name of Yahihu (7) NHRBTMW.

use of 1. is cf. 5. 4. latter name appears in full Persian form. seven vowels Greek. 6. Paris Pap. the magical the ff. there at/a also found. uoriKV a play on the Tetragrammaton.-SDJo pi>n with reference to the four duplicate bowls. npn = npn: see to 4: 6. the Dadbeh son of Asmanducht appears also in Nos. -ducht. \2 and 16. BABYLONIAN SECTION. -2. with the three primary in vowels.. pb'no: for 'ne. JTiTO: see to 4: 6. Here 3.224 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. 3019 .

Demons and Devils and Satans and Liliths and Latbe. (3) xninao njo o!>y!n (5) Him HTB> pn!>3 i>y trpanm pn^y anai KTHS na KTanon pn^y ana am TQ-msD'R -ia 'um nn^aa n's w p tcivb'3 H-P mn ninx n u ID nin ninsns nonx nura (6) pnanai [sn]ND-i ion's prunai KIIDI njnxi (7) pa'5y p'S>Di Rel'y (9) to n=v jinjnai (8) Haobi S. I.. The bowl like I that which ban-writ against work which has been made (4) Rab Jesus bar Perahia sat and wrote against them. fettered Arts. and through which were . Atot Atot the name. within T( ?). a all the Demons and Devils (5) and Satans and Liliths deposit and sink down. 32 (CBS 16086) PDYIJSD-' I K 13 nrn roam nnruKii (2) nrvrn Kn^rir^ KDKS tn Kin (4) Kimn T3jn Ktny srpen won siia KEa sto^n. Through which (words) were subjected (7) heaven and earth and the mountains and through which the heights were commanded. (6) by the virtue of 'TMDG. a writing within a writing. a in the is and Latbe which are house of Dinoi b. Atatot Atot. Again : he wrote against them a ban-writ which for all time. that there remove from him the Tormentor (3) and evil Dreams.No. (8) this and through which he passed over from (225) world and climbed above you .DKI xrr^i Him [HTB> Htnn] nrp[a IB] pa [?!>] sn^nni' i []^in rinmi (10) la > D'n[m] TDKI K^anona [p]mp' aB' TDK am nn (11) n5>o Knt3ii>i 31 b icwn H'Dip HS-JKI PCK PCK] Ky nrr n'ni n'n'n'n' nnno* -ican^i Hc"a Hobni in n (12) mm nnu H-)T: -it33n ii ni PDK n3n TRANSLATION This bowl is designated for the sealing of the house and the wife (2} and the children of Dinoi bar Ispandarmed.

b. Amen. I have dismissed you by the ban-writ. This identity in fortunate for the interpretation of the two bowls. circa 88 . for the lacunae Also No." Further. Amen. I. and 17. an interesting Talmudic tradition concerning the same Joshua appears in uncensored editions. of Dinoi (11) Sealed and protected are the house and dwelling from the Tormentor and tected be [his wife evil Dreams and the Curse. destruction. A'. . The chirography all bowls is the same. 32 has is additional matter at the beginning and the end. is it. YHYH. 31. and judge every man on the scale of merit. according to which he fled into Egypt to escape the cruel persecution instituted by Alexander against the Pharisees. Jesus bar Perahia. Perahia.226 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. house. I. Joshua ben 9. and sealed and countersealed even as ancient runes fail (10) and (like) ancient is men who are not . YHYH. Dreams and COMMENTARY Nos. the 8. reference to is The Mishnaic him found in Pirke Aboth i : 7. Joshua ben Perahia the tradition of the one of the several Zugoth or Pairs. BABYLONIAN SECTION. a ruin to to the height (of heaven) and learned all counter-charms... where and the following dictum attributed to him "Make unto thyself a master.. and all . Amen. 35 each one can be for the three almost wholly supplied from the other. who handed Law from the Great Synagogue and he flourished in the early part of the first century is : in the reign of Alexander Jannaeus. they are except that made out in the name of different clients. C. to bring is and from that in his you forth (9) from the house of Dinoi b. The charms certain effected in this and the following bowl are attributed evidently in to a master magician. culminating in the crucifixion of eight hundred of that faction. Selah. Now down B. Again: charmed and sealed and countersealed this ban-writ by the virtue of YHYHYHYHYH. and that No.. And charmed not. being more cursive than the script of No. And sealed and proevil and son] (12) from the Tormentor and Curse and Vows and Hallela.. 32 and 33 certain practically identical inscriptions. possess thyself of an associate. who appears in is the same capacity Nos. is made out of wife of the client of the present charm.

Bab. is given a title which betradition came the whom Is Talmudic in this connected him: K'DKSW". p. He (Jesus) came in his presence many a time. On . in Sanhedrin io7b Sota 4/a.. A. cf. i. 8. Israel. he thought that he had utterly rejected him. P. Tabai in place of Joshua (they were contemporaries) and omits mention of Jesus. vi. Jesus He made a sign to him again presented himself. "Joshua b. 227 B." The passage in Sank. 8 ff. her eyes (as though by aksania the landlady was meant!) are too bleary. 288. message sister: to . 1910. Blau. and My came. He (Joshua) arose. Not like Elisha. He replied. and Strack. Joshua said to him.b reads as follows: The rabbis taught: The left hand should always push away. Jesus the Nazarene) (in the Munich MS. and the 2 The anecdote found = Through the kindness of Dr. e. Dalman quotes the Venetian editions of the two Talmuds. and Jesus went When peace was established. 40 ff." cites the Amsterdam and Berlin edition of 1865 for the passage in the criticism of the legend concerning Jesus. Repent. ii. Christen. Setah sent a to Alexandria of Egypt. and heaven. who furthermore was able to make the ascent of the soul to He was accordingly one of the 4 . 1585. He said: How fair is this inn (aksania). One day he was reading the Shema. and I sit desolate. 34: aurfp . and Strack. gives the texts from Hagiga. p. my husband is lodged in thee. Dalman. who drove off Jesus How nxijn ie. interpretation. I have also had access to his rare copy of the Constantinople edition. ad loc. and the right hand receive favorably. Jerusalem Talmud Hagiga. I have been taught by thee that every sinner and seducer of the people can find no opportunity And so it was said: Jesus bewitched and seduced and drove off for repentance. P. in Laible's Jesus Christus im Talmud?. him: From Jerusalem the Holy City to thee Alexandria of Egypt. who drove away Gehazi with both hands. of Sanhedrin. R. P. die Haretiker u. p. Sota.J. Julius H. Rabbi. He replied to him: Thou knave. and in Sota was that? When king Jannaeus killed the rabbis. Sank. d. thinking he would receive him. with his hand.. and said. nor like Joshua b. He went off and erected a tile and worshipped it. Joshua b. Jesus. where they paid him great respect. see Laible. s. for some points of The introduction of Jesus is a sheer anachronism. Perahia a confusion with Jesus Christ? We find then in these magical bowls an independent tradition con- cerning an early hero of the Law. Sanhedrin. 'iricovi. 8. C. thou busiest thyself with such stuff! He brought forth four hundred horns and excommunicated him. gives the texts of the first three passages. GJV is i. It is of interest that the Jesus of our texts epithet of the Nazarene Jesus with 2. 1 The tradition of added interest because it connects Joshua with a is certain W whose identity with Jesus of Nazareth generally recognized. Greenstone. lo. there magical reference to Jesus b. and the Jewish Encyclopaedia. The Jerusalem Talmud names Juda b. and lodged at a certain inn. He (Jesus) said to him.. who appears as endowed with magic powers. 2. v. MONTGOMERY is ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. Simeon b. with critical apparatus. 34. Appendix. earliest to attain that spiritual 1 See Schurer. Cf. Receive me he took no notice of him.

word. (1901). No. has in JAOS.. Akiba could not have been in his mysticism." in Archiv f. Gesch. especially references ii. and this mystical claim for R. "earthen- ware figures" (of the gods). see to 9: 7. Noldeke. Kent. p. 24. Joshua was possibly one of the good company of apocalyptists and our magic tradition his personality may preserve a true reminiscence of and claims. The same magical more perfect form reference appears in in 9: 6. was asserted by see full the Kabbalists Moses and ff. JW ovf. 1911. 403. found 4. trie : Oi xrm 1." from dost. I may now add in the Syriac Ninia.. Graetz. note k. 151 cf. K3t2i3: The word occurs only here and in No. the Biblical Isii. elsewhere a duplicated : anay.). Compare also the Assyrian puru. ri33 : plural as in the texts above and in Mandaic. 13. Kinin : form of the pronoun. 6. '3 a preposition appearing in the Rabbinic dialect. Roland G. not in Syriac." 5.. 2. Beitrdge. K113J?: so also in No. Such a claim is made for Akiba. 229 f. iv Rel-wissenschaft. which was the claim of apocalyptists from the author of Enoch See in general Bousset. . BABYLONIAN SECTION. "bowl. Wi 3. occurring opera.. Overbeck. 147. "Die Himmelreise d. sing. 32. suffix. I4b (see Bousset. see to 9 : i. privilege." see Zimmern. 33. Ishmael v. Seele. the Jacobite Yesu. down. Abcrglaube. 136 f. 33. : s. He comes to the "hand" -|- means "a handwritten deterrent. who alone of four friends succeeded in penetrating Paradise. 518: but my etymology contravenes that of Zimmern. For the practice see the . in the Syriac. in Bousset. Hagiga p. with masc.228 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. "terrifying. for 145). and KAT. bhira (Sansk. Persische Stndien. The Talmudic tradition has unfortunately not preserved for us enough of alone the mystical side of the early teachers. 231 and Joel. 35. to published an elaborate study of conclusion that it it whom I referred this 359. over against the Nestorian KTanDl: Prof. : the spelling represents the older pronunciation. Hphraemi Syri . JNE".

Grammar. not sense of "men. A. 33. col. 182) Syriac rarely uses the plural in the understands as enase. What not perfectly clear.idzbarski. No. 2181. is to be com- pared with the Rabbinic inrK. 1DDJVK: from a denominative verb. ligationis. are b. Glossary C. ib. gives a citation for 1DD. arising from the root TDK. meant charms carmina). (i. the good Syriac follows is TK appears in the parallel 34: 4. such as the master Jesus once used. By the "ancient songs" (NTB> rare in Syriac). Mand. actus Also ivo. 33 (de Vogue volume). 229 : a unique spelling (occurring also in the parallel. 1. see Levias. 8. 7. -IOJVK: corresponding to both Syriac and Rabbinic forms. The . = vinxit catenis vel compedibus." inse. But the following clause remains obscure because of the unintelligible 10. 324. fOpsxb ps'S : for the infinitive.J. N^an : also found in 37: n and in L.. = Syriac aikanna. cf. PayneSmith. P. with which cf. Amulet. 9: 8. along It is with pjn). MONTGOMERY ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. may be compared snuiDDD. e. NEON: cf. for the Syriac hennon. Gram. col. which Noldeke (Mand. the Rabbinic WK . an elder form and 95.

33 anai (CBS 16019) (2) toms 12 yia>" m 3'nn (3) Kin ^ Kimn TSJH *nny xrii x:wi wot snia (4) nrrna rvKi 830^1 sur^i (5) KJDDI KTe 1 prt!>3 i>y KIUHDI im^y . 16. 31 and (230) . who the same as the one in the Syriac No. 32.No. with a change in the name Nos. of the client.psi] xnibni) x^an Kb3'p !>i3 (10) Kvtn p3' TDKI to^sno-n pnip^tr n^n^T nn K!' [21 N!J (11) ji' wn nnnoi n^nn TDK nin iDiyn N'tenp XPJNI 1 (12) nna nfP3 nojn'Ji n^nnnij [n]i>D po POK (13) sy n^n' n^n nTprp pox NnBiS>i ni>33D to This inscription is practically contained in is No. 12.nons DIKO Q^yh tirunai xiunm pn^y to nna 2in (6) nanjoos 12 nanxii [n 13 KJV^J u sji^t^] KSB' nins nms t- njinx (7) (9) feTs? HK'nn iDan^ pjnai NDNOT nnn^x pjnai -nt:i N[y-ii tv]nv (8) in nntm nnu cnnoi n'-nnfi ID IOPEK!' [s.

by the virtue of my mighty relative.(4) GTIRl TDK '0X2 1 KJ^S^I njn^> xnbx naae'sn sn^e sins K'oc iJ3 n'nm TDK c'nm TDK p'3 pninn D'nni D'nm TDK (6) xnsmi N-IID niosa I^DK pnhosi) pym K^ ^wac (7) Di'2 pc'p KJip'isai J'TDK xn^oai xbrDi xaaia jnnm n^KT Knitfu nbia so-nm nrjpi NTDK n Jni (8) xiav !>wn:n x^no ^x^ni mjan nT3i xnj3i (9) liJ3i nnn:x nn'33 'xo 12 it'onin nn^ai n^ po'nn n3T TH nn xsfe tio^tjn nnpr^yni i:t 12 pntcn nonna mn x^otr p3'nm X3i xcnm xe^pn xns 00312x1 H^'KI xcnn3 KJO'nm xanm nsip is njo X30^1 X'DD xip'j?i (10) x-w ^31 xyixi (11) mox2 ionx tntri ni'D D^I IPBT ^31 pi^yj xb x^>yoi xiB'ai' xnop 5>yi nn'2 iDjn^i c^nnn^j pox pox xyixi x^tr xmy wo nj'jpi . charmed and sealed (4) even as Moses commanded Red Sea and they (the waters) stood up like a wall on both sides. 34 (CBS 9012) x'ox WH 1 5ri ina (2) '2x2 13 trDTin irvm ruva poinni> xoxa xjn fora xsrpn ":! rn:ai rmi nnnjxi nrpai (3) nnjissrei mn TDK 12P1 f|im X2^ XC'IO 1-Xl TN (5) . is who the b. (5) by this word which God surnamed . charmed and sealed. M. and the abode (3) and the house and the wife and the sons and the daughters of Mihr-hormizd. (231) . Charmed and sealed.No.1331 xn^m xn^33D D'nnrrni n:o nrni 'DXO 13 (12) it'omn "irp!:T mjsi nnnjxi xnu'SD'Di xaim xnoim xc"3 Xj'n xn^33Di ID Senm XIT:I x&nm rii> X-ITJI xntiibi xi>i xo^m xr6332 (13) xnno na m x^i (14) 3npn n^i3i PITQ xn^D32i xnnctfoi xn^^i xn^33 pox xiriD n3 n3 <nna xnna na nnn^n TRANSLATION This bowl is designated for the sealing of the house of Mihr-hormizd bar Marrii (2) by power of the virtue of Jesus the healer. Charmed is the dwelling.

and depart from him the Injurer and evil Dreams and the Curse and the Vow and Arts and the Tormentor and Damages and Losses and Failures and Poverty. and by the word they are charmed and In the name of (7) Michael the healer and Rofiel the signs. . and the great seal with which were sealed heaven and earth and all Demons (10) and and Latbe. be the Tormentor and Lilith and Ban-spirit. 15. A Hormizd son of Mama(i) appears in No. but the formation unique. and Gabriel the servant of the Lord. that they shall not at all enter in. sealed and protected be Bahroi bath Bath-Sahde from the Tormentor and evil Dreams and the Curse and the Vow and Arts and And charmed B. twin: the reading is certain. And every Dantkar and Sait and Sara are charmed by the spell of (n) fire and foul Knots the enchainment of water until the dissolution of heaven and earth. Sealed and guarded be the house and wife and sons and b. which contend against him. Selah. who thwarts her in her hand and foot. and may it not approach nor afflict this Bahroi b. And a seal is this against Harm and Constraint (?). reliever. And Practices. the stars and (zodiacal) remain in ward. COMMENTARY The text is of the same order as those immediately preceding. . I. And we have sealed with the seal of El Saddai and Abraxas the mighty lord. sealed is all evil Charmed and that M.. . by the signet of Arion son of Zand and by the seal of King Solomon son of David. the sun and the moon. and (8) and in his house (and) his his cattle body of Mihr-hormizd b. Amen. 'Oinn would be a Pael inf. (6) charmed and sealed (with the spell which is) in the heavens and the earth. and the word is is parallel if it to xnonn in the previous inscriptions. property and body of Mihr-hormizd (12) M. their tops laid upon the earth and the trees which . be not an error. At the end the charm is operated for a woman (with a Christian name). Amen. . presum- ably the wife of the chief client of the text. charmed and sealed with the seal of the mountains and heights.UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. wife and his sons and his daughters is in the and his property and in all his dwelling. BABYLONIAN SECTION. (9) -by which were sealed the Oppressors and the Latbe.

" The magical tradition was handed down in the sorcerer's family. 233 is same as Mitr-oharmazde. the restraint of the celestial powers . also in the same name in 35: 6 diacritical for e? The charm 14 : is the effective one used by Moses at the Red Sea. it Compare . . his woe upon is the cedars of Lebanon and the 1. 16: n. points." The next word I identify with the TDK. g. but 153. "a word Yahwe has sent in Jacob. n33E>K: of laying a spell. the The ' of pirnox appears to be used as one of Seyame 6. a point over N. 216. Is. is pmin \o appears to be a confusion for [irvD'O inn is "nn Palmyrene and Rabbinic. Mand." 2: 5 Jtran 'Ji!>K ff. the name p. . v. narratives. and especially 13. J'D'J 3 : 16. ancient "big" trees. Ex. b. of the murderer of Chosroes II. Then v. 8: n. or angels. Gram. myth of cf. 1. 64 for the magical use of such episodes. Biblical Is. SODS: here applied to the sorcerer. 17: 6 (possibly. 5. 3: i. but otherwise of God. The root jm only in Arabic.. and 24: 21. Michael. g: 7 e. also The old tree-myth may have told how the trees flaunted against the gods. 2.J. or Mihrhormuz. see Justi.. i. "my cousin. There may be a reference Isaia's meaning some myth concerning denunciation of "everything high and lifted to noun obscure as also the up. = "withhold. refuse. found in neo-Syriac. SE>io: = s3K>o. MONTGOMERY the -ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. e. position PTDS: : of the points. 7. : The Afel a hebraism. and '31 has fallen in Israel" the magical is word is itself is potent. Noldeke. KnuaB'O 4. See introduction to notes on No. in Gen. and indicates But the plural conflation of the two JD. 32. with some critics. is The found following relative clause almost unintelligible. high tops their The obscurity of the passage may be clue to corruption of the form of the legend. tVs: the reference of the of the following verb. cf. is See p. g. n. cf. the is same verb for laying a ghost. 49: 21). lOp a reminiscence of Josh. but of peculiar formation. I "jns (evidently so written) take to be for 'rnN. not Edessene. A. xnpiaa a reference see the discussion on 4: to the 5. 22. Is. cf. is 14 parallel to the Nnscni X11D of 5. e.

cf. 19: where the angel who himself oiwwaof with the apocalyptist 8. 19: 13. a pau'el formation from parallel to the epithet sc." In the Syriac the Pael came to be used in the sense of "saving. of KTJ?. "the oppressors. 18 and references. the charms Greek magical papyri for obtaining good parallel looks. the 51. is 7. b'waJ 10. "misery" to Muss-Arnolt. N'DD: : ' has usurped the radical Etpa. Mand.234 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. An Babylonian Seven) who exorcism against the "seven accursed brothers" (the attack and devour the blood of the cattle. It is K?~I. The malady. and the two passages help mutually 9. Syr. 366). Diet. which is be connected with the Hebrew and Aramaic . root tsop. Gram. nvrtO: a unique epithet for Raphael. 24 equivalence of '3^ and 'p by. Pradel's collection of Graeco-Italian charms pp.. "compress" contortion. e. Tty ." the day the Cf. 87. e. 'XT iTDj? i. the The mediaeval 13 flourishes among Pennsylvania Germans. col. as in word may mean in the ugliness or some more specific Mandaic). BABYLONIAN SECTION. of a common cor- Syriac root. the 'hexing' of cattle still 33). According to the Babylonian magic the i. 903. Sem. g. the sick man relieved. Syr. The identified xnop must also mean some kind of malady. p. p. and may be ( with the Assyrian kamtu. KBCrjf: to identify the words. and. b. is used in the sense "to relieve. 13T Ji'iX : this sorcerer's name appears also in No. a new species of demons. (n.. "when high. Gram. Knp'j? (or 'B ?) : "Knots. Baba Bathra 16 is b. The word responds to the Arabic 'ukdat. FITS: Mandaic form. 127. (with dissimilation of the dental) probably some form of ." i. cf. STXp ^TK NDV ^TK. Seven Spirits "smite both belief in oxen and sheep" (Thompson. agreeably to the etymology of Raphael and applied to Gabriel. probably metaplastic for : for the prosthetic vowel see Noldeke. 125. the participle sick. Several phylacteries for cattle are given in ." ppl. 33 b.. Cf. Luke and Rev. Magic." see Payne-Smith. Gram. . may be Gabriel. is given in Gollancz's Syriac charms. 17. Noldeke. : Gabriel is especially the messenger of Deity calls . 10. of magical power.

from 235 the first word cf. Cf. 78. is K'O jbtTVSl tni3 TIDK: fire and water are potent over demons. m: "Daughter-of-the-Martyrs. snB>l B'tri npm Kre bai : all three words are obscure. Bahram? See Noldeke. Gram. the noun ma'lu). 2536). in Bibl. as proper names. then will begin a new order. 4094). "scourge." the the tre>of the to Is. : switchings by demons are a common theme of magic. . Nnnoe>O: epithets of the Lilith. '31 NiB'D^ sons?: the demons are to be bound till the end of the present final destruction aeon. all For the personification of kinds of losses. necklace. and we may identify tre> with the Syriac Saita.. Gram. = damkar. 250. the magical snp:y. Payne-Smith. Fluchtafeln. Hebrew serah "chain. J^tTC' a collective form 7. cf... 403 (Payne-Smith.. 42 and p. '31 591. 28: = Bit?. a bishop of Nineve. who is also the Witch. Noldeke offers a Mandaic instance. 11." cf. col.. (also Aramaic) But diseases are apparently in- tended (cf.. or The second may be The third may be the Rabbinic K1K>. plus a final a. Tim: Justi." "ip3. iBirn i: 10. 2 Pet. "diarrhoea. MONTGOMERY ' -ARAMAIC is INCANTATION TEXTS. 15. demon". the catenis igneis in Wiinsch. Pers. Superior points for the feminine suffix are used here as also in No. Delitzsch. Cf. "Son-of-Carpenters. KOp'D. )nyDK above). (= me"ela me' la. cf. meaning of perforation. Wt : "loss". TpDT may the then be understood aas a formation from "pierce. the proper names. ibid. "prince. 12. see Jastrow. also Enoch." "Son-of-Ironsmiths." of taf'al form. which will include the of their power. who can "bind" the limbs of her victim see No. 3: 12: ovpavol wfjovfievoi farfHjaovrat.J. in -an. "eye-tumor" (ib. evidently an absolute infinitive >y.." 596. col. no. ii. 249. (Payne-Smith. 1118. 94. 393. Stud. Or. and Kit? with the Syriac ne> 4316).. 59). ib. Bar-S. p." a Christian name. 387 ff. col. 35. see p. 14. . 361 hypocoristicon of ff. the Mandaic form pyvn. see compare the Christian hagiological legends. cancer or the like may be referred The absolute forms are used. Kino Asseman. Mand. tl!vy3 (if ' is to be read) doubling of the second radical cited appears cf. In the form . Ant. 13. by Noldeke. tankar root tamkar (cf. A. With to. ad infra. Ass. For this formation with last line.

(7) they will guard and affrighting Demons. . (6) And and Michael they and were Nuriel mankind. .6! Commanded. 35 (CBS 16097) m (3) naiTsm oi rhjsni ny:p-n rm-ii rural (2) Kmaji xnonni' KDX3 sun xLae* KTB> jo x^iaxni SO'DIDI (4) KJCDI KIH[I] b'WD nDi mx mx fc^mo NT^ . in and the from and any (5) Vows arsi. and Sariel (9) . Moses from to all wardship. <tnx (5) DIB>D XBOK ^m (7) Kno^xi xnnpi na XB>JK pjxi xnintMD^ scno cy iipsn'K JUKI (6) i^s^nni snt3ii> 5>a IDT X'JD Kin . 6. . and of Idol-spirits who (are known) and who are not (known) by name.No. and from every Curse and Vow of mankind. 3 ..K'KJ . i>3 to ^noia t<na IK iN. naya. of men (8) and of women. Hamariel hostile Devils . p 5>n Iti]:^! K'opjnsnn HN^D K3 .. man. And in the name of . .. Invocations of and Hithmiel. . Maiducht K. and name of with Saltiel Mantariel and commissioned this along b. Kiansni (9) p H^hi (8) S]nan ^snn ^xnon n Naxbo Hobv^ pi'n nit^n nb ruionnji (10) runew IIJNT sininsi TCK I^N 'now (11) nn mwKa n^^i iDjn'm D'nnn'n JD K-ITJI DbvL^] sncibi ^21 ^a p m JD ni>33s non^m KK"a K^m K!JI Kn3>: nnu PDK najn^ni '13013 nn (12) non'K2> n^ nnpn Kntsil'i n^-iai riT mji KB3 K^ni KH^DDD jo TomJSD^K 12 'um TRANSLATION Appointed is this bowl for the sealing and guarding (2) of the house and sons and property and body of Maiducht (3) bath Kumboi. Plagues and Devils and and ardi Satans (4) and and Seducers Rites and Diaboli. that she may be guarded from Demons. . the of Yah-Adon-ICamya b. from everything (236) evil. i . for the ages commanded (10) is it in name of these angels and letters which will guard and seal this Maiducht K... .

see p. Mantariel and Hithmiel are unique. The name also appears in the unpublished No. and charmed in Tormentor and foot. K. see p. p. Dreams and the Curse COMMENTARY Largely a replica of No. the same. is listed by Schwab as These were Moses' guardian angels. evidently with the theme DID. 33. Saipoviuv of Tin. KDD. Arabic lexicons. 3. Reitzenstein. Notice the distinction made here between 5. 1. I explained 19 ff. the charm cif Qpovpqatv. Justi. and so can be effective for the present client. Amen." not visible) a peculiar formation. rDWNO: for the the first element Mai see Justi. 22: I. 165. 4. from ( 1 1 ) the Dreams and the Curse and the Vow. ttnnp: evidently the 868. p. with rejection of prefix. but the word is suf- ficiently clear. Amen. A. '13D13 : cf. as The form may be Cf. of No.J. n!n3irn: some of the characters are It uncertain. Poim. Ku^awf. 99. appears in Syriac only (in the singular in -6s) in the col. 16093. Nuriel one of the archangels (also Uriel). NO'OID: (a plural-point to be connected spirits. Of these angels. Kop. same as the common simp. 237 forever. Saltiel a form of Saltiel. . 292. Letters and angels are practically is For the assonance. a Pi'lel participle. Tormentor and the and guarded is Maiducht b. "go astray" hence "seducing corresponding to the words before and after. see Payne-Smith. It is little made out for the wife of the client who is himself given a space at the end. K. and may it And guarded and Ban-spirit who thwarts her not approach Maiducht (12) b. cf.3aQif is . 4. smt33(b) : noun of intensive formation. 61. Lilith her hand and be the house and wife and son and property of Dinoi evil son of Ispandarmed from the Tormentor and and the Vow.dvoif Kal SiSaaKahiau. diabolic arts and human machinations. and the Trvevftaaiv Tr^.. Kv/3o(. 2 Ki. 2. MONTGOMERY Sealed evil ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. 187. 34.

a libation and [depart from daughter of ]-izduch and her . Because he has given Spirit.. . Amen. . (8) .. . . turned away . 36 (CBS 2933) rna -a xni'itop Tn (2) m . depart from before ..m ^ Spoin K^OPT unipun hb tinnno'K^ (7) xja ji'n^T (6) ^n] i 'onp ID Pia KHIPJ (IK . Its magic purpose is the insurance of a bride against the goblin which would destroy her powers oi motherhood . and (the The lord (3) Sames Sun) has charged me against thee. . go away. . Selah... to go against the evil whom they call the who kills the young (5) in the womb of their mothers. COMMENTARY This inscription has a twofold interest... vntj> toE'D] 5>y iirbw i^y B"DB> (3) sno (4) . Nannai has and . -psi-ins >. the evil spirit is invited to go to the bridal chamber and there (238) . .. designated is this bowl . . 'mp ID "OPI PIE Pia . . . . and Nirig (Nergal) against Dodib. . this moreover drink engraved seal. Evil Go from the presence of (7) [these angels] and depart from . and go to the bridal chamber and eat. (4) has given me power Strangler. Go away. ann toi sntj^a Kirn n^y b'i&n Kb'n jv:n2o snpnoi jinnno'si n^'i ^ arv xjm (5) KDN^D r-ni nraa ." Go from the presence of these holy angels (6) that sons may come to birth to their mothers and little children to their fathers. Sin (the said to me. . . . daughter of Murderess. has sent me. and they are called "Slayer. . Amen. . Moon) spirit. Bel has commanded me. j^m prrmp ID pis Nnn ^PEK nm ^ an NOBH 1 'KWR 5>i3Ki x^n n'al> 5"tKi ni>D ND^DJ sonn KJH (8) to PDN pc[] TRANSLATION . me a name by which I shall drive thee forth. . ...No.. [D]K3 tun jorp ." and their fathers "Destroyer. . (2) of that Murderess. nt5"a .

TD. 110131. ii. according to ancient magical use the list see p. : "The witch who robs at the love the enamored man. the chamber of Tobias's Magic of is of this witch i who destroys love. '3: a dialectic form of b'3 (Mandaic). Ginza p. obtain a form of Sin in the Syriac. see 6. s. 3). the lord that the charm is given as though from pagan Sames. Beducht (Bel's or Beltis's. 21 . demon which haunted lilith iii. daughter). see . Sin. the Afo/M-series. 28. 19. conjurations. u. and we The Mandaic has both J'D and NTD. for their use of oracles. 23. see Chwolson's extract from the Fihrist. ed. CIS. phoen. artificial names..). 13. lascivious charm. For these Syrian deities see given by Jacob of Sarug. 77.J. Mandaic where. the anthe spirits cient Nergal.. 247 ff. Onom.. 869." etc. . All these except Nannai survived as evil spirits. e. Nannai. ZDMG. and in general for the material Chwolson. C"OB>. ibid. For the use made by the Harranian pagans of "magic. see is p. Inscr. A. to be presumed. 2. The charm given in the form of an oracle from these deities .. Peterman. TanriN: n for n. 100. Nos. The the old other feature of interest deities. g." is of the enamored maid. but enough survives to recall the book of Tobit and the charm Raphael performed bride. and in Syriac the deity Handbuch. 2 r. nno: in the Mandaic '3HK for the epithet of the Sun. her he feels her ... "Samis. in the of the seven planets religion (see Norberg.") a relic of the religion which survived to a comparatively late date in is Harran. no. 289. see Lidzbarski. d. Nirig and Kewan have strengthened him. rw 1. Bel. It is 1. and Nirig. Ki'D: 3 is more likely than i. p. cf. MONTGOMERY ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. figures. cf. Mandaic 'i^DNB>. edited by Martin. vv. For analogies in neo. For the demon's f.. 15. for an early instance.Punic names ('3. knots. Ssabismus (1856). Ssabier xxix. Bel. (This more antique aspect of these deities appears in the early Mandaic amulet published by Lidzbarski. amulets. the text is badly obscured.. his love she looks on the maid and takes away her Cf. in the de Vogue volume. but the present charm confesses their benevolent power and is also without any Mandaic trace. d. which it is would in some way against the full incapacitate his powers. 239 partake of a certain food and drink. 1. Looking She looks on the man and takes away love. ff .

And the like epithet found in the Greek amulet published by Reitzenstein. jtpijvr = Kpvn : 37: 10.240 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. 399 ff.) It may be noticed that in the reference to Antiochos Epiphanes' raid upon the in temple of Novomc 2 Mac.and Diana-like characteristics. crescent on her head (ibid. With ^myaUuv and umSowiKTpia cited by 5. 266). probably equivalent to srano. 42." just as these are referred to in "L-rpayyakia cf. Orientalists. 130 ff. 1880). 152). 81. who is charged with the same murderous functions i'i : opu'^u a?. Lexicon. Norberg) : . jjrtf i%ei. X e 'P a oiSripav Kal aiipeif ra Traiiia icai tMvTUf avra Kal Ttfavruoiv. BABYLONIAN SECTION. Tin : the name is obscure. denned as female. the Lilith-witch. KJTpun: the normal feminine . the Harranian religion the moon was in the excursus by Chwolson this his Ssabier. Cf. xnpun XDK. the demoniac maladies See notes on No. Roscher. Ephialtes. there is deity by Lunus. Religion Babyloniens Assyriens i. Nanna (see Jastrow. Akten persischer Martyrer (Leipzig. Ausziige ff. The best interpretation of the mischief wrought to the embryo was charged to the parents ill- who so gained the infanticfdes. with assimilation of the dental to p. And there follow immediately "the names of the holy 1. daughter of Sin. "Nana"). pp. 37: 10. See at length for the later character of this deity G.. 98 (ed. i. 151 ff. 298. The of same in evil spirit. kfPVi 18: 6. found in the Alexandrine Codex the masculine variant Nava<ov. v. 01 K'ipnoi line is that the Mandaic form of the fame of fern.. (for later literature. trpayyaUa - AiijUop^E. 252. 55. 83 nth Congr. nevertheless androgynous. yQ. sect. aus syrischen discussion in G. She combined both and thus appears on coins with a This lunar characteristic doubtless ex- Venus. 151 'X33 : the ancient Babylonian goddess u. where as the verb shows. 4). pi.of this formation. s. Roscher's Hoffmann. Ginza ii. eKtpxofiivii eirt ra fUKpa vatSia. i : 13. "Strangling Mother" (of babes) appears twice (in Actes of the is Gollancz's Syriac charms.. Hoffmann. 4. Poimandres. (Hence the Latin writers express Mesopotamian 15. and while in later religion the moon's character has generally been genders. 76 ff. Auszuge. he is In his history the moon god has vacillated between the two masculine. as against xr6iop. angels. q. see in plains the gender of the deity in our text. v. for Baskania.

arv KOCH: the antecedent is Peshitto to Ex. . . n: the 8. Syriac Afel used of the function of midwives. to the wedding." and the e. being used distributively. "midwife. b. impr. preceding imperative to the The imperative is apparently addressed demon who is bidden to go. g. xW>n rvaS ^tx the like the -n <a is common Syriac term for the marriage chamber. KS'OJ: for NB^J : ? Cf." : the spelling represents the Syriac fern. : '31 "HIP probably a Persian feminine name is in -duch. 7. probably the charm has been ab- breviated. A. her. . 241 "hence have arisen the abortive ones foetus. the bride's name ical to be filled out here. uncertain . . 97. 6. 99.J. see above pp. : |Ol6e p^ n fvru: i- e - the deities mentioned above . if she dare. The following word obscure. MONTGOMERY ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. : and there partake of the magic foods prepared against the Syriac n'kaya. i : 16. the missing rad- may be . or the nuptials in general. "come to the birth. Rabbinic Nn"n. who make abortions and destroy the The epithets are in the singular." Cf. "libation." 5 .

3.. . [the sons and] daughters.. (9) ni> p^Dpi pb'p ftionp scanni K i" pnmi B>3i . ... A word in declare unto you. (10) [a slayer of ?] children is he. and Master named . against the word heard (?). . and the Ishtars and . ... drinking . i>yi itenn S bsn ^>yi xns'pn xn^i' . . I all the Demons . . (10) . Peace your father . (3) [and all conthat] is his.No. from the female is Ishtars. svi . . . Arts and the Tormentor ( [and the Image-spirits] of idolatry. all mighty Liliths.. . ( 1 1 ) . . bia pnx NMn xax^o ''INI 1> . . .. .(11) TRANSLATION Designated is this bowl for the [salvation and] healing (2) of the house and threshold. is he. .. . .... . (4) .. . nnansn (6) 5>ia . And victorious peace is set in .. the cattle. (9) . . (5) house I will enjoin all that is in it.. .. . . the wife.. ao nnx ^3POT K^MHO pa!) KVaty NcJn'BT ni^y Kin . (242) . and whatsoever shall belong to Zaroi son of .. the Mystery of heaven and the Mystery of the assembled waters and the Mystery of earth. . . xn^Jao (7) . . . [^yi . [n]3 ^nsti> pi mi niri['sn inai] (3) . . . eating and devouring. ... and . sobtJ' Nipmo ni3N tnprpo sat K!>B> SIITDI snap 1 : smno's N-I3H xnbs jo so^ . Peace from the male Gods and sits in the house. Angels He and quaffing. 37 (CBS 2943) nrm[i rm] nnrux nnsipow nn[<3i] . . [N]T>K' . . (4) (2) ni> sio-nfr sniD]}6 NDNS wn IE [to] nm3 Q[']n[n] . . . and destruction set in the fire . and spirits all . . . . . .3 b . joi p5nN . .. (8) . and Jinn ( ?) named.. KJK pin srr3T stx 5>jn (5) KJ?[-IN ni] pap K[']D ni K^DC- n KH^XT nn^o KnSno's K^DIH . the Legions and the Amulet(7) .. i>yi . . DI xnn Kpn^oi Nntr Kji Kin sin!'.. . firmed by the virtue of the word of God. . which receiving the mysteries of wrath coming against him and with sabres and sword standing before him and ready to kill him. of this ?) (6) .

native Syriac lexicographers. see p.against other readings 4. 1. peace. Gen. MONTGOMERY ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. 831. i : Petermann see Brandt. KtK"i used like SOD'S. water and earth. 3. 36. Mand. "his sons. who is the helper of Hibil-Ziwa in his . Gram. 243 A it badly mutilated bowl with . SON^D VKi: either or 'i in appositional sense. faciens. plur. but with suffix attached as to a singular form. The is charm is against a murderous house spirit and in part parallel to No. p. For the 7. present spelling substantiates Zar. 127. refers to the magical rites conjuring the angels evil spirit. 'O . in Firdausi.J: J1313K NJ3HD tabescere NJ'J.. "the Great Mystery. and Zaroi. jinn. p. col. a perversion. 86. srox: name of the Light-King in the later Mandaic religion. 80. 140. These realistic descriptions were themselves regarded as prophylactic. It is of God the Mystery of heaven. 5. 143. here the demon is masculine and is represented as carousing upon the blood of his victims. 10. cf. 1. Syr. Mandaic "your father. The quarterings of a Persian also in the circle or seal in the center contain letters of the Tetragrammaton I . in 36: 4." for Ky'OE>: the incantation heard? The following ppls. who are called upon against the filb'v : the Rabbinic-Mandaic preposition of cf. see p." hell. 47. Payne-Smith." .. The word corresponds to the actual Syriac s:. Mand. apparently n\ the K3DV1 : word noted by B.. "Life is victorious. 8. ''lit : Pognon See Noldeke. cf. For his following epithet as the Mystery of heaven and earth. Nj?OE> : CU3. 10. Other "gods" are named below. Zaroes. descent to Ginza r. }'3p K'D cf. Rel." II.. 'elawe. reprehis sent the carousing of the demon over in the flesh and blood of victims. 9. name of a Magian. ed.the . 383. The expression "victorious concludes with a pax vobiscum from the gods. T3D appears with ^ox. Schr. recalls the standing the threefold division of the universe Mandaic doxology. and neo-Syriac. form. to be denominative verb from a noun in formed to rhyme wano = probably : Tin. A. see Justi." and may be from the same source. 01 KOSJJVD: resumes IB'S. see Brandt. pagan origin in the name of COMMENTARY much of the inscription illegible. p.J.

-INT trrm sonny ISHK jvsnaa ~a saiKDT arisen snsin pn^n [K']TDJ? mrb (13) . Charmed art thou. in the name (244) . s^mn . by the mysteries and ordinance (7) of the living God. (2) the dwelling and mansion and barn. and the sons and daughters. 38 (3) (CBS 2941) nriK. fOl . even the three hundred and sixty (6) Broods. . by the word and command of the angel Negoznai. armed and equipped are the house. . sanssoi xs'Di SB^nDi sb'Jii NTD (12) ns xn^nj^m mrb KTinsi xrrnrrn ni n:a s'uisnni x-tst snnsn smo pn] (14) p^xay 'nn [ns snjinj 1 -!'! n'nrn im Exterior (15) TRANSLATION Charmed. (3) and the cattle and household vessels of Hinduitha (4) bath Dodai and (of) Marada. (9) Kna^nsji .vxijs . even her husband and her sons and daughters.[oi] ':[nEi] xmajn N'ni'x pn^ia s'lnscn (i/V) sn'UTn pi sn^nj'n n:a x'uisni i xaixoi .ai ruai -331 njs'j^i rbym mn HE (2) nrra rtotoi tnt TDJ? TVPDV nntmi ea Knsa-ntr X'nbsn ^3T (7) (6) rrmn XIN-I^I 'tn (4) snvirrn nnun xnsoxi pn'B-i Kcn^ni pnwviB' pn^iai nx:x xn'W 'KJK' (5) pnpKEl p'STK'2 srsi'C (erasure 'sniyai (8) rvW) 'Njwan nmpsi KSN^D Kr:nn3i xns'pni snrnj. (5) Lilith Yannai. JVN32 }O1 |V[Slt] (10) (11) p'sm . and all thy Broods. jo iins:2 .No.

The word . script of this and the following Mandaic bowls. (12) charmed and hobbled and suppressed and covered and squeezed under the foot of Marabba bar Hinduitha and under the foot of Zadoye and Dazaunoye sons of Hinduitha. to that of a private mansion. which from her one after the other. may be identical. these four terms occur in Lidzb. later. dwelling. both those entering and departing with Marabba and Zadoye and Dazaunoye sons of Hinduitha. palace. 245 of the virtue of strong and mighty Deity. and her daughters. is The with their families are included by name. D. 4 and 5. their mother. A sons charm executed in behalf of a certain woman and her husband. 15. MONTGOMERY ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. Exterior (15) Holy (?) COMMENTARY For the language and see 7. : "House. lilith. whose word none transgresses. and their wives and their sons and their daughters and their cattle ( 14) and the people of their houses. 1. are all Gods and Temple-spirits and Shrine-spirits and Idol-spirits (9) and Ishtars from the body of Marabba and Zadoye and Dazaunoye sons of Hinduitha. and with Hinduitha b. And life." . The hyn (which is found in the Mandaic literature in the original meaning) is here reduced from the sense of "temple.J. The charm particularly addressed against a specified with whom "the mighty Istar" who is named i . A. XJX'ra is the cattle-barn in general perhaps "outbuilding." as in Babylonian. abundance. Charmed and confined and restrained and hobbled is the mighty Istar I (il) and the three hundred and sixty Broods. and from Hinduitha and from her house and her bed and from (10) their [wives] and their sons and their daughters the Charmed and their cattle." etc. D. health and arming and sealing and protection be to their body. and by the seal (8) of the angel Be'odai. (13) and under the foot of Hinduitha b. In 40: 4. also appears in Hyvernat. have dismissed Charmed are all the Amulet-spirits that dwell in the houses of men and waste them.

see Justi. rua for the plur. i = "both. etc. NOHD: original root . pnpNS: of same root as smpa. is supplied from 40 1. and defines the word as used in the Mandaic literature.246 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM." e. 21. the Lilith 'wm . thus relieving Noldeke's doubt. p. a plural of NJJf. ODD (see Noldeke. Hadad. are favorite abodes of the demons. ina"". with assimilation of l Noldeke. a like series of 10. : Persian name of a Syrian monk of the seventh century. Mand. and. With inexact construction. so that the name equivalent to the ancient Damascene name Tima (as in Pognon's Zakar inscription). nsoo= is + Adda. with n. i. . 'Kiijn: a corruption of 5wray? : For sonny and trans see 72 f." cf. the Biblical Benhadad. Gram. tcntwn: "cattle". 1. 44. = Heb. p. 14. it occurs in the sense of "wild beast. an old theo- phorous name = 3N + i (or K31 + no ?) SWNT century. 2. or first element may be the deity Mar. 378. 14 K2K1KD. . "lord" 16. see The original formation is that of the Syriac noun pakadta. In the Talmud vessels One is tempted to regard the word as "sheep. xrmrn: 4. cf. Amurru. 6. 8. Cf. 144. run. woman". having been replaced by the derivative man. in 12 with the second N caretted. n3Ti.. and Arabic The word is otherwise unknown in Aramaic. M. titles Notice from the erasure that and "angel" are interchangeable 40: 17. KriKJK: the "vessel. see Noldeke. the 15. singular Nnvn. : Persian Zadoe. ibid. passive ppls. 4. Cf. 4. w. suffix. a form of (see Clay. is the husband. BABYLONIAN SECTION. "lilith" WTUJ : so the probable reading. <snn=nn. 3." singular 'JX would be the equivalent of the Assyrian anu. 45) the verb is found in the bowls of Pognon and Lidzbarski. p. For i . 40: mar." but for the following "of the house. quoting a name of the fifth K'UlNn 82. 24: i. 95)." in 39: 6. . for this being. at end of Lidzb. Bir. "Indian Nos. The second word 9. toiKO: 1.

cf. For the form see Noldeke. except for the latter's have dismissed from him" the present text is to . 63. = = For the fem. : error by dittography for K'tNt: the Assyrian zasu. and identical with the Targumic NtNt. "foliage. : for : Knosnn . 45. 277. A. ragala. jcy." Targum Job An archangel Zaziel appears in a papyrus published by Wessely. ibid. KDNonn 14. tie (a sheep) 1 1 . XJDKO I can suggest only the root found y is in the Rabbinic ptjy.. K. 162. = Rabbinic ^in . the Arabic in Lidzb. but I cannot identify the root. identical with be so interpreted. but according to Noldeke. 40: 23. 'Pi . 14: 9. Hwb. see ibid. |WT*mrwiB 12. 4. with change of construction from the preposition ^5? . Noldeke.42. xlii. probably an error for ND1KDD. 65. MONTGOMERY is ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. "strike. cf. "olive-press". cf. in ss'D : S3TID. perhaps . Ass. xWi: a denominative from hit. the Pael in 7: 17." is The word occurs : n^p'ne 1 : the passage I reading. For omission of is relative after EH]?. 39. pi. 1. as in 40: 21. JWNP 222. Muss-Arnolt. HTp'aE'. i. 247 : the reading almost certain. rm see p. 15. 170. (Exterior) lp sure. abundance". "which 40 22. K'WlKPm 13. on the foot.J. persistent in Mandaic.

Again: Health and arming and sealing be for the parturition of Bardesa (12) whose mother is Terme b.on nbs'oxTDT N'Dsn K'oirn sbs'[ox]nT ^jn tei> nwD (10) xriKisn pni'io KHIDN Din . . which appear to her in Dreams of night and in Visions of day. . (4) Charmed are the Sorcery-spirits in stocks of iron.ai n^inn (2) wniMi Kntsnn[i ]nnn snsi'B'iB'a (5) xnoa wino K<VDV toe>[toin] (7) (4) ntn n[a no]yn Kor sososn KnKB'R'iin WDM win K'TDV WJND wJNvm (8) 1 jwa ns :n.. .3 srtj'JK [jwi]n x'Toy troi/ajKn snuapu we^a (6) inn xn'pi tnioy wnenDi KtJni N'a-ini K'jNan istm N'rxii vn^ ? JNTDJ? xnsn K'OTn [n]Dv[T K]Dn-i3T HJONSI nbw (9) jo K"rn nnxns na snsni K'JNitnsi '!"!> nbx^osTOT sn^"^ KTDJ? Kmp. D. charmed the empoisoning male Devils and charmed the empoisoning female Liliths . (248) womb and the . b. (7) and evil Mysteries and the (magic) Circle of malignant Masters and Sages and Doctors. . and the body and soul (3) and the unborn child and womb of Bardesa whose mother is the daughter of Dade. charmed the Lilith (5) in chains of lead.No. 39 (CBS 9005) (3) . charmed the that appears to her in [shape?] of Tata her sister's daughter. . charmed the defiling Ghosts (10) that have entered. (6) charmed [the arts of?] evil men and hostile Beasts. [3]5>D j[io]'^i (11) n[pT']3 njosni' 'D'nm xn'o na [woTn n]Dj?i (12) [xD"i]-m nS'Kmoi'i nVinn Knonm TRANSLATION Health and arming and sealing and protection (2) be for . Lilith all Charmed the Lilith that appears to her (9) in . . and the melting of Wax figures (8) of him who is alive: from the unborn child and womb of Bardesa whose mother is Terme .. D. charmed and sealed with the seal of (n) King Solomon.

82. JOINT: so in 1. 4 the present charm very similar to that in 2. 10 "plummet" rather suggests The Hebrew for "tin" is bna. unborn child. 19). the especially in the /cardrfco/ioi . mentioned TSBA. on basis of chemical analysis. a feminine form in Cf." The e Syriac 'dn ka whereas Hebrew the heavier in metal lead. la). "sorcerNorberg. xlii. col. in his Keilschrift- = lead (eft. the former like the love-charm from Hadrumetum. Kaaanepn6v. 12: 2. N'DTn. the mortuary incan- tation published me in JAOS. ix. Index to Wessely. in Lidzb. abrd. For the meaning cf. which includes prayers From 1. the is Hebrew "tin." "lead. in the same word is ambiguous use of plumbum in Latin . 249 COMMENTARY A for the is charm for a pregnant woman. by I may compare I.). A. atropaic. 83. et seq. vi. NHXD: Pognon's KH1KD (to be cited to Noldeke. like all the the Testament of Solomon where tin is tin metals. of the petitioner. Pognon A. 584.. Hilprecht and Haupt. tby. its is ff. 5. How- ever Sayce. 53. overlooked here). 4 : may rather be "lead. B. which however equivalent 13K . Archaeology of the Cuneiform Inscriptions. or abara who postulate a distinction between abara and and ebara but dispute which word is applied to which metal (Payne-Smith. in this sense NnriD: also is the root '& not otherwise found in Rabbinic and Syriac. . ibid. In the Mandaic appear the snnKD. etc. no. 17. Ass. Zech. 346. Argues correctly from the tin. 2. Both lead and tin were used in magic. f. Assyriaca. Cypriote defixiones fi6). in and a case was equally used." according to the Syriac lexicographers. may.i/3ov. 272. Hilprecht.." 8 (the mother's name. is JQR. makes anaku tin is known. alloy in iv R no. find that abar is used of magnesite. 1911. sdhiru. -e. 13K) and leaves abar untranslated. 80 equivalent of the Aramaic KiDX. 160. Heb. xiii. 5. 89. text. Lyon. no. and cf. the denies that Sumerian or Assyrian word for texte Sargons. that abar = lead and anaku = p. cf.. Pognon jnKt. ers.. As to the meaning of the Assyrian abar Assyriologists are at variance." paralleled by the This confusion between lead and tin . 4.. N1X3N: the Syriac N13N was used for "lead" and "tin. (SPBA. in Lenormant. ntKl. MONTGOMERY ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. Onom.J. 60. Hence we cannot positively decide whether our abar lead or tin but the weight of the former metal may 337 better suit the symbolism of the language. Pognon A. rev.

p. the Latin-Greek word from same origin. "Pitch" might be the translation here. b. 'abara.. tallow. la/pai but comparing the plural with the Greek related the plastic and the Latin cerai." -o N'TpT xntro: may be inf. 'ane ka. Gram. Mand. srJXDi : sorcerers are by tradition "Doctors. Any in substance might be used these simulacra of the enemy Babylonian sorcery. (-a from -an) . The different vocalizations 'abrd which 5. plural form. v. candidum H. construct) for nsnn . ass. -ixrn. Nnxti'KTin for the adjectival formation. an inadvertent repetition. p. Pael ppl. Magie 80." or "dissolvers. (n. Wax does not seem to be identified among those substances. 1912. "wax" in Rabbinic. so also Fossey. cera. appear to be attempts at differentiation. see Pliny p. 'anak vs.250 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. xxxiv.." appears in W. I have edited N'B>tmn : in JAOS. cf. may. Lateinisches etymolothe s. 38: 7. the isolated instance given by Noldeke. see A. Its meaning? term having undergone extensive modification in etymology is uncertain. and see ZAL. I have word to the well-known use of wax for in Hellenistic magic. i. 19. p. in agreement with "dissolution. For the use of wax in western magic.. Tallquist enumerates clay." 'P is the context. 344. honey. 432) the wax Is as used. Walde. 105N'JNVTi . gisches Wortcrbuch'. his note to dough (Maklu. 119) . Syr. Peal of S1B. or a masc. msy vs. I interpret the . and p. 82. plur. w^b. see Noldeke. 46. see Noldeke. 1910. apparently "lead. though Jastrow and Thompson speak of kiru (see Muss-Arnolt. Assyrian Mru or = pitch. Apuleius. possibly absolute 11. so also in Arabic. amendment after Pognon's parallel. at least according to the refer- ences in Payne-Smith and Norberg. x<m in: cf. 434. ibid. pi. 6. T. and. as in snav. tin. 6. Die Apologie d. pitch. 1841). nigrum is lead. "pitch" in Syriac and Mandaic. word of the magic circle.. . Weise. N. BABYLONIAN SECTION. part of the dreaded arts of the necromancer 'Jl see p. see the ample notes and bibliography in Abt. or better. Knoin. and Heb. 47 (ed. e. 88. but with the form found 'b in 1. LU. Ellis's bowl-text.

Assyrian Deeds. in von Nabonx. he would derive from KJD "hate. Pap. the . 12 idus. Inschriften etc. Din doubtless = 3in. which form. pi. n. W> : in 1. 40.. feminine name Tata Strassmeier. Inschriften von Darius. Strassmeier. Thus Noldeke's explanation of Din in the Mandaic literature (Mand. with the root I'D. as a participle. and Tatu. In this line a definite : family ghost appears. e. no. occurs in Pognon A." from it comes the Syriac and with the same is to be connected the Hebrew p. see ibid. no. sana. NnwKD : I connect this. N'QK': a mistake. "again. is used in like sense in earlier bowls. Arabic . snxn : cf. The same note is to be made upon 11. "dirt. 3d fem.. and if fern. ia ? K'OTn: the conjectured from a mere remnant." The same word. 25. JiKD. xniDl 14. Clay. masc. b. BE." but without explanation of the It might. 343. 57: hy: 58: 1 6. also Tatta-dannu. g. Glossary. However that Sachau's Elephantine papyri occurs the 2. 204) is confirmed. of bby ." so often found on our bowls. Johns. which does not appear as a verb in Syriac s'yana. . 251 8.J. I. 67. n. MONTGOMERY first letter is ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. 'BKB 25: 10. 450. 8. 7 The word before in NriNn is unintelligible. corrected by the next word. be an error forXns'JSD. in a singular instance. possibly 9. "shoe. nSsnio for the form. metathesis |KD for KJD.. A. Gram.

. . |vxrnpB3'i "n N^S |VN^Kn3 Nas^o nxns.. p5>3nno[i] (23) nin 31 nn^K3 (25) s[ns]3pu nnsjni snsn KISJT (24) ma [a p] n]nm (26) K"n p truKno n3 [nND3]i nn'j[sr]n TRANSLATION (V) riJK'J'3i n^a['m 1K'3KT S"m In the name of Life ! that health (2) and wife and male sons (3) body and female daughters... pi] r6|>n mi]n pi nn['K3 p]i nnJ3 pi n. . .K"n twiN'jKvrri WKOufi] (4) nioTii mm sbs (6) rp'btwDioi IID'^K rriE'K K"n p tfUKtna] na viND3tn(5) mnn rp trrno 13 KHS^^ . . .J x]Toy KMJsns (21) nain pn5>ia ^DI [sn^oy nsn]s nsnsa .s Nonooi ... niNt IGI nijs ID snxnnD^yti] (20) K'snsi |oi .No.' roy ^131 ssxt'o win nns ns nnbjo3 (18) smn sonns s-rpn (19) xmsyi . and the house and (252) and armament be to the .[K]^33i [N^JII n^puc'Li] (22) s]vo[y] n:si . [in]oy x^[J]ii Ko[noi ..K'JUI rbyn 15) n[5"i]nn sniosi "n to truwno ~3 (13) 11x03 n mm s^n nSoTii (14) ID nn^xsi n3pu nnJ3i nan nan [{rusna 13 I-ISDSNT N'J'n siitn nn^Ksi K[nKapu] nnsj3i nj3* mm Exterior nj3i nisn TIKDS masi n^inn NHIDXI SOTI (17) jo njn na 'KHKIDT (16) -a nKDSKn nn^vm nJK^3i ni>3'm [mm nn'K3i .. . 40 (CBS 2971) nan (3) nj3i niKti mjBi> n^inn xnnn (2) KniDXi rn nrvtai J Kim Nnin toon . [K' U . . nixni K13J anjxna 13 nso3 H3S33 jnrrnani (12) o xnanm snnn SHIDKI K..

of Xaro b. A. and the male sons and the .. swear and adjure you (6) by Life. and the wife and male sons [and female daughters and the house and dwelling] and mansion and building and cattle (17) of Xaro b. . . M. from Life. from Life. . from Life. M. 19) by the seal of the angel Darwa . when they appear in I "(12) and wife. . the live (?) property of [Xaro b. . bull and goat. ?) of ( and by the command who (?). . from] the Liliths. the ass. MONTGOMERY ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. the house of Xaro (13) b. and the goddesses . by the adjuration of .. . the mansion (4) and the barn of the the property of (5) I cattle. . have broken you in the gate of Xaro b. whose word none transgresses. shut up and confined and and the three hundred and sixty Tribes. And health and healing and guarding [be to armament (15) be to the body and the male sons and female daughters and the house and dwelling and mansion of (16) Merathe daughter of Hindu. (18) by the ( word of Life. [from] the body (24) of the man and his wife . the man and his [Health and protection. (25) the house and dwelling and mansion and the barn for cattle. the male sons And health and armament and and female daughters and the ] house ( 14) and dwelling and mansion and the barn of the ass. and goat.]. M. (26) And Life is victorious ! COMMENTARY A long and repetitious charm for a kinds of certain man and his family and property. etc.J. .. bull 253 abode. the granddaughter of the angel Buznai. Charmed] are b. . . And health be to the body of Xaro .. Amulet-spirits which lodge in their houses (23) and devastate them. Charmed. the Ishftar] . M. . all Charmed art thou. is ( ?) with the mighty Buznai. M. (22) have dismissed from him one after [the other.. .. the Plague . inscription including the is several live-stock.. from Life. Charmed are a[ll the gods and] temple-spirits and shrine-spirits (20) and goddesses from the body and the wife and sons and daughters and the house and dwelling and mansion and barn of Xaro hobbled is which all I (21) M. . from Life. . from Life. Charmed [and hobbled] and suppressed and covered is the Satan ( ?) and . and the three hundred and sixty Tribes.. Xaro bar Mehanos.female daughters. Lilith Buznai. About half of the found on the exterior.

as the regimen shows. and Noldeke. see Payne-Smith. pp." supplemented apparently by K n. Mand.. The word s. Arta^sathra. sections of the Ginza. as in the English "swear on the Bible. 18. cf. no. 1. v.. ibid.. Mand. 14. and finally the word rewritten. Justi. Gram.254 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. Diet. the barn. N"n pt6iru. e. visno 18. . Xsayarsa. like the it Talmudic "private property. plus Anos. and is is used uniquely with a verb of swearing. 159. is used In 1. NTJy : to be added to Noldeke's instances. M ." see Jastrow. 'K = the preposition just noted. pp.. 14 is = 5. Syr. 208. where in the Semitic 3 found. Noldeke. see the like phrase in Pognon. 47. also i . ? hand on the sacred 38: 6. ad he. 17. 91. The K OKI. g. 173. 293. before the vowelless Enjxno r= 17- Meh = Mithra. Justi.. The followe. With the same invocation begin the some of Pognon's bowls. 'KJTIJJ. 68. AAseri. under 6." the primitive action of laying the 16. but not in Noldeke. certain goat-species. Gram. in tn'K^H : and full form of the preposition appears Pognon B. below. and used as a collective plural. in cf. The sorcerer affects that he has received from one of her brood the proper charms by which to bind her. name in Koseform. nD3 : evidently an old Persian 12. NiDH: ing word was written tMiwi. 4. Gram. a Persian genius. 34. Observe interchange of N3t6o with WvW>. K|JK "n t6x: cf. tJV and now is found in in Sachau's recently published papyri from Elephantine. here and again first radical. BABYLONIAN SECTION. Payne-Smith. 'sora : cf. object. w "livestock. also cited by Syriac lexicographers.. K"n jo : the long period which this phrase concludes this ancient is paralleled below. xniDNi : for 1 of purpose. representing. Noldeke. represents the vowel of the prefix. col. found names of N-irtn: for i>'n. This antagonism of Buznai's granddaughter to herself is evidently a case of casting out devils by Beelzebub. NJNT2: i. 2934. ~\ was then caretted above. 'Vn. hemra. Cf the Greek .

MONTGOMERY "by that which ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. 231 b. K"n. "by the adjuration of" Life..J. 26. 16: 6. preposition. see ibid. . B. and Liclzb. see Noldeke. with |VK : . 22. 255 01 jVK^jna : is upon. tKBD : but a feminine is demanded. see 6. in the Ginza. 146. cf snriD. : for the sing. Kruno in agreement with the Syriac. JN'3Kr 5. . A. For the redoubled to 1. e. 23 ." i. no. For the phrase. the same doxological formula in Pognon.

shorter. and his use in that connection typical of to the power over the dead. texts are buried in the graveyard 1 . Schoene. inscription is at the back of the right-hand side. almost all the pieces have been recovBut the text is sadly worn and obscured through the shaling of the surlegible. nected by philologists with the Old-Persian Windafarna Justi. (256) . 41 (CBS 179) This text 1 is unique. 5: i. 368. p. pnyi. Caspar (Caspar. face. Enough served. In the in the first line of the longer text are visible the words. and only a few detached words are There are two inscriptions. the later app. at right angles to the central suture. The skull is remarkably well pre- and though badly shattered. being inscribed on the top of it a human skull. the in the theme of the use of mortuary remains. from front to back and also filling up some space in the forward part of the right-hand side. "Mordecai ben Saul". one of the three Wise Men. so the almost certain take the name to be a feminine hypocoristic in -ai to be connected i. I man r6j?a can be read in one place). 228). is legible to indicate that is a magical inscription. and a woman's name (evidently the wife of the first-named reading. The its opens up an become part of the stock is apparatus of the necromancer. xrtt.APPENDIX No. con. The use of a skull for recording a magical skull has inscription interesting line of magical practice. doubtless of the same order as those on the bowls. one running across the length of the left-hand side of the top. that This statement must now be qualified. But all through magic runs the morbid In the Greek k>ve charms. The other. in the E. 'SDJ. (?) ^xc> p '3TiD. The lowing names are visible: -pis. cf. Jaspar). with Gathaspar.rcerpta barbara to Eusebius (ed. fol- second nil n3K . ered. magic brews for compelling I love. while the presence of the gruesome object adds awe in which he is held. also spelt '1O. indicating an address to the evil spirit. as learn through Professor Ranke two similar skulls are in the Berlin Museum.

340. 6$b: "there are two kinds of necromancy the one where the dead is raised by ( naming him. and I understand like customs are found over the world. 362. ii. A. 164). 257 human bones are used. informs me that the North American Indians carefully preserve the skulls of the animals they hunt. the burial of Pognon's bowls in a cemetery. 28).. p. may be noticed that in Arabic the 2 word There for skull is is also used of the soul (Wellh. cf. notes the use of skeleton-like figures as talismans in Italy. the Sabians see Chwolson. and ii. was it efficacious against the evil eye . 213 (ed. Sank. special 141. the skeleton Blick. Speck. see Seligmann. who notes the use in Italy of a tiny skull-charm against the Jettatnra. Actes of the Leyclen (6th) Congress of Dozy 365 f. a reference in the Talmud to the necromantic (31N 7l?3). he finds the same talisman in classic times. and also the use among the ancient Taurians and the tribes of Caucasus of the heads of enemies stuck on poles as a prophylactic. i.J. its vogue among and cle Goeje." Joel asked by means thinks this skull of a skull nS^J3 (Aberglaube. The Ei'il Bye. as a means of the reincarnation of the beasts. is The use of skulls (calraria) in classical magic see Abt. No. p. 44) refers to some artificial skull-shaped object. 3. 142). also vouched for in the Apology of Apuleius. of "speaking skulls. * Dr. is use of a skull. The skull therefore into the general category of frightful or obscene objects. the other where he btftrin). of the Museum. Especially as part of referring to Kayser's edition of the Canones. note 150. Der base 141. For this practice . Religion the heathen Syrians as an amulet (quoted by Robertson of the Semites." we may ii. 161. have survived. Orientalists. 293. Primitive animistic beliefs spirits . falls 2. also Elworthy. Die Ssabier. MONTGOMERY ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. skull But the was also efficacious as a prophylactic object. which had the power of repelling the evil eye in particular and evil spirits in general. but our actual illustrates the practice noticed in the Talmud. Skizzen. Gnostics an-d their Remains. and in a late Arabic charm a broom from (see to a cemetery has efficacy in bringing the beloved to the lover's side Cf. . comparing King. James of Eclessa notes that a dried human head was used by Smith. 180). p. and the skull striking is it is especially preferred as the It most and perhaps most durable part of the anatomy. which connect the skeleton with the world of a material point d'appui.

notes and transcriptions which he had the papers It made in his preliminary essays. Gottheil's copy. and a bowl would have been a perfectly proper place for a text of this prophylactic character. ns nun n'!"i> : ii>"N ni> ness's : mix Bpn E'tan ip'as : iD^as : 'mar nones ini> a^ni : 'in^n ^P nnntDt? nnpuax (258) . 42 Towards Gottheil. was the copy of a text which differed so radically from the other if it inscriptions that I inquired of Prof.No. the close of my work on this volume. Gottheil was taken from a bowl. He text replied that he knew of no other source whence the text could have come into his set of papers. men nrtr n!> n:n na m^sn C'T vniovv 11 mxpTD im IIDT] ]Voi> i!> b"t SUJH in^K n^nn ^n^w "' IDKII ntpa nx anni'i mo ntfn to nvc^i ncsm jym any!' i'Kiti'i ncn ptoi n^nn mivy inan 'SJKI nsa cim nnmn li'si DKO i^ yarxi 5>3oi max nl'i'si si> mnn ^a^nn ^ I^N IK nn'3Tot5' tet in : !>3i pnn^ ptr n^ nhjn n^n^ : mst- (V) : nni>r no 'JN : pnn^i yini' na : ^H : m ^i ^ ISIIOK : o^ain: 'ni^e' . contains a form of the Lilith legend. Professor Richard kindly forwarded who had several me some in the years ago thought of publishing the bowls. venture to publish Prof. its and do so the more readily because of tration it interesting character It and the illus- affords to several points in the texts above. I have not however included the text in my Glossaries. is Among not now found Museum. widespread in folklore. jv pin nnmp mrp ens JJCD MJDJD 'UD <ni>N rpn trajn !>2i in^N ny^ nvi TI IDB>B> D'anan ae>r S>SOB" JK n!> nxeitin mil Tva!> nxcc ro^in ns '3^ ISK r6n na ioai nytmn m^!>a y-21 mi>vn nai'in in^s ^ns i^ n^xm ivm n^ nn^> c35>in C'KOD I^H na ^ li'ion m! ns nnp^. Accordingly on the hypothesis that the original I was once in the Museum.

with all Where art thou going. more roughly designed contains mrp in the center." in another division 23K and nearby in e. A pJV( ?). to be found Schwab. A rough figure of a hand (prophylactic against the evil eye) contains the : Aramaic legend n'a KtaK' K srns (= xn ?) I xp SIDIH 'jnto evil SJK : "I am the seed-producer (?) of Joseph. hand JCE'. etc. T .i>H 5>i me *6i nx ^iri K!>E> n"a nixsvn ni> <ni>K rnai mm IK nts'a vmevv na jn'piyi jotr nso!' K^ i-:n Ki>i n nmri' s^ 3"na i>i i^un m^i ns ana yri> i>i nKtn iea inn'j n"ora jnnaK c"aini> K^ ns np CB-a DT. "Satan. The changes are rung on and the scripture Dt. ntrai ntrnpn inr3B> na>3i aipjri K!> riK pnni' n. 259 ann enpn c'^a tnsr <n>K >" etP3 TH m pn '-IBD nvm D^EIK D'E-IB> me>j. an year cannot prevail over him. Another species of the (V. and as a good omen for the expectant mother. with piBBQ and the possible mutations of charms against the Buxtorf's Lexicon. thy foul band walking along? And she answered and said to him: My lord Elija. Similar pT." fertility a play of thought between Joseph as controller of the fertility of Egypt and the of the family. flanked with and TIX. ^o nx D'OBTI 'aaia nx iisob n5>i3' Accompanying the text are given some inscribed designs and phrases. A. Lilith s. MONTGOMERY ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. Elija the prophet was walking in met the wicked Lilith and all her band. Vocab. on the i. Foul one and Spirit of foulness. TRANSLATION Shaddai Sanui Sansanui Semniglaph In the Adam of YHWH who Kadmon besits Life Lilith name of Y" the God Israel the cherubs.J. are to be found at the end of Sefer Raziel and in IlsblJD v. prvj3K. when come. whose name is living the road and he and enduring forever. shield "David's Shield" contains in the center 'run ntc\ a fanciful form of left Adonai. on either side. 28: 10 is cited. He said to her.

adjure thee and thy band. Taltui. the the Wheels and the holy Beasts and the Hosts. Abitar (Abito?). Isaac and Jacob. the DE> H*>J in 1 1 : 9. Ailo. Kephido. And every time that they repeat or I see my names written. Abikar the sake of (Abiko?). "OD and its reduplication probably mean "divorced. Vocab. even as she = thou art?) not able to count the number of the stars of heaven nor to dry up the water of the sea. Abraham. erroneously explained by Schwab. Hakas. hence supplicating. Satriha. . the order of Adam." . blessed is Ten Books of he ! that thou is come Law. to suck his blood and to suck the flesh. Batzeh. BABYLONIAN SECTION. detailed notes are necessary. his holy by gematria 613. Amorpho.." is obscure to me. Tt'. . Kitsa. am going to the house of the woman in childbirth who is in pangs (?). is (jOXpT)on KtKpTO as well as "dance. and will swear to thee in the name of Y" God of Israel that I will let go this business in the case of this woman in childbirth and the child to be born to her and every inmate so as do no injury. Kadmon. are common is in childbirth charms (see Schwab. in the name Y" God of Israel. I And Elija answered and said to of her: Lo. . it will not be in the power of me or of all my band to do evil or harm. The root cf. In the name of : 'Hasdiel Samriel has rent Satan. thou nor thy band to injure this woman marrow their or the child she bearing. YHWH. SI^JJDD Of the terms at the beginning.260 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. nor to drink his blood nor to suck the of his bones nor to devour his flesh. And these are my names: Lilith. or Heb. and in the name of name of the ten holy Seraphs. and by the might of the God of not. the inscribed "13D3D Name. Abnukta. Kali. and in the Shekina.). Matrota. "writhe. B. all Odam. it is '3 DE>. probably used in 7*n. nor to touch in their them neither is ( in 256 limbs nor 365 ligaments and veins.' COMMENTARY 'UDJD Only a few '13D and s. to give her the sleep of death and to take the child she his his is bearing. of So-and-so daughter of Such-a-one. the Syriac sense of mourning." N. The second cf . marrow of bones and to devour his name ! With a ban from the and like a stone shalt thou be ! And said Elija the prophet Name bless it shalt thou be restrained And she answered and said to him For ! blessed : Y" postpone the ban and I will flee.

Most p. Gaster surveys a wide material of European and Semitic forms of this magical narrative. also a similar Syriac of these charms are in the narrative style. i. p. I have had frequent occasion to refer. and cites one of Gollancz's Syrian charms.). charm given by Hazard. would read as rrrx. cf. positive and negative commandments of the Law. M. all of which have evidently the same root. which use. as in the case of Dibbarra. MONTGOMERY I ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. Arabic oop. Rouman1 ian a collection to which 1 and modern Greek legends. Lilith the second Of (see names of the = Abatur the Mandaic genius Glossary A) . 10 Books of the of Law double of the Pentateuch. The very charm was described above over the 62 . Poimandres. He draws on Slavonic. 286 f. and also quotes In Actes of the 8th International Congress of Orientalists.-' commonly used name being inserted upon = the ejtsn. her. has suggested to me. 77. the last as representing the Greek in the papyri. Simon. . For the 365 ligaments. . and she swears that whenever they confront (cf. JAOS. xv. the Eighth Book Moses in the Leyden MS. the identical expression in a charm given by are the Reitzenstein. Abito. 56). 1 The "256 The at the limbs" are 248 in Jewish lore. Caster has published in Folk-lore xi (whole number xlvi)." in several of The latter uncanny spirit has already met us our preceding texts (Nos. Cf.' as also As Mr. the number of preceding abbreviation stands for N'it2O' 3. but the possible reading of the copy. evil spirit potent. the actual cf. Dr. or. thus the mere narrative of a is demon's power. 36. cf. Harrison Fellow of the University. 18.J. an interesting paper entitled 'Two Thousand Years of a Charm Against the Child-Stealing Witch. which Dieterich has published end of his Abraxas. run ra 261 run ro NTS' pronoun onn fern. she In the present case we have the added virtue of the revelation of the demon's names. will retire. quaequac. 4. the third is the Greek 613: the figure the is the gematriac sum of 'the Lord God of Israel. ancient use of epical narrative as an efficient magical p. . A. 129. u. the first as the indefinite Seiva. 295. in view of the Greek parallels see below . a fortiori. A. etc. may be preferable. Sect. the relation of a triumph from some sacred legend. the knowledge of hei names binds her Dr.

the children' above to 36: 4). see Frank. concluding with the names of the up the names in the room of the . to dry up the milk. Poimandres. Partasah. For my name called Paxarea. 2 Wessely. Lilith. xxiv. for one of her names that of "the Strangling-mother of In the European Christian legends. Caster. Izorpo. Vienna Denkscliriften. to raise the hair of the master of the house . Abiko. the earlier rr/Xu. Koko.. form Amorpho probably older. ZA. Abito.. is benevolent actor the Virgin. Batna. In all is children are the object for a of the fiend's ravages. in translation a This Jewish legend is almost identical with ours. reads : 132. Michael. These names are derived from the Jewish 'UCJD 'i:o. Ita. Eilo. In the Greek legend the spirit is Gylo. or Sisynios. Podo. there met down her back and her eyes inflamed. In the Syriac legend quoted by Caster from Gollancz. also Tvkov. For Gello = the Assyrian Gallu. It "When the archangel Michael him the impure spirit with her hair came down from heaven. a book I have not been able to obtain). Odam.. I change into a quadruped. p. And the archangel Michael said to her: Whence comest and whither him : goest thou ? The impure one answered and said to I go to enter the I house as a serpent. and the Evil the latter 1 Spirit in the likeness of an ugly woman who are the characters has (cf. xlii. in one case the charm cataract. Kali. in Greek In his 298.262 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. to humble their heart. Poimandres. is Patrota. 2 which appears also in the magical papyri. woman and a direction to hang concerned. Jewish charm of the same order from the Mystery of the Lord (in the Hebrew "' 11D. dragon. or a certain saint bearing the name Sisoe. boy afflicted with There are some other simpler forms of this legend contained manuscript amulets which were not accessible to Dr. . as Caster suggests. The names are almost Lilith : identical with those in our text they are Satrina. Kea. Amizo. it is a saint Mar Ebedishu . 298. My Kas. Koko =/>a/>fmay be preferable to my In both these Jewish forms Elija and the Lilith are the actors. For when the Holy Mary bore the Word of Truth 66. Talto. Reitzenstein. Reitzenstein publishes a text which is the p. go to make the plagues of women. reptile. BABYLONIAN SECTION. It is considerably shorter. earlier prototype of the Roumanian folk-legend published by Caster. 161. and then is I kill them.

A. she causes faction in the church. MONTGOMERY ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. second Morphous. Anecdota byzantina. e. Amidazou. sends floods.) Karanichos.. We thus possess forms of the legend in Hebrew and in Syriac. evidently a Christian accretion.: and in the two of Wendlarid and Pradel myth of the in the respectively Rev. Selenous. Then.. demons But are named. Ariane. Morphou. g. the early Christian devil's wiles. hag is the original element. as in an amulet in Vassiliev. she answers she crawls into houses like a serpent. The legend sometimes ran out into the line of particular cataract. other i. (third. 263 I went to deceive her and ." Compare also the amulet given on the preceding page in Reitzenstein the (p. 297). diseases. child-murdering 336. Slavonic folklore.. etc. archangel Michael. The same number Griechische u. dragon. which is Pataxaro. to wake the children and kill them. while the Christ and various saints epic Michael. as in one of the Roumanian forms or Beelzebub and . Wherever are found my twelve names and thy name. A is similar legend. is found Hekate-Isis legend. He asks for hei many names." In this Michael descending from Sinai meets the hag Abuzou" and the demons cast out of heaven. The the persistency of the form lists in appears also in the texts ' 4 charm names.- italienische Cebete. lacking the reference to the Virgin. She swears by the throne of God and the eye tell (= eyes) of the Beasts (cf. Maran. and heroes of the modern Roumanian and include Elijah. The Avezuba and Avestitza in Caster's Roumanian legends.* And the archangel Michael seized her : by the locks on the right hand and said to her Tell me thy twelve names. etc. Karane. He inquires where she is going.?. and thy name Sisinios and Sinodoros. ' " siid. given in the Greek-Italian charms published by Pradel. She then gives forty names. to dry up the mother's milk. to bring all evils on men. the story of the wife-hating. the first two of which are Gilou. known or obscure. Abiza. Marmalat. as Gaster points out. demon enumerating her plagues. Amixous. To compare the two Hebrew in Gollanc. Michael asks her her name. and Cf. destroys ships. in Greek texts of eastern and western Europe.J. 23. 12.* And she said: I am called first Gelou. I will not enter into the house of such a one. the oath in our text) that she will the truth. . in large part identical with both these just named.

A child-killing demon Budge. de Morgan. vol. Osiris and the Egyptian Resurrection. line 20: the Koran gives to the : Mandaeans : the same privileges as the Jews and the Christians (see 2 59. 5 73 . third place in the is and Martlos. P. BABYLONIAN* SECTION. i. of bowls (platesi. line 4: read "Berlin" for "British. 285. Sisynios. But the source of the legend which sucks babes' blood.. = Morphous or Morphou having Syriac.264 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. The second in the' Hebrew." and our Jewish its text alone has preserved the correct form. impossible to place our phylactery genealogically in such a mass of interrelated material. see all the elements that were brought together in that and this spread again assuming its variant forms among the peoples age. and as we observed above Avezuba = in the Roumanian. In the Hellenistic magic a classical form of such legend found in Africa. . the third. a reference pointed out to me by Professor Jastrow. Etudes linguistiqiies. . we find that the initial = = Syriac Geos. 2) in 2.or Gilou' Gelos. and faiths. 4th in the Amorpho doubtless the Greek h/iup^ "shapeless. (Syriac). part of his Mission scientifique en Perse. v. 22: 17). is and Gallu. in the Eilo and obscure predecessor Hebrew may be found translate the in Pradel's Morpheilaton. while the later Greek forms have borrowed from the Hebrew in St. is the common property of mankind. If our text actually came from Nippur. 20.2O : add to the list of published Mandaic bowls the two photographic plates J. tradition with its The Jewish text doubtless depends upon Greek magical name Amorpho and its transliteration of deiva. Abito (Abitar?) Apiton the ninth in the Syriac." P. and the latter's Phlegumon may It is Hebrew vp. The fourth Amorpho Greek (in our text) texts. . Abiko (Abikar?) Abiza or Abuzou in the Greek texts. doubtless r= Hebrew Lilith = Greek Gelou. it is of interest as the was established out of earliest form of the Jewish legend and as one which can be dated with approximate accuracy. with roots as ancient as the Babylonian Labartu etc. 105. CORRECTIONS AND ADDITIONS P.

ANGELS. ETC.GLOSSARIES GLOSSARY A PERSONAL NAMES AND EPITHETS OF DEITIES. GLOSSARY B PROPER NAMES OF MEN AND WOMEN GLOSSARY C GENERAL GLOSSARY . DEMONS.

.

Prefatory Note
C
arranged according to roots, the other two consonantthe

Glossary
ally.

is

The former indexes only The

common

nouns.

citations of other authorities

can be understood from

2.

The

two publications of Pognon's are
full glossaries will

cited as
all

"A" and "B", and Pognon's
his texts.
line
if

serve to locate

words of
spiral
I

Where

lines of

texts

are given,

the

reference

is

to the

facsimile
it

is

given,

otherwise to the lines of the printed text.
to give the line citation for proper

have not thought
in

necessary
they

names even

my own

texts, as

can be easily identified.

Under Glossary
ter of,
f.

B, the following abbreviations are used

:

d.

=
a

father, h.

=

husband, m.

=

mother,

s.

=

son, w.

= daugh= wife.

Where

word appears

in

my

text the

first

citation

may

be referred

to for any treatment by the editor; references are also added to further

discussions in the Introduction.

Notes are occasionally added to words

found

in

texts

of

other editors.

In Glossaries
of a few
tions

A

and

B

all

the occurrences are given with the exception
like mrv; in
it

common

divine

names

Glossary

C

only typical cita-

and peculiar forms; also

has been the aim to give citations from

the three dialects.

(267)

GLOSSARY A
PERSONAL NAMES AND EPITHETS OF DEITIES, ANGELS,
DEMONS, ETC.
XJX3313X evil deity:

Pogn
Lidz
ii

B.

xn^x, "X God:
(for

7,

16,
i
;

etc.

XJXiJnx

evil deity:

4, 5

D^nSx Elohim
^X'^'X

:

Ellis
10.

Hyv.

these
see to

two
:

names,
5).

angel:
Ellis
i

TiD^X
D'JB

(but see to 11:4).
8.
:

X13X Destroyer

3.

El Panim:

imx

divine

name?:

I1C3X

Abatur.
i

Myhr. Mandaic genius:
7;
;

name
2422.

of

Gabriel

Wohls

Ellis

(silt: 'X)
;

Wohls 2417

HCT ^X El Shaddai

:

8,

34, etc.
:

(TIB13X)
^13'X deity

see p. 96.
:

XOX demon (bath Imma)
19.

Wohls

(Apollo? Aeon?)
to above
:

2426.
'D'X

TWO** feminine

ib.

name

of

T3X
7

epithet of
D'DD-i3X,

God:

8.
:

=

demon: Wohls 2416
5

Stiibe (see p. 77).

D3-QX,

D'3i3X Abrasax
19,

xoynxox a genius: Lidz
thema"?).
D1133X deity:
19.

("ana-

(=

Myhr),

34 (see pp.
F.

57, 99)-

IrnJX mystic

name

:

Schw
:

13X deity
JTIDJX
14.

:

19.

bxnTJX deity or angel
D'3-iJK

19.
:

demon: Schw F
:

(see p. 25).

"the holy Agrabis"

XJXriDX Satan

Montg.

angel

:

Schw
34
;

I.

Adonai
'XiTX angel:
bx'TTX angel:

:

Pogn

B.
I.

XTHD133DX Cpenta-dewa, name of GriinSolomon's Jinn (see

Pogn B; Lidz
19.

baum, Zls.
X1D1X

f.

Keils.-forsch.,
ib.

ii,

224, Noldeke,
epithet
:

297).

XDTX deity?:
X-IJTX

19.

of

angel

("charmxii,

ra Tinx ghost: Wohls 2417.
18.

er")

Schw,

PSBA,

298.

xbx God:

divine
3t>x,

name:

13.

Wohls 2422 angel Wohls
:

(=rTlt:3X ?).

2416.
:

]*3y3Sx

mystical
2422.

name?:

DirplX
f|p3

Okeanos
f)px
:

(

?)

19.

Wohls

series

of

mystical

Ol iT3"nbx mystical

name

:

5.

names
(269)

Schw

F.

270

UNIVERSITY MUSEUM.

BABYLONIAN SECTION.

X3DH-1X deity:

19.

trrm demon

:

19.

tnx deity:
i'X'ix
i>X"iix

19.
:

b^n
;

angel:

angel
angel

19

Schw

I.
1.

ttnrpDio'JH

Schw N. ghost: Schw

2417.

:

Stiibe

(Wohls

xm

deity or angel: 40.

angel:
deity?:

19;

34.

angel:

Schw Schw I.
Pogn
B.

I.

D-OTX, xoenx, D'onn Hermes, see to
2:
2.

angel:

DTK

a deity (Eros,

Ares?)
genius
in

:

19.

i'X-nn angel
i?X'3Sn

eppmpne'X

infernal

:

Pogn
;

(Wohls b angel: Wohls 2416.
:

Stiibe

B
cf.

(cf.

Glossary C,

*ipe>

but

D'Oin

s.

XDD1K.-

Aristikifa,

Dillmann's
7).

text to

Enoch 6:

father of

JVX ghost:

Schw

pn:
Wohls

19, 34.

2417.

Zeus:

19.

'3

=

angel:

2416.
lilith:

Bel
(

:

36.

^nx'3
80-133,

granddam of a
:

?)

angel

Schw
:

G.
18, 19,

1 1

and

parallels.

KJN1J3 deity

11,

Montg. 'tn3 lilith:
lilith:

epithet of 'X3HK:
40.

Pogn

B.

angel:
(cf.

13.

18

oabn).

angel:
298.
X'n,

Schw PSBA,
Mand.
40;
5.
:

xii,

angel: 38.

angel
ivy:n3 angel

:

:

bx'pi3 angel

:

Schw N. Pogn B. Wohls 2416.
Gabriel
:

X"n

Life,

supreme

deity:

Pogn A, B;
8.

Lidz

nvn the Living Creatures
7
;

34

;

t?"3

ivn Evil
,

Potency

:

30.
11

etc.
i

(see p. 96 f.).
:

DD^3n, oxnbn
parallels.

lilith:

and

angel

14.

angel: Schwab,/,
X'31 epithet of

c.

Hermes

:

2.

angel:

Stiibe

=

Wohls

PK31 angel:
anil demon

Pogn B
:

(cf.

pK3D).

36.

demon

:

Schw G.

win
noil

Dlibat
:

=

Dilbat, goddess of

angel: 35. angel: 13; Stiibe.

love

28.
:

mother of demon
:

Schw

G.

angel:

i^X'OH angel

Wohls

2416.

ghost

:

Schw N. Schw 2417.

J. A.

MONTGOMERY
2416

ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS.
(for

271

angel:

Wohls

WD
p.

Michael

:

34, etc. (see

Stiibe's,

^niK).

96

f-).
:

angel: 35.

D Signs of Zodiac
O, K^'bo,

4.

N^oo
n.

the

Word:

27,

P3t2,

pK3Ka
B.

(cf.

PX31) angel: Pogn
cnJ'OO

19,

2 (see to 2: 2).

deity?:

3oi>0
N11L3

deity: 19.

p,

XJKO

Mandaic

genius

:

19

;

see

TIB3K.

Wohls 2422.
deity: 19.
:

TT, Tiv
mir

ghosts

Wohls

2417.

YAHWE

angel: 35.
deity: 19.
i.

pP,

W

passim.
:

angel

Pogn B
B.

;

Lidz

IVD name of God:

29.
p.

angel:

Pogn
ib.

ID demon: Wohls 2416 (see
KbiiO epithet of a deity:
19.

81).

angel:

angel, or divine
lilith: 38.

name: name:

25.

ni

ghost:

Wohls

2417.

hlW
flip'

angel, or divine
:

25.

angel

K3"ir

Pogn Mandaic divine name: Pogn
i
;

Lidz

B.

Mandaic genius
angel
3
:

:

Pogn. B.

38.

B.
v
angel,

angel:
angel: angel:
298.

Wohls 2416.
14.

with

"eleven

names"
G.

following:

Schw

Schw
:

PSBA,

xii,

angel:

XD<3 the

Pogn B. "heat" demon: 30:
(in

god Nannai
2.

36.

deity: 19.

PKHD3 angel: Hyv
<Ktt?31; cf.

NiD'j?

o

angel: 35;
p.

Wohls 2416
:

(see

of
12).

evil

Kasdeya angel arts, Enoch 69:

96).
Ellis
i.

god Nirig; 36; I^TJ

miD name
trvrb

of God: Ellis

3.

Leviathan

:

2.

mno,

W3HD
i>tc"3Bno

demon
angel:
:

Nin"D, KTD (Mantl) Moon: 34, Wohls 2416; Pogn B.
,

:

37.

etc.

angel:

Lidz

i;

Wohls

Pogn

2416.

B.

^Vino angel
^5;'2^?^

Pogn B.
9.

Sin: 36; Montg.
deity:
19.

the Destroyer:

angel:
'O

Schw G.
:

Satan:

2,

etc.;

SJNDD, 19;

cf.

Metatron

25

;

Wohls

2416.

N3KHDN.

272

UNIVERSITY MUSEUM.

BABYLONIAN SECTION.
nixnv,
'v

angel:
\0,

Wohls

2416.
5,

HIT

:

8; sou

'v,

8.

trio "the

Prince":

7 (see p.

b"pnx angel:

Schw N.
Adonai
8.
I.
:

97
^S'-IID

*.)

rvam
Schw
I.

epithet of

Pogn B.

angel: 15;

niv epithet of

God:

angel

:

14. 19.

angel: 14;

Schw
5

angel

:

14,

TV

deity

angel: 15.

Lidz No. u).
:

(but

see

to

angel:

8.
:

angel:

8.

genius or angel
angel:

Schw

F.

imp

"the

great

Wohls
p. 27,
f.

Wohls 2422

Kedron" (cf. Mand.
:

:

Wohls
Arch.
268).
,

2416 (see and Bousset,
iv,

"the great Jordan").

name of demon
angel
:

Rcl.-ii'iss.,

36.

Lidz

5.

bs'Dy: angel: 7;
Istar,

Myhr.

XDip divine name?:

19.

Mand.
(a

evil deity:

Pogn
14,

NSp idem.

B

15);

=
8.

she-angel,

nos.

noayp

name

of lilith?:

name of angel of death: Schw F.
angel:

38, 40.

iwipy angel
^K'any

:

into
,

Schw N.
angel
: :

xmpj? "Barrenness": n.
angel
:

bvrm

Pogn
I.

B.

Wohls

2416.
:

i angel

Schw

form of Raphael Pogn B.

Lidz

i

;

nxi a male genius

:

Lidz
:

4.

rrnB DSI a female genius
angel:

ibid.

deity:
;6a

19.

Pogn B. angel Schw
:

I.

idem.

angel

:

Dr6a, Tir6s father and mother of

a genius?:
xp2i,
'"I

Schw N. Schw

F.

demons
17).

:

8

(variants

in

mother of demons.
37.

n
19.
:

Mystery:

o^ba deity:

angel: 13, 28.
8.

KD'ba KD^a genius
angel.

angel

:

Schw

I.

^N'an, ^yxan,

^an,
f.

^nsean

for Piriawis,

Mand. genius
of

:

(cf. ^saniv, b'Via)

Raphael:

Pogn
b'yris

B.

passim, see

p.

96

form
i
;

Raphael:
*

Lidz
angel
:

Pogn B. Wohls 2416.

angel

:

10.

b'S'Spat?

angel:

Pogn B.

J.

A.

MONTGOMERY

-ARAMAIC
,

INCANTATION TEXTS.

273

nfc'

Shaddai

:

8
:

;

Myhr

;

hx

tntJ>

7.

B"DB>,

BKB> Sun
*v
>

:

36,

30 Pogn
;

B

;

hwvrv

angel

Schw N.
,,

iwote
xrnoe>

angel: 35.
-,

^
(Prof.
F.
attention
,

Mont S-

an

el:

2 5-

deity:

Montg.

Perles calls
to

my
;

font?, b'KnP, ^jntfi b"K'OB> angel: 14, 35 Pogn B.
;

the

midrashic
'trust?

occur-

?Kpne> angel Pogn B. nnt? demon: Schw F.
:

rence of

see Griin-

baum,
f.

ZDMG,

xxxi,

225

iwrrn

=
f.).

angel:

Schw
Ellis

F.
i&i'd.
i

Gesammeltc
Perles,

Auf-

i>njMWn(n) genius:

satze, ed.

1901, p.

p^n

angel:

(=

Lidz

59

See

p.

198.

Also eleven names of angel

in Ellis 3:

xbsDD,
?),

mo,

n3D3, naana,
;

nnTD,

nmM,
names
D'J3.

n'nw,
in

napna,
:

naoin

(=

KDOIN

Dsp-iK,

cf.

the

"eleven"

Schw G sanoo, rptne>, In Schw M a list of
of
evil

233, iiTDi, ^'jj'D, p'nv, xspina, njnoi,

mss,

mystical

angel

names
For a

:

bbs, ^J?, bbo, etc.

A
of

list

spirits

in

ghosts,

some

cited

Schw G: n33, nono above, Wohls 2417.

nbs:, '10DD, in'tSDD.
lilith's

Names

names, see

No. 42.

SOME KABBALISTIC FORMS OF mrp
nr
irr,

ETC. (see p. 60
ib.;

f.)

:

Schw
in'

Q;
Stiibe,

rr,
1.

Schw O; VI,
16; IDE'
r\\ ib.
1.

mm,
2.

Hyv;
8,

nil,

Ellis 4,

Hyv;
cf.

in'

in'

28; n'3m, 7:

Stiibe,

1.15,

13: 7; nn nn, 7: 12; in<no 31: 6; pin\ 14:

H'nn -i^s iTnK, Stiibe,
Stiibe,
1.

1.

29;

nyn,

5,

center;

NNN Schw

I;

XNKX

35,

KKXKKK, 20:
Stiibe,
1.

2, 5.

FKfN,

15;

pw
1.

p'rr

jo po,

|D f|D,

1

5

:

2

;

^o f e>

}*p etc.

29:

K

rs^

(Atbash),

Stube,

66.

Cf. also

i:

13,

24: 4f, 3:

6, etc.

GLOSSARY B
PROPER NAMES OF MEN AND
K3K Abba
K3'K Ibba
s.

WOMEN
Ahdabui:

Komesh:
Zawithai:
(a

17;

s.

Bar-

kita: Stiibe.
s.

m. Ahathbu Wohls 2422.

2.
:

rtsixnnx, nsKnsnns Ahathadbah d.
7,

in3X

Abbahu

sorcerer?)

Imma: Wohls
ti3t3KnriN

2426, 2414.

Myhr. Abanduch 1V1J3N
N313K

(w. prep,
bon,
d.

'rrb)
:

Ahathat-

d.

Pusbi:
2.

5.

Nanai

Pogn B,
Far-

Abuna
8,

s.

Geribta:
(the

no. 18

(not in glossary),
B.

Dmas Abraham
12, 16.

srm nsnn:
patriarch)
s.
:

Ahath-rabta m.

Schw O;
d.

Dadbeh:

ruchiro:

Pogn Ahathema m.

Dade:

nbJK Aglath

Mahlath: Schw P.
:

'TN

Idi,

m. Asmin

Wohls 2417.
:

Pogn B. Ukkamai f. Zutra: Schw F.
nos, KDK

Adam; rucmp
13,

'K

10;

D1K

'33:

Pogn A.
Hathoi
:

Imma m. Hisdai Schw E; m. Osera: Schw G.
d.

Adak
intt

IIBDX
6.
;

Amtur

Solomon
(?).

:

Schw

I.

s.

'no -noonn
20.
1..-OJK

':IK

B

Aduryazdandur Pogn (for first component
51; the

masdar Tardi

Oni Harm. Tardi
:

see Justi, pp. 5, second error for

Yazdan-

Anur..d

s.

Parkoi: 28.

dad?

see

ib.

146).

Anos m. Zadanos: Pogn B.
Anosai
ibid.
7, d.

K (?) Ihi f. Ephra: 18. Izdanduch m. Yezidad:
27.

Mehinducht:
for

Anise

(error
ibid.
ibid.

previous

Azia m. Maria: Lidz
'l3iriK

name?)
3.

Ahdabui

s.

Ahathbu:

Anosta,

Wohls

2422.
d.
;

nN

Anuth-haye Yesho: ibid,
life"?).

d.

Sebre-le-

nn,

Mand. nKnxAhath
:

Parkoi:

("vessel

of

3 ; d. Hathoi 6 m. Dodai: 21, 22, 23; d^ Doda:

Astroba: 29.
J'DDK

25

28 d. Nebazach ; m. Churrenik: Lidz 2; d. Dade: Lidz 5.
:

Asmin
,

d. Idi:

;

Wohls 2417.

T-Asmanducht m. Dadbeh:
12, 16, 31, 33.

(274)

H.J. (biblical). Zand: 19. Z. Kawaranos: Aphridoe Lidz 4 (cf. St. . enJ33. Berikyahbeh s. perh. cerer or deity?). name?). Bar-mistael: 7.) Ispiza: 30. Kukai: NJV313 Barkita m. Aser: Schw F Justi. 'D'K Bahranduch d. Barbabe m. f. (cf. Gayye: Myhr. my note on Schwab E. Dinoi: 32. 414). Wohls 2417 '33.. Merduch: n3 ? 7. G Tina Bahrad: Ellis i (see G. n'DiDOia(?) Hal. see Schw C. B '3K3 Babai ("citron"). 128). Yazid: Pogn Bar-gelal s. d. . : s. SOBK Ephra 13. s. eU3K3. b'tr. er?) B. d. TBK Aser F. Hoffsyr. Sama: i. s. Bar-mesosia: Ethroga m. 347 b). Ausz. N"n). mann. Ihi: JKTjnna Bahrezag Pogn B. Gaye: (?) (see to 7: 4). F. 3. aus Aden. s. s. Bosmath d. m. cf. m. PT3. m. Aphadoi Dawiwi: Pogn Saborduch: 18. 83). m. 13. Ephra: 18. Artasria Ispiza . 15. Yandundisnat 30. Beh(30) : "D'X Banai m. Pers. s. name Schw G. (m. n3-Bahmanduch(t)d. Mamai: 26 (artificial form).). Arha: f. Osera and Imma: (see p. "son of (artificial dar: Ellis i. praise" of sorcer- ms Ardoi s. ND-na ( ?) Bardesa : Terme 1 39. hxnwo 13. better p'3 Be (h) din f. . with artificial Nold. 275 MBDK K1D1S Aspenaz Myhr Osera s. MONTGOMERY ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. Ispandoi w. Athadba 2426 Immi lanrm : rrarvana (cf. 5. Talmudic name = s. i. 17. p. E1JK33 : Babanos . Newanduch Ellis i (see Nold. f. Schw Wohls Pogn Kn 1113 s. : Schw B. MeKayyomta 9 hanos: Pogn B. 13 Bar-sibebi 15- Tshehrazad: Bosmath d. Baruk-aria (Farruch?) Reshinduch: Schw M. "n 13 Bar-haye Rodw = Schw C 112. s. Bedin: Syriac. 296). Justi. Hal (so Chwol CIH. Abba: Stiibe. 26: 'nna Kusizag: Bahroi d. . s. : (32. K. Babai: Wohls 2417 (see Myhr <33<e> (see to 7: 13). Y'X. 6). 35. ii. 27. Ispandarmed m. 395. 35). a master magician. Arha Arion Dodai: d. Geyambuch Pogn B. A. i?. Komes: 30. s. 34 (sors. p. Bath-sahde: 34. (cf. Hormizcluch: 3.

name Dinar. >N- B. JV3.om ( "laugh. Ahath: 21. : Myhr. Pogn B Adhur- Guroi s. Ahath: ib. d. (= ter"?). d. nn. 16094. . below. 18). p. Dazaunoye 38. Mehduch s. 'Adwitha : nxa Beth-asia osh: Pogn B. BABYLONIAN SECTION. 22. Mehperoz 3). Bahroi d. Ahath: Lidz 5 (run). : 887). : Mahlaphta: Lidz 5. Dodai: Montg. "penny/' col.). Asmanduch: 6. (cf. (Noldeke. David (the king) d. probably unpub. Hadassa). Ahath Hinduitha 38. mil. Hadista (biblical ?) : d. (see above. . Ardoi 3 . 3 (cf. s. 1 s. . Aspenaz s. ( 5. 35. d. from : Pogn B Azadh- beh). Far. A : (p. 3. m. Ispandarmed 35. Chosri- Gamaliel: Schwab O. Dadbeh: 12. : Dada f. 'Kin. : TH. m. m. ?) Aphridoe: Denarta (Noldeke. d. Terme: 39. 21. Geloia: for Gaspai w.276 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. laphta 24 m. : . Kin. Gusnai Beth-asia Pogn n. 15. Gaye J s. injjn Denduch duch ibid. m. Misa: Pogn B Nn-ijn Denar(i)tad. Durduch duch). Kin Doda(i) d. Mehan29. : 34. (also written rrito) . Hormizduch m. 40 . d. ^J : no. Tati: 25. s. Miria: Schw Mah: M run. smsan. W DurGeloia (Geloie) B the same duch Pogn m. s. Sarkoi: 12. r. : Geyonai Mamai 8. : 14. : Duchtanos d. 14. T1ST 34. ciJnan Hawwa Pogn B ruchusraw Justi. Ispand- 23 m. Honik s. Lidz f.(?) Farruch: 41. Kumai : Pogn Geyambuch(?)d. Marathai Bade m. m Bath-sahde m. dora 26. no. K3'M 'BDJ Til) Geniba s. . Duchtanbeh d. Kivnrn P'Jin Hinduitha Dodai : 38. Ahath: 16020 (unpub. : 25 . Martha: 15. 16. . Komes: 17. nrn (nsn Hindu . s. rmsn Dadbeh 12. Bahmanducht: Pogn B. Hyv. Lidz 4 (cf.in H. : 86). Dinoi . d. m. s. Darsi "the foreigner" : 29. d. Zadbeh Dawiwi(?) Pogn B. )</. Payne-Smith. Ellis 3 Mahlaphta: Pogn B. s. masc. d. armed : : Hormiz Mama: 15.

( 17. ie<13 Chewaranos in. ?: 37. B. Pogn 17. p. the house of s. MONTGOMERY Newanduch: 'Adwitha: 38. Zaroi s. Oni : 20. 34 (see to Komai m. e>3:"tt Zarinkas Mahlaphta: 24. Perahia. Ukmai Mar). 18. Justi.. TT\ NTWT ins s. Guroi D Tardi Lidz 2 kai : : Chewasizag(P) m. d. Mahlaphta: 8. title 149). 33. ST3 ("Timotheos. Justi. p. ?: Pogn Persian above. s. Kin B3B>H3nr Yandundisnat : Ispan- Hawwa (Eve) wife of Adam: darmed PDD' 30. no. Zawithai m. Tad m. Pogn B. 3'3n Habib: no. zag: Pogn B (cf. Enoch the HD'n Hisdai 19). Justi. 2924 (uns. 277 TiT. Sisin: ibid. 23. p. d. col. patriarch: 4. Jesus. Tinyna Beth-asia: huroi(?) Venn'. . d. Arion: 34 (sorcerB. B. Payne-Smith. Behre- Ama: Schw ?: E. Zutra (w. Pogn B. 10. no.). Komes : 17. m. TTK Yazid Barbabe: 1 s. isnT Yezidad s. Isaac the patriarch : Schw Pogn B (no. : Pognon B. 'XJEnJ 13T Zand f. 32. Mamai: Pogn. Schw F (the Yazdoe d. 32). Kumboi m. Ibba: nTiT'. review. ? : 1585). Tnna. 14). s. Yasmin Dadbeh : 12.J. Meducht : 35.9. Hyv 'KJTIT tntiir (cf. 144).). nai Pogn B cf. the first a name. p. s. B. d. s. Anos Pogn 2. p. Hmri. 13. traditional socerer s. Papa Lidz 4 . Sisin: Pogn B. Sisin: 29. d. MehrPogn A d. m JS1T Zacloi s. inB' Joshua. : BnjJONT Zadanos d. Kezabiath : in. pp. HDNT Zapeh TiT s. second word 149. Andreas to Lidz. 27. Rasnoi same name. 8. '13O13 ?) Yazdid s. n:BiST" : : Pogn S p. 103. (Aramaic against Zadanfarruch Kaki 377). 19." Lidz). 123V Yokebed pub. A. see Justi. AdurChuze- nsorrc>D Tsherazad m. ibid. Bar-sibebi: IS- yazdandar . ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS.sai Emme: Jacob the patriarch: O. Yazadpanah Gus(for the er or deity?). : (see Timatheoz s. : pjn Hanun. 19. 2924 (unpub. Izclancluch : 7. 'SS^n Halifai s. proposing chush-sak). Pogn 25. Noldeke's ND-nn Hathima m. Duchtanbeh: Pogn A. 182. : Kalletha d. rather : than Arabic.

Hormiz: : 9007 (unpub. Aglath: Schw P (biblical). Mehanos m. KOO: 12. Mehperoz 3 s. m. Justi. B. TPBW. nsn'KO Maiducht Kumboi : B Mehanos 40 . wn Kusenta m. Hormiz: Lidz 5. Mihr-hormizd s. . Marada . jnno Mehduch d. etc. but cf. p. Mazdanaspas s. Mesorta: Pogn B. Mesarsia: 19. Ahath: Lidz 2 ad loc. Berikyahbeh Mihr-hormizd: 34. Kurai : Pogn s. or Justi. 208). 206. etc. Hormizduch: 14. Kufithai m. m. m. Pathsapta Pogn B. Mamai. no. Babanos. P. m. (cf. Hindu: 3). Pogn B . Maksath: Schw Beth-asia: ibid. = : nD3 Xaro s. roiTD. (cf. Su- s^no Mahlaphta m. m. Churrenik d.278 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. 16093. . f. m.. Justi. : : . 144). 'K-. Pogn "JS3 Mamai 10. Saul: 41. Chuzehuroi: B (but Noldeke. (from Mithrakana. Banai: 7. >K-n3 Kurai m. Ellis p. Mahl(aphta) Mehoi s. Andreas. BABYLONIAN SECTION.). 24 m. B Justi. Newanduch: Kaphni h. Komes: 17. 4. m. Dade Pogn : Churasan w. Pabak: 12. Mesorta m. derivative? 354)- KriBino SBTI3 Kethima m. . maka: Pogn B Waresna. p. Mama: m. . but p. p. KusiLidz 4 (see Andreas ad zag: he. 2. Mehuphta m. Azia: Lidz . Meribanes Justi. Kusizag: s. Justi. Malkona s. Geyonai: 8. Noldeke to Pognon. 214). Newanduch 10. ii . 27. Nnabno). pine Mehraban s. 'intD 26. Hinduitha: 38. - Pogn A Mehrikai s. 40. 78. Mihrwan. Pogn B see (cf. p. Mahlaphta: : 17.). P ("olive-gleaner"). ( = sasiNB Marabba witha: 38. Mihrperoz. Xaro: 35. 'Ad- maheng. m. (from Pers. 15. Nana: Schw L. 3. 'IB Mordecai d. Sd. Mehinducht: m. d. Nnabno) d. p. p. npDD Maskath m. m. Mahlephona s. Hindu. m. pnno Poitowyr Mehrodan: Pogn Wardan. 15. see r6no Mahlath m. above. Justi. Timatheoz: Lidz 2. Malkona: Schw (= cf. Dadbeh: 16. Dadbeh: 16. Yazdoie: Pogn B (Pogn thinks error for following. Rakdata: Pogn B (but Noldeke.). Dodai: : "KDXD. 11T1D3 Chosriduch B. h. BB13 Komes d. = vo Merduch Maria d. s. Denduch: ssO-ire-Tin in'D 34. m. Anosai: Pogn B 186?).

15. : .. f. Farruchrui. 28. Pogn B (w. Esth. (also NINIDSTIB) Farru- SOX3 Nana Kethima: chosraw 4- s. 19 . Muskoi s. ?: 41. 297).J. (= fol- forsch. Duchtanos: Lidz Schw L. d. neno Moses (the lawgiver) . "iC'D m. (my?) hope in Jesus"). s. Serin: "Sabbath-daughter"). Farruch: d. . . etc. 32. A. G : (cf. Mersabor f. Methanis Resan: 29. Sahduch : Lidz duch: ru Noah (patriarch) 10. m.. 13. smiB. Paproe (= Arabic rvms. Kmo Martha m. Emme m. Parkoi m. Hadista Pogn M X'DV B. Ahath: 28. Muskoi: Myhr. Kusanta na Path-sapta Mahlaphta Pogn 9. p. Simoi: Myhr. 35. Nebazach m. Mesarsia : Schw Simoi m. 4. conjurer) OD. ni. Justi. Pusbi: 5 . 34 (see to 32).s. m. Stud. d. shai : Pogn Kayyoma: Syriac Pogn B name. Z. Kufithai : 2. Rasnoi lowing name). Behman- Myhr. 4. Ahathatbon: Pogn B. s. MONTGOMERY : ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. s. : (= Miriam?). 5. Dodai: d. Pharnagin : (a 7. 9. . Newanduch Kaphni: Ellis 10. : pass 40. Denarta: Pogn B. d. : Farruchan s. Pcrs. Farruch 1TS33 TiiJVJ d. 96). 9:8). Pushbi 5 m. A (with Pognon = na nomo Saradust d. Ahath: 3. 400). m. Marabba. Mariam: Schw Q. Mesarsia Porath: Mahlaphta G. 38. Hamri . : 'D Simkoi m. ?: 30. atria Pusbi pKDtD Sumaka Pogn B. : X'nnB : Perahia f. KnajjD Sebre-leyeshu f. Marath m. Schw d. . . f. Ahath-rabta : Pogn B Anuthhaye: "his (cf. 'Adwitha m. KB"D Misa. Dadbeh: 16. Porathai m.. s. "xnxiND Marathai Hindu : d. 17.. : Nvnmj? (?) Justi. Pharnagin traditional s. ""I3S Pabak Pannoi s. I. a sorcerer: (see Noldeke. 34.'NDD Sama(i) duch: i. S'ms. (= frequent 206). Farruchiro s. B Noldeke. Pognon is = p. Kukai: Pogn Babroe. n : . Papa Chusizag: Lidz d. Behdan- Anur [X311B i. Joshua (Jesus) 8. Nanai m. 33. Keils. 279 M'TD Miria m. Hyv 8 Rabbi.

: Ephra: i. ( : undetermined = d. Paynes. Babanos: Rabbi father 9. Q (nobo). d. m. Hyv. Zadanf arruch Hyv. 16. m. Sahduch Lidz i. m. Solomon (the king) lowing). Hawwa ibid. B (= Heb. f. Aphridoe: ne> : 60?). Saul (?) > Mordecai: 41. Seth (the patriarch) : 10. Yazdoe: Pogn B. Schwab of a sorcerer: O^C* Solomon (the king) Ellis i. BABYLONIAN SECTION. cf. Marath: 8. Paproe Pogn KOVKdif p t B (cf. : Sili s. Dada: 12. col.. 16. Resan m. Sarkoi: Smith. 12. Methanes: Rasnenduch Lidz I't^n Sisin m. . 4. Tata niece of Bardesa 39. : m. 3538. Churai : Sarkoi Kaphni 10. Rustaum Rakdatha Pogn : Sise Beth-asia: Pogn B 29. p. Mehuphta 29. the fol- B^t? I. lOO). d. Schw Amtur: 34. Resinduch m. Saborduch m. Lidz 5. Kayoma (a B Mersabor: Pogn Syriac name. 'in d. Baruk-aria Rasnoi Schw M. d. jen Pogn B ("dancer"). I. ^P Sirin : Hyv npm B. : Rubkai: Pogn ?). m. Mahlaphta: 24.280 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. n Terme d. (compare the following). f. 39. Kayomta m. : Pogn B d. s. Haliphai: . Yazid ibid. Bade: 39. : Kukai m. : 9. 13- 'PNp Kaki d. Farruchan: JuSti. (artificial name?). Saradust m.

: : pa'&anv 3. 8: mnx F. Stiibe 58. X13X. l^fN 7:4. as from f\r?'). teach: xabo Hal. Wohls 2417: xr6x ("N) Wohls 2422. ins be behind. whoever mx . there is: nbrrs 37: 3. tarry: Af. 2. 9: 5.n3ny are in him.nnx letter of alphabet: (f) eats. xnx3X lead (tin?): 19: oh: Hal. N-oy: Montg. 5. Pogn B. 7. tree: 34: 5. (also Glossary impf: b"W1 Ellis bty .. impv B. : 6. NiO't 'J3X Hyv. 2426 : brother : pi.^t 36: . (Pogn . byrn. Pogn B. Pogn 6. Wohls 2417. t63N food: 18: unto. X3V 17. oSiy : sweating fever: 24: ^ : 15 (see !>). 4.GLOSSARY C GENERAL GLOSSARY X3X father : pi. X^Bliixb relative : 34 : Tnx take hold of: n: Pogn B nxa^i. UX hire : XTJX Pogn B. 2.. : : 5. alcove iy : : 12 13. prvnas 36 7. pi. KH^N i4. suff 'inx 4 : 3. 13- ear: Lidz 'X IN. sister 9. following nplN ?: error X31X a disease: 24: Schw G. VTH Schw Pogn 39: F. xmnx 2: b'tx 9. Lidz p*iK as: 32: 'S 2. of 8 : Schw M. N-pjy Schwab 9. Af. i>x deity: 38: 7. Lidz Pogn B repeated . 4. if if or: 8: . w. Lidz 2. . 2. 13X perish: 9: X33X stone X3131O destroyer : 36 : 5. (281) ib. xiJ'X roof: 6: nought: divorce writ : unc* which is not fX letter. . . behind do. 16: 5 Pogn B i. Mand. "iix : Schw I. nxbsn. i B. eat: px squeeze: j'S'X i u. = is Talm.inbN. A). 4. curse?). -px oh(?): 39: 5. 10. xs'N = N3 JVN. goddess: (or. : = n^ not: for Pogn B. or: Pogn B. nvrnx 35: 36: 7. go: xibtx i. xytx 6: 4.

B. no. p. (see Schw M. 'K ditto? face: 13: )iraJl your Ellis 3. JNO. pel 63)- JON pON. Se>J 35: 8. . spell: 3:1. 4: 3. "K. woman. p. ppl. Nnn^ 3 3. Lidz 4: p5J 9. ION say. K'UWX 'b'3N Schw darkness: 38: II. tree-top?: 34: }N if: in 'H ditto. command 30: 7. 7: 15.).. 70. Schw in F. 'BO i DN. Pogn ib. Af. Pogn B 12. Knrmjg: 4. etc. 4: 5. Amen: 8. g. 13:3. pacific e. : XD X-3'N mother pa'D'K 8 4. threshold: 6: 5. Wohls 2417. plur.282 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. pi. Ellis : I. etc. pN yea: poi Pogn B n'3'i) 5. of etc. 31. etc. : Lidz KniDH 13: 8. 36: 5- heal:TD\ w.. 12: 13. i : 3. 11N. : 12. yytt pi. 15. magic: 4: 19: i. JT3 p. i: 'on' Wohls 2422 N'DK. or. NE'^N 10. .nnn'N. Pogn B. 'BN over? jia'BN paip Schw R. prison. 12. BABYLONIAN SECTION. angel: 3.. Wohls presence. 14: ijBD'N hall: . etc. DK binding: Lidz (see JOK). Lidz 'N. Pogn B. K'DNO. ? parallel to cattle. wife: 31: 9. . D'N if: 2: 3. etc. worked for you. Ellis 5. Knn. praeparatumf: 13: tc keys 3:3. possessions. jiaxnJON. etc.. whether . : 'P'BN epithet of pno 7: n. bind. 'K 5. 38: 14. 77: I3> C"3V moreover: 38: 8. p. (see Frankel denominative artisan (?) in of NJO1N s'uojn (NO has E. Pogn 3 . whoever nom JirvnDO 14. charm. . 3: i.. trap: Pogn B. 129). 5. 15. : 2: Etpe. 'C'j'K wood: 38: IN 2. and 'JMJ) man i : the form a or Frankel. etc. nnws Schw M. 1C. suf. ppls. Lidz Nnuo'n faith: 2g: [ON ? Wohls 2422 ad loc. n. : . spell. pi. constr. 4. confusion of with feminine : 12. . man: ntfsi Schw F. (see -icrvtc ions 37: 52). SDK myrtle OD'K. S'l'DV. lax turn away: Pogn B. nc'C 13: 2. healing. '303? p. JVKO. 32: i. 9: 11. vessels: 38: 3. 32: 3: I. etc. word: Schw M. "v bond. vessel 'B3S goddess: 2: (see p. (see p. Etp. . 2422 is (but see UK anger: Schw F.. repeated. Lidz 2. la. Schw M. : jos be true |ON : Hof. IDS. 7.

4. nx sign of accus. B"3 evil sny3 egg: Pogn B. Syriac "maledic- (see p. Of Nn5o3D 7. barn. Schw F. 3.. 13. 8 16. 19: 17. Lidz 4. in '3 sntrp. of cattle come in : fS3 Schw G. 40: 4. . Aramaean (so read Pogn B. sra midst: 6: 11. : diction"). ?) : enchant: 2: define. 2: 3. pn'na 6: 6.so3. 7: 13 I. help. K13 Kt'3 NJ'3<3 38: 3. fnx 'JVJVK. swallow up. p5>330. K'3'3. womb: 11213? }'3 39: 33: ( : 86). J33 school 8: ii. family: prvn'3 12: 2. E'S ibid. 32: 10. 8 : 14. Pogn snx come: 8: 9. nirra. So'O). : Pogn B. whether. Schw M (see p. 29: B. p'Kn3 38: a class of deities: 19: 6 (cf. 7: 17. (cf. 'isna'a. 50). Pa. '3'3 between: . with suffix. sn"3 house. ii . Lidz ii. class of de. 79). specify J'3. cleave: S'yt3^i K^>xb3. . spix. rump: 'JiB>p. 3 9 :6. (Heb. '3 in: passim. i : im 12. Etp. ( plunder ?) : 5 : 3. impv. etc. snes Schw Schw 8 G. place: after 9: 8. Pogn B. MONTGOMERY ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS.. destroy.. nn'sn Schw '3133 I (?). XBB"X enchantment. Mand. Pogn B evil : (see him. earth: 2: B. Pogn fire : abandon: impv. nn'3. plur. building: 7. 15. (?) X'bt3K3 Pogn B. 38: i. = jay press?: 38: 12. a sorcerer's Glossary A).. xnie3 malady: 34: Knint5"3 ditto ( 7. 17: 13. act.). 2:7.. '3. }'3. Myhr) Schw cease. ?) : Schw L. : : F. A. 7: part. 28: 2. |'3 . 12. the Pognon. '3. D73 muzzle JJ?3 : 2: ii. Schw Nin3 afterwards. after. between. : undo: 17: inf. 4. ext). because of: n: 3. 38: n. and. 3. Etpa. pass. xnsE'y. = insB some form of 2. Schw M b. ins ins3 one the other. Pogn : B. that.. 10: Pogn B root . in place of. or. 9: 7. 299 oyv. '3. Af. sneK 'VK fever 'C'K guilt ditto: 14: 7. nri3 be ashamed : pi. . construction (abstract) 16: 6. p. n'3 within :83^ H'3 30: 4. Ni>D3 24 2 . 3: 5. L. (5>33) an interjectional call for divine in K31 XDit? )33.. S3'3. : B"3 Schw PSBA xii. (cf. 27.J. ST3 in 283 xmis way: Hal 3. mons: 2: etc.

Hand. g. 37: 2. hi J great : 3. 31J Schw M. 5 : m daughter Ellis i . '3 bsp Pogn K13 Pa. a goddess of (?). tro the open country: 17: 29: 7. midst: 133 34: 6. 1 Pogn B. strong: 19: plur. passim. p33JO . embalming act. 2:4. Pa. ban: 7: 13. wb 13: : 10. Schw Q. 3S3O. lightning: 12: 8. 35: 4: N1313 13. woven headdress Lidz Pogn B (n&53. JT3 componname Pogn B. ?) . bind (of a spell) : 29: 10. wall up (against demons) 8. 13J be strong : 34: 8. 2. 3. 1T3 inhibit. 13 jo Ni3i 13 apart in demons. KHKD'3 pillow xnoiD3 in : 5. J'313 Myhr.284 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. understand). KT3 . ppl. Pogn A. eration). 5. of I.. JTI3J. e. K3J back : 8 : : K3U b3J lintel iirrmu 5 . y. : 17: J33 3: 3. 32 113 tie. Etpa. Etpe. 41 1 1 : . : ma TQ p13 flee : Ellis : 8. Nnn33 29: 6. ent of plur. 30 7. 2. 13 &6pm xr)33. knead: 12: (of magical op- XTV3 Syr. KJinbtf. inf.. '31. Wohls KJJ3 2417.. ask -. SO3 create: 2: 2. : snu K313 eruption. Pa. . 13 19: Pogn B. "13. : 6. rm 38 : 36: 4.. put outside 'SO3 foreigner "in3 : Pogn B. Heb. suffix n33 . top3 herd: Pogn B. color. const. Pogn B. K"K3. bless 25 : 3 .. 27 (so K133 man: 12. passim. 6. : 5. etc. 3. Montg. xrm might: Schw F. tinrm 16: 3: 10. bend: K33. SOU '33. |'O voice. X3n3 Pogn B KHTTJ ban: 7: S3' TiT3 l (= '30?). : magical condemnation flash (lightning) 12:8. 2422. w. 3: B. ns nss vi3 NJT6lT3 2. nsi3. . 38: : 4. Lidz BABYLONIAN SECTION. term for a man's inamorata. 13. 1:9.. 13. angels: Schw NB13 body: Hal. noise B. : Hand. KTO hail': 14: rob: Pogn B. plur. virgin: 13: I. ^H3n ion Schw F.6:4. p son.4: {. class of p. censing.:. Pogn B. bright. Pa. p. NKJ D'K'W proud: 33. i : Myhr. 3. cattle : Wohls no. form: f3r3 7: 15 = 29 : 8. ^T3 13: 12. n31J. 2 : j6j?3 husband: 8: 2 reply : 4. 29: 15. 7: 17. 7. K1K3J. 80) : : demons (see 3 in Pogn B.

28: nsbj?. the last of demons 37 6. of demons : 1 1 : 6. of 4. 39. T. KO'bi. Kill disease: Wohls dwelling-place precincts: 32: n. . chain: Pogn A (root tread ditto: Schw E. piTn (?) and its Myhr. Lidz 4 north: Pogn B. on rvTi. Jim Lidz : 4. Gukaean: Pogn B. an itching in i. In Mand. 4. Vi ditto: 12. 1. : 3.). Wohls 2417. of demons 18: 6. haunt. Hal. S^H (pi) (angelic) cohorts: 8: 14. 'lOJ n3H 25: 3- hy on account of: engrave F. : p. Pogn : B. '3Ti twin ditto: 29: ditto : bone. Pa. no. Pogn in N^J Pognon rock (?): Pogn B (so or of the magic . 13. 2422. F. 38: 2.). JD'J 34: 4. xnvvj polished armor: 2: 27:3. Stiibe HH mine part. passim. K'3-iJ. ^J IWU N^J 2:5. foj SOJN ? Wohls 2422 : see -at. works"?). spirit: 6: 2. ("good 131. 58. see p. engrave t^J TV . circuit KE'DB> "b&l construction.J. a preposition. pn Ellis 5. 285 (magic) divorce: 8: 7 (q. n ^u. 19: 8. B. 37: 10 (see p. 8. 36 : 7. body: Stiibe. 6 (For omission of genitive the particle circle?). SOT lurk. 8 : 29 : 6. Used to resume ^3 circuit : chy '3 25 7. with H. TDJ completion: |DT 'Tj ny Schw pasture land: Ellis chariot-driver B. 1 1 : 9. 80). T relative particle. qi'J i>JV?). 7: 30: spheres : Niu 8 : 13. A. half-vowel. : in order that. ditto ditto: '3'sy X'bjij N'DtJ1 '^rj. 6 : 4. down impv. . (from oba. ( Kisn). 12. Jinn: Hyv. 1. KIJU NJH day: 4: dwell: troop: 7: 17. N^J : Pogn B 4. 'J3H. body: 7: 17. MONTGOMERY ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. f?lb:i my own his. following e. 4- : 'TT3 . Lidz P2T cling. = : Pogn 6: ii. 9. = : to NO'b. Pogn WJ N1JJ. 4. species : judgment. : i 6. Pogn B. g. tH evil-doing: Lidz 4. 12: A. 14.. v. prob. T DM great: Schw side: pi. Pogn \3i B. familial- for 38: 12.

Hyv. Pogn B. Nnp-m ^12^36:4. xmsn (rm) Nnnoeast: Wohls 2422 (so Frankel). i: 12. B. 4. who sen. magical term: 7: 17. B. Lidz 2. prep. etc. appear in disguise. m iWo blood: Schw M. w. . stars. B. NJipnn ditto. Schw F. Schw M.- 6. Mand. J33'l 3: ! 3. 7. *6^n place in Babylonia: Hal. 3. p. Knion likeness tot 1DT3 : . : earth. 38: 13. : : a disease: Wohls 2422 (Frankel reads Nrrean. NH see! here!: 7: 13. ib. ro'sn. (ppl) Kpm. epith. conceptions: Pogn now: Lidz l 3: ii. 4. 39: 9 (see and astro- 82).286 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. 5- and. t"ian name: 28: &6n draw up: pan 5. future. : xm bm chase: fear: Pogn B. see below). : 5. child: mental A. 37: K3T pure: 27: Mand. etc. be like. 18: 8 in Peal and Pael. wn . a&rn mansion: 38: A. NT3nDl ban-writ 32 4. 248 members) F. mBBn. 39: ")3T. 3. n'Mn K'imo reliever. sropj&tt south: Wohls 2422. xp-isT ditto: 18: 6. be astounded Stiibe 47. Stube 56. ppl. = 4 3. (see p. i 12. 2. 3. Etp. Pogn heavenly 131 record: 14: 131. 'i B woe ! : no.. tions). 6. of the angels 8. constella- a disease ( ?) : 34: 10. 20: 8. 1. 74). fearful. 14: 5. 24. tom passim: n. Ellis logical fate. tcpT"i. sm nom healing: 37: Pogn B. etc. etc. male: 6: temple. KCH sleep: Wohls 2417. Schw G. man. KHKiDl. BABYLONIAN SECTION. snan place: pnan 6. i : 2. 4: i. 13'Bn. isan magical for terms reversing charms. Etpe.6:4. Heb. *nn return: 18: 9. 1:9. plur. Schw G (sun. 39: 5. Schw E.. Pogn B. : pan ditto 8 : 8. of Ra- Halleluia. (the terrifying: 35: 7. (sic} riTinn. xno. Pogn i. misspelt. 'n. NTIinKI 38: 12. 5. thus: 17: 10. Kin devil: i: 7. true: 13: 8. ND"m limb Lidz rfym Mi. . isn turn: pane. 2. : . ii : fern. phael: 34: 24: ibn walk : 31: 3 32: 12. Ellis 5. K^TI 14: b. Etpa. 29: 9. n"n be : 'irrn . Stiibe 14. 35: 4. "WKD 11 Pogn 30: 3. 36: i. of N'Olb impf Pogn spirits : revolve the planets.

6. invite: Pogn B. A. Etp. xntxrip Pogn B. 14: plur. = tor victorious: 37: 11. weapon: Pogn B. : JlpT 7 : nn Myhr. 40: 5. w. be on guard: Pogn B. = 5. honey : 12 5. TV in : xne"3 Stiibe 44 = NVT glory KJ'ST : 7 : 5. B. 38 pendent root "an inde(i) turn. a precious stone?: Hyv. 34: 12.. Pa. psalm : 14 3. 'KTXT success: 38: 13. J".TTD on this side: 13: 7. *n H'a . order. equip magically: 4: 31: Knnr. Pa.. 5. NDPO resonance: 6: n. (nt) . B. 153). mxi Pogn B. hairs. Pogn seed: B. : p'T impious. impiety : 30 : wan love: 'anj. fly off Kir. Pogn B. MONTGOMERY '1. 93). foul : K1NT spouse: 38: Pogn A. Lidz 2. 5 . 25. KJTlT air (Jir) Pogn iioro NiO'T B. corner: 4: : 2. Pogn 13. rr |D WT 't restraint. 13: 9. 7: 12. 'ppr. etc. nrn. Schw KPT. 38: 2. love 5. 3 : : cherish". 4 : an Pa. 4. 80). w. : mons Schw nr M 19: 3. : 13 : 4. lead turn. prison Pogn B. : KJVJT harlot 'B'l Pogn B. noun 3 4 w. : n' sign accusative. 287 "ni glaucoma ni. loss: : Wohls 2416 (see p. nssr 13. . subject of passive wbv ninn rr Schw F resuming P. Lidz 2. n. Etpa. put on guard. 31. to Wohls KniDN Pogn A. etc. 7:13. 2422. uir Wohls 2414. 37: 10.J. 2 posterity : i : 8. 13:7. Lidz Nnnr "3UT soar flies : victory. ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. of charms I. resound: 6: n. blast-de- nnr depart: (see p. . max 3: like. passages in his bowls can be explained by equation with nai. see to 3: 2). ditto PT. but the JOt = Pogn A. jinp . ni^ apud. "int Pa. (see p. 130) Pa. -UT Pogn B. JlpHP 7: : Hyv. Schw of : M . 7. 19: 13. NP'T blast: 8. xpr ppls. used in magic?: 7: 13 (see p. 3 nu body. Pogn B. I. spr marriage-portion: Pogn B. Wr. : see Pogn (2) B. Pogn parallel B. sell : pour: 12: 5. Ellis 3 jrv'TD. designate (of setting apart the magic bowls) i. pron. JW. from the mb'O 3:3. (cf. Lidz 2. jimp 10 6. : (lt) wrier singing-girl = : harlot toner wasp: Pogn B. p. 12: (m) nir. Kno'T hair: DT pt buy. Lidz 2. J"pr. 'Kir magical 38: equip- ment: . 40: 2. etc. 5 3. JS"3S<T J'SKT K^n.

mn Kin new: smn. arm: 19: 13. it. 6. 'in destruction: M. : sinner injury. 4. I. 12. son hide: Etp. Schw PSBA. 30: 4. NDN'Jvn 38: S"3vn 39: Pogn 3. sickness : Schw F. 4. etc. G. Nnmn 13: n. livestock. 2. rrmo healing: Schw H. xnb'o b'na 37: 4. D'yon ( ?) Schw xii. precinct. "nsn of mother. srrn Stan sin: i ditto: 30: 5. Jnin one another: 31 Tin Af. 24: 5. 13: 4- of angels : switch. embrace. Pogn A. Pogn s^n power: 2: i. cherish. 5. end.288 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. : 37 : 7. 38: (see Glossary A). (Frankel. Nn'n animal 7 14. . pa show . 37: 11. 10. "On enchant : 6: 16: 4. B. Schw bin Pa. . 6.. twisitrn. tonn). cf. I. B. -iB-jnn n. tirr Af. ditto: Lidz 16: 6. (3in) K'ln wri guilty: plur. 'on. titrvn (see p. 10. ?). ii. appear 6 : 9. ditto: 32: 8. . K"n. 4 C5>n' 9. Pogn 30: i. : : circle: 39: 7. 82). 7. ditto: 7: 16. destroy: of a i: 10. 8. magical interjection: also iT-Bnnn Stiibe ND'3n sage. 299 (see pluck away a : 86). Schw F serpent: B. nennN 6n) Sblbn marriage chamber: 7- 36: Schw N (between 'bn angel-names). 5. make 31 : strong: ( p^no pass. 4 (of demons). sin: Schw K^an srtan Nfiibn F. BABYLONIAN SECTION. ditto: 32: 8. 39: see: Pogn B. plague: 30: 14. : woman. in sorcery 39 : 7. K^nno. 31: 4. n'^nn'. nn\ 14. demon: 8: n. 7T\ Pa. : Ellis3. surround: 4: (magic) 6. Pogn no. etc. f. jvna 36: 6. N'n living: 38: life: 39: 13 8: pi. travail. injure. KTiKn Pogn B. in one: &nn 4:1. 13: 3. twrnn Ntn a skin-disase: Wohls 2422. B. pi. pi. Schw F. srb'n 2: 2. milk: Pogn B. property w. Etpe. in Wohls 2422 : for KX'no precinct: quick! 14: P. apparition: K'JSlin 31: 5. 17: 4. Pogn A. : "n dream: 6: 10. tnn pn^>. : xnrn : ditto Hal. Lidz s6ano the destroyer 9:8. (in) nsnan a skin-disease: so read 'n pn. N. K'n live: 6. 40 B. without: Schw Schw -.. pi. p.

: soiDNn contumelious cease : 30 : 4. Pogn seal B. ppl. Arabic place-name. c"cn five 4: 30: 3. ^Jpn twist: 3. ion name of a place Don do violence 2 : : 5 : 10. son father-in-law Pogn B 5). viii. Schw 18: I. etc. empoisonment : : skin-disease: Wohls onn darkness : 16: 6: pi. 3. Ellis Pogn 3. 'n black arts: 5:2.. B. : 33: 8. Schw M. 16. : etc. Pogn B. snon mother-in-law: XBTI wrath: (sin) smi-ins a 28: pungent herb ?: Schw G (curse Schw F. terrify: Him inf. . sorcerer (harras) Pogn j^'Dn : Schw Schw I. : *pn Pa. xocn sufferings Q. 39 6. end. of a 5- lilith: 6. Nnsenn. ass: 40: 4. Lidz 2422 (read n for n Dionn ditto: 29: 9. mn 19: 16. poison: 7: 13 of water (see p. plur. Knxon. 4. tnn) out upon thee. iron. N"U3n !<3in sword: 37: 8. MOIETI 2422. 25- Tin a pungent herb ?: 28: 17. 19: 15. blaspheme: 8: Tin sharp: 7: 17. 'Dn quickly (see 13 'on to : Schw M. sonn. i. pom Hermon K Din an 2 : 6. (but read 'snori ?). 7: Pogn pebble-charm 38: ii (see : pom. of you: 8: 31. B. Schw M.J. eruptive disease: Wohls ). masc. 14. 289 E>bn weak: Pogn B. 87). 4. read by Frankel in Wohls womb: 36: : 5. Slicb. 3in Pa. Lidz j'DDxn (sin)Nrrasn a ? and I. : name of a place E (Hal. identifies Hal. : pan desire : Schw F. P^n throttle. 17: snJDins ditto 2 6 also snoin : : . with an Schw passim. osnn curse: Montg. 29 Jer. ban: pass. ? 2426: 2. ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. xntrnn fifth: 6: 8. enchant. : (magically) onnoi D<nn 39: u.. 13: 9. Tin Pa. xmins a kind of spell Stiibe : wine : Hyv. grace: 13: 6. ND'in anathema: p. A. 8: 7. (see p. B. Schw 38:7- . fern. enn Pa. : of). Kon'n seal 7 4. 84). Pogn B jrenn. 31: 5. 4 . 84). Lidz : with a place mentioned in no. Don jealous s-noosn xrx. Pogn B. f'DNn leaven: 13: 12. : encamp palate : from Pogn B. MONTGOMERY la. lay waste: 38: n.

rvnn their ioo dip: J?:t3 Schw ^H 3m "T 7: ?. with by So defilements : 29 : 7. purified: 12: 7. 17: 8. 2414. no. 39: NONOy Pogn ib" B. Q. cf. Pogn A. Schw 2426. of a ID 11 = IDS: i 12. . i< BABYLONIAN SECTION. i. 14 : 2. KHT hand seal: Ellis nj?3D Schw E.rvoiN8: 6. B. i. a seal: ib. and). Kmyo Wohls 5. 8: 12.290 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. = name 8 : 6. i. in a 7 : 12. (with N'O'n south: ) : . plus B. Pogn B. E. A. n'Knns 38: i>3' 4. etc. N:BIB the deluge: 10: TnNDiD Lidz 17. I. 12. WIE-IIB. 4. ''B pi. KDO' day-time : 3D good: 29: 9. T3 /><?r. 10 .'n'OiN 8: 12. Ellis "ino Etpa. 1 : 5 (not "water nnij?B false deity: pi. no Af. Schw : Wohls F. . 13. tr interjection: nn 1. xoc unclean: 34: 'Oio |JB Pa. W13V1B agitation etc. etc. H-N hy on side of. t?3' dry up : Pogn Knonin ditto: Pogn B. S' 14: 7. ditto: 3: Pogn A 30: i. magic recipe : ' adjure: NJWK'Oi WDio 7: 16. 8:9. understand J'DID PIIE^S. bring: nxblS. snom exorcism: i: 5. trms mountain: 7: 12. Schw G (who reads np!N the preceding n^xa is misspelling for this. toe: K'B-iiB. of the N^SIIO parturition: 39: n. "3D gazelles T hand: "HIT 19: 14. talon. frighten away: 7: Kline disturbing: 5- KrroiD ditto: Schw 10. of Sip" glory fire: : 4: 7. of the ears Lidz 4. 28. Pogn : 19: 19. ND' sea : bowls) p?DD herb 28: 3. pluck: lilith. defile 10. 18: 6 ppl. covers : (used 4: i. snyo ffr. : 40: 5. KOHO'X etc. Lidz some part of the heart: 11:7 and parallels. S'SIJ tear. Pogn B nit2 trouble: Schw I. B. 'o Nrtn 30: Nro right-hand: 6: 11 Pogn A. np\ np'N a disease: Wohls 2422. shade 'btro K^'ts "33 'TE> 29 : 9. Nib' child: 36: 6. . sennn besealment: 9: n. give: 36: 4. (3lt3) 3:3. nTK 34: 13. eno stop up. snow-in. j oinn(?) ditto: 34: i. 2422. tPiir. magic"!). KOV day: 4: 4 (of judgment). : DBD tfb'D ? Ellis : I. bear (children) 1 : 8. Pogn B. pi. snonn 13. : Tp' burning.

: Pogn KS'S B. : as if ?. KpT greens: tniT 18: 6. : daughterin-law: Ellis 3. blame: Pogn B.. D13 (incantation) bowl: 7: (?) 28: of a throne 12: 6.. KmiK the Law Hyv. 20). Pogn (SJ3)Knsi33 KE33 associates: 19: 9. here. ist per. 291 Tpjp glorious. Pogn B. (technical down wing: Pogn B. i. 313 deceive: 32: S313 so: 16: 8. Schw L. KO3 ni3K 37 10 K^K3 Ellis i . KHT month: 6: 5. etc. 'TP javelin 1 1 : 7 and parbl3 : 4 4 the 7 stars Hal. priest: 19: 10. : : Michael KM pitcher: : Pogn : B. 133 prevail K>33 press : by 13s!? impf. Pogn B. prince of the L. t'3 ?: Wohls 2426. 2422. return: Pogn p. put in pain K3<3.. D3 abridge. B (see him '3. H3313 star KmiiD K3TP. 34 : 6 . step Nobj. )Nc6l3 everyone. : . : 7. Pogn S33D residence: Pogn B. Lidz so : 3 : 1 1 . Lidz 4. allels. G SB'3 stone.). as charm: Ellis 3 (read SD13 ?).J. MONTGOMERY the ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. Lidz 5. IK3j?3XD 2. of 2. J13 arrange: 'nrs ist pers. 1D3 Etpa.. . etc. Pogn B. term for the bowl: 6: etc. 13. .. hold: ^3<D inf. 81. 13: 7. KDN3. . of Lidz 5. (see p. 9 I. 13: 7. A. to Tin ? : ~ny. 4: Jordan (mystical river) B. congregation : phrase Knt5"33 J1BQ13 '3 H'3 nD'K for the bowl magic): 4: I. ?. BT an 11 inherit: rrneniD? Ellis bl3 all: 7: 6 (both forms). and cf. Wohls 2422 (see p. sit: iWo Kni>3 garland: 13: n. Schw E. 2. 38: 12. sickness B. magical practice Stiibe 3K3 Af . pain. NDH3T3 'mb 113 artificial 7:9? parallel with a lance Lidz. Schw : F. KT throw: tnio. (class howler 15: 6. N33 tooth ^3. (jtr)xnr'B> sleep: 6: 10. 3. OV3 planets: : Ellis 3 (see 3). 13 Pogn B. Wohls Pogn B. Pogn B 5. p3 25: therefore. 79). Lidz 13. Name: pierced but see 9. Lidz 2. 6: 9. Schw Krva^O bitch: G. demons) Myhr Schw 5. Lidz 5. "3 like: '= 12: 8. impv. correlative. yny rr impf. magic 2. Etpe. i. SD3. Lidz 4. i. n sin '3 32: 4. : Lidz 4. bowstring 2 : 5. 'E>3'3 31: (KDV3). 15: 5.

. bewitch: B. B'jW). a. of the charms: 9: 3 etc. : ?: pronominal n|vp'3E> I g. In 6. 13: Pa. with g. i: 14. : Pogn B. menstruation 29 : 7. 46 (cf. e. see : 8. Pa. soil: pn^m6e. Lidz Pogn ? Ntnsb a 12:6 garment: 2:2. Wohls 2422. cover: 13: K'D3 covering: 6. Pogn B. remain. f em. Pogn 3- B. Lidz 5. Af. by). 'otrao for 'se>3o be attached to: pnD'j? p^> of f|lC"3 sorcery: Schw I. ditto: of the demons not returning or remaining. so understand Nnsn3Di6 irmnn^. of a good demon demons. and cf. 32: 9. 1. N3 heart: 28: 5. a disease 10. 'XtB>3 Chaldaeans Hyv (se be clad: 2: 8: 3. : 6:3. . ugliness. ( r^ see 84). 11. 34: NOD'S have divorced 19: 10. species of demons: 20. i B. 13: 6. 10 10 etc. for b. 7:9. throne: 8: (ij?3)j jnj?3K pr6rv3. i. com38: following 8. 9. Pe. a curse: 5: Ellis pi. 6. m^W3 Pogn 29 : B. curse: Stiibe 4. 45. K313 sphere. KD'3. (ins) 113 Pa.. . Pogn . ND3 Pa. composition. Pogn B. honesty : Pogn B. Etp. 2. 133 disbelieve: Pogn B. her. in '3 Tin . 31: 4. Mand. Mntr*eioi6 pi. no. Pogn B. Gr. passim. Lidz Wohls 2422 (?). passim. i Pa. '3 reverse.292 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. ^> to me. Pogn B. Wohls 7: pose. 45. Pogn KTTID3 ditto: 13: 6. Pogn 17: B. avert. Lidz see cpj. B. N'D-113. written charm: Ellis 3. with '3^ food : Schw . tn'i? 7- company 2 b N'lt2s6. 16: e. orbit (astrological tosns X3KBH ntnn term) : labor. KaW 11:7 19: 1 and parallels. nasb. Noldeke. BABYLONIAN SECTION. : pounded word. K'Tinxo N'JDrni K3-I3 : Pogn B. 3H3 write. TBO decent. in and passim Mandaic with verb and suffix. 23. Pogn B. Gloss A). A. in 2422. jcmra writing: Ellis i. 14: 3. B. n'3 ? with verb to denote pur2422. tmi3 ~P3 sickness: Wohls not. Nt3B>i3 1E>3 Pogn 2. Lidz they cursed him. Pogn F. b to and sign of accusative sufif. Schwab M P- 3: $r\cb. asthma?: nn etc. tob = '3^.

3. Etpe. F. pno'n 5. Lidz angel. blL3ros with 1 that: *? npb impv. and 4 : ^itaro. title strike: ppl. eat (denominative) fern. reach : : Pogn B In . B. SD^O. recipe. 8. D'D of the Schw weapon E. Lidz w. rM. B. KJB"b tongue : verb. J^O. 13: 3. 9. (see p. passim as spirits. : 37: G. fem. KJTX 'O^o 18: 6. 6 (see p. Mand. |no 6:4. Pogn 88). F. tongue etc. Mand. head: Schw 7. bring.. tnno B1D rotten: Pogn 'DO. K'bb Pogn B. bo Pa. . 38: 6. : 14. jxo. 93) . repeated term in magical formula: Hal. lilith: NDO chance on. Mand. np. ^ID'O. 17. demons 5. plague: 16: 6. 10. i : 8 . pi. pi. Wohls 2422. rrW night: i: 13. nnW. etc. 36: 27 : : 5. word. remove: ii.J. : 8 8 . B. . ditto : killer. charms. Pogn B . Nmnoo ditto: 6: 9. in order to 2 : 6 curses. of dei- Knino ditto: 40: 36: 5. Montg. of inf. 6. ppl. 13: 2. ''C"3. p. of angels : heavenly 7 : sea.. (see p. speak : ppl. etc. D'O water: K'O a disease. "W> male counterpart to 21. of evil xnno 37: 16. "D'D. 38 : 8. rnxo. i. species of 5. MONTGOMERY ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. (TO)Knf3O hair: jlD'K'rJD Pogn B. and sns'W n b. because 5 . sickle. from pray: Wohls NJrW lilith . species i : species of magic. 34: 5. A. 293 enchant: 5:1. srvno ditto: snK'no Pogn O Lidz 1C. Wohls 2422 so ioo K^JD : sonbn 38: 5: 200. 33: 34: 9. i?- kind. Af. Lidz 4 (see Heb. 32 : 7. 75). Wohls 2422 ties. : Pogn 5. . Ellis 5. Pogn B (see NJTNttnNO of Mahoza Pogn city: : B. . be full : ]iKborv 12 brain. Schw po suck: 18: die: ni 6. 38: 6. S'lvo flood: Pogn 4: B. 4:1. 'E'sonD 'D 7: 13. 25 5. : 9 : 7.. pi. espeincantations: 6: NniD death: 3: irra ditto 12: 9. 'O.. stroke. X'^D. mo wo : Wohls 2417. Krrb'b -on. cially of 12. imp. iwo ) N'O. 'N'NO my w. : and (cf. 18: 7. 85). 8. 2417. B. N3Xt2^> K^'i?.. 8: nrooj KVO? NniDO in (= I Pogn B nrtaoj).

13. lady of Wohls 2417. pn from. 1DP3. pi. ("io)nnn bitter: 2: 3. Pogn B. 17: i. queen: 19: desses. N"no ? in NDD melt: 9: 6. ib. in marriage B. H'3 (?) Ellis 3. but K'pnjn and cf. ( ?) : 7 : see Nold. Ass. fr. 84). king : of 34 8 of Solomon Hyv Michael. 295) . Lidz ditto. - - so : B. 29.294 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. make 9- clear. KnN'-itnD. : Pa.. "WO K^H from me. . of the sorcerer Lidz 4 sary A). B. Lidz ' (see p. o lord: of deity 19: 5. . Etpa. passim. 9. human K1B1T in Schw . mo mo rebel: rebel oil : : Schw i : F. ban. 4: 4. '0 kingdom: Wohls 2417. Nirvj he is ( ?) : Hal. 2). pnmo 5'rvKiND 28: 5. constellation (cf. bind: 32: 33:8. 84. = = : xnxiJD snuo Schw note M. 18: i. : the middle re- sm'3 vow. Pogn Noldeke. etc. and living Pogn B NntoXO. &6'J?D Lidz 7. no. q. Hyv. name 6. our of demons. i4isnDy KIN-ID bitterness Pogn B. assimilated 13: 17: 5. o zodiac-sign 19: 9(?). (Pogn "queen"). J Schw : F. Lidz 4 KmSM spatial X"xxo K'nt6y Pogn B. as title. bind : Pogn (so Pogn. epithet of devils and charms. n. gen. prob. 5. construct . of god- dead lady 19: 5. Glos- E . and his note plague : = 16 : 4. gen. masaru. excommunicate. Schw F i>JTD Schw 6. expel: Pu. 11 5. J'O town Ellis 3. H . 12: 6. WJ'K 29 : 9. w. Schw E. l^xo of : no. 'DO (?. Gram. : opposed to B. intermediate (of of the three gions) B. and K'as&D. 15: portion. 'mo xnsOD pi.: Stiibe 62. la'v rn-io. no. 6. fem. : = god15 Pogn . 'mio his lord. B. of Estera '0 in his no. Pa. in: Af. k. light: 16: also Mand. arrange 3 move. ordain Schw 5- F. female angel dess: BABYLONIAN SECTION. form his plur. 4. God 18: (Arabism? p. 2. TDX. in magic : 5 : 2. ton denom. lOB'D 2426. nno stretch out Pogn Pogn Wohls p. Hal JH130 . -'=fe-s. 7 : 32: 12. excommunication?: robe: tnD'n 'o 13: 6. = see Lidz's Pogn on NTio 2.

D3 Af. 2: rest: 303 take up 4 : 28 : 3. 23: PP'TD II. D'3p3 lino 9: KmtSD ditto: 7: 13. 3p3 'renunciation: 6. guarding: Pogn A. ppl. 'pis 6. of a star '3. Schw L. 17: 6. rurvK. Ellis 3.. 2: of one's own. nn'n. 10. KH13-1D3D ni33 before: wardship: 35: 6. and . class of evil spirits : 7 nS3 Af put . KIT: sni3 fire: Pogn B. 6: person: '31 n. 32: ii. charms of 15: 7. 27: 9 nx3 be victorious NDB> D1BH Hal. w. 6. Halevy (see KD3 Pa. 3). . depart: 'Sto. K"S0313 stranger: bite: Pogn 8:8. ]'pt3D 23: 4 XB'B3 F(?). plur. D33 Pa. perforate distinct Pogn B. see life.J. 32:8. JO13 ni3 rest: commotion : Pogn 6. N"il3 pepper: 28: 3. 34: ii Gabriel . ns3 blow with the breath : Schw F. 2. try: nK'D3 she has proved. Pogn : 6. KH3p3 woman. p. 103 Pa. Pogn B. : Pogn. evil spirits: 21: Myhr = Wp'BO inf. '3 Nmt33. : 2417. pIB' 3:11. sp3b 9: 8. nt3 a disease: 29: 7. 6. : : : : 6. Pogn B. (see p. 'Kt33 38: 13. 2 angels. prove. A. ]0-<3 f. 14: 3. '33 9. 295 ~r\3 tremble: Pogn B. 3'D 17: 9. pis 36 : (Sr3) &6to constellations: 6. light. MONTGOMERY ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. ipa. [S3 prince of in '3 fire. Etpe. (of 15 : 7. of demons blowing on the brain. H3(')p3 Ellis i. Nmpu . Lidz 4. PS3 go out 2. nru come down 8 : : 7. 8: 7. NH3'p3 30: 3. 35 10 3. fall: impv. srop'3 (most sing. Lidz la. l^is Wohls 2414.) 6: t<n3p'3 form. Schw E. pi. plur. oinoin?. Schw M. Schw F. 75). 3. I. afflict: liD'Dn. Schw I. Etpe. fire 8: 13. ps 34: TPT3 Schw G. B. Pa. female: 30: 4. i : Hyv. 39: . K3p'B3no 7: 12. xrvDX3 trial : : Pogn B. butcher: Pogn 8: 37: 10 . Pogn t6a'3 '3"i3 : B. 5 : i. Q D33. to flight : mS3X Schw 3I. Schw 16: impv. : 17: Af. Af. B. 'K3 guardian: Wohls 35: smp3 1p3 libation: 36: 7. 12:5. common B. B. KX3 wrangle: 7: 13. guard 7 9. Nnru Kni3("3?) in R. i. class of 2. 14: 6. Pogn B (see . curses). KBTI3 bronze: 4: 6. Nisan: Wohls 2422 55)- rest: 7. suff. Pael pass. p'JD . K3HV3 victorious: Schw (Kp3) (3p3) N-ID3. impv.

of Schw . permit G. plur. close up: 38: D1TD IO. 'riD3 trvriD Lidz 4. (inf. 13. magic word. 10. NOUNDO1 NDHD NDTDD 40: 21. Dab grasp: 4: 16: 8. I'D^y llDb. 5 10. the I. home 2417. ppl. possibly in N1D3. Lidz NT3D the feet: astrological term = : KID stocks. Lidz la. Schw spirit. Pe. K3SBD 19: 3. : 7. Satan : 2 : 5 : 4. : Hof. NflDiD 11D Wohls 2414. blow. mare in N^NOD 'pOD a hand : Pogn A vbw. Schw 4. Schw 39: 4. 16: 10. NDD go astray bis. soiled. commit offence: 4: 2. i. 5. N3E>J trap: tthoo. numerous Qfor pD pi. be- Pogn A. 3ND Pa. a cover on pass. N'rND . and 6. p. Dt3D A KHIND. 8. A. 7. : G. . place 1213. of man: Nno'r'J 39: 2. '3D 27: 6. : 1 : 9. Wohls 2414. . genius of 4. Pa. pole? Montg. T3D close up: 13: Pa. pass. N3Blook at: Wohls 39 2422. NJD). ji//a Schw 3. 63).. make unclean N3NDD : N3D. 'ND bases. walk: 12: "OD (j3D)Nm:"3D'D poverty: 34: 12. B. F.296 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. pi. 6. of the world: (p. NB1D end: Schw F. foul : ?3D Af. 9: 7. of windblasts "in: 12:8. a satan. etc. B. curse ?: Pogn A. Pogn B 7: 17. in Wohls only 'N3D 38: 12. 17. m. 35 : 4 (see NDpSDO ascent: Pogn NOD (?) poison: Schw F. BABYLONIAN SECTION. cism. JND pass. go up: p'^D 3d pers. (see p. 36 8. Schw writ: "33iTn 'D side: 6: 10. 27: n. 24: 6 77). magic art: xnnD39: Dpi. Lidz 4. n?D Selah. : demon's glance Pogn A.. 32: rvp^D ist pers. ^3DN ) . 5 rtbtfD 20: etc. 40: 8. Na'D sword : 37 8. of a tano seize: Pogn B. Etpa. Nino row: 2: ND'aiD seducing spirits p. N^IDD Lat. NHNrD Pogn B (cf. ppl. Red Sea: 34: 4. Pogn Pogn DTD. ~|OD 80).. N':NTD. act. : 6 : 'DT NO'. in 'D : Babylonia 'QJN). Pogn NTD = . Nmp'D Mand. P^D Sodom. : 3D turn away: 8: NJD Af. 7: B. (Yeb. come wise Stiibe 48.. as object of exor- Pogn B. ?: Etpe. I. xa'D put : demon N3D hate. : Krvb'D cage-work : 19 : 10. 35: 3. prno. Hif. Pogn 2:1 = ppls. : descend upon left : Pogn B. : 26: 6.

4:4 inf. evil spirits. ply Pogn B. = 4. ppl. : Pogn : B. of deity 38: 7. : strong: fern. gird ? : Pogn lock of hair: hair: 8: 3. 10. go away 5 : i . K^jy in 'jn. protect pi. 'D hatred: |JD Lidz B. class of 19. terms. with 11 . ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. eye. = 'b Kony 19: 19. various possessors of the xm20NO iy passage: Pogn B. M. -2. A. B. mon 32: 10 34: 8. 13VO 17: Lidz evil nyi j"y Ellis 5 . stench: embryo: 39: 16: 9. 32 : 3. bird: 7: 14. Af. Ellis of Solo- F. enter: pby'3 29: 20 ji^yj 30: 10 . Lidz D lip: Lidz 4. Ellis 3. 32 3 Pa. KTy time XJiy : pi. Lidz 4 (see p. distress Lidz blind: pass. Af. T KTnD KmriD loosening: 16: : 3- hide. 'T ny as long Hal. ditto: 6: 6. 14. B. Hyv in : 1. 'y 5 : 4. species of demons: 7:11. (cf. i : transgress 32 7: 3. epithet of Dilbat 28: 5. Pogn make: 12: 6. no mi.. fire 7. Pa. magical practice Schw F of spirits and witches (for this and following Pogn A. with Schw M. pi. the evil eye Knt5"3 . obiy: 2: 15. KOiy 34: as. servant : 34 : 7. etc. 13. ny unto: 297 5: 2. Schw R. of 15 God : 8: n. temple: Pogn B. 89). N'Ty 26 : 5. eye 30: 3 (see p. the sheep: 40: 4. soon: eternity. 38: 8. ditto : xy Pogn of B. read 4. of a magical work 9 2. B. ). persist: 34: i. Nifal 25 so 2.. help: Pogn Schw I. sisoiy 4 Jewish cult 29: ditto: 34: Lidz srmy in 'yn noin . : 1317. perh. sorcerer: 12. Stiibe 10. 33: 12. use as a servant. 40: Pogn 72). 4. 51). B. 3. 13V pass over. SH3iy ditto: 9: NTy Etpa.J. grain: Hyv. 13: PPS? : press. seal-ring: of the I. J^'N 38: 14. Schw : 17: 12. . 39: 6. secret arts? Ellis 3. be in distress : ppl. 9. 6: ii 13'J. : 8 ring of . MONTGOMERY Pogn B 4. Pogn B. D destruction: 16: Pogn B. 7 17. iiy xnpx Pa. 6. see p. 6. Pa. ppl. in snio Lidz 4- strength: 6: n. 13'y across : 9 N-113'y = Q no' "Q'y JO 8 10. : : . = .

3d. lirvixSy.298 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. upon. Hal. (so better Pogn snioy Gomorrha 2 : B. fr. Montg. no. why Pogn B. and pr6. irp^y Schw sing. : passim. "toy stand: 8: 14. 'ixSy alternating with B. 37: B. G (mpy) K"apis(i) scorpions: xaiyo west B. elelu lament. epithet lestial of B. (aiy) : U'ohls how. . Schw Q. class of XDW 34 demons. Lidz 5 ip"i'y pny (cf. Lidz : 5. 93). plur. 35: 6. spirit of: (upon until him ? Pogn B. suflf. 3: poby f\-\ob Schw ne-ymake: 9: 2422 tice). Montg. be 1: 7: 17. Dy. 27 (Noldeke). 16: 9. : nbb\ Schwally. out upon thee 1. b'by ~\by. 8: ally in and in gener- Mand. 28. i. *mby Stiibe 32 . BABYLONIAN SECTION. 6. Hal. ~\by F) . Wohls magical prac- xoSy a kind of injury: Schw (see p. Nnpjx. 28. pa'by 3. 36 3 ( xna'by ? Schw 3d pers. . o>iy 5. by than w. 93). of ten xp'ny. Or.). 6. 10. : Pogn B. 'X Lit-Zeit. Ellis 3. 88). 8: 15. 7 f. X'X?y superior. cf. formulas 15. inxo^y. eternity. xoSy Etpa. . i. 2d plur. may. jy a herb used in magic 3- 28: y. ce- K^'Qiy darkness gods : Pogn in i: Pogn B 7. of a xoy people: n'ony 13: tribes of angels. Schw G) why Schw 11:3. bx unto. YX^K. -\y abyb F. Ellis 5. D'yi. mp). ii. Mand. against disease: Schw G him. : 'y in : . nb'bn i. ii. impv. Ass. 12: 9 (see p. w. 29: 7. no. . as class of ('emons: 34: 10 (see p. Pa. STp'y fern. piy flee: pnjr 3: : n'by height: 'jn x^aaia oby. Pogn . : 9. cf 40 5 w. 9. oppress : ppl. to (freq. D?iy ijn p'-vy Ellis 3: i. = Heb. 6: 3. Wohls 2417. pa'X^y Pogn B . Myhr 6. necklace charm or spirit: 7: ii. 88). 'n old Pogn . Pogn 'X (see p. 'PJS . and also (?) 1:3. Nrnpy barrenness.. D'y with: "\ G (of i: 13. Pogn 2422. 2<1 "n xbx. Pogn (any) above: 19: "'ib'y any sweet: a kind of against : rn^y 8. masc. 9: prrxSx Lidz la . : 'a'^y magical knots. : B. ipy uproot : p'py.. by Life! 40: 1 8. Schw F. F. plur. . for b. : : 6. no. tosy dust: sissa.). . B. = xpoiy depth Heb.

in Schwab : Pogn : B. bowl: 9: "IDS 32: 3. *sby 5:5. 33: banish. 14. word 37 : : 7. ist per. = of I. pnnB'aoi tini^B Pogn of the magic divorce 7. B.J. warn? divide inheritance Pogn ms K&a Dis. BK'B Pa. Af Lidz 4 . potter's of the i. plur? Njpis deliverance: 4: ppl. Pogn B. pis separate: IV'S. etc) : D'JB face: K'JB 'JBO. : ITS scatter 8 : 2. determine. i. . divorce: 9: 9. 19: 15. na'KB. Euphrates: Schw G. in 10. of demons. bewilder: 7: class of evil {6ns iron: 2: I. 16. n 34: ypa burst open: sps'i 6: n. annul: inf. 5. command 36 : : 3 6. KrrjMB above: also prob. 72). 17: 13. ma fem. spe'By Pogn B. i. annul (charms. 299 a Mand. mutilate JUS i : 10. KmKE>B annulment : Pogn pos cut : 28 : 5 : . angels poinoi J'BnBD Stiibe OB J?S Pe. . 15: 7. break. Etpe. and Pa. potter: Pogn A. JOitTB divorce-writ: 8: 7. . bind Af. B. NJMB plague. phrase. A. 1 1 : Wohls 2414. 38: Schw Stiibe 14.. Etp. stretch 2 : 5 = 27 : 7. (w. 19 (see p. pronouncfiDE>. break: n. Nmt3B exemption: 17: 12. 9- 38: shrine-spirit: 38: 8. of a decree Lidz 40: 4. Pogn B. 9 5 . 7). Af. see under *ip< (see p. ns mouth: 13: nirp Lidz 4. pma : rns Wohls "UB 2426. of the 5. B. 4. 15: 6 (see 92). Hyv 49 i : . i. break. 16: 10. Hal eniDD or 1 1 NEnso KOlB' Lidz 59. 15:8. etc. i : Pa.-Hof. xnyjs.iB'D Stiibe 105). spirits: 7: p. SOJB body: 7:6. : D3B Pa. 'SKX 'sa 20: 5. DB break: 7: 17. imprisonment : and: 'CDS 17: (see Bio). encounter -. MONTGOMERY : ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. F. of flee: Schw N. B. etc. WiplB B ward. 6. 44.2:2. p'sn Ellis 3. vessel. in a magical DIB scatter: 28: XBiXiB person : 3. suff. genius 3 Uthras. Lidz 5 (see to 8: ena Af. IIS scatter. 35 n)TB doorway : 6 : 6. in 'S Schw H31J?. : half: Pogn i. ed . the command 38 : : 6. : Name: Bnison . na Af.) ib.

from him. N-iB'p spell: pi. 38: 8. Dllp before. in xpSK. etc. D'p 13: 8. (bp) t&>? curse 5 : 3. 3: 7. pSTiB pi. 32 : 4. ib'ap Ellis Lidz 5. 37: 7. J/3V dip: Schw F finger: Dp. p^o'psn. BABYLONIAN SECTION. Ni'P bind. 4. depict: n: 9 = tresses : Ellis I. NJlB'X north: Wohls 2422. E>Hip holiness Pogn Schw M. of demons 3 : 36 : 6 : 2. Etpa. 18: 6. 7 : mutter: |HXQ. Lidz (see p. 8: 17. *lbx XE"np ditto. 'Op ditto : 'Opb Ellis i.o. 'monp 9. JBXD : Schw : pristine : 33 : 1 1 . 2. 8 (see p.300 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. Schw 7: 15. Adam KadMand. 13:2. but see mp. and Nebat. on a seal: 15: 7. mip JD 25: 2. stature. monp 37: 8. np \o xyavs *|1X Schw 6 F. : Tnv f. Pogn B. 7: 14. 5. DTP. rrp 2 : 7. Etpe. Pogn Nap collect: 37: bap receive: 6: n. prwp . 29: the resurrection) 10. 28: 7.. 6: n. . trnp holy. Schw E. Wohls 2417 (of Pa. xba'p counter-charm : b'3Np . Pogn B. iiv mon 2. : rrtap? against him trap. 72). xmix niv obey: jnx figure. in sing. nDlp3 4 7. prwip. act. in nans image-spirits: 5: 7. and plur. of 6. Pogn B. rvx'X glory: 12: 7. 6. 4. Hal (of : impv. "13'na. 17: 12. Glossary A). Holy One: stink: Pogn A. Pogn B. : Ellis 3 idolatry: 37: filth: 'V nyo (?). 5. ditto: bt3J kill. 36: 5. 8: 10. etc. place : Schw M. Lidz ppl. Pogn person Schw G. 5. Life B. mp . 2. B. stand : scourge : i : 10. F. KX'X ray of light: 7: 5 plur. 2: 4. 19: 3. Pogn B. ( bind. Lidz 5. ditto: 2: 4. cattle). of magic : Schw I. npns Schw Q. j6t3NJ Lidz 5 (cf. Wohls 2422. i. Hy/. siaip tomb: B. the I. : fern. B. : Np emphatic part. particularly epithet of demons: 4:1. Pogn wax figures: 39: : ditto: Pogn B. Af. 16: 4. Peil nsv morning: 26: Nix cleave: xnxx cloven (hoofs). to-nx side: form. impv. rroxnp. Syr. 7: 13. with a spell 10: 3. I. ojnip Pogn B. 86). ?) 29: 11V 5- draw. no. Pogn A. DtOp. Dip arise.

Nrry'31 fourth. plur. (ip)NTip Nip call. near. 3. A. . ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. 92). etc. '31 title 8 8. G. vocation. 8 (so possibly. NH31 : usury: Lidz Nmp 4 magical 16: 10. V31N four: 4:1. amulet: 2: 10: 17. NlOip vault of heaven?: see col. ditto: 12: 8. fem. 6 8. 9. name: 16: 5. N^pro the magical in16: 10 (see p. = Nt20p ? contortion : : NK"i. 4. Wohls 'Bjp person(?): 'OJp 'TD3 Schw cold: I. 'p Pogn D'S^Ni beginning Lidz 12. ditto: Tip 3. 18: 31 great : may mean small 4 'i : 4. Schw la. H?p hard. fem.. Lidz 2. f3i Schw 2417 : . Nip flee: 18: 9 = Nip Lidz 5 ND3i stone(?): Pogn B. 301 voice: 13 : 11. 8: 13. B.J. fem. Wohls 2422. Pogn B Pogn 4. Ellis 3. neighbor Nbrj NU'J b'Ji Schw I. (B>p)twp old: 19: i. : Nip chance upon: 18: 10. Lidz NmpN (see p. of the client pp horn: Pogn B. 36: demons read the tion. creation 11:9. Pogn PV31N forty: Schw E. see 10. invocation 7 N3131 (?) (5?3i) master: Hal. NDN3in Pogn 16: 8. 4: : : : head: 19: 5. painful: "B>p 7 : n. (metathesis of . 72. D'Ji Lidz 2. NHD N^Ji wrath: 16: 37: 39: 7. 5 . 44). : . . Smith. of the witches Lidz magical figure 12: Npilp link of a chain : 5. NU^ Ellis ditto: 38: 12. of a 9. : Wohl 2422. 29: 5. NB'Nl. NTIN31 Pogn B 31. foot: 19: 19. 3650). : 8. Ellis 5 (see p. np mishap. Hal. so '3131 inscrip- masters 39: N'3in Ellis : 5 (see 3) N'ipo. pollution: Schw p. n. in 34: 8 cattle). nip. Etpe. etc. : bow : 2 : (zodiac?. 3ip approach: 6: 3ip. Pogn B Payne34 10. 40: 21. 84). NJTnp ditto: 35: NJN'ip ditto: you. 3 2. 1. B. Pogn B. 34 Mandaic use for (the "cattle" not assured. B. la. pi. np'b I.4:5 Nrw 38 : 10. NB"N1 B. G. MONTGOMERY 7. N'31N Pogn B p'n?3iN the four of . 'i 'ON grandmother. 84). etc. TI31 . Nnop KJ'Jp. N3Nip battle: Lidz Lidz 4. Nnapip head: 2: i. 4. hobbled: 38: 10. . wunp. ''p 3 possessions 2 5. 19. Montg.

SfNOT one endowed with the evil 30: no "> 9 (see p. as masc. relative: KVW. Stiibe 61 Dm 'Dm . Lidz 4. 74). tvW> n 16: Nton (the divine) beck: 19: 8. Arab. pi. of I. ditto: jm? nn. Pogn Lidz gen. K. reptiles: 7: (on) on. i. Kn'pi.. rites: 6: 7: 13. the love of God: 3: i. ninn etc. 4. Lidz 4 M. DOT trample i : 10. eye : ?: Pogn B. pyBvn. Hyv (who Kan) . 14: 2. 28: ysn lift.) (Noldeke eft. 60. Pogn B. Schw njn Etpe. loving Schw I. B. 3. DSO high: fOl prick.. spirits. 20. Pogn B. 4. la. "on pass. bruise: 18: NK'DI evening: 26: 5. 11. -i : Pogn 14: B. 8. Hyv. supposes Np'T TtOfn name of a place or sanctuary: 19: 10. JOT act. . NP. authority Stiibe 61 men in center of bowl No. perfume B. Pa. Kpm Schw 8: 17. 'nn 30: -bsj 16: 8. Dm Pa. ditto: 32: 8. remove : 37: 85). ]ionn 14: 7. 13NE-. 6. p. shake 34: BABYLONIAN SECTION. 27: n). have compassion: 13: 4. ditto: Schw G. ppl. Njn crop 3131 ?: spi ( ?) : Lidz 4. Ellis 5 nn 3. 6. of angels: 12: JTpl firmament: 8: 9. of a place or sanctuary : signing. B. magical element. 27: n. : Schw E. 7: 17. G. etc. pleasure: 12: 6. a name: KDB> n. Pogn A.302 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. cf. KDDn Pogn 6. height: plur 9: Dnnon name jn evil : 34: 5- of a place or sanctuary: 19: 12. cf. of evil etc. 28:3. 5- chariot: 8: 13. KOiNnoPogn of Ellis 5. 14. KttO mystery. D'avurn ( ?) Schw L. of man unn : Nnnmo plur. Schw 19: u. 8: 16. pn "le crachet a etc crache" ? : Pogn B. pm be far : ppls. napji-ot. Knom Dim name love: n "P love rites. smjn 1B"| will. snn spirit. dance. 25: 2. P'm V Heb. seven X'nypn. (and see p. NDI cast down: 9: 6: 4. encamp: 2: 7 (but &HS1O camp: 2: 7. plur. K'ypn. magical 3. ppl. 14: 2 Etpe. Hand. Schw see Hal. ask: n-b'KB' 4: . u: 2.

I Klip wall : 4 : 6. JV3PK. KD31P plague. ny3P. 28: I. disturb: i: ?. send: 36: Pogn B (also 5 4. Pogn B. SB'JltJ' n. plur. KTP song. MONTGOMERY ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. nKmp lust: 28: 4. 80). hell? 6: disturbing: 24: 4. : xnnuc* residence?: Schw Etpe. Peil forms). K'SKP. with love: jivnp'J 28: i. 40: 5. pia'P divorcement: 8: 13. 6: B. '3 niPK. 3P. I'JQP 7. etc. class of (rat?) semTE> she-demon: 7: SOB* throw down Stiibe : Pogn 3. break ? : Schw G. class of amulet-spirits: 133 '"5'?) pCTtf? Schw G. Af. nb'P'3P her . p. KTVJP3P seventh. Wohls I3t? Kninp slumber: 7: 2 16. Mand. PIP have 40: 22 divorced Pa. 8. (see p. J)31P. dissolve like water II burn. 14. Kimp bribe : Pogn B. in exorcism: rvjDPK pa'by i : KrmK> a form of magic (see 86). of spells. 8: n. IIP leap forth: ppl. I. 15: 6 demons B. Pogn B (assigned wrongly by him to K3P). I adjure. KC3E'. divorce: np'3P 17: 32: 9. njnp seven: KIP be equal: in ppl. 10. I. Pogn B.. 2. Hyv seventy: 7: 17 of angels. snsinp consumption: Schw P- G (see K131P "nicl" ri3P Schw F. : cphialtes: Pogn A 6 : (see p. 12. of witches Pogn : (DIP) o'P B . 19: 4. commotion "nnp emancipate demons who are not p-inpo Schw I -nmpo . like. fern. Lidz 14. 50? ne> Pa. (see p. UP burn: 33HP3 28: WP Pogn (read etc. . . Pa. 93)- cease : JTP3P Schw E. Krapin praise: 29: 12. : D'pnp the ether: 29: u. Kme'D sender: Pogn B. of a kind of demons : Schw G : (see p. 33 : 4.. H : 15: 6. plur. 88). Pogn eye-tumor: 34: 10. 73). Mand. 303 hell : ^>1KP V3P seventh i. IIP crawl. 82). B. Pogn 9= 131? Pa. 8. jtrpJV3P 2426. 3 : 3 . A. NTl? plur.9 2 )4. set: 37: 11. : Pogn Schw R. E'JB'Pa. TPig: 14. overthrow: inf. adjure. ninp worship: 8: tnp burn. 4: 4. B. Y V ( see P. t'' : 2 : 7. P3P dismiss. charm : 32 : 9. : rub(?) ib. Kjjyp. etc. Kiinp black. K'PIKP. Pa.J. 4. so HP in demons: 12: 35: Kiv3P road 531? : 3. 5: B. Knjn3P oath Schw KiKlP leaper. 34 : 4. 7 : 14.

or the charme. 331? lie: sexually of 1 1 : demons. of demons dwelling: 34: lay waste?: none" Schw heaven etc.. " : Wohls 2417. 17. > 8 . Kelts' 38: 16: 7. species of demon. jin'oe- 14: jnotf lay a ghost 16: spell n. : SOB> name. n: 5. DIE 1 . 2. bnv. xnnDitr Mand. i. 16: 10. cf 3). Stiibe sno^E' Pogn B (see p. Lidz 35 ii. la n'Ditf I heard Lidz B. 37: 10. NOC' K'Otr : Pogn B. impv. demon: 8: 2. 13. 26: 85). KnJl3B>D t? Schw Q. . fiSnnE'yj Af r6e>K . n. haunter. in the name of (deity. rot? find: Etpe. angel. perhaps better read 7). M. set 1 : 13. KD^P 1^E> D7C? ruler: 4. Schw E. Hof al . 8. 8 : l"W send. BABYLONIAN SECTION. : 6. B. 4. VtfyfV: Pogn Pogn B.^'OSE 30 1 : 2 NJN^E'D sender: CJ^tr (cf. in NDE-year: 6: 6 : 6 magic: 12: 4. flame: 14: = 'KOiE' ib. ban: Hal. : p3TW^) 3. I. change one's place 36 : : 13: 12. 5. . : lay a Ellis 3. Etpa. send away 8: 3. Jirpjje>. (Noldeke. Wohls 2426. : B. KaaC"O (TV3) bedchamber 8: 5. Mand. Ellis 'DOE' Schw 1 WD'DE? 3 (Halevy. K^ncT?. 'XDIE> JlDnE'Ti. 6: of 296. niD'B> 6.304 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. b. Af : . Schw I. 1 make mad plur. exortion). hour: 4: 5 "nan 5E' 'E'. 19: 3. 2.rrotrb 28: lOE'O 95. Pa. : Af.. 17:4. ii ZKF words following. Pa. plur. rule : iio^E"n 6 : 10. Schw G. : 9 . Ellis 3 . plur. 35 : (see also Kneri). jxnoE' : send forth: Schw F. 7 : 7. Knnoitr ^5n1ot SHNDS?' 34 5. 6. sun : 28 : s. 8: 7. ncro). passim. 11:2 ( = I. Hal. NJS' !?? 1 IVXD'B'40: i. 9: 6. rites. bewilder. inf . Lidz 4. NHDE' ban: 8: 6. 1 mocking mischief of de: ghost. Dit5>3. 19: 12. IDC" guard. 13. sorcerer. ib. Peil pirate' Stube 51. Pogn Etpe. XC'OC' inf. DIB'^T i : whatever name Shekina: 14: KTQ-i KJ'3B>D 3. J'3'b 8:3: foetus: Pogn 7. God ) B. so Noldeke to Hyv. Lidz ib Mand. initiatory 9. 8. passim : plur. or mons Schw (see G. Glossary A). serve: Stiibe 60. abode. g. 'JC' 2. keep 5 : E>B' Pa. 12. deliver: Lidz peace: '& 'E> Pa. Etpe. down 34 5. NnnDE 1 Stiibe 12. K'OlE Pogn JPDB J?E> hear : 8 : 10. 8: 7. KnnDC'O epithet of lilith 34: 13.

F. : impv. bind. Mand. forth S'VB Schw M. 'KncTK 36 (nB>) nE>cr take off: II strike . diarrhoea: 34: 10. 12 tribe. 80). 19 5. 16: 6.n'nn. D'Tytr 5:4 ?) : (see p. : crown: K1T1 NJSn Pogn B. under :vnnn Schw F. 86). Pogn B K'Oin Lidz 5. nnn. 3i: Tie* firm. be loosened. in enumeration : : xnaip'tr a affliction. (but see Lidz. 13: KOinn. 93. inf. = pi. 38: 6. Lidz 5. suff. of the bowl-practice F. 5. with D1^. I'n'B*.. 15. Lidz ditto e. Pogn B KmyE> a fever( 11:3. Lidz 2. 19: 4. Etpe. p. Lidz 4. . of charms: 3: 8. Lidz 2. : prince: sot? loose. 9. species demons : 3. N^r'S? enchainment: 34: : 11. n. i. p. A. 9. nTin under the hand 7: 12 'tne> Pogn B. Schw dwell: out of 9: 5. Klin bull 40: 4. vermin Pa. 5. KniB'pB' Lidz 4 (see nan break: 40: 12. ib. I. xnaipnB"K ditto: 16: 10. the Arabic Jife-demon: 15: 5- chains: 39: 5. : 7 : 14. 80). blow. KnviE>. Pa. etc. authority: spell: ? Schw end. Lidz la. nu'n (Noah's) ark: 10: 5. to lodge. 40: 12. always in plur: Schw F. r\v drink: inf. : Schw I. impv. pi. Ellis Wohls 2426. : 8. = womn. 37: 4i. rvne"JO : Schw 7. Ellis i . nasn. nPK> 7: 17. pie> impv. n. g. of demons. Din again : N"nnn (Pogn 2 i. 38 : practice: Stiibe 2. no. MONTGOMERY of ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. uproot: ? H'tnt? fem. I. method or result of magical 5. 53). 2414 p. : Nrpc? 32: 5>pE> 33: i. 1 (cf. SDin abyss. = mnn 12. of demons. 3in. read I<a3ie>. Stiibe 7: 17. G. 37 3. 1PE> 1 1 : 6. 305 TJ?B> satyr. PBB'E> Hyv. : tb&tp abasement (?) niB'tr Schw of demoniac species: excommunication (see p. Lidz lin in lino. Lidz r^"^ 60. Etpe. as though Din 39 black). six: 11:9. etc. military division 13 : : plur. magically TIB* Schw ppl. 12: 9.J. pi. 8. : Schw G. 12: 2. nne> Schw F. 34: II. Hyv. root trie'). 5. with fem. ypE> deposit. to water : Pogn B. 40: 17 the 360 species destroy: inf. Af. 14: 38: itwvn Pogn B. Hyv. rrODJn G. come Pa. Etpe.

tn (Syr. of Leviathan: 2: 6. N3l(3) 16: 8). 10 : 3. s:s : : 2 : i. : 4. ! 32: 4. 29: 11. two: 4: 4. (also demonstrative) 8: 7. n^K: 2. Hyv 2. pn 3: 6. ist pers.). sn^on abortion bn hang( ?) : fast: 19: 10. Sony. in : 39: 8. S3KT: 5. : . Kin Pn : 6 : 7. : Pogn : : 9. rkbrr* Schw Tpn mighty. 33: 7. nbn three : nsbn Pogn B. 4. damage: 34: 7 (see sr:n monster. Pogn B ^K. . : epithet of . 36: 5. 35 : rn:s: 8: 8. in son. = Pogn B NO. pW: 25: Indefinite Hal 2. Ellis : TS those who( ?) Dsn:<O: 10. : ISO 27: > p. Pogn B jn : . 3. F. 14. plur. 7:16. pi. VUS: 8: 8. Pogn B.2: 8. 11:4. : S'Jon eight : 8 NDlTn divorcement spirits. pn 3: 5- 29 : mo Ellis 5. ton there: 14: 7. two of them. Jpn : Pa. S3S: ii i. vus: 26: 3. ni)'K. 8: 8. p : 8 : : 16. 34: prmn 4. : 6. (Sinn) srn gate: Pogn PRONOMINAL FORMS 1st per. finis m (?): 18: mJS: Schw F. etc. 12: Hal. copula sin Kin. divorce 19: 4.) 31: 19 : 2. : . 15 (or 4. prnbn. Stiibe 43 (these forms in stereotyped phrases. Demonstrative. 2d pers. : 17:3. 5. i. snr J'n second fem. 9: i. 6 r^n Schw I. SD3. 1:4. 3(?)- 17: STKn Lidz pi. cf. Demonstrative : 3d pers. 35: 9. suff. v. of the 38: 5 4. : Wohls masc. and fem. 32 n^-. 94). F. Tin Pa. Nrvrvbn third. ns?TD. 5. : Schw F. etc. jsjson Lidz (in)toin loss.. pton 28: : 2d per. Schw Q.306 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM.. pi. son^n 300 . 10 i. as 3 I: 5. nK3S 38: f. fem. 32: 3. 26 B. : pn 6: 8. (n)jo: 2: . 34: 9. magical of deities. Din see ain. 13. Sin 6. 5. psn: Pogn A. pyrrbn 17: sorcerer 34: 8: 3. 3d pers. Pogn B. see to BABYLONIAN SECTION 80 19 4. 6 : : 8. 5. pi. 5: 2. Schw E. seals. Demonstrative fem. Hal. ? q. insobj?(see these prepositions). 'snnn inferior soinn. : 19: 14. w. -n: Ellis 3. B. . SJn:s : "ON : 14: I. 4 i : 6. 40: 19. 13:4. prn Pogn B pnan. p. Pogn B. 2414. 2. 35 7. Sinn Schw F. make arts etc. pn:4:7. m.

GENERAL INDEX .

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59. 15. 73. 43 f. 20. 123 68. f. assonance. Michael.. 85. 40 f. 120 names of 97. mystical blanket formulas 82. 185 Asshur 21 Athbash 60. 62. 187 Bagdana 171. 64. Abatur. 97. f. 44 f. 102. 53. 18. provenance of 14. 198 Museum 13. 21. 87. 85 black arts 84 gods 79.. 18 paleography of 27 f. 16. TOO. 16. 85.GENERAL INDEX Abraxas 57. Syriac 15. 71. 184 praxis. 109 f. 208 blast spirits 80 Arabisms 24.. 187 bowls and bowl magic age of 14. Mandaic 244 f. 32 brass in magic 137. magical 137 forged 14 origin 50. 99. 80. 21 evil binding in magic 52. 21 beth-el 72 = = charm words 86 79 Bibliotheque Nationale 18. attestation to magical texts 48 as objects of exorcism 88 Babelon. 16. 162 30. 21. 21 Arabic magic and demonology 44. 106 f.. 96. 57 f. 37 f. 47. 78 Bel 239 beasts exorcised 44 f. 116 archangels. 99. 105 Borsippa. 152.. 96. 187 British 223 f. Arabic 14.. 21.. 19. Armasa 99. 55 82. ardat lili 76 description of 13 armament. 261 Adam 166 Aeon 198 amulets as objects of exorcism 87 angel of death 79 angels Berlin Museum 19 f.. ascent of the soul 227 116 f. etc. 197. 51.. Babylonian magic 42 58. f. 17. 102 f. 69. 151 barbarous words 59 baskania 68. E. 21 (309) . 241 invocation of 57 f. magical 61. 91.

89. 21 divorce. 246. 134 cpesu 51 ephialtes 80. fevers. demons and demonology W. etc 86 f. 234.. magic 53 68 f. 235 David 184 Day of Judgment in El-shaddai 191 78. countermagic 53. 152. 137 cultns 51 curses. 15. magical 84 eclectic magic 58. f. 77. 205. women demonology devils (dewin) 73 f. 83. T. Enoch 124. 158. M. 219. magic 49 f- 234. 240. charms. 81. 250 eye. 115 59. M.. B. 262 Casanowicz. 114 f. demonology 9I f. circle in 27 female 94 s. 235 f. 55. 151 s.. 18. names 50 17. f. 16. 88. B... cmpusa 78 enmity exorcised 87 divorce of 158 ghosts 75 76. 64. 257 insanity caused by 153 evil angels 79 king of 74 legions of 80 evil spirits 74 excommunication in metamorphosis of 153 exorcism 51 f.. magic 42. Christian 67. 90 99. magical 158 172 135 dreams 82.. murderous 238 f. 206 145 f.. New Testament) Christian 171. 89 f. 82 good haunts of. 242.. skin f. children in magic. 106 f. 171... . T. 55. Chwolson. Egyptian magic 53 62. 58. bowls ckurru 72 135. Constantinople constellations. 203 f. s. BABYLONIAN SECTION. New Testament Elija 259 Ellis. 222. Museum zodiacal 13. cattle in I. 18. 21 f. 44 number of 71 threatening of 131 s. and Dilbat 217 diseases as objects of exorcism 89 189. 83 f. 253 Charles. 21 = = = shedin 73 depotentized gods 70 f. magic f. 65 idols 72 eye 88. 64. duplicate texts 42. 52 date of bowls. 261 names of 68. 107. 115 (s. dastabira (Persian) 228.310 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. 23 f.. haunts epic in evil = magic 62. 167 f. Ellis. 91.

Greek magic 43 iron in magic 53.. 87. 197. 205 figures. 159. M. gods depotentized 70 Gottheil.. 112. 52. V. 251 f. 75. 72. 144 fire in magic 122. 55 f. 123. 41 idols as ghosts 43.. 311 (s. etc. 17. sin) exorcists 46 f.J. Halleluia 63. 239 enmity. amulets. H.... 20. herbs. 62. use of in magic 53 131 Hecate 58 hell. 258 of gods. 20 Gabriel 96 gallic Hermes 199 99. Harran Halevy. 108. 225 . 21. 19. J. fire in hell 131. 216 formulas. 21 f.. Hyvernat. 262 gematria 61. 58. 61. 233 haunts of demons 76 in eye diseases 93 facere 51 familiar (spirit) deserts 78 in house 76. 19 Jesus Christ 227 Gula (goddess) 129 gylo 262 Jewish magic 149 50. 171. 143 142 in shrines 71 fevers 93. 95 f. 161. 78. 61. 202 46. ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. magical 123 gello 68. 157 Gnostic terms 151 invocation God. Greek names 50 107. heart in magic 216 f. H. 235 f. 113. 157 hair in magic 153 Joshua (Jesus) b. 261 hydromancy 40 f. 214 Jackson. 201. 262 house magic 42 49 f. Ishtar 70. magical 182.. 82 207. 41 f. 69. demons 72 139 incantations 51. 197 in black graveyard magic 43 magic 84 f. 59. MONTGOMERY bowls. 245 85. Perahia 226 .. A. 106 f. 101. 113. 122 f. 57. incubi and succubae 78. 234 Hilprecht.. W. 82 insanity caused by devils 153 ghid 81. 185 Fraenkel.. angels. 56. 208 Hermon 126 Hillah 16. S. 177 garment. 17. 85. f. 123 f. 53. 187. 18 f. jinn 80. istarati 71 in.. A. diseases. gods 56 f. poverty. 91. 64. 105. V. 157. 82. 22 Griinbaum. 150. R.

85. 59. M. 20 Levy.. Montgomery. magical 88 personality in 48. Win- terthur and rhyme in 61. in mystical words and meanings 59 122. 71. 98 losses exorcised 94 f. Persian demons 80. 114 of 52. Layard. 244 mamit 52. lilith Manichean script 34 Markaug.. 117 156 f. 113.. witch) Logos 123 f. 68. 21 19. 19 f. stantinople. D. 191 lamia 78. s. 243 f. W. 158. mustalu 152 Myhrman. 179. marriage charm. 239 love charms 178 love of God 18. f. British. 249 legions of letters. 81 Arabic. Babylonian. 163 Mandaic religion 39. Leviathan 125 texts 20. A. Mazzikin 75 Metatron 98. 235 131 176 mythical and apocryphal allusions Great Name in invocation as form of 84 64 . 21 Moses 47. 233 f. 20. Jewish. rites in magic 52. B. 130. 85. sylvania. 37 244 f. 27 Lidzbarski. BABYLONIAN SECTION. Berlin. J. 213 21 238 murderous demons. s. f. 17. 107. 96. Testament. f. 49 f. museums. Scripture quotations in 62 labartu 68 sealing in 53. A. M.. 21 propitious days for 55 reciprocal 47 and religion 57. 145 clients of myrtle 181 epic in 62 figures fire in mystery 53 f. 66. Christian. W. Greek. Lycklama. 209 235. 238 f. no. love magic 44. 21. 84 239 magical. L. 65. demons ConPenn- Louvre 19. 208 Michael 96 f. rites kabbalism 65. 259 (s. kiru 250 knots. in magic 129 178 f. Lycklama museum magic assonance 185 f... 216 Khuabir 20 king of demons 74 King. Washington.. New lead in magic 187. s. 187. Moon 222.. f.312 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. 75 f. ill f. 16 Egyptian. 20. 245.. 112 praxis of 51 f.

P. Noldeke. A. 17. 109 Pahlavi 14. sibilants in si' lot magic in 220 94 f. 239 Samhiza sappu 88 198. bowl sleep exposed to magic 143. 64. 135 sin exorcised 86. 20. 21 58 f. = 1 Nergal 171. MONTGOMERY ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. 130. D. no Satan. 79. Scripture quotations 62 sea. 24 f. 271 Noah 66 19. 182 103. 164 sedu 73. 109 poisoning exorcised 84. 153 sixty as sacred number 71 f. 41 siptu 51. 256 magic. 79 116 Shema 62 89 f.. poverty exorcised 94 skin diseases 93 skull in praeparatum 182 of bowl praxis magic 21. 70. in 157 Peters. Satans 79 satyrs 80. of gods. f.. 13 simulacrum magic 176.. Okeanos 200 orthoepy 61. 129 Nippur Nirig 13. 21. charm for 160 necklaces as charms 87 reversal of New 91 Testament f. 139 20 Persian magic and demonology 55. 80. 209 60. 153 173 magic punctuation 29. 73 patkara 72 Pennsylvania. in f. 140 18. 191 parakku. 185 resurrection. J. 113. angels 56 Raphael 96 f. spell of 125 f. H. 250 planets as evil spirits 71. charm 63 M. University of 13 f. Seven spirits f. personification in magic 58. T. 61. 13 demons 59. 18. 222 Schwab. Sebaoth 149. 234 f. pairika. 313 names personal 49 of f.. J. 22 Palestinian dialect 29.J. rubric for magical rite 175. sons of light 119 . M. in Pognon. 151. 117 f. Ranke. 131 sealing 53. 24 107 16. 64. magic 78. 20. no Selah 63 Seth 166 seven in magic 75.. Randall-Maclver.. 261 f. charms 85 Nannai 240 as f. 216. Rabbinic texts 27 f. 32 Solomon 53.. 20. H.... rhyme 186 75. 99.. s. Rodwell.

77. magical 84 seducing 80 Stiibe. 224 threatening of demons 131 three tin in zaklku 80 hundred and sixty 71 magic 249 S. J. 22 zodiacal constellations . 214. 44 wax Sun 222.. 68. 249. 60. magic and demonology 40 f. 157 familiar 142 vows. 189. 143. 46. witches. 261 Syriac texts 16.. 240. M. 150. 19 magic 235 Sulzberger. 173. 75. 235. f. 119 139. sorcerers. 25 objects women and tabi'u 142 children. 257 YHVH 56. 85 108. 19. BABYLONIAN SECTION.. evil 83. 219. Washington National Mseuum 21 water in R. incanta- 77. 57 tions) (s. words. 61-64. witchcraft 78. magical 51. of charms in 49. Tonks. 73. 238. in syllables. 49. 239 magic 250 Winterthur Museum 19 f. 210. 259 f- 43. magical 60 f. O. H. f. no 135 f. 71. spirits evil 250 umra 51 utukki 54. Zeus 200 Zimmern. (ruhin) 74 f. Talmud. 32 223 f. no vampire 81..314 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. 21. Wohlstein.

/cdro^of 1 1 1 KTrjpiov 44 79 m< 51 . 91. 240 c-3 eif ro bvofta au&tv. 184 84 8l. 62 80. 315 GREEK WORDS 79.J. 85. . A. ouTTipia. 202 OftKOl Mf 84 Trdperfpof 51. GUTTJP 129 79 52. 54. 53. MONTGOMERY ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. 84 defi. 181. ^6 60. 85 roiia f. 84 63 84 176 f.rio 44. 82 defigcre 52 . a 198 oi 250 63. 142 6atfi6vtffaai 74 ffoAa Selva 261 63 73 <5id3o)M firfuAov So 72 215 OT?ua arpayyakia.

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PLATES .

.

At the best only a half of the text can be obtained satisfactorily by the camera. 4. have been able to use only 23. but have guarded against in the work of the later copyists. and knowing nothing of the the end of the line and carried it over to the next. my 2. 36. and Professor Gottheil. 37. then Curator. I was very glad to avail myself of the kind cooperation of Professor (819) . 31. publica- They secured the services of Mr. 40.Prefatory Note The concave spherical surface on which the bowl texts are inscribed precluded their reproduction by photography. direction Working without much he often broke a word at language. 6. 8. Shrinking from mechanical labor. for autoraised to meet this graphing the plates. a considerable expense. covering my Numbers 16. Frank's excellent reproductions. 38. one which however does not impair their accuracy. their of the University. I fell heir to Mr. Architect. texts were placed hands. texts There thus remained of the publication twenty-five which this tedious which came to be included in this still required autographing. Professor Jastrow. Accordingly the texts had to be copied by hand. but of these 3. especially after an expert hand had preceded me. I have seen no reason to it repair this technical error in his copies. It appears also that not all the good all. and when Professor Hilprecht. His other plates were copies of broken and mutilated bowls which were not worth publishing (see Introduction. Soon after the bowls came to the Museum. 17. of Columbia. Jastrow and Gottheil gave up their plan of publication. undertook tion. I found he had prepared about I 75 plates. put the bowls into hands. Frank's labors. as the pair of photographs at the end of the Plates will show. sum of money being Subsequently Drs. 24. 28. in his i). Horace Frank. or else that he did not complete them is There only one drawback in Mr. 9.

under my direction. . The other copyists also worked independently.3 2 34. and then tion respective results. 30. I have finally to speak in the highest terms of the artistic and pains- taking labors of these afforded two gentleman and Miss Baker. I was able to improve his facsimiles. Gordon.35) a "d by Miss M. William C. Louise Baker (Nos. BABYLONIAN SECTION. The cooperaof others. me the the expert services of his Consequently. have helped me correct or enlarge my readings.320 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. > 39)- The made style of Mr. Orchard (Nos. but this demerit small as com- pared with the advantage to the scholar of having the whole text lying before him at one glance without his being under the necessity of turning a bulky volume around and around to follow the spiral career of the text. Frank's copies conditioned those for which This method be I am responsible. expert copyists. 7. 2 7> 2 9. Director of the Museum. I was therefore It quite satisfied to retain this all method of reproduction. In a few cases several cases his copies. whose assistance has me so great relief. who offered staff. Frank's copies. J 9> 21-23. 26. He had abandoned the spiral arrangement of the originals and his reproductions in straight lines. may is faulted as not giving the exact form of the original. in which were made when the texts were fresher and more legible (they have manifestly faded under exposure to light). may be remarked that . remaining copies were prepared by Mr. with the author has thus tended to a full we compared our control of the accuracy of the facsimiles and transliterations. 2 5. 20. my decipherment was made entirely from finished the originals only after my own work was did I compare Mr. 5. 33. i. 10-15.

CATALOGUE
TEXT
'PLATE

CATALOGUE

SIZE
in centimetrei,

DESCRIPTION

NUMBER

height by diameter

1

I

8693

6.5

+

17

Broken and mended,
holes.

with

two

Written inside and out in

.5 cm. average rude spiral design in center. height,

large coarse script,

2

2

2945

7.2

+

17.4

Broken
large

and

mended.

Fair,

characters. .4

cm. in height.

In center two large figures, one in reverse position to other; one of

which appears to be making a sign
with his hand (as against the
eye?),
evil

probably the sorcerer, the with
feet

other

hobbled,

the

de-

mon.

3

3-4

2963

10.3

+ 20.5

Broken
segment
boss.

and

mended,

with

a

cm. missing. Flat The rim of the bowl has a
edge.

6+12

double
.3

Fair

characters,

cm. high.

In the center figure of

a demon, armed with helmet and a
sabre and spear in either hand, and
his feet

manacled.

4

4-5

2923

7.5

+ 17.3

Broken and mended, small segment missing. Characters .4 cm.
high.

In the center figure of the

sorcerer waving a magic bough.

321

322
TEXT
PLATE

UNIVERSITY MUSEUM.
CATALOGUE
SIZE
in

BABYLONIAN SECTION.
DESCRIPTION

NUMBER

centimetres,

keiikt by

dimeter

5

6

2952

7

+

18

Slightly

broken

and

mended,

with

small
.4

Characters

missing. fragment cm. high. In center

rude figure of a demon with four

arms and one
6
7

leg.

2916

6

+

15.8

Perfect bowl but for a fracture

which does not touch
Small
.3

the

text.

circle in center.

Characters

cm. high, rather crabbed.

7

8

16007

5-6

+

15-7

Broken

and

mended,

with

a

square fragment of text missing.
Fine, clear characters,
.2

cm. high.

In center circle with cross.

8

8-9

9013

8.5

+

16.6

Broken and mended, with two
small fragments missing.
ters .2

Charac-

cm. high.
lilith

In center obscene

picture of a
feet

with hands and

bound.
Characters

9

10

9010

6 -f 17.7

Perfect bowl.
obliterated, .4

much
short

cm. high.
exterior

Circle in

center.
lines in

On

four

Hebrew.
seg-

10

ii

16014

6.9+

14.2

Broken and mended with ment missing.
In center

Characters

.4

cm.

monstrous figure high. with owl-like head and apparently
several breasts, presumably a
ii
lilith.

12

16022

6.3

-f-

16.1

Broken and mended, with three
fragments
of
the
text

missing.
.3

Characters carelessly written,
.4

cr

cm. high.

In center rude design,
lilith.

probably of a

J. A.

MONTGOMERY
SIZE
in

ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS.
DESCRIPTION

323

TEXT

PLATE

CATALOGUE

NUMBER

uatimttret,

height by ditmeter

12

13

9009

7.2 -f 17.7

Perfect bowl.

Characters

.4

cm.

high, coarse but distinctly formed.

In center a demon,
face and

with beastlike
feet

arms and

bound.

Endorsement on
13

exterior.

14

8694

7

+

16.2

Broken and mended, with small
piece

missing.
.6

Coarse,

clumsy
In
the

characters,

cm.

high.

center a clumsy figure of a

demon
Text
for

with

caterpillar-like

arms.

continued
lines.

on the

exterior

6

14

15

16017

6.8+18.7

Broken and mended, with missing

segment.

Characters

.4

cm.

high, in a
lilith

good hand. In center a with hands and feet manacled.
Characters

15

16

16087

7.3

+ +

17.2
.4

Broken and mended.
cm. high.

In center figure of a
its tail in its

serpent with

mouth.

16

17

2920

6.8

16.3

Broken and mended.
coarse, .3
in center.

Characters
circle

cm. high.

Rough

17

18

2922

7

-f-

15.7

Broken and mended, with a

seg-

ment missing.
.4

Characters coarse,
In the center the cir-

cm. high.

cle

and

cross,

formed

in a peculiar

way.
18 19

8695

7.2

+

16.1

Broken and mended, with frag-

ment of about
ing.

5 cm.

square miss.4

Coarse
In

characters,

cm.
faded

high.

center

rude and

design

of a

demon?

324
TEXT

UNIVERSITY MUSEUM.
PLATE

BABYLONIAN SECTION.
DESCRIPTION

CATALOGUE

SIZE
in centimetres,

NUMBER

heijkt by diameter

19

20

6.6

+ 17.6

Broken and mended.

Characters

crabbed and obscure, closely written, .3

cm. high.

Circle

and cross

in center.

20

21

16023

7+17
.6

Broken
missing.

and mended, fragment
Large, coarse characters,

cm. high.

Large figure of a de-

mon
the
see

manacled, with a circle in his

breast bisected by

two

lines.

For

magical words accompanying

commentary.

21

22

16054

6.5

-f-

17

Broken and mended, with two
fragments missing, a small one in
the text. Script large, .8 cm. high,

and rude.

In center a rectangular
into

figure divided
in

three

squares,

one of those at the end two large
like letters.

markings
22
22-23

I6OO6

6.5

+

l6

Broken and mended, with two
fragments
missing.

From
in

the

same hand as No. 21 and with the
same
design, the

markings

the

square suggesting a face.
23

22

16090

7

-|-

17.2

Broken and mended.
same hand
as Nos. 21, 22,

From

the

and with

similar design.

24

23

2926

7

+

1

6.8

Broken and mended, small fragment missing. Coarse script, .7
cm. high.
In the center a figure of
circles

rude concentric
lines.

with

radial

J. A.

MONTGOMERY
SIZE

ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS.
DESCRIPTION

325

TEXT

PLATE

CATALOGUE

NUMBER

il centimetre.,

beiibt bj diameter

25

24

16009

6.9

+ 17-2

Broken and mended, with four
fragments missing. .5 cm. high.

Coarse

script,

26

24

3997

6.9+15.5
.4

Broken
cm. high.

and

mended.

Script

In the center a rough

circle bisected

by two

lines, in

each

segment a magical word.
27
25 16041
5.6

+

16.6

Broken and mended with two
considerable
Script
fine

fragments

missing.

and

fair, .2

In the center a circle

cm. high. with cross.

28

25

2972

6.5

+ 16.5

Broken and mended, four fragments missing, the text much
blurred
script,-3

or

obliterated.

A

fair

cm. high.

29

26

16055

6.8

+

17

Broken and mended, one fragment missing. Bold and well
formed characters
.5

cm. high.

30

26

16096

6.5

+

16.8

Broken and mended, small fragment missing. Script .3 to .4 cm.
high.
lilith

In center rude figure of a

with tresses flying and hands
feet

and
31

bound.
Syriac
center
script,
.3

27

9008

6.6

+

16

Perfect.
high.

cm.

In

a

circle

divided

into four squares each with a cross
in
it.

32

28

16086

6.9+

17

Broken and mended, one large
and one small

Same

script

fragment missing. and design as in No.

326
TEXT
PLATE

UNIVERSITY MUSEUM.
CATALOGUE
SIZE

BABYLONIAN SECTION.
DESCRIPTION

NUMBER

u

Cfnlimelrei.

keiikt br

diuuln

33

29

16019

6.2

+ 15.5
+ 17-5
in

Broken and mended, with two
considerable fragments missing. In center cross with circle.

34

30

9012

7-5

Broken and mended.
Nos. 31, 32.

Design as

35

31

16097

6.5

+

16.1

Broken and mended, two small
fragments missing.

Design as

in

No.
36
32

33.

2933

6.3

+ 15.4 +

Broken and mended, with about
half of the

two

lines

on the margin

missing.

37

33

2943

6.5

17

much
The

Broken and frequently repaired, of the margin missing and a
the
.2

large part of the text obliterated.
script

smallest
.3

in

the

Syriac bowls,

to

cm. high. In
cross,

the center circle

and

each

segment

containing

presumably

letters of the

Tetragrammaton.

38

34

2941

7+17
al

Broken and mended, with seversmall
holes.

Mandaic
about
in
.2

script

average
high.

character
circle

cm.

Small

center.

A

brief phrase written

radially

near

the margin on the exterior.

39

35

9005

6.8

+ 17.2 + 17.2

Broken and mended, some fragments missing. Script larger and
coarser than in No. 38,
.3

cm. high.

40

36-38

2972

7.3

lacunae.

Broken and mended, some large Script as in No. 39. The
most of the exCircles in the center.

text covers also
terior.

UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYL. SECTION VOL.
I

III.

PLATE

I.

M

EXTERIOR

12

PLATE . SECTION VOL.UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYL. 2 III.

.

BABYL. 3 ^ >S"n i t\*j\*y>9v . PLATE III. SECTION VOL.UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. III.

.

UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. FIGURE FOR TEXT 3. FIGURE FOR TEXT 4. . PLATE IV. III. SECTION VOL. BABYL.

.

BABYL. SECTION VOL.UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. PLATE V. III. 4 .

.

SECTION VOL.UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. 5 > '<J)\ A . PLATE VI. III. BABYL.

.

UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYL. SECTION VOL. ^ r^n7^/f^f^i9i^n^^ . III.

.

7 1 1 1. PLATE VIII. BABYL.UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. SECTION VOL. . -^"sri -i-ti'i 7 rf\ 7 3 vvb ''' X*' t 1 V K1 X>>> -vrt 12 ^ TJV X^<' FIGURE FOR TEXT 8.

.

BABYL. SECTION VOL. 8 1 1 1. PLATE IX. .UNIVERSITY MUSEUM.

UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYL. SECTION VOL.
9

III.

PLATE

X.

EXTERIOR

UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYL. SECTION VOL.

III.

PLATE

XI.

10

UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYU SECTION VOL.

III.

PLATE

XII.

11

%
7/>

UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYL. SECTION VOL.

III.

PLATE

XIII.

12

S

V

EXTERIOR

.

BABYL. SECTION VOL.UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. III. 13 ns N. PLATE XIV. EXTERIOR /spy? . n>n.

.

PLATE XV. SECTION VOL. 14 . 1 1 1.UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYL.

.

15 . PLATE XVI. III.UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYL. SECTION VOL.

.

UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYL. SECTION VOL. PLATE XVII. 16 "7 w r:r . III.

.

BABYL. III. PLATE XVIII. SECTION VOL. 17 > .UNIVERSITY MUSEUM.

.

BABYL. vr .UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. PLATE XIX 18 ' T 3 ' K -7 3 T-T ' > 1* '%> . SECTION VOL. III.

.

PLATE XX. 19 if . SECTION VOL. III. BABYL.UNIVERSITY MUSEUM.j Oi^-^y^rjn* /^^M'9^< rf^fclS^^ ^ * ^ 5 <S^St ^^ ^^ > K*3^>V < .

.

20 PLATE XXI. . SECTION VOL. BABYL.UNIVERSITY MUSEUM.

.

SECTION VOL. 21 III. BABYL. 77-77:1 nun 22 lit ^PWJ^t//j7/* IjglMfJ ^\1\\\^jJJl&b*SliMliik *l* Ji jHfiiiy 1rt> / ^ b H2>J1^ 23 I -TIT ifir i^^ AM v/V/t/r . PLATE XXII.UNIVERSITY MUSEUM.

.

BABYL. FIGURE FOR TEXT 22. 24 III. . FIGURE FOR TEXT 24.UNIVtKSIlY MUSEUM. SECTION VOL. PLATE XXIII.

.

25 III. BABYL. SECTION VOL. PLATE XXIV.UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. 26 >h .

.

-...ft .^ r^wJfs^*! *s yr >^ < - 7- ^<\ ^T p ^ ? ^. if a f f ? s $ ^ K ? ft *^ ^ ^ K r-^tjj ^?fl|$ >> *Ki*i' M ^ i ^ ^ j5:**C-*f * r.f ? **** i HI I- 't ^ r *j-Z -C^ f-^* /T* Jt 1 / s- ' *" Y~ t'-ilV? ""'-' FfSJlffklf V HlWIt-tf? v S^^f > ^^^ <*A ^ r r Sr-S \.. R ^. i? ^V <N *\ s ? r f- -|Jj? g r? |-?i.' A> Sr : - r j. o ix^ r 's< T o LJ <a 5 ^ s 1 1 7 < # *"r *" S* *|>sS* J^rUif: sifllt! *^^-\5^? iHlp? .

.

Ill PLATE XXVI.UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. SECTION VOL. 29 A* ^ V"? "S V? D V"!3 / ' y w.7/yt*&tiik N3*~> 30 Jvw % 7JT /v ^ . BABYL.

.

PLATE XXVII.UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. . 31 1 1 1. SECTION VOL. BABYL.

.

SECTION VOL. PLATE XXVIII. BABYL.UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. 32 III. .

.

UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. . 33 III. PLATE XXIX. BABYL. SECTION VOL.

.

SECTION VOL. 34 III. . BABYL. PLATE XXX.UNIVERSITY MUSEUM.

.

PLATE XXXI. * *^^ 5 8 JT ) rM M -N \ c >i r< / 10 . 'v f -JtH . BABYL. 35 III. SECTION VOL.UNIVERSITY MUSEUM.

.

PLATE XXXII. BABYL. SECTION VOL. 36 III. f /k >r <\ ^^ .UNIVERSITY MUSEUM.

UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYL. SECTION VOL.
37

1

1

1.

PLATE XXXIII.

n

7

"

UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYL. SECTION VOL.
38

III.

PLATE XXXIV.

EXTERIOR

UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYL. SECTION VOL.

III.

PLATE XXXV.

39

v l<a^3

v-O-~^

*s*Aj\ o^**+
;

&

o .ty
OL3^
c-JJ^*'

o> r'jt

p^n w G.> y* ^A GJ9^ o. M o lA O^

UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYL. SECTION VOL.

III.

PLATE XXXVI.

40

-J

^

.

BABYL. III. SECTION VOL. 40 CONTINUED EXTERIOR o*x 18 ^pvs^ AJ^ AV^J ^j \^t^iajL a) .UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. PLATE XXXVII.

.

.UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. PLATE XXXVIII.. BABYL.. III.. &6^:^. SECTION VOL.O. 40 CONTINUED " -22.f /<#\0u^vu o^l -s^| FRAGMENTS OUTSIDE .V.

.

16 19 II MANDAIC 39 SCRIPT. BABYL. V JT _n V n n n -n n -n . SECTION VOL. 7 4 21-23 26 25 Text Numbers 38 40 <C> O- "D 13 A X A S n n n V3 LO n rr n in 10 1- 1 J 1 J A J ? M\ /J PV X r f> =.UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. ALPHABETIC TABLES. PLATE XXXIX. III. I SQUARE SCRIPT.

.

Jg - BowlText. III. SECTION VOL. BABYL.UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. COMPARATIVE TABLE FOR SYRIAC SCRIPT. "ggj- BowlTexts. III. jg_ . PLATE XL.

.

UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. ^.c. .iaaoL INTERIOR OF INSCRIBED BOWL PHOTOGRAPHED F rtOM OPPOSITE POINTS. SECTION VOL. BABYL. PLATE XLI.

o .

.

.

APR i 1956 5208 A2 1913 Montgomery. PLEASE DO NOT REMOVE FROM THIS CARDS OR SLIPS POCKET L UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO LIBRARY .

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