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Published by: PRASAD326 on Feb 24, 2009
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chapter six
6.1 The concept of the coatings
The concept of coatings most probably originated from the realm oanatomy where it means the cover of animals’ bodies, isolating the organ-ism from the environment and, at the same time, providing contact be-tween the organism and that environment. In vertebrates the coating isconstituted by the skin. This concept has been imported into the realm of technology.The concept of coatings was given recognition in official documentsand specifications in the 1950s. It must, however, be admitted that to this datethere is no general terminological specification defining the coating and itstypes. There are, on the other hand, specifications related to corrosion andcorrosion protection [1, 2], which though assume that the concept of “coat-ing” is self-evident and define the various types of coatings.It seems appropriate to put forward a general definition of the concept inthe following form:
a layer of material, formed naturally or synthetically or depositedartificially on the surface of an object made of another material, with the aim of obtaining required technical or decorative properties
.The substrate, in other words, the coated object, or, in stricter terms,its superficial layer, constitutes one phase of the system. The coatingconstitutes the second phase. Between the coating and the substrate thereexists an interface in the form of a layer of certain volume, with interme-diate properties, usually facilitating adherence of the coating to the sub-strate. In the case of some coatings this layer bears the name of 
.In some cases it is difficult to distinguish between the coating and thesuperficial layer, particularly in incremental diffusion layers.
6.2 Structure of the coating 
For obvious reasons, the coating has a laminar structure. Because of thegreat variety of coatings, both from the point of view of material andtechnology, which stems from different designated uses, it is difficult todevelop one universal model of coating structure. Specific models, per-taining to the particular types of coatings, are given and discussed in lit-erature on the subject, usually with varying degrees of simplification.
© 1999 by CRC Press LLC
Fig. 6.1
Schematic representation of coating structure: a) single layer; b) multi-layer.
The general simplified model of coating structure is shown in Fig. 6.1,using the single layer and multi-layer coatings as examples.The
single layer coating
(single coating, monolaminar) is a coatingdeposited on an appropriately prepared substrate in one process or tech-nological operation, comprising one layer of material. Single layer coat-ings are divided into:
single constituent coatings
- consisting of one material (element,compound), e.g. chromium, titanium nitride TiN,
multi-component coatings
- consisting of several material compo-nents, e.g. alloying additives, titanium carbonitride Ti(C,N) or titaniumaluminonitride Ti(Al,N).The
multi-layer coating
is one which consists of two or more materi-als. These may be layers of the same material, separated by a sublayer, orthey may be of different materials in which case a sublayer may but neednot necessarily be applied. The aim of applying multi-layer coatings is theintensification of the protective or decorative or other function. The sim-plest kind of multi-layer coating is the double-layer nickel-chrome elec-troplated coating on automotive and motorcycle components, as well assome items of everyday use. The external chromium layer gives the coat-ing a shiny appearance and does not tarnish. The internal nickel layerbinds it to the substrate. Products made from steel and zinc alloys aresometimes coated with three layer coatings of copper-nickel-chromium orfour layer coatings of nickel-chromium-nickel-chromium with a particularly high corrosion resistance [1, 3-8]. Heat-resistant spray coatings on steel orcast iron components may comprise double or triple layers. Thin and hardanti-wear and anti-reflection coatings, composed of several to more than tenlayers, are also known. A 60-layer coating, obtained by PVD method, has alsofound practical application, and 150-layer coatings are also known. Usually,coatings are composed of several layers, very rarely more than ten and only in exceptional cases several tens.
© 1999 by CRC Press LLC
The following modifications of multi-layer coatings are known:
multiple coating
- comprising two or more layers of the same mate-rial, deposited in technological environments that differ only slightly as tophysico-chemical properties, e.g., in two or more electroplating baths. Thesimplest modification of a multiple coating is the
, e.g., a nickel coating, deposited from two different baths.
sandwich coating
- comprising several layers of different materials,with at least one of them occurring twice and not directly on top of samematerial, e.g., Ni-Cr-Ni-Cr [3].
self-stratifying paint
- deposited in the form of a liquid (or powder)mixture, stratifying during drying (or melting) into a bottom sublayerwith strong adhesion to substrate which is usually metallic, and a topsublayer (surface), with high resistance to environmental hazards.Between internal surfaces of layers in a multi-layer coating, usually 
intermediate layers
are formed.Some single and multi-layer coatings may be deposited on top of anearlier deposited primer.The external surface of the coating (phase A), in contact with the sur-rounding medium (phase B), forms with it an inter-phase boundary (in-terface) which is simply the surface layer of the coating. To put it in stricterterms, it constitutes zones I-III of the developed, 8-zone model of thesurface layer (seeChapter 5).Coating thicknesses range from hundredths of a micrometer to severalmillimeters.
6.3 Types of coatings
Coatings may be divided in different ways, depending on the criteria used.The most significant division appears to be by material, by designationand by method of manufacture of the coating.
6.3.1 Division of coatings by material 
From the point of view of material, coatings may be divided in two groups:metallic and non-metallic. Very often the name of the coating is derivedfrom the coating material used. Metallic coatings
Such coatings are made from different metals, metal alloys and metalcomposites, and deposited on substrates, most often themselves metallic,by different methods. In principle, coatings may be manufactured from allmetals and composites. However, not all metals, alloys or composites areapplicable in practice on account of their properties and technologicaldifficulties in their manufacture. Most often used are:
Coating metals
: zinc, nickel, chromium, aluminum, tin, cadmium,copper, lead, silver, gold, iron, cobalt, indium, ruthenium, rhodium, palla-
© 1999 by CRC Press LLC

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