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BUSINESS LETTER Is a form of written communication between a sender and a receiver used to transact business which cannot be easily relayed orally. It differs from the friendly letter in substance, language, and in tome. It is formal and direct and it avoids figurative language.
PURPOSES 1. Serves as a record 2. Requires an action from the reader 3. Establishes goodwill among persons and establishments.
CHARACTERIZED 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Clarity Conciseness Accuracy Neatness Promptness
1. THE HEADING The heading may take the form of the letter head or complete mailing address of the sender. 2. THE DATE The date is composed of the month, written in full; the day of the month, set out in comma; and the year written in full. The date may be centered, typed, flushed with the right margin starting at the center point of the page, or in full block letters, starting at the left margin. For the date, any of the following formats may be used: Conventional type. Composed of the month, the date, and the year Example: November 20, 2006 Composed of the date, month, and the year Example: 20 November 2006
3. INSIDE ADDRESS The inside address includes the addressee's name, the name of the firm, the street, the city, and zip code number. All lines are blocked on the left margin. The first line may start on the second or until the fourth line space below the date. The following forms are acceptable: The Honorable Jose B. dela Cruz (preferable) The Honorable Jose dela Cruz The Honorable dela Cruz
4. SALUTATION The salutation is the complimentary greeting that begins a letter. The salutation is always started at letter at least one and a half inches from the left margin, two spaces below the last line of the inside address. A colon ends the salutation line. The standard forms according to the degree of formality: For Men Sir: My dear Sir: Dear Mr. Cruz For Women Madam: My dear Madam: Dear Ms. Cruz
Most formal Formal Less formal
The plural form for all formal salutationS are Gentlemen, Mesdames or Ladies. 5. BODY The complete message of the letter is contained in the body of the letter. It is written between the salutation and the complimentary close. The first paragraph of the body is typed or written two spaces below the salutation. It should be correct, clear, courteous, concise, and neatly written.
6. COMPLIMENTARY CLOSE The complimentary close is printed two spaces below the last line of the body and aligned with the heading of the letter. The complimentary close should be consistent with the salutation and the message. The following complimentary closes are arranged in the order of their decreasing formality:
Very respectfully yours, Respectfully yours, Very truly yours, (officially used for business purposes) Truly yours, Very sincerely yours, Sincerely yours, Very cordially yours, Cordially yours, Yours cordially, Sincerely, Cordially,
7. SIGNATURE The signature line may consist only of the name of the writer typed on the fourth line space below the complimentary close, followed by his designation. The typed written name of the dictator/writer should coincide exactly with the pen-written signature. Respectfully yours, RONIE G. BONAO Project Engineer
SUPPLEMENTARY PARTS OF A BUSINESS LETTER
1. ATTENTION LINE If the writer wishes to reach a certain person in the company because the letter is something urgent, attention line is written. It begins in the left margin, two spaces below the inside address and should be centered. Asian Oil Company Taft Avenue, Manila Attention: Mr. Juan dela Cruz, Sales Manager Gentlemen:
2. REFERENCE LINE
It is written at the top left corner of the letter two spaces below the dateline and two spaces before the inside address. The reference line provides the receiver an easy access to his files on the subject contained in the letter. Our reference: Invoice/E-22 Your reference: BOOK 1.004
3. SUBJECT LINE This part is often used to make it easy to refer quickly to the content of the letter. In one glance, the reader can see what the letter is about. It is usually typed double spaced between the salutation and the body or between the inside address and the salutation. Gentlemen: Subject: Semi-Annual Financial Report
4. ENCLOSURE It is used to safeguard at the mailing time enclosed materials that should accompany the letter like records, checks, documents, and the like. Example: Encl. Resume Photocopy of Official Transcript of Records Photocopy of Certificates of Awards and Merits Personal File
5. CARBON COPY FURNISHED It is written if the writer has to furnish some copies of the letter to other persons or offices. Example: CC: Human Resource Development Office Personal File
6. CONTINUATION LINE
It is preferable to use a single sheet for the entire letter; however, for letter with more than one page, an identifying continuation heading aids in assembling or re-assembling the pages should they become separated. The line should start six spaces from the top edge of the succeeding pages. The heading should consist of: 1. the name of the sender 2. the page number 3. the date Example: Dr. Juan J. Cruz 2 March 30, 2006
7. IDENTIFICATION IITIALS These are the initials of the encoder and the initials or the name of the dictator. It is usually placed at the lower left-hand corner of the letter, ordinarily one of two spaces below the last line of the signature cluster. It may also be written immediately below the last line of the signature. Example: DINAH C. BONAO President csf: csf: DCB Dinah C. Bonao
8. POSTSCRIPT (PS) It indicates that the writer has forgotten something to say in the body of the letter. It is usually written one line after the printed signature. An afterthought, it shows the writer’s disorientation and it is not looked upon favorably.
Basic Parts of a Business Letter 1. Heading 78 Tapuac District Dagupan City October 20, 2006
The Supplementary Parts Added to the Basic Parts of the Letter Heading KING’S MANUFACTURING COMPANY 78 Tapuac District, Dagupan City Date – October 20, 200_ ROG Engineering Works 988 Perez Street, Dagupan City – Inside Address Attention: Mr. Richard O. De Guzman – Attention Line Manager Delivery of 60 Model W-500 SANHO air conditioning units - Subject Line
2-10 spaces Mr. Richard O. De Guzman Manager, ROG Engineering Works 988 Perez Street, Dagupan City 2 spaces Sir: 3. Salutation
Thank you for your ____________________________________ __________________________________________________________ _________________________. ____________________________________________________ __________________________.
Gentlemen: - Salutation Thank you for your ____________________________________ _____________________________________________. Body of the Letter We look forward ______________________________________ _____________________________________________. Complimentary Close Truly yours, 2-4 spaces Handwritten Signature Signature GRACE V. RUFINO Title abd/GVR Identification initials Encl: Delivery receipt – Enclosure CG: Accounting Officer – Carbon Copy notation File
5. Complimentary close 2-4 spaces
Handwritten Signature 6. Signature GRACE V. RUFINO Title
1. Open Punctuation Style. This does not require any punctuation to be used after any part of the letter except the message and it is usually used with the full-blocked form.
2. Standard Punctuation Style. It is the most commonly used. In this style, only the salutation and the complimentary close contain punctuation marks: the salutation is followed by a colon, and the complimentary close is followed by a comma.
3. Closed Punctuation. It is the least used. It places a period after the date and a comma after each line of the inside address except the last line, where a period is placed after the name of the city or province. The same punctuation is used in the signature block.
FORMS OF BUSINESS LETTER
1. Purely Block Form. The block form has all the lines beginning in the left margin. The chief advantage is its simplicity and its efficiency in handling. It requires no special space adjustment. It is considered as the most formal and it requires the most formal greeting.
2. Block Form. The date and the closing lines begin at the horizontal center lead of the letter. However, it cannot be typed as fast as the purely block form because of the indentions it requires.
3. Semi-Block Form. The date and the closing lines begin at the horizontal center lead of the letter. It is similar to the block style, however, the paragraphs of the body are indicated.
4. Hanging or indented Form. It is often simplified with the elimination of the salutation, the complimentary close, and the company name. Its parts are flushed to the left margin except the body which has an inverted indention. It is the most informal among the letter forms.
5. The Indented or the Slant Form. It is similar to the semi-block style, the only differences lies on the inside address and the heading (in the absence of a letterhead) which are indented. It also has paragraph indentions.
The letter should be written in a white, unlined bond paper preferably book paper substance 22 or 20, size 8 ½ by 11 inches. Colored stationery should be the lightest side.
ADDRESSING THE ENVELOPE
The envelope address should follow the style of the inside address; that is, if the inside address is blocked or indented, the envelope address should also be blocked or indented. The address for both the small and the large envelope should begin one or two spaces below the horizontal center of the envelope and a few spaces to the left of the vertical center.
FOLDING THE LETTER
STEP 1. Place the letter before you, face up; follow the sheet upward and match the lower left corner with the side edge slightly by about one-half inch below the top edge; hold firmly in place then crease. STEP 2. Fold over from the left slightly less than one third then crease. STEP 3. Insert the edge last creased into the envelope. Steps for folding letter in a big envelope STEP 1. With the letter face up before you, fold it upward slightly by about one-half inch than one third then crease. STEP 2. Fold the sheet downward from the top slightly less than one-third and crease. STEP 3. Insert the edge last creased into the envelope.
TYPES OF BUSINESS LETTERS
1. Letter of Inquiry and the Reply Letters. These are short letter that ask questions and their reply. Parts of the Letter of Inquiry: a. Reasons for the inquiry b. Facts needed by the reader, enumerated, or in question form c. Gratitude for the favor requested Parts of the Letter Reply: a. Acknowledgement of the inquiry b. Answer of the question in full c. Gratitude and an expressed wish for future communication 2. Order Letter and the Acknowledgement Letter. These are very vital and may be used in the enforcement of the law; therefore these should be carefully reviewed and stated clearly. Parts of the Order Letter: a. b. c. d. Name of the article ordered Description of the item/size, style, finish, quality, material, weight Number/page of the item in the catalogue if available Units/quantity of the items ordered
e. f. g. h.
Unit and total price of the items Method of payment Manner of delivery Date when the goods or services are required
3. Letter Giving Instructions. This is usually sent to subordinates or to others in the workplace who need information and advice. When writing a letter of instruction, the following should be taken into consideration: a. Clarity of the instruction b. Right tone Parts of the Letter of Instruction: a. Reason for the letter b. Detailed instructions c. An expression of cooperation and opening the way for further correspondence 4. Claim Letter and Letter of Adjustment. These are used to express whenever a misunderstanding arises between two parties. It aims to express what has been wrong or unfair in a given transaction and ask for justification or rectification on the alleged error in a certain transaction. Parts of the Claim Letter: a. b. c. d. Complete statement of what is wrong Statement showing the inconvenience experienced by the writer Request for adjustment or rectification An appeal for fair play of the reader
LETTER OF ADJUSTMENT
This is the reply to the letter or adjustment with the restatement of the case and an appeal for a fair adjustment of the situation. Parts of the Letter of Adjustment: a. Expression of interest, sympathy, or apology b. Clear and complete statement of the facts for an understanding of the adjuster’s point of view. c. Offer the fair adjustment to both parties d. Assurance that the situation will not happen again and the establishment of goodwill
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