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The Decipherment of the Easter Island Tablets

The Decipherment of the Easter Island Tablets

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Published by FindingTurtleIsland
A new approach to deciphering the Easter Island tablets to include Indigenous World-view has led to the finding of several Polynesian chants on the Rongorongo writing tablets of Rapa Nui. The translation of these chants for the first time is credited to the way Indigenous peoples weave creation into their human identity.
A new approach to deciphering the Easter Island tablets to include Indigenous World-view has led to the finding of several Polynesian chants on the Rongorongo writing tablets of Rapa Nui. The translation of these chants for the first time is credited to the way Indigenous peoples weave creation into their human identity.

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Confirming a Growing Corpus

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Tuhinapo-Rapa: a sample decipherment of a mixed syllable/logograph

On the Large Reimiro tablet worn by the King and princes of Rapanui as a sign of their authority or mana.

Tuhinapo-Rapa, the Guardian of Ocean Migrations
TU, to stand + HI/hianga, to stoop, to bend or to fall + NA/nao(wha), to feel for (as a
mosquito)/to reveal + PO/poi, a ball = Tuhinapo-Rapa, the Guardian of Ocean
Migrations.

The syllables of Tu-hi-na-po unravel from the appearance of the glyph where each
section forms a syllable from the symbol it signifies starting from the bottomccclxviii

two

legs: This is a good start on our own journey to unveil these signs. The translation comes
from the Comparative Polynesian Dictionary of Tregear (1891)ccclxix

with confirmation

from the Rapanui dictionaryccclxx

. The Easter Islanders have retained enough of the old
Rapanui words to confirm: Tu (to crush); Higa (to fall); Naonao (a mosquito or one who
feels for); Popo (a ball). The moriori of the Chatham Island‘s used such
incantationsccclxxi

, called mauri19

, after the removal of Tapu ceremony20
.

Is rongorongo made of syllables (like English) or logographs (like Chinese)?

Fedorova, Rjabchikov, Pozdniakov, Harris and Fischer‘s work support this use of syllable

associations in Rapanui hieroglyphs with their decipherment attempts. Yet, these
attempts were unsuccessful, which may have inclined semiotic scholars to rise to the
occassion, such as, Englert, Barthel, Guy, Krupa and Berthinccclxxii

. This research
considers a combination of the efforts and perspectives to form an understanding of
Rongorongo. Like ancient Egyptian, which contain syllables (like English) and
logograms (like Chinese), the semiotic and syllabary systems work together in
Rongorongo by building syllables upon semiotic and logographic understandings of the
glyphs. The ethnological research of Rapa Nui from Métraux will also prove
useful.ccclxxiii

The statistical analysis of Pozdniakov (2007) and Harris (2010) will help
confirm the syllable listed in chartform below. Moreover, the research of Tregear (1891)
on the tablet writers‘ use of myth in their Rongorongo ceremony, will help in the
understanding of these syllables.

Matariki-Poaka: a sample decipherment of a stone carving (petroglyph)

On the forehead of the stone moai named pakapaka. The moai‘s head was severed and taken to Europe by a passing ship.

Matariki-Tautoru(Poaka)Pleiades (surrounding) Orion(Rigel)
MATA, eye or window + RIKI, chips/fragments; TAU, to line in a row + TORU, three;
PO/poipoi, a ball + AKA, a root or fibre = matariki-tautoru(poaka), Pleiades
Orion(Rigel).
This glyph was carved on one of the smaller moai statues called, Pakapaka, meaning the
crust, as in the shell of a turtle or the crust of the earth. Papa is the name for Mother

19

Mauri: a heart or soul.

20

Tapu: a sacred screen or restriction placed upon something important to protect it, such as, the largest
trees on the island. Purenga: a removal of Tapu ceremony, so that the sacred restricted item could be used
for an important purpose, such as, the felling of a large tree to be used for a migration canoe.

223

Earth, where Rangi is Father Sky. The stars are their children. Polynesian tohunga
teachers and priests regard the deceased ancestors as these children of Rangi and Papa.
In early Rapa Nui, it is similar. First the deceased are born out of the crust of the Earth as
the moai statues, which resemble the Polyensian Standing-Up-Rods. These stone
monuments serve as a conduit for the spirit of the ancestor to transfer offerings and gifts
from between Papa and Rangi. The spirit rises from the stone to the sky through what is
called the Tahinga, or Sweeping Ceremony. This occurs when the meal offering is made
and a burning branch from the fire is raised to the sky at sunrise. The tohunga sweeps the
burning branch to mimic the rays of dawn. It is these rays that are considered ara or
pathways of the soul to reach the sky and join his ancestors in the constellations.

This glyph of Matariki-tautoru (or the Pleiades and Orion) represents one example of this
funerary gathering. Across Polynesian, Ikaroa (the Milky Way) is the gathering place of
the deceased with the ancestors. Therefore, the constellations represent a memory of the
dead and a memory of their yearly activities regarding planting, fishing and passage-rites.
The meaning of mata-riki tau-toru po-aka is ‗eye-fragments lined-up-three ball-root‘.
The Polynesian myth of Matariki (the Pleiades) regards the seven chiefs whose eyes were
placed as these stars after death. Like the ancestors represented in the moai statues lined
up on the ahu platforms, the Pleiades and Orion represent the scattered ancestors being
put into order as the lined up three, the rooted stars being placed in succession according
to the roots of their lineage across the body of their Rangi (Father Sky). This succession
is identified by the ancestral root, aka, of the Sacred Tree. Death is likened to the
chopping down of this tree and each splinter or chip is one soul of the ancestral family.
Matariki is the Mata (window) to gather these individual riki (chips) shattered off by
death.

Rapa Nui myth tells of Tavake (Bird deity) being saved by a great flood caused by the
digging stick (oka) of Uvoke. The oka, digging stick, is used for digging up roots and
okahu (the Old Ones) are the Elders of the island. This digging stick represents the okahu
ancestors and is marked in the Rapa Nui stars by te pou o te rangi (the post in the sky: the
Pleiades, Orion, and Sirius, together with Canis Minor). Canis Minor is called Taura
Nukunuku,
the rope of Nukunuku. This rope rises just before Mere (Sirius).

The digging stick of Uvoke causes the island to rise and fall. Another Rapa Nui myth
relates Tavake and Ohiro threatened by the digging stick of Teko and Puku-puhipuhi
thrusts down his pole. It was the incantation of Ohiro that broke the digging stick of
Teko. This is the moon calendar chant which is initiated by the crescent moon of Ohiro
and follows with moon‘s waning and waxing that direct the tides. This rising and falling
of the digging stick relates to the tides and the planting season. The season of Tonga-iti,
(the Bleak Season), is ended by the breaking of this digging stick. How does this line of
constellations break?

Another Polynesian myth states that the stars of the Pleiades were originally one, but
Tane sent Aumea (Aldebaran, of Taurus) and Mere (Sirius) to chase Matariki (the
Pleiades), and he took refuge in a stream, (the Milky Way). Mere drained off the waters;
then Tane hurled Aumea into Matariki, who shattered into fragments (riki). Since the

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Rapa Nui digging stick broke at Puku puhipuhi on the North side of Rapa Nui, it becomes
clear when looking at the North sky how this fragmenting occurs. In the month of
Tagaroa Uri, Hora Nui, the bountiful season begins when Matariki first appears after
Nov 16th. This celebration is called Te Vai Hakairi of te riki, feast of the First Fruits of
the King (hakakio - thanksgiving). It is a feast of the first yam harvest and there is plenty
of fishing.

On Puku hill, the pole in the sky moves from East to West and ‗crashes‘ on the West with
Matariki (the Pleiades) hitting the horizon first with Aumea the second group of stars of
the pole, driving Matariki down and shattering it, just as the mythology tells. This
shattering is told on Rapa Nui in a second way. On Rapa Nui, Ursa Major is called nga
toa rere,
the flying sugarcane. It was the stick of Tangaroa, and used as a practice
weapon, since the end shattered when it was tossed without injuring whomever it hit.
This flying sugarcane of Ursa Major appears to cause the Pleiades to shatter on the
horizon as it curves across the sky. This view is best seen on November 16th

from Puku-

puhipuhi (the mound of lighting fires). Just to the East of this hill is the long earth oven
of Tavake, the ditch where the fire is lit. The ditch appears as a line of long ditches dug
from the North/South width of Rapa Nui‘s east side. With the ditch is the mythical story
of the long ears being burned up by the short ears in this earth oven of Tavake.

Considering all of the lore, the moai statues, the place names and yearly ceremonies the
following can be understood. The oka digging stick in the sky of the Okahu ancestors
passes on the inheritance of digging up the land on Novenber 16. The yam roots are
gathered and cooked in the earth oven. The ceremony involves taking the first morsel (in
the moon calendar, this is called, Tangaroa-ria (Tangaroa‘s portion) and is the yam root
of the sun given to Hina to grow in light in the moons waxing cycle. According to
Polyensian and Micronesian ceremony, the first morsel is distributed to each person to
gain the enlightenment of the god. This is how Matariki is shattered. Is Matariki a deity?

In Hawaii, there is a prayer to the gods, ‗The spirit of Rongo and of Matariki…‖ To the
Moriori, Matariki is son of the deity, Ranga-nuku, and father of Wari (Weri means a root
fibre or a worm like insect; to be heard as in taking root in one‘s ear). Therefore, at
Orongo, (lit. listening place) when the star Veri (Vega: the great worm) appears on July
27th

, the tattooing ceremony can begin. This taking root in one‘s ear involves piercing
the ear and placing rongorongo glyphs inside the loop of the long ear. The tattooing
ceremony involves a listening to the clan‘s songs (as in Maui‘s tattoo soothing chant
above). These songs take root and cause the long ear to become like the yams of an earth
oven, for the consumption and service of the entire island.

This burning up of the long ears was celebrated in the Paina festival where a giant was
made out of reeds and burned up in Ruti, the month after Hora Nui harvest. This Paina
festival began when Tautoru, (three handsome ones: a sky spirit and his two sons, Orion),
was high in the sky. The Paina ends when Po Roroa (Canopus) disappears at dawn and
Matariki was high in the sky during the hottest season with potential for drought. The
islanders then are enlightened by their lineage to organize the produce of the island to be

225

distributed in portions as Matariki is fragmented above, since the bleak season (Tanga-iti)
is about to begin and will last 5 months.

Then in June, Matariki (Pleiades – the seven enlightened eyes of the chiefs) rises on June
6th

and Tautoru (hidden for 7 days behind the light of the Sun) sets on June 12th

. The

winter solstice signals the reappearance of Tautoru, putting into order the light of
Matariki, with the enlightenment of the Sun. The Tangata-Manu Egg Hunt is organized
and feather (maro) gathering begins. There is much singing and celebration.

This gathering is placed in myth when the Woodland Fairies (Bird-people) reassemble
overnight the Sacred Tree chopped down by the Polynesian ancestral hero, Rata. Rata
wanted a tree to make a canoe to retrieve his fathers bones, for a proper funeral. Rata
wanted to find a way to confront death. Tane, the chief bird deity, had to teach him the
proper funerary rite and in doing so provided the ancestral tree as a canoe to reach his
father and have victory over death. That is, to form a spirituality that enables the
community to perceive the Mata (window) of heaven (Rangi, our father, our birth-rite)
where the riki (dead) individuals pass in order tau (in line) of their aka (succession)
through the Po (darkness) of the Underworld.

To place this glyph on the forehead of the stone moai represents the same placement of
glyphs upon the forehead of skulls. The glyphs honor the dead and serve as a perpetual
incantation of mana (spiritual power) to raise the soul to the enlightened realms of the
heavenly ancestors gathered in the stars.

Is the stone moai, then, a representation of the dead? This is the Polynesian rite of the
standing up of the rods ceremony. When a chief or priest dies his canoe is raised up on
end as a conduit of the ancestor to give power from heaven to the land. He therefore
becomes a medium for the people. The North American Haidi raise the ancestors bones
atop a totem pole for the same purpose. When the bones or the wood of the canoe decay,
they are replaced with stones. The stone moai, named Pakapaka, might have been an
ancestor or a mythological figure representing all ancestors or a combination of the two.
To combine the two, Pakapaka, is the name given to the ancestor when he dies to remind
others to follow his mana to the regeneration of Rangi or heaven. That is, Pakapaka, is
the ‗crust‘ of the Earth, the ‗shell‘ of the Turtle, where life is a journey to its final end of
reaching the stars. The celestial habitation of the deified ancestors, then, can be modelled
after in this life on Earth.

Tiki-Tawhito: a sample decipherment of mixed syllable/logograph

This glyph occurs on several tablets in the most common phrase (see Part ii above).

Pua-tikitawhito: The First Man
Pua = flower. TIKI, topknot + TA/taha, side + HI/hianga, to stoop + WHITO, a dwarf,
small = Tiki-tawhito, the first man or Pua-Tiki-tawhito, the first man (flower) medium.

226

Tiki is also a pole marking a portion of tapu ground restricting or making sacred that
place or ecosystem. The karakia, teachings of the ancestors direct the individual through
community ceremony and passage rites to become part of the land. This incantation is
telling of the sacred tomb or medium or propped up canoe of the First Man, Tiki-tawhito.
All descendents wish to carry on this first one‘s original ‗spirit‘ and passage rites. That
is, the Creator or Great Spirit passes on to the community how to belong to the land,

which is the essential quality of the identity of a ‗true‘ or ‗real‘ living and human being.

This transfer of authority over the land began when the First Man arrived at the place of
the particular community (ie. Easter Island). This First Man in Polynesian lore is
considered the first deity who was also a man, ie. Tangaroa (Tregear. 1891. Tangaroa).
The standing of the rods or grave is sacred and tapu. The flower represents the sweet
scent of this deceased ancestor who would not represent a medium or conqueror of death
if he were emitting a foul odor. Maui or Rata are other deities considered to be ‗small‘ or
child-like deified ancestors. Yet, they are also giants in the lore. A giant child then
represents both the human and limited together with the giant and divine aspects of the
trickster. We need this First One as a medium or guide between heaven and earth upon
our land in order to teach us how the mana works in the ecosystem and to assist in
perpetuating this life-force throughout the community. As a result of this life-force filled
eco-centric community, it is typical of Indigenous individuals to have no concept of time.
Such a phenomenon is a primary characteristic of paradise.

Though the glyphs do not appear together, Indigenous wisdom presents interrelationships
between all aspects of the community with respect to the context of Rapanui and
Polynesian world-view. In this sense, consider the following representation of these
three glyphs:

Tuhinapo-Rapa Matariki-tautori-poaka Pua-tikitawhito

Row with power in the celestial migration canoe; Underworld ancestors aligned at
the gates of dawn; with the First Man and Pillar standing on the sweat scented
pathway of heaven.

The decipherment of the Rapa Nui tablets has been achieved due to the necessary
inclusion of Indigenous World-view. This world-view includes looking at the tablets and
their current decipherment as a providential sign. That is, Indigenous wisdom
comprehends the world‘s ignorance of these tablets as a tapu restriction that gathers all
people to this one sacred place to cause us to belong under the same story. The tablets
therefore retain the value originally expressed by the ancestors, who used them (as
explored throughout this work) to offer mana or power incantations for daily activities,
for rite of passage, for funerals and for those struggling for survival as their world
crumbles around them. As a result, Indigenous protocol might request a presentation of
decipherment of Rongorongo together with an offering for the dead of the slave raids and
small-pox epidemic on early Rapanui.

227

The decipherment of these tablets draw us all under the same story of raising the tapu
restriction upon this mysterious Indigenous writing system. Such an opportunity affords
us all the rite of passge through the door of ignorance into the knowledge of a wharekura
or sacred school of learning. This school teaches without respect for status and with all
inclusiveness, especially for those with a listening ear. This wharekura of the Indigenous
world community is once again offered to the broader circle of nations as an opportunity
to enter into the philosophy of our original relationship with the land from an original and
authentic Indigenous source. In essence, we are all Indigenous to Mother Earth.

As such, we have a way of returning to the land upon this original pathway by way of the
instructions of these ancestral writings. The instructions are not unlocked primarily by
science, but also together with the foundational world-view that contains the mana
(power), the mauri (the heart), the creativity and the insight that carved them. Though
the story-tellers are dead, the principles of the story presented by the First Man continue
to unfold in human history.

This means the Creator can speak to us through them, not by a new revelation, but one we
have chosen to forget over the centuries by relegating Indigenous cultures to a Forth-
World poverty. This ‗Underworld‘ experience has passed down the generations and
requires a Tuhinapo (migration guide) to help us journey to a future of hope.

Tiki-tawhito represents our child hero, who is the ‗voice crying‘ in the Underworld

wilderness of our ancestral roots. Such a voice resounds towards a world waning and
dying by our unchecked exploitation of ecosystems. It must be stated that the verification
of this research is as much determined by our readiness to receive it as by the correct
presentation of the syllables. Therefore, an appeal to scholars of this field might include
the request to broaden our World-view to give the original wisdom-keepers a genuine
voice as these tablets are read. If our circle is so broadened, the value of these tablets will
sprout and grow out from our museum shelves, so that the entire world will benefit from
them. Otherwise, they serve better as boards for holding Rapanui fishing line, or better
still, the sacred top-knot hair of the Rapa-nui princess together with the seaweed of
Tangaroa, Lord of the Sea.

228

Supplements

229

Supplement 1: Glossary and Syllable Chart

The translation of indigenous language into modern English causes a significant stepping
down of contextual meaning. Analysts should be aware that each Rongorongo glyph
carries with it paragraphs of mythological meaning that when taken together form a
document or perhaps even volumes of storytelling capacity. It should be no surprise then
that ten glyphs of Rongorongo take as much as a hundred or more English words to
define. However, even these many words prove insufficient in conveying the full
meaning and play on words that were intended in the petroglyphs. There was a true
school of genius at work in the original tablet language. Moreover, defining these glyphs
was made possible by moving beyond a purely Western and scientific attempt toward an
approach that takes into account the contextual mystical paths through rituals, prayers and
devotions of these early Polynesian tohunga wisdom keepers. The decipherment chapters
above find Rongorongo via a mingling of Polynesian ‗dialects‘, based on common
syllables and vocabulary, but also the common spiritual symbolism drawn out of the
parallel mythology, ritual and prayer. Tregear‘s dictionary made it possible to find like
words used across the early Pacific islands, which complemented the Rapanui dialect and
tablets and presented a plausible expansion of the Old Rapanui dictionary.

When presenting glyphs, Barthel‘s number system is at times used for identification
purposes. William Churchill‘s Easter Island: the Rapanui Speech and the Peopling of
South-Eastern Polynesia,
is a source helpful in refining the Rapanui Dictionary. Though
these localized dictionaries do not provide a comprehensive word sample and are even
‗tainted‘ with Tahitan vocabulary, the dialects are so similar that the use of Tahitan
words by the early Rapa Nui was likely a repeating of one and the same wording. The
broader Polynesian chants, ceremonies, place names and mythology is so similar across
the islands as to regard much of the languages as similar with degrees of dialectic
variance. Therefore, to expand a plausible Rongorongo vocabulary, Tregear‘s Maori –
Polynesian Comparative Dictionary
together with its presentation of the broader
Polynesian mythology has become a serious complement to the Rapa Nui dictionary in
presenting the vocabulary of these tablets.

When viewing these interpretations consider the transferable letters of Polynesia. For
example, the ‗v‘ of Rapanui can be a ‗w‘ elsewhere; the ‗r‘ an ‗l‘; the ‗t‘ a ‗k‘; etc..
Words used in sacred ritual, such as ‗mana‘ (power, spiritual force), tend to be preserved
across more island groups and become signs to assist decipherment. A syllable may be
abbreviated to even a single letter. For example, the back of the hand glyph, translated
haka‘ (to make or to cause), may become the syllable ‗a‘, in the word with which it
belongs. Certain glyphs represent more than one synonym and certain logoglyphs can be
understood even though the exact Rapanui has been lost. A hypothesis presented here
regards Rapa Nui‘s Rongorongo as discernible as Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphs, where
common Polynesian chants and myths serve like chips off the Rosetta Stone. Successful
decipherments based on a syllablic/logographic system are verifiable in terms of the
given glossary and syllable chart. Also, compare myth, chant and hero with the context
of each glyph; glyphs begin to verify themselves as comprehendible sentences broaden
our understanding of the experience of these Indigenous wisdom keepers.

230

Rongorongo Glossary:

kaiga-hina

the feast of Hina; pregnant Hina

kainga mataiti-hina the feast of the child Hina

pata-Hina

Fall Hina

atu-tangaroa-ngari Lord Tangaroa, deity of the ocean, a song of the
canoe.

variations of above glyph, likely due to scribal
error.

Hina

moon (arch left), the Maiden of the Moon

Hina-iti

The Little Moon Maiden – an affection name for
Hina, as daughter of Atutahi.

mahina

moon arching right. Also represents the syllable

MA.

Tahi

To sweep or the numeral one.

Tahinga

the Sweeping Ceremony. Tahinga is the Sweeping
ceremony (Tregear 1891) where the priest raises a
burning branch to the sky and sweeps the sky. This
is completed at dawn to cooperate with the removal
of the stars from the sky. They are swept with the
rays of the Sun into the Sun or Moon or important
constellation, such as, Matariki (Pleiades).

tamahi(ne)

daughter

Atutahi

the star Canopus and mother of Hina.

rauhi(va)

to gather together (fish up means the moon is
waxing on the moon calendar). Also, Rangi-tu-
ahiahi
as Venus expanded from rangi-rauhi.

rauhi(va)

to gather together (fish down means the moon is
waning)

ma-ata

a deep swamp, representing the new moon where
the souls (ata) of the deceased are believed to reside
as if in a deep swamp.

Hiro (Whiro)

deity of rain and the first moon day, which when

231

first waxing appears as a twisted thread.

hua

son; deity; swelling as the sea. Also, moon day 10.

atua

Lord, for the feathered cloak. Also, moon day 11.

hotu

abundant. Also, moon day 12.

maure

a sacred enclosure. Also, moon day 13

rakau

tree. Also, day 15 of the moon calendar. Rakau is
combined with the full moon Motohi in other
Polynesian moon cycles. Rakau Motohi is the tree
of life of the first born deified ancestor as a result of
the ceremonial umu oven, offering and prayers.

Matahiapo (Motohi) the First Born (Moon Day 16)

tohunga

a Polynesian priest or wisdom keeper. These slash
Marks appear within the moon of verse five of the
moon calendar.

maro

a stick hanging with bird feathers. Also, matua for
moon day 23.

Tavake, Tane, Manu bird deity of the Sun. The bird deity of Polynesia is
Tane and also, Manu. Rapanui‘s bird deity is
Tavake, who may be one and the same Tawhaki,
Polynesian deity who climb the rope of heaven to
Hina. Related to Orongo, the call of a bird and
moon day 24. Ronga ma Tane are twin deities of
Polynesia represented by the pictoglyphs of two
birds joined at the wings.

Honu

the tortoise. Also, Henua, meaning earth or land.

Honu mahanga

Turtle Twins. Tiro and hiro are moon days 29 and
30, meaning to observe the twisted thread. The
symbolism involves a viewing of the twin threads of
the waning and waxing crescent moons before and
after the New Moon.

Tapairu

Princess of the woodland fairies (a name for Hina or
the queen of the island.

Tapa-ta‘u

record the births (ta‘u from to perch)

232

Rakau

a tree

maunu, Maui

seaweed; little Maui appears wrapped up in the top
portion of this seaweed glyph as the legend of Maui
relates.

tauwhanga Tu-

to lie in wait Tuwhakaheketangata (deity of war)

whaka-heke-

in the place of rest.

tangata taunga

whaka-tangata

to become a man (an adult person)

ma

to purify

ara-wero-tonga

the pathway of piercing and self-constraint

huhuti-rua-haeroa to pull out of the ground this incantation for
removing the curse

ta-ta-tau iro tangata With the tattooing instrument, once,
twice, three times, with the needle and on
the forth, the full essence of the man.

tatatau

a tattooing instrument

iro

to carve

tangata

the full essence of the person

Tu-mata-uenga

Tu-whaka-heke-tangata

tari

to carry

Riwaru

the Canoe of Rata

kowhai

the flowering tree (sign of Spring)

Panga papaga tanga to shoot, drive or sound the row of those assembled.
In Rapanui, panga is written paga, where pagaha‘a
is the name of cheek tattooing.

Hura

or kupega hura is the small circular net used by a
single person off the shore. This net appears under
the second bird of this bird glyph trio. Hura means
to get working or to get moving. The sentence
includes a flame carried along called, ahi or fire,

233

which is synonymous with evening. The
symbolism represents the shape-shifting trickster,
Maui, who stole the flame from the Underworld.
The sentence may be read as an incantation which

fishing as: ―Drive the row of the captured (netted)
shoal at the dashing down place;‖ or in tattooing as:
―Work the tattooing of the cheeks to put in order
those assembled.‖

Potikitiki-Taranga This Lord Topknot (a name for Maui), child of
Ika-Tawaka

Taranga (steal the flame and shape-shifts from) a
fish into a hawk.

Maui-roto

Maui-Roto is one of Maui‘s Brothers

Koma Tahae Koma the snare (for the Sun, to steal the flame of
Enlightenment), of the Thief, with the snare (of
Maui).

Tahinga-Iti-Maui, The Sweeping of Little Maui. Maui-taha is one of
Maui‘s brothers

Pohi

a ball game

Maui

the trickster of Polynesia who stole the flame of the
Underworld and noosed the Sun.

Maui-whenua

Who raises the Earth on his shoulders

Ika-roa

the Long Fish of the Milky Way

Maui-waho

Maui-outside, a brother of Maui

Maui-pae

Maui-raised up, (another brother of Maui) raised-
up in front
Maui Koro Iti-Maui by Maui, by the Snare of Little Maui.

Tautoru-Poaka-Hina Orion covered by Hina, (Hina protect us)

Tua-rama Tua-rama Torch bearer back to the ancestors (x2)

uga (x3) uga-waho lead (x3), lead-forth

turou turo

the reaching stick downward

234

maro maro

extended one fathom, extended one fathom

Raha

extended

rakau marama rere tree of flying chips

raro

intercessor

Rata-marama

Rata of flying chips

raro

the-Intercessor

rakau kouru

joining together at the tree-top

rakau koiwi

the tree (hewn) to the bone or trunk

rakau rakau

the tree, the tree. Also, Ratorua – the battle when
Uenuku defeated Whena in Rarotonga

hourua waka

the double-hull canoe

ranga(ku)

rise high (canoe)(Tablet A).

ramaku

(with) a torch of long light,

raha(ku)

(over) a great expanse

or

Rangi-tokotoko

the sky‘s sunrays

ara waka

a pathway for the canoe.

Rangi

Sky deity. Also, Rangi-ngari, the sky deity song for
the canoe timing chant

kohuhu

the well-spring

Hikurangi

the sacred mountain

koko

concave – for a well spring; ana? for cave

or

hikurangi koko

the sacred mountain well-spring. Also, ra + hina,
the sun and moon as they spring forth at dawn. See
tokorua below.

tokorua

the twins of Taingahue, the sun and moon.

or

or

rangi tokorua

the sky twins, sun and moon. Also, hikurangi
tokorua
(abbreviated) the sacred mountain twins,

235

sun and moon rising.

ra, rangi. rari

the sun, the sky, thin

tu

to stand; Tu, the War deity

or

or

Rangi Tu

warrior of Ngatoro‘s battle against Manaia.
Rangi-tu killed the first of Manaia‘s clan.

ra

the sun

rou

a hook

raro(tonga)

the Underworld house hooked by Maui and
lifted to the surface for humanity to live

ra-matara

to set free the sun. Also, rangimata, the canoe of the
Moriori migration.

ra-haka

the work of the Sun

mana

power, spiritual force;

, the power of the

sun on the pathway of the canoe

ra-mama

the nimble sun and moon. Also, the twins ga-
rauhiva

pua or tiki

a flower or a top-knot

pua ara tiare

a sweet scented pathway

Tuata

the tapu removing ceremony for the canoe

mata

to face, the face, the eyes, to see

wae

the foot, to divide, a time, a season

Poipoi Tu

a wave offering to Tu, the war god (hapainga Tu).

Mate or mato

death or a deep swamp

reinga

a neck ornament of the chieftains authority, the
Underworld below the leaping place

tautoru, poaka

Orion, Rigel, the Underworld, darkness, a bad
omen, a sign of planting season

Reinga Po

the Underworld of Darkness.

236

tumata

to kindle, to burn

or

matariki

the Pleiades, gathering place of the deceased

or

Tupa tangata

to carry the person, to mourn (tangi), (the ear as
taringa is also the Sweeping Ceremony of the
sweeping of a burning branch at the stars at dawn)

ra‘a tiki-rangi

the Sun, the pillar of the sky. Dawn reflecting as a
pillar off the water

taniwha

a water monster or shark (punga-mako)

tuata-tuhaua-ata

a quick and nimble spirit benefiting from the
inauguration of a new canoe

atu tangaroa

Lord Tangaroa, the deity of the sea

kopako Uenuku-kopako benevolent Uenuku-the-benevolent, Rainbow
deity from the early migration

Tuhinapo-rapa

Guardian of Ocean migrations with power oar

kura, ura

torch, red, flame

ripeka

cross territorial marker

kete-wanaga

the three-stone basket of wisdom; also, umu, the
sacred maori oven containing the three hot stones.

popohaga

the sun on the horizon; dawn

pori

a tribe or clan

tiki, potiki

a top-knot; deity of the top-knot, Maui-potiki

Io

a dried fish; the core of a tree; the soul; the Supreme
Being

koara

to split open

kopua

deep; a full tide

237

routu

a comb

kauwha-runga

the Upper Jaw of the Creator; Makemake; the sun
on the horizon.

the Lower Jaw of the Creator

ruatapu

the two door house of the Underworld (opened by
Maui); the wharekura or sacred house

tahitahi

sweeping continually; Rongo-ma-Tane, twin deities
of Sound and Light

Whanui

The Morning or Evening Star, Venus

Mata-ai-nana

The descendants. Mata, the eyes; ai, copulation
represented by legs; na/nau, the palm up glyph.
Here the glyph appears with a hand representing the
work or the action of the descendant.

Pua-roa-Tiki-tawhito The flower great Tiki, first man, and dwarf who

created all people.

Pua tahinga Tiki

The flower sweeping ceremony of the stars of

tawhito

Tiki, first man and dwarf

Pua-roa-wananga

The great flower medium; deified ancestor

tangata; ngati; ngato man; a descendent; a kumara offered as the tapu
lifting sacrifice to Puanga (Rigel), the fire at the
base of the Tamarereti canoe bow (Orion).

ngatoro

tahunga priest of the Arawa canoe

ngato; ngate

the celestial kumara offering; to shake or burst as
the volcano of the descendants born out of the
domain of Ru, Underworld power deity.

Common word portions:

238

ai

to copulate; a descentant(s)

ata

spirit, shadow

ure

offspring; phallus

ue

a support; ua? for rain

haka

the causative, to do, to act, to work

riki

chips, portions

ahi

fire; flame

kaha

to be strong; strength

hua/ahu/tapu offspring, scrotum; to stack, heap; a sacred platform

mata

eyes; face

kai/kainga fead, meal; place of feasting, homeland

tiki

topknot; potiki, child; Maui-potiki, deified trickster

raised in the topknot of his mother Taranga‘s hair.

ha/ga

to breathe; to gasp; chant? eat?

vaka/rakau canoe; tree is a name for canoe in Rapa Nui chants

rakau

tree

wana/atua

wana means bristles and is short for wananga,
sacred knowledge or a spirit medium; atua
means lord or deity and comes from the
feathered cloak worn by chiefs and deities.

waho

to drive ahead

tiki

a post or pillar as in tiki-rangi

pua

a flower

239

heke

ten tenticles of a squid (8 for the octopus)

Rongorongo Syllable Chart:

A

E

I

O

U

376?

1

H

K

M

,

N

NG
(G)

P

R

T

V

240

Supplement 2: Glyph sequences deciphered with syllables presented above

The purpose of these supplements is to offer a list of syllables (above) and sections
deciphered (below) for scholars to reproduce the results presented here and to draw the
same results of the unpublished sections. Certain sections have remained unpublished for
a later more comprehensive research.ccclxxiv

The Lunar Mamari Calendar (see Part iii/vi)

The Small Reimiro (see Part v)

The Grand Tradition, Text H, P, Q & A (see Part vi)

The Most Common Phrase (appears in part 12 times across the tablets; see Part ii)

Text Sb-The Holy Mountain (see Part ii)

(x3)

Text Hr (P and Q) – The Sweeping Ceremony (see Part ii portion/most unpublished)

241

Text H (P & Q) Uenuku-Kopako - the Rainbow Deity (see Part ii portion, most unpublished)
Note: roughly 200 more glyphs associated with a certain poroporo sequence will be added in a second volume.

/

Text P

Text Br, Aruku Kurenga: Life Cycle of the Soul

...

...

.

Text Ar/Av: The Taiora Priest

/

242

Text Ar/Av: and the Wharekura

Text Ar/Av: The Standing Stone

Text C, Mamari Tablet: Hotu Matua

243

Supplement 3: The Maori Song of Potiki
Po! Po! Popo, Popo, Poopoo Enoka Te Pakarua

This famous oriori from the East Coast is of pre-European origin. The kumara, or sweet
potato, was a treasured food, an essential item at feasts and on other important occasions.
Elaborate ritual usages were observed during its cultivation, and various myths explained
its origin and nature.

Pō! Pō! E tangi ana Tama ki te kai
māna!

Waiho me tiki ake ki te Pou-a-hao-
kai,2

Hei ā mai te pakake ki uta rā
Hei waiū mō Tama!
Kia mauria mai e tō tipuna, e

Uenuku!

Whakarongo! Ko te kūmara ko

Pari-nui-te-ra.
Ka hikimata te tapuae o Tangaroa,

Ka whaimata te tapuae o Tangaroa.

Tangaroa! Ka haruru!

Baby! Potiki!1

The boy is crying for food!

Let it be fetched from the pile of netted
seafood,
And the whale be driven ashore
As mother's food to make milk3

for the boy!

Let it be brought by your ancestor, the
rainbow-god Uenuku!
Listen! The kumara is from the Great Cliffs
of the Sun4
The footstep of the sea-god Tangaroa5

is

begun,
The foot-stamping ritual honouring
Tangaroa is performed.
Tangaroa! The steps resound!

Ka noho Uru, ka noho i a
Ngangana;

Puta mai ki waho rā ko Te Aotū,
ko Te Aohore, ko Hinetuahōanga,

Te Whatu o Poutini ei!
Kei te kukunetanga mai o Hawaiki

Ko te āhua ia

Uru lived - he lived with Ngangana,6

And there were born Te Ao-tū,
Te Ao-hore, Hine-tua-hōanga,
And the fish-like Stone of Poutini7

, ei!

It was formed in Hawaiki,
Where things have their origin.

Ko Māui-wharekino ka noho i a
Pani,
Ka kawea ki te wai o Monariki

Mā Onehunga, mā Onerere,
Mā te piere, mā te matata

Te pia tangi wharau, ka hoake
Ki runga rā, te Pīpī-wharauroa,
Nā Whena koe, e Waho e!

Tuatahi, e Waho e!

Tuarua, ka topea i reira
Ko te Whatanui, ko te Whataroa,

ko te tī haere,
Nā Kohuru, nā Paeaki,
Nā Turiwhatu, nā Rakaiora.

When Maui-whare-kino was married to
Pani,8
She who was taken to the waters of
Monariki
For Onehunga, for Onerere,
For the piere, for the matata,
The first whimper from the shelter.
Giving birth to Pipiwharauroa.
You are of Whena, O Waho!
Thus the first part, O Waho!

Of the second part is the felling there
Of the timbers for the posts at the sacred
place,9

and the perch of bird snares,
For Kohuru, for Paeaki,
For Turiwhatu, for Rakaiora.

244

Ko Waiho anake te tangata i rere
noa
I te ahi rūrā a Rongomaracroa,

Ko te kākahu nō Tū, ko te

Rangikaupapa,

Ko te tātua i riro mai

I a Kanoa, i a Matuatonga.

Tēnei te manawa ka puritia,
Tēnei te manawa ka tāwhia;

Kia haramai tona hokowhitu i te
ara.

Waiho was the only one who fled

From the scattered fires of Rongo-
maraeroa.10
The garment of the war-god Tu,11

Te

Rangikaupapa,
The belt which was brought hither
By Kanoa and Matuatonga.12
Hence men's hearts are apprehensive,
Hence men's hearts are fearful,
Lest his band of warriors appear on the
road.

Ka kīa [e] Paikea Ruatapu i te

tama meamea,
Ka tahuri i Te Huripureiata,
Ka whakakau Tama i a ia.

Whakarere iho ana te kakau o te
hoe:
Ko Maninikura, ko Maniniaro!

Ka tangi te kura, ka tangi wiwini!
Ka tangi te kura, ka tangi wawana!
Ko Hakirirangi

ka ū kei uta;
Te kōwhai ka ngaora,

ka ringitia te kete
Ko Manawaru, ko Aaraiteuru,

Ka kitea e te tini, e te mano!

When Ruatapu was called a bastard by
whale-rider Paikea13
He overturned Te Huri-pureiata,
And Paikea recited a spell to make himself
swim.
The handles of the paddles are thrust
down14
They are Manini-kura and Manini-aro,
sacred digging sticks!

The noble one cries, cries in fear!
The noble one cries, cries in terror!
It was kumara-carrier Hakirirangi15
who reached the shore
in springtime when the kowhai was
flowering,
she emptied her kumara-planting basket
At Manawaru and Araiteuru,16

near

Gisborne
To be seen by the myriads, by the
thousands.

Ko Makauri anake i mahue atu
i waho i Toka-ahuru;

Ko te peka i rere mai ki uta rā
hei kura mo Māhaki.

Ko Mangamoteo, ko Uetanguru,

Ko te kōiwi ko Rongorapua.

Waiho me tiki ake

ki te kūmara i a Rangi!

Only the underwater tree Makauri:17

was

left behind out at the reef Toka-ahuru,
near Gisborne,
The branch of which was cast ashore
as a treasure for Kuhungunu's grandson
Mahaki.
The rivers Mangamoteo18

and Uetanguru

nurture the contents of Rongorapua.
And now we wait until there is brought
the kumara from the heavens.

245

Ko Pekehāwani ka noho i a

Rehua19

Ko Rūhiterangi ka tau kei raro:

Te ngahuru tikotiko-iere,

Ko Poutūterangi!
Te mātahi o te tau,

te putunga o te hinu, e tama!

Below the star Spica, there appears
Antares;
with Ruhi-te-rangi below them, coming to
rest on the land.
Hence the bounteous harvest-time
of the month of Poutu-te-rangi!
It signals the autumn season of the first-
fruits,20

when the calabashes overflow with

fat, my son!

Notes on the Song

In the same mannner as with English folk songs, this chant includes quotes from earlier moteatea,
and various versions have developed as it has spread from tribe to tribe. There is a longer version
and fuller notes by Margaret Orbell in the book Traditional Songs of the Maori (1975).

1 Po! Po! is probably a shortened form of "Potiki! Potiki!" Oriori were often composed for the
potiki, or youngest child of the family.

2 Pou-a-hao-kai is a figure of speech used of seafoods being collected for a feast.
Also, in the legend of Rata, Pou-hao-kai was killed by Rata and his bones used to make fish
hooks.

3 Waiu: this is sometimes used with reference to food which was eaten by the mother to help her
feed her child.

4 Pari-nui-te-ra, the Great Cliffs of the Sun, is where Hoaki went to get kumara when he returned
home to Hawaiki on the voyaging canoe "Te Aratawhao."

5 Tangaroa is the god of the sea and of fish.

6 Uru, Ngangana and their children Te Aotu and Te Aohore are mythical personages.

7 The Stone of Poutini is an expression for greenstone, which in traditional accounts is often
referred to as a fish.

8 Maui-whare-kino was a mythical person married to Pani; he stole the kumara from Whanui in
the heavens and mated it with his wife, who then gave birth to the kumara in the waters of
Monariki. In the next few lines there appear to be references to ritual matters concerned with the
kumara and its origin, but the exact meaning of these expressions is uncertain.

9 The posts were erected at the tua-ahu, the sacred place or altar where many religious rituals took
place.

10 Rongo-maraeroa is one form of the name of Rongo, the god of the cultivation of food and other
peacetime pursuits. It is also a sacred name for the kumara. The significance of the lines in which
the word occurs is uncertain.

11 Tu is a shortened form of Tu-mata-uenga, god of war.

246

12 Matuatonga is sometimes said to have arrived on board the Takitimu canoe. According to other
accounts, Matuatonga is the name of the belt in which the kumara was brought to Aotearoa.

13 Ruatapu and Uenuku lived in Hawaiki, one of the homelands of the Maori. Insulted by his
father Uenuku, Ruatapu sought revenge by overturning at sea the canoe which carried his many
noble kinsmen. One of them, Paikea, escaped to Aotearoa in the form of a whale (in other
accounts, riding on a whale) and landed on the East Coast.

14 Maninitua and Maniniaro occur in the myth of Pourangahua as the kumara digging-sticks
which he brought back from Hawaiki, together with the kumara itself, in his journey on the back
of the Great Bird of Ruakapanga.

15 Hakirirangi is said to have arrived on the Horouta canoe, and to have brought the kumara with
her. She was expert in kumara lore and knew well how to plant it at the time of the flowering of
the kowhai.

16 Manawaru and Araiteuru were names of kumara plantations at Turanga (Gisborne).

17 Makauri is the name of a kahikatea (white pine) tree said to have grown at the bottom of the sea
from the feathers which Pourangahua plucked from his bird when he was flying home with the
kumara. Toka-ahuru is Ariel Reef out from the shore at Gisborne.

18 Mangamoteo and Uetanguru are rivers at Turanga (Gisborne). According to some accounts
Rongo-rapua is the name of a belt in which the kumara reached this country.

19 Rehua or Antares is the brightest star in what is known in Hawaii as Ka Makau Nui o Maui,
"The Big Fishhook of Maui," the curved line of stars of the constellation Scorpius.

Rehua has two wives, Whaka-onge-kai (she who makes food scarce) and Ruhi-te-rangi or
Pekehawani (languid, weak). You can see Rehua high in the sky in winter time with these two
wives ranged one on either side of him. When Rehua/Antares can be seen on top of Whaka-onge-
kai, after sunset in September, winter has almost ended. She is a most voracious female, hence
food-supplies have run short. In summer the constellation Scorpio can't be seen at all.

The ninth month of the Maori year (February-March) is sometimes called Ruhi-te-rangi. In the
pre-dawn sky Rehua lies beside Ruhi/Pekehawani and all fruits are formed, while all things, food
products and even the land and seas, become quiet and languid.

20 The season of the first fruits is autumn, the time when birds and rats are fat.

Maori Songs - Kiwi Songs - Home

247

Supplement 4: The Rongorongo of Easter Island
Recitation "Eaha to ran ariiki kete"ccclxxv

This recitation was delivered by Ure Vaeiko upon being shown a photograph of tablet S
(or Great Washington Tablet) by William Thomson. It is reproduced here as it appears in
Thomson 1891, pp.523-524. Salmon's translation, in the right-hand column, bears so little
relationship with Ure Vaeiko's recitation as to be almost entirely pure fantasy, even
taking into account the uncertainties introduced by the many typographical mistakes.

1. Eaha to ran ariiki kete mahua i uta
nei ?

E tupu tomo a mata mea e rangi ran e
tuatea to ran ariiki kete mahua i uta nei.
Ane rato mani rata karata te tuatea,
karata te rangi ran karata te tupuna.

What power has the Great King on the

land?

He has power to make the plants grow
and to change the sky to different colors.
All hail the power of the Great King
who makes us lenient to the young plants,
to admire the skies of different colors, and
to behold the clouds that rise.

2. Eaha to ran ariiki kete mahua i uta
nei ?

E ura e poopoo e koiro e nohoe e to ran
ariiki kete mahua i uta nei.
Ane rato mani rata karata te ura ki kara
te poopoo e nehe e riku e kava-kava atu.

What power has the Great King on the

land ?

He has the power to create the lobsters,
white-bait, eels, ape-fish, and everything
in the sea.

All hail the power of the Great King
who gives us the knowledge to catch the
lobsters, white-bait, eels, ape-fish, and all
marine animals.

3. Eaha to ran ariiki kete mahua i uta nei?
E nehe e riku e kava atua to ran ariiki
kete mahua i uta nei.
Ane rato mani rata karata te nehe karata
riku karata rain kava atua.

What power has the Great King on the

land?

He has the power to produce the ferns,
creeping plants, grass, bushes and all
vegetation.

All hail the power of the Great King
who has taught us to love ferns, creeping
plants, and all green things.

4. Eaha to ran ariiki kete mahua i uta
nei ?

E a hao nei e kahi e atu e ature.
Ane rato mani rata karata te kahi
kaharta ahi rarata te ature ane rato.

What power has the Great King over the

sea?

He has the power to create the mighty
fish that swim in the deep water.
All hail the power of the Great King
who has given us the strength and skill to

248

catch the fish of the mighty deep.

5. Eaha to ran ariiki kete mahua i uta
nei ?

E ufi e tra e kumaro to ran ariiki mahua

i uta nei.

Ane rato karata te ufi kumara toa e
mahua i uta nei, ane rato maru.

What power has the Great King on the

land?

He has the power to produce the yams,
potatoes, and sugar-cane.
All hail the power of the Great King
who enables us to use as food yams,
potatoes, and sugar-cane.

6. Eaha to ran ariiki kete mahua i uta
nei ?

E honu e kea e pane te ran ariiki kete
mahua i uta nei.
Ane rato karata te honu te kea te pane.

What power has the Great King on the

land?

He has the power to clothe the turtles in
hard shell, the fish with scales, and
protects every living thing.
All hail the power of the Great King
who enables us to overcome the defense of
the turtles, fish, and all reptiles.

7. Eaha to ran ariiki kete mahua i uta
nei ?

E hetu e range e han e na e raa e mahua
te ran ariiki kete mahua i irunga nei.
Ane rato karata te rangi e hon e na e raa

e mahua.

What power has the Great King in the

universe?

He has the power to create the stars, the
clouds, the dew, the rain, the sun, and the
moon.

All hail the power of the Great King
who enables us to appreciate the blessings
of the bright stars, the lowering clouds, the
gentle dew, the falling rain, and the light
of the sun and moon.

8. Eaha te ran ariiki kete mahua i uta
nei ?

E anuga nei karata te hehun rangi han
na raa mahua.
Ane rato karata te hehuu rangi han na

raa mahua.

What power has the Great King upon the

land?

He has the power to populate the earth,
to create both kings and subjects.
All hail the power of the Great King
who has created the human beings, given
authority to kings, and created loyal
subjects.

9. Eaha to ran ariiki kete mahua i uta
nei ?

E ariiki e tapairu to ran ariiki kete i
mahua i mua nei.
Ane rato karata to ariiki te tapairu.

What power has the Great King upon the

land?

He has the power to create maggots,
flies, worms, fleas, and all creeping and
flying insects.

249

All hail the power of the Great King
who enables us to withstand the attacks of
the maggots, flies, worms, fleas, and all
manner of insects.

10. Eaha to ran ariiki kete mahua i uta
nei ?

E oi e potupotu e ugarara e hata to ran
ariiki kete mahua i uta nei.
Ane rato karata main rata e oi e
potupotu e ugarara e hata to ran ariiki kete
mahua i uta nei.

What power has the Great King?
All hail the unlimited power of the

Great King.

250

Supplement 5: Mythological Parallels with Original Homeland India

251

252

253

254

255

256

257

258

259

260

261

262

263

264

265

266

267

268

269

270

271

272

273

274

275

276

277

278

279

280

281

282

283

284

285

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Ltd.

Barthel, T. (1958). Grundlagen zur Entzifferung der Osterinselschrift. Abhandlungen aus
dem Gebiet der Auslandskunde 64, Reihe B. Vol. 36. Hamburg: Cram, de Gruyter & Co..

Barthel, T. (1978). The Eigth Land, the Polynesian Discovery and Settlement of Easter
Island.
Honolulu: Press of Hawaii. Martin, A. (Trans. from German).

Black Water, A (2009). You are all my children and grandchildren. Speech given at the
Red Crow Community College in October, 2009 to students of the Niitsitapiwa (Real
People) Workplace Literacy Program.

Berthin, G. G. & Berthin, M. E. (2006). Astronomical Unity and Poetic Metaphor in the
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Bettocchi, L. 2006. Rongo Rongo Et Semantique. Methode Rongo Rongo Lorena
Bettocchi.
http://www.rongorongo.com/methode-lorena-bottecchi.html (accessed October
5, 2010).

Butinov, N.A. and Knorozov, Y.V. (1957). ‗Preliminary Report on the Study of the
Written Language of Easter Island.‘ Journal of the Polynesian Society, 66(1). Pp. 5-17.

Chauvet, S. (1935). L‘Ile de Paques et ses mysteres (Easter Island Mysteries). Paris.
Editions ―Tel‖. Figs. 173-176. Répertoire des Signes Idéographiques Boustrophédon de
L‘ile de Paques. The Jaussen List.

Churchill, W. (1912). Easter Island. The Rapanui Speech and the Peopling of South-east
Polynesia.
Washington: Carnegie Institute. Pub. 174.

Christ, H. (1989). Myths and Folklore. New York: Amsco. Cotterell, Arthur (ed).

Coleman, J. A. (2007). The Dictionary of Mythology. Toronto: Capella.

Cotterell, A. (Ed. 1999). The Encyclopedia of World Mythology. New York: Barnes &
Noble Books.

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Endnotes

i

The Hoa Hakananai'a is a moai (Easter Island statue) housed in the British Museum in London. The name
Hoa hakanani'a is from the Rapa Nui language; it means (roughly) "stolen or hidden friend."[1] It was
removed[2] from Orongo, Easter Island on 7 November 1868[3] by the crew of the English ship HMS
Topaze, and arrived in Portsmouth on 25 August 1869.[4] i. Van Tilburg, J. A. Hoa Hakananai'a (British
Museum Press 2004), p.38. ii. Van Tilburg, Jo Anne. (2006). Remote Possibilities: Hoa Hakananai'a and
HMS Topaze on Rapa Nui. British museum Research Papers. ISBN 0861591585. iii. Van Tilburg, J. A.
Hoa Hakananai'a (British Museum Press 2004), p. iv. Van Tilburg, J. A. Hoa Hakananai'a (British Museum
Press 2004), p.7. When this moai Hoa, stolen by death, was removed from its location on Orongo and taken
over the breakers into a ship, the entire island, now converted to Christianity cheered. They were not
cheering at the new band of thieves, they were cheering at the mythical tale that came to its fulfillment that
day.

292

ii

Routledge, S & Routledge K. (1917). The Bird Cult of Easter Island. Folklore. Vol 28. No. 4. Pp. 337-
355. Taylor & Francis Ltd. on behalf of Folklore Enterprises, Ltd.. Retrieved Oct. 26, 2010 from
http://www.jstor.org. P. 339.

iii

Wolff, W. (1945). The mystery of the Easter Island script. The Journal of Polynesian Society. Vol. 54.

No. 1. Pp. 1-38. P. 2.

iv

Wolff (1945). Ibid. P. 3.

v

Tregear, E. (1891). Maori-Polynesian Comparative Dictionary. London: Lyon and Blair, Lambton Quay.
Tregear‘s work is an essential resource for this article, since he was able to preserve as well as a dictionary
could some of the common vocabulary, myth and ceremony that existed across Polynesia prior to European
contact. At the same time, Tregear was able to honor the distinct elements of each island group.

vi

Mythology from the perspective of Karen Armstrong in A Short History of Myth (2005), which counts on
the flexibility in myth to enhance our everyday lives as apposed to a more conservative confinement of
myth.

vii

Fornander, A. (1969). An Account of the Polynesian Race – Its Origins and Migrations. Tokyo: Charles
E. Tuttle Company: Publishers, pp. 1-2.

viii

Métraux, A. (1971). Ethnology of Easter Island. Honolulu, Hawaii: A Bishop Museum Press Reprint, p.

331.

ix

Routledge & Routledge (1917). Ibid. P. 340.

x

Keeping in mind that Orongo means the Listening Place where the high call of the Sooty Tern can be
heard and Orohie means the Calling Place, where Oro is the call of a young bird. Métraux, Ibid, p. 332.

xi

Easter Island Statue Project (EISP) Official Website, retrieved February 18th

, 2010.

xii

From Easter Island Statue Project Official Website

xiii

Métraux, Ibid. p. 339.

xiv

Tregear, Ibid, maui.

xv

William Thompson

xvi

Barthel, T. S. (1978). The Eighth Land – The Polynesian Discovery and Settlement of Easter Island.
Honolulu: The University Press of Hawaii, p. 261.

xvii

Fischer, S. R. (1997). Rongorongo – The Easter Island Script – History, Traditions, Texts. Oxford:

Clarendon Press.

xviii

Fischer, Ibid, p. 333.

xix

Dansereau, J. (Unpublished from 2007). The Tattoo Soothing Chant of Maui, the Sweeping of the Stars:
a Definitive Decipherment of the Easter Island Tablets.

xx

British Museum.org. Hoa Hakananai'a: Stolen or Hidden Friend. Retrieved: 09.02.2008.

xxi

Eyrand, Fr.E. (1864-66). ‗Letter of Fr. Eugene Eyraud, the T.R.P. Superior General‘. Annals of the
Propogation of the Faith,
Vol.36, pp.52-71, 124-138. From website:
http://web.archive.org/web/20071007022537/www.rongorongo.org/early.html

xxii

Dalton, O. M. (1904). ‗Easter Island: Script. Man. Vol. 4. Pp. 115-116. De Harlez, C. (1895). Le
Muséon, Revue Internationale.
Vol. XIV. P. 415ff. Vol. XV. Pp. 68-73.

xxiii

Butinov, N. A. & Knorozov, Y. V. (1957). Preliminary Report on the Study of the Written Language of
Easter Island. The Journal of the Polynesian Society. Vol. 66. No. 1. Pp. 5-17.

xxiv

Sproat, R. (2010). Language, Technology, and Society. New York: Oxford University Press, Inc.

xxv

Carrol, Dr. A. (1892). The Easter Island inscriptions and the translation and interpretation of them.
Magazine of th ePolynesia Company. Extracted from website:
http://kiwidepia.com/kiwi/ci9vL24vUm9uZ29fcm9uZ28=#Pau...

xxvi

Butinov & Knorozov (1957). Ibid. P. 7.

xxvii

Routledge, S. (1919). The Mystery of Easter Island – The Story of an Expedition. London & Aylesbury:
Hazel, Watson and Viney Ltd. In website: http://www.rongorongo.org/routldge/253.html

xxviii

Hevesy, V. (1932) Notes on the hieroglyphs of I‘Ile de Paques. Read at the conference of the French

Academy of Inscriptions and Calligraphy by Paul Pelliot.

xxix

Robinson, A. (2002). Lost Languages – the Enigma of the World‘s Undeciphered Scripts. New York:

McGraw-Hill.

xxx

Butinov, N. A. & Knorozov, Y. V. (1957). Preliminary Report on the Study of the Written Language of
Easter Island. Journal of the Polynesian Society. Vol. 66. No. 1. Pp. 5-17.

xxxi

Pozdniakov, K. & Pozdniakov, I. (2007). Rapanui Writing and the Rapanui Language: Preliminary
Results of the Statistical Analysis. The Forum of Anthropology and Culture. Vol. 3. Pp. 3-36.

293

xxxii

Pozdniakov, K. (Unpublished). Website: http://www.sacred-texts.com/pac/ei/ei49.htm

xxxiii

Guy, J. W. B. (1990). On the Lunar Calendar of Tablet Mamari. Jouranl of Société des Océanistes.

Vol. 91. No. 2. Pp. 135-149.

xxxiv

Guy, J. W. B. (1982). Fused Glyphs in the Easter Island Script. Journal of the Polynesian Society. Vol.

91. Pp. 445-447.

xxxv

Fischer, S. R. (1995). Rongorongo, the Easter Island Script: History, Traditions, Texts. Oxford:

Clarendon Press.

xxxvi

Fischer, S. R. (1995). Preliminary Evidence for Cosmologic Texts in Rapanui‘s Rongorongo
Inscriptions. Journal for Polynesian Society. Vol. 104. Pp. 303-321. Fischer, S. R. (1995). Further
Evidence for Cosmologic Texts in the RongoRongo Inscriptions of Easter Island. Rapa Nui Journal. Vol. 9.
Pp. 99-107.

xxxvii

Kaulins, A. (1981). An Astronomical Zodiac in the Script of Easter Island. 1st

ed. Germany:
Darmstadt, Diebrugerstr. Website: http://www.andiskaulins.com/publications/easterisland/easter.htm.

xxxviii

Sproat, R. (2003). Approximate String matches in the RR Corpus. Website:
http://serrano.ai.uiuc.edu/rws/ror.

xxxix

Sproat (2010). Ibid.

xl

Davletshin, A. (2002). Names in the Kohau Rongorongo Script. Presented as From Kohau Rongorongo
tablets to Rapanui social organization: From Rapanui Social organization to Kohau Rongorongo script.
Saint Petersburg 2nd

International Conference: ―Hierarchy and Power in the History of Civilizations‖ held

in Saint Petersburg. Moscow: Knorosov Center for Mesoamerican Studies, Russian State University for the
Humanities. July 4-7, 2002. e-mail: aldavletshin@mail.ru

xli

Davletshin (2002). Ibid. P. 17.

xlii

Davletshin (2002). Ibid. P. 12.

xliii

Horley, P. (2005). Allographic Variations and Statistical Analysis of the Rongorongo Script. Rapanui
Journal.
Vol. 19. No. 2. Pp. 107-116.

xliv

Berthin, G. G. & Berthin, M. E. (2006). Astronomical Unity and Poetic Metaphor in the Rongorongo
Lunar Calendar. Applied Semiotics 8: 18. 85-98.

xlv

Melka, T. S. (2009). Some Considerations about the Kohau Rongorongo Script in the Light of a
Statistical Analysis of the ‗Santiago Staff‘. Cryptologia. Vol. 33. Pp. 24-73. P. 29.

xlvi

Shirres, M. (1996). Ibid. Website: Maori Theology.

xlvii

Routledge, S. (1917). The Mystery of Easter Island. London: Sifton Praed.

xlviii

Sproat (2010). Ibid.

xlix

Carrasco, M. (2004). ‗Unaahil B‘aak: the Temples of Palenque‘. Website of Learning Objects Studio.

Weslayen University. Website: http://learningobjects.wesleyan.edu/palenque/glyphs/. Extracted: October
5, 2010 from Introduction – The Origins of the Mayan Script and a Brief History of its Decipherment. P. 3.

l

Carrasco. (2004). Ibid. P. 1.

li

Davis, W. (2009). The Wayfinders – Why Ancient Wisdom Matters in the Modern World. Toronto,
Ontario: House of Anansi Press, Ltd.. Pp. 35-37, 61-62.

lii

Davis (2009). Ibid. P. 62.

liii

Davis (2009). Ibid. P. 57-59.

liv

Davis (2009). Ibid. P. 35.

lv

Standing Bear, L. (1868-1939). ‗Quotation from Oglala Sioux chief‘. Native American Quotes. Website:
http://www.think-aboutit.com/native/native_american_quotes.htm. Extracted: October 13, 2010.

lvi

Rjabchikov, S. V. (1993). Notes on the Easter Island Script. L‘Echo de Rapa Nui. Vol. 6. No. 24. Pp. 22-
23. Rjabchikov confirms Lee‘s research that Honu, the turtle is seen in the Pleiades Constellation in both
Rapanui and Tuamotu. Lee, G. (1992). The Rock Art of Easter Island. Symbols of Power, Prayers to the
Gods.
Los Angeles: The Institute of Archaeology Publications (UCLA).

lvii

Dansereau, J. (2007). The Sweeping of the Stars: the Decipherment of Seven Chants on the Easter Island

Tablets. Unpublished.

lviii

Guy, B. M. (1999). Un prétendu déchiffrement des tablettes de l‘île de Pâques. Société des Océanistes.

Pp. 57-63.

lix

Pozdniakov, K. & Pozdniakov, I. (2007). Rapanui Writing and the Rapanui Language: Preliminary
Results of the Statistical Analysis. The Forum of Anthropology and Culture. Vol. 3. Pp. 3-36.

294

lx

Chapin, P. G. (1974). Syntactic Typology: Studies in the Phenomenology of Language. Linguistics
Research Centre
: Austin: University of Texas. College of Liberal Arts. Website: last updated: March 20,
2007.

lxi

Tregear (1891). Ibid. Maui; Rata; Hina; Hine.

lxii

Shirres, M. (1996). Website. http://crash.ihug.co.nz/~dominic/karakia2.html.

lxiii

Barthel, T. S. (1978). The Eighth Land – the Polynesian Discovery and Settlement of Easter Island.
Honolulu: The University Press of Hawaii.

lxiv

Fischer, S.R. (1997). Rongorongo - The Easter Island Script History, Traditions, Texts. Oxford:
Clarendon Press. Butinov, N.A. and Knorozov, Y.V. (1957).

lxv

Shirres, M (1996). Ibid. Website. The Kuumara Karakia: Ka noho te rangi nui, that
Taylor received from Wiremu Katene invoking atua Tau & Rongo.

lxvi

Shirres, M. (1996). Ibid. Website. Wanganui canoe karakia ritual.

lxvii

Shirres, M. (1996). Ibid. Website. He tamariki raanei koe.

lxviii

Shirres, M. (1996). Ibid. Website. Purea te pure, 'Complete the pure', from informant Te Rangihakeke.
In this karakia, the hair-cutting for Ihenga is a rite forming part of the funeral ritual for Ihenga's father.

lxix

Guy, J. B. M.. The Easter Island Tablets – Overview. Website accessed Nov. 1, 2010:
http://www.netaxs.com/~trance/rongo2.html. Orliac C. & Orliac. M.. ―Des dieux regardent les étoiles
(Gods gave at the stars)‖ Découvertes. Gallimard (Ed.). No. 38.

lxx

Davletshin (2002). Ibid. P. 7. Pozdniakov & Pozdniakov (2007). Pp. 3-36. Their work in statistical
analysis has convinced them of a rongorongo syllabary system.

lxxi

Fischer, S.R. (1997). Rongorongo - The Easter Island Script History, Traditions, Texts. Oxford:

Clarendon Press. Butinov, N.A. and Knorozov, Y.V. (1957). ‗Preliminary Report on the Study of the
Written Language of Easter Island.‘ Journal of the Polynesian Society, 66(1). Pp. 5-17.

lxxii

Tregear (1891). Dansereau, J. (Unpublished from 2007). The Sweeping of the Stars: the Decipherment
of Seven Chants on the Easter Island Tablets
.

lxxiii

Butinov (1957). Ibid. P. 8.

lxxiv

Tregear (1891). Ibid. Karakia.

lxxv

Shirres, M. (1996). Ibid. Website.

lxxvi

Shirres, M. (1996). Ibid. Website. A Traditional Threefold Structure (of Karakia).

lxxvii

Shirres, M. (1996). Ibid. Website. A Traditional Threefold Structure (of Karakia).

lxxviii

Shirres, M. (1996). Ibid. Website. Division of Karakia.

lxxix

Shirres, M. (1996). Ibid. Website. Division of Karakia.

lxxx

Guy (1982). Ibid. Pp. 445-447.

lxxxi

Melka (2008). Ibid. P. 174.

lxxxii

Butinov (1957). Ibid. Pp. 8-9.

lxxxiii

Horley (2009). Ibid. Pp. 252-260.

lxxxiv

Horley (2009). Ibid. Pp. 258.

lxxxv

Horley (2009). Ibid. Pp. 259.

lxxxvi

Horley (2007). Ibid. Pp. 26, 28.

lxxxvii

Tregear (1891). Ibid. toko; tiki; ura; kura; ara; po.

lxxxviii

Butinov, N. A. & Knorozov, Y. V. (1957). Preliminary Report on the Study of the Written Language
of Easter Island. The Journal of the Polynesian Society. Vol. 66. No. 1. Pp. 5-17. Also see website of :
Guy, J. - http://www.netaxs.com/~trance/rongo2.html

lxxxix

Guy, J. - http://www.netaxs.com/~trance/rongo2.html

xc

Tregear (1891). Ibid. tiki; ura; ara; po.

xci

Tregear (1891). Ibid. tiki; ura; ara; po.

xcii

Tregear (1891). Ibid. tiki; ura; ara; po; waka; ruatapu; wanawana; wananga; taiura; ngataurira.

xciii

Guy, J. B. M. (1988). Rjabchikov‘s Decipherments Examined. The Journal of Polynesian Society. Vol.
97. No. 3. Pp. 321-324. P. 323 – Guy writes, ―If glyphs must be referred to at all in the text, let it be using
Barthel‘s system, and let every glyph in the figures (whether cited or not in the text) have underneath it its
reference number along with its phonetic value and reading.‖

xciv

Tregear (1891). Ibid. tawhitiri, tawhiti, ripeka, manawa, tane, tavake, tawhaki, paikea, tuapiko,
waenganui-po; wainui; tiko. RangiMarie Rose Pere, Maori Tahina Wisdom Keeper, 2010. Tama Te Ra.

xcv

Butinov (1957). Ibid. Pp. 13-14.

295

xcvi

Wolfe, W. (1945). The Mystery of the Easter Island Script – Probable causes of the disappearance of the
hieroglyphic system. The Journal of Polynesian Society. Vol. 54. No. 1. Pp. 1-38. P. 4.

xcvii

Métraux, (1940). Ibid. P. 352.

xcviii

Métraux, (1940). Ibid. P. 267.

xcix

Métraux, (1940). Ibid. P. 310.

c

Barthel, T. (1958). Grundlagen zur Entzifferung der Osterinselschrift. Hamburg: Cram, de Gruyter.
Fischer, S.R. (1995). Preliminary Evidence for Cosmogonic Texts in Rapanui Rongorongo Inscriptions.
Journal of the Polynesian Society. Vol. 104. Pp. 303-321.

ci

Davletshin (2002). Ibid. P. 3.

cii

Butinov & Knorozov (1957). Ibid. P. 5-17.

ciii

Barthel, T. S. (1978). The Eighth Land – the Polynesian Discovery and Settlement of Easter Island.
Honolulu: The University Press of Hawaii. Pp. 3-4.

civ

Wolfe (1945). Ibid. P. 6.

cv

Wolfe (1945). Ibid. P. 25.

cvi

Black Water, A., Wolf Child, B. & Weasel Fat, R. (2009). Blackfoot Culture Class. Niitsitapiwa
Workplace Literacy Program. Red Crow Community College Satellite Campus. Lethbridge, Alberta.
November, 2009.

cvii

Wolfe (1945). Ibid. P. 7.

cviii

Wolfe (1945). Ibid. P. 8.

cix

Wolfe (1945). Ibid. P. 10.

cx

Wolfe (1945). Ibid. P. 10.

cxi

Wolfe (1945). Ibid. P. 11.

cxii

Chapin, P. G. (1974). Syntactic Typology: Studies in the Phenomenology of Language. Linguistics
Research Centre
: Austin: University of Texas. College of Liberal Arts. Website: last updated: March 20,
2007.

cxiii

Pozdniakov, K. & Pozdniakov, I. (2007). Rapanui Writing and the Rapanui Language: Preliminary
Results of the Statistical Analysis. The Forum of Anthropology and Culture. Vol. 3. Pp. 3-36.

cxiv

Davletshin (2002). P. 8.

cxv

Davletshin (2002). Ibid. P. 12.

cxvi

Davletshin (2002). Ibid. P. 13.

cxvii

Davletshin (2002). Ibid. Pp. 4, 13.

cxviii

Davletshin (2002). Ibid. P. 15.

cxix

Melka (2009). Ibid. P. 31.

cxx

Melka (2009). Ibid. Pp. 31-34.

cxxi

Melka (2009). Ibid. Pp. 34-35.

cxxii

Melka (2009). Ibid. Pp. 42.

cxxiii

Melka (2009). Ibid. Pp. 43.

cxxiv

Melka (2008). Ibid. P. 172.

cxxv

Guy, J. B. M. (1982). On a fragment of the ‗Tahua‘ tablet. The Journal of Polynesian Society. Vol 91.
No. 3. Guy points out sequences of ten and eight the parallel texts of the proposed Canoe of Rata Chant on
Text A, P, Q and H.

cxxvi

Butinov & Knorozov (1957). Ibid. P. 5-17. Guy. http://www.netaxs.com/~trance/rongo2.html.

cxxvii

Matakerepo is given her sight back once she has only one root left, perhaps aluding to an offering of
the root as a portion of the eating of the god ceremony. Her sight, or enlightenment, comes from the
realization that the flesh of the god is here satisfaction, but not from a human victim, rather an organic one.
It was the fish she ate also that caused her blindness. The fish was from the hook of human bone not yet
released from tapu. Maui uses such a hook to raise the island likened to a fish, Ika-a-Maui. The first fish
offering to Maui is required before one can pull up any fish. Tawhaki can climb to heaven from the mana
power of properly counted land produce. There are 9 roots for the first nine heavens he must climb to reach
the tenth heaven.

cxxviii

Butinov & Knorozov (1957). Ibid. P. 5-17. Guy. http://www.netaxs.com/~trance/rongo2.html.

cxxix

Wikipedia: Rongorongo. Extracted December 5, 2010.

cxxx

Butinov & Knorozov (1957). Ibid. P. 5-17. Guy. http://www.netaxs.com/~trance/rongo2.html.

cxxxi

Guy, J. (1999). - Peut-on se fonder sur le témoignage de Métoro pour déchiffrer les rongo-rongo?
Jounal de la Société des océanistes. Vol. 108. No. 1. Persée – http://www.persee.fr. Pp. 125-132. P. 61.

296

cxxxii

Guy (2006). P. 65.

cxxxiii

Barthel, T. S. (1978). The Eighth Land – the Polynesian Discovery and Settlement of Easter Island.
Honolulu: The University of Honolulu Press. P. 9.

cxxxiv

Barthel (1978). Ibid. Pp. 9, 11.

cxxxv

Butinov & Knorozov (1957). Ibid. P. 5-17. Guy. http://www.netaxs.com/~trance/rongo2.html.

cxxxvi

Shirres, M. (1996). Ibid. Website. Karakia – A Binding of Spiritual Powers.

cxxxvii

Fischer (1995). Ibid. P. 422. Fischer (1997). Ibid. P. 234.

cxxxviii

Pozniakov, K. (?). Les Bases Du Déchiffrement de L‘Écriture de L‘Île de Pâques. Société des
Océanistes.
Pp. 289-303. P. 295.

cxxxix

Pua is a flower and punga is a yellow branching choral. Punga may also mean a pollen. As an anchor
punga is considered the Southern Cross Constolation, or Pungawerewere, the hanging spider, the anchor of
the canoe of heaven. Punga is also the deity of sharks (see curiosity 2 below). Pu means tribe. If you
include the appearance of the base or root (take) in TextEv6 or Cr2-3 (number 5 above), Pu + take =
putake, meaning ancestor, origin, cause. Pu and Tiki can both mean a topknot of hair. Perhaps number 6
above in Text Cr2-3 represents Putiki, the topknot, the symbol of Maui, the greatest ancestor. Pu also
means a sacred name, as a deity chief or king, root, origin, the centre, double tooth, wise, heap or bundle.

cxl

A wananga is the one who can chant the appropriate incantations for the dead. Wananga also means the
ancient sacred traditions. Notice the canoe or waka is halved. Consider the half canoe as half the syllables
of waka, thus wa plus the bristles word wana. The half canoe directs you to understand wana (bristles) is
the word in context, not merely huru (hair). Yet the mythology tells of Pungaheko as the deity who
provided the huruhuru, the reproductive passage through the goddess of the Underworld. As well, to blow
where pu is the horn and Puhihuia is a certain beautiful maiden who brought peace.

cxli

A fish, in reference to a man, means that the person is offered as a sacrifice to a deity. Fish offerings
were used to launch new canoes. It is plausible to refer to this association of the fish with the man as the
relationship between the dead man and the canoe of the ancestors requiring a fish to be launched into rangi
or heaven. The fish is not actually required since the man‘s death is a sacred event.

cxlii

Kawa was the first fish offering from the miraculous shower of fishes provided by Tinirau. Kawa is the
sacred tree branch used in removing tapu from a canoe. Kawa is the sacred drink liquor in Polynesian
ceremony. Kawa is also a name for ihiihi baptism. Kawa was one of the two hanging from the forehead of
Tuna descending from the drought ravaged heaven, when Tawhaki was ascending to stomp open the
springs. Tuna was a giant eel slain by Maui and his body parts bore different forms of life. Tuna sacrificed
himself for his love, Hina, to save her from the deluge and instructed her to bury his head and out from the
mysterious seed sprang the coconut tree, with a gourd of white food, the brains of Tuna. Another myth
speaks of Hina beheading an eel, the tail swims away and the head is buried in a calabash and sprouts. The
myth resembles the floating deity in the calabash pleading to enter the canoe. The glyph resembles a fish
feeding in high tide combined with the next atua glyph. The rising tide in Rapanui represents the
pregnancy fluid as food for infants in the womb, since the fish feed at high tide. The first fruit of fish
caught was offered before such incantations and may be represented here. Tuna descending from heaven
had Kawa and Maraenui handing from his forehead. Kawa is the sacred fish fallen from heaven as an first-
fruit offering that like a seed bears much fruit. Maraenui is the Hawaiian City of Refuge or a Temple
where such Kawa (kavai is a ball) offering were given. The taniwha water monster glyph has two such
hangings from the forehead, which match with the overturning Reigna, which together make an entire head.
Kawainga are the stars that herald the dawn.

cxliii

Atua: Such a wave creates mist and foam which are the signs of the great deity of light and life
throughout the Pacific Rim. Atea is the light and parallels the role of Tane. However, Atea also means the
very beginning, when the Sun and the Moon were equally bright. Therefore, in Tahiti, the incantation to
Tangaroa makes sense, Taaroa is the Root, the Rock; Taaroa is the Light.‖ —Forn., i. 222. The one who
represents death and dying was once the light itself and now the Light deified has represented death on our
behalf. The overturning of Mataaho (window), is reflected in the moon cycle Atua glyph. This is the 14th
day of the moon, the tidal wave or rising anticipation of pregnant Hina who falls through the full moon
window into the depths of Po and swims to Mokoia. The overturning of the lizard, Moko or Moo, reveals
the white and soft side of the deity, just as does the full moon. In order to defeat death, one must be washed
clean, as Hina fell into the depth of her repentance in the baptismal waters that softened her heart. She did
not notice the mud staining her children until she left her lofty place in heaven and saw the waxing and
waning of the moon as her own children rising and falling, in life and death, goodness and evil. Therefore,

297

she fled back up to heaven, pure and clean as a sign for her children to follow. Atua is full moon, called
Aina wai akua a Kane; The land of the divine water of Tane, where Tane is Atua, the light of the Full
Moon, the clear light of Atea. Atua may mean to become divine, by imitating Tane and it may also mean
the daily sacrifice for every meal.

cxliv

Routo: The significance of the glyph is not merely to represent bending down. The comb (heru, karau)
is a representation of the scratching instrument, which is used to separate and clean. Heru also means to
paw the ground as a hen scratching or as an angry bull. Here is the Poseidon Bull allusion again, which
caused the flood of Gilgamesh. Mapara is a comb and the sap of a tree. To scratch a tree brings the sap.
Mapou means to turn brown or red. The purpose of the scratching mystery was to turn the back of the
deity, red. This is how the first man was created, from the scratched dust of the deluge and the spittle of the
gods. Kapara is a comb and means a resin used to make torches after the wood is combed or spliced. Para
means to halve as if a branch were spliced. Here we have a resemblance to the Hapai glyph, which must be
an offering that has been combed and tested in fire. Tia is a comb and a stick driven in the ground, which
can be used in baptism and death for a standing of the rods ceremony. Tiaho is to radiate and contrasts with
the pole glyph as ti, (titi means to shine – what occurs as one rises the waka rod to Rangi) and aho – rays of
the sun and mataaho – a window and ahoroa – the moon. The fork glyph, as rou or tirou is used for
plucking the bread-fruit from the tree. In Maui‘s Ball Game chapter, the breadfruit tree represents those
who would swing from the vines of Pacific Rim ceremony. At the time of death, we must be gathered like
the breadfruit. Tiro is a food store raised up for storage – an allusion to the Tamarereti, canoe, where we
are raised up to be consumed by the fire of Atua Aroha – Divine Love. Purau is also a fork, similar to
marau. Purara, which means a branching or scattering is an allusion to the Hapai glyph and puraurau is a
bristled thing alluding to the wananga glyph. Purou is also a fork and as purotu means pure clear water, the
residence of the gods or a beautiful comely person. Peka is a fork and also represents sticks made into a
cross (landmark) or a crossroads. Oka is a fork and means to project upwards or strip to the ribs (ie of a
ship). Tarahanga is also a fork of a tree and may be used as a term for a trap for hawks.

cxlv

Ngata or tangata is the typical man/side glyph. With the pole added, one could use toko, but ti fits with
a thorough dictionary search. Ngatoro is the priest that caused the Arawa canoe to enter a whirlpool after
being insulted by Tama (see 1d below). Tama can be an abbreviation of Tamarereti, the canoe of heaven,
with Orion as its bow. The consistency of the incantations present the context that the text does not so
much refer to itself in this glyph as if it were a logogram of a man reading a tablet. The syllables refers to
lineage, not the script itself. Perhaps the authors intended a double meaning, both logographic and syllabic:
a true descendant is one who recites the tablets, or belongs to a tribe that recites the tablets.

cxlvi

Shirres, M. (1996). Ibid. Website. E Tiki e. Traditional Symbols.

cxlvii

Tiki is also a pole marking a portion of tapu ground. The incantation is telling of the sacred tomb or
medium or propped up canoe of the first man, which all descendents wish to recline towards. This standing
of the rods or grave is sacred and tapu. Tiki, like Maui is a trickster and may well be one in the same little,
yet powerful deity. Tiki made man by mixing his blood with clay. The first woman was, among other
names, Ivi or Iva and was made from one of Tiki‘s bones (see glyph 6b). The hole to the underworld is
called the Chasm of Tiki. The presence of the shark after putiki may represent Arawa, which means shark
and the Canoe of Tama sent to the whirlpool by Ngatoro. Consider the Arawa canoe as the Tamarereti

{Tama, Arawa‘s captain + rerewai (rere), shark + Tiki (ti) = Tamarereti}. Perhaps rere (to leap, run, gush,
to rise, to set…) gives us rerenga, Spirit‘s leap and Tiki is the one sung of who was sacrificed like Jonah

out of the canoe into the whirlpool which engulfed him like a great fish or long shark.

cxlviii

Also noteworthy is Hina is then named by the brothers, Ihungarupaea, ―Stranded log of timber‖.

Where the timber of a canoe is implied as the ending arch of the bow or the nose (Ihu). The moon itself
then, represents a portion of the canoe. Ihuatamai is also rich in meaning. Ata means mirror and mai
means toward the person speaking. Ihuatamai is then the hero twin who is inclined to imitate the teacher,
Vananga. The other twin is the polar opposite, as Ihuwareware, means the deceptive one, or the fool.

cxlix

Tahitahia is the wooden shovel made by Rupe to sweep Rehua‘s dwelling clean. Rehua was the

powerful Lord of Kindness. His home is the tenth heaven and he was Lord of the 4 highest heavens (ten is
tingahuru, possibly represented by the side/man (ngata) glyph with hair (huruhuru) on his back
(Ngatiwhatua?). Rupe visits him searching for Hina. Rehua healed deseases and could raise the dead.
Rupe pushes his way to the highest heaven to ask Rehua where his sister Hina is hiding. Rehua tells Rupe

and when he finds her, both Rupe and Hina return to heaven. Perhaps it was Rupe‘s shovel ‗cleaning‘ the
tenth heaven that finds Hina. The mythology would suggest that it is the dust of man‘s rotted bones that are

298

being Swept clean or dug out, that the pigeon, or dove, or winged spirit representing the purity of men
might be restored to Heaven. Yet, Kanae was the Shining One, the Grey Mullet, a shiny fish was the only
fish able to escape the wrath of Tawhaki and Karihi. The fish escaped by way of leaping or hopping, which
is a play on the trickster Tawhito. The leap of Kanae reflects the leap of Hina from the full moon cycle.
However, Kanae‘s leap or hop must occur at the New Moon, not the full moon. That is, the glittering fish
that escapes is the shining sliver of the new waxing moon cycle. In one legend, Hina is bated to
Konikonia‘s house (by Ku-ula) with images (ki‘i) of her husband, Ki‘imuluahuka, tied a fathom (malo,
maro) apart. Malo is to dry. There was a drought in the heavens when Tawhaki ascended to the third
heaven of Maru – the god of stones. Marua is a pit and also means hilly. It was the leaping fish that made
the hills. These images that attracted Hina represent the stars of Orion (Rapanui – He Tui, to string
together – Tuirangi is Rata‘s Canoe) with a line hanging from Sirius (Rapanui, Te Pou – a stone or wood
post used as an orientation marker – a waka for the standing up of the rods) through Orion to Pleiades (the
sleeping eye of heaven, the beautiful sleeping men in the lore). Rotu was the prayer of drowsiness. It was
a flower gift of the spirits to Tama and also means prayer, devotion, religion. Rou was the forked and
curved stick used for gathering the Bread-Fruit (see 14-15 below). Maru Punga Nui is the chief of the
Arawa canoe. His home is Rotorua (deep lake). Hina sent for her food store calabash represented by the
crescent moon. This calabash was Kena, the light side of the moon (the shining – perhaps the Kanae itself
is the food – the parapara – first fish offering or sacred place (also Tuatua – prayer word used at marae –
sacred place to represent infinite power and means the back, armpit, hidden lightning, sacred mystery). The
calabash as hue links with hua or pua, fruit; huahua, birds as food – the contents of the gourd – Hina‘s food
– the Ponaturi. Tohunga is a wise teacher and a sign; Huna is the moon at 10 days; Hunga is the mist or a
spray of the sea, a group of persons, dust; paparahua is a table, a flat surface; para is dust, etc.). Ana is the
dark side of the moon and means a cave. Here is a symbol of the cave of emergence of the Shining Ones.
When the moon fills, it imitates its long lost twin, the Sun and the sky becomes whole. The children of
light emerging from the cave of darkness are called to gather into one, to dwell together in peace. Social
peace (the light of the earth) only comes after personal enlightenment. Hina falls to the sea at the full
moon. Hinana means to wink or means fierce, passionate. Her desire to see her children clean is
represented by the passionate leap of Kanae to begin the Kena, the gathering of the remnant toward the
waxing of the full moon, the fullness of humanity. Kanae is not a birdman or fairy. Kanae is a fish.
Perhaps the birds represent the spirit of humanity, where the fish represent the body and soul or the aspect
that can decay. Kanae is the resurrected body, or a hope in the resurrection of the dead. The tapu Hapopo,
the sacred first fruit we must not eat. This is Tikimaruahuka, the missing husband of Hina. He is the
standing up god of stones in the huka mist or foam. The Inca called him the Seafoam. It was his huka
(another word for spit) in the mythology that mixed with the red mud was rubbed in the eyes of the blind
Matakerepo. Tawhaki is the healer, he stamped the floor of heaven to cause the great deluge. This floor is
the table of Rata. Tawhaki climbed the vine of heaven to the drought region that Tuna was descending
from. This vine is also a rainbow in the Polynesian lore, as well as a spider‘s web – the Path of the Spider.
This legend has a significant link with the Blackfoot legend of Spiderman who linked heaven and earth. As
well, the stamping for a fountain reflects the story of Pegasus. It was the horse-men, called Centauri, who
warred with the tribe of the horse, Hippodamea and Hippocratus was this fountain of Pegasus. The
Centauri stars are called Ga Waka in Rapanui, which means plural for canoes. The Canoes, or Centauri,
lived on Mount Pelion, the wood of which was used to build the Argo for the Argonauts – the mythological
figures who parallel the Arawa and Tamarereti company. Consider its anchor, the Southern Cross, in
Rapanui, Tatauro, related to the Polynesian arataura – the rope for climbing used by the blind. The
Rapanui Milky Way, He Goe, means the Eel or many fish; The star Capella in Rapanui is Ko Toe (long hair
or left over). Capella rests in Auriga – the Charioteer (a long haired charioteer was Absalom). The
Africans name the star Yoruba, the god of death. In Mesopotamia it is Iku (Ishtar), consort of Marduk,
goddess of love, whom Gilgamesh rejected. As a result she persuaded Anu to send the Bull of Heaven to
destroy the earth. The Bull is Poseiden‘s symbol whose stomping opens the flood gates just as Tawhito..
Iku in Rapanui means ashes (eoeo). Capella, is a she goat – the Ko Toe, the one left over, the scapegoat.

The standing rod, then, is a pathway or vine or web between earth and heaven, death and life. It is the
perch of the back scratcher, the Tuke-a-Maui (Tuke – a perch used as a bird snare; Tuku to permit, to let
down, a spider‘s web; Tuketuke – a short shovel, ‗Rupe‘; Tukeroa – suns rays; Tui-tui-koviro – a circle of

299

joined hands, where koviro can mean familiarity or little one; Tukekau – short. Maui is the little one, who
divided and separated the Islands (Tawhito, the root of the land, Tamata, Tamaiwoho).
Note: Rupe means to shake. Consider this shaking a catalyst in expelling the fish from the Table of Rata,
as if it were a volcano (Easter Island Rano Raraku). This shaking one might be regarded as the owl – Ruru.
The one who flies by night (Po) and sees all things even the faults of men that causes death and decay their
bodies. Might the wings of Rupe clean men in the Sweeping of the waning and waxing of the moon cycle.
Ruruatimai and Ruruwareware are two owls who watch the food stores of Uenuku. Remember, we must
not eat of these food stores, lest we be given away by the dying son of Uenuku. Rurumahara and

Ruruwareware were guardians of Tinarau‘s water stores used as mirrors by this deity of fishes. Hina falls

in these pools and muddies them up, so Tinirau cannot use his mirrors. The mirrors are the souls of men
muddied by sin represented by the waning moon. The owls are twins just like Ihuatamai and Ihuwareware,
the stooping birds. Might this legend suggests that wise white owl is the moons bright side and the foolish
wareware owl is the dark side of the moon, both waning and waxing, flapping their wings and looking into
the night to sweep the way from the underworld to the highest heaven clean of the dust of men. Consider
the context of fish as the enemy in battle and the host army as the birds. Here at night the birds fly as owls
battling the fish, protecting the food stores of Tinirau, who is paralleled with Uenuku. It should be noted
that Tinirau as Tina or Tino is the body or trunk of a person, as is Hapopo, the trunk in the mist of Uenuku
that was tapu to name. Tini or tina is a multitude of persons. Tini-O-Te-Hakuturi is ‗The Multitude of the
Wood-elves‖, the children of Tane who cared for the forest and Rata‘s tree. Rata‘s tree felling might be the
moon itself, since the chips, slivers of the moon, are also called the ribs of Tane. We, the new Eves are
born from the ribs of Tane. Tinirau is the deity of fishes. Here it could be argued that the fish and the bird
are of the same group, the fish are wareware and the birds are atamai. Tinirau lived on the Holy Island,
Motutapu, also called, Havaiki, the Spirit World. Tinirau had nine sisters, yet, Tingahuru (ngahuru) means
ten. One is missing – Hina. He marries her to bring her into the family. Tinirau was half fish born in the
Spirit Land of Hawaiki and was a piece of flesh torn from the side of his mother, Vari-ma-te-takere. Motu-
tapu was his inheritance. Tinohi means to put heated stones on food in a native oven. Rauhi means to
place together; to collect. Rau means to handle, feel, grasp, captive, two, catch in a net or gather in a
basket. Haumi means to join or lengthen. Hau means to command or call to a feast.

cl

Manawaru, as rejoicing breaks down as mana (life, power) + waru (scratch or eight). Here Maui the
Eight Eyed is alluded to as those who are spread out as stars in the heavens, since Maui is life, Maui is also
the Mana itself. To scratch, then, represents an offering of life. Consider the scratching of Maui, the stars
spread out over the sky, linking waru, to scratch – with waru – Maui the 8-eyed stars of the sky. The deity,
Ru, spread out the heavens as a curtain and is a power at the centre of the Earth, remaining as an unborn
child of Papa. This is where glyph 2, Reinga fits, since Reinga is a level of Papa, the earth – Reinga is the
womb of Papa and Ru is the unborn Ponaturi in the Heart of Tane or Tane Manawa. Manawaru, rejoice,
because the earth is shaking, papa is swelling, the volcano of Raraku is a sign that the earth will open and
scatter the burning stones within to be among the stars or the ancestors. Ru‘s full name is Ru-wai-moko-
roa. Mokohikuwaru is the deity of lizards; with moko as the lizard, hiku meaning tail, end or head of a
stream and waru as scratch or eight. This end place was called, Reinga Wairua or Spirit‘s Leap and might
be considered as the tail of moko. It is always the Eastern side of the Island facing the West where the Sun
sets. The west represents the dying place and home of Tangaroa. Beyond the west is Te Tatau-o-te-Po, the
home of Miru, the evil goddess of Po, the underworld This is where the evil Mokohikuwaru also lives.
The moko-roa were giant lizards that crossed the sea. Their long bodies moving across the sea represent
the figurative path of a human from the Sun‘s rising to its setting, from life to death. That is, the lizard,
Moko, is a reminder of our mortality. Moko was named as Tattooing for the paths on the skin that
resembled lizards. The tattooing song of Mataora includes, Me he peke ngarara – Like the legs of a lizard
and Nga nganga a Mataora where nganga means lizard. Notice how the glyph 9 reflects this breath glyph.
Consider manganga, which means to twist as a play on glyph 2, Reigna, where if a lizard twists it looks like
the glyph. The lizard that twists ends up overturning itself and becomes vulnerable by its white and soft
underbelly. Here is an allusion to the Overturning of Matahao, the great deluge. Mataaho is the chief of
Mokoia Island, where Hina swam. Mataaho killed the dog of Uenuku and so a fierce war raged. In the
Overturning of Matahao, a great tidal wave destroys all but those who escaped to the sacred mountain,
Hikurangi or Mahikurangi. On this hill rests the Bird of the Sun, Te Manu-i-te-ra. It is the mountain on
which the sky rests and the Holy Mountain, were the first faint glimmer of light appeared when the sun and
moon were eyes of heaven. Moko also means spine as represented by the rod in glyph 9 and it may also

300

mean a small loaf or parcel of food. The moko or moo of legend could speak and were giant lizards that
lived in caves underground. Perhaps the giant turtle island of aboriginal creation mythology, Moo Island, is
this lizard in a shell. This land that Maui hauled up was a fish underneath. Moko is grandfather of the hero
Ngaru, who defeated the sky demon, Amai (apai)-te-rangi and learned from the fairy women, Tapairu, the
ball-throwing game. Amai is related to Hapai, meaning to lift up or the swell of the sea and Hapainga is a
sacrifice or wave offering – not unlike the ball-throwing game glyph. Combine moko, lizard with puna, a
spring of water and the meaning is a grandchild or descendent. Tupuna is an ancestor. The glyphs of Pua
and Wana allude to this meaning. Glyph 9 does represent a variation of the man/pole glyph, Ngati for
descendent of, together with the Reimiro glyph, might represent Ureohei, an Easter Island historic
personage. Note: another such person in the history might be represented by the two Pua glyphs side by
side, if taken as topknots, is Haumiatikitiki.

cli

Chapin (1974). Ibid. Website.

clii

Tregear (1891). Ibid. Tane.

cliii

Melka (2008). Ibid. P. 171. Fischer (1997). Ibid. P. 436.

cliv

Melka (2008). Ibid. P. 171.

clv

Horley (2007). Ibid. P. 28.

clvi

Melka (2008). P. 171.

clvii

Glyph 1: Tahi from Taha, (side) + hinga (to stoop) = one or to sweep. Glyph 1b: Routu = a comb.
Turou and Rou mean a stick used for reaching for something.
Glyph 1c: Tahi hetu from Tahi (glyph 1) + hetu, stones = sweep the sacred stones.
Kete-wananga – the sacred three stone umu oven and basket of knowledge glyph as it appears earlier in the
narrative is alternately attached to the beak of the sweeping bird glyph/
Tahitahia – Rupe‘s wooden shovel used to clean Rehua‘s dwelling.
The two side/stooping birds represent tahitahia, while portraying a wooden implement used for cleansing.
Rupe rescued Hina from the Underworld and brought her up to the 10th

Heaven of the Lord of Kindness,

Rehua.
Glyph 2: Makara = the head and a deity ruling the tides.
MakeMake is the Creator Sea God who was first a skull. The glyph represents the rising or the setting Sun,
with rays as a crown and the central teeth as a pathway glittering on the sea to the rising Creator. The sun
rising and setting occur as the twin tusks of this deity. The next glyph turned on its side is the missing jaw
of the Makara head. The mythology likens this severed jaw to the wing of Tane, the bait of Hina which
Maui used to raise the table of Rata. The Makara of ancient India, was also a water deity, with a half lion
and half elephant head. The parallel of the lion/elephant head is striking. Visible is the central elephant
trunk and the blunted tusks mirroring the Indian Elephant Deity who held his broken tusk to represent a
refusal to judge or harm his people. Here the tusks are rounded at the end, perhaps to represent the Lord of
Kindness, Rehua. An ancient ? myth tells of a serpent that came to devour man, but was intercepted by a
much larger serpent who kindly swallowed the serpent lunging to devour the man. What was left was the
greater and kinder serpent and man. The greater serpent was still very hungry and to prevent from eating
the man, kindly ate itself by swallowing its tale. The serpent eating its tale is a common ancient icon.
Consider Makara or MakeMake as a serpent on the horizon with its tale wrapping around the world out of
vision behind the rising head. As the Sun sets one might ponder Makara having completely devouring
himself for our sake. With this image in mind other names arise. Hine-Makara is the ancient heroin who
drank the water of the deluge to save the remnant of humanity from the rising sea. Taniwha is the general
name for a water monster of Polynesia and may be a mythical monster, a great shark or a whale. The
ancient Hebrew word for sea serpent or dragon is Tanin. As well, Makemake as the skull or to decay is
also represented in Hebrew as Makak.
Glyph 3: Tohere-kauwae-raro from to/toru, (three) + he/here, (necklace) = to set, as the Sun the lower jaw.
This setting of the lower jaw is also likened to the Overturning of Mataaho, where all things below the
heavens (the lower jaw) are consumed by death in the cycle of regeneration.
Text H has the three fragments that call for a three as the first Tohere is the sister glyph of Reimiro, thus
the use of necklace syllable. The texts using just two fragments produces the comb, as the rays of the sun
resemble. Whete from whe, (caterpillar) + te, (the burst forth/the figure head of a canoe) = the deity that
gave Tane the birth canal (Timutimu) to produce the first man. The caterpillar is used to complement the
lifecycle of the sun; caterpillar/setting – cocoon/underworld – butterfly/rising. It also resembles the snake
encircling the world and swallowing its tale, an action which resembles the caterpillar entering a grave it

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spun for itself The Indian Makara is a minor deity that always carries a greater deity on its back, as a
caterpillar carries the butterfly. MakeMake is the Taniwha Creator that gave of self to carry us. It brings to
mind the sweet sign of the whale that gently picked up the surfer on its back a few years ago. .
Glyph 4: Maru from ma/maripi (knife) + ru/rua (two) = Maru – the South Polynesian deity of War.
Tu is the War deity more predominant in the North. Maru dwells in the third heaven, Ngaroto and spoke to
Ngatoro of the curse of Manaia. Koripi and knife produces koru meaning a loop, much like the snake
swallowing its tale. Koro means a noose and as a deity is the son of Hina who together were rescued by
Rupe from the sacred island of Motutapu. Was this not the Hine-makara that swallowed the water to save
the people of that island. Ancient lore tells of a woman so beautiful that when she ventured into hell, it
became a beautiful place. Kore is the force of the Cosmos that represents Void, yet contains in itself the
full potential to create and express infinite power. Again, the Upper Jaw and the Lower Jaw are
represented by Tu and Maru the North and South war deities. The three baskets of knowledge have the
effect of not only keeping heaven and earth in harmony, but also North and South – that is, all the Earth.
Glyph 5: Tu-whatu from Tu (stand or war deity) + whata, (to work by using the back of hand) + u/ueha (a
prop or support) = stand war deity with the sacred stone.
Glyph 6: u-tahi-po - ? sacred stone chant of sweeping the ball…
Glyph 7: Raro from ra/rakau (tree, branch) + ro/miro (thread) = the bottom. (kauwae-raro is the lower jaw)
Rarotonga from raro (bottom) + tonga (stem, to plant, to set as the sun) = the house of Hine-nui-te-po (or
Tongnui) at the bottom of the sea.

Maui‘s hook caught this house and pulled up the Table of Rata from the bottom of the sea.
Tongarautawhiri is the wife of Rata. Maui‘s canoe is called Haurarotuia. Rau from rakau and au (thread) =
a captive. Raka (or Hawaian laka) means to be entangled, to weave, to lay over each other, to be holy, to
pass over or to miss. Rakai is to smear with red ocre. Rakataua was a boy left behind in Hawaiki and came
to New Zealand on a water monster. He was killed by Rata. Rau-Hau-a-Tangaroa was a woman sent by
Tinirau (Lord of Fishes who dwelt on the Holy Island of Motutapu) to capture Kae who killed and ate
Tinirau‘s pet whale. Tongameha was the God of the Eye near whose fortress Tawhaki and Rahiri passed
on their way to the heavenly vine. They dared not look toward the fortress or they would loose an eye or
two.
Glyph 8: Tuma from Tu (to stand or war deity) + ma/maripi (knife) = to stand with.
Glyph 9: Rakuru from ra/rakau (canoe or tree) + huru (bristles or hair) = pre-flood thief who stole the book
to teach how to catch fish.
Waka-Wananga from Chapter 3 meaning a standing canoe or rod of a medium spirit whose incantations in
this world bore him to a Wananga or spirit guide in the next. Rawa means to cross a river.
Glyph 10: Tamaroa from ta/tane (bird deity of the forests) + ma/mata (eye) + roa (lengthen) = tamaroa, a
son. Tama-nui-te-ra raised Maui in the ocean after his mother threw him out of her topknot. See other
Tama heros in Tregear to verify the importance of finding utu chants from the underworld as payment for
rescuing someone and also for Tama as deity of roots.

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Glyph 1: Poangaanga from po/poi, (ball) + angaanga, (back of hand) = the skull. Hakahetu from haka,
the hand/to work + hetu, a stone.
Glyph 1b: Tokomua from toko (a rod/pole) + mua (the front or first) = the first prop of heaven and elder
brother of Rangi Potiki.
Glyph 1c: Poangaanga, the skull.
Glyph 1d: Tokoroto from toko, (a rod or pole) + roto (middle) = the middle prop of heaven and brother of
Rangi Potiki.
Glyph 1e: Poangaanga, the skull. The skulls are used as crowns of the props of heaven to represent the
death and decay of the ancestors as an honest part of the process of their restoration.
Glyph 1f: Tokopa from toko, (a rod) + pa (a margin, edge, finish, last) = the last prop of heaven and one of
the three brothers of Rangi-Potiki, who together make up the four props of heaven that lifted their father
sky (Rangi) from mother earth (Papa).
The myth tells of Rangi-Potiki, Tokomua, Tokoroto, and Tokopa as the four brothers and props of heaven
who raised up their father the sky, separating him from their mother the earth. Rangi the sky wept from the
loss and so caused the rain. Papa the earth shook from the loss and so caused earthquakes. Ru, meaning to
shake, is the deity that raised up the sky, also called, Sky Supporter. Ru used strong stakes on the center of
the Rangimotia Island to build this arch of blue stones in the sky. Maui threw him up to the sky and he
stuck fast, where he decayed on his bluestone arch and fell as rotted bones to form stone reminders on the

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earth. Consider Ru as Rupe, also known as Mauimua, (or Tokomua). Rupe travelled as a pigeon through
the blue stone arch to the 10th

Heaven of Rehua, to request the location of Hina and return her there.
Glyph 2: Kohua-Kete-wananga – a Maori oven representing the three baskets of knowledge. Kowha from
Kohua, (Maori oven) + wha (to grasp) = to split open, or lightning.
Glyph 3: Tupo-haka from Tu, (to stand, war deity) + po/poi (ball) + haka, (a rope) = at the grave (there is)
strength
Glyph 4a-d: Mata Tama = The Gate of Rongo; Mata from ma/maripi, (knife) + ta/tane (the bird deity of
forests) = mata – an eye or a medium used to communicate with a spirit, as in an eye to heaven. Rongo-
ma-tane or Romatane are the ultimate expanded form of such a mata medium to heaven. Rongo-ma-tane is
the usually name of the deity Rongo, meaning to listen. Ro means in or inside, as inside the Gate of Rongo.
Tama from ta/tane, (bird deity) + ma/maripi, (knife) = a son or sweet potato. Tamariki is children and
matariki is the Pleiades constellation. Tamarereti is the canoe of the heavenly constellations of Orion to
Scorpio; the Pointers and the Southern Cross represent the line and anchor. The glyph impressively portrays

the two manu gods at the Gate of Rongo, open to those who participate in death‘s tapu removal ceremony

with the Kahua Maori oven.
Glyph 5: Kori-haka from ko/koko, (shovel) + ri/ringa (arm) + haka (rope, strength) = at the native oven
(there is) strength. Korau from kori + au, (a thread) = a spark, white or the son of Haumia-tikitiki. Haumia
is the water monster that killed another of his kind, lived at Manukau and was deity of wild roots, while
Rongo-ma-tane was deity of cultivated roots, such as, the Kumara.
Glyph 6: Pu/pua/popo-haka from Pu/popohaga, the dawn + haka, a rope/strength = at the dawn (there is)
strength.

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Melka (2008). P. 174.

clx

As Tiki, the first glyph resembles a pillar, a post, which in a spiritual context represents a standing up rod
ancestral deity used to protect us on earth and draw us to heaven. Therefore, Tiki means, deity. The glyph
is also a bone, or iwi. The word iwi may also point to iwa, meaning nine. Thus, Tiki iwi means, nine
deities. Based on the context of the repetitive Hikurangi glyphs, the second glyph resembles a long house,
or Paikea. Paikea as a house has only a single entrance. However, Paikea was saved from the flood of
Ruatapa. Ruatapa also means having two entrances. Read, then, as 1 – Iwi Tiki; 2 – Paikea Ruatapa,
produces, Nine Deities (or Pillars) in the House with two entrances. This imagery represents the great
Egyptian Ennead. Notice that Tiki, also means the lower back bone. The symbol on the Maui statues on
the lower back represents the deity Tiki, the pathway between the two mountains spanning the meridian is
the Sun. It is this Hikurangi, the mountain of the deluge, that Maui raised up from the sea floor with the
jawbone – another play on Tiki, where iwia, means jawbone. The jawbone as iwia, is also kauwae or
kauae, which plays on kau or rakau, with roots that mean a type of Ti tree, Tiki. Kaupae is a step ladder or
beam, which would serve as a standing up rod if taken with the meaning of kauwhau, to recite legends,
ancestries or preach. On this Hikurangi mountain island is the this Tiki whose son is Kauaki (Kauahi), the
red one who started the temple on fire. Adam is also a word meaning red in the ancient Near East. With

Kauaki on this hill of the jawbone, Kauwae, Iwia, is Iwa (like Eve of Adam‘s rib) and Kauataata, the first

woman. Ata, or Atarapa, means dawn. Atarau means the moon and Atahikurangi means the full day. Kau
itself means to swim. Hikurangi is the hill or standing place of the Sun. Therefore, Tiki Haohao, himself,
the standing rods surrounding this Sun, are the rays of the Sun. These rays are the feathers of, or the
Essence of Tane. The backbone is Tiki Iwi, the ribs are Tane‘s feathers or rays. Kauwae, Kauataata (as the
first part of the head of the Sun, the dawn) or Iwia is the Jawbone and Kauaki is the Red topknot, the
redhead of Potiki Maui the Sun. Rara means rib. The rays of the Sun, the Rara are the ribs. As kaokao,
another word meaning rib, meanings of core and the inside of a canoe are also produced, lending to the
meaning of a canoe as a Tiki standing up rod. Kaokao also means the armpit. In ancient mythology the
armpit of a deity was the place where lightning was produced and a place of secrets, riddles and mysteries.
For the first Adam, before the first flood, a mysterious companion was given as if like the Full Moon of
Hina, whom Adam fell after, so that a Second Adam would provide a mystery again who would rise after
His Ata Spirit and the New Moon would become a Rib, a Sacred Mystery, and Wax into the Double Day,
when the Moon is Full and the Sun with its Ribs of Tane rise together.

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clxi

Hao also means an eel. This glyph may represent the double eel surround of mythology. Inside the
double eel or snake was the egg of emergence. The Ogdoad (Greek for eight) lotus or egg of emergence
had eight deities inside, but later, with the addition of Ra, nine or Ennead. Egyptian Ennead was Pesedjet,
which means Bite or Spit Snake. The Ogdoad was worshipped in Egypt‘s Khmun, meaning 8-Town, and
was later changed to the Greek Hermopolis, from Hermes, or in Egypt, Thoth, who was the deity of scribes,
healing and wisdom. The Ennead centre of worship was in Heliopolis, originally named Annu, the Place of
Pillars (note 1 Tiki above). In the Hikurangi myth, the house is called, Totoka, which is a reef or rock at
sea or a place that has been fixed. If we consider the meaning of Toka, as perfect, it fits with the Egyptian
standing place where the axe swinging deity perfectly cuts our evil away from our good. Interestingly,
Toka is the Polynesian artisan who, together with Ha (meaning to breathe or cut repeatedly) tattooed the
mythological Tama to beautify him in the process of regaining his wife. Tamatane was the sacred talisman
or object tossed at Tama in the underworld to transform him from a white heron, back to human form (note
– it is Rata who noticed a white heron battling to the death with a sea snake when felling the sacred tree).
Consider the parallel myth of the wing of Tane used by Maui as bait to raise the whale under Table of Rata.
In Egyptian and Canaanite mythology, the carpenters who build this house of the gods are called Ptah and
Kathor respectively. Their names mean to open. The deity is called, the Opener, because he opens the
window in the sky that enables the rain of Baal or Hadad to produce and continue life on earth. Consider
this Opener opening the house with one entrance, Paikea and transforming it into Ruatapa – the house with
two entrances. Paikea then, represents the house of death – that whale that consumes us at life‘s end and
spits us out in the underworld and Ruatapa is the judge standing at the gate of heaven refusing us this
second entrance. How do we open him up? The Opener of Canaan, Kathor, also made for Baal two
weapon thunderbolts to defeat Yam, the serpent-like deity of chaos and the sea, not unlike Ruatapa who
pulled the plug and caused chaos at sea for those 140 chiefs in his canoe. Written above, the double snake
surround from the Egyptian word for bite now parallels with the double weapon of lightning that defeats
this deity of chaos. It is any wonder, then, that the relating world mythology tells us of a fire breathing
dragon. Also, whati means to bend in Polynesian dialects. Whatitiri means thunder. Whatitoka means a
doorway. Whatitiri is a name of Matakerepo the blind old enchantress whose chant separated heaven from
earth and whose sight was restored by Tawhaki, her grandson. Whatitiri is also a cannibalistic deity and
may be a parallel with Kui the blind. Tawhaki is the opener of heaven who climbs up to heaven on a vine
to marry Hina. He is like the beauty of the Sun, but disguises himself to her. Hina fled to the moon to hide

from the ugliness of Tawhaki‘s father Hema. The vine Tawhaki climbs is also called a spider‘s web and
parallel‘s with the North American legends of Spiderman and Grandmother Spider, who hides the Sun in a

giant urn. Tawhaki is also called Kahai (kaha means a rope). In Polynesia the old woman is blind and
recovered by the spittle and clay of Tawhaki, who also like the Messiah of Nazareth, can walk on water.
Tawhaitiri is a huge spirit standing opposite another giant named Tuapiko in the underworld (Po). All souls
must pass between them. If light, they can fly through them, but if heavy, they are crushed. Tawha means
to burst open or to scratch. In Samoan myth, called the Geneology of the Sun, O le Gafa o le La, Tawhaki

(Taha‘i) journeys to heaven to woo Hina (Sina).

clxii

Hiku means hill and is represented by the fishes tail. When Maui draws up the fish from the
underworld, it becomes a mountain Island. Rangi means the sky and is represented by the shining sun in
the glyph resting on the fish tail, or hill. Hikurangi is tapu or a forbidden word, because it originated in the
ancient land of Havaiki. It is a mountain where dwells the god Te-manu-i-te-ra, or The Bird of the
Sun/Day Bird whose house atop the hill is called, Totoka (meaning a place that has become fixed or rock in
the sea). This is where humanity was saved from the flood of Ruatapu (2 door). Another character, Hine-
makura (Moa-kura), drank the water of the flood to save us. He is the son of Te-ra-ara-kai-ora. In one
myth, Te-pu-nui-o-tonga caused the flood. Each of these names draw out meaning that help identify the
glyphs of the Hikurangi chant or at least elaborate on the mythology to aid in glyph confirmation. Another
story calls the hill, Puke-hapopo, (Hapopo is another forbidden tapu word), which was used by Paikea, (one
door or another word for house), to lead humanity to safety by the command of Ruatapu. Paike or ike
means to strike as if with a hammer. The mythology of Egypt and Scandinavia has the deity that strikes
with a hammer while standing in the holy place. This heavenly violence must be performed with
perfection, since it strikes the soul and divides it perfectly so that the good is separated from the evil. In
Polynesia, this hammer is used for beating out tapa, the native clothes from bark. The spiritual connotation
is to put on the garment of the deity, where tapa also means split or cut (as in the yin and yang of the soul).
Tapa also means to call one by name. Paikea, then, produces roots that include a long house, a water-

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monster or whale, to burn, to hammer, strike and to be good or goodness itself. When we combine the
mythology with the word meanings, we are lead to understand Paikea as the deluge saviour who brings us
to the Island Mountain of Hikurangi. Here Paikea the deity represents a Refuge or House in Person. This
royal priestly house of refuge is where all residents are purified to perfection and called by name to a
special covenant. Paikeike means a high and lofty place, to adorn, to raise high one‘s head. Pa or panga
means a riddle. Part of the Riddle involves the type of house Ruatapu has compelled us to enter. He lured
140 Ariki (Chiefs) into a canoe of which he pulled the puru (plug of the canoe) at mid-ocean. All the ariki
drowned but Paikea (the whale, the house) who escaped to Hikurangi.

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It is important to consider that consonants M and K interchange in certain areas of Polynesia. In Glyph
3, Hikurangi, can be also named as Mahikurangi. Perhaps the use of Ma signifies the river of life flowing
down the mountain, which would parallel to Hindu mythology of Shiva (also meaning red and the deity of
three faces – a possible allusion to sun rise, noon, sunset) standing on the mountain of the deluge protecting
the world from the mighty flood of Ganges. Through his beautiful long matted hair the river flows and
gently lands on the mountain becoming a source of life.

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Whaitiri means thunder. Matakerepo fits this glyph because there are no eyes on the typical Tu head.
Therefore, a blind person is intended, particularly since the three stars Po glyph is attached. The arm raised
as if taking up something or feeling after (Rapanui: naunau) is also an allusion to a blind person. Feeling
after or feeling one's way from the word, haha (naunau), may also mean blind. This word play
development outlines a significant and relevant mythology, since it is only the light souls of Po, the
underworld, that will make it past the two great deities guarding it. These are Tawhaitiri (a expanded name
of the grandmother) and Tuapiko. Piko is a word for bend and confirms these two powers that bind (the
heavy) and loose (the light) in the underworld are the actual pillars of the house of Ruatapa from glyph 2.
Tua means to chop, which is what the deity does to separate our good and evil sides or you could say, our
light and heavy sides. Tua also means a sacred ceremony of child baptism or a sacred word used to express
god or a deities infinite quality. Tua also means the back side or opposite side of a solid body or house,
which confirms our reference to glyph 2. Kekerepo is another word for blind, which may be drawn out of
glyph 5. Keke by itself means the armpit, which, together with the back, symbolizes a hidden mystery or
gift of a deity. This is confirmed by the meaning of Tawhaki‘s grandmother‘s name, Whaitiri, which is
thunder. Thunder or lightening coming out of the armpit symbolizes the revelation of a divine hidden
mystery.

clxv

Here we have the window of heaven that must be opened for the water of the deluge to come pouring
through. Mataaho is refered to in the myth, the overturning of Mataaho, the cause of the great deluge.
Notice the glyph is overturning to the right and preparing to stand as if on two feet. The two feet were
originally part of the fragmentary beams of light like those on the left, which make up the glyph for a
constellation, possibly Matariki (eye + fragments glyph meaning the Pleiades). The Pleiades is the
constellation of mythology in which all souls will gather to intensify the night and make a second son, and
so, in a way, restoring the blind eye of Horis. This is another great mystery of ancient mythology. What is
the meaning of the restoring the light of night (the moon and the stars) to the brightness of the sun of day?
It is nothing less than a massive celestial play on restoring the gift of enlightenment to fallen humanity. In
the overturning of Mataaho, we see the 140 ariki in the canoe of Ruatapa, finally tipping from the pulled
plug. Paikea, the house of one door, the whale of death, takes us to Hikurangi. Here we meet the twin
pillars and if we are light enough we will pass through. However, like Matakerepo, we are blind and too
heavy. The mythology tells that Matakerepo had 10 sweet potatos. Tawhaki, stole nine of them. Once
Matakerepo has only one sweet potato, she is light enough to point out where the vine to heaven was
located. Aho (from Mataaho) not only means day or light, but vine or cord. Tawhaki could only climb the
one secure vine to heaven. All other vines were not secured to the rock. In fact, there were two other
vines. The rock and the vine with 10 heavy and one light myth occurs in ancient China and Japan, where
the tree of life from the east has ten suns in its branches, and a hunter slays nine of them so only one
remains. The priestly sages who designed these myths were speaking of the gift of detachment, which is a
primary requirement of attaining enlightenment most profoundly expressed among the eastern mystics and
eastern religions. The goal of enlightenment then is to make your way beyond the images to the first cause;
to ascend from what is not the source, to the Source itself. The Chinese glyph of the source of a spring,
which is a symbol of genealogy conveys this mystery as it is in the form of a cat with a ladder, stairway or
cascade running down its neck. The cat ears portray the appearance of the sacred cup of the elixir of
immortality. This glyph is found in a house on Orongo, Easter Island and is expressed in the Samoan

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Genealogy of the Sun. That cat – like Egypt‘s sun-god, which in the book of the dead uses the knife to slay
the serpent of death, is the light footed deity that cannot but land on its feet. It is the One who could not
capsize – the One Door – Paikea – that leads us to the Hikurangi cascade when our world is overturning.
He is like the One Sun out of Ten that remained Enlightened, because this cat is first detached or killed nine
times.

clxvi

Before felling the sacred tree, Rata sharpened his axe on the back of his sister, Hine tu a Hoanga, the
lading standing as a whetstone. His sister informed him about the sacred incantation of Tane, Lord of the
Forests, for felling trees and that he must purify his axe on her back, the whetstone. Hoa means friends or
friendship and may be related to the chips that are reassembled on the tree. The tree or canoe stands
upright as a sacred funerary pillar or pathway. The spirits of the ancestors are enabled to use the pillar to
ascend to heaven to await the resurrection of the body, where the flesh and bones will be reassembled.
Here the chips, which are also called the ribs of Tane, are the bones of the ancestors, who are our friends.
That is, they are enabled by the Creator to return down the pathway to help those living to achieve
enlightenment. That is they are messengers of gifts bestowed on us by the Creator. As such, the hoa, the
friends, relatives or ancestors are the chips or ribs of Tane. These are found in the word play of the
Polynesian meaning of ribs, rara – which can mean a branch or twig, as wood put to the fire, or dried by
the sun, or as the sun or sunbeam. Those that die, are tested by the deity of the Sun, consider him Rata.
Rata fells the tree with the revolving Hine tu a Hoanga. Hoanga also means a volcano. Therefore, the rays
of the revolving sun correspond to the eruption of a volcano. The rays represent the glorified ancestors, and
the volcano is the purifying justice and mercy of God. This revolving volcano relates to the Hindu myth of
the churning of Mt. Madura, also related to the Mandala (Circle) of Mt. Meru, which is associated with the
ancient Stupa Mounds that contain the relics of Hindu saints and ancestors. Consider also that the Volcano
is feminine and related to Hina, the moon (Hine tu a Hoanga). She is standing – that is at the center pillar
of the moon priestess, shining like the rays of the sun. The Egyptian Ra combined with Horis, who was
blinded in one eye. Together they formed, Ra-Horakhty, perhaps Rata. This would make sense, since the

Indonesian Rata and Maui were Egyptian Navigators who circumnavigated the globe. Horis‘ good eye is

the Sun and his second eye regains its sight as he is sharpening his axe on his sister, the moon. The
churning sends out sparks and lights up the rock to the brilliance of the Sun. This entire process lends us a
philosophy and theology surrounding the process of enlightenment intended by those who produced the
language of these tablets. According to the glyph above, Hoanga has on her shoulder or back (the place of
mysteries) a sacred chip consumed by the fire of her churning. The chip on the first shoulder appears to
represent the glyph of the open mouth (nga to breath fits well here). It is the consumption of a sacred feast
of a sweet potato, the sacred Kumara, where the axe is sharpened to perfectly divide our good from evil

side. Therefore, the sweet potato represents the Sun deity (related to the Chinese mythological Chang‘e (or
Heng‘e, like Hine), the goddess of the moon became mortal when Houyi the archer saved the earth from
being scorched by shooting out nine suns and leaving one Sun to pass over the earth. Chang‘e has a pet on
the moon, a jade rabbit, which mixes herbal medicine. This jade rabbit relates to Rata‘s jade axe sharpened
on the back of Hine. The Chinese version of Rata is Wu Gang whose immortality attempts fail and is
banished to the moon to hew a tree that eternally grows back in its place. Meanwhile, Houyi found the
immortality pill from the Queen of the West (Death) and hid it in a box. Chang‘e, like Pandora, opened the
box and ate the entire pill, when only half was required to be immortal. She therefore floated to the moon.
In Japan, Korea and ancient Maya we also have the Sacred Rabbit of Immortality on the Moon.
For the ancestors to regain their sight they must follow Tawhaki, to steal the nine false sweet potatos that
are keeping Matakerepo blind and focus on only the last meal. Therefore, immortality involves a feast, the
last feast before we die. In such a feast we ascend to the moon on a thread. The American Plains
Indigenous lore tell of Grandmother Spider whose web, like the rays of the Sun, are the actual threads that
capture the Sun and enable enlightenment. The thread represents sacred scripture in Hindu rights of
passage. Therefore, the thread to the moon is the symbol of our ability to understand the process of
enlightenment, to literally understand how to enter the priestly society of the sacred feast of immortality. It
involved a jade axe, and a sculptor who perfects us into a pure and pleasing image ready for a banquet of
the meek. Enlightenment, then, involves a purging. As true parents, our ancestors in heaven would want to
see us pure, even if the greater end involves a certain discipline. In close association to the word hoanga, is
papahora, to fall into fragments, which represents the sparks flying from the whetstone or volcano. On
Easter Island, it is the Volcano of the stone Moai, Rano Raraku. These are the symbols of the ancestors
being purified. Pawa, which is a bird trap, may represent the Thunderbird on the ridgepole of the Mayan

306

cactus or tree, who is shot down by the hunters blow gun. This is the bird that scratches the back of the
Mayan deity and flies up to this sacred tree, where this blood runs down the tree as if it were sap.

clxvii

Yet the glyph is not associated with the sky above, but with the jaw Maui broke off of the deity of the
underworld. This glyph fits nicely on the water monster, Taniwha, when it is overturned. The mythology
heavily expresses the Overturning of Matahao and the refuge of the new world, the Sacred Mount,
Hikurangi. Consider when the jaw of the deity of death and judgement is torn off, it no longer becomes a
threat. Perhaps it could swallow its own tail, but nothing more.

clxviii

The Turtle Twins of the above chapter, the Falling of Hina, can support the reason the author chose to
carve it here. This turtle signifies the lamenting of our past death, and the gaze toward our future
resurrection represented by the stonework of Easter Island

clxix

Lono-nui-noho-i-ka-wai - Rongo dwelling on the waters is represented in this glyph. This is the sunset
or sunrise on the ocean‘s horizon. It appears to draw up the water with it. Therefore, the shovel may well
represent the churning of the ocean of Hindu mythology, which would mix nicely with the paddles of a
canoe on a journey to Hikurangi. The mythology tells of the rising or setting of the sun drawing up two
mountains on each side of the horizon which become the 4 pillars of the earth. The mountain on the North,
represents a divine mountain, and the one on the south representing an earthly mountain. From Ancient
Greek lore we have the clapping of the mountains and the Argo only loosing its rudder as it followed the

dove that only lost one tail feather. This is reflected in Tane‘s flight through the blue stone arch of heaven,

where a gap in the corner stone enabled the loss of only one feather. In Egypt our soul must be light as a
feather to enter paradise. Rongo is the deity of the Kumara, cultivated food (Heavenly food for the
Heavenly Mountain (Hikurangi) Feast). Haumia is the deity of uncultivated food – from the mountain of
the earth. Both deities hide in the breast of their mother, the Earth, as the West wind chases the mountains
to shake and fall back into the sea. These deities are given away by leaves coming out of the ground (a
confirmation of the Moari oven Kumara feast). Tu-mata-uenga consumes them, since, he alone held up
heaven and earth, while the West wind blew. Rongo brought the Kumara from Havaiki in his belt, which
was a rainbow, Kahukura, the deity of crops. Tu and Rongo were thrust under the waters (Kaihewa) by
Tane in one legend, where in another Rongo supports Tane in the celestial war. Perhaps the two are twins,
Rongo-marae-roa, a sacred name for the kumara, which grows underground and Rongo-ma-tane or Rongo-
nui-a-tau remains in heaven with Rehua and Tane. This is why the Eating of the God requires a produce
cultivated under the earth and the spittle of heaven. Tane, Tu, and Rongo are considered the Triad of
Polynesian Mythology. Together they make man out of clay. To clarify the glyph itself, in one ancient him

Rongo is addresses, ―the fixed Light of Heaven standing on the Earth‖ (Malamalama paa ka Lani, ku i ka
honua
). Therefore, the prayer of the priest writing the tablet uses this glyph as a representation of death as
a mere window to eternal enlightenment. The hairs on the window represent the rays of the sun and the
ancestors themselves. The sun is supported by mountains, which sway up and down as the sun rises and
sets, it causes the waters to churn which produces the elixir of immortality and the furious west wind to
blow which reminds us of our own death at the setting of the sun. We are not afraid, since we have been

given the Kumara Sun of Rongo‘s Belt, the Rainbow of Promise. This storm too will pass, a rainbow feast
will occur – we will learn to understand and participate in the feast of immortality.

clxx

see Butinov‘s Rapanui Amendments and Peculiarities in the Metoro-Jaussen list above & Butinov

(1957). Ibid. Pp. 8-9.

clxxi

Guy (1990). Ibid. P. 136. Thompsom, W.J. (1891). ‗Te Pito te Henua or Easter Island‘. The Report of
the U.S. National Museum for the Year Ending June 30, 1889.
Annual Reports of the Smithsonian
Institute. Washington: United States Government Printing Office. Pp. 447-552. Englert, S. (1970). Island
at the Centre of the World.
Mulloy, W. (Trans. & Ed.). Scribners, New York: Scribners. Métraux, (1940)
Ibid.

clxxii

Guy (1990) Ibid. Pp. 135-186.

clxxiii

Thomson and Englert: Oata, Metraux: Ata.

clxxiv

Jacques Guy defines ata as the new moon, wich Polynesian meanings, cloud and shadow.

clxxv

Thomson: Oari, Metraux: Ari.

clxxvi

Guy defines ari as the first night after the new moon, when it become faintly visible and in Hawaiian

ali means white, clarity.

clxxvii

Thomson, Englert and Metraux: Kokore tahi, Kokore rua, Kokore toru, Kokore haa, Kokore rima,

Kokore ono.

307

clxxviii

Guy defines kokore as ―without [a name] or nameless from the Hawaiian 'a'ole as meaning ―no‖ and in
Tahitian 'aore as meaning ―there is/are not.‖

clxxix

Thomson, Englert, Metraux: Maharu.

clxxx

Thomson, Englert: Ohua, Metraux: Hua.

clxxxi

Tregear (1891) defines hua from Polynesian for "fruit, scrotum, or offspring.‖

clxxxii

Thomson, Englert: otua, Metraux: atua

clxxxiii

Guy defines atua as ―god‖ and as perhaps representing a celestial being‘s or chief‘s feather cloak.

clxxxiv

Thomson and Metraux, hotu.

clxxxv

Tregear defines hotu as ―to swell or to bear fruit.‖ Guy agrees that hotu is the extra night inserted
before the full moon and describes the crescent bulge as possibly a sign of pregnancy.

clxxxvi

Thomson, Englert, Metraux: maure.

clxxxvii

Guy explains the glyph‘s appendage as perhaps phonetic by its credible representation of an animal's
penis (a dolphin's for instance); and Guy defines the phonetics of the glyph as: "maure" from "ma = with,
ure = penis.

clxxxviii

Thomson, Englert, Metraux: Ina-ira.

clxxxix

Thomson, Englert, Metraux: Rakau.

cxc

Guy describes the glyph as a filled in crescent due to its location the night before the full moon.

cxci

Thomson, Englert: omotohi, Metraux: motohi

cxcii

Guy describes the glyph as a picture of the "Cook-in-the-Moon", from Polynesian and most Melanesian
mythologies. Guy adds that the three "stones" in the glyph are umu earth oven cooking stones with the
seated human as the cook.

cxciii

Thomson, Englert, Metraux: Kokore tahi, Kokore rua...Kokore rima.

cxciv

Thomson, Englert, Metraux: Tapume.

cxcv

Thomson, Englert, Metraux: Matua.

cxcvi

Thomson, Englert: Orongo, Metraux: Rongo.

cxcvii

Guy notes that in this last quarter the glyph string with barbs and sources Routledge who describes
that strings with white feathers were used in last moon quarter ceremonies.

cxcviii

Thomson, Englert: Orongo taane, Metraux: Rongo tane.

cxcix

Guy notices the glyphs of the crescent with a frigate bird, called "taha". Guy suggests the first portion
is used to phonetically produce the syllable TA in Tane.

cc

Thomson, Englert, Metraux: Mauri nui.

cci

Thomson, Metraux: Mauri kero, Englert: Mauri karo.

ccii

Thomson, Englert: Omutu, Metraux: Mutu.

cciii

Thomson: Tueo (typing error for tireo, Guy); Englert, Metraux: tireo.

cciv

Englert places hiro after ata; Metraux places hiro after tireo.

ccv

Guy describes the final two crescents as perhaps huto and hiro.

ccvi

Tregear (1891) Ibid. Appendix A. Days of the Moon‘s Age: Moari, Moriori, Hawaian, Tahitan,

Marquesan, Rarotongan.

ccvii

In Polynesia, Ika, the fish, is used as an important symbol of the Milky Way (Ikaroa – the long fish). It
was considered the abode of the ancestors. To initiated fishing season, fishermen would offer the first fish
in the umu oven to the gods and ancestors. In Rapa Nui, the Milky Way is Te ngo‘e, a great sea creature.

ccviii

Matamea Red eye Mars It was studied from an observatory in Poike

ccix

Fomalhaut is also related to eel season. It is called, Veri koreha - the giant eel.

ccx

Perhaps tree cutting time was related to the stars, Menkalinan & Capella, in Rapa Nui: Ko toe ko peu
renga - the remnants of the fine pickaxe/energy.

ccxi

Related to the feather gathering were the stars Castor and Pollux, in Rapa Nui: Te hau vaero The
headdress made of rooster tail feathers.

ccxii

Orion was considered an origin deity or chief and his two sons. His dead wife was Rigel, in Rapa Nui
called, Tau ahu the beautiful firebrand. The nearby Canis Major constellation marked the winter or bleak
season together with Orion, where Sirius and Orion‘s belt were called, te pou o te rangi - the post of the
sky. In Rapa Nui, posts with feathers marked the sacred restricted (tapu) ground for the reading of
rongorongo. This post appears to mark the tapu ground of the ancestors, the divide between life and death.
The only way to raise a tapu is to know the secret utu chant required as payment to cross the sacred
restriction. In Polynesian lore, Tama used this utu chant to regain his wife, Rukutia. He cut her in half and
she was later found restored to life also chanting upon her grave. Tama received the utu after his ugly face

308

was beautifully tattooed. The fairies who tattooed him also gave him directions to the ancestors. Two
other stars in Canis Major include, Tau a aru ahu 2 beautiful firebrands. In Rapa Nui, Orion is also called,
E tui, the expelled, referring to its 6 stars. Rapa Nui lore has 6 children of Anakena killed and of the more
than 800 statues, only 6 with short ears. The parallel‘s suggest the learning of rongorongo chants as utu to
raise the tapu between life and death marked in the starry abode of the ancestors. Also related to Orion‘s
belt as the chief and his two handsome sons is the three brightest stars of the Southern Cross called, Mata
Te Tautoru,
the eyes of the 3 handsome ones. Also consider Achernar, Po Orongo - Orongo‘s darkness.

ccxiii

Other Rapa Nui star names include: Procyon & Gomeisa as Taura nukunuku - Nukunuku‘s rope; Rei a
tanga
or Ko Pu Tui Tangaroa‘s breastplate or the outcast‘s hole Antares, which crossed the island‘s zenith;
Nga Toa Rere means the flying sugarcane - Ursa Major; Nga Rau Hiva means the leaf from Hiva (Hotu
Matua‘s
homeland) - the Hyades.

ccxiv

Guy (1990) Ibid. Pp. 135-186.

ccxv

Tregear (1891). Ibid. toko; tiki; ura; kura; ara; po.

ccxvi

Rapa Nui gives, HA for to breathe. Polynesian use of NGA for breath is also a plural marker, which is
the Rapa Nui equivalent of GA. The transfer of GA to HA for breathing, while GA remains the rongorongo

syllable for the breathe glyph, may be an example of Metoro‘s skipping rongorongo glyphs that were of an

ancient out of use language.

ccxvii

Tregear (1891). Ibid. tiki; ura; ara; po.

ccxviii

Consistent Syllable Order refers to the usage of numbers 1 through 4 to designate syllable locations on
the glyph. Tregear (1891). Polynesian: Uhira or Uhira-urenga, yam root deity very sacred with a tapu
covering. Uhi also means a covering, from uhi, yam roots covered by the earth. Uhi also means to puncture
the ground in digging for yams, or to puncture the skin in tattooing.

ccxix

Visual Syllable Order refers to the ordering portions of the glyph from left to right. Tregear‘s

Polynesian Dictionary for rau and hi are similar to Rapa Nui vocabulary.

ccxx

Guy proposes the first three glyphs as instructions to observe and note the diameter of the waxing and

waning moon.

ccxxi

Guy notes the fish glyph is up during the waxing cycle before the full moon glyph and the fish points
down during the waning cycle.

ccxxii

Rapa Nui calls Venus in its Morning Star cycle, Hetu‘u popohaga, (lit. star of the rising ball or bundle,
referring to the sun or its rays). Venus as Evening Star is called, Hetu‘u ahiahi, (lit. star of the fire).
Elsewhere in Polyensia the Evening Star is Rangi-tu-ahiahi, (Lit. sky set on fire, which is comparable to the
Rapa Nui, he-tutu i te ahi, to light a fire). The syllables of the glyph RA/ra‘a, the sun + U/ure, the
phallus/offspring + HI, to fish = rauhi, which appears an abbreviation of rangi-tu-ahiahi. Rapa Nui calls
Venus in its Morning Star cycle, Hetu‘u popohaga, (lit. star of the rising ball or bundle, referring to the sun
or its rays). Venus as Evening Star is called, Hetu‘u ahiahi, (lit. star of the fire). Elsewhere in Polyensia
the Evening Star is Rangi-tu-ahiahi,

ccxxiii

The Birdman who found the first egg passed it onto his chief who became king for that year. This
change in government was called, ahirega, or Beautiful Fire. Another related Rapa Nui word calls the last
moment before nightfall, ahiahi-ata, Soul on Fire. Considering the language of the day, the early carvers
of this chant, used the mana of moon, sun and stars to add imagery and vitality to their chant and the
accompanying ceremonies.

ccxxiv

The first egg in the tangata-manu egg hunt is then symbolized in the full moon of motohi. Metero‘s
interpretive list calls it tagata i te hare pure, the man in the prayer house. The prayer house of Orongo
contains the maui statue, Hoa hakanana‘ia, the hidden friend. The umu oven contains urahi-urenga
(Tregear), the deified yam offering, the cook of the earth oven. The first egg of the Sooty Tern contains the
life force of the island for the entire year and is given to the chief who is responsible for the bounty of the
harvests and fishing seasons for that year. And the winner of the egg hunt is responsible to grow like a
young chick for one year at Orohie, the chirping place, where the moai statues were scraped from the earth.

ccxxv

The chant speaks of the power of Tangaroa in the tide causing the moon to rise and grow. Its sounds
beckon the rongo listener to consider that same power all the more capable of causing the spirit of the
person to grow and rise. This moon chant may very well be used in a funerary ceremony. The feasting in
its sacred sense uses the yam as an offering representing the deity himself or herself. Therefore, it is a feast
of enlightenment of the spirit of the person or persons participating, living or dead. The chant calls for the
morsal offering of the god to cause the light to enter and fill the human spirit, with the same mana power
waxing the moon or setting the umu oven ablaze. Uenuku-kopako is also a Polynesian deity hidden in the

309

mist. His only surviving son crawls mortally wounded into his father‘s feast. The father takes revenge on
the enemy who attacked his children. The god in the mist of the umu is defeating death as the participants
consume the morsel of the god.

ccxxvi

The following endnotes include myth descriptors to aid in a fuller understanding of the chant. Tregear
(1891). Ibid. Refer to alphabetical Polynesian word order.

ccxxvii

kaigamahina, pregnant moon maiden (or being satisfied with food) and combines with glyph 2
below, tangaroa-ria, meaning deity of the ocean‘s small portion. This first set of glyphs confirms (Jacque
Guy), that the full moon represents the cook with the three stones of the maori oven for the sacred umu
feast. These sacred feasts in Polynesia were sacrificial feasts of the gods, tied into the chants of the living
priests or Tahunga, as well as, those prayers of the deceased ancestral priests or Wananga. The feast had
the purpose of nourishing the gods to establish a feast for the living in rangi or heaven. That is, after the
person died they became servants in heaven at the feast of the gods (Tregear, 1891, rangi, rehua). When
they crossed the river of death they were not to eat of the meal they saw on the other side lest their
disrespect cause them to loose heaven. Yet, after the gods assembled the servants were also participants.
However, in the river of death is the great water monster of death that devours souls. Required to liberate
the dead are the three red hot stones of the moari oven. In other world lore these are called the three apples
or three pomegranates. They are tossed into the mouth of the serpent, burning up the insides of Death. The
result is the death of Death and a safe migration of souls across the river toward the heavenly umu feast in
the afterlife. Hindu lore has the deity of death consuming a potion that gets caught in the throat and
becomes blue from choking. The Blue Stone, Sapphira of the early Hebrews as a sign of the high priest and
the Polynesians may be considered here as the blue stones set in a row of Rangi or Heaven, the Wananga,
the High Priest(s) (Coleman). Hear in the moon cycle they are flaming red and blue. These are the colors
of fire and water, which combine as the symbols of war in the Mesoamerican lore. The war then from the
point of view of the island priest or Tahunga, is the war to secure his or her island people in their migration
from a full and sustainable life on earth to stars of heaven after death.

ccxxviii

Tangaroa-ria; deity of the ocean‘s small portion and deity of the moon and tides. Tangaroa comes in
the form of a seal when he first visits the island out from his domain of the sea. Water is therefore
represented as the element of the Moon, as fire is the Sun just like in Mayan Classic lore. This first glyph
of Tangaroa is standing and is perhaps a scribal error, since he is sitting in each of the other chorus lines.
However, there may be an intended use of the legs to represent the deity of war, Tu, meaning to stand.
Tangaroa is going to war for Hina, so that she might rise freely out of waning darkness to her full waxing
cycle.

ccxxix

Hina is coming out of the New Moon cycle. Consider the New Moon as the dark side, or Hawaiki in
Polynesian lore and the Full Moon as the migration to the light side or Aotea. Turi, the chief from Hawaiki
who migrates to the east in the Aotea canoe finding Aotea, a harbour in New Zealand. Turi is produced
from glyph 2 where TU, to stand and RI/Rima, hand or arm. Tu, the deity of war, dwells with his mother in
Hawaiki in a narrow section called the Mute Land. Turi, meaning deaf, must be the Tu of this Mute Land.
Is Hina‘s Moon Cycle, then, telling of this narrow Mute Land as the thin strip of land atop Rano Kao where
rest the Orongo houses?

ccxxx

Tahi(nga) – in Polynesia, the Sweeping Ceremony is performed in order to raise the restriction or tapu
from a new canoe (Tregear, 1891, tahinga). This means the canoe would be safe at sea, free from harm.
Raising tapu from a new canoe hewn from a sacred tree is a sign of respect for the island. The tapu is
essentially a sign of restriction protecting the tree from being taken for the wrong reason and with nothing
to offer in return for what was taken from the land. The priest would offer a first fish that was cooked in a
ceremonial umu oven. The umu feast includes very sacred incantations that are offered by the priest with
the first fish offering. These incantations, called utu, are payments for the raising of the tapu. This
ceremony concludes at the break of dawn when the priest sweeps at the sky with a burning branch,
mimicking the rays of dawn sweeping the ancestral stars into the enlightenment of the rising Sun, the Full
Moon or the Pleiades Constellation (Tregear, 1891, tahinga, matariki, ra, mata-hiapo). Even the sparks
from the burning branch were very sacred and likened to the Sacred Ancestors, the Stars. Interestingly, the
sweeping of this chant raises the tapu restriction, by the power of Tangaroa whose name literally means
unrestricted.‘ Tangaroa is surrounding by the moon glyph much like other Rapa Nui rongorongo deities,
whose names are placed between a pair of the same adjectives to describe the deity. The same is true with
those deities of India and China. Here Tangaroa is modified by Hina herself. That is, Hina Tangaroa-

310

hina: the deity of the sea is integrally identified with the moon, which causes the tides of the sea. Hina
represents Tangaroa or completes him much like a spouse.

ccxxxi

urahi(urenga) (ga-)rauhi(va) – the sacred deified yam and the twins are gathered together to be
nourished and filled like the moon waxing into full light. Ra‘a as the Sun glyph is widely accepted.
Perhaps there is a connection here with the ancient term for Hiva, the homeland of the original Rapa Nui
migration, giving the meaning of Hiva as the Gathering Place. Hivo in Rapanui means to pull or pull
together. Ga rauhiva means twins from vahi (to separate, the context of portions of the moon cycle). The
twins in this moon cycle of Tangaroa-Hina appear with the honu turtle glyph. Polynesian myth has
Tangaroa riding the ocean while standing on the backs of two tortoises. This may be an ancient metaphor
for a safe migration across the ocean from the Old Country to the New Country. The turtle in the chant
here has twins back to back. One appears lamenting the previous full moon and the other appears to
anticipate the coming full moon. In a canoe raising ceremony before a migration, the same twins muse
over the old world and the new.

ccxxxii

Ata – shadow or spirit. (Guy, 142) Here the spirit symbol is attached to the moon. The moon syllable
is ma, from mahina, for moon. Together they give us, maata. In broader Polynesia this means a swamp,
which may be helpful in understanding the context of the New Moon as a swamp or empty pit related to
death in myth and symbolism. More useful is the application of ma as the plural affix in Polynesia, giving
maata the meaning of more than one spirit, the people or the spirits. However, in Rapa Nui, ma‘a means to
know.

ccxxxiii

ari – to show, reveal, to resemble. In Polynesian lore, Ari and Hua are twin children of Rangi-potiki
and Papatuanuku (father sky and mother earth). The meaning of the names Ari and Hua produce – to show
the sprouting; to reveal the offspring. Their names are telling of the chant‘s chorus. Ari also means to
resemble. Then, ma-ata ari ohiro produces, the spirits resemble the twisted threads or the spirit knows
Resembles-a-twisted-tread, if ari-o-hiro is intended as a deity. Consider the context of this line with the
moon cycle and the ancient deity of Rapa Nui called, Tavake. In Polynesia his name transfers to Tawhaki,
the one who climbed the thread to heaven avoiding the two outside threads (Tregear, 1891, tawhaki). The
phrase ‗the spirits reveal the twisted thread‘ expresses this mythology since the New Moon, hiro, is called
that which appears as a twisted thread. These two threads are also seen in the ancient line, Kawa and
Maraenui were seen hanging from the forehead of Tuna (an eel) like veils. While Tuna descends because
of drought in heaven, Tawhaki meets him as he rises on his journey to Hina, his mother, in order to save his
father in Hawaiki, the Underworld. Tawhaki‘s twin brother is Karahi or Arii, related to the twin Ari in the
moon cycle. They are seeking to avenge their father Hema, a common Polynesian theme among the deities.
Kawa means bitter and Maraenui mean the great sacred enclosure. The moon cycle then has these three
threads hanging from heaven in the Tawhaki myth of Kui the Blind. Two threads bring down from heaven
bitter death and one is anchored to the house of life. Neither of these threads lead to heaven, since death
leads to the great ocean of the Underworld and Maraenui, the Great Sacred Enclosure, is brought down
from heaven to house Hina on Turtle Island in the Underworld (Tregear, 1891, Hina, Maraenui, Kawa,
Kui)
. What is left is the central thread, called Maro, between the Full Moon waning down to the New
Moon. Maro are the feathers intended to raise up the twins on the thread of life. It is the thread Tawhaki
chooses after taking 9 out of 10 roots from Kui the Blind and then restoring her sight. Tawhaki climbs to
heaven between the full moon of life and the new moon of death; between the lamenting and anticipating
turtle twins; between the bitter house and the Great Sacred House Enclosure; this makes Tawhaki a
mediator and a powerful one. The twisted threads also reveal for us a battle between good and evil,
between water and fire, the moon and the sun. The rays of the sun are the threads. In fact, Tawhaki‘s
threads elsewhere in Polynesia are called the Rainbow. Tawhaki/Tavake must climb the central thread, the
pillar of heaven, the pathway to the sun, in order to restore to life, those who have died. The rainbow is
also called, kahukura, and might also be symbolic of the fanned out red tail feathers of the Rapa Nui
Tavake
bird. Since Rapa Nui lore ensures that all offerings of the color red belong to Tangaroa, the
Tavake, Tawhaki and the rainbow belong to Tangaroa.

ccxxxiv

ohiro – the moon is like a twisted thread. Hau is the thread made from the soaked bark strips of the
paper mulberry tree. Hiro is a Rapanui deity of rain, Métraux (1940). Ibid. P. 310. One of the sacred ahu
platforms on Easter Island is called, Tangaroa-Hiro, two of the three central characters of this Moon
Calendar. One stone on Easter Island has a hole that sounds when the wind blows threw it, called, Pu-o-
Hiro
or the Trumpet of Hiro. This trumpet confirms the relationship between Orongo Tane, the hearing
call of Tane and the sound of Hiro‘s trumpet. This stone is covered with the komari, vulva glyph.

311

According to Tregear (1891), Whiro had to migrate for unfaithfulness and went to war against his brother
Hua after killing his son and hiding him in the canoe chips. Hua identified as Tawhaki, has the twin Ari,
identified as Hiro. Hua means sprout, scrotum or offspring; Atua means lord or deity; Hotu means swelling,
birth or fruitfulness. Consider Hua, defined in Tregear as genealogy and in the Moon Calendar as
genealogy of lords, deities and/or kings, along with the birthright down the line of the first mother and
Princess of the Moon, Hina. Whiro is the line or cord representing that lineage. The saying Whiro is the
New Moon which appears like a twisted thread reveals the portions of the moon cycle through appointed
offspring; Ari-hiro literaly means to resemble a twisted thread. To hide Hua‘s son in the chips of the moon
portions, is to give Hua‘s offspring a portion in the divine lineage. Representative of the restoration of this
son not only in the returning waxing cycle occurs in the brother of Whiro, named Tura, another Hawaikian
chief. This identifies Tura as Hua or father and son. Tura‘s son was born and continued to travel in
Whiro‘s canoe after Tura remained at Aotea with his wife. Tura surrendered his immortality so his wife

would survive her child‘s birth. His first white hair caused his wife to begin to mourn. To this day white

hair is called, the Weeds of Tura. Giving his life so his wife will live represents an acknowledgement of
the heavenly origin of the mother. Tura left Whiro who moved onto Wawau without him. This migration
from Hawaiki, to Aotea, to Wawau appears then to be cyclical, returning again to Hawaiki. Therefore, the
Moon Calendar, which contains expressions of the Hawaikian chiefs, Whiro, Turi and Tura, reminds
seafaring wayfinders how to follow their own migration patterns. Confirmation of this is represented in the
pre-Cook tradition of trade routes among the islands of Polynesia. Also the meaning of wawau in Tregear
is to scrape. In the Moon Calender, Whiro leaves Aoteo, the Full Moon by travelling to Wawau, the
Scraping, which represents waning which leads one back to the New Moon, represented by the Underworld
island of Hawaiki. Our moon calendar sings from Hawaiki the scraping for the sacred yam. Consider,
Turi, the war deity who stands with hand raised in the Great Sweeping of the stars, which corresponds with
the Moon Cycle, calling upon the Great Fish offering to raise the tapu of the sacred canoe to embark safely
on migration. After Turi, comes Tura, the one who sacrifices himself so that his wife may continue to
participate in the life of her son. Turi works for Tangaroa, finding the sacred island and the sacred tree and
Turi presents the heart of Uenuku‘s son in a food bundle for Uenuku to unknowingly eat. This son eaten by
Uenuku in the food bundle under the mist of the rainbow is paralleled with the cook in the earth oven and
the full moon glyph of motohi. Tura works with Whiro, who hides in their canoe chips, the dead son of
Hua. Canoe chips are payment for canoe builders, like utu chants are payment for the raising of tapu
restriction over the canoe. They also represent the portions of the moon cycle, which likens the moon itself
as the sacred tree of Rata, being chopped and restored month after month. When Tangaroa makes Hina
from a stone, the chips that fall become islands.

ccxxxv

Glyph two is likely an error, however, there may be an intended placement of the hand to the mouth in
order to represent kai, to eat, as part of the ceremony of the sacred uhi yam feast. Tahitahi means to touch
in Polyensia and Rapanui, tahitahi means to scrape with a sharp stone. Tari from TA/tahitahi + RI/rima =
tari and means to carry. Tari is also the Rapanui‘s upper end of the sugar cane used for practice as a
harmless weapon. The sparing tool, used also as a sweet source of nourishment is analygous to the use of
the sacred uhi yam as a weapon to establish the sweatness of enlightenment in the spirit of those who share
in the feast. Tare is a Rapanui spirit who visited homes with food gifts. Tare was partners with the
Rapanui gift giving spirit named, Rapahago (shining fish?). The deities personify the uhi yam and the hi
fish.

ccxxxvi

This may be another scribal error. RI from rima, the hand – the Screen or sacred barrier through
which only the Tahunga priests were able to proceed. It indicated the most sacred portion of the chant
approaching, here it was the Full Moon, Omotohi.

ccxxxvii

Tama – a shoot, a pole, the sun‘s rays, a group of people travelling in formation (Rapanui) or to listen
attentively; tamahine – daughter. Tama-mata (poles-window) is the gate to the underworld. Consider Tane
or Maui flying between this underworld gate represented by the bird seals (Mu and Weka) on the back of
Hoa Hakanana‘ia in order to escape the underworld goddess of fire. When Hau Maka dreams of Rapa
Nui,
she finds Tama, the evil fish, likely representing the above of the dead, Ikaroa.

ccxxxviii

Hua Atua Hotuhau: the fruit of the earth, scrotum, son, to grow well (Rapanui), to repeat
(Churchill); also, mahua from MA/mahina + HUA = mahua, to heal; atua: lord, deity, good omen, good
person (Rapanui, also etua); hotu: swelling or fruitful (Tregear). Mahua would be a literal reading and
means to lift up, to raise up, to grow. Prior to Hua Atua Hotu is Maharu, the ninth day of the moon cycle
of Easter Island (11th

to 13th

elsewhere in Polynesia). Maharu may be related to the Rapanui word maharo,

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which means amazement and mahanga means twins. Corresponding names in Polynesia for the moon
Maharu are Mawharu and Owaru (Tregaer). These words correspond with eight in Polynesia and/or
scraping or peeling. The moon cycle is represented in the lore as a scraping or peeling of portions of seven
or eight. As the saying from Tregear under waru, ―Hina alone keeps seven, yes, eight balls in motion.‖
Though this may refer to the planets, sun and moon, the seven portions are also represented in the seven
chips of the moon‘s quarter and the eighth is the halving of Hina, when she gives birth to the twins.
Maharu in Tregaer also points to the plural marker, ma or maha, multiplying the rumblings, haru, of the
Earthquake deity, Ru. Further study on the relationship between the number 8 and earthquake or thunder
beings may be useful.

ccxxxix

Mata-iti: Little Hina combines with the mata eye from the first glyph to form the word for daughter,
mataiti. Tangaroa (unrestricted), continues to raise the tapu restriction on the sacred meal, thus building up
all who are invited to participate. In this case it is not only Hina, but her tribe, her people, those gathered
singing her song. Tangaroa is the lord of the ocean and the moon. Shirres associates Tangaroa with Hina in
the third stage of the Maori karakia ritual, which is the offering of food to the atua or deity (Shirres, M.
1996. Ibid. Website). Tangaroa also shares many common qualities with Maui as stealer of fire and maker
of islands. Métraux states that he lands at Tonga-riki, the largest grave-site with 15 moai standing on the
ahu platform. Tangaroa arrived there in the form of a seal. In the form of a man, this lord of the ocean is
Tangaroa-mea (Métraux, 1971, P. 310). In one story he makes islands by throwing down stones from
heaven (see 1). Therefore, the umu stones that kill the serpent of death also become symbols of the islands

of life. Métraux‘s informant, Tepano, gave the account that Tangaroa was a half man, half seal. He came

from Mangareva and the people of the island tried to cook him in an moari oven. When his flesh did not

cook the people said, ―It was true, he was realy a king, he was Tangaroa and not a seal.‖ Métraux (1940).

Ibid. P. 311. Tangaroa as half seal was King of the Sea and his brother, Teko-of-the-long-feet, was from
the land and came to Te Pito te Henua looking for Tangaroa his brother. His feet made large steps and his
head reached the sky. Puku-puhipuhi was the place Where-Teko-planted-his-digging-stick. Is this digging
stick the maro stick covered with feathers and used in the chanting of the rongorongo boards? Perhaps it is
a stick used to reach into the umu oven for the sacred yam.

ccxl

Raiti – the small Sun – after the Sacred Screen or RI was set up, words were often spoken in a softer
tone to emphasize their sacredness. Here, the great star, our Sun, is called Little Sun, as a sign of affection

and familiar respect. Perhaps the ‗small Sun‘ is the morning star, Venus, used with the Sun and Canopus to

help guide the moon out of the Underworld.

ccxli

Maure rakau – sacred enclosure and tree. The Ti tree on the moon is used by Hina to make clothes for
her children out of the Taro bark. Between these two moon on the Rapanui Moon Calendar is ina-ira. Ira
was the son of Uenuku and was nourished on the heart of his mother. Such lore may represent Turtle
Mountain in the Underworld as the heart of the first Mother. All life is produced and nourished through
this heart, which rises as paradise out of the abyss. Ira also means a birth-mark throughout Polynesia or a
spot. In Hindu lore, the mark or spot is the most sacred sign of enlightenment. The mark of Cain comes to
mind. Irawaru (spot eight?) is the husband of Hina. When Maui turned Irawaru into a dog, Hina threw
herself into the sea. Irawaru as Owa, meaning warning, as the deity of dogs, signifies the barking as a
warning of human mortality. Hina jumps into the sea of death symbolic of the full moon waning that island
of life might raise her children up from the New Moon and her incantation draw Tangaroa to send down
half of paradise. Tangaroa was represented by a hollowed out rock. Hina as the Standing log. Related to
Mauri, the day or days near the New Moon cycle (Tregear). The love triangle around the royal sister,
Maurea, caused the burning of a Wharekura (temple). Mauri is defined as the heart and/or Guardian of Life
(Tregear). Maure(a), then, is focused on the sacrifice of birth in the Full Moon, where the cooked umu
offering is ready. The New Moon of Mauri is focused on the island of life. The Rapanui Moon Cycle of
Hina is an answer of how to confront the realities of life and death. Life must be sacrificed for the

offspring, while even in death there is a refuge. In fact, Tregaer identifies related moon days called, Mara‘i

in Tahiti and Marangi in Roratonga. Related is the Marae, a city of refuge, a sacred oven or to be
hospitable; Mara means a chip, a portion or a splinter, as does marama, the usual name for the moon itself.
Marae-o-Hine is a pa or City of Refuge in Hawaii, where no war party was allowed to even step, much less
kill, for the safety of defeated warriors. The Cities of Refuge were called, Puhonua in Hawaii and

Tapua‘iga in Samoa. The turtle twins find refuge on this island to lament old wounds and to heal to new

life. Mauri is the heart of the refuge of Hina in the New Moon, while the Maure is the oven paying utu for
the sacred incantations that will purchase and secure that place of refuge. An important relationship can be

313

made between this Rapanui Moon Calendar and the migration of the Moriori to the secluded Chatham
Islands 400 miles East of New Zealand. Look up Tregear‘s Maraenui, Kawa (see 22). See Hawaiki for
sacred rakau or sacred trees in Polynesia. The tree of life in Polyensian paradise is said to produce the
enlightened sons by its poroporo fruit (Tregear Hawaiki).

ccxlii

Matahiapo or Motohi. The full moon, the first-born offspring of Hina. Motohi or the full moon is the
umu oven full of the sacrificial food of Hina as deity of nourishment or Pa. That is, her offering is her
heart or the heart of her son hidden in the food, not actually, but implied in the regenerative life expressed
in the food. The Indigenous philosophy regards seeds, plants, eggs and creatures as eternal spirits do to the
Creator bestowing this gift of regeneration. It is that creative aspect or life force present in every rock,
creature, element, that ties us all together to the Creator. The Tohunga priest, then, expresses the rite to
make offering with rock, fire, water, plant and fish as if this offering was an aspect of the Creator. This
offering then has the power or mana to raise the tapu or restriction from the wood of the canoe for the
migration for example. The restriction from hazards at sea is also lifted. Consider the full moon as the
island of life lifted up by the fish-hook of Hina. Notice the right side of the moon is the first waning half,
which appears as a fishhook in the sky. By no coincidence, then, the word for right or right side, matau, is
also the word for fish-hook. This hook that Hina baited with her own bird that flies to and fro, that waxes
and wanes, for Tangaroa or Maui, enabled them to pull up Turtle Island, the island of life in the New Moon
cycle. It is no coincidence that the word for left, mau, is also the side of the moon that fills from its second
half to the Full Moon Cycle and that mau or maui also means life. Taken as a whole, the New Moon
represents darkness, emptiness, a vast dark ocean with a fierce water monster and giant birds that consume
humans. In a word, the New Moon represents death. The spirituality of Polynesia takes the first waxing
day, Ohiro, as the thread of hope and wisdom that will enable freedom from death by climbing to Rangi,
heaven. The water monster will be caught by Matau, the fish-hook on this first quarter of the right side or
Matau of the moon cycle. The second quarter waxing from the left is called, Mau, the left or the life, since
the water monster of death has been caught and is cooked by the stones of the full moon umu oven. The
back of the water monster becomes the island of life.

ccxliii

Kata means to laugh. The tapairu fairies laughed as they saw Maui stuck in the other end of the
goddess of death. This laughter woke up the goddess and Maui was killed. Here the man in the full moon
umu oven, must be Maui wrapped in the seaweed umu for nourishment; stuck in Orongo while the tapairu
laugh, sing and dance a victory celebration of the acquiring of the first egg. On the full moon face is Hina
and her mallet used to pound the mulberry bark for clothes and rope fibres (Hau). She is married to Tiki,
the first man. Tiki, the man-tree, or the tree of Hina, or Hina, the Standing Log of Timber, Ihungarupaea.
From this portion of the rongorongo chant, this moon also has stripes carved across it: Hine-ahua – from
the moon with stripes, where ahua means to heap up. Ahua is related to words for pregnancy and accent as
a royal lineage or even an altar from a heaping up of stones. The sacred raised platforms are called ahu.
Elsewhere in Polynesia they are called marae or pa. Hineahua was found floating on the waters of the
deluge. At the end of the deluge an altar (ahu) was erected to honour the moon, Tane appeared as the true
deity and forbid it. Elsewhere, the gods climb the altar and consume the moon (Tregear, Tuputupu-
whenua). The sacred turtle rescues Hina at this holy mountain called, Mahikurangi. The deluge was
caused by a refusal to give Ruatapu the sacred turtle. He killed all the tohunga priests in the deluge, only
Paikea escaped.

ccxliv

Atutahi and Rangi are the mother and father of Hina. Atutahi is the star Canopus in the Constellation
Carina, the Keel in Western Astronomy. In Polynesia, Atutahi is regarded as the most, or one of the most
important stars. The Milky Way is the basket or great fish containing all souls. Atutahi sits outside of the
Milky Way and as such is a guide for Hina to find her way back. Interestingly the glyph for Atutahi is
turning back to Hina as if to beckon her on after the fall into the Ocean through the full moon. Rangi as the
father of Hina is present in the small shrivelled Sun glyph. Remember, Tawhaki/Tavake climbs the rope to
heaven or Rangi, when Tuna is descending from a drought in heaven. The drought shrivels Rangi just as
the glyph defines through its syllables. What does this all mean? In order to save humanity from death, a
great deluge of the living waters of Tane (Waiora). These waters come from an emptying of heavens lower
levels to produce a drought in heaven. Hina‘s lament beckons half of heaven to fall to her assistance. After
the moon fills, there is the opposite effect. Therefore, scraping gathered the yams, now scraping will peel
them for consumption. In Polynesian lore, Rupe sweeps to gather Hina and her son as the full moon, then
once they are in heaven or Rehua, he sweeps with the tahitahia broom the dust away and make Rehua

spotless, thus, the New Moon. Hina‘s husband is Irawaru, eight spots or eight marks. The carving of eight

314

moon quarters or eight spots purifies the moon of all spots at Rehua, the New Moon, or Tenth Heaven

where Hina‘s heart‘s lament was heard.

ccxlv

5 marama. There are five moons here, contrasted with the six above. Consider the Turtle, Honu or

Ono as the sixth.

ccxlvi

Rangi and one day waning riko. Rangi and ngari mean the same as a canoe timing chant. Hina
paddled her canoe to the moon. Her standing log is also considered a standing whetstone for Rata to
sharpen his axe upon. The waning and waxing sections of the moon are considered the sacred sparks of
this sharpening, or the fire stolen by Maui; they may also be the chips of Rata, hiding the dead son of

Uenuku/Hua whose son‘s heart was also hidden in the meal of which he later ate.

ccxlvii

Maro – a sacred marking stick with feathers. tangaroa mihi is a chief who owned the man-eating
monster, Kataore (laughing biter?), from Tikitapu (the forbidden), killed by rope snares in contrast to the
three red-hot stones thrown from above by Tangaroa to produce the islands. This connection with the
Chatham Islands is made more evident by the curious explorer named Kohu in the Tane canoe who
returned to Hawaiki after finding the islands. Consider Tane as the Hine bird of Tangaroa flying to and fro
until finding land. Kohu means mist or fog, related to Uenuku the rainbow whose misty land is a safe
haven or refuge where no war party may enter. The Chatham Island explorer, Kohu‘s name, was used for
the largest Chatham Island, Rangi Kohu (ReKohu). The use of Re or Rangi, then confirms the Maure or
Marangi name as a refuge appointed by the deities of the sky or heaven. Kohu is the husband of Ika-roa
(long fish or great fish), the Milky-Way and their children are Nga Whetu, the stars. The stones of
Tangaroa that fall in the mouth of the great fish are likened to a sacrifice of the first fish from the umu oven
used to secure safe migration journeys at the Sweeping of the Stars ceremony. This ceremony of the priests
burning branch waved at the sun rays of dawn cooperates with these rays to gather the stars into Matariki,
the Pleiades Constellation or the Waxing Moon, the heart of Rangi the sky. Completing the cycle at dusk
would return the stars to their place on the belly of Rangi the sky, or the open umu oven of Ika-roa, the
great fish sacrificed to secure the migration of souls after death to turtle island found by Hina and
representing her compassionate heart. Another name for this umu oven is the kohu oven, since the burning
rocks cause the water to become mist (kohu) and to boil the fish and sweet-potatoes inside. The
relationship with Ika-roa is the misty appearance of the star clusters gathered there.

ccxlviii

Orongo tane – the calling bird who enables us to hear (orongo). The word Orongo in Polynesia is
associated with Rongo, Oro and Koro. The three prior Rapanui moons are Tapume, Matua, Orongo and
then wanes Orongo Tane. Perhaps to consecrate (tapu) in company with (me) the parent (matua) of the
hearing place (Orongo) of the Sacred Crying Bird (Orongo Tane). The cry of first parent is a lament for
falling from heaven and it is a great sign for his and her children to learn how to rise. Following Orongo
Tane are the Rapanui moons: Mauri Nui, Mauri Keno, Mutu and then Tireo. This means the Great Heart
(Mauri Nui), the Heart in death or in the dark land (Mauir Keno), the moon brought to an end (Mutu) and
gaze in anticipation (Tireo). Mutuwhenua is the Maori term for the New Moon and can be translated as the
end of the land. Mutu in Maori mythology as Tekau mutu, is the manner of counting from one to ten. The
counting of Tawhaki (Rapanui‘s Tavake) involves the ten kumara roots of the blind woman and is related
to the climbing of this thread to heaven after Tawhaki restores her sight in exchange for nine of her ten
roots. Tireo and Hiro are the final moons, meaning anticipate or look out with hope for the thread of Ohiro
(see 26 and 8).

ccxlix

Tireo, honu mahanga – the turtle twins appear in the stage of the moon on Rapanui called, Tireo. The
word appears to be associated with Tiro, meaning to observe or to gaze. There are two perspectives of
these hero twins. One is observing the waning cycle and lamenting the full moon, while the other is gazing
at the waxing cycle and anticipating the full moon. This crier and the dancer have been images of global
indigenous lore. Midway through the Moon Calendar is the Full Moon. It is the cook on the moon with the
three stones of the Moari oven, representing the celebratory feast of the offering that removes the tapu from
the sacred canoe, which now can embark on the migration of Rata or Whiro, Turi or Tura, or all of the
deities migrations combined. Why? Because they all need the moon to travel on the ocean and since they
were the original ancestors, their stories or mark have been left upon the moon Calendar. Opposite the
moon cycle from the Full Moon is the New Moon. Yet, the Turtle stands before it. Therefore, at the New
Moon, the symbol of darkness and the pit of death, there is a Turtle. This Turtle is the Island in the
Underworld where Hina fell and gave birth to the Turtle Twins. In Mayan lore, the Great Goddess mural in
Teotihuacan not only holds the same tree of life, but beneath her is a great mountain in the underworld
which is her very own heart. From this heart she allows to flow all life. On the Moon Calendar then,

315

Hina‘s heart brings forth safety for the twins who would otherwise die in the Underworld. The imagery of
Turtle Mountain as the heart of the divine Princess Hina in the Underworld, overlaps that of the Sacred
Canoe of Rata breaking through the breakers of death; similarly the stone of Maui swallowed by the
Underworld serpent defeats the power of death; also Tawhiki his brother speak to the blind woman with 10
sweet potatoes trying to find a way out of the Underworld. Tawhiki takes nine, as if a thief like Whiro, but
then returns her sight. She points him to the mountain with three cords. The one on the left and right only

swing back and forth (as the moving cycle of the Moon Calender). In fact, Tawhiki‘s companion is almost

thrown to his death when he tries to climb them. However, the centre cord is grounded on the Mountain as
enables Tawhiki to climb to heaven. Whiro appears as the two threads where heaven comes down so that
we can rise up on the Hama thread with Tawhiki to heaven. Any one of these parallels by themselves
might represent a mere coincidence, but taken together express a spiritual sophistication among the ancient
Rapanui priests who weaved the entire spectrum of Polynesian mythology into the Moon Calendar of the
Easter Island tablets. Confirming this mythological weaving is the finding of the Rongorongo chants of

Maui‘s Ball Game and the Canoe of Rata elsewhere on the tablets also tied into the Moon Calendar when

each word is correctly deciphered.

ccl

Hawaiian rock art: From Oahu and now in the Bishop Museum of Hawaii
Resembles Easter Island birdmen without the beak, (Lee, 1992)

ccli

Coleman notes the Tongan Tangaloa made a wife by carving stone and throwing the chips in the sea to
become the islands. As a bird he layed the cosmic egg, that broke on the waters to become earth and sky.
Hina a rauriki was captured by an octopus; so rogo, tangaroa and turi fished it up and killed it. Tangaroa
emerged from Po. He and Atea tried to claim Papa‘s first child. She cut the baby in half. Atea made the
sun. Tangarao made the moon. Tagaro the Wise (creator)/ Tagaro the Foolish (destroyer). Tagaloa
(Samoan) pulled a rock up from the ocean so his daughter Tuli could make a nest. Kanaloa – Hawaiian
squid god and creator god – ruler of the dead.

cclii

Larousse also notes that Tangaroa-upao-vahu created the earth from rocks thrown into the void from

the sky. From Tahiti, Ta‘aroa is born from a cosmic egg that breaks in two; where half of him become

earth and half the sky.

ccliii

Tregear adds that Tangaroa threw down stones that became land. Tangaroa sent his daughter down as
the bird Turi to find land after a deluge. She flew back and forth. When she found land he sent her down
with a vine (rakau). Soon the first man (Ariari) was made of stones and fire with a mate. Tangaroa was
seen in the moon and worshipped during May. Everyone was to stay indoors, and only men were permitted

to touch the sacred tapu food. Tangaroa‘s share of offerings was red, (red taro, red fish, etc) and his

children had golden hair (Anau keu a tangaroa, kua piri paa i tea o (the fair-haired of tangaroa were born

from blazing light). Elsewhere ―Tangaroa is the root, he is the rock; taaroa is the light, taaroa is within‖

and deity of artisans.

ccliv

Englert notes in his Leyendas: Teko the Giant and another Tagaroa. In three steps Teko could arrive to
Te Pito te henua, but he discouraged Tagaroa who wanted to travel there. On the fourth day, Tagaroa went.

In three steps Teko went and said, ―Tagaroa, where are you?‖ There was no response. The giant went back

to Hiva lamenting his brother. A seal arrived at Hanga-iti. A woman preparing her oven, went to wash her
taropa basket. There is a seal. The husband and men noticed it was sleeping and put thin ropes around it
and tied it to some rocks. Then they started hitting it. Tangaroa said, ―I am Ariki, I am Tangaroa, leave me
be!‖ ―You lying seal‖ they continued and killed it, cut it up in pieces and cooked it, but it did not cook well,

thus Hanga iti is called Haga tagaroa mea (close to Tonga-riki). They sent a piece to the people of Hanga
Hoonu, it also di not cook well – they named the place Re‘e (Ko Re‘e).

cclv

Felbermayer, Fritz. Lieder Und Verse der Oster-Insel // Zeitschrift fur Ethnologie, Band 97

cclvi

Shirres, M. (1996). Ibid. Website. I. To Become One with the Ancestors and Spiritual Powers – the

Setting Up of the Rods.

cclvii

Jaussen‘s List from Chauvet (1935). Ibid. P.173.

cclviii

Guy, J. B. M. (1999). Peut-on se fonder sur le témoignage de Métoro pour déchiffrer les rongorongo?
Journal de la Société des Océanistes. Vol. 108. No. 1. Pp. 125-132. P. 125.

cclix

Davletshin (2002). Ibid. P. 12.

cclx

Davletshin (2002). Ibid. P. 4.

cclxi

Krupa, V. (1973). ‗Tane in the Easter Island Script.‘ Asian and African. Bratislava. 9. Pp. 115-119.
Krupa describes the glyph as the Sun or sky deity, Tane or aspects of the sky. In this case, to gather or
sweep the stars, the sweeping tail of Tane would be the rays of the Sun.

316

cclxii

Fischer (1997). Ibid. P. 414, 418.

cclxiii

Most sources agree that the Sun glyph is Ra‘a.

cclxiv

Krupa (1971). Ibid. P. 8.

cclxv

Guy, Ibid. (1990). Routledge (p. 245), Anonymous website:
http://web.archive.org/web/20060927085655/www.rongorongo.org/routldge/254.html

cclxvi

Fischer, (1997). Ibid. P. 335. (Routledge, 1914-15: Reel 2, notebook, p. 49r); Metraux, A. (1940).
Ethnology of Easter Island. Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 160. Honolulu: Bishop Museum Press. P.
330.

cclxvii

Mètraux, A. (1971). Ethnology of Easter Island. Bishop Museum Bulletin 160, Honolulu.

cclxviii

Felbermayer, Fritz. Lieder Und Verse der Oster-Insel // Zeitschrift fur Ethnologie, Band 97. Found on
website: http://www.nzetc.org/tm/scholarly/tei-GregKong-c1-49.html.

cclxix

The Rapanui-English Dictionary. Website: http://www.rongorongo.org/vanaga/a.html

cclxx

Tregear (1891). Ibid. Whiro, Maui. Hine-nui-te-po.

cclxxi

As well, a confirmation of the feathered cloak of Atua which appears like the nanaia breaking wave in
the rongorongo moon calendar. Wave in Polynesian is teatea, related to Atea/Watea, the deity of daylight.
Elsewhere in Polynesia, Atea is related to or interchanges with Rongo, Tangaroa, Papa and Rangi
elsewhere in Polynesia (Tregear 1891). In Hawaii, he is called, Hakuakea (Atua-Akea), relating him to the
waves of the song above. He is also married to Hina or Papa bringing forth together islands and ocean. In
Mangaia, Vatea‘s home is called, the Thinland, Te Paparairai, the highest heaven, perhaps alluding to the
thin rays of the Sun. Tregear (1891). Ibid. Tangaroa, Rangi, Rongo, Papa, Hina, Atea.

cclxxii

An exploration of the relationship between Atea/Watea/Wakea and Waka Hiro of Japan, Wakan Tanka
of North America would also be useful in contrasting the development and interrelationship of Indigenous
myth. Coleman, J. A. (2007). The Dictionary of Mythology – An A-Z of Themes, Legens and Heroes.
Toronto: Arcturus Publishing Limited.

cclxxiii

Campbell, R. Chant 21. Cantos – Koro Rupa.

cclxxiv

http://www.nzetc.org/tm/scholarly/tei-GregKong-c1-49.html. From the Easter Island lament: Hiro-
hiro te tangi/ a Ti-rau, a Ko-veri/ mo taina era ngaro era.../I oto noho ti aha no Timona,/ i tangi hokorua
noo,/ rau a Ko-Veri-iti.../ Hiro-hiro te tangi.....

cclxxv

Shirres, M. (1996). Ibid. Website. Te Mate Whiro. The Manuscripts of Edward Shortland. Chant
source from the Arawa chief, Ringori Te Ao.

cclxxvi

Scholars are in agreement that the glyph represents rakau, the night before the full moon. The smooth
surface points out the syllable. Also, a contrast of names used for this night across Polynesia helps
expound the meaning of this and all the moon nights of Rapanui.

cclxxvii

Scholars agree this glyph represents the Full Moon, Motohi. Jaussen‘s List uses tagata i te hare pure
or ‗man in the prayer house‘. The Full Moon as ‗the cook in the sky‘ and ‗the man in the prayer house‘ and
‗Hina beating her tapa cloth‘ point to the sacred rites involved in Polynesian and Indigenous spirituality. It
is as if the fish offering and/or the yam root are types of ‗eating of the gods‘ portions. To be pure, one must

participate in the umu oven at the New Moon or Full Moon feast, where the first fish or first seasonal yam
root becomes god or tangaroa by way of the most powerful incantation, the Falling of Hina moon calendar
chant. Notice tangata is the man glyph used with the turtle twins and confirms the awareness of Jaussen‘s
informant.

cclxxviii

Not only does the ‗o‘ transfer tell of priests who represented Rapanui mythology in their chants, an
even more striking correlation points to the mythology originally designed to suit the Easter Island dialect
itself and therefore the rongorongo tablets (see Maui‘s Ball Game, maui or moai).

cclxxix

Felbermayer, Fritz. Lieder Und Verse der Oster-Insel // Zeitschrift fur Ethnologie, Band 97

cclxxx

Guy, J. B. M. (1999). Peut-on se fonder sur le témoignage de Métoro pour déchiffrer les rongorongo?
Journal de la Société des Océanistes. Vol. 108. No. 1. Pp. 125-132. Pp. 125, 127.

cclxxxi

http://www.nzetc.org/tm/scholarly/tei-GreKong-c1-60.html

cclxxxii

Fischer, (1997). Ibid. Pp. 312-313. Routledge, Ibid, p. 248. Routledge‘s informant was named,
Tomenika, and was considered the last know writer of rongorongo whose physical and mental health was

waning due to leprosy and age. At one point Routledge confessed, ―(Tomenika) acknowledged the figures
(of rongorongo) as his work, recited ‗He timo te ako-ako‘ and explained that some of the signs as having to
do with ‗Jesus Christ.‘ The outlook was not promising.‖ p. 250. She expresses her final attempt to work
with Tomenika to decipher the script on the night before he died, ―It was late afternoon on a day of unusual
calm, everything in the lonely spot was perfectly still, the sea lay below like a sheet of glass, the sun as a

317

globe of fire was nearing the horizon, while close at hand lay the old man gradually sinking, and carrying in
his tired brain the last remains of a once-prized knowledge. In a fortnight he was dead.‖

cclxxxiii

Tregear (1891). Ibid. Ihu.

cclxxxiv

Kaulins, A. (1981). An Astronomical Zodiac in the Script of Easter Island. 1st

ed. Germany:

Darmstadt, Diebrugerstr. P. 156. Website:
http://www.andiskaulins.com/publications/easterisland/easter.htm. Berthin et al. (2006). P. 95.

cclxxxv

Mètraux, A.. ‗The Kings of Easter Island‘. JPS. Vol. 46. No. 182. Pp. 41-62.

cclxxxvi

Mètraux, Alfred. Ethnology of Easter Island. Bishop Museum Bulletin 160, Honolulu, 1971.

cclxxxvii

Sagen und ‹berlieferungen der Osterinsel / Fritz Felbermayer. N¸rnberg : Carl, c1971

cclxxxviii

Jaussen‘s List from Chauvet (1935). Ibid. P. 173. Fischer (1997). Ibid. P. 615.

cclxxxix

Jaussen‘s list uses te tagata kai or ‗the eating man‘ in Chauvet (1935). Ibid. P. 173. Fischer (1997).

Ibid. P. 615.

ccxc

Toia Mai: A big ornate war canoe was a symbol of the mana of the tribe, …But the ancient "Toia Mai"
chant was then used to welcome visitors arriving by canoe at a riverside marae, to symbolically "draw them
ashore."

ccxci

Te Tiriti: At Waitangi in 1840, after 20 years of ruinous inter-tribal musket wars, Maori signed
sovereignty of their country over to Britain, in return for guarantees about their land and other possessions.
But a giant land grab (E Pa To Hau) then took place when British capitalists and venal officials ignored this
treaty for the next 120 years.

ccxcii

Mana Motuhake: Literally "separated prestige," or the authority and capacity to be autonomous. This is
a political term created during post-Waitangi attempts (Hoia Ra Nga Waka Nei) by Maori groups to
continue to control their own affairs or regain jurisdiction that had been removed or lost.

ccxciii

Te Tangi A Te Manu: This is an old karakia whose words have been incorporated into this modern poi
song. It connects us to world of the atua by way of bird-calls, and then it focuses on the good news of the
shining cuckoo's distinctive September bird-cry announcing the end of winter ...May the spirits give us a
summer that is without storms or drought. Metaphorically ...May the spirits give us what the Treaty
promises.

ccxciv

The Shining Cuckoo: The Pīpīwharauroa spends winter in the Solomon Islands and then flies down to
New Zealand in late September to breed in our forests. It replaces the eggs in Grey Warblers' nests with its
own eggs, and leaves those little birds to hatch and rear its chicks.

ccxcv

Guy (1990). Ibid. Pp 135–149. Rangimarie Turuki Rose Pere, Dr. (Working Paper No. 17). Nga
Kawai Rangatira O Te Wheke Kamaatu
(The Eight Noble Tentacles Of The Great Octopus of Wisdom).
Consider including in the circle of those deciphering the Easter Island tablets, the living Indigenous elders
and proteges throughout Polynesia whose ancestors carved a permanent seal of approval on their hearts
through these tablets. This circle includes the vision and wisdom of Dr. Rose Pere. Her teaching of Te
Wheke Kamaatu Mai I Te Toihanga O Nga Rangi Tuhaha, (
the Octopus of Great Wisdom From the
Uppermost Of The Far Flung Heavens), is this not a vision of the moon cycles themselves as expressed
wisdom in their eight quarter tenticles and full moon head. Tregear‘s myth of Wheke Tapairu relate that
she is indeed Queen of the Moon, yet broken to pieces to be food for the ponaturi birdmen as they perceive
how the Eight Noble Tenticles of Wisdom are integrated into their hearts and lives.

ccxcvi

Rangi Marie Tutuki Rose Pere (2010). Facebook wall post responding to

ccxcvii

Berthin et al. (2006). P. 95. Figure 5: Marami Lunar Calendar and Proposed Translation; Guy, (1990)
Ibid. p. 144. Berthin and Guy shed light on the possibility of the U/ure syllable usage: Guy argues from an
ethnological perspective that the phallus or ure glyph is likely a resemblance from a male dolphin. Berthin
uses the term ‗male verility‘ in semiotic fashion to describe the glyph. Moreover, Berthin describes the
glyph attached to ra‘a, the Sun, as a bending silver cord, representing rangi, the sky, a confirmation of the
syllables RA and NGI, used above, Berthin (2006). Ibid. P. 96. In line with Berthin‘s approach, a respect
for the wisdom of these ancient sages afords the possibility that a syllabary works side-by-side with a
semiotic/logographic system, not merely as a form of confirmation as with the Egyptians, but as a riddle
scrambler that enables a deeper understanding of each sacred word.

ccxcviii

Pozdniakov et al. (2007). P. 8, 29. Glyph 44, a double of the ure glyph occurs mostly, though not

exclusively in the final position of the glyphs as does its syllable ‗U‘.

ccxcix

Chauvet, S. (1935). L‘Ile de Paques et ses mysteres (Easter Island Mysteries). Paris. Editions ―Tel‖.
Figs. 173-176. Répertoire des Signes Idéographiques Boustrophédon de L‘ile de Paques. Metero‘s Reading
uses Kihikihi. The Jaussen List. Where the line with a four or five marks is Jaussen‘s mosses, the line with

318

6 or more marks is Jausen‘s feathers. The feathers relates to hiro/ari from Guy, (1990). Ibid. Pp. 135-149,
and hiro/ari glyphs with threads produce hiro/hau syllables.

ccc

Rjabchikov, S.V. (1998-2005). Website: http://rongorongo.chat.ru/glyphs2.htm.

ccci

Fischer (1997). Ibid. P. 619. Fischer confirms Barthel‘s moon 40 sign (with crescent arching left) as

Hina, the moon goddess or mahina, the name of the moon. Where as, the moon 41 glyph (right arching) is
the name for month, marama, also considered the moon specific to the 30-day calendar. Guy supplies,
Mahina: Guy, Ibid. p. 144; Rjabchikov also uses Hina, Rjabchikov (1998-2005). Ibid. Webpage.

cccii

Jaussen‘s List uses kakarava, to lean or noi arurua, to bow in Chauvet (1935). Ibid. P.173. Berthin et al.
(2006). Ibid. P. 95. Berthin‘s semiotic interpretation gives the leaning bird the meaning of ‗Tane Ordains‘.

Given the use of the syllable TA from tahi, side-view + HI from Hianga, to stoop + NGA, produces tahi, to
sweep or tahinga, the Sweeping Ceremony. Since Tane represents the rising Sun (Tregear gives the dawn

as the Bright Road of Tane and dusk as the Long Road of Tangaroa), and the sun‘s rays are likenned to the
broom that sweeps the ancestral stars in the Sweeping Ceremony, the use of Berthin‘s semiotic translation,
‗Tane Ordains‘ works with the syllables for tahinga above.

ccciii

Krupa, V. (1971). ‗Moon‘ in the Writing of Easter Island. Oceanic Linguistics 10 (1). Pp. 8. Krupa
agrees with Barthel use of ‗hi‘, but applies a doubling to the syllable to produce the contextual line, ‗The

rays (hihi) of the fair sun (ra‘a renga) are asleep (moe).‘ Fischer. (1997). Ibid. P. 617. Fischer expresses
that Barthel‘s interpretation developed on the fish on a line glyph from ika (hanging fish or victim), to
moroki (bait), and finally to hi, (the verb – to fish). Jaussen had yet to develop this understanding: Chauvet,
Ibid. Jaussen‘s List and Guy, Ibid, pp. 140-141. Jaussen proposes that the ‗fish on a line‘ glyph is read as
other fish glyphs without the line: ika, fish. De Maat proposes this fish produces the last syllable KA from
ika, De Maat (2009). Ibid. P. 8.

ccciv

Guy, ibid. p. 144. Rjabchikov (1998-2005). Ibid. Webpage. Berthin et al. (2006). Ibid. P. 95.

cccv

Berthin et al. (2006). Ibid. Pp. 95-96. Berthin defines the diagnal lines as ‗obscurred...incomplete‘.
Incomplete relates to the definition proposed above as ‗heaping‘ or ‗a stacking of separate or incomplete
parts‘, producing hua. Any glyph with diagnal lines presents the hua syllable, HU, in the extended word
the glyph forms. The syllabary exists along side complementary semiotic meanings.

cccvi

Pozdniakov et al. (2007). P. 8, 29. This scrotum glyph is found mainly in the final position of
connected glyphs as does the syllable HU and U.

cccvii

Guy, Ibid. p. 144. Guy‘s mahina produces the same syllable MA from marama, both are terms for the
moon. Notice that the moon name maure, offered by Thomson, Englert and Metreux, and identified by the
‗phallus glyph‘ by Guy, is attached to the moon glyph producing MA + URE, which bridges the gap
between the 30 day moon count and the glyphs appearance.

cccviii

Berthin et al. Ibid. (2006). P. 95. Berthin gives the eye glyph as, ‗to see‘ or u‘iga, the above

translation proposes the eye or window syllable, MA from mata.

cccix

Pozdniakov et al. (2007). P. 8, 29. The syllable MA is used in this decipherment usually as the first
syllable in the glyph even when the second syllable is attached to the left. A reading from left to right
occurs on the lines, but glyph words can be read from right to left, although the bottom centre is the first
syllable.

cccx

Fischer (1997). Ibid. P. 615. Fischer and Barthel offer, ‗to eat‘, kai. The Rapanui word for to eat is
gau‘. See the tagata/tangata, man glyph listed in the significant word section.

cccxi

Most scholars agree that this sign represents Ra‘a, as well as, Jaussen‘s list. When it appears in the
chant, RA, is the syllable used.

cccxii

Jaussen‘s list from Chauvet (1935). Ibid. P. 173. Berthin et al. Ibid. (2006). P. 95. In the moon chant‘s
second verse, the arm is touching the mouth. Berthin offers the semiotic meaning as, ‗the feeding‘,

supporting reference to the feast, the full belly of the food deity and in the case of this syllable RI, the use
of the arm. RI from rianga, is the syllable appearing as a hand or arm used as a sign of the Sacred Screen
or RI. Once this Screen is set up no curse can penitrate it and only the priest or the priest‘s servants are able
to enter. The sign of the arm becomes a syllable due to its important use in the ritual and language of the
priests.

cccxiii

Pozdniakov et al. (2007). Pp. 8, 29. Pozdniakov gives only three glyph options for the final syllable
position, one being the arm glyph and one of the four choises in the interpreted writings is the syllable RI.
This means the glyph and syllable are highly likely to be a match.

cccxiv

Berthin et al. (2006). P. 95. Ibid. Berthin applies the semiotic meaning, ‗seated‘, to the above syllable

TA from tahi, side-view. Berthin confirms the meaning of one fragment of a glyph adds a new dimension

319

to the interpretation. Berthin provides more insights that extend the research of the above syllabary.
Metissage calls for this external inquiry to offer fresh insights and vital in such difficult research.

cccxv

Pozdniakov et al. (2007). Pp. 8, 29. The syllable TA and the 380 glyph usually occur in the initial
position. The glyph is also noted as rarely in the final position.

cccxvi

Pozdniakov et al. (2007). P. 8, 29. Though Pozdniakov does not quantify the TU syllable, the glyph
appears as it should, usually in the initial position and rarely in the last.

cccxvii

It is on the moon that she pounds the tapa bark to make clothes for her children. The clothes enable
the children to participate in worthy attire at the meal of the gods. In tattooing, it is likely pounding that
caused the punctures on the skin of the youth. Therefore, the pounding of Hina‘s bark to make worthy
covering for here children, is likened to the pounding of the tattoo, filled with the resin of the same
pounded bark.

cccxviii

Tangaroa-haka ma, Lord of the ocean purifies; or tangata-haka ma, to become a pure man.

cccxix

Tahi in Rapa Nui is also the scraping of roots and statues. Tahae is a theif, which was Maui stealing
the fire of the Underworld and snaring it at the house of the rising sun.

cccxx

This glyph for Orion, usually Tautohu, may also be Poaka, Rigel. Here it produces Pohi, the ball
game, but with Tautoru would produce tauhi, the sprinkling. Perhaps this is the black dye of the Poporo
berries being sprinkled onto the cuts from the tattoo.

cccxxi

Guy (2006). Ibid.

cccxxii

Tapairu means a princess or queen, a female ariki, fairest, a very sacred ancestor. Also the Octopus as
the ariki‘s sacred food. The Myth tells that she became queen and first ancestor with her husband, Toa.
Tapairu are little fairies that live in Po (the Polynesian Hades) as evil and in the sky as good. Eke-Tapairu
is the Divine Octopus. Possibly there is a contrast between the sacred 8 eyed Maui, the eyes in the sky, the
fairies in the sky and the Octopus. The eyes represent enlightenment, as does the top-knot of Taranga‘s
hair, where her son, Maui was nourished. Then he was wrapped in thrown into the sea and wrapped in
seaweed to be nourished by the ocean fairies. Thus the child, Poi, would be the Poi Taro food fermented as
a white ball paste from the Taro root. The white elixor of immortality is commonly associated with the
swinging ball offering of incesnse tossed in the fire, or white fermented sap or root used in sacred meal
rites. This occurs in ancient Maya and Polynesia. Tarawa means to lay across, as Orion‘s Belt and
possibly refering to the belt as the Maui, the life, laying across the Top Knot, the Sacred Hair of Taranga.
The Hair is the Seaweed, as the waters have fallen over this sacred hair in Hindu myth. Tara also means
the fork in the tree, the spear, as presented in glyph number 3. The meaning draws out Maui as a Star, or
the horns – that is Tara, to throw out rays, as Morning Star. This is a net, a snare for catching birds. Maui
is the one who noosed the Sun, Tane/Tavake. Taro or Tara is a solemn prayer, and incantation, a sacred rite
of cutting hair.

cccxxiii

In Rapanui, Maungu, is mountain (Rapanui Dictionary), what the brothers of Maui made when they
stabbed the fish on Maui‘s mountain. Mountain in Maori, Maunga, has a second syllable related to
ngahaehae (torn in strips). Maui represented as bark is torn in stripes to be blended as rope with the
topknot of his mother Taranga (see below). The entire image represents the food torn and divided from the
Maori oven with the corresponding flame stollen by Maui from the pathway of the Underworld.

cccxxiv

Ponga/Poha = PO (ball, Orion) + NGA (to breathe/ PO + HA (four) = mythic hero who captured the
heart of Princess Puhiou/ seaweed basket. Rimu = Seaweed. Maui is wrapped inside. The top is now open,
possibly representing Maui wrapped up tight, possibly with a mouth open to be fed by the sea fairies, as the
myth relates. Maui kills the water monster Tuna-roa to use his blood to bring about the red wood of the
Rimu tree. Maui is wrapped in the midst of the seaweed.

cccxxv

The propping up of the sky myth involves the rending apart of Rangi from Papa, the parents of all the
gods. The gods wish to separate them in order to allow sunlight to nourish all living things. Tu, Tane,
Tangaroa
and Rongo wish to separate their parents, but Tawhiri wants them to remain together. Tu-whaka-
heke-tangata
defeating the lord of tempests, Tawhiri, while Tane, Tangaroa and Rongo prop up the sky.
Tu
is angered by their lack of support and attacks them also. Nuku-tawhiti and Kui the blind, hid in the
ground during the great deluge (Tuputupuwhenua – another name for Nuku). Tane, Maui or Tawhaki stole
nine of her ten taro. She guides them to the rope of heaven and they heal her blindness. When coming out
of the ground death will occur. At Orongo during the beginning of the Egg Hunt, Vega rises to initiate the
tattooing ceremony. Vega is called Veri hariu, the great worm. This great worm is Nuku coming out of the
ground. Orion has been hide by the sun for seven days in June; the Tangata-manu are being tattooed or
carved by the pathways of Nuku (reflected in the caves, see figure in Introduction). There is much singing,

320

celebrating enlightenment by these passage rites. The war (tau‘a) against Uenuku is won by the stealing of
poporo fruit. These berries are used for the black dye of the tattooing. The war at Rarotonga against
Uenuku is lost in the darkness and mist after the killing of his children, the wounding of his youngest,
Rongo-ua-roa, and the new birth of Ruatapu at Aotea. Rarotonga is the house of Hine-nui-te-po, hauled up
by the hook of Maui as the island for humanity. After Rangi and Papa are separated by Tane mahuta, Tane
is defeated by Tawhiri. Rongo and Haumia-tiketike hide in the bossom of papa. Tangaroa also retreats to
the sea and he wounds Rangi by piercing his hip through with a spear. Wound, Rangi begets with Papa, the
generation of the deformed. Their names are Tane-pepeke, Tane-tuturi, Upoko-nui, Tane-te-wai-ora, etc..
Are these the birds with broken wings, such as, Mu and Weka? They represent the generation of the
deformed, the Bird-men swimming until they are enlightened by the first egg. Then they are reported to
swim with superhuman speed and rise back to Orongo. Haumia-tikitiki became god of wild roots (fernroot)
and Rongo-ma-Tane became god of cultivated roots (yam, sweetpotato). The legends tie in the feasting,
tattooing and egg hunt ceremonies, together with the landforms, sacred sites and statues of Rapa Nui.

cccxxvi

Tangaroa is in one myth, where Maui attempt to steal fire from Tangaroa. Maui wins the battle, kills
Tangaroa and takes the fire, later reviving the deity back. Tangata from taha (side) + nga (breath) + ta
(tattoo point) = Tangata – man. Tawaka – from side/mouth/reed means parallel ridges as in tattooing. Here
we have a man as the reason for tattooing beside the very thin glyph. The purpose of tattooing is like the
Easter Island fast. One must be used to eating less to prepare for the inevitable famines that occur in such
small habitats. Since, as noted above, the tattooing ritual marks the man or woman for life with their own
blood, perhaps the tree that speaks, the Rongorongo tablet, sacred as it is, is a mere sign of the one who
must speak with service, honour, pain and the legendary story of their own life. The meaning of the chant
is to bring dance and joy to season the solemnness and pain of the tattooing rite.

cccxxvii

Several of these glyphs state directly or play on a form of facial tattooing. Weroku = to be quenched.
Perhaps the previous glyph, Ma, to cleanse or purify, together with wero-tonga produces the knife of
tattooing pierces and purifies the person participating in the ceremony of tattooing. Matenga = three, from
the three legs, also means thigh, death and numb or pain (matengatenga). A myth states that one is pierced
through both thighs or scattered like the stars as shards in a dry riverbed, possibly a play on the pain of
tattooing in this chant and this glyph. A myth states that one is pierced through both thighs, possibly a play
on the pain of tattooing in this chant and this glyph. But the piercing of the side of Zeus occurred to rescue
Dionysus when his mother Selene was killed. And Dionysus was torn apart and reasenmbled like the
shards in the dry river of Polynesian myth. Here the stars are gathered in Pleiades, from Sirus or Po, to
Tara or Orion to the Life of Maui, or Pleiades. Dionysus is called the Born-Twice – and as Morning Star,
the Black-foot have Scarface, Mistaken for Morning Star, when ceremony purifies him.

cccxxviii

Huhuti = to pull up as a tree out of the ground.
Other words associated with pierce are huhu and pu and also point to a boiling up of water. Here it could
mean a boiling up of blood from a tattoo piercing. Myth has it that this uprooted tree exposed the hole for
Hina to peer through from Heaven. This tree of life represented in this glyph is called, Akaulea, the
speaking tree, in a lake with three outlets (as the previous glyph plays on). This speaking tree is a
personification of Maui, the Real Tree Centre. This lake is the fourth Heaven, where Hina, the moon
bathes in the living water of Tane, Waiora. Waiora is also the term for the space between links of tattooing.
Perhaps we see hear a link between the person being tattooed or bathed in ceremonial cleansing and the
sacred myths. Hina may not merely have been a person, but a rite of initiation or the first one who took that
rite by which the birdmen follow, the prime example – the First Mother. Tattooing, then, is not a mere
decoration, it is a sign, a mark, drawn with a personal sacrifice of blood. The mark is permanent,
representing a lifelong perseverance through certain rite of passage. Parallels may be the North American
Plains Aboriginal Sundance, or the Jewish circumcision rite. Also, the speaking tree, Akaulea, is pierced in
the side as Zeus to carry Dionysus. And the three legged myths are common, particularly of the 9 crows
that represented 9 of the 10 Suns that were shot down in Chinese myth. The branch of Zeus, then,
Dionysus, is considered a third leg, since he is growing from his thigh.

cccxxix

Iwikau from iwi (bone) + ka (reed) = very thin or a needle.

cccxxx

The Blackfoot Sun Dance ritual has four days of fasting from food and water. Waiting until the point
of death is a universal indigenous sacred rite. And here in Polynesia it is coupled with the tattooing rite.
Taringa is to hang, to accompany as Mercury accompanies the Sun. The child of the Topknot, Maui Potiki,
is accompanying his Mother (as next glyph signifies), Taraka or Taranga. Raka may also be meant as
scratching the parallel furrows in tattooing and digging up the ground, or in case of tattooing little drops of

321

blood. The play on the sacred tree may connect in this glyph with a pacific-rim ritual of hanging from a
sacred tree suspended by the ankles, also seen in the Finland Edda legends. The ancient Inca did the same
as a form of penance. Perhaps the hole on top Rano Raraku was used to place a tree (made of reeds?)
where this ceremony took place. This is an Egyptian ritual . Egyptian myth mirrors the Polynesian with a
head chopped off that sprouts a tree (Tuna).

cccxxxi

Taraka or Taranga from ta/taaa (to cut the roots to fell a tree) + raka/rakau (tree) = the Mother of
Maui. Here we have the sacred tree not uprooted this time, but felled at the roots. The sacred tree of
Hawaiki is where the bread-fruit grows, where the mythological reptile, Moo, tricks the man who then falls.
One Polynesian myth states that the dead hang from the pua tree near the sacred lake. Perhaps aluded to
here is Rata cutting the tree down with the woodland fairies flying around the tree. Some sacred tree rites
include a falling to the ground tied by the ankles. The rope would be tight on impact and the ground
softened to reduce injury. Here, may have been a form of fasting to purify oneself from personal faults.
Perhaps Rata is felling the tree of the funerary rite of passage through the Underworld to the rising Sun,

which he used to gather our bones. As the ―i‖ glyph of the Maya is represented by a bird picking at the eye

of a dog. That is, death is captured by the Osiris symbol. Hina pulls the tree up by the roots, the first
Mother of Maui, has a miraculous birth with a divine Sun. Since Maui is Divine, she is Immaculate and
falls out of Heaven into the sea of people. As Taranga, her Son is cut at the roots. He is killed, but being
Divine, he is only divided now between heaven and earth. The top of the tree goes to heaven, with its fruits
and the bottom, the roots, stay on earth, hidden as the roots of life, food for those who will become grafted
in the vine.

cccxxxii

Shirres, M. (1996). Ibid. Website. Karakia – the Words of the Ancestors.

cccxxxiii

In the context of those who lived on Easter Island, it should be no surprise that they chose a nest
glyph to name the Earth, since the earth they live on is a mere nest, and they are the birdpeople. The glyph
seems to relate their jumping off of the volcano Rano Kao often to their death on this Island Paradise in the

distant ocean (Plato). Maui, the deity of life, calls his own Mother, Taraka Oneone, Life‘s Mother Earth. If

Maui nooses the Sun, the rope is the hair of his Mother, the rays of the Sun, and he falls over the Earth with
her. The glyph relates to this jumping off, like the Birdmen off the volcano, Rano Kao. Plato spoke of an
Island Paradise to the East that people lived long and died only by jumping off the cliffs to their death. The
ancient priests of Polynesia must have carried on certain ancient traditions that overlap here and there. The
mythery religion sages are a possible source to weave this web in history to help sort out the origin of
Polynesian lore and migrations. Volcano, as puia, and hi, to stoop, produce puhi, meaning topknot where
Maui was nourished by the wisdom of his mother. Hiti or Tahiti also means the Sunrise People. It may
also mean, to go to the side of a mountain. Ancient Mediteranean myth speaks of the twin mountains; one
of sunrise and one of sunset. To go to the Sunrise Mountain means to become enlightened or eternal. The
Underworld cave or laborinth is traveled by the Sun. Only the mirror can protect the soul that ventures
there, so the Sun will see its own reflection – just as the Japanese myth plays out. Only the cord can save
you there, as in Greek lore. It is the word on the tablets, full of sap, life, blood, it becomes a solid tree, a
Human Being, that Fourth Prop Required to anchor the one of the other three, as was needed to climb the
cord to heaven in Polynesian myth. The twin mountains are faced by the Ihi twins who sit back to back in
the Falling of Hina chapter. One laments the death symbolized in the western mountain of the Sunset, the
other anticipates or rejoices the birth and new life of the sunrise of the Eastern Mountain, Tahiti. He is the
twin carved in Hawaii with the object in his mouth. This represents the Eating of the God. The disk is the
Sun of God, the cave of death is humanity, who when consuming the Sun, then rise to new life. This is

Maui‘s Ball Game, the Cathcing of the Sun in the Cat‘s Cradle game, where Maui nooses the Sun. The Ti
Tree itself has leaves called, hitau, in which Rata‘s father, Wahieroa, hid the breadfruit to bring this
mystical food to Polynesia. From Hitau, along with tau, the word offers rich meaning concernng a perch,
nest or resting place for a bird. It also means the season of breadfruit or the place where a god is seen. The
roots of this tree were edible and in Eastern Polynesia, the Ti plant had a very sweet stem juice. Whiti
means to jump, leap, to traverse a river or a loop. The two kupua hills of Polynesian mythology called, Pali-
uli (Black Cliffs) and Pali-kea (White Cliffs), clash together just as the twin mountains of Greek

mythology. In fact, to the Greeks, the dove‘s tail feather was clipped as it passed as a sign that Odysseus‘

ship could pass. It did so, only loosing a single board, its rudder. The Polynesian myth has the bird Tane
loosing its tail feathers through the arch of blue stones in the sky. The Blue Stone represents the High
Priest, the arch of feathers represents the Rising Sun – together it is the High Priest that died and rose from
the dead. It is also represented by a Peacocks tail, which adds the dimension of several heads amidst a

322

central medium/mediator, as the Minora. Consider the peacock tail feather as the pillar with a skull atop
and a representation of a lineage of ancestors who have died and whom are prayed for toward an eternal
rest or regeneration. The twin mountains each have two pillars, or props of heaven, standing before a

central cave or laborinth to the Underworld. This is the path, snake or river of the Sun‘s journey from

setting to rising. The blue stones crash together when the sun sets and rises, since the blue sky reappears
and disappears everyday. To escape the final judgement represented by the clashing blue stones or
mountains one must follow the bird of peace, Tane/Tavake the sacred bird, across the Bright Red Road of
Tane. However, we will suffer the loss of our rudder, we cannot be self guided to regeneration, but follow
the divine guide as Hina followed Atutahi in heaven. This guide offers a feminine side to the same deity
represented by Maui, Rata, Tane and Nganaoa. Each is paralleled with the Sun in some aspect.

cccxxxiv

Panga from PA (deity of food consumption marked by large stomach) + NGA/GA (breathe) = a
riddle. Pagaha‘a = name of a tattoo design on the cheeks. Kupega-hura is a small oval net. Tuku-kupega
is a fishing technique with a net. Tuku-huri/Tukuturi = to sit on ones heels. Ka tuku = sit still! Tupatupa
from tuku + papa = to carry. Papa from PA/paki, a wing + PA/paki, a wing = to place in a row on a flat
surface. Papaga = to order. The net itself appears in the location of sitting on heels and makes sense in
terms of the command to sit still while being tattooed. Tattooing is a serious rite of passage that requires
the deep meditation that sitting on ones heels might represent. The three birds sit in a row together at while
carrying the flame snared in the net. Maui is shapeshifting with the stolen fire to escape from Wahuika, the
Fire Goddess. Papapa from PAPA (2 wings) + PA (deity of food consumption) = a calabash container, a
net. Papa as the Earth with a flame on it marks the legend of Maui snaring or stealing the fire from the
underworld and setting the Earth on fire. (Noosing the Sun, then, and steeling the fire from the Underworld
are one in the same mythological event).Tanga from TA/tane (bird deity) + NGA (breathe) = to assemble
(as in dashing down a net to gather fish).

Perhaps Maui is the bark of the sacred tree, his skin is peeled and wrapped in the topknot of Taranga‘s hair,

as in myth and the next glyph, and placed in the sea, mixed with the edible seaweed. The myths may tie
into a feast of the Maori oven and the breadfruit tree.
On the Canadian West Coast, the sacred boy is placed in the center of a tree, there he dies and is revived.
He is also tied to a tree that is burned, the sap runs down and covers his skin, sawing him from the fire, but
rendering him stuck. The flacks fall off and are uses with his skin and bread to feed a dying boy who is
revived. In Polynesia, the hero is wrapped up by the snake and his brothers burn the house down. The

snake perishes and the boy survives inside the charred wrap of the snake. It is a wrapping of his mother‘s

sacred hair that is used to toss Maui into the sea after he is born premature (like Dionysus). He is then
wrapped up in seaweed, an edible portion, by the sea fairies who feed him. Tama-nui-te-rangi, the divine
ancestor canoe, then raises Maui. Therefore, when Maui nooses the Sun, he is taken to the Underworld
with that Sun, however, he is revived in the Canoe of the Ancestors and becomes their food and they feed
him.

cccxxxv

Maui-tikitiki-a-Taranga from tikitiki (topknot) + Tane (the bird Tane or Tavake) = Maui placed in the

topknot of his mother, Taranga.
Notice there is a little flame on this glyph and the next. When Maui stole fire from Mahuika, she chased
him through the depth and then he transformed into a hawk and she continued to chase him. Possibly,
when his mother, Taranga, hid him in her topknot he had the fire with him. Then she put him in the water
represented by the fish with a flame on its tail in the next glyph. Then he turned into the hawk, represented
by the bird suit on the fish. There is noticeable contrast between Maui placed in a topknot by his mother
into the sea, and the Hebraic story of the mother of Moses placing her son in a reed basket in the river Nile.
In both cases, the vegetation is useful to save the child, it is edible and it can be used for writing the word
of God – thus to be consumed.

cccxxxvi

Shirres, M. (1996). Ibid. Website. Traditional Images.

cccxxxvii

The rei-miro tablet that this chant is on was to be worn by a leading woman in the community. It
may well be a teaching resource to learn how to sing, dance, read and write the rongorongo glyphs and
legends. Pohiri and Powhiri relate to weaving or spinning thread round and round, to choose and to
separate corn from a husk.

cccxxxviii

Krupa (1971). Ibid. p.2. Krupa suggests Maui as a deity on the tablets providing Barthel‘s character
40 is truly Hina (see the Moon Calendar above). Kaulins, A. (1981). An Astronomical Zodiac in the Script
of Easter Island: [Honolulu Tablet B. 3622].
Website: http://www.lexiline.com/lexiline/lexi24.htm. Last
updated on March 11, 2004. Kaulins points out the tattoos of this symbol were present on the left cheek

323

and left breast, in mid chest and stomach of Rapanui women (p. 21). In defining this glyph from the
contextual word for left side, mau/maui, and the word for life across Polyesia, then expanding to Maui, it
became possible to decipher the Reimiro tablet. The moon cycle glyphs also worked on this tablet. The
ball-game of Maui is represented also in the next glyph, where the Sun Maui, is playing with the ball of the
Earth. The trickster uses this irony to meet with us at a purely human level, the emotional, the hidden and
mysterious side of us that we would only trust to our One True Creator.

cccxxxix

Felbermayer, Fritz. Lieder Und Verse der Oster-Insel // Zeitschrift fur Ethnologie, Band 97

cccxl

Campbell, R.. Cantos 14. P. 146.

cccxli

Campbell, R.. Cantos 16: Te Reva Rapanui – The Bannar of Rapanui.

cccxlii

Maui itself comes from Mau – to carry. In one myth, Maui carries up White Island after getting
burned on the shoulders by this volcano. The Greek Atlas is paralleled here, more than likely, by those
who knew the Greek story. Looking at the nest glyph above, consider Maui as the Sun about to rise upon
the Eastern Tahiti Mountain. This nest also compares with a girdle, making Maui the Breadfruit of

Wahieroa‘s loins, proving Maui the one and same as Rata, the fruit of Wahieroa‘s Loins. To eat the god is

thus implied, since Wahieroa brought the Breadfruit in his loins to feed the Maori. Rata spoke of the deity,
Ngangaoa, stuck inside the calabash, freed by Rata on the condition he protect the Sacred Canoe from

water monsters. In doing so, he saved Rata‘s parents from the mouth of a whale. This not only suggests

the Ngangaoa is just another aspect of Maui, but that the Bark of Egyptian myth, which needs protection in
the Underworld, is intendedly one and the same Canoe of Rata and Tamarereti – the Canoe of Stars of the
Ancestors.

cccxliii

Inaika from Hina (possibly a moon sliver inside the fish) + ika (the fish) = Hina the fish and sister of
Maui. Maui and the fish may be Ika-a-Maui for the fish of Maui, referring to an Island that he raised up
with his jaw as a fishhook.

cccxliv

The use of wa as the first syllable could come from a load in a canoe, but fits elsewhere as a maori
oven glyph. This is another brother of Maui (see conclusion).

cccxlv

Guy, J. B. M. (1985). On a Fragment of the ‗Tahua‘ Tablet. The Journal of the Polynesian Society.

Vol. 94. No. 4. Pp. 367-388.

cccxlvi

Guy (1985). Ibid. P. 367.

cccxlvii

Guy (1985). Ibid. P. 379.

cccxlviii

Tuwaerore – mother of trees (Rimu, Kahikatea and tanehaha) by Tane. The Rimu is red inside and
myth has it absorb the blood of Tuna-roa, killed by Maui. Tutuwaewae, Ku-ula (Tu-ura), Ku-kau-akahi
(Tu-tau-atahi: Tu stands alone) are names of the deity.

cccxlix

In early Polynesia there is a legend of Tua-nui-te-ra (Tregear. 1891. Tuanui) who travelled with
captain Turi in the Aotea canoe from the ancient ancestral homeland of Hawaiki to New Zealand. Tua-nui
was thrown overboard for disobeying Turi, the leading Chief of the migration canoe. When they reached
the new land, they recognized the footprints of Tuanui who had one foot deformed. This legend appears to
confirm the translation of Tua-nui-te-ra due to one foot of the glyph appearing deformed. The philosophy
regards Tua as the one who, though he transgressed, arrived at the new land first because he was willing to
carry the flame of enlightenment. Such a use of mythology to emphasize this sacred writing system is
verified throughout the translation of these tablets.

cccl

Guy offers that the heads of glyph 200 and 300 are plausible free variants along with glyph 445 in
relation to 695 (Guy. 1985. P. 380). These glyphs appear as free variants as is the case with glyphs that
occur in like chants across the Grand Tradition of Text H, P, Q and A. Variance in the naming of the deity
Tu and/or in the placing of a variety of deities or deified ancestors is the plausibly purpose for the open or
free variance in these glyphs.

cccli

These chips of Tane are also called the Ribs of Tane. Such wood chips as they fly, serve as great fuel,
since they are saturated with sap, which burns like oil. A rib of Tane, then, may be alluded to as Iva or
Hina. The wing used to fish up land by Maui, then, relates to Tane and Hina. Also, Hawaiki from hawa,
(chipped or broken) + iki (to pull up…a fish). Hiki, means to fly, to lift up as a child in arms. Again the
Easter Island tablet is revealing a sources of ancient Polynesian lore that opens up a new window of history
in the region.

ccclii

Shirres (1996). Ibid. Website: Maori Theology.

cccliii

Shirres (1996). Ibid. Website: Maori Theology.

cccliv

Rata is dismantling the tree without permission. Perhaps his father comes from the tree – therein rest
his fathers bones, carried to the underworld. Rata is just the branch. He must learn the chant of the

324

woodland fairies to give the proper homage. As the branch he must not consider himself cut off, orphaned,
for in the realm of the fairy spirits (the birdmen), Rata is part of the spiritual tree as are all people. If you
cut this tree to make a canoe, you must know that it is a mediator, a reminder of your connection to the land
of your ancestors. They are ascending and descending the tree that reaches heaven. In Text Q, Rata is a
mere chip, a rib of Tane, the wing of Tane as bate for the Underworld Taniwha. He is a Rib of the First
Man, Tiki, and First Woman, Hina.

ccclv

Wolfe (1945). Ibid. 30. Thomson, W. J. (1889). Te pito te henua or Easter Island. Smithsonian Report.

Pp. 447-552.

ccclvi

Here lie the bones of Wahieroa, these bones are the pathway of the canoe. The canoe and bones are a
pathway, a medium to the heavens. Stand the canoe erect and as it rots stand a stone in its place as an
eternal pathway to heaven. So goes the chant: E ara rakau e! E ara rakau e! E ara inano e. E
kopukopu te tini o kupolu. E matakitaki, kareko! Oo. (see above).
The ancestors bones, that is, the

spiritual pathway bears a considerable likeness to the Hebrew legend of Jacobs ladder. Not the Jacob‘s

ladder of contemporary philosophy that is used by an individual to find their own way to heaven, but the
ladder where heaven itself was sending its messengers ascending and descending possibly with the gifts of
the resurrection banquet (our own flesh and the feast). The tree must be restored from the top down.
Indigenous cultures would expect such influence from the Creator and all expressions of that spiritual Life
Force or mana, where Western thought has to wrestle with letting go of control to perceive the healing
power the Great Spirit longs to work in our waning ecosystems.

ccclvii

Shirres (1996). Ibid. Website: The Karakia for the canoe. Shirres also includes Tuuaatuaa i te orooro
which is a karakia with fragments of the canoe of Rata chant indicated here in boldface: He hohou rongo.
Tuuaatuuaa. I te orooro, i te oromea, i tukituki ai koe, i taitaia ai koe, oi kiri Tangaroa. Tere te nuku nei,
tere angaia. Tuutaria ki tenei maanuka, tuutaria ki teenei ngahoa. Kaapiti hono. Purua too taringa kia
turi, kia hoi. Kei whakarongo koe ki te koorero iti. Ko te koorero iti, ko tahu-huna ko tahu-rere, ko te hau-
aitu. Rere mai te maramara
(Fly chips together to renew the tree Rata felled inappropriately with this
karakia incantation) koi hopiri, koi hotau. Rere mai te mangamanga,
koi hopiri, koi hotau. Torotika! E
tuu te maota, hee! Tuutakina i te iwi. Tuutakina i te toto. Tuutakina i te kiko. Tuutakina i te uaua.
Tuutakina kia uu. Tuutakina kia mau. Teenei te rangi ka tuutaki. Teenei te rangi ka ruruku. Teenei te papa
ka wheuka. E Rangi e, awhitia. E papa e, awhitia. Naau ka awhi, ka awhi. Naau ka aaka, ka aaka. Naau
ka toro, ka toro. Tupu he toka whenua, tupu he toka Mata-te-raa. Na wai i hoomai? Na te pakanga i
hoomai. Na te riri i hoomai. Na ngaa taangata i hoomai. I hoomai ki a wai? I hoomai ki te kikokiko. Kei
te kikokiko, kei te tini honohono, he manawa ka irihia nei e Tuu-matauwenga. E Tuu-ka-riri, e Tuu-ka-
nguha, e Tuu-ka-aaritarita! E tuu i te korikori, e tuu i te whetaa
(waving and brandishing, standing firm
in the waves, standing firm in the brandishing
– reference to feeding the hau warparty rite),
e tuu i te
whaiao, e tuu i te ao maarama. Ko maiea. Maiea ngaa atua. Maiea ngaa patu. Maiea ngaa taangata. Ko
maiea. He Hohou Rongo. Tuatua i te orooro i te oromea i tukitukia ai koe i aitaia ai koe Ooi Kiritangaroa:
tere te nuku nei tere angaia tutaria ki tenei manuka, Tutaria ki teenei ngahoa kapiti hono. Purua to taringa
kia turi kia hoi kei whakarongo koe ki te korero iti ko te korero iti ko tahu-hunu ko tahu-rere ko te hau-aitu.
Rere mai te maramara koiho piri koiho tau, rere mai te mangamanga,
koi ho piri, koi ho tau torotiki e tu
te maota hee; - tutakina i te iwi, tutakina i te toto tutakina i te Kiko tutakina i te uaua tutakina kia uu
tutakina kia mau tenei te rangi ka tutaki tenei te rangi ka tutaki tenei te rangi ka ruruku tenei te Papa ka
weuka
(on of the many patterns). E rangi e awitiia nau kawi kawi nau ka aka ka aka nau ka toro ka toro,
tupu he toka wenua tupu he toka mata-tera. na wai i ho mai na te Pakanga i ho mai, na te riri i ho mai, na
nga tangata i ho mai, i ho mai kia wai i ho mai ki te kikokiko kei te kikokiko kei te tini honohono he
manawa ka irihia nei e Tuu-matau wenga. E Tuukariri e Tuukanguha e tuu karitarita e tu i te korikori e tu i
te wetaa e tu i te waiao e tu i te Aomarama ko mai ea, maiea nga atua, maiea nga patu, maiea nga tangata
Ko Maieea.

ccclviii

Taylor, R. (1855). Te Ika a Maui, on New Zealand and its Inhabitants. Wertheim & Macintoch.

ccclix

Shirres (1996). Ibid. Website: The Introductory Rite – the Setting Up of the Rods.

ccclx

Shirres (1996). Ibid. Website: Haapai ake au i taku – a karakia for the canoe.

ccclxi

Shirres (1996). Ibid. Website: The Karakia for the canoe.

ccclxii

The use of these glyphs from Text H, P and Q may be related to the previous text, as these glyphs are
taken from the middle of the tablet. However, Text A bears glyph 1 as ‗ngata‘ – desire from NGA, breathe
+ TA/taha, side = human (possibly Tangaroa – deity of the sea and spouse of Hina). Then there is a dash

325

attaching this glyph to Hine. Possibly, these first two glyphs of Text A are an abbreviation of a much larger
beginning of the Rata story.

ccclxiii

Ihiihi/toko/tara, rays of the Sun (Tregear. 1891.). Rangi-tokano – a Moriori deity who pushes his
father, Rangi apart from his mother. Rahi: great, broad – as in broad pathway for the canoe. Myth:
Rahirahinga – temples of the forehead where hanging down from deity (rays of Sun). Rangi-whaka-
nohinohi – the highest heaven.

ccclxiv

New Zealand‘s Maori rely on their deceased ancestors as spirit mediums to protect their land through
the conduit of a canoe grave marker stood on end, called a ‗Standing Up Rod.‘ This is how this chant can
be understood as a funerary chant to offer spiritual power to the dead. Here lie the bones of Wahieroa,
these bones are the pathway of the canoe. The canoe and bones are a pathway, a medium to the heavens.
Stand the canoe erect and as it rots stand a stone in its place as an eternal pathway to heaven. So goes the
chant: E ara rakau e! E ara rakau e! E ara inano e. E kopukopu te tini o kupolu. E matakitaki, kareko! Oo.

(see above). The ancestors‘ bones, that is, the spiritual pathway bears a considerable likeness to the Hebrew

legend of Jacobs ladder. They, the birdmen, are carrying the first egg, the recipe of new life. In merely one
tenth of the verses we find a representation of the depths and heights of any funerary prayer. This leads to
an inquiry about the use of minimalism in viewing non-Western philosophy and spirituality during colonial
expansion. What are the ancient Indigenous sages ready to teach us if we open our eye, ears and hearts?

ccclxv

An implement for digging, if in water, then possibly a paddle. The idea of breaking the waves, of
rising and falling as a team of rowers is apparent in these past two glyphs. Koko also means rotten.
Combined with the next glyph, here are the rotten bones of Wahieroa. Such a comment should instil a just

anger in Rata‘s company of warriors. If they love Wahieroa, then their resolve to avenge him would be like

flint. It is as if the rotten bones that fell from the sky and turned into stone are a heavenly call and
permanent reminder. Koko is also a pendent for the ear, which may lead us to the actual appearance of the
glyph. The glyph may be the noose used by Rata around Matuku. A related word is Kohuhu, well spring,
which may be the fountain which Matuku was leaning into when caught in the noose. The stones of
Wahieroa, heated with vengeance could be the kohu maori oven which cooks the kohurangi (a bread-like
food plant). Where are the fish for this canoe casting ceremony? Kohuhu also means slipknot. It was such

a slipknot used by Kahukura (the Rainbow deity) to ‗free‘ the fish from the fairies. Legend states that
Rainbow‘s slipknot freed the fish long enough to stall the fairies until sunrise. Then they noticed Kahukura
and fled, leaving him with their fish and fish net. Here is the source of Polynesian fish net technology. Is
this kohuhu slipknot, where the fish are freed, not the same kohuhu fountain on the ocean floor where all
fish are born? Possibly, they are born when Rata (Laka) the table of the ocean floor breaks and releases

them. Here is where Moari‘s fishhook descends to catch the largest fish and source of land and life for

humanity. Rangiriri is the fountain on the ocean floor producing all fish (Tregear. 1891. Rangiriri). At this
well spring, Rata's enemy that killed his father stuck his head and there Rata noosed him. (Thus Rata is an
aspect of Maui who noosed the Sun in the well of the Underworld). This Sacred Well is the hole where the
Sun rises to Rangi, the Sky. Harihari – from Ha, breath and ri (ringa), hand or arm – a song to pull rowers
together. Notice the word for canoe in the related chant is rakau. The trees are indeed the canoe, which is
the erected pathway of the bones, or the medium of the ancestors. Consider the birds of Kupolu and the
similar Polynesian words kupu, meaning head or well, kupenga, meaning net and upurangi, meaning the
source of a stream. Here is a link between the fairies that build Rata‘s canoe and the fairies that give
Kahukaru the net. When Maui stole the fire he escaped as a fish and then turned into the birds. Hina also
fell and swam then rose up again to the full moon. Here are the first examples of our spiritual evolution.
We are fish through our baptism – as the Polynesian children received. Then we also become the birdmen
when we leap from our Island nest. Birdmen build the canoe to fly through this pathway, or medium to the
heavens.
Hapainga – from Hapai, to raise up. Rangi's morning rays, or supports of enlightenment are the cause of our
singing. The song is an powerful incantation that releases the deceased from the Underworld, thus
retreaving their bones.
Rata is called upon as a medium of the canoe. The Easter Islanders are giving this canoe to him. Therefore,
it can be used as a medium to receive his influence. Who is Rata? In parallel Polynesian myth, Rata, or in
this case Lata, is the table at the ocean floor, the Table of Laka. Perhaps Rata (Laka), combined with his
underworld title, Raro, represents all those who together with their ancestors must bend their knee to death,
as if stuck as a table on the ocean floor. Maui breaks this table and draws up the great fish, Pimoe, and in
another legend, he draws up land for humans to thrive. I would suggest this myth represents death in the

326

depths and eternal life on land brought to us from on high. When the birdmen, or fairies, see or recognize
Rata at the rising of the Sun, they scatter. That is, as the human enlightened ones, they recognize the divine
at the judgement and are sensitive to their own unworthiness. They scatter from their own meal of fish
when faced with the table of Rata. Rata then uses their own net to capture fish before the river runs dry at
the last day. The mythology speaks of this when it tells of the constellation Pleiades that hides in the River
but is smashed and scattered when the river runs dry. The fairies that scatter is the Pleiades constellation.
But in the end they are gathered again and become like the Sun that exposed them. World mythology
speaks of this spiritual battle between the birds and the fish, the Yin and the Yang, the elect and the unwise
and it speaks of the assembling of the enlightened ones, the stars into the Pleiades or Moon to restore the
Second Eye of the Cosmos to the Brightness of the Sun. Here we are not reminded of an unbalanced merely
transcendent God, rather there is also a certain immanense among us that these priests of old bear with a
mystical, wonderful and strikingly enlightening witness.

ccclxvi

The Underworld powerful Ru was then tossed up by Maui and stuck on the belly of the sky where he
rotted. His bones fell and as the stones across the land, represented perhaps by the Easter Island moai and
akin to the Setting Up of Rods and Pure rituals. This canoe is the pathway of Tane that the Woodland
fairies carried suspended in the air on a pathway to the sea. The Moai of Easter Island are the pathway of
the ancestors.

ccclxvii

Tarara – T, Tu and ara, path and ra, sun – proclaim. Also, Tarara is an invocation (harangua) at a
ceremonial dance. Tuara means to assist and Tararahia is a large kind of eel. It was the giant eel or serpent

that entered Rata‘s canoe and was destroyed. Egypt marks the serpent as the first Eye of Ra, the all seeing

judge.

ccclxviii

Fischer (1997). Ibid. Pp. 611, 615. Fischer describes the fusing of glyphs as confirming a reading of
the glyphs from the bottom up. Taken a step further, variable glyph fusing demonstrates the use of
syllables within the rongorongo.

ccclxix

Tregear, E. (1891). Moari-Polynesian Comparative Dictionary. London: Lyon and Blair, Lambton
Quay. Easter Island linguistics involves a dialectic bridge to the broader Polynesian island groups, such as,
the Moari, Hawaii, Tahiti, etc..

ccclxx

The Rapanui-English Dictionary. Website: http://www.rongorongo.org/vanaga/a.html
The moriori carved images on their trees similar to those found on the tablets of Rapanui.

ccclxxii

Barthel, T. (1974). The Eigth Land, the Polynesian Discovery and Settlement of Easter Island.
Honolulu: Press of Hawaii. Martin, A. (Trans. from German). Englert, S. (1970). Island at the Centre of the
World.
Mulloy, W. (Trans. & Ed.). New York: Charles Scribner‘s Sons. Krupa, V. (1971). ‗Moon‘ in the
Writing of Easter Island. Oceanic Linguistics 10 (1). Pp. 1-10. Guy, J.B.M. (1990). ‗On the Lunar Calendar
of Tablet Mamari‘. Journal de la Société des Océanistes 91:2. 135-186. doi:10.3406/jso.1990.2882.
http://www.netaxs.com/~trance/mamari.html. Berthin, G. G. & Berthin, M. E. (2006). Astronomical Unity
and Poetic Metaphor in the Rongorongo Lunar Calendar. Applied Semiotics 8: 18. 85-98.

ccclxxiii

Métraux, A. (1940). Ethnology of Easter Island. Bernice P. Bishop Musuem Bulliten 160.

ccclxxiv

As much as 20% of the syllables and the rongorongo corpus is deciphered. After reaching these
interpretations (open for unbiased and serious criticism), the author estimates 90% of the corpus will
eventually be understood as this mythical broader Polynesian methodology unfolds. As well, the approach
to understand the corpus from an Indigenous World-view sheds light on a greater understanding of the
context of ancient Mayan and ancient Egyption, which are currently 90% deciphered. Such a development
of Indigenous literary context across the disciplines presents itself as a platform for intercultural dialogue
essential for further developing a tried and true foundation from Indigenous philosophy towards ecological
responsibility across the globe. Keeping in mind, as great as restoring our Earth would be, it is just as great
to give those who are marginalized a voice. Indignous voices have expressed that inroads in facing such
monumental tasks present themselves from time to time with signs and portents the Creator provides to
enable a timely and necessary Shift or Great Turning in human history. To reach this cross-roads you will
hear the lamenting pipes of a little one clearly signing in tune a dirge of devotion and the final inquiry,
―Will you also not dance?‖

ccclxxv

Alfred Métraux. 1940. Ethnology of Easter Island. Bernice P. Bishop Museum – Bulletin 160.

Honolulu. (Reprinted 1971)

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