The following modifications of multi-layer coatings are known:–
- comprising two or more layers of the same mate-rial, deposited in technological environments that differ only slightly as tophysico-chemical properties, e.g., in two or more electroplating baths. Thesimplest modification of a multiple coating is the
, e.g., a nickel coating, deposited from two different baths.–
- comprising several layers of different materials,with at least one of them occurring twice and not directly on top of samematerial, e.g., Ni-Cr-Ni-Cr .–
- deposited in the form of a liquid (or powder)mixture, stratifying during drying (or melting) into a bottom sublayerwith strong adhesion to substrate which is usually metallic, and a topsublayer (surface), with high resistance to environmental hazards.Between internal surfaces of layers in a multi-layer coating, usually
are formed.Some single and multi-layer coatings may be deposited on top of anearlier deposited primer.The external surface of the coating (phase A), in contact with the sur-rounding medium (phase B), forms with it an inter-phase boundary (in-terface) which is simply the surface layer of the coating. To put it in stricterterms, it constitutes zones I-III of the developed, 8-zone model of thesurface layer (seeChapter 5).Coating thicknesses range from hundredths of a micrometer to severalmillimeters.
6.3 Types of coatings
Coatings may be divided in different ways, depending on the criteria used.The most significant division appears to be by material, by designationand by method of manufacture of the coating.
6.3.1 Division of coatings by material
From the point of view of material, coatings may be divided in two groups:metallic and non-metallic. Very often the name of the coating is derivedfrom the coating material used.
22.214.171.124 Metallic coatings
Such coatings are made from different metals, metal alloys and metalcomposites, and deposited on substrates, most often themselves metallic,by different methods. In principle, coatings may be manufactured from allmetals and composites. However, not all metals, alloys or composites areapplicable in practice on account of their properties and technologicaldifficulties in their manufacture. Most often used are:–
: zinc, nickel, chromium, aluminum, tin, cadmium,copper, lead, silver, gold, iron, cobalt, indium, ruthenium, rhodium, palla-
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