Handbook on Works Audit -Water supply



Office of the Principal Accountant General (Civil Audit) Chennai

Handbook on Works Audit -Water supply


Water Supply and Treatment
Tamil Nadu Water Supply Drainage board (TWAD) is responsible for execution of Water Supply Schemes / Drainage Schemes in Corporations, Municipalities, Panchayats, Villages in the entire State of Tamil Nadu except Chennai City where Chennai Metropolitan Water Supply and Sewerage Board (CMWSSB) is executing the work. Government of India Ministry of Urban Development, Central Public Health and Environment Engineering Organisation published a Manual known as " Manual on Water Supply and Treatment ". This Manual has laid down the basic principles relating to planning, identification of sources of water, development and transmission, water treatment, distribution system testing and other related administrative aspects and also explain in details the proper approach to each problem. The salient points relevant to audit together with various orders of Government and TWAD Board and audit approaches are given below. The CPHEEO Manual provisions indicated are with reference to the 1999 Publications.

The objectives of any Water Supply System is to supply safe wholesome water in adequate quantity at convenient points and at reasonable cost to the users. In order to encourage personal and household hygiene proper planning is necessary in the formulation and implementation of water supply projects. Engineering decisions are required to fix the area and population to be served, the design period, the per capita water supply, the water required for the other needs in the area, the nature and location of facilities to be provided and points of water supply intake and waste water disposal. Detailed investigation should be carried out in regard to nature of each source (surface or subsurface) its reliability for quality and quantity, the nature of development and type of treatment required and mode of the conveyance from the source to the consumers. Different alternatives should be considered in detail and the economically viable and technically feasible alternative should be selected by applying financial analysis techniques. Four stages are involved in the formulation of a water supply project before the project is taken up for execution. They are a. Preparation of preliminary report b. Conducting detailed Engineering survey

Office of the Principal Accountant General (Civil Audit) Chennai

Handbook on Works Audit -Water supply

c. Preparation of Project Report. d. Preparation of detailed plans and estimates. Preliminary report The report should include a brief description about the topography, geological and hydro geological features of the community, existing water supply arrangement and need for the project. Further the report should discuss and include the following aspects also. i. Identification of the area to be served with details of present population, existing water supply and sanitation facilities. ii. Identification of the water requirement for various needs. iii. Estimation of water requirement for various needs. iv. Identification of the possible alternate projects and rough cost estimation them (if possible) for installation. v. Details of engineering survey to be conducted and probable time and personnel required for carrying out the survey. vi. Cost of the engineering survey. An index map to a scale of 1 cm= 2km, a schematic diagram and a layout plan to a scale of 1 cm = 250m should be included in the report. Engineering Survey The data required to be collected for the preparation of Project report initially and for the preparation of construction plans and detailed estimates later, comprises of the following. i) Census population figures for the town for atleast five preceding decades. ii) Present rate of water supply and factors that will affect future and industrial demand. iii) Details of existing water supply and sewerage, electric and telephone facilities, the quality and quantity of existing water supply under average and adverse conditions and conditions of existing mains. iv) Field survey and leveling work connected with source development, location for treatment plants, pumping stations and service reservoirs, alignment of transmission main and preparation of detailed maps for the distribution system with contours. v) Master plan for that area. Further data to be collected for each of the component are as detailed below. a. Surface sources i. Sanitary survey for 10 km upstream and 2 km downstream of the proposed works to locate source of pollution, cremation ground etc., ii. Water sampling and quality analysis. iii. Minimum discharge in the river.


Office of the Principal Accountant General (Civil Audit) Chennai

Handbook on Works Audit -Water supply

iv. v.

vi. vii. b. Impounding reservoir i. Sanitary survey of entire catchment or atleast foreshore areas, existing sources of pollution and possible pollution and remedial measures. ii. Survey of soil, vegetation and their effects on water quality. iii. Water analysis covering seasonal variations. iv. River flow or run off records, stream flow gauging, riparian rights. v. Continuous survey of water spread, dam alignment foundation details and availability of materials. vi. MFL, LSWL and other particulars. c. Infiltration works i. Quality of sub surface water. ii. Whether river is perennial? What is the lean surface flow in the river? iii. A grid work of tell tale borings at 30-60m intervals for full width of the river 120m upstream and 120m down steam, of the proposed site for infiltration works. iv. Effective size and uniformity coefficient of sand at different depths. v. Maximum flood level and minimum summer water level. vi. Scour depth arrived at for the structures nearby constructed, by PWD, Highways etc., d. Ground Water Source i. Availability of ground water and its quality. ii. Geophysical survey to locate bores. iii. Examination of hydro geological and hydrological factors. iv. Topographical survey. e. Pump houses and treatment works i. Topographical survey to decide the best location of treatment plant. ii. Trial pit particulars and safe bearing capacity of soil. f. Transmission main i. Alignment Plan ii. Longitudinal sections at 150m intervals, along the alignment. iii. Details of crossings of river, railway, road (National or State Highways) iv. Trial pit particulars at 1 km intervals along the alignment (at closer internal when there is vide variation) v. Safe bearing capacity of soil at level of pipe support.

Plan of river course 3 km upstream and 3 km downstream of the proposed off take. Cross section of river upto and above MFL on either bank. Likely shifts of summer course of the rivers. Sub soil details upto scour depth and hard strata.


Office of the Principal Accountant General (Civil Audit) Chennai

Handbook on Works Audit -Water supply

Soil analysis of soils met in the trench for indication of corrosiveness. vii. Bedding or cushion to be provided at the bottom of the pipes depending on the type of soil met with. g. Service Reservoir The following particulars are to be collected i. Operational records to study storage requirements. ii. Highest elevation in the area of town are to be identified for locating the Service Reservoirs. iii. Spot levels at site proposed for the Service Reservoir. iv. Contours of the town for dividing the area into numbers of zones. v. Foundation details. vi. Trial pit particulars to assess the safe bearing capacity of soil at the site. vii. Maximum and minimum ground water levels. h. Distribution System The following particulars are to be collected. i. Town map in the scale of 1:200 showing all streets with names. ii. Number of houses in each street, prospects of further development, nature of houses, number of floors and height. iii. Kinds of roads. Such as concrete, BT, WBM roads iv. Town planning proposals. if any, with proposed approved layout. v. L.S. streets at 30m intervals. vi. Trail pit particulars at 500m intervals along the proposed alignments vii. A plan showing the existing distribution lines, if available with year of installation. viii The number of existing public fountains and existing house service connection. i. Land plans Survey Maps to be obtained from revenue authorities., SF Nos., Revenue classification of Land its ownership and cost of the land to be obtained for acquiring land for Service Reservoir, Pump house, treatment works. Project report The administrative sanction for a project is to be accorded by the authority considering only the project report. The project report should therefore be prepared with great care incorporating adequate particulars like need for the project, details of engineering survey carried out, the alternate project evolved, their cost and merits etc., The following details are to be included in the project report. A narrative report describing the project with the following aspects. i. Historical retrospect leading to the demand of the project. ii. Short description of existing water supply facilities.



Office of the Principal Accountant General (Civil Audit) Chennai

Handbook on Works Audit -Water supply

Details of the different sources considered with their relative merits. Raw water quality of the different sources and treatment envisaged. Engineering features of the head works and layout of the components of head works. vi. Economic analysis for sizing of transmission main and Branch for the conveyance of the water from the source to the community using ECP and Branch 3 Software. vii. Capacity, and elevation and location of Service reservoirs. viii. Salient features of the distribution system like number of zones, ground level variations in each zone. ix. Comparison of costs of alternatives and project as recommended. The project report in a complete shape incorporating all the above details with estimates for installation of the project and for the annual operation and maintenance is to be submitted to the competent authority for according administrative sanction. Preparation of detailed plans and estimates. On receipt of the administrative sanction to the project detailed hydraulic design calculations for the distribution system using LOOP 4 Software and structural design calculations for the Service Reservoirs and other structures are worked out and the detailed working drawings are prepared in such a way that the construction of works are carried by the construction Engineers without any difficulty. The following plans are to be prepared. 1. Index plan to a scale of 1 cm= 2 km 2. Schematic diagram and flow chart. 3. Detailed plans to a scale of 1 cm = 20m 4. Land plan schedules for Land Acquisitions. 5. Pert chart 6. Quarry map The detailed bill of quantities, technical specification for each work, cost estimate for each component of works and abstract of total cost have to be prepared using COSTDAT and COMEST Software packages. For each estimate, a narrative report can be prepared and appended. The estimate is got technically sanctioned by the competent authority and only after the technical sanction, the project should be taken up for implementations. Conclusion The formulation of a water supply project involves many phases of preparation and appropriate steps taken in all the phases will result in an economical and viable project. (TWAD Board Technical News letter – July 1998 Manual on water supply & Treatment Chapter X of Manual for quality control on Water Supply works)

iii. iv. v.


Office of the Principal Accountant General (Civil Audit) Chennai

6 Of CPHEEO) Water Supply projects may be designed normally to meet the requirements over a thirty year period after their completion. and design criteria to avoid empirical approach. other water needs in the area. measurement of flow. The thirty year period may however be modified in regard to certain components of the project depending on their useful life or the facility for carrying out extensions when required and rate of interest so that expenditure far ahead of utility is Office of the Principal Accountant General (Civil Audit) Chennai . Projects have to be identified and prepared in adequate detail in order to enable timely and proper implementation. DESIGN & PLANNING 3. population forecast. water tax and water rate. conveniently and as economically as possible. the latter being characterized by increasing financing costs. Objective (Para 2. the design period.2 Basic Design Considerations (Para 2. The water supply projects formulated by the various state authorities and local bodies at present do not contain all the essential elements for appraisal and when projects are assessed for their cost benefit ratio and for institutional or other funding. the CPHEEO Manual on Water Supply & Treatment specify appropriate standards. Uncertainties in such studies are many. assumptions regarding per capita water supply.1. different guidelines and norms are adopted by the central and state agencies. the utilization of centralized or multiple points of treatment facilities and points of water supply intake and waste water disposal.Handbook on Works Audit -Water supply 7 3.3 Design Period (Para 2. 3. 3. working out capital cost required. the nature and location of facilities to be provided. The time lag between design and completion of the project should also be taken into account which should not exceed two years to five years depending on the size of the project. they are not amenable for comparative study and appraisal.2. such as the difficulties in anticipating new technology and changes in the investment pattern. planning. interest charges. design period.1 Of CPHEEO) The objective of a public protected water supply system is to supply safe and clean water in adequate quantity. Also. specifications of materials. etc. period of repayment of loan. the per capita rate of water supply. water treatment. for example.2 Of CPHEEO) Engineering decisions are required to specify the area and population to be served. Therefore. Optimization may call for planning for a number of phases relating to plant capacity and the degree of treatment to be provided by determining the capacities for several units.

educational. graphically interpreted where necessary. growth of city area wise. they may be designed for ultimate project requirements. balancing tanks and service reservoirs (overhead or ground level) Distribution system Population Forecast (Para 2. a) Demograph Method of population Projection: This method takes into account the prevailing and anticipated birth rates and death rates of the region or city for the period under consideration. Sl No. Electric motors and pumps Water treatment units Pipe connection to several treatment units and other small appurtenances Raw water and clear water conveying mains Clear water reservoirs at the head works.Handbook on Works Audit -Water supply avoided. Pump house (civil works ) ii. by arithmetical balancing. A judgment based on these factors would help in selecting the most suitable method of deriving the probable trend of the population growth in the areas or areas of the project from out of the following mathematical methods. and the net increase of population is calculated accordingly considering all these factors. commercial. Necessary land for future expansion/ duplication of components should be acquired in the beginning itself.4 30 The design population will have to be estimated with due regard to all the factors governing the future growth and development of the project area in the industrial.7 Of CPHEEO) 4 5 6 7 8 3. An estimate is also made of the emigration from and immigration to the city. Special factors causing sudden emigration or influx of population should also be foreseen to the extent possible. b) Arithmetical Increase Method Office of the Principal Accountant General (Civil Audit) Chennai .2. 1 2 3 Design period in years 50 50 30 15 15 30 30 15 8 Items Storage by dams Infiltration works Pumping : i. social and administrative spheres. Where expensive tunnels and large aqueducts are involved entailing large capital outlay for duplication.

This method is applicable only in such cases where the rate of growth of population shows a downward trend. In one. This method gives much higher value and mostly applicable for growing towns and cities having vast scope for expansion. ii) Graphical Method Based On Cities With Similar Growth Pattern In this method the city in question is compared with other cities which have already undergone the same phases of development which the city in questions is likely to undergo and based on this comparison. This method increased the figures obtained by the arithmetical increase method. This method gives a low value and is suitable for well-settled and established communities. f) Graphical Method In this approach there are two methods. e) Decreasing Rate of Growth Method In this method it is assumed that rate of percentage increase decreases and the average decrease in the rate of growth is calculated. The line of best fit may be obtained by the method of least squares. i) Graphical Method Based On Single City In this method the population curve of the city (i. c) Incremental Increase Method In this method the increment in arithmetical increase is determined from the past decades and the average of that increment is added to the average increase. h) Method of Density 9 Office of the Principal Accountant General (Civil Audit) Chennai . only the city in question is considered and in the second.Handbook on Works Audit -Water supply This method is generally applicable to large and old cities. g) Logistic Method The 'S' shaped logistic curve for any city gives complete trend of growth of the city right from beginning to saturation limit of population of the city. In this method the average increase of population per decade is calculated from the past records and added to the present population to find out population in the next decade. Past Decades ) is smoothly extended for getting future value. the Population vs.e. Then the percentage increase is modified by deducting the decrease in rate of growth. a graph between population and decades is plotted. This extension has to be done carefully and it requires vast experience and good judgment. d) Geometrical Increase Method In this method percentage increase is assumed to be the rate of growth and the average of the percentage increases is used to find out future increment in population. other similar cities are also taken into account.

17/F. according to its nature of development and based on existing and contemplated town planning regulations. Note: The calculation sheet for population forecast may be called for and the correctness of population forecast ensured. Office of the Principal Accountant General (Civil Audit) Chennai . For Urban :The population forecast cannot be generalized for all towns. the decision regarding the design population should take into account their figures. In circular No.04. zones or districts will again have to be made with a discerning judgement on the relative probabilities of expansion within each zone or district. Addition of sector-wise population gives the population of the city. Different method to be adopted for population projection for Urban Town: i) Arithmetic Increase method ii) Incremental Increase method iii) Line of Fit Method iv) Geometrical Increase Method vi) Semi Log Method vii) Exponential Method viii) Decadal growth Rate Method for state / District average * For a normal town the projection arrived by exponential method is found is to be reasonable and this method may be considered. In TWAD Board. * The ground reality and present developmental activities of the town and future developments are to be considered during population forecast. * Justification note should be appended by the approving authority. the density and distribution of such population within the several areas. A typical example is given in Annexure1. TWAD Board had prescribed the following modus operandi for population projection for water supply and sewerage scheme for Rural and Urban Areas. * The population projection may be arrived through the following seven methods on minimum four decade population and the best suitable among the derivations may be approved by the competent authority.2005. Wherever population growth forecast or master plans prepared by town planning or other appropriate authorities are available. trend in rate of density increase of population for each sector of a city is found out and population forecast is done for each sector based on above approach.Handbook on Works Audit -Water supply In this approach.11168/JE6/P&D/2005 Dt.29. 10 Final Forecast While the forecast of the prospective population of a projected area at any given time during the period of design can be derived by any one of the foregoing methods appropriate to each case. the population forecast was approved by CE concerned.

gardening and individual air conditioning. washing.8 of CPHEEO) Basic Needs Piped water supplies for communities should provide adequately for the following as applicable: (a) Domestic needs such as drinking.03 time the 2001 census 1.20 times the 2006 population.10 time the 2006 population.2.) For Urban:Present population (2001) = population as per 2001 census Intermediate (2016) = to be arrived by different methods Ultimate (2031) with 2001 as the base year.Handbook on Works Audit -Water supply For rural :Base year population (2006) population Intermediate population (2021) Ultimate population (2036) 11 = = = 1.2002. cooking.30 times of the present population. For Rural:Present Population (2001) = population as per 2001 census Ultimate population (2031) = 1. 1 2 Classification of Towns/Cities Towns provided with piped water supply but without sewerage system Cities provided with piped water supply where sewerage system is existing / contemplated Office of the Principal Accountant General (Civil Audit) Chennai . (c) Public purposes such as street washing or street watering.1 CPHEEO Manual 70 135 Sl. No. flushing of sewers. and (g) Minimum permissible Unaccounted for water (UFW) Recommended Per Capita Water Supply Levels for Designing Schemes. flushing of toilets. Population Forecast before 2005:(TWAD Board Circular No. Recommended Maximum Water Supply Levels (lpcd) Table 2. (b) Institutional needs. 3 P&D/JE-6/2002 dt. (d) Industrial and commercial uses including central air conditioning (e) Fire fighting (f) Requirement for livestock. watering of public parks.08. bathing.04.5 Per Capita Supply (Para 2. 1. 3.

9 of CPHEEO) The physical and chemical quality of drinking water should be in accordance with the recommended guidelines. But while evolving the CWSS/WSS towns and habitations already covered fully for ultimate stage through separate water supply scheme were included in the CWSS. involving extra cost on creation of excess size and capacity of pumping main. where water is provided through public standposts. However. The inclusion of those area already covered under separate Water Supply Scheme in the CWSS was superfluous.6 Physical And Chemical Quality Of Drinking Water (Para 2. it could be seen that bulk provision of water was made for many towns and habitations which were already • • Office of the Principal Accountant General (Civil Audit) Chennai . By examining the water requirement estimate statement. habitations included in the CWSS. the bulk supply to such establishments should be assessed separately with proper justification. pumps and motor. Para 2. treatment plants.2.1 of CPHEEO Manual and also guidelines of the Board prescribes the per capita water supply to the designed period of the population forecast. By scrutinizing the details of the existing water supply to the towns. we can notice the above type of audit observation. Per Capita Water Supply Rate Prescribed by TWAD Board.Handbook on Works Audit -Water supply 3 Metropolitan and Mega cities provided with piped water supply where sewerage system is existing / contemplated 12 150 Note: (i) In urban areas. institutional and minor industries. 1 Rural habitations without house service connection (HSC) 2 Rural Habitation with HSC 3 Town Panchayats (both Rural & Urban ) 4 Municipalities 5 Corporations : : : : 40 litres 55 70 90 “ “ “ “ : 120 3. etc. The Parameters are given in Annexure II Audit Approach • The objective of the Water Supply System is to supply safe and clean potable water in adequate quantity conveniently and as economically as possible. sump.40 lpcd should be considered: (ii) Figures exclude “Unaccounted for Water (UFW)” which should be limited to 15% (iii) Figures include requirements of water for commercial.

Intermediate sumps are also constructed to reduce the pressure in the transmission main. In the meantime. To meet the shortfall if any. clear water reservoirs at head works. another separate water supply improvement scheme was sanctioned and executed under another scheme. This type could be brought out by close study of various water supply schemes & CWSS sanctioned and executed. clear water sumps and service reservoirs were designed and constructed for 30 years (Ultimate stage). Para 7. Para 2. sump.6 of CPHEEO Manual provides for designing Water Treatment units. Clear water is collected in a sump before it is pumped to Service reservoir (vide Para 6. bulk provision was made in another CWSS which was under execution. Para 2.2. This resulted in utilisation of infrastructure created for period much lesser than the prescribed 30 years. The sump shall be designed for intermediate stage and its capacity depends on the discharge into the sump and detention time (discharge in lpm x detention time in 13 Office of the Principal Accountant General (Civil Audit) Chennai . pump and motors. etc. clariflocculator. But they were constructed for ultimate requirements as against the intermediate requirements prescribed by CPHEEO Manual resulting in extra cost.5 of CPHEEO Manual and PWD Code stipulates that the life of electric motor and pump is 15 years. softener. Thus cost involved in execution of the latter improvement scheme except cost on creation of distribution system was wasteful.Handbook on Works Audit -Water supply • • • • • • • provided with Separate Water Supply Scheme and the ultimate stage of water supply had not been completed. erection of pump and motor for ultimate stage was wasteful and cost involved on execution of pump and motor for ultimate stage become wasteful. Many cases such bulk provisions were not warranted for and the provision of bulk provision remained unutilized which would increase the total requirement of water and ultimately increase the capacity of pumping main. balancing tanks (Sump) and Service Reservoirs of the Water Supply Projects for 15 years (intermediate Stage) to facilitate carrying out extensions when required and avoid expenditure far ahead of utility and interest on capital. Appendix 6. treatment plant. filter.7 of the Notes on Water Supply Scheme issued by CE. the necessity for such inclusion should be analysed. involving extra cost. The treatment plant constructed by Board comprised of those units.3. Duplication in creation of infrastructure due to formulating separate improvement scheme while existing scheme itself functioning well and had not completed its designed service life of 30 years (Ultimate stage). A town may already been provided with water Supply Schemes for ultimate stage. As the electric motors and pump would lose their efficiency after 15 years of service life. etc. Thus creation of infrastructure far ahead of requirement was avoidable and wasteful. PWD Chennai in 1971). Instead of designing the Schemes as per the provisions of the Manual.2 of CPHEEO Manual stipulates that the water supply projects shall be designed to meet the requirement for the population forecast at the prescribed per capita supply over a period of 30 years after their completion and prescribes the methods of forecasting the population during the period of design on the basis of latest census. In such cases. Water Supply Schemes sanctioned upto 2002 were designed taking base year as 1996/1991 and ultimate year as 2026/2021.1 of CPHEEO Manual specifies the water treatment units which includes aerator. But treatment plant. disinfector.

If not extra capacity involved could be objected to. The norms prescribed by Government of India under Rural Water Supply Schemes and also by Board in July 1998 stipulated for 40 lpcd. Audit Scrutiny also disclosed that clear water sumps were designed for 15 to 180 minutes eventhough separate feeder main to provide 24 hours power supply was available and also constructed for the requirement of ultimate stage instead of intermediate stage involving extra cost. Whereas in case house service connection was provided for. Consequently water could not reach the tail end or intermediatary reaches. 501-1250 and 1251-2500 at 10000. 30000 and 60000 litres capacity respectively. it can be increased to 55 lpcd.2 and Appendix 10. Cases where water supply scheme was designed adopting 1991 population as base year and actual requirement of the water in the initial reaches was not correctly worked. but house service connections were not effected subsequently.3 of Notes on Water Supply Schemes issued by the Chief Engineer (PWD) Chennai in 1971 also indicates that the capacity of Service Reservoir is fixed on the basis of hours of pumping and the peak rate of supply.4. For construction of overhead tank (OHT). demand and hours of supply. intermediatary sump to regulate water 14 Office of the Principal Accountant General (Civil Audit) Chennai . As such the capacity of service reservoir shall be one third of a day’s supply for intermediate stage in urban areas and half of the day’s supply for intermediate stage in rural areas of CWSS. Cases of non-estimation of the actual requirement of water to the intended habitation were also available.Handbook on Works Audit -Water supply • • • minutes). Para 10. and separate feeder main for power supply etc. At the time of completion of the Scheme. service reservoirs in rural water supply power pump scheme which prescribed the capacity of OHT/SR on the basis of ultimate population of the range 150-500. The guidelines issued by Board in December 1982 also stipulated that the capacity of overhead service reservoirs in rural areas of a CWSS should be 50 per cent of the ultimate daily requirement of the individual habitation considering the limited hours of power supply. On a audit enquiry. availability of power.8. the people in the initial reach would draw more water than the designed level. Para 2. But cases where all infrastructures were created adopting 55 lpcd. But it is noticed that service reservoirs were designed and constructed for the requirement of ultimate stage instead of intermediate stage. Madurai informed (November 2003) that the capacity of sump are designed generally for 30 to 60 minutes storage and storage period would vary depending on various factors such as hours of pumping. and shall be constructed for intermediate stage only. the service reservoirs were designed and constructed for ultimate stage adopting the norms prescribed by Board in May 1998. This necessitates laying far separate feeder main. The peak rate of supply is usually taken to be twice the average rate and the capacity of service reservoir is fixed at 8 hours or one third of a day’s supply. per capita supply level for designing water supply schemes.1 of CPHEEO Manual prescribes guidelines for estimation of storage capacity of the service reservoirs which depends on hours of pumping. In rural habitation covered under CWSS.2. Para 19.3 of CPHEEO Manual recommends. Construction of SR for ultimate requirement and also not observing the norms resulted in extra cost on construction of Service Reservoirs of higher capacity. Southern Region. TWAD Board. It should be verified whether specific undertaking was obtained from the local bodies before designing the CWSS adopting 55 lpcd. the CE.

But with a view to provide cushion. This was due to poor investigation. Para 19.Handbook on Works Audit -Water supply supply. Hence the unit rate prescribed by Board is adopted as basis from which the proportionate cost is worked out on the agreement value adopting ratio of proportion which would give the cost of construction of the required capacity of assets. pumping mains were designed for 16 to 20 hours pumping eventhough separate feeder main for power supply to pumping station connected with industrial line having 24 hours power supply.1998. Hence it is not possible to work out the extra cost on creation of assets for ahead of the requirement easily. Pump sets and Sump could have been designed and constructed at lesser capacity. pump sets and sumps had to be designed and constructed for higher capacity/size. NOTE: Upto 1998-99.101/P&D/98 dated 29.9. Board had also instructed to design the CWSS for 20 hours of pumping if separate feeder main for power supply was provided. Office of the Principal Accountant General (Civil Audit) Chennai .1 of the Note on Water Supply Schemes issued by the Chief Engineer (PWD). In letter No. Chennai in 1971 also stipulates that pumping main can be designed to discharge 24 hours if service reservoirs are provided. The extra cost involved on this could be analysed and commented. In June 2002. The difference would give the extra cost. Pumping main. 15 DESIGN: Appendix 11. the discharge for the ultimate requirement would be much lesser and the infrastructures viz. Had 23 hours of pumping adopted. Due to reduction in hours of pumping the size of pumping main. TWAD Board communicated unit rates for various items of work for preparation of outline proposals for various components of urban and rural water supply schemes for the year 1998-99. TWAD Board had prescribed unit rate for various items of work which was dispensed with from 1999-2000 and comprehensive common Schedule of Rates for each items .1 of CPHEEO Manual stipulated for designing the pumping main for 23 hours of pumping considering loss of one hour due to tripping and other minor interruption. defective design and execution and failure to assess the actual requirement before executing the work.

Surface water sources 2. SOURCE OF WATER (Chapter 5 of CPHEEO Manual & chapter VII of Manual for Quality Control in Water supply works) The sources for the water supply scheme are generally of the following two categories. When large quantity of water is required for the scheme. If the river is not perennial. Tamilnadu State can be categorized as hard rock areas. Sub surface water sources 1. When quality of ground water available in and around the beneficiary is not potable. 1. The water from these sources are drawn and supplied the beneficiaries after proper treatment. Office of the Principal Accountant General (Civil Audit) Chennai . 3. 2.1 Guidelines for location of infiltration well (TWAD Circular No 2/DO/P&D/2001 dt 5. 4. 1. The sub-surface water is being tapped from the following sources. Generally surface water is preferred for the following reasons. The hard rock areas cover 73% area of the state and the sedimentary formations cover the remaining 27% area of the state.Handbook on Works Audit -Water supply 16 4. 2. Open wells Bore wells Infiltration wells and Collector wells 2. 1. and sedimentary areas.2. Sub surface water source In geological nature.2001) The following procedures are to be followed in geophysical investigation for fixing up the location of an Infiltration well.Surface water source Surface Water sources are from rivers lakes and reservoirs. 2. the storage of water is necessary for supplying during the dry period.

7. Yield from an infiltration well sunk for 3. 8.5 m diameter in saturated aquifer of 4m depth for a draw down of 2m is computed approximately as 1000 lpm.2 Design criteria for Collector Wells Collector wells with radial arms are generally proposed in river basins to tap maximum yield from deep saturated aquifer. The location of the infiltration well should be located in such a way to avoid interference between structures 2.After conducting geo survey. From the trial bore well. location of the proposed infiltration well have to be located. Size of laterals - Office of the Principal Accountant General (Civil Audit) Chennai . the trial bore wells are to be drilled and soil samples analysed. 3. The water sample should also be collected and analyzed for assessing the potability of water. At the selected point. 5. Lithology of the trial bore wells should be prepared and the depth of the saturated sand is analyzed. probing is to be done to assess the sand depth where the maximum is seen. 6. This type of sources are proposed when the quantity of water requirement is very huge. The summer water level of the area of the investigation with reference to the saturated thickness is correlated. Here also confirmatory bores have to be drilled to identify the depth of aquifer and to locate exact depth at which the radial arms to be driven. In the selected location of the probing where the maximum sand depth exist. the confirmatory bore well to be drilled not only at the centre of the infiltration well but also in the periphery atleast six borewells.Resistively survey with geophysical equipment are carried out in grid pattern in the river bed/bank to assess the apparent resistively of the sub-surface strata and fixing location. 17 10. 4. 2. Design Criteria Diametre Thickness of well staining Number of laterals Length of laterals 4 to 6 45 to 60cm 8 to 16 (in radial directions) 20 to 60m depending (upon the saturated thickness of aquifer) 200 to 300mm dia slotted pipes. 9. The depth of the infiltration well depends on the saturated thickness of the area.Handbook on Works Audit -Water supply 1.

Handbook on Works Audit -Water supply Permissible velocity of flow in laterals 0. The objective is limited to determine the aquifer parameters such as transitivity (T).e. To study the parameters of transitivity. April – August a factor of 0. storage co-efficient and hydraulic conductivity. To analyze the well performance. hydraulic conductivity (K) and well performance and safe yield for execution of water supply scheme. In case of Kanyakumari district the correction factor will be 0. the drawdown in a pumping well is recorded at variable discharge in steps. length and size of the laterals can be determined to obtain the required yield from the source.06 mps Slot in laterals 16% of the surface area of the laterals Note : The number. for arriving at the safe yield. 18 3. In step drawdown test. The CPHEEO Manual prescribes two types of safe . 3.6 may be applied. yield tests have to be conducted and safe yield has to be arrived after applying the correction factors.6 for other months.9 may be adopted to the observed yield for determining the safe yield from borewell.2. An aquifer performance test consists of pumping a well at certain constant rate and recording the drawdown both in pumping well and in the near by observation wells at specific times. efficiency of a well.Pum ping Test (Discharge Test) Pumping test is the most accurate.yield tests for determining safe yield of the well viz. For the yield tests conducted during other months a correction factor of 0. generally a constant discharge pumping test (aquifier performance test) is conducted. Storage co-efficient (S). Depending upon the yield the required number of wells may be decided to supply the quantity required for the scheme. When the yield test is conducted during summer months i. The methodology of a pumping test is highly varying in its application. Pumping (Discharge) Test & recuperation test. the following multiplication factors have been evolved to arrive safe yield for the borewells drilled in hard rock area. Office of the Principal Accountant General (Civil Audit) Chennai . reliable and commonly used method to evaluate the hydraulic parameters of an aquifier. 3. safer operational rates of pumping and selection of suitable pump. Safe Yield In all type of wells after completion of the construction. the step drawdown test (well performance test) is carried out. 1 Safe yield in Bore wells (Datamatrix of TWAD Board Engineers) For power pump schemes.9 for the months from March of June and it will be 0.

P. Note:The result of discharge test of the well measured in ‘V’ notch would be recorded in the prescribed table and the specific yield in lpm per cm of draw down derived from the table. This rise in water column has to be noted in close intervals. collector well. the water column in the well or borewell started rising.Handbook on Works Audit -Water supply Efficiency of the well is the ratio of the critical drawdown (drawdown just outside of the casing) and actual drawdown measured in a well at a designed discharge of continuous pumping for a given period. The bore wells/ open wells executed for major schemes are subjected to pumping tests. To ensure whether. Pumping tests are also conducted before and after the hydro fracturing operations. This would be verified from the pumping test report and ensure safe yield of the well. when the pump is shut down. Minimum Distance of well from source of Contamination Contamination of Sources Building sewer Septic tank Disposal field Seepage pit Cesspool Audit Approach • According to the instruction of TWAD Board in B. Recuperation test are recommended for large diameter open wells.75 dt. Recuperation Test After the constant discharge test.1990 various components of water supply scheme shall be executed after ensuring adequate quantity and quality of source.25. The data collected on recouping water column will be useful to compute the aquifer parameters. without ensuring the availability of adequate quantity of potable water. the pumping mains distribution system. infiltration well) created in conformity with the specification mentioned above.No. Analyze the failure to observe the guidelines and resultant financial and social objective implication. However.03. overhead service reservoir etc work constructed resulting in unfruitful expenditure. sources (Borewell. 19 Recommended distances (in metres) 15 15 30 30 45 • Office of the Principal Accountant General (Civil Audit) Chennai . In a similar manner specific yield obtained from Recuperation test in the well should be ascertained and the safe yield adopted by comparing both the report.

Ductile Iron. Prestressed concrete.2 of Cpheeo) Office of the Principal Accountant General (Civil Audit) Chennai . Pipe line normally follow the profile of the ground surface quite closely. Pipes are of Cast Iron. Gravity pipelines have to be laid below the hydraulic gradient. Whether permission was obtained from the District Collector/Water Utilisation Committee for drawal of water to the designed quantity. GRP asbestos cement. The remedial measures proposed/taken has also to be analysed. sediment transport.2 Coefficient of Roughness (`C’ Value) (Para 6. available pressure or head allowable velocities of flow.. Velocity:There are a number of formulas available for use in calculating the velocity of flow. quality of water and relative cost. mild steel. etc.63 S 0. reinforced cement concrete.54 Where Q = discharge in cubic metre per hour d.Transmission of Water (Chapter 6 of CPHEEO Manual) Water supply broadly involves transmission of water from the sources to the area of consumption through free flow channel or conduits or pressure main. However Hazen – William formula for pressure conduits and Manning’s formula for free flow conduits have been popularly used. 20 • • 5. scour.567 x 10-3 C d 0. OF CPHEEO Manual) The design of supply of conduits is dependent on resistance to flow.63 S0.54 And Q = 1.63 S0. the expression becomes V= 4. plastic.= hydraulic radius in m or hydraulic mean depth in meter = water area wetted perimeter S = Slope of hydraulic gradeline C= Hazen-William co-efficient 5.849 C r0.2.54 For circular conduits. Whether proper investigation and test carried out to ensure reliable source to the designed quantity and factors affecting contamination of source which subsequently resulted in making the water not potable examined. 5.292 x 10-5 C d 2.1 Hydraulic of Conduits ( Pipe ) (PARA 6.Handbook on Works Audit -Water supply • Whether dependability and reliability of the source. a) The Hazen – William formula is expressed as V= 0.=diameter of pipe in mm V = Velocity in MPS r.2. quality of source ensured before creation of other infrastructures which ultimately resulted in wasteful expenditure on creation of infrastructures.

3 Modified Hazen – Williams Formula (Para 6. The value of the Hazen-William co-efficient `C’ value for new conduit materials and the value to be adopted for design purposes are given below.81 Office of the Principal Accountant General (Civil Audit) Chennai . Ductile Iron Mild Steel Galvanized Iron above 50mm dia Galvanized Iron 50mm dia and Below used for house service connections Centrifugally Lined Metallic Pipes Cast Iron.62 D 4.2. The Metallic pipes lined with cement mortar or epoxy and concrete pipe behave as smooth pipes. To reduce corrosion.81 ] / 994. 534 CR r 0. Hazen-Williams Co-efficient (Table 6. Unlined metallic pipes under several field conditions such as carrying water having tendency for incrustation and corrosion. Ductile Iron and Mild Steel pipes Non Metallic pipes RCC spun concrete.Handbook on Works Audit -Water supply The co efficient of roughness (`C’ Value ) depends on Reynolds number and relative roughness. the metallic pipes are being provided with durable smooth internal lining.1 of CPHEEO Manual) Pipe Material Unlined Metallic pipes Cast Iron. Hence the modified Hozen Williams formula has been derived from Darcy – Weisbach and Colebrook – white equations and obviates the limitations of Hazen – Williams formula. prestressed Concrete Upto 1200 mm dia Above 1200 mm dia Asbestos Cement PVC. GRP and other Plastic pipes 140 145 140 145 Recommended `C’ Value New Pipes Design purpose 130 140 120 120 100 100 100 55 21 130 110 140 145 150 150 140 145 140 145 5. low flow velocity and stagnant water under go substantial reduction in their carrying capacity with age. Ductile Iron and Mild Steel pipes Lined with cement mortar or Epoxy Upto 1200 mm dia Above 1200 mm dia Projection Method Cement Mortar Lined Metallic pipes Cast Iron.6575 S 0. increase smoothness and prolong the life of pipe materials. The modified Hazen Williams formula derived for circular conduits as V= 143.4 Of Cpheeo) Hazen William formula has inherent limitation and under utilization.5525 H = [ L ( Q / CR) 1.

The use of Hazen Williams “ C” as per Table 6.4 percent for HDPE and PVC pipes. Mannings n and roughness k values in Moody’s Diagram have also been used on experimental data collected in early nineteenth century. The extent of under utilization varies from 13 to 40 percent for CI pipes. Accordingly CR values of commonly used commercial pipe materials have been experimentally determined in a study conducted within the country.5 Experimental Estimation of CR Values ( 6.0 m / s In the light of this revelation. There have since been major advances in pipeline technology. and Q = flow in pipe in m3/ s. r = hydraulic radius in m. Both the manufacturing processes and jointing methods have improved substantially over the years and newer pipe materials have come into use.Williams formula is presented in the Appendix 6. 23 percent for RCC and AC pipes. A nomograph for estimation of head loss by Modified Hazen . H = friction head loss in m.3 of CPHEEO manual 22 5. The increase in discharge quantity of lined CI pipe is 40/45 per cent when compared to unlined CI pipes. 5.Handbook on Works Audit -Water supply In which. CR = pipe roughness coefficient.2.1 results in under utilization of above pipe material when new. D = internal diameter of pipe in m. The values of Hazen Williams. CR values are presented for average temperature of 20o C. < 1 for rough pipes). In case the `C’ value is understated the size of the pipe would automatically increase. The `C’ Value is the main contributory factor for deciding the size of the pipe. S = friction slope. CR = 1 for these pipes. C.2. there would be Office of the Principal Accountant General (Civil Audit) Chennai . Continued usage of roughness coefficients estimated without recognition of these advances is bound to result in conservative design of water supply systems. This study covered pipe diameters 100 to 1500 mm over a wide range of Reynold’s numbers ( 3 x 104 to 1.5% for a diameter of 2000 mm at a velocity of 3. L = length of pipe in m. Since the quantity to be discharged in the design of a particular section of pumping main remains constant. RCC.6 OF CPHEEO) The coefficients of roughness in various pipe formulae are based on experiments conducted over a century ago. and 8. ( 1 for smooth pipe.60 x 106 ) encountered in practice. V = velocity of flow in m/s .5 of CPHEEO) Analysis carried out to evaluate effect of temperature (viscosity) on value of CR reveals that the maximum variation of CR for a temperature range of 10o C to 30o C is 4. The results indicate that centrifugally spun CI. AC and HDPE pipes are hydraulically smooth when new and hence.4 Effect of Temperature on Coefficient of Roughness ( 6.

there would be scope for reduction in diameter of the pipe.63 xS0.63 The hydraulic gradient should not be reduced as it would cause increased pressure head which necessitate higher capacity pump sets and consequent additional expenditure.63=c/c1 d2.292 x 10-5x. The following expression may be used to determine the reduced diameter of pipes when `C’ value is increased. For 23 Office of the Principal Accountant General (Civil Audit) Chennai . the diameter of the pipes would be reduced using Hazen-Williams formula. (1) Note: Hazen William formula : Q = 1.38=350.38 (4980693)0.63/c1d12.63]0. cd2. Hence while attempting reduction of size of pipe by increasing the `C’ value. the velocity should not be increased beyond limits. If the quantity of discharge and head lose were kept constant.38 Diameter of the pipe for C value of 140 would be d1=[1/1. care should be taken to keep both quantity of discharge and head loss as constants.73 mm or 350mm Thus the dia meter of the pipe is reduced from 400 mm to 350 due to increase of C value from 100 to 140.d1= [c/c1 d2.63]0. The hydraulic gradient may be kept constant or it may be increased. Adopting the formula d1 =[c/c1 d2.63]1/2.54 If Q (Discharge) and S (hydraulic gradient are kept constant and C value is changed Then Q = 1.63 : d1= [c/c1 d2.63 d12.292 x 10-5 x C1d2.Handbook on Works Audit -Water supply scope for reduction in diameter of the pipes used in that section. However we must ensure that due to reduction of size of pipe.63 (derived from Hazen William formula) where d= Diameter of pipe in mm as adopted in the design d1 = reduced diameter when `C’ value is increased c= `c’ value adopted in the design c1= Correct `C’ to be adopted as per CPHEEO manual Illustration: Consider a pumping main with following parameters: Water to be discharged (k) = 4365 lpm Head loss (s) = 1/700 `C’ Value adopted ( C) = 100 Pipe used CI pipes (lined ) = 400 mm dia Velocity (v) = 0. It is to be noted that while reducing the diameter of the pipe we have to keep the Quantity of water to be discharged as constant.54 …….4 (400)2. .(2) (1) divided by (2) 1= cd2.579 m/sec Since `C’ value for lined pipes is 140 .63]1/2.63 x S0.

another expression of Hazen William formula (i. AC. except in the case of CI and steel pipe while carrying corrosive water. results in under utilization of pipe material to the extent of 38 to 71 percent for CI pipes for non corrosive water. Office of the Principal Accountant General (Civil Audit) Chennai . The data on existing systems in some cities have been analyzed along with the experimental information gathered during the study.7.54 = 4. the current practice of arbitrary reduction in “C” values as per Sec. The CR values obtained in such studies have shown that.745 m/sec which is within normal limits adopted by TWAD Board. AC and HDPE pipes behave as hydraulically smooth and hence CR of 1 is recommended.029 = 0.63 x (1/700)0.8 OF CPHEEO) The following design recommendations are made to ensure effective utilization of pipe carrying capacity. ( 6.Handbook on Works Audit -Water supply this.7 of CPHEEO) The values of Hazen – Williams “C” are at present arbitrarily reduced by about 20 to 23 percent in carrying capacity of pipes with age. DI steel.2. For design period of 30 years.567 x 10-3c d0.2. 6. 5. 46 to 93 percent for RCC pipes and 2 to 64 percent for AC and HDPE pipes.567 x 10-3 x 140 (350)0.06 x 0.567 x 10-3 x 140 x 3500.2.54 4. care must be taken to ensure selfcleansing velocity to prevent formation of slimes and consequent reduction in carrying capacity of these pipes with age. to bring out a rational approach to the reduction in carry capacity of pipes with age.54 Where d=350 mm and s= 1/700 Therefore V = 4. PVC and HDPE pipes irrespective of the quality of water.567 x 10-3 x 140 x 40.63 x (1/700)0.63 x s0.6 Reduction in Carrying Capacity of Pipes with Age. no reduction in CR needs to be effected for RCC. RCC. However. i) ii) New CI.) V= 4.2. Studies have revealed that chemical bacteriological quality of water and velocity of flow affect the carrying capacity of pipes with age. Design Recommendations for Use of Modified Hazen-Williams Formula ( 6. A typical discharge table for different size of pipe is given in Annexure IV 24 5.e.

The design must also ensure self cleansing velocity. It is desirable to adopt the following guidelines. unlined CI. Hence. iii) 25 RECOMMENDED CR VALUES IN MODIFIED HAZEN-WILLIAMS FORMULA( AT 20 oC) Diameter (mm) Sl.00 0.5 % in estimation of surface resistance.3 0.00 0.00 1. a cost trade-off analysis must be carried out between chemical and bio-chemical correction of water quality.8 Guidelines for Cost Effective Design of Pipelines.3 0.00 1.5 1. DI and steel pipes will loose 47 and 27 percent of their capacity respectively over a design period of 30 years.1 2.4 The use of the recommended values in conjunction with Modified Hazen-Williams formula or the nomograph will permit fuller utilization of pipe materials.87 (*) 1. 5.00 1.3 0.6m /s in order to avoid depositions and consequent loss of carrying capacity.00 CR value for Design period of 30 years 1.00 1. The cost of transmission and distribution system constitutes a major portion of the project cost.00 1.0 1.00 1.8 CR value when New 1. Recommended CR values are presented in Table 6.8 1.3 0.8 1.3 2.3 0.3 0.00 1.00 1. No 1 2 3 4 5 Pipe material RCC AC HDPE and PVC CI/DI ( for water with positive Langelier’s index) CI/DI ( for water with negative Langelier’s index) Metallic pipes lined with cement mortar or epoxy ( for water with negative Langelier’s index) SGSW GI ( for water with negative Langelier’s index) From 100 100 20 100 100 To 2000 600 100 1000 1000 Velocity ( m/s) From 0. provision of a protective lining to the pipe interiors and design at reduced CR value for ascertaining the utility of CI.1 1. DI and steel pipe material in the transmission of corrosive waters.85* 0.53 * 6 7 8 100 100 15 2000 600 100 0.74 (*) These are average CR values which result in a maximum error of + . 15 percent reduction is required for unlined CI & DI pipes if non corrosive water is to be transported.00 0.3 To 1.Handbook on Works Audit -Water supply For design period of 30 years.8 2. iv) While carrying corrosive waters. i) The design velocity should not be less than 0. Office of the Principal Accountant General (Civil Audit) Chennai .

Choice of Pipe Materials Types of Pipes: The various types of pipes used are: a.S. D. the installation and maintenance costs necessary to ensure the required function and performance of the pipeline throughout its designed life time. 26 5. should be done instead of making an arbitrary provision. maximum permissible diameter. internal and external corrosion problems. iv)In providing for head loss due to fittings. Metallic pipes : C. G.I. specials and other appurtenances. Bar wrapped Steel Cylinder Concrete.9 Pipe Materials ( Para 6. the actual internal diameter of the pipe shall be adopted after accounting for the thickness of lining. Polyethylene.I..2. Non Metallic pipes i) Reinforced Concrete. life and over all cost which includes. hydraulic and operating conditions. special conditions. Asbestos Cement.. lower velocities may be adopted with adequate provision for scouring. if any instead of the nominal diameter or outside diameters ( OD). laying and jointing. Selection of Pipes * Several technical factors affect the final choice of pipe material such as internal pressures.. M. i)Unlined Metalic pipes.3 Of CPHEEO) Pipelines are major investments in water supply projects. Therefore pipe materials shall have to be judiciously selected not only from the point of view of durability. However. ii)Metallic pipes lined with cement mortar or epoxy lining b. iii) In all hydraulic calculations. where inevitable due to minimum pipe diameter criteria or other hydraulic constraints. Glass Reinforced Plastic. type of soil. Office of the Principal Accountant General (Civil Audit) Chennai . etc.Handbook on Works Audit -Water supply ii) In design of distribution systems.6m/ s to avoid low velocity conditions which may encourage deposition and / or corrosion resulting in deterioration in quality.I.9. Prestressed Concrete. etc. the design velocity should not be less than 0. coefficient of roughness. ii) Plastic pipes : PVC. the pipe cost. actual head loss calculations based on consideration included in subsection 6.

The check list for selection of pipe materials prescribed in table 6. The metallic pipes are being provided with internal lining either with cement mortar or epoxy so as to reduce corrosion. e)The safety. Values of C vary for different conduit materials and their relative deterioration in service. geology and other prevailing local conditions. However. The pipeline may have very long life but may also be relatively expensive in terms of capital and recurring costs and. 27 The life and durability of the pipe depends on several factors including inherent strength of the pipe material. for example. b) The strength of the pipe as measured by its ability to resist internal pressures and external loads. therefore. They vary with size and shape to some extent. C. The cost of the pipe material and its durability or design life are the two major governing factors in the selection of the pipe material.Handbook on Works Audit -Water supply * Selection of pipe materials must be based on the following considerations: a)The initial carrying capacity of the pipe and its reduction with use. it is essential to carryout a detailed economic analysis before selecting a pipe material. c)The life and durability of pipe d)The case of difficulties in transportation. Normally the design period of pipelines is considered as 30 years. by the Hazen – Williams coefficient. g)The ease or difficulty of operations and maintenance. increase smoothness and prolong the life. The determination of the suitability in all respects of the pipeline for any work is a matter of decision by the Engineer concerned on the basis of the requirements for the scheme.7 of CPHEEO is to be prepared to the facilitate the decision makers in selecting the Office of the Principal Accountant General (Civil Audit) Chennai . defined. Underground metallic pipelines may require protection against external corrosion depending on the soil environment and corrosive ground water. handling and laying and jointing under different conditions of topography. Protection against external corrosion is provided with cement mortar guiniting or hot applied coal-tar asphaltic enamel reinforced with fiberglass fabric yarn. the manufacturing process along with quality control handling transportation laying and jointing of the pipeline surrounding soil conditions and quality of water. the relative age of such pipes depends on the thickness and quality of lining available for corrosion. It is necessary that a quantitative and qualitative assessment is made to arrive at the most economical and reliable pipe materials. economy and availability or manufactured sizes of pipes and specials f)The availability of skilled personnel in construction and commissioning of pipelines. Lined metallic pipelines are expected to last beyond the normal design life of 30 years.

Office of the Principal Accountant General (Civil Audit) Chennai . 1.4. 28 Widely used because of its good casting qualities and continue to give satisfactory service even after a century of use. ( Steel plate of Minimum tensile strength of 410 mpa is normally used) Larger size of pipe are made by welding together the edges of suitably curved plates as per IS 3589: 2001. Mechanical joint and conventional joint know as Lead joints are used. 2.5 of CPHEEO) Manufacture of steel pipes shall be with mild steel plate grade Minimum tensile strength of 330 mpa. IS 3589 : 2001 stipulates the nominal size of steel pipe ranging 168.sand guiniting or not applied coal-tar asphaltic enamel reinforced with fibre glass fabric yarn.Handbook on Works Audit -Water supply economical and reliable pipe materials for the given condition and it is strongly recommended for large and medium projects more than 15 mld. Centrifugally cast iron (spun) pipe is available and manufactured to a diameter of 80mm to 1050mm. Risk analysis should be carried out to arrive at the correct decision in selecting the pipe material. Cast Iron (CI) Pipe (Para 6. Small size of pipe having threaded ends could be joined with jointed materials like yarn. Vertically cast Iron pipes has been largely superceded by centrifugally spun cast iron pipes. A and B classes according to their wall thickness. 410 mpa & 450 mpa confirming to IS 2062. Class LA pipe have been taken as the basis for classification of pipe Class A pipe more 10% and Class B have 20% increase in thickness over Class LA.6mm to 25mm. Vertically cast Iron pipe shall confirm to IS 1537 – 1976 and the centrifugally cast spun iron pipe shall confirm to IS 1536: 2001. sewer main etc. The pipes are Spigot and socket type Several type of joints such as rubber gasket joint known as Tyton joints. The outer coating for under ground pipe line may be in cement . Risk factors should be identified clearly in the project report. The CI pipe have been classified as LA. CPHEEO) CI pipes are vertically cast or centrifugally cast. As against internal corrosion rich cement mortar or epoxy lining should be done internally by centrifugal process. Steel Pipe ( Para 6.3mm to 2540mm outer diameter with varying thickness of plate 2. To be provided protection against corrosion. used for carrying potable water.

pipes conforming to IS : 1592 – 2003 was made of a mixture of Asbestos paste and cement compressed by steel roller to form laminated material of great strength and density. ductility and corrosion resistance.15. the working pressure should be 2/3 of the test pressure and for the pumping main.4 and 6 kg / cm2 respectively. Pre stressed Concrete (PSC) Pipe ( Para 6. 5.20 & 25 kg / cm 2 respectively. AC pipes have two type of joints cast iron detachable ( CID) joints and AC coupling joints. the working pressure should not exceed half of the test pressure. Working pressure shall not be greater then 50% of the test pressure for pumping mains and 67% for gravity main. 6. rubber gasket etc. Office of the Principal Accountant General (Civil Audit) Chennai . For use as gravity main. AC pipe are manufactured from class 10 to 25 and nominal diameters of 50mm to 1000mm with test pressure of 10 to 25 kg / cm 2.7 of CPHEEO) A. These pipes are approximately 30% lighter than conventional CI pipes. Free from cracks. PSC pipes consists of a concrete lined steel cylinder with steel joint rings welded to its ends wrapped with a helix of highly stressed wire and coated with dense cement mortar or concrete. Asbestos Cement (AC) Pipes ( Para 6. Jointed with RCC collars with jute yarn rope dipped in Cement mortar.5 to 6m.9 of CPHEEO) The PSC pipes are ideally suited for water supply mains where pressure in the range of 6 kg / cm2 to 20 kg / cm2 are encountered. DI pipes are available in the range of 80mm to 1000mm diameter and in length of 5.Handbook on Works Audit -Water supply 3. DI pipe have excellent properties of machinability. Concrete Pipe ( Para 6.) 29 4. Ductile Iron Pipes ( 6. DI fittings are manufactured conforming to IS 9523 : 1980 and the laying and jointing done as in the case of CI pipe ( viz.C. impact resistance. P2 and P3 with test pressure of 2.8 of CPHEEO) Reinforced cement concrete ( RCC ) pipes are classified as P1.6 Of CPHEEO) Ductile iron confirming to IS 8329 : 2000 specification prescribes standards for centrifugally cast ductile iron pipe ( DI pipe). DI pipes are normally provided with cement mortar lining at the factory by centrifugal process. high wear and tear resistance high tensile strength. AC pipes are classified as class 10.

light weight. Bar Wrapped Steel Cylinder Pipes (BWSC Pipes) (Para 6. Confirming to IS 784 : 2001 specification. 18 KSC.2005. For bedding pipe trench is filled with sand and compacted by tapping with wooden stick. 9. 30 Office of the Principal Accountant General (Civil Audit) Chennai . and 20 KSC pipe and that denotes the working pressure excluding surge pressure and the site test pressure will be 1. 6 KSC. rubber ring joint. long life better corrosion resistant properties etc. The joints are more reliable than conventional rubber ring joints. flanged joints. jointing and maintenance.04. 16 KSC. Superior compared to conventional pipe especially AC. Polyethylene Pipes ( Para 6. economical in laying. The PSC pipes are classified as 4 KSC.10. 6.5 times of the above working pressure vide IS 784 : 2001. threaded joints.Handbook on Works Audit -Water supply PSC pipes are jointed with flexible rubber rings.43/AC/P&D/2005 Dt.2005. Note: In Circular No. BWSC pipe is a modified version of PSC pipes with steel cylinder embedded in it.. The joints are welded and covered with cement mortar coating. 7.10 Of CPHEEO) Poly Vinyl Chloride ( PVC ) pipe conforming to IS 4898 – 1988.10. rigidity. toughness.9. 4. 12 KSC. PSC pipe competes economically with steel for pipe diameter of 600mm and above. The technical committee instructed to consider BWSC pipe as are of the alternative in water supply and sewerage projects with Techno economic consideration.4 Of CPHEEO) (IS: 15155-2002) Bar wrapped cylinder pipes (BWSC pipes) are being manufactured as per IS 15155-2002. 10 KSC. case of fabrication.11 of CPHEEO) • High density polyethylene pipe ( HDPE) has excellent free flowing properties.42/DO/P&D/2005 Dt. PVC pipe have advantages of resistance to corrosion.5. TWAD Board instructed to considered PVC pipe upto 315 mm OD as one of the alternative in water supply and sewerage projects with techno economic consideration. 8. Plastic Pipes ( Para 6. 8 KSC. TWAD Board directed that the use of BWSC pipe has to be encouraged in water supply and sewerage projects in view of its techno economic advantage and lesser O&M cost. The BWSC pipe have been introduced as approved pipe material in TWAD schedule of rates for the year 2004-05. In Circular NO. 10 kg / cm2. Available in size of outer dia 20 to 315mm at working pressure of 2. It is advantagements to use BWSC pipe in water supply and sewerage projects on grounds of good hydraulic properties.04. Jointing of PVC can be made by solvent cement. The O&M expenditure would be less.

traffic and their own weight between external supports (Piers or hangers). Hydrostatic Test pressure). 10. e) Temperature induced expansion and contraction.11) Manufactured conforming to ISO 4427 specification for carrying potable water.I) for medium grade Shall with stand a test pressure of 50 kg / cm2 Normally used for hill areas.16. Pipes are jointed by using double bell coupling. Internal pressure including water hammer creates transverse stress or hoop tension.Handbook on Works Audit -Water supply • Required for water distribution system ranging from 15-150mm dia and occasionally upto 350mm Conforming to IS 4984 – 1987.5. 18. The pipe shall be galvanized mild steel not finished seamless or welded or screwed and socketed conforming to the requirement of IS 1239 (Part. G. 24 and 30 kgs / sq. 22. Bend and closures as dead ends of gates produce unbalanced pressures 31 Office of the Principal Accountant General (Civil Audit) Chennai .12 & 15 kgs / Sq. a) Internal pressure equal to the full head of water to which the conduit can be subjected ( ie.5 kg / sqcm.5.10. c) Water hammer d) External load in the form of back fill. The factory test pressures are 6. lighter in weight.12 of CPHEEO) GRP pipes are now manufactured in India conforming to IS 12709. constructions and closures which have been discussed in 6. GRP pipes are corrosion resistant and have smooth surface and high strength. The pressure class is 3.6.cm. 12. The diameter range is from 350mm to 2400mm. 5. They can withstand movement of heavy traffic HDPE pipes can be jointing by welding. Medium Density ( MDPE) PIPE ( para 6.18 of CPHEEO Manual.13. 12. 11. Pipe.13.Structural Requirements ( Para 6. Widely used in foreign countries. The pipes are supplied in coil. Standard length are 6 and 12 meter.9.I. The factory test pressures are 4. b) Unbalanced pressure at bends. Glass fibre reinforced plastic (GRP)Pipes ( 6. 18.1) Structurally closed conduits must resist a number of different forces singly or in combination.cm.9.

5m cover is recommended. variations in temperature like wise create longitudinal stress. the period of test should be increased to atleast 24 hours. pressure would be develop in the pipe line due to frictional resistance and wave propagation. Sum of the maximum pipeline static pressure and the maximum surge pressure subject to a maximum equal to the work test pressure for any pipe fitting incorporated.13.Handbook on Works Audit -Water supply and longitudinal stress.2 CPHEEO Manual. External loads and foundation reactions ( Manner of support ) including the weight of the full conduit and atmospheric pressure produce flexural stress. the pipe line must be pressure tested to ensure that pipes and joints are found enough to withstand the maximum pressure likely to be developed under working conditions. 32 The yield test pressure to be imposed should be not less than the maximum of the following. When heavy traffic is anticipated.11 Depth of Cover: ( 6. The hydrostatic test pressure at works and at field after installation and the working pressure for different classes of pipes are given in Annexure 5 5. 5. Of CPHEEO) After laying and jointing.4. maximum working pressure shall be 2/3 work test pressure. In case of gravity pipe.4 Of CPHEEO) One meter cover on pipeline is normal and generally sufficient to protect the pipe lines from external damage. 1 ½ times the maximum pipeline static pressure. When conduits are not permitted to change length.13 Water Hammer (Surge Pressure ) (Para 6.12. depth of cover has to be arrived at taking in to consideration of the structural and other aspects as detailed in 6. 1 ½ times the maximum sustained operating pressure. Where the field test pressure is less than 2/3 the work test pressure. When freezing is anticipated 1. Office of the Principal Accountant General (Civil Audit) Chennai . This pressure rise or water hammer is manifest as a series of shocks.17 CPHEEO) Occurrence If the velocity of water flowing in pipe is suddenly diminished. The field test pressure should wherever possible be not less than 2/3 work test pressure appropriate to the class of pipe except in the case of spun iron pipes and should be applied and maintained for atleast four hours. 5. Sum of the maximum sustained operating pressure and the maximum surge pressure.4. Testing of the Pipe Line ( Para 6. The test pressure shall be gradually revised at the rate of 1 kg / cm2/minutes.13.

H max = C Vo G Where. The excess pressure due to water hammer is additive to the normal – hydrostatic pressure in the pipe and depends on the elastic properties of the liquid and pipe and on the magnitude. in m/sec. C = 1425 1+kd ECt Where. the elasticity of the medium in this case being a compromise between that of the liquid and the pipe. Values of ‘E’ for Different Materials 33 Office of the Principal Accountant General (Civil Audit) Chennai . k = bulk modulus of water (2.. Causes for Water hammer The Causes of water hammer are i) rapid closure of valves ii) Sudden shut off or unexpected failure of power supply to centrifugal pump.81m/Sec2 Vo = normal velocity in the pipeline. C = Velocity of pressure wave travel in m/sec.Handbook on Works Audit -Water supply sounding like hammer blows. which may have sufficient magnitude to rupture the pipe or damage connected equipment. H max = maximum pressure rise in the closed conduct above the normal pressure in m.07 x 108 kg/m2) d = diameter of pipe in m Ct = wall thickness of pipe in m and E = modulus of elasticity of pipe material in kg/m2 Table below gives of E that may be adopted for different materials. before sudden closure. getting weaker on each successive reversal. The pressure wave due to water hammer travels back upstream to the lintel end of the pipe. where it reverses and surges back and forth through the pipe . Computations for Water Hammer Maximum water pressure (which occurs at the critical time of closure Tc or any time less than Tc ) is given by the expression. It may be caused by the nearly instantaneous or too rapid closing of a valve in the line or by an equivalent stoppage of flow which would take place with the sudden pressure. The Velocity of the wave is that of an acoustic wave in an elastic medium. G = acceleration due to gravity. 9. iii) Pulsation problems due to hydraulic rams and reciprocating pumps.

bypasses and pressure relief valves. (b) If the sum exceeds 1.5 x 109 1.1 x 1010 2 If the actual time of closure T is greater than the critical time Tc.2 x 107 9 x 107 3 x 108 2. the actual water hammer is reduced approximately in proportion to Tc/T.Handbook on Works Audit -Water supply 34 Material Polyethylene – soft Polyethylene – hard PVC Concrete Asbestos Cement Reinforced Cement Concrete Prestressed Concrete Cast Iron Ductile Iron Wrought Iron Steel E (kg/m ) 1.08 x 1010 2.1 times the internal design pressure.8 x 109 3 x 109 3.simplest of form of surge tank is a stand pipe placed at the end of the line next to the point of velocity control.1 x 109 3.5 x 109 7. no allowance is required. (d) Effect of water hammer could be controlled by (i) installing special devices in the pipe lines (automatically controlled quick closing valves. The maximum surge pressure should be calculated and the following allowances made: (a) If the sum of the maximum operating pressure or the maximum pipeline static pressure which ever is higher and the calculated surge pressure does not exceed 1. Control Measures The internal design pressure for any section of a pipeline should not be less than the maximum operating pressure or the pipeline static pressure obtaining at the lowest portion of the pipeline considering any allowance required for surge pressure.14 Economic Size of pumping : Office of the Principal Accountant General (Civil Audit) Chennai . Water hammer wave velocity may be as high as 1370 m/s for a rigid pipe or as low as 850 m/s for a steel pipe and for plastic pipes may be as low as 200m/s. then protective devices should be installed and (c) In no case sum of the maximum operating pressure and the calculated surge pressure should exceed the field hydrastatic test pressure.7 x 1010 1. (ii) employing surge tank. 5.1 times the internal design pressure.

Load factor of bedding and several type of bedding are indicated below It is customary to use two-thirds of the effective strength as design strength. Load Factor Type of bedding Ordinary bedding 1.0 and ordinary bedding will be sufficient. safe permissible load = 7500/1. With a factor of safety of 1. vi) Cost replacement of pump sets at an intermediate stage of design period. Elaborate procedure has been developed by Matson for calculation of structural loads under conditions of pipes in trench. iii) Different pipe sizes against corresponding hydraulic slopes. concentrated moving load and superimposed uniformly distributed loads worked out in according with Matson’s formula be 10000 kg/metre length. Structural Loads on Rigid Pipes (Data matrix of TWAD Board Engineer) 35 Structural loads on Rigid Pipes are due to (i) fill material (ii) concentrated load and (iii) superimposed uniformly distributed load.5 = 5000 kg/metre load factor required = 10000/5000 =2. the load factor is 1. Duty capacity and installed costs of pump sets required against corresponding sizes of pipeline considered 5.Handbook on Works Audit -Water supply The economical size of pumping main is based on analysis of the following factors. For the same pipe with a structural load of 5000 kg/metre.50. iv) Different pipe materials and relative costs as laid v) Recurring cost on power.5 First Class bedding 1. Office of the Principal Accountant General (Civil Audit) Chennai .9 Concrete cradle bedding 2.4 Example: Let the load on a pipe (of certain diameter laid at required depth and trench width) due to fill material. Let the three edge bearing strength of pipe be 7500 kg/metre. i) Design period or period of loan repayment ii) Quantities to be conveyed during different phases.15.0 Hence concrete bedding should be selected. Thus the choice of the bedding to be selected depends on the structural load on the pipes calculated in terms of the procedure outlined above. 5.25 to 3.16 Strength of Pipes for various Bedding The manner in which the pipe is supported in trench and the nature of the backfill material affect the distribution of load and the internal stresses. which will be worked out by the designers.

techno-economic selection of pipe materials stipulated in the CPHEEO Manual was not adopted involving extra cost.1 of CPHEEO Manual. Cases will be available in designing pumping main adopting MS Pipe/CI Pipe/DI pipe instead of adopting PSC Pipes by erroneous adoption co-efficient of roughness (C value) for both metallic pipe lined with cement mortar or epoxy and prestressed concrete (PSC) pipe (ie.5 –Design for Economic Size of pumping main of ibid Manual. The Manual also stipulates that selection of pipe for water supply works should be done economically as it involves major part of the project cost and designed on the basis of procedure stipulated in Appendix 6. But while selecting the pipe materials for pumping main and conveying main of water supply schemes. the cost of the pipe materials and its durability are the two major governing factors in the selection of pipe materials and the exercise prescribed in Ttable 6. While designing the pumping main it would be verified whether intermediary sump was at higher ridge point so as to reduce the pressure head was provided so that comparatively lesser class of pipe could be used for the pumping main Failure to provide intermediary sump and suitable device to control surge pressure resulting in frequent burst and leakage of pumping main leading for interruption in power supply. Para 6. Those contentions were not tenable due to the fact that illegal tapping was not possible in PSC pipes also and the Board had allowed the same time for manufacturing. NOTE: While objecting use of metallic pipe the Board used to contend that the metallic pipe was used to avoid illegal tapping of water from main.7 of the ibid Manual the selection of pipe materials had to be carried out for selecting the economical and reliable pipe materials. Further Board used PSC Pipes in pumping main even for hard rock reaches in other similar water supply 36 • • • • • Office of the Principal Accountant General (Civil Audit) Chennai . According to TWAD Board Circular of February 1999. But cases of using PSC pipes/CI pipes/DI pipes could be identified and commented.Handbook on Works Audit -Water supply Audit Approach PIPE • According to Para 6. Cases for adoption of DI pipe instead of CI pipe or MS pipe where the designed pressure of pumping main is much below the working pressure of CI or MS Pipe. laying. jointing PSC Pipes and MS pipes. Such defective design and cost involved on rectification work had to be analysed and commented. supplying.3. to complete the work within the time schedule and prevalency of rocky reaches. Value in both cases is 140).9 of ibid Manual also stipulates that PSC pipe competes economically with metallic pipe for diameter 600 mm and above and ideally suited for water supply main where pressure is in the range of 6 kg/cm2 to 20 kg/cm2. AC class 15 pipes upto to size of 300 mm dia could be used for pumping main.

it is necessary to analyze different type of pumps and their suitability to meet the requirements. cases of leakages were noticed. water could not be supplied. supplying water especially water pressure to operating equipment and pumping chemical solutions to treatment units. Thus due to defective joints. withdrawing sludge. a. Jet pumps c. The following pumps are generally used in water supply schemes. depth of the cover had to be arrived at taking into consideration of the structural and other aspects as detailed in Para 6. Consequently. SELECTION OF PUMPS (Chapter 11 of CPHEEO Manual) 1. b) boosting water from source to low service areas and to the upper floor of the storied buildings. Office of the Principal Accountant General (Civil Audit) Chennai . This contention is not correct. • Even where higher class of pipes are used than the actual requirement to withstand the designed pressure on the pumping and distribution main. the question of increase in stress on the pipe causing damage would not arise. In a water supply system pumping machinery serves the following purposes: a) lifting water from the source (surface or ground ) to purification works or the service reservoir. Turbine pumps (oil lubricated or water lubricated vertical pump) d.13. Centrifugal pumps b. On non achievement of the objective due to defective execution of work • Cases where PSC/CI/DI Pipe is used instead of AC Pipes on the ground that the pipeline has to be laid on heavy traffic area. 2. This could be commented. and c) transporting water through treatment works. This was due to distortion at flexible joint. 37 6. draining of settling tanks and of treatment units.2 of CPHEEO Manual. When heavy traffic is anticipated. According to Para 6.13. While deciding the type of pump for the specific requirements. water could not be pumped to the designed level and supply effected.4 of CPHEEO Manual one metre cover on pipeline is normal and generally sufficient to protect the pipeline from external damage. Besides the Board has not worked out extra cover if any required for. Submersible pumps.Handbook on Works Audit -Water supply schemes by providing sand cushion or refilling the trenches as stipulated in the Standard IS Specification. In as much as the pipe line are laid along the road side.

Jet Pumps (Packer type ) Jet Pumps (Packer type ) Submersible pumpsets 38 4. Collector well connected the bank with foot bridge Low lift raw water pumping. 100mm dia Bore well Jet pumps (Packer type ) Ii Iii Iv 150 mm dia Bore well(not straight) 150mm dia Bore well with yield less than 50 lpm 150 mm dia Bore well(with yield more than 50 lpm in urban area) V 150 mm dia Bore well in rural area a. The selection of pump sets for different types of sources and conditions are as follows: 4. dry well built in the river / dam bank with suction head not to exceed 6m For the above site condition when suction head exceeds 6m Clear water ground level reservoir / sump Preferable pump selection . Borewells (Chapter 7 of Quality Control Manual) Sl. yield more than 100 lpm Jet (with jet setting 20 m ) Submersible pumpsets.Turbine pumps . Inside the river one/more Infiltration wells with foot bridge arrangements.Centrifugal pumps or Office of the Principal Accountant General (Civil Audit) Chennai . I Ii Iii Iv Site Condition Inside the river one or more number of Infiltration wells. yield between 50 & 100 lpm b.Handbook on Works Audit -Water supply 3.1.Turbine pumps .Submersible pumpsets . .Centrifugal pumps Line booster (small discharge < 1000 lpm) . No. Site condition Preferable Pump Selection i.Centrifugal pumps V Vi Vii Viii Ix X .2.Turbine pumps .Centrifugal pumps Line booster (large discharge ) Not desirable (sump has to be constructed ) Open well with suction head less than 6m in .Wells and Other Sources Sl.No.Centrifugal/Turbine pumps Clear water/raw water booster pumping station.

Urban areas b. xiv Major schemes. Shut off head Shut off head is the maximum head developed in the pump against zero discharge. Note 1 For major urban schemes.Turbine / Centrifugal pumps. In no case open well submersible pump sets should be selected of turbine pump owing to higher speed (3000 rpm) and lesser efficiency. Net positive suction head (NPSH ) a. 3.Handbook on Works Audit -Water supply the lean period Xi xii Open well with the water level goes down and the discharge is less than 50 lpm (both urban & Rural areas) For the above site condition when the dischartge is more than 50 lpm and the depth of well is more than 15m Jet pumps (HP not to a. Rural areas exceed 20) b. a. Urban areas For the above site condition with the depth of well is more than 15m and there is possibility of flooding. Rural areas Turbine pumps - open well submersible pumps .Jet / open well subersible pumpsets. Duty of pump set The duty of pump set is the discharge in liters per minute against the total dynamic head (static head. friction losses and other losses ) to which each pump has to be operated. the following terms are very relevant in their usage. the net positive suction head available for the particular condition should be indicated. NPSH required Office of the Principal Accountant General (Civil Audit) Chennai . 39 xiii Submersible pumps Jet Pumps (Not exceeding 20 HP) . As for as the pumps are concerned. only centrifugal or turbine pumpsets (1500 RPM or 1000 RPM) should be selected. While selecting centrifugal pumps. 2.

Type of duty required. g. h. Office of the Principal Accountant General (Civil Audit) Chennai . the efficiency can be maintained with extension of life period upto 15 years. 5. detailed consideration has to be sent to various aspects. Selecting the operating speed of the pump and suitable drive/ driving gear. b. The details of head and flow rate required e.Handbook on Works Audit -Water supply This is the energy head destroyed in the suction passage of pumps during entry. their influence on the costs of civil structural constructions. Present and projected demand and pattern of change in demand d. including the capacity and number of pumps including standbys. intermittent or cyclic. If they are replaced after 15 years.. combining them in series or in parallel. may be chemicals or if water.1. However by doing upkeep preventive measures and doing necessary special repairs. Nature of liquid. c. Options of different modes of installation.12.e. i. then whether raw or treated b.2003 ) Appendix 6.3 of CPHEEO) Prior to the selection of a pump for a pumping station. Life of Pump and Motor The life expectancy of electrical pumping machineries is 12 years as per TNPWD Code Appendix VII-A . 40 6. on the case of operation and maintenance and on the overall economics. Various options possible by permuting the parameters of the pumping system. the advantages of latest technology available at that time of replacement can be made use of which will improve the efficiency of the system. friction loss and vapour pressure at the attitude Always NPSH available should be more than NPSH required. Criteria for Pump selection (Para 11.5 of CPHEEO Manual stipulates the life of electric motor and pump are 15 years. a. The efficiency of the pumps/s and consequent influence on power consumption and the running costs. Whether continuous. Type and duration of the availability of the power supply f. i. viz. (vide CE/SR/MDU Letter 15. The pump set and motors will start losing it efficiency year by year. NPSH available This is the head available after deducting from the atmospheric pressure the sum of static head.

discharge and speed in the selection of a pump as envisaged in Para 11. Types of Head affecting pumping system (Para 11.5m Ok Ok Ok Low upto 10m Ok Head range Mediu High m 10above 40m 40m Ok No 41 Centrifugal.1. horizontal multistage Jet-centrifugal. c) Velocity Head At the final point of delivery. from the foot value to the final point of delivery piping.1.e. Specific designs may either not satisfy the limits or certain designs may exceed the limits. b) Friction Head This is sum of the head-losses in the entire length of the piping. reducers. Horizontal end suction Centrifugal horizontal axial split casing Centrifugal. Parameters and Suitability of Pump (Para 11. tees. etc. The following head affect the pumping system.6 of CPHEEO Manual) A pump or a set of pumps has to satisfy the needs of the pumping system.Handbook on Works Audit -Water supply 7. also the losses in all the valves i.5 of CPHEEO a summary view is compiled of the application-parameters and suitability of pumps of various types and presented in Table below However. non-return (reflux) valve and the isolating (generally. obviously the static head is more at the low water level (LWL ) and less at the high-water level (HWL). elbows. a) Static Head This is the difference between the level of the liquid in the suction-sump and the level of the highest point on the delivery piping. The kinetic energy the final point of delivery has also to be a part of the velocity head. vertical turbine Discharge range Low Mediu High upto 30 m upto above L/s 500 L/s 500L/s Ok Ok No Ok No No Ok Ok No No Ok Ok Ok Ok No No Ok Ok Ok Ok No When limitations of suction lift are to be overcome. the kinetic energy is lost to the atmosphere. 8. the foot valve. APPLICATIONS OF PUMPS Pump Type Suction capacity to lift Low Mediu High 3. sluice or butterfly ) valves.4 and consideration of the suction lift capacity laid in para 11.7 of CPHEEO) Based on the considerations of parameters of head. a bell-mouth is often provided at the final point of delivery. When suction lift is to be avoided Ok Ok Ok Ok No Ok Ok Ok No Ok No Ok Office of the Principal Accountant General (Civil Audit) Chennai .1. To recover this loss. Hence one had to first evaluate the head needed to be developed by the pump for delivering different value of flow rate. these are general guidelines . and the loss in all pipe-fittings such as the bends.5m m 6m 8. combinations Centrifugal.

the drive rating should be adequate to provide for negative tolerance on efficiency and the positive tolerance on discharge applicable for variation and actual pump performance from the rated performance.2 1. the efficiency of the pump can be estimated from figure 11.9 of CPHEEO) After the operating point of a pump is decided as discussed in Clause 11. (TWAD issued orders to adopt 60% centrifugal pump and 70% for turbine and submersible pump).Handbook on Works Audit -Water supply Centrifugal.34 Horse Power After multiplying. The rating of the drive should be such that it would not get overloaded when the pump would be delivering the high discharge as with HWL and the suction-sump.5 1.e. the following margins are recommended: BKW/BHP required at the operating point BHP Upto 2 2 to 5 5 to 10 10 to 20 20 to 100 Above 100 BKW Upto 1. the next available range of motor HP has to be selected.06xEfficiency in percentage Office of the Principal Accountant General (Civil Audit) Chennai . the power at the pump shaft denotes brake power of the drive (or brake horse power).7 to 7. the pump shaft.17 of CPHEEO.4 1.3 1.15 1. The power needed to be input to the pump is the power to be output by drive i. vertical submersible Positive displacement pumps When suction lift is to be avoided Normally self priming Ok Ok Ok Ok Ok Ok 42 Limited only by the pressure which casing can withstand Ok Ok No Easy adoptation for dosing or metering 9.7 3. All drives are rated only as per their brake power capacity often quoted in Brake Kilowatt (BKW) or Brake Horse Power (BHP) To provide margin over BKW or BHP at the operating point so that the overloading would not be happen as HWL.5 to 3.1. Since most drives are coupled direct to the pump. Drive Rating: (Para 11. BHP= Quantity to be lifted in lpm x total head in m 60x76. Also.1 ibid.5 to 15 15 to 75 Above 75 Multiplying factor for deciding motor HP 1.1 Note: 1 kilowatt = 1.5 7..5 1.

and post chlorination . b. iv.Handbook on Works Audit -Water supply 43 7. ii. iii. For increasing the dissolved oxygen content to water for imparting freshness. to remove objectionable tastes and odours . Aim : To improve the raw water quality to the drinking water standards and stop water borne transmission of epidemics . Spray – Type Office of the Principal Accountant General (Civil Audit) Chennai . 1. hydrogen sulphide . Types of aeration i. Aeration Aim : i. for expulsion of carbon dioxide. Subsurface source Generally Chlorination will be sufficient except where iron is present . TREATMENT Treatment of water (Chapter 7 of CPHEEO Manual & Data Matrix) a. Methods of treatment : Depends on the nature of source and its water quality . to precipitate impurities iron and manganese present. Surface source : Aeration ( if required) Pre chlorination ( optional ) Sedimentation – either plain or with coagulation and flocculation .

Cascade type iv. for destruction of some taste & odour producing compounds . for fluoridisation . disinfection and softening . Head loss : 0. algal and corrosion control . manganese and hydrogen sulphide . (ii) Solution feed . Detention period : One to several days for sedimentation without subsequent filtration to 4 hours for sedimentation in conjunction with filters .60 m of water Office of the Principal Accountant General (Civil Audit) Chennai . iv. Alum is the most common coagulant used and economical. Lime is also added when PH and alkalinity are low Dosage for alum : 20-100 mg / 1 (1-5 grain / gallon ) Dosage for lime: About one third that of alum Density of lime = 670 kg / m3 Density of alum = 980 kg / m3 5 Flash mixing Aim : To disperse the coagulant evenly in the water. flocculation . iii. for oxidation of iron. Types :(i) Dry feed . Mechanical aerators 2 Pre – Chlorination Aim : i. iv. to prevent biological growth in raw water ii.( much longer settling time for basins preceding slow sand filters than for rapid sand filters ) . iii. Strength of solution :To be not more than 5% for manual feed and not more than 10% for mechanical feed. v.Handbook on Works Audit -Water supply ii.20 – 0.m / hour. Plain Sedimentation Aim : To separate suspended impurities from water by gravitation . for reduction of colour .4 to 24m3 / day / m2 44 Loading rate: 4 Chemical dosing Aim : i. Dosage : 1 to 5 ppm depending on the degree of pollution . to aid coagulation. Diffused air aerators v. 2. for minimizing post-chlorination dosage . 3. ii. For coagulation. Multiple tray or water fall iii. vi. Generally used when flow exceeds 300 Cu.

Sedimentation Aim: To remove readily settling sediments such as sand.Handbook on Works Audit -Water supply Ratio of tank dia. During flocculation.0 6. ii. silt. to separate the suspended and colloidal impurities in the water . 45 7.5 2-8 Typical value for design 3-4 2-2. To height : 1. :To be decided by Jar Test .01-1. coagulated impurities such as colour and turbidity and precipated The range of surface loadings and detention periods for average design flow for different types of sedimentation tanks are as follows: Surface loading m3/m2/d@ Range Plain Sedimentation Horizontal flow. to produce sparkling and aesthetically attractive water free from disease producing organism .5 Particles normally removed Sand. Detention Period Dosage :15-30 minutes in flocculation zone . silt & clay Alum and iron floge Flocculant 8. Rapid sandfilters Office of the Principal Accountant General (Civil Audit) Chennai . Types : Slow sand filters.2-3 hours in settling or clarifier zone . Filtration Aim i.1 to 3.5 1-1. circular Vertical flow (upflow) clarifier Upto 6000 25-75 Typical value for design 15-30 30-40 40-50 Tank type Detention period Range 0. Coagulation and Flocculation Aim :The addition of a coagulant like alum promotes the formation of micro floes which are the nuclei for the absorption of turbidity and colour causing particles. the micro floc particles formed during rapid mixing are brought together to aggregate into larger rapidly settle able floes by controlled agitation of water .

Slow Sand Filters : Slow sand filters can provide a single step treated for polluted surface waters of low turbiding (< 20 Ntu) Normal operation: 0.2 m /hr . 80-100 lpm/m2 or 4.3 m .prudent arrangement would be at 4. : 2.0 m . Minimum Area upto 20 m2 20-249 m2 250-649 m2 650-1200 m2 1201-2000 m2 b. Rapid Sand Filters : Number 2 2 3 4 5 6 of bed The rapid sand filter comprises of a bed of sand serving as a single medium granular matrix supported on gravel overlaying an under drainage system.7 m : 20-30 mm Effluent weir level above sand level Recommended Number of slow sand Filter : Area in m2 required.1 m/hr Maximum overload rate:0.8-6m/hr at normal rate :10 m/h at max. : 60-75 cm thick : Gravel is placed between the sand and the under drainage system to prevent sand from entering the under drains and to aid distribution of waste water.8 to 2.8 m/hr 1.0 m Final (minimum) 0.0 m..4 m : 30cm thick in 3 to 4 layers graded from 2 to 45 mm .Handbook on Works Audit -Water supply a. : initial 1.6 to 1. Filtration rate Head loss allowed : Depth of sand Depth of gravel Office of the Principal Accountant General (Civil Audit) Chennai . : 0. Free board Depth of filter box : 20 cm. 46 Filtration rate Allowable head loss Depth of filter sand Depth of gravel Depth of water over sand : 1.

12. 47 10.0 m before reaching the gutter .Pressure Filters Disadvantages: pumping.5 m : 1. but water is passed through the filters under pressure. (i). Back wash should be arranged at such a pressure that the sand expands to about 130 to 150 of its undisturbed volume or 5 m head of water as measured in under drain. 11. Depth of water over sand :1. Size of Filter bed No.25-1. Advantages : i. Bottom of gutter should clear the top of Expanded sand by 50 mm or more . Normally the wash water is applied at 36 m (600 lpm/m2) for a period of 10 minutes Same principle as gravity type rapid sand filters.Post Chlorination Office of the Principal Accountant General (Civil Audit) Chennai . Adequate contact time for chemicals not possible Observance of effectiveness of back was not possible Difficult to inspect clean and replace. Upper edge of gutter should be placed as far above the surface of the undisturbed sand surface as the wash water rises in 1 minute . Back wash .45m.0-2. Wash water Gutter :100 m2 (max ) for a single unit comprising Two halves 50 m2 each . of Units Overall depth Ratio of length to width 9.Handbook on Works Audit -Water supply Varying from 25 to 65mm at bottom and 2 to 5 mm at top with a depth 0. Filter backwash is less complicated. Suitable for small industries and swimming pools. :4 ( min ) and 2 for small plants .6 to 1.6 m including a free board of 0. ii.33 :Horizontal travel of dirty water over the surface of filter shall not be more than 0. : minimum 2.0 m. Secondary pumping is avoided for treated water. Pretreatment is not possible without secondary Complicates effective feeding mixing and flocculation. iii. (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) Tank axis may be vertical or horizontal.

2 0.8 ppm throughout the distribution system. Load a) Connected Load: – means the aggregate of the manufacturers’ ratings of all equipments connected in the consumer’s installation and of all the portable equipments.4 0. Office of the Principal Accountant General (Civil Audit) Chennai .2-0. b) Maximum Demand: – in a month means the highest value of the average kilovolt – amperes delivered at the point of supply of the consumer during any consecutive thirty minutes in the month.49 Density of Chlorine : 3. : 0.means the demand sanctioned by the competent authority of the TNEB and specified in the agreement.8 0.Handbook on Works Audit -Water supply Aim : For disinfection of potable water by the use of gaseous chlorine or chlorine compounds to destroy bacteria through the germicidal effects of effects of chlorine. may be done at head works / treatment works and supplemented by additional chlorination in loose pockets of distribution system.214 g/litre.8 Quantity of chemical required in kg/day: Dosage in mg/1 X Quantity of water to be treated in mld. c) Permitted Demand: – means the demand permitted by the competent authority of the TNEB taking into account the constraints in the TNEB’s electricity grid. Specific gravity of Chlorine : 2. : 30 minutes (minimum). 8.2 0. When prechlorination is adopted relatively small doses will be required generally 1 to 2mg/l. II.for the month means the ratio of the total kilowatt – hours in the month to the total hours in the month. d) Sanctioned demand or Contracted demand . 6-7 7-8 8-9 9-10 10-11 : 48 Dosage: Contact period Residual Chlorine PH Value Residual or free Available chlorine In ppm : 0. TERMS AND CONDITIONS OF SUPPLY OF ELECTRICITY BY TAMIL NADU ELECTICITY BOARD Definitions a) Average Demand: .

3.2/D. Note: 1) Standby motors’/pump sets’ capacity should also be taken into account for the purpose of connected load. The local bodies should provide double throw change over switch or inter locking arrangement so that only one motor could be operated at a time.Handbook on Works Audit -Water supply This is expressed in KW or HP. IV. Real power is expressed in KW and the apparent power expressed in KVA.708/93 dt.9. System of Supply a) Low Tension Supply Office of the Principal Accountant General (Civil Audit) Chennai .3/AEE. This should be ensured by the field officers. services for water works and drainage pumping works.21.85 & SE/IEMC/EE.85.( Memo No. it is converted to KW by multiplying it by 0. 2) In case of water supply and drainage works.746. Average Power Factor means the ratio of the kilowatt – hours to the kilo volt – ampere hours consumed during the month. V. b) Medium voltage – means a voltage which is higher than 250 volts but which does not exceed 650 volts under normal conditions. If rating is in Kilovolt (KVA). d) Extra High Voltage means a voltage which is higher than 33 KV under normal conditions.93) b) Load Factor: – means the ratio of the Average Demand for the month in kilowatts to the Maximum Demand for the month in kilowatts. c) High voltage means a voltage which is higher than 650 volts but which does not exceed 33 KV.T. 49 III) Power Factor a) Power Factor means the ratio of the real power to the apparent power.SE/RE&S(D)/DE/SS/A1/C. If the rating is in HP. the standby motors’/pump sets’ capacity need not be taken into account for the purpose of connected load. it is converted to KW by multiplying it by a power factor of 0. The local bodies may be permitted to install standby motors in their L.3315-1/85 Technical Branch dated 16. Voltage a) Low Voltage – means a voltage which does not exceed 250 volts under normal conditions subject to the percentage variation allowed under the Indian Electricity Rules 1956.

In case where L.5 HP. the lighting load upto the permissible limit as laid in the Tariff Notifications will be excluded. In calculating the connected load for the purpose. 1% of the transformer capacity for transformer above 50 KVA 1 Office of the Principal Accountant General (Civil Audit) Chennai . side. when the transformer capacity is above 50 KVA. 4 . 11 KV and above between phases for power installations exceeding 130 HP or 97 KW connected load. H. Tension supply. b) Three – phase. 240 volt for :1) General supply not exceeding 4000 watts of – connected load. General Normally for High Tension Service. metering is provided for a H.Handbook on Works Audit -Water supply Alternating current – 50 Hertz or cycles 1) Single – phase 240 volts between phase and neutral. (including power loads). : 1) A consumer shall avail only. 720 x 1. 50 N.wire. 445 volts between phases and 240 volts between phase and neutral for :1) General supply exceeding 4000 watts 2) Power load exceeding 1.T. demand.T.5 HP upto 130 HP c) Three phase. 2 – wire. service.T.T. the average losses in the transformer would be calculated as follows and this would be added to the energy consumption indicated by the meter. 2) Three – phase 415 volts between phases. the consumer has the option to avail either Low Tension or High. Low Tension supply if the connected load is 75 HP (56 KW ) or below.0 x KVA of the transformer / 100 units per month. Similarly the following percentage will be added to the recorded maximum demand on the L. High Tension supply if the connected load exceeds 130 HP ( 97 KW) 3) When the connected load is between 75 HP and 130 HP. side to arrive at the equipment H.T. 2) A consumer shall avail only. metering will be provided on the H.B. 3 wire.T. VI Categories of Supply a) Single – phase. the capacity of any individual motor should not exceed 1. b) High Tension Supply Alternating current – 50 Hertz or cycles Three phase 11 KV or 22 KV between phases.

In respect of H.04). the service connection will be disconnected after giving seven days’ notice. correction is carried out.70 lag consecutively for three months.F.T. in addition to the levy of compensation charges at the above rate. four months. If still capacitors are not provided within 2 nonths.90 lag. service connection going below 0.. the average power factor of the consumer’s installation shall not be less than 0. metering on the consumer’s premises at a suitable place. services will be disconnected. service connection is less than the stipulated limit of 0.01) Rating of motor (HP) 3 5 7. An discount of 1% for maintaining power factor above 0.T. service Electricity Board will provide L.T. compensation charge at the rate of 1% of the current consumption charges of that month for every 0. The service connection will be reconnected after the P.T. they will be charged a compensation amount at 10% of the current consumption charges for the two preceding assessment periods i. Tariff & Billing Office of the Principal Accountant General (Civil Audit) Chennai . Installation of Capacitors All L.95 lag is allowed to the consumers by TNEB. Where the average P. of a H.F.T. will be levied 9(Clause 17.T.e.T.F.Handbook on Works Audit -Water supply For all L. service connections.F.T.5 10 15 20 25 30 40 60 75 100 125 Rating of capacity KVAR 1 2 3 4 6 8 9 10 15 20 24 30 39 51 If the L. consumers with a connected load of motors of 25 HP and above (Total of the ratings of the installed motors) all L. of H.01 reduction in P. In the event of the average P.90 lag. consumers with a connected load of 3 HP & above do not install capacitors as required above. consumers using welding transformer (irrespective of their rating) shall install capacitors of rating not less than these specified below : (Clause 17.

DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM (Chapter 10 of CPHEEO Manual) The purpose of the distribution system is to convey wholesome water to the consumer at adequate residual pressure in sufficient quantity at convenient points. If wide variation collect the recorded demand for the past period (say 1 to 3 years) and comment the excess with financial implication. • • 9. As such proper design and layout of the system is of great importance. whereas in the intermittent system. intermittent supply should be discouraged and is uneconomical.02) 52 Audit Approach The following points could inter alia be seen • Whether pumpset designed for 15 years. This can be verified with the designed capacity with actual capacity used over a period of time.Handbook on Works Audit -Water supply a) Water supply & drainage come under Tariffs II LT & HT b) The maximum demand charges for any month and at the point of supply shall be based on the KVA demand recorded in that month or 100% of the sanctioned demand (Now 90% of the sanctioned demand) whichever is higher. To ensures equalization of supply of water throughout the area Zoning in the distribution system is essential. The intermittent supplies system suffers from several disadvantages and does not promote hygiene and hence wherever possible. the consumer gets supply only for certain fixed hours(a few hours in the morning and a few hours in the evening). • In the continuous system of supply. Whether the recorded demand was more or less equal to the contract demand. Metering is recommended for all cities. for exceeding the sanctioned maximum demand. Water distribution usually accounts for 40 to 70% of the capital cost of the water supply project. The zoning depends upon (a) density of population (b) type of locality (c) topography and (d) facility of isolating for assessment of waste and leak detection. • Whether higher capacities of pumps and motors were installed. In addition. If there is an average elevation • Office of the Principal Accountant General (Civil Audit) Chennai . water is made to consumer all the twenty-four hours a day. the charges per KVA exceeded shall be at double normal rate (Clause 18. Verify the current consumption bill and ensure whether penalty paid for low power factor if so it may be commented with money value on the part of failure to improve the stipulated power factor with suitable capacitors.

Handbook on Works Audit -Water supply difference of 15 to 25m between zones. should normally be kept closed and should not the partially opened. which effects maximum economy on pipe sizes.3 OF CPHEEO) 1. Where the system is fed by direct pumping as well as through reservoirs. The following peak factors are recommended for various population figures: For population less than 50. The layout should be such that the difference in pressure between different areas of the same zone or same system does not exceed 3 to 5m.000 to 2. Any of these three modes could be selected based mainly on the elevation of the source of supply with respect of the town The location of service reservoirs is important for regulation of pressures in the distribution system as well as for coping up with fluctuating demands. Even when the system is fed by a central reservoir. it is to be recognized that consumption varies with the season. the ideal location is a central place in the distribution system. by considering the peak rate of consumption ( which is equal to average rate multiplied by a peak factor) as rate of flow in the design of distribution system.00.25 For population above 2.Peak Factor: The per capita rate of water supply indicates only the average consumption of water per day per person over a period of one year. If topography permits. In a distribution system fed by a single reservoir. In the design of water supply distribution system. These tail end reservoirs may be fed by direct supply during lean hours or booster facilities may be provided. ground level reservoirs may be located taking full advantage of differences in elevation. day and hour.000 3. the location of the reservoirs may be at the tail end of the system.00.0 For a population range of 50. then each zone should be served by separate system. 53 • General Design guide lines for Distribution System (Para 10. The neighboring zones may be interconnected to provide emergency supplies. it is the hourly variation in consumption that matters.0 Office of the Principal Accountant General (Civil Audit) Chennai . month. it may be desirable to have tail end reservoirs for the more distant districts. The valves between the zones.0 For Small Water Supply Schemes (Where supply is effected through standposts for only 6 hours) 3.000 2. or gravity-cumpumping.000 2. The fluctuation in consumptions accounted for. As far as the design of distribution system is concerned. • water could be conveyed by gravity or by pumping. however.

4 Of Cpheeo) • The service reservoirs provide a suitable reserve of treated water with minimum interruptions of supply due to failure of mains. less than 100mm can be considered. 5.000 are recommended. pumps etc. 4. The hydraulic gradient in the pipe should normally be between 1 and 4 per thousand at peak flow. 3. boosters may be provided instead of increasing the size of mains or height of the reservoir unduly for maintaining the required pressure. Boosting: For distant localities.Minimum Pipe Sizes Minimum pipe sizes of 100mm for towns having population upto 50.2.3. The staging height of service reservoirs is normally kept as 15-20m. A suitable combination of pipe sizes and staging height has to be determined optimization of the system. less than 100mm can be used in situations where no further expansions contemplated.8.000 and 150mm for those above 50. Elevation of Reservoir The elevation of the service reservoir should be such as to maintain the minimum residual pressure in the distribution system consistent with its cost effectiveness. They also enable meeting the widely fluctuating demands when the supply is by intermittent pumping. Residual Pressure: Distribution system should be designed for the following minimum residual pressures at ferule points: Single storey building = Two storey building = Three storey building = 7m 12m 17m 54 Distribution system should not ordinarily be designed for residual pressures exceeding 22 meters. Service Reservoirs ( Para 10. Multistoried buildings needing higher pressure should be provided with boosters.Handbook on Works Audit -Water supply Note Fire demand can be assessed as per the norms given in section 2. If it is a grid. They are also helpful in reducing the size of the mains which would otherwise be necessary to meet the Office of the Principal Accountant General (Civil Audit) Chennai . For dead ends. 6. Reference can also be made to IS 9668-1980 2.

PWD. and 55 • • • • Office of the Principal Accountant General (Civil Audit) Chennai . The reservoirs should be covered to avoid contamination and prevent algal ladders. Capacity of Storage reservoir i) Power is not available from 6 AM to 10 AM daily a) 16 hours pumping during 10 pm to 6 am and 10 am to 6 pm=39% daily demand b).5m. Chennai in 1971. • The capacity of the service reservoir to be provided depends upon the better economic alternative amongst various options. of notes on water supply schemes issued by Chief Engineer. access ladders. (para 1.Handbook on Works Audit -Water supply peak rates of demand. Similarly a system divided into interconnected zones will require less storage. The estimation of demand in a day for a town is determined based on household survey. A system supplied by pumps with 100% standby will have less storage capacity than that with less standby provision.3. Typical example on estimation of storage capacity is given in Appendix.1 of CPHEEO. The peak rate of supply is usually taken to be twice the average rate and the capacity of service reservoir is fixed at 8 hours or one third of days supply. Suitable provisions should be made for manholes. capacity for all the zones except for the zones at higher elevations.9. the probable variation of demand or consumption over a day. The minimum service or balancing capacity depends on the hours and rate of pumping in a day. mosquito-proof ventilation.8hours pumping during 4 am 6 am and 12 noon to 6 pm =46 % daily demand ii) Power is available throughout 24 hours a) 16 hours pumping during 4 am to 12 noon and 1pm to 9 pm= 15% daily demand b) 8 hours of pumping during 4 am to 8 pm and 2 pm to 6 pm = 33% daily demand • The capacity of service reservoir is fixed on the basis of hours of pumping and the peak rate of supply .) The ground level reservoir is generally preferred as storage reservoir which is circular or square or rectangular in shape. 10. They can serve as an alternative to partial duplication of an existing main as the load on the main increased. The economical water depth for reservoirs with flat bottom upto 1000m3 capacity is between 3 and 5.

When demand exceeds supply. whichever is cater. The pumps shall be designed for peak rate at 3 times the average over 24 hours. The balancing reservoir has the advantage of minimum of pipe work and operational maintenance. lighting arresters. The capacity of the overhead and ground level storage tanks are decided by the local bye-laws. A standby pump set of equal capacity shall be provided. The communication pipe is usually laid and maintained by the local authority at cost of the owner of the premises while the service pipe is usually laid by the consumer at his cost. 7. which could be reduced to 75% if supply is pumped from the ground level tank. the supply may be delivered directly to the overhead storage tank or to the ground level storage tank. its location and altitude is governed by the same conditions as are applicable to the service reservoir. water flows through the same pipe from the tank. Generally a capacity of 50% of the daily requirement is provided in the level storage tank.Balancing Reservoirs (Para 10. The water supply in a building may be through one of the following or combinations both depending upon the intensity of pressure obtained in the street main and the hours supply. When the rate of supply exceeds the demand. and if found necessary. 56 Office of the Principal Accountant General (Civil Audit) Chennai .5 of CPHEEO) The tank is said to be “floating on the line” when connected by a single pipe to source and the distribution system. the communication pipe which runs from the street main to the boundary of the premises and the service pipe which runs inside premises. For overhead tanks directly receiving water from public mains. the capacity should take care the total daily requirement. This consists of two parts viz.. Direct supply system. water level indicator. water flows into the tank. Down take supply by time with or without sump and pump Under Down take supply system. When the balancing tank floating on the line is designed for the full service storage based on a study of the hydrograph of demand. 8. rate of demand and tank capacity is based on a study the service required as in case of service reservoirs. a.House Service Connections (Para 10. Separate tanks should be provided for flushing and other purposes. and b. The relation between rate of supply.9 of CPHEEO) The supply from the street main to the individual buildings is made through a house service connection. or average rate of the 50% of the daily requirement over the actual hours of supply.Handbook on Works Audit -Water supply overflow arrangements. Where the distribution system designed for direct pumping into the system it is advantageous to provide a balancing tank at the end of the system with a nominal capacity ( 1 or 2 hours) to provide pressure relief and improve the tail end distribution.

Note : Distribution system should be designed economically since it involves more than half the cost of water works. overhead storage system. Distribution by direct pumping is to be avoided. the capacity should be such that the filtrate could be drawn during non-pumping hours from a continuously worked filter. Office of the Principal Accountant General (Civil Audit) Chennai . a storage capacity varying from 2 to 12 hours is recommended depending on length and size of main and nature and frequency of power failures. Clear Water sump (Datamatrix of TWAD Engineers) Capacity : If point of supply is near the filter plant. clear water reservoir may be a service reservoir of 8 hours storage capacity. Special care should be taken to have an adequate horizontal and vertical separation between water mains and sewer lines. A water main should neither pass through nor come in contact with any part of a manhole. Distribution system should not be designed for residual pressure more than 22m. if gravity is possible or of 30 minutes storage in case of continuous pumping. break pressure tank system and hydro-pneumatic system.Handbook on Works Audit -Water supply The down – take system of water supply in high rise buildings may be one or a combination of the following systems viz. Otherwise the capacity should be increased to absorb the difference between the rate of inflow and rate of draw down in the clear water reservoir. were designed adopting 55 lpcd and distribution system created adopting 40 lpcd in CWSS may be identified analysed and the extra cost on creation infrastructures may be commended. Cases where pumping main. At Head works / Treatment works site. 57 Fire hydrants should be located at required points in the distribution system in consultation with the agency in charge of fire service. If point of supply is at a distance from the filter plant. 9.3m while the bottom of the water main should be atleast 0.. etc. The lateral separation should be a minimum of 0. capacity of clear water reservoir may be for 30 minutes storage either for gravity or for pumping if the transmission main carries average discharge of 24 hours basis. Audit Approach • Whether the distribution system is created to the designed level of water supply.5 m above the top of the sewer line. If pumping is intermittent.

Handbook on Works Audit -Water supply • Pumping system. it should be ensured house service connection was envisaged and specific undertaking from local bodies obtained thereof. The elevation of the over head tank is fixed by taking into consideration the residual pressure to be maintained at a farthest end of the distribution system and the length of the connecting pipe. pumping main created under separate scheme. but distribution system not created for long time or partially created resulting in under utilisation of assets. the height of staging may be suitably increased to ensure minimum prescribed terminal pressure. be identified and commented.8 of CPHEEO Manual) The water supply in rural areas is effected by one of the following two methods . the tank is generally constructed with a staging height 6 m for communities with population upto 1500 and with a staging height of 7.50m for communities with population greater than 1500 . • When house connections are also provided. Cases where distribution system designed adopting 55 lpcd without providing HSC may 10. RURAL WATER SUPPLY SCHEME Rural Water Supply Distribution System ( Para 10. in Rural area. • In case of the distribution system were designed adopting 55 lpcd. When water is supplied only through stand posts. the capacity is comparatively much lesser with reference to power supply and hours of pumping. • Piped water supply is distributed through the distribution system. The distribution system for rural water supply scheme is designed for the peak demand which is assumed to be four times the average demand (duration of supply is Office of the Principal Accountant General (Civil Audit) Chennai . (i) Shallow well or deep bore well fitted with hand pump (ii) Piped water supply with or without house connection through over head tank and standpipes located at strategic points within the community . 58 • Service reservoirs constructed adopting the norms for individual power pump schemes with higher capacity whereas as per norms prescribed by CPHEEO.

ARWSP was however. . 1999) Funds are provided to the States by the Rajiv Gandhi National Drinking Water Mission under the following programme a) Accelerated Rural Water Supply Programme (ARWSP) To supplement the efforts of the States Governments in providing access to safe drinking water to all rural habitations of the country . ARWSP was continued till 1998-99.Panchayat Raj Institutions should also be involved in the implementation . 67 districts in 26 States were selected under SRP. In 197273.) . The SRP was slightly improved and is being now launched as `Swajaldhara’ from 25th December 2002.Nodal department in the State Government will have the overall responsibility for planning. supervision and monitoring Office of the Principal Accountant General (Civil Audit) Chennai .Handbook on Works Audit -Water supply 6 hours) Techniques are available for the optimization of rural water supply distribution system. reintroduced in 1977-78 when the progress of supply of safe drinking water to the identified problem villages under MNP was not found to be satisfactory.f. But the objectives of the programme could not be attained as envisaged due to lack of sufficient funds and re emergence of not covered habitations etc. In March 1999. Government of India provided assistance to the States to carry out identification of problem villages and to accelerate the pace of coverage of problem villages.implementation should be entrusted to one single department for better implementation. GOI approved Major Policy changes for implementation of Rural Water Supply Programme during the 9th Plan period and Sector Reforms Project (SRP) was launched on a pilot basis in the year 1999-2000 with the objective of institutionalizing community participation in capital cost sharing.implementing agencies for the programme may be decided by the State (viz Rural Development Department/Panchayat Raj Department. NDWM was renamed as Rajiv Gandhi National Drinking Water Mission (RGNDWM) in 1991. April 1. Background Drinking water supply is a state subject. etc. monitoring etc. GOI introduced the Accelerated Rural Water Supply Programme (ARWSP) to assist the State and Union Territories with 100% grants in aid to implement the schemes in such villages with the introduction of Minimum Needs Programme (MNP) during the Fifth Five Year Plan (from 1974-75).e. The entire programme was given a mission approach when Technology Mission on Drinking Water and Related Water Management also called National Drinking Water Mission (NDWM) was introduced as one of five Social Mission in 1986. In the Forth Five Year Plan. operation and maintenance and water quality monitoring and surveillance in identified pilot district. 59 Programmes of RGNDWM (w. implementation. it was withdrawn.

Releases under the ARWSP would not exceed the provision for Rural Water Supply made by the State Government under their MNP. The shortfall if any during previous year will be - 60 Office of the Principal Accountant General (Civil Audit) Chennai .To provide potable drinking water to the population at 40 litre per capita per day (lpcd) for humans to meet the following requirements Purpose Quantity (LPCD) Drinking 3 Cooking 5 Bathing 15 Washing utensil & house 7 Ablution 10 . Coverage of NSS habitation. . etc. Quality affected habitation 3. Among them priority be given to SC/ST habitation 2.. NSS: Habitations where quantum of available safe water is not enough to meet drinking and cooking need.Handbook on Works Audit -Water supply In case the implementation is entrusted to District Rural Development Agency (DRDA) there should be a close co-ordination between the State Nodal Department and the DRDA so as to ensure avoidance of duplication of efforts and dovetailing of the activities with the normal schemes under MNP and ARWSP. Partially covered (PC) and Safe Source (SS) habitation NC: Public drinking water source does not exists within 1. For other activities like washing ablution etc.Criteria for identification of problem habitation categorized as Not covered (NC). PC: Habitation having safe water but the level of supply ranged from 10 lpcd to 40 lpcd. • Priority for coverage 1. • Funding—allocation of Central assistance under ARWSP is subjected to the matching provisional expenditure by the States under State Sector MNP. In these habitation even if safe water is provided upto 10 lpcd which would be sufficient for drinking and cooking purposes it may be considered as a habitation with a safe source of drinking water. iron. Coverage of schools and Angan wadis. Upgradation of level of supply to 40 lpcd 4.6 km in plains or 100 metre elevation in hilly area. . water available from unsafe source can be utilised without any problem. No Safe Source (NSS). fluoride. Water source affected with salinity.Dual Water supply Policy may be adopted for rural habitation facing acute water quality problem.

monitoring etc. • 20% of annual outlay of ARWSP Central outlay will be earmarked for SRP • Funds will be released directly to the District Water and Sanitation Mission which will have their own separate Bank account (SBI or its associates banks) to receive and disburse the fund for project implementation • At least 10% capital cost sharing and 100% sharing of O & M cost by the user (Community). (ii) Constitution of WSM at District level –District Water Sanitation Mission (DWSM): Constituted in the district and registered under Society Act—responsible for formulation. Institutional Set up: (i) Constitution of Water and Sanitation Mission (WSM) at the State level which consist of an Apex Committee headed by Chief Secretary and an Executive Committee headed by an officer of the department concerned with rural water supply. 25% of ARWSP fund should be earmarked for SC habitation and another 10% for ST habitation and 10% funds for O & M. 61 b)Sector Reforms Project (SRP) • Institutionalising Community Participation in the rural water supply programme sharing capital cost. arranging community contribution to capital cost both in cash and kind Office of the Principal Accountant General (Civil Audit) Chennai . management and implementation (iii) Village Water and Sanitation Committee (VWSC): set up in each Gram Panchayat for implementation of Water supply scheme of their own choice with active participation of villagers—ensuring community participation and decision making in all scheme activities. This contribution can be in the form of cash or kind (labour.Handbook on Works Audit -Water supply • • deducted from the instalment of ARWSP funds for the current financial year. operation and maintenance . not below the rank of Joint Secretary-responsible for overall policy guidelines. land or material) and cash compound should be atleast 50% of the contribution. Operation & Maintenance: upto 15% of the funds released every year under ARWSP to State may be utilised for operation & Maintenance of assets created subject to ceiling of matching grant provided by the State out of the MNP provision and the approved norms –funds earmarked for O&M of assets is not to be permitted for creation of capital assets.

Training activities to equip the villagers for implementation and operation and maintenance and management of schemes of their choice—Departmental level. District level and NGOs – village level c. selection of contractors. . Support Services The following are support services S. supervision of construction activities. No separate fund released for implementation of sub mission Projects. commissioning and eventual take over of completed water supply and sanitation works.Role of Women—to create awarness on handling and management of water supply . Upto 20% of the ARWSP funds are to be earmarked and utilized for submission projects. labour or materials). etc and also for ensuring source sustainability through rain water harvesting . procuring materials. 62 d.Handbook on Works Audit -Water supply (land. The expenditure will however be counted as matching provision for central assistance under ARWSP Human Resource Development 100% assistance from GOI Information Education & 100% assistance from Central funds Communication Office of the Principal Accountant General (Civil Audit) Chennai . signing of all completed works and community development activities. planning of water and sanitation activities. managing and financing of O & M of the services on a sustainable basis. Arsenic Brackishness excess Iron. artificial recharge. Sub mission Project: Submission Projects are undertaken by the States for providing safe drinking water to the rural habitations facing water quality problem like Fluorosis.No 1 2 Name of Service Funding pattern 3 4 Water quality monitoring 100% funding as per the approved norms surveillance by GOI Rigs and Hydrofracturing units GOI and State Government share the cost an 50:50 basis on purchase of rigs on a very selective basis for remote and difficult access area. etc.

in case of water supply schemes providing more than 55 lpcd.Handbook on Works Audit -Water supply 5 6 7 8 9 Monitoring and Investigation The expenditure will be borne by Centre Units and State on 50:50 basis Monitoring and Evaluation 100% financial assistance to State for carrying out evaluation Management Information System 100% Central assistance for all MIS activities Research and Development Mission would provide necessary assistance to the State Provision of Drinking water in The expenditure would be shared by State Rural School and Centre on 50:50 basis 63 e. the additional cost would have to borne by the community/panchayat raj institution/State Govt. Swajaldhara will have two streams. First (Swajaldhara I) will be for a Gram Panchayat (GP) or group of GPs or intermediate Panchayat at Block level and the Second (Swajaldhara II) will have a district as the Project area and is being implemented by respective agencies. Swajaldhara The Sector Reforms Project has been slightly improved and is launched as Swajaldhara on 25th December 2002. The District is the unit for implementing the reforms initiative under Swajaldhara II. In such States. Funding by GOI would be restricted to 80% of the capital cost of 55 lpcd scheme only. would enter into Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) with the Department of Drinking Water supply. the State Govt. • In case of all habitations fully covered in the States with 40 lpcd drinking water facilities the service level can be improved to 55 lpcd with 20% of the capital cost to be borne by community. Office of the Principal Accountant General (Civil Audit) Chennai . Specific proposals under Swajaldhara I will be sanctioned by the District Water and Sanitation Committee (DWSC). In order to avail funds under Swajaldhara I & II. GOI. Ministry of Rural Development. • The Minimum phase of community contribution for 40 litres per capita per day (lpcd) service level will be 10% of the estimated capital cost of the project and funding by Government of India would be restricted to 90% of the capital cost.

As soon as the project estimates are administratively approved the competent authority should get the detailed estimates prepared and accord technical sanction to all the components within a period of 3 months.Investigation and preparation of outline Proposal: In Major water supply schemes the preliminary investigation and detailed investigation should be conducted thoroughly without leaving any vital field details.Handbook on Works Audit -Water supply • The community contribution towards capital cost of the scheme could be in the form of Cash/kind/labour/labour or combination of those. The period of investigation should not exceed normally more than one year for water supply scheme and 1½ years for drainage scheme. CERTAIN GUIDELINES OF TWAD BOARD /GOVERNMENT OF TAMIL NADU AND GOVERNMNET OF INIDA 1. the excess amount shall be taken into operation and maintenance fund. In case community contribution is more than 10% of the 64 scheme cost. maintenance and management cost of the water supply scheme will have to be fully borne by the concerned community/user group/village water and sanitation committee (VWSC)/ panchayat Raj Institution • GOI may provide upto 10% of the Capital cost as a one time incentive to the O & M Fund created by the Panchayat Raj Institution/user group and the State Government should also make an equal matching contribution to the O & M Fund. • Operation. Office of the Principal Accountant General (Civil Audit) Chennai . However atleast 50% of the community contribution will have to be in cash. Before taking up any sub works of the project a PERT CHART should be prepared after thorough inspection of the site and discussion with the field officers in charge of the work – Activities on various sub heads of the sanctioned project should be initiated in accordance with the PERT CHART. • • Institutional set up as in the same set up of Sector Project Training programme etc as in the same manner of SRP 11.

75 TWAD dated: 25.Ms.3. all the wayside habitations irrespective of their status are to be included in the scope.2002 and Technical committee meeting held on 30. HOTC / AE-9/ P&D / 2001 dt: 7. Yield from the existing hand pumps need not be taken into account for demand projection. where Service Reservoir and distribution system are ready but the source is not created. Guidelines for adoption in preparation of Rural. While designing a new river water based project. Provision may be made for industrial and commercial requirement at a minimum of 10% of total requirements. In places where there are only industries.6. The selected source shall not be susceptible to pollution and damage due to sand quarrying at any 65 Office of the Principal Accountant General (Civil Audit) Chennai . (G. Water available from existing other water sources may be deducted from the calculated requirements after ascertaining the sustainability of the quality and quantity of source from Hydrological reports. Urban and Combined Water Supply scheme. Transmission losses at 10% of total requirement may be provided.Handbook on Works Audit -Water supply Wide publicity and proper time should be given for all the major tenders before fixing up the contracts.5. Ms. For fully covered habitation -15 lpcd For partially covered habitation .The extent to which shortage in level of supply. (TWAD Board Lr.3.P. For not covered habitations -as per norms. The source creation shall take precedence over all other sub heads of the sanctioned project in the normal courses.90) 11. There were instances. Unless it is satisfied with the existence of a proper source with adequate quantity and quality to cater the needs there is no point in rushing up with the other components of the project.4 Demand Projection: After arriving at required quantity of water based on the per capita supply level.2002) Population Forecat: Revised provision please sees in chapter 3. 644 PWD dt: 31. No.2.No.O. The per capita supply to be adopted for the wayside habitations are as detailed below. F.80 read with B. Source As far as possible source with sustainable quality and quantity for the design period of the project should be selected. this can be increased to actual requirements based on committed requirements from the industries. No.

Sufficient number of air valves. directed to adopt AC Cl. Confirmatory boring and study of lithology of soil strata. The TWAD Board in circular No. G. overlapping shall be avoided. scour valves and line valves should be provided in the pipe line based on terrain. While locating the infiltration wells. Infiltration well shall be proposed only where saturated sand depth of not less than 5m is available. AC pipes should be avoided within the Urban limits where heavy traffic is anticipated. fixed by LS plan drawn at 30 metre intervals. If separate electrical feeder main is proposed then hours of pumping increased to 20 hours.I. Size of main may be decided in the economic size calculation. Recharge structures will be proposed wherever required for the sustainability of the drinking water source. 29 / AE2/ P&D /2003 AE-5 / dt:30. Power pumps to the borewells to be fixed only when the yield from the borewell is more than 45 lpm and the water available is potable.PVC / UPVC Above 150 to 300mm .Steel / PSC / BWSP In Hilly terrain. Combined Water Supply schemes –16 hours. 66 Office of the Principal Accountant General (Civil Audit) Chennai . Upto 160mm .04. While designing a combined water supply scheme uniform residual head at all delivery points (Service Reservoirs and sumps) should be maintained. PVC pipe upto 315 mm OD is to be adopted as one of the alternative for water supply and sewerage project with techno economic consideration (TWAD Circular No. Hours of Pumping: The norms for hours of pumping prescribed for Individual power pump schemes under RWS – 8 hours.42/DO/P&D/2005 dt.2005.10. In case of insufficient supply of potable water dual water supply system may be adopted.Handbook on Works Audit -Water supply point of time. Transmission main: Surge analysis ( Water Hammer ) should be made for all the cases of pumping mains. The following pipe materials may be adopted for transmission main. This should be ensured through probing.AC / UPVC Above 350 to 900mm . The selected site should be identified with reference to the standard bench mark on the bank.06.PSC / CI / DI Above 900mm . pipe may be used.2005. Individual power pump schemes under urban water supply scheme – 16 hours.15 from pipe size of 200 mm above and AC class 10 for pipe size below 200 mm.

For centrifugal. plant butterfly valves with valve actuators may be provided for valves of size 300mm and above. Treatment Plant: The treatment plant should be designed based on raw water quality. By pass valves should be provided across the reflux valves.153 Equivalent cost factor .75m standard DF pipe and the DF pipes may be encased with concrete. Efficiency of pumps for design purpose may be taken as 60% for centrifugal pump and 70% for turbine pump and submersible pumps.storeyed filters may be examined.5%) Capital cost factor . Priority may be given for constructing the pump house over the sump.0. For inflow more than 1 mld the sump capacity may be fixed at 4 hours storage subject to a maximum to 50 lakh litres. The sump need not be circular shape. These plants can be maintained even by local bodies with unskilled labours. turbine and submersible pump 50% stand by may be adopted except in the case of borewells. Air valves should be provided on either side of the reflux valve in the transmission main. For line valves of diameter 500mm and above by pass and gears arrangements and air valves on either side should be provided for easy operation. Provision of reflux valves may be restricted to the bearest minimum.153 Pumping Plants ( Sump & Pump sets) Detention time for sump with an inflow of less than 1 mld may be taken as 8 hours subject to a minimum of 30000 litres. The operating cost will be less when compared to rapid and sand filter. Scour valves should be provided at valley points with facility for easy disposal of scoured water. Suit to site condition. Even in places with limited land availability feasibility of providing multi. For pipe line with size of main above 600mm dia air valves may be introduced at 500m intervals. Economical size of pumping main factor to be adopted ( on 15 years loan with rate of interest 12.165 Annuity factor 0.Handbook on Works Audit -Water supply Air valves may be introduced at every 1000m for pipe lines upto 600mm dia. 67 Office of the Principal Accountant General (Civil Audit) Chennai . Inside the pumping. Slow sand filter are easy to operate and maintain.0. For diameter more than 300mm the size of line valves may be fixed at 2/3rd of pipe diameter. To prevent pollution and damage to air valves by the public. air valve may be fixed above a 2. For pumping plants with 100 HP and above provisions may be made for SCADA with sensor for water level flow and pressure for collection of field operating information and control from the central location.

68 1) The distribution system.750 m 301 – 750 . 501 to 1250 . 2) The capacity of over head Service Reservoir for comprehensive water supply scheme are to be designed not less 50% of the ultimate daily requirements of the individual habitation ( TWAD Circular Memo.100000 lit. No.30000 lit.1982). a settling tank of 3 to 4 hours detention time may be provided.5m staging.50 lakh lit. service Reservoir and pumping main etc. OHT 6m staging. preference shall be given for provision of slow sand filters.Handbook on Works Audit -Water supply In case of raw water with turbidity level less than 100.60000 lit. Above 5000 as per requirement subject to a maximum of 1. For turbidity level between 60 and 100. Service Reservoir (SR): The capacity of Service Reservoirs may be fixed on the following lines (i)For Rural habitations Population . 2501 to 5500 .1500m Note: Office of the Principal Accountant General (Civil Audit) Chennai .ultimate Less than 150 . OHT 6m staging. OHT 7. (ii) For Urban Areas. in rural area were designed for 8 hours considering limited hours of power supply.5000 lit. with suitable staging height. The capacity of Service Reservoir may be fixed at 1/3rd of daily requirements. 45997 / RWS/ 1113 / 82-3 / dated: 24. For water drawn from hill sources an aerator has to be provided. Population ( Ultimate) Upto 300 .10000 lit. 1251 to 2500 . Distribution System: The length of distribution system may fixed on the following norms for rural habitations. The staging height has to be fixed in such a way that a minimum residual head of 8m is available in the distribution system. OHT 7.5m staging.12. GLSR with spot supply 151 to 500 . Whenever the ground terrain of the town area varies more than 8m – zoning may be resorted to proposing separate Service Reservoirs for each zone or providing more than 1 outlet from the Service Reservoir.

No.Rs.2002) 11. ( MD/ TWAD Lr. The following peak factor may be adopted for arriving the design discharge. In case of SC/ST areas the above norms may be relaxed.Water utilization committee All water supply schemes and irrigation schemes involving drawal of water of less than 1 mgd (million gallon daily) shall be approved by the District 69 Office of the Principal Accountant General (Civil Audit) Chennai . For urban areas. the distribution system should be designed for ultimate stage requirements to supply the requirements in 24 hours.Rs.3. 1750/In hilly areas . . As house service connections are proposed in the rural areas also . 1202/ AE3/PM/R/2002/ dt: 21. the source creation work should be completed first before commencement of other components. Population ( Ultimate) Upto 50000 . 2000/Cost per litre . Field particulars All field particulars have to be furnished for preparation of detailed estimate. In plains . For implementation. The alignment plan should be drawn with reference to FM sketches or plain table survey or compass survey.Rs.Handbook on Works Audit -Water supply 751 – 1500 . 20/Implementation of the project Land required for different project components should be identified and availability ensured before finalising the project.2250m 1501 – 3000 .3 50001 – 2 lakh .3750m The above norms are maximum limits.6. 11.2.3000m above 3000 . House service connection ( HSC) New water supply schemes may be taken up in rural habitations only after obtaining a firm commitment from the respective panchayat for giving House Service Connection to atleast 30% of the house holds in the habitation.5 Above 2 lakh -2 Rural areas ( Where water supply is effected through stand post : 3 only) Per capita cost: The following per capita norms may be followed for sanction of estimate by Chief Engineer/Superintending Engineer/Executive Engineer. one public fountain for every 250 population ( present ) may be provided. The distribution system length should be restricted to actual street length.4.

543 / PWD dt: 24. 22. ( TWAD circular No.2002) 11.1980. Hence water supply scheme should be designed to benefit the actual needy areas and should be implemented mainly to benefit the needy population.Ms. This practice not only results in unnecessary expenditure on the limited budgetary allocation.O. Sustainability of water-designing infrastructure to wayside habitation of cwss.Handbook on Works Audit -Water supply Collector concerned. Actual requirements based on the population forecast should be properly derived. 38/ PO / P&D / 2001 / dt. a per capita supply of 55 lpcd may be adopted for designing the scheme. Office of the Principal Accountant General (Civil Audit) Chennai . The per capita supply may be reduced from the 55 lpcd to the extent of sustainable present level of supply for which sustainability certificate has been issued by Deputy Hydrogeologist. Guidelines for improvements and augmentation of existing water supply facilities. ( G. 1 mgd and above shall be placed before the water utilization committee and the clearance obtained.) 11.4. (TWAD Circular No. prevalence of inadequate supply and there is an actual need for augmentation / improvements.2002) Improvements and augmentation of the existing water supply facilities should be considered whenever there is failure of potable source. Existing condition of the infrastructure like head works. pumping main service reservoir.60/ DO / P&D / dated: 8.8. No. If the present level of supply is not at all sustainable.5.3. The existing level of supply should be assessed and its sustainability should be certified by the Deputy Hydrogeologist of the respective Circle. Pump rooms. but also cuts the supply intended for other needy areas. the improvements / augmentation should be considered only after taking into consideration the following aspects.6. Present level of supply and quality of water should be ascertained with reference to the existing source. It should be ascertained that the supply intended for the beneficiary in the original scheme has not been diverted to other areas necessitating the improvements / augmentation. On the contrary in the several cases it has been noticed that habitations/town with sufficient level of potable water supply with level sources are being considered under river bed water supply project just to facilitate river water supply to the fully covered habitations / town. 70 Similarly. Distribution system should be examined with reference to the suitability for the improvement proposed.

In case Government land is made available. • Certificate regarding the availability of land required for construction of the scheme may be appended with the DPR. a certificate from the competent authority is desirable.8. 2 95% dependability and reliability of the raw water source shall be established by the implementing agency. • Acceptance of the scheme for taking over after completion and commissioning for operation and maintenance and implementation of the tariff. regular exercise for leak detection survey & repairs to control underground leakage with the help of the State Implementing Agency and adequate training to the O & M staff of urban local body by the executing agency during the implementing of the scheme.Handbook on Works Audit -Water supply The improvements for augmentation should be designed to serve the beneficiary on a long term basis and should not be to get over the present crisis alone. Guidelines for Accelearated Urban Water Supply Programme (AUWSP) (revised by GOI. Q 12045/23/92 CPHEEO dated 27. 11. 3 A commitment from the implementing agency for maintenance of separate account of the scheme may be included in the DPR. so as to ensure availability of water as per the demand through out the design period of the scheme. for which a certificate to the effect may be obtained from the competent authority of the nodal agencies responsible for the surface and ground water resources and included in the DPR. Census Department shall be the basis.2001) General Guidelines: 1 The population of the towns should be less than 20000 as per 1991 census. • Commitment for creation of adequate infrastructure with urban local body for trouble free O & M of the scheme. In case the land is to be acquired from a private party. 71 Office of the Principal Accountant General (Civil Audit) Chennai . an advance action should be initiated and the Action Taken Report should be appended with the DPR. For this purpose. as proposed in the DPR so as to ensure sustainable O & M mechanism and sustainable tariff system. Ministry of Urban Development Poverty Alleviation in letter No.7. 4 The following stipulation are fulfilled in the detailed project report (DPR) and it should contain a resolution of municipality/urban local body/O&M agency • Consent of the urban local body for execution of the scheme through the State Implementing Agency • Commitment for contribution of 5 % of the project cost from the urban local body. the documents published by the Registrar General. The location of the proposed source should be finalized in consultation with the nodal agency and the concerned urban local body. duly approved by the State Government.

Technical Guidelines: 2. Railways. Priority is to be given by the SLSC to rehabilitation and augmentation schemes rather than new schemes 8. etc. Rural. priority must be accorded to towns with special problems like: a) Very low per capita supply b) Very distant or deep water source c) Drought-prone area d) Excess salinity. details may be indicated in the DPR. • Whether any Government of India fund from any other Central Development Programme was obtained during the last five years/proposed to be obtained or not. While selecting project towns by SLSC. a gestation period of 2 to 3 years may be adopted to decide upon the base year. 72 Office of the Principal Accountant General (Civil Audit) Chennai . intermediate stage and ultimate stage of the scheme.Handbook on Works Audit -Water supply 5. Water Resources. Revenue. The DPR should contain: • A commitment to launch the scheme immediately after receiving technical approval of Government of India/Administrative Approval of the scheme by the State Government with necessary budgetary provision • Commitment from the State Power Department / Statement Electricity Board to ensure interrupted power supply to the scheme • A certificate/commitment to the effect that. The State Land Selection Committee (SLSC) may monitor/review from time to time the physical and financial progress of the schemes already approved by GOI before selecting new towns so as to assess/identify the shortcomings and suggest remedial measures to complete the schemes as per the schedule. 9. The design period for 20 to 25 years as per guidelines of AUWSP may be considered for the scheme. No change/alteration in the priority list of towns selected by the SLSC will be permitted. • Permission/action initiated to obtain permission from various departments. wherever necessary. 6.g. Forest. iron content in the water source e) High incidence of water born diseases 7. • Details of the total annual and expenditure of the agency responsible for O&M for the last 5 years in order to assess their financial soundness to take over the scheme for O&M after its commissioning. In addition. technical guidelines stipulated in the revised Manual on Water Supply & Treatment published in May 1999 by this Ministry may be considered in addition to AUWSP guidelines. for implementation of the scheme. fluoride. e. the works for different components of the scheme included in the DPR have not commenced and no expenditure has been booked. If yes. Highways. 3. While preparing the DPRs.

Exemption from Central Excise & Customs Duty In notification 91/2002 cus. commercial areas and institutions.8. The demand of per capita water supply may be considered as below: .70 lpcd for the population to be provided with house service connection . In case of Union Territories 100% financing is available from Central Share. . Pre-requisite site for claiming exemption : (i) Should have water treatment. in case of bulk demand for industries.In addition.e. The proportionate cost for such bulk demand must be borne by the respective organisation/establishment. A commitment to the effect may be obtained from such organisation/establishment. • Third and final installment amounting to 25% of Central Share will be released on (i) release of second installment of State Share (ii) utilisation of 80% of the total funds released for the scheme. However. Pattern of Finance AUWSP will be funded on grant basis by the Central Government 50% and the State Government 50% including 5% beneficiaries/town contribution. (ii) completion of ground work for execution of the scheme including award of contracts. Release of Fund: • 25% of the Central Share will be released to the State Government or the designated agency on selection of the scheme • Second installment of the Central Share (i. including state share). 11. duly recommended by the urban local body and incorporated in the DPR. (iv) submission of detailed project report and its approval. institutional and minor industries. the same should be assessed separately with proper justification. (iii) utilisation of atleast 50% of the amount released for the scheme (ie. 92/2002 cus.Handbook on Works Audit -Water supply 4.The aforementioned per capita supply levels include requirement of water for commercial. 50% of the eligible Central Share) will be released on (i) release of the first installment of the State Share. losses/unaccounted for water (UFW) to a maximum limit of 15% of the total demand may be considered.40 lpcd for the population to be provided with Public Stand Post (upto a maximum of 30% of the population) . 93/2002/cus and 47/2002 CE dated 6th September 2002 Government of India have been issued orders to extend exemption of Customs and Central Excise duties in respect of water treatment project and pipes needed for delivery of water from its source to the plant and from there to the storage facilities for supply of drinking water for human and animal consumption. Office of the Principal Accountant General (Civil Audit) Chennai 73 .

maintaining the capacity of pipe line and cleaning of pipe line .1.10 of CPHEEO Manual): Preventive maintenance of water distribution system pipelines assures the twin objectives of preserving the hygienic quality of water in the distribution mains and providing condition for adequate flow through the pipe lines.Handbook on Works Audit -Water supply Specific certificate by District Collector / District Magistrate in which the treatment plant located in produced to the Excise Department having jurisdiction over the manufacture products used for the water supply scheme. water treatment plants includes a plant for desalination. faulty joints. (ii) 74 12. ferrule connection. a) Wastage: Wastage is due to leakage in water mains due to corrosion. service pipes and fittings inside the consumer’s Office of the Principal Accountant General (Civil Audit) Chennai . MISCELLANEOUS 12. Some of the main functions in the management of preventive aspects in the maintenance of mains are assessment. detection and prevention of wastages of water from pipe lines. Preventive maintenance (Para 10. Explanation: for the purposes of this exemption. demineralization or purification of water or for carrying out any similar process or processes intended to make the water fit for human or animal consumption but does not include a plant or plant supplying water for industrial purpose. fracture.

Cleaning of pipes The necessity for systematic and periodic cleaning of pipelines is borne out by the fact that the carrying capacity of the pipes gets reduced due to growth of slimes. Insertion of a plastic pipes has also practiced with success . The survey consists of : i) Finding leaks in the pipes by visual determination of surface. If local conditions prevent this lateral separation of water main may be laid closer to a storm or sanitary sewer. b) Leakage Detection : Leakage detection survey is confined only to the areas with heavy leakages as arrived at by the waste assessment survey.5m above the top of the sewer. provided that the main is laid by separate trench or on an undisturbed earth shelf located on one side of the sewer at such elevation that the bottom of the water main is at least 0.Handbook on Works Audit -Water supply premises due to joints corrosion faulty washers on glands in valves and taps.50m between the bottom of the water main and the top of the sewer should be maintained with adequate support for the larger sized sewer lines. it is preferable to have the sewer also of casting flanged pipe with Office of the Principal Accountant General (Civil Audit) Chennai . storm drain. 75 In situations where water mains have to cross house sewer. Where conditions prevent the minimum vertical separation set forth above. or electronic leak locator for pinpointing of leaks in pipes . abandoned service pipes and ferrule connections in mains. Protection against pollution near sewers and drains A water main should be laid such that there is at least 3 m separation. to prevent them from settling on or breaking the water main. incrustation deposits. In making such crossings. or when it is necessary for the water main to pass under a sewer or drain. C. The old cast iron and steel pipes which are cleaned can be protected from further incrustations or corrosion by cement lining. and failure to turn off taps in premises willfully or inadvertently. This vertical separation should be maintained for a distance of 3 m on both sides measured normal to the sewer or drain it crosses . horizontally from existing or proposed drain or sewer line. Flushing and swabbing of pipes. or sanitary sewer then it should be laid at such an elevation that the bottom of the water main is 0. the water main should be laid with flanged cast iron pipe. A vertical separation of 0. which are simple and inexpensive can go a long way in maintaining the capacity. with rubber gasket joints for a length on either side of the crossing to satisfy the lateral separation of 3 m. and ii) Traversing the sub – zone in the night by sounding rod. d.50 m above the top of the drain or sewer with the joints as remote from the sewer as possible.

more or less in proportion to the amount consumed . ii) The rate should be such as to make the amenity more or less self paying and worked on a no – profit – no – loss basis . 76 The most equitable method will be based on metering of all the supplies. the above aspects may also be taken into consideration and the water main may be realigned. be dealt with by the new scheme for which the capital is to be raised in the usual manner . This may be a separate tax or included in the general property tax but it is desirable that the revenue under this head is earmarked for water supply purpose . a water tax is justifiable on the annual rental value of the property. Office of the Principal Accountant General (Civil Audit) Chennai . Where a water main has already been laid and where a new sewer is to be laid. which should also be considered in fixing the water rates. however. Any major augmentation of the system should. iii) The rate should be such as to provide for generating source for expanding the system to take care or increasing requirements . Method of raising revenue (Para 17. Since water expands nearly about 10% in volume with an irresistible pressure. Water rates The revenue from the sale of water or water rates recoverable from parties actually consuming the water such as for domestic purposes or for commercial and industrial purposes is utilized to meet the annual recurring cost of operation and maintenance and to provide for a reserve for meeting the capital expenses for future improvement to the system . when it is not possible to lay the sewer consistent with the above recommendations.2.Handbook on Works Audit -Water supply rubber gasket joints and both the water and sewer mains pressure tested to assure water tightness before back fillings. The quantity actually accounted for by the meters is invariably less than the quantity produced since there is a considerable wastage as unaccounted water. The water rates are to be carefully fixed taking into account the following: i) The rate should be high enough to fetch the necessary revenue and not excessive as to discourage consumers from making needed use of the water for domestic needs and for personnel hygiene in particular . freezing solid conditions should not be allowed in any pipe system to avoid interruption of service and prevent damage to the pipes .4 of CPHEEO Manual) The sources of revenue are the funds received by general taxation such as water tax or a portion of the general property tax which is realized by assessment on all taxable property and water rates paid by those who use the water. 11. Water tax Since the provision of a water supply to a town enhances the value of the property.

Project appraisal of water supply projects (Para 17.3.6 of CPHEEO Manual) Project appraisal is the analysis of costs and benefits of a proposed project with an aim of obtaining a rational allocation of scarce resources among alternative investment opportunities in view of achieving certain specified goals in the National Development Programme. Water supply management (Para 17. there is a critically important distinction to be kept in mind between two complementary points of view viz . 77 11.4. (i) Economic analysis . In projects analysis.Handbook on Works Audit -Water supply It is desirable that water supplies at least to all cities having a population of one lakh and more are metered. in safety and in financial considerations.5 of CPHEEO Manual) Efficient and effective management of water supply systems is most essential for their proper functioning. 11. A water supply organization should be treated as a business enterprise involving managerial skills and engineering knowledge to make it successful in service. Office of the Principal Accountant General (Civil Audit) Chennai . The quality of water supplied should be the prime consideration for any water supply organization as the safety and health of the people depend upon it. and (ii) Financial analysis . Scope A good management of a water supply system includes a number of functions such as (i) Provision and maintenance of adequate facilities : (ii) Good and smooth operation : (iii) Efficient and economical maintenance : (iv) Establishment of sound fiscal methods : (v) Development of equitable water tax and water rates : (vi) Efficient control of equipment and supplies : (vii) Keeping the wastage of water to a minimum : (viii) Good public relations and satisfactory service to consumers: and (ix) Development of technical and financial plans for future expansion . The technical and engineering problems involved in the running of a water supply organization call for a qualified Public Health Engineer as the head of the management . A project carefully analysed and revised in the light of this analysis has a much improved chance of being implemented on time and of yielding the desired benefits.

A critical element of preparation is identifying and comparing technical and institutional alternatives for achieving the project objectives. institutional. Ratio ) This is defined as the present worth of benefit divided by the present worth of cost 11. This has to be 78 Office of the Principal Accountant General (Civil Audit) Chennai .e. while the financial cost benefit analysis tries to assess the profitability to the operating entity . This measure represents the return over the life of the project to the resources engaged in the project . On the other hand. farmers. The analytical techniques employed for Economic and Financial appraisal comprise deriving valves for the net present worth ( NPW ). These are defined as follows.5. viz. (ii) Preparation The next stage is project preparation which should cover the full range of technical. internal rate of return ( IRR ) and the benefit cost ratio ( B/C).C.2 of CPHEEO Manual) Any project has to under go the following project cycle : (i) Identification The first phase of the cycle is concerned with identifying projects that have a high priority with reference to the set objectives and needs of the country . which is interested in the return to the equity capital one contributes. Project cycle (Para 17.6. Project appraisal is very important for the developing countries which are in the process of achieving stupendous task of recycling of financial and other resources for productive purposes and welfare of the poor people . public agencies. The social cost benefit or economic analysis aims at evaluating the profitability according to the impact on the society as a whole. financial analysis is concerned with the individual financial entities which participate in a project. i. Net present worth ( or Net present value ) : ( NPW / NPV ) This is defined as the present worth of the net benefits of a project discounted at the opportunity cost of capital . is equal to the present worth of costs. entrepreneurs. economic and financial conditions necessary to achieve the project objectives. Net present worth = ( Present worth of benefits – Present worth of costs ) Internal rate of return : IRR This is defined as that discounted rate at which the present worth of benefits. etc. To determine IRR the NPW is first calculated at two different discounting rates ( r1 and r2 ) being the higher and lower discounting rates ) TRR = r2 + (r1-r2) NPW2 NPW2 – NPW1 Benefit Cost Ratio : ( B. businessmen.Handbook on Works Audit -Water supply Economic analysis is concerned with the total return or productivity or profitability to the whole economy of all the resources committed to the project regardless of who in the society contributes them and regardless of who in the society receives the benefits..

The fourth and the last one is financial appraisal which has several purposes viz. set out in the loan documents . This also includes appropriateness of technical standards adopted. provides a comprehensive review of all aspects of the project. to generate adequate working capital. These agreements are then converted into legal obligations. proposed procurement arrangements etc .Handbook on Works Audit -Water supply followed by a more detailed investigation of the most promising alternative and the most satisfactory solution is finally worked out . to earn a reasonable return on its assets in operation and make a satisfactory contribution to its future capital requirements. likely hood of achieving the expected results. Third is the economic appraisal which aims at assessing the contribution of the project to the development objective of the country and this remains the basic criterion for project selection and appraisal . to find out whether the project is financially viable to meet all its financial obligations including debt servicing. Second part is the appraisal of the institutional aspects of the project which also includes recognition of the need for a continuous re – examination of the institutional arrangements with an open mind to accept new ideas and adopt a long term approach that may extend over several projects . (a) Technical (b) Institutional (c) Economic (d) Financial Technical appraisal is necessary to ensure that the project is designed in a sound manner as least – cost solution following all the accepted engineering norms. It is the objective of economic analysis to identify whether projects have Net Present Worth which will be a positive quantity and fulfill the prescribed Benefit – Cost ratio. and lays the foundation for implementing the project and evaluating it when completed .. to generate funds from internal sources. Negotiations with the Financing institutions Negotiations is the stage at which the lending institution and the borrower endeavour to agree on the measures necessary to assure the success of the project. It is a critical stage of the project cycle because it is the culmination of the preparatory work. The financial review often highlights the need to adjust the level and structure of prices charged to the project . Appraisal consists of four parts viz . (iii) Appraisal As the project takes shape and studies are nearing completion. The various technical alternatives considered and the solution proposed are part of technical appraisal. the project is scheduled for appraisal. Implementation and Supervision 79 Office of the Principal Accountant General (Civil Audit) Chennai . review of capital cost and operating cost estimates and engineering and other data. reality of the implementation schedule.

preparation. The economic appraisal of a project aims at assessing the contribution of the project to the development objective of the country whereas the financial appraisal aims at ensuring the financial viability of the project . and cash flow. import duties. purchase of raw materials. when need arises . The project gets its return from the sale of goods and services and also receives subsidy. 11. which reduces the costs or add to the income . whether there will be adequate working capital . income / expenditure statement. 80 In the Project Appraisal Technique . Office of the Principal Accountant General (Civil Audit) Chennai .6. It is easy to identify costs and benefits in financial terms where as it is difficult to identify in economic terms. whether the project can generate funds from its internal resources to earn a reasonable return on its assets in operation and make satisfactory contribution to its future capital requirements . The finances of a project are closely reviewed through projections of the balance sheet. such as machinery and equipment. In addition the projects has to pay taxes.6. and (iii) To ensure recovery of investment and operating costs from the project beneficiaries . payment of wages and import of goods and services etc. and appraisal work. operation and maintenance cost. whether the project will meet all its financial obligations including debt servicing. Progress reports followed by field visits constitute part of supervision .3 of CPHEEO Manual) Financial Appraisal of Water Supply Scheme is necessary : (i) To ensure that the project is financially viable. Where financial accounts are inadequate a new accounting system has to be established with technical assistance financed out of the loan . Two important factors which lead to the distinction between financial analysis and economic analysis are : (a) Exclusion inclusion of some costs and benefits in the appraisal of a project and (b) Valuation of costs and benefits and market prices or some other prices . repay the loan with interest and allow for the depreciation of fixed assets . (ii) To adjust the level and structure of prices charged. The project incurs expenses on capital investment. if allowed by the Government. fees. Financial appraisal (Para 17. Evaluation and Feed Back This is the last stage of the project cycle and provides lesson of experience which are built into subsequent project identification. the costs and benefits of the project in financial / economic terms are evaluated.Handbook on Works Audit -Water supply Implementation by the borrower and supervision by the lender form the next stage.

but it is a transfer of resources from the project to the Government or any other institution / individual ( taxes. are avoidable.Handbook on Works Audit -Water supply Two types of costs and benefits are encountered in the appraisal of a project – one involves the use of resources. Avoidable delay in execution of the work resulted in non-achievement of objective. sustainable dependable source to meet the ultimate requirements necessitating the formulation of another scheme even during the execution of the former scheme or before completion of the designed service life. A few type of cases are listed below: (i) Failure to create reliable and dependable source before creation of infrastructure rendered the entire infrastructures unutilized. and the other which does not involve use of resources. the scheme held up due to non completion of the scheme from which source was proposed to be drawn. clear water reservoir. The costs involved in execution of the latter scheme especially headworks. However without ensuring the availability of water for the ultimate requirements. various components of water supply schemes shall be executed only after ensuring adequate quality and quantity of water sources. thereof has to be analysed critically and commented. According to the orders of the Board in March 1990. Booster Station. (iii) Due to public objection required designed level of water could not be extracted. pumping main. • Water supply scheme designed with drawal of source from another water supply scheme. fees. but pumping main constructed for the original design involving higher size of pumping main. Though all infrastructures were created for supply of water. transmission main. Audit approach on Implementation Failure to conduct proper investigation and identifying a reliable. loan repayment and interest ) or vice versa ( subsidies ). Failure to revise the design on the basis of actual yield resulted in extra cost on creation of higher size of pumping main. Hence the assets created to supply water to designed level could not be Office of the Principal Accountant General (Civil Audit) Chennai 81 . feeder main with all facilities to supply water to the intended habitations completed much earlier. (ii) Creation of infrastructure for larger discharge than the yield available. • Under utilisation of the completed water supply schemes The work of construction of head work. distribution system were constructed for ultimate requirement resulting in unfruitful extra expenditure. sump etc. This was due to : a) delay in obtaining permission from Highways department for laying pumping main b) delay in execution of work • The cause etc. pumping main. treatment plant. duties. But the infrastructures to supply water to the group of habitation was either not completed or work not taken up. pumping main.

Handbook on Works Audit -Water supply

put into optimum use. Head works, pumping main completed which provided for bulk provision of water to supply various other habitations. But evenafter commencement of the water supply scheme, the work of distribution system was not sanctioned and taken up for execution, to those habitations for which bulk provision was made for.


Office of the Principal Accountant General (Civil Audit) Chennai

Handbook on Works Audit -Water supply



Estimation of future population
Problem The population of a town as per the Census records are given below for the years 1921 to 1981. Assuming that the scheme of water supply will commence to function from 1986, it is required to estimate the population 30 years hence, i.e. in 2016 and also the intermediate population 15 years after 1986, i.e.2001.
Year 1921 1931 1941 1951 1961 1971 1981 Population 40,185 44,522 60,395 75,614 98,886 1,24,230 1,58,800 Total Average Increment 4,337 15,873 15,219 23,272 25,344 34,570 1,18,615 19,769

Solution Arithmetical Progression Method Increase in population from 1921 to 1981 i.e. in 6 decades = 1,58,800 -40,185 1,18,615 or increase per decade =1/6 x 118,615 = 19769 Population in 2001 =Population in 1981 + increase for 2 decades = 158,800+2 x 19769 =158,800 + 39538 =198,338 Population in 2016 =Population in 1981 + Increase for 3.5 decades = 158,800 + 3.5 x 19,769 = 227,992
2. Geometrical Progression Method Rate of Growth (r) = 4337/40185= 0.108 Per decade between 1931 and 1921 1941 and 1931 = 15873/44522= 0.356 1951 and 1941 = 15219/60395= 0.252 1961 and 1951 = 23272/75614= 0.308 1971 and 1961 = 25344/98886= 0.256 1981 and 1971 = 34570/124230=0.278 _____________________________________ 6 | 0.108 X 0.356 X0.252 X 0.308 X 0.256X0.278

Office of the Principal Accountant General (Civil Audit) Chennai

Handbook on Works Audit -Water supply


Geometric mean, rg = Assuming that the future growth follows the geometric mean for the period 1921 to 1981 rg = 0.2442 Population in 2001 = Population in 1981 x ( 1 x rg)2 = 245,800 = 158800 x (1.2442)2 Population in 2016 = Population in 1981 x (1+ rg)3.5= 1.58,800 x (1.2442)3.5=3,05,700 Methods of Varying Increment or Incremental Increase Methods In this method a progressively decreasing or increasing rather than a constant rate is adopted. This is a modification over the Arithmetical Progression method.
Year 1921 1931 1941 1951 1961 1971 1981 Population 40,185 44,522 60,395 75,614 98,886 1,24,230 1,58,800 Total Increase (x) Incremental increase (Y

4,337 15,873 15,219 23,272 25,344 34,570 1,18,615

11536 654 8053 2072 9226 30233

Average = 1/6 x 118615= 1/5 x 30,233 = 19769 = 6047

Pn =P1+ nX + n(n+1)Y 2 P2001 = P1981 + 2x 19769 + 2x3x6047 2 = 158800 + 39538 + 18141 = 216479 P 2016 = P1981 + 3.5.x 19769 + (3.5 x 4.5 x 6047) /2 = 158800 + 699192 + 24,188 = 252180

Office of the Principal Accountant General (Civil Audit) Chennai

03 Toxic materials 23 24 Arsenic (as As) (mg/1) Cadmium (as Cad) (mg/1) 0.2 600 >1.2 2000 600 1000 400 1.5 45 200 150 for If there are 20 mg/1 of sulphates.0 0.0 0.0 15.01 Office of the Principal Accountant General (Civil Audit) Chennai .002 1. Characteristics * Acceptable ** Cause No.03 200 0.001 0.2 0.01 0. Sl.0 to 8. 13 Iron (as Fe) (mg/1) 0.5 1.5 or >9.2 5.1 1.5 units of sulphates.05 0.05 0.0 0. Rejection 1 Turbidity (NTU) 1 10 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Colour(Units on Platinum Cobalt scale) Taste and Odour PH Total dissolved solids)mg/1) Total hardness (as CaCO3 ) (mg/1) Chlorides (as C1) (mg/1) Sulphaters (as SO4) (mg/1) Fluorides(as F)(mg/1) Nitrates(as NO3)(mg/1) Calcium(as Ca) (mg/1) Magnesium(as Mg) (mg/1) 5 Unobjectionable 7.01 0.01 0.5 0.5 500 200 200 200 1.Handbook on Works Audit -Water supply 85 ANNEXURE II Recommended guidelines for physical and chemical parameters.0 45 75 530 25 Objectionable <6.0 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 Managanese (as Mn) (mg/1) Copper (as Cu) (mg/) Aluminimum (as A1) (mg/1) Alkalinity (mg/1) Residual Chlorine (mg/1) Zinc (as Zn) (mg/1) Phenolic compounds (as Phenol)(mg/1) Anionic detergents (mg/1)(as MBAS) Mineral Oil (mg/1) 0.01 0. Mg content can be increased to a maximum of 12 mg/1 with the reduction of sulphates at the rate of 1q unit per every 2.

05 0.001 0.05 0.2 86 hydrocarbons 0.0 Radio activity + 32 Gross Alpha activity (Bq/1) 33 Gross Beta activity(Bq/1) 0.05 0.001 0. but still may be tolerated in the absence of a alternative and better source but upto the limits indicated under column “Cause for Rejection” above which the sources will have to be rejected. Office of the Principal Accountant General (Civil Audit) Chennai .2 31 Presticides (total. + It is possible that some mine and spring waters may exceed these radio activity limits and in such cases it is necessary to analyze the individual radio-nuclides in order to assess the acceptability or otherwise for public consumption.01 0.Handbook on Works Audit -Water supply 25 26 27 28 29 30 Chromium (as hexavalent Cr) (mg/1) Cyanides (as CN ) (mg/1) Lead (as Pb) (mg/1) Selenium (as Se) (mg/1) Mercury (total as Hg) (mg/1) Polynuclear (PAH ) (mg/1) aromatic 0. ** Figures in excess of those mentioned under ‘Acceptable’ render the water not acceptable.1 1.-1993 0.01 0.05 0. b) Bacteriological Guidelines The treated water should be bacteriologically in good quality and any trace of bacteria of any kind must not be detectable in any 100 ml sample.05 0. mg/1) Absent Refer to WHO guidelines for drinking water quality Vol.0 NOTES * The figures indicated under the column ‘Acceptable’ are the limits upto which water is generally acceptable to the consumers.05 0.1 1.I.

5 m staging 1 lakh litres 12 m staging 1.55 per lit 1. 4.No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Description of work Upto 5000 litres Above 5000 litres and upto 10000 litres Above 10000 litres and upto 30000 litres Above 30000 litres and upto 50000 litres Above 50000 litres and upto 100000 litres Above 100000 litres and upto 200000 litres Above 200000 litres and upto 500000 litres Above 500000 litres and upto 1000000 litres Above 1000000 litres Rate for 1998-99 10.60 Office of the Principal Accountant General (Civil Audit) Chennai .No.0 lakh litres 12 m staging Rate per 1998-99 Per litre 11.20 per lit.85 per lit.30 4. Unit cost at 1998-99 rate for Ground Level Service Reservoirs (sump) (including pipe connections) S.5 lakh litres 12 m staging 2.Handbook on Works Audit -Water supply 87 ANNEXURE III Unit cost 1.20 per lit. 5. 2. 4.30 5.40 8.85 per lit 2.70 9.40 per lit. 3.90 7. Unit cost as per 1998-99 rates for RCC elevated Service Reservoirs (including pipe connections) S.60 6.5 m staging 50000 litres 12 m staging 60000 litres 7.60 7.60 5.75 per lit 2.5 m staging 60000 litres 12 m staging 1 lakh litres 7.40 6. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Description of work 10000 litres 6 m staging 15000 litres 6 m staging 30000 litres 6 m staging 30000 litres 12 m staging 50000 litres 7.40 per lit. 7.80 per lit.00 5.90 6.

Unit cost at 1998-99.50 3.Handbook on Works Audit -Water supply 13 14 15 16 17 Above 2 to 5 lakh litres 12 m staging Above 5 to 10 lakh litres 12 m staging Above 10 to 15 lakh litres 12 m staging Above 15 to 20 lakh litres 12 m staging Above 20 lakh litres 12 m staging 4.30 1. BHP 1 to 2 BHP 3 to 5 BHP 6 to 10 BHP 11 to 15 BHP 16 to 35 BHP 36 to 50 BHP 51 to 100 Turbine pumpsets above 100 HP Centrifugal pumpsets above 100 HP 12650 10350 8625 7475 6325 5750 5175 13800 11500 Rate per 199899 per HP Office of the Principal Accountant General (Civil Audit) Chennai .rate for Treatment works Sl.85 3.55 1. Unit cost at 1998-99 rate for pipe including anchoring arrangements Pumping Plants S.90 1. No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Upto 2 mld Above 2 mld and upto 5 mld Above 5 mld and upto 10 mld Above 10 mld and upto 20 mld Above 20 mld and upto 50 mld Above 50 mld and upto 100 mld Above 100 mld and upto 150 mld Above 150 mld and upto 200 mld Above 200 mld Description of work Rate per 199899 per litre 5. I Description of Work Pumpsets including cost of pipes. etc.45 0.90 4.40 88 3.45 3.72 4.75 1.85 3.65 1. pipe connection works transformer.20 3.No.

centrifugal and turbine pumpsets) 1 to 2 HP 6 to 10 HP 11 to 15 HP 16 to 35 HP 36 to 50 HP 51 to 100 HP above 100 HP 4025 3800 3450 3400 3275 3225 3100 Office of the Principal Accountant General (Civil Audit) Chennai .Handbook on Works Audit -Water supply 89 II Standby Pumpsets (Rate for only pumpsets for jet.

30 1.511 1.20 1.00 1.000 0.536 Discharge Factor : 0. For instance if the head loss due to friction is 1m over a distance of (ie length of pumping main) 1000 m it is expressed as 1/1000 or 1 over 1000.615 0.80 1. taking the Hazen – Williams Coefficient ‘C’ as 100 Adopt the appropriate Value for C particular pipe material. The head loss factor and discharge factor for various values of ‘C’ are as follows : value of ‘C’: 80 100 120 130 140 Head Loss Factor : 1.713 0. This pressure loss due to friction is termed as ‘head loss’ and normally expressed as head loss as 1 m over a distance.Handbook on Works Audit -Water supply ANNEXURE IV 90 Discharge in pipes flowing full (Discharge in liters per minute ( diameter in millimeter) grade 1 over 80 10 15 25 35 50 75 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1250 1500 1750 2000 2500 3000 Note : 1) 628 505 383 319 263 212 181 146 125 111 100 92 86 76 69 63 59 55 52 42 36 29 100 125 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 2031 3280 907 1631 2635 5616 10100 689 1238 2000 4263 7687 574 1032 1667 3555 6393 474 851 1375 2932 5272 381 684 1105 2355 4236 326 586 946 2017 3626 262 470 760 1620 2914 224 403 651 1387 2495 199 357 577 1229 2211 180 324 523 1114 2004 166 298 481 1025 1844 154 277 448 954 1716 137 246 397 846 1521 124 223 360 766 1378 114 205 331 705 1268 106 191 308 656 1180 100 179 289 616 1108 94 169 273 582 1046 242 515 927 75 136 219 467 840 202 430 773 65 116 188 400 719 166 355 638 52 93 151 321 578 12390 10330 8517 6842 5859 4707 4030 3572 3238 2979 2771 2457 2226 2048 1905 1788 1690 1498 1357 1249 1162 1030 934 15490 12779 10260 8786 7058 6043 5357 4835 4467 4157 3684 3339 3072 2859 2682 2534 2247 2035 1874 1743 1545 1404 22010 18150 14580 12480 10030 8588 7612 6900 6348 5906 5235 4744 4365 4061 3812 3600 3193 2893 2662 2477 2196 1990 29980 24730 19860 17010 13670 11700 10370 9399 8648 8046 7132 6465 5947 5534 5193 4906 4349 3941 3626 3375 2990 2771 2) 3) This table is prepared using Hazen – Williams formula.40 Explanation: The initial pressure with which water is pumped in a pumping main would get reduced due to friction. Office of the Principal Accountant General (Civil Audit) Chennai .

700. 300.100. 150-50-500 .5 4 6 10 P3 6 5 PVC Pipe Cl.350. 2. 125.250.0 2. 65.150 250-50-500100-1200 80.5 4 RC Pipes 1988 IS:458- P2 4 Not less than 2/3 of the works test pressure maintained for the field test pressure are less.800 20 mm to 315 mm OD 10 15 20 25 P1 10 15 20 25 2 MPA 1. 500.125.100. 80.700.1000 1050 80.2.Handbook on Works Audit -Water supply 91 ANNEXURE V Hydrostatic test pressure OF Pipe S. 150-50-500 600. 600 80.750.1000 80.700.100.100.150. the period of test should be atleast 24 hours.150.600. 800. 900.5 2.5 4 6 10 5 8 12 20 Office of the Principal Accountant General (Civil Audit) Chennai . the test pressure being gradually raised at the rate of 1kg/cm2/min Maximum working pressure will be half the test pressure in each case For use on gravity mains only working pressure not to exceed two-thirds of test pressure For use in pumping mains working pressure not to exceed half the test pressure.400.No Pipe IS No Usual Dia in mm 3 80.750 800-100-1200 1500 Class 1 1 2 Spun Iron IS:1536-1989 3114-1985 4 LA A B Pipe & Test Pressure at works Kg/Cm2 =10m of water 5 35 35 35 Maximum working pressure at field kg/cm2 6 12 18 24 2 Cast Iron IS:1537-1976 Pipe A-dia(mm) Upto 600 600-1000 1000-1500 B-dia (mm) Upto 600 600-1000 1000-1500 20 15 10 25 20 15 3 AC Pressure Pipes IS:1952-2003 50. 250-50-500600.900.100.0 1.125 15050-500 600.100.800.700.

No.900. T = Specified thickness of the tube in mm.5 times design pressure 7 Prestressed concrete pipes IS 784-2001 80. In this revised publication. Office of the Principal Accountant General (Civil Audit) Chennai .Handbook on Works Audit -Water supply 92 6 Steel cylinder RC pipes IS 1916-1963 200-50-500. the normal working pressure shall be generally half of the work test pressure for pumping mains and two thirds for gravity mains 6.Hydraulic Pressure Test The IS 3589 : 1981 has been revised and a third revision was issued in IS 3589 : 2001.15050-500-1001200-200-1800 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 8 MS Tubes 1239 (part I) 1982 Electrically Welded steel pipes IS:35892001 9 6-100 6-150 6-150 200-2500 50 50 50 15 20 25 10 Ductile Iron IS:8329:2000 Pipe 80-2000 K7 K9 K10 Separately given Depending upon thickness of steel plate & tangible strength given separately As applicable to CI/DI pipe Note: 1. Normal working pressure excludes surge pressure 3. The sizes indicated against PVC pipes are outer diameter. S = Stress 60% of the specified minimum yield in Mpa.3. Normal working pressure plus surge pressure not to exceed field test pressure 4.125. S.4.7 & 9 are commonly used 2. Electrically welded steel pipes . 600 700.5. 1.100. RCC P. P = 2ST/D Where P = Hydraulic test pressure in Mpa D = Specified out side diameter of pipe in mm.1100. pipe shall be for use on gravity main only 5. number of changes had been made and one of the major change was in Hydraulic Pressure Test which is worked out by the following formula. Except for CI and Steel pipes. 1200-200-1800 1 2 3 4 5 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 Light Medium Heavy 1 2 3 5 10 15 20 25 1.

Handbook on Works Audit -Water supply 93 The maximum test pressure to be limited to 5 mpa where over applicable. the above formula may be adopted for working out the hydraulic test pressure for the specified steel grade used for manufacturing the steel pipe where as in the earlier code (VTL IS 3589:1981) the value of ‘S’ who considered as 40% of the yield stress in mpa. 330 410 450 The Hydraulic test pressure of different size of MS pipe adopted by TEAD board is worked out given below for ready reference. Hence the scheme designed from 2001. Steel grade Fc 330 Fc 410 Fc 450 Tensile strength in mpa. Office of the Principal Accountant General (Civil Audit) Chennai . Besides IS – 35891:2001 also prescribe 3 steel grade with different tensile strength as detailed below.

824 5.598 3.615 3.821 3.871 4.294 4.405 3.156 4.459 2.459 4.824 4.508 5.348 6.295 2.536 2.013 5.136 3.545 4.882 3.882 4.824 3.294 4.294 6.641 3.294 4.692 4.942 4.605 3.053 5.824 5.870 4.465 450 mpa 9 5.255 3.393 3.425 3.252 4.527 4.231 4.118 3.297 5.716 3.882 2.766 4.515 3.337 3.864 3.138 4.803 Sl.536 4. No Outer Specified diameter of thickness the pipe in in mm (t) mm (D) 2 460 462 510 512 560 562 612 614 712 714 764 766 814 816 864 866 916 920 1016 1020 1066 1070 1116 1120 1166 1170 1216 1220 1270 1272 1320 1322 1370 1374 1420 3 5 6 5 6 5 6 6 7 6 7 7 8 7 8 7 8 8 10 8 10 8 10 8 10 8 10 8 10 10 11 10 11 10 12 10 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 198 Mpa 246 Mpa 270 Mpa Office of the Principal Accountant General (Civil Audit) Chennai .727 4.882 3.253 4.705 4.988 4.Handbook on Works Audit -Water supply 94 Stressing Mpa (60% of minimum tensible strength (S) for Steel of minimum strength of different grade say 330 410 450 mpa mpa mpa 4 5 6 Hydraulic test pressure in Mpa P = 2st/D For steel of minimum tensile strength of 330 mpa 7 4.094 3.609 4.882 4.948 5.376 4.839 3.143 3.716 5.252 5.701 2.000 3.146 4.821 5.237 4.891 3.375 4.644 5.640 4.304 5.670 4.228 3.118 3.304 3.493 3.246 3.328 4.551 5.553 4.986 4.870 7.091 4.205 3.033 3.294 6.717 3.390 4.208 3.426 4.047 3. 789 410 mpa 8 5.874 4.591 4.765 5.628 4.385 2.393 5.972 3.297 3.874 4.348 3.658 3.

6 4.6 9.8 .8 .118 4.75 1.6 9.673 4.8 .0 3.7 7.2 4.7 7.4 6.2 4.4 3.0 K10 1 Mpa 1 Kg/cm2 = = 10.0 2.1 4.8 .8 .8 7.2 3.6 3.8 .6 4.1 4.6 9.1 3.7 2.8 .6 3.8 .7 3.1 4.6 7.7 7.3 4.0 3.8 .8 .1 4.3 3.8 .9 2.75 1.8 4.7 2.75 1.3 3.2 6.4 5.8 4.347 4.6 9.5 3.2 5.8 .6 2.337 2.9 5.4 6.4 6.75 1.4 5.396 3.8 .8 3.8 .9 5.5 4.005 3.4 6.75 1.8 4.75 1.224 2.237 3.4 6.75 1.3 5.8 .75 1.1 4.6 9.9 4.874 4.551 3.7 3.75 1.6 5.6 9.8 .1 3.5 5.6 6.8 2.Handbook on Works Audit -Water supply 36 37 38 39 40 1424 1470 1474 1520 1524 12 10 12 10 12 3.1 pressure Allowable maximum test pressure K10 K7 1.75 1.8 .3 4.7 3.7 4.8 .75 1.3 5.2 4.0 6.1 4.605 3.6 4.2 3.4 4.75 1.8 .7 7.8 6.4 3.3 4.146 3.8 .8 .1 3.253 95 Ductile Iron Pipe ( IS 8329:2000) ( In mpa pressure head) Size pipe mm 80 100 125 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 600 700 750 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1400 1500 1600 1800 2000 of Allowable operating in excluding surge K7 .7 1.694 3.8 .75 1.8 3.8 2.75 1.4 4.9 5.4 5.9 3.6 K9 7.1 4.75 1.2 Kg / cm2 10m pressure head Office of the Principal Accountant General (Civil Audit) Chennai .75 1.7 3.75 1.9 3.9 7.75 1.8 5.553 4.75 1.8 3.75 1.2 3.6 K9 9.75 1.6 9.6 7.75 9.8 .3 4.75 1.9 4.

7813 0.0 5.0 2.0 7.1161 1. Inside diameter of steel cylinder ( Dyi) in mm factory test pressure.2058 1.6083 96 Office of the Principal Accountant General (Civil Audit) Chennai . working pressure for difference size of pipe is given below Nominal Internal Diameter of Pipe 250 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 t min Minimum wall thickness 40 40 40 45 45 45 45 45 45 50 50 50 50 50 50 t i min Minimum thickness of the cement mortar lining 15 15 15 20 20 20 20 20 20 22 22 22 22 22 22 Minimu m Cylinder Thickne ss 1.0 8.75 times the specified minimum yield stress of the steel used.9973 0.0 8.1719 1.6 1.6649 0.0 2.8741 0.0 5.2121 0.6925 0.3953 1.9124 Working pressure N/mm2 1.0 5.6758 0.7407 0.4286 1.0 7.31 of IS 15155: 2002 Nominal Internal Diameter.7440 0.0 7.0 5. which shall be 0. or as specified by the purchase.0 Inside diameter of steel cylinder (Dyi) 280 330 430 540 640 740 840 940 1040 1144 1244 1344 1444 1544 1644 Factory test pressure N/mm2 2.6010 0.Handbook on Works Audit -Water supply Hydrostatic test for Bar Wrapped Steel Cylinder (BWSC) pipe (IS 15155:2002) The hydrostatic pressure is determined by the following formula: 2Sty P= D yi Where.0 8.0 8.0 4.8039 0.3112 1.6 1.0 5.1429 1. and D y i = Inside diameter of steel cylinder in mm.0 5.9302 0.9014 1.0 Minimum Thickness of Joint Rings 5. Note: Normally the specified minimum yield stress of steel used for BWSC pipe Fe = 250 N/mm2 The Hydrostatic test provision is worked our adopting minimum yield stress of steel Fe = 250 N/mm2 Factory test pressure = 75% of the minimum yield strength of steel used in the cylinder or stress not exceed 187 N/mm2 Site test pressure = 66% of the minimum yield strength of steel used in the cylinder or stress not exceed 165 N/mm2 Working pressure = 50% of the minimum yield strength of steel used in the cylinder or stress not excess 125 N/mm2 Clause 7.6 2.0 4.0 4.1111 1.6477 0.5 4.9715 0.8929 0.0388 0.0 4.0 4.0 2.0 5.0135 0. ty = Cylinder thickness in mm.5 2.6 1. P = Minimum hydrostatic test pressure in N/mm2 S = Stress in pipe wall during hydrostatic test in N/mm2. Minimum wall thickness (t min) and Minimum thickness of the Cement Mortar Lining (t i min) .5952 0.8182 1.

Handbook on Works Audit -Water supply 97 Note:. Office of the Principal Accountant General (Civil Audit) Chennai .(1) N/mm = mpa.2 = Kg/cm 2 2 2 (2) Pipe with internal diameters other than those mentioned in this table and pipes for working pressure higher than 28 Kg/ Cm2 can be supplied by mutual agreement between the purchaser and the manufacturer. N/mm x 10.

Table III Horse power Size Mm Intermediate stage Oty Head BHP* 1pm m Ultimate stage Qty Head BHP* 1Pm m * BHP (For 50% Qty . Eq.Cost 5 6 7 8 Col. I Frictional loss Size distance mm* m intermediate stage Qty.3 and 0.8 = Col.06 Table IV-cost of pump sets Size mm 1 Intermediate stage Ultimate stage Total Cost 9 (4+8) BHP Rate/ HP Amt 2 3 4 BHP Rate/ HP Amt. Total Ultimate stage Frictional Other. whichever is higher. to lifted in 1pm X total head in m x 2 Efficiency) = 60 X 76. Grade frictional 1pm Loss • The initial choice of pipe size is with reference to the velocity range normally between 0.6m/sec • Table II Total head Size mm Total Loss Losses Head Loss Losses Head Static Lift * m Intermediate stage Frictional Other.7x Equivalent cost factor (for 15 years at the prevailing rate of interest) Office of the Principal Accountant General (Civil Audit) Chennai .Handbook on Works Audit -Water supply ANNEXURE VI Economic Calculation of Pumping Main Table . * Static head is the difference in level between foot value level of pumping installation at Head works and hydraulic level at reservoir at 2m above the maximum water level of reservoir or maximum ridge in the pumping main alignment. Grade frictional 1pm Loss 98 Ultimate stage Qty.

for example : if the working hours or pumping hours is 16 Present population 16 + ------------------------. HT Supply shall be availed when connected load as per table III is 75 HP and above and LT supply shall be availed when connected load as per table III is less than 75 HP Average working hours at ultimate stage 3. The head loss due to friction in pipe line is calculated by referring to velocity discharge table or using the following formula Frictional loss per m length of pipe as per Hazen Williams formula . the average working hours should be taken into account. Note : 1 In calculating the electrical energy.Cost 5 6 7 8 11 (5+10) * ÷ Capitalized cost = Cost ÷ annuity factor for 15 years .87 Where .13 x 109 Q1.85 C1.85 d4.x 16 Ultimate population -------------------------------------------2 2. Office of the Principal Accountant General (Civil Audit) Chennai .x 16 Intermediate.Handbook on Works Audit -Water supply 99 Table V Electrical Energy Size mm 1 Intermediate stage BHP Units Cost Capitalized* 2 3 4 Ultimate stage Total Cost BHP Units Cost Capitalized*Eq.hf = frictional loss inm Q = discharge in m3/hr .hf = 1. Equivalent = capitalized cost X Equivalence factor for 15 years. Size of main mm Length of main m Cost of Pumping Main Rate Rs/m Amount Rs.d= diameter of pipe in mm c = Hazen-William Co-efficient of smoothness Table VI. Population ------------------------------------------2 Average working hours during intermediate stage Intermediate Population 16 + -----------------------------.

Where as the size. NOTE: 1. Cost of Installation and Maintenance Size of Main mm Total cost of installation (from Table VII) 1 2 Cost of electrical energy (Total cost From Table V) 3 Total cost of installation and maintenance 4 (2+3) The size corresponding to minimum cost from the Table VIII is the most economical size of the pumping main.Handbook on Works Audit -Water supply Table VII. the size and class and type of pipe is used to inflate by them. While choosing the pipe. The software package now being used in TWAD Board prescribed for total head required at each reaches of the pipeline. class and type of pipe of is adopted for the particular discharge and slope manually. Size of main mm Cost of pumping main (Amount from Table VI) 1 2 Cost of Installation Cost of pumpset (Total Cost) from Table IV) 3 4 (2+3) Total Cost of installation 100 Table VIII. Now the Economic calculation of Pumping /Conveying/gravity main is designed using computer software 2. This could be examined with discharge table for CI Pipe using C value 100 is given in AnnexureIV Office of the Principal Accountant General (Civil Audit) Chennai .

85 600 1.770 0.05 200 0.80 1.193 1.85 1.765 0.235 1.30 700 1.628 1.45 80 0.75 1.08 1.45 400 0.45 375 0.05 125 0.780 0.79 0.777 0.452 0.20 2.55 450 1.178 0.098 0.75 1.763 0.896 0.05 80 0.20 300 0.178 0.532 0.182 1.48 0.75 1.10 2.79 0.40 1.79 0.80 1.10 250 0.Handbook on Works Audit -Water supply ANNEXURE VII Earth work calculation for pipe laying.144 0.06 0.79 0.771 0.605 1.26 0.10 225 0.10 250 0.40 1.05 150 0.25 2.75 1.989 1.658 0.80 1.30 750 1.85 600 1.05 125 0.332 2.532 0.20 2.841 0.05 175 0.340 0.170 0.05 100 0.96 1.88 0.251 1.55 450 1.90 1.00 1.80 1.31 1.85 525 1.00 1.79 0.738 0.502 0.779 Office of the Principal Accountant General (Civil Audit) Chennai .775 0.997 1.80 1.00 1.79 0.88 0.118 0.20 300 0.378 0.80 1.26 2.519 1.573 0.85 2.31 1.70 500 1.938 2.00 1.841 0.378 0.76 2.738 0.559 0.70 500 1.75 1.00 1.05 Outer dia Earth of the pipe work quantity Refilling quantity 101 CI CI CI CI CI CI CI CI CI CI CI CI CI CI CI CI CI CI CI ACCL15 ACCL15 ACCL15 ACCL15 ACCL15 ACCL15 ACCL15 ACCL15 ACCL15 ACCL15 ACCL15 ACCL15 ACCL15 ACCL10 0.85 2.915 0.104 0.235 0.31 1.70 1.76 3.75 1.45 400 0.502 1.75 1.05 200 0.274 0.901 0.635 0.170 0.75 1.75 1.75 1.765 0.396 0.104 0.96 1.326 0.05 175 0.90 1.124 0.779 0.35 350 0. Earth work excavation for pipe line works on linear measurement basis (TWAD Board Schedule of Rate) Type Dia in mm Width of Depth of trench at bottom of bottom in pipe m below GL in m 80 0.286 0.90 1.05 675 1.05 100 0.151 0.70 1.79 0.332 2.05 150 0.763 0.90 1.429 0.90 1.08 1.35 350 0.193 1.79 0.628 1.10 2.79 0.222 0.88 0.790 0.79 0.75 1.837 0.79 0.80 1.222 0.

10 1.772 0.60 0.75 0.614 0.786 0.25 1.75 1.627 0.63 0.80 0.515 1.11 0.40 1.90 0.45 1.05 1.05 0.554 1.770 0.Handbook on Works Audit -Water supply ACCL10 ACCL10 ACCL10 ACCL10 ACCL10 ACCL10 ACCL10 ACCL10 ACCL10 ACCL10 ACCL10 ACCL10 PVC PVC PVC PVC PVC PVC PVC PVC PSC PSC PSC PSC PSC PSC PSC PSC PSC GI GI GI GI GI GI GI GI GI GI GI 100 125 150 175 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 600 40 50 63 75 90 110 125 140 350 400 450 500 600 700 800 900 1000 15 20 25 32 40 50 65 80 100 125 150 0.03 0.50 0.09 0.149 0.788 0.618 0.75 0.621 0.787 0.79 0.05 0.164 0.175 0.227 2.30 2.541 0.79 0.333 0.986 0.80 0.626 0.788 0.55 1.925 0.40 1.05 1.63 1.464 0.08 1.05 1.88 0.00 1.125 0.763 0.00 1.05 1.90 1.05 1.09 0.229 0.175 0.486 0.628 0.785 0.778 0.60 0.993 1.788 0.85 2.60 0.788 0.70 1.824 0.450 1.63 0.05 1.60 0.96 1.70 1.63 0.05 1.788 0.188 1.45 2.70 1.75 0.05 1.20 1.76 3.75 0.514 0.07 0.389 0.788 0.787 0.788 0.05 1.624 0.615 1.186 1.11 0.786 0.767 102 Office of the Principal Accountant General (Civil Audit) Chennai .788 0.63 0.05 1.06 0.16 0.85 2.90 0.60 0.10 1.75 0.60 0.75 0.60 2.075 0.05 1.35 1.05 1.05 1.04 0.763 0.64 4.75 0.620 1.05 1.05 1.80 0.85 2.281 0.436 0.26 2.724 0.26 0.14 0.04 0.839 0.05 1.05 1.05 0.05 1.136 1.75 0.00 1.063 0.648 0.70 1.90 1.70 1.75 0.60 0.63 0.05 1.02 0.05 0.378 2.79 0.40 1.14 0.75 0.63 0.844 2.898 0.054 1.75 0.787 0.05 1.75 0.784 0.05 1.10 0.788 0.63 0.55 1.31 1.85 2.05 2.629 0.05 1.45 1.05 1.79 0.75 0.564 0.788 0.31 1.781 0.788 0.00 1.03 0.75 0.768 2.06 3.124 0.20 1.246 1.775 0.60 0.934 1.

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