Internal

OTA105105 OptiX OSN series Networking and Application
ISSUE 1.30
www.huawei.com

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Upon completion this course, you will be able to:  Outline network topology structures.

 Illustrate basic SDH network elements.
 Describe the survivable network and protection mechanisms.

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References
 OptiX OSN series Networking and

Application Technical Manual.
 ITU-T Recommendation G.841 (Oct, 1998)

Types and characteristics of SDH network protection architectures.
 ITU-T Recommendation G.810 (Aug, 1996)

Definitions and terminology for
synchronization networks ITU-T Recommendation G.803.
 ITU-T Recommendation G.803 (Aug, 2003)

Architecture of transport networks based on
the synchronous digital hierarchy (SDH).

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Chapter 1 Network Topology Structures
Chapter 2 Common Network Elements

Chapter 3 Survivable Network and
Protection Mechanisms

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Introduction
 An SDH network consists of Network

Elements (NE) interconnected with optical fiber. The geometrical layout of NEs and transmission lines is called the network topology.
 The efficiency, reliability and the cost

performance of the network highly depend on its topology.

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Network Topology Structures
Classification of Topology Structures
 Chain Network  Star Network  Tree Network  Ring Network  Mesh Network

Note: Chain network, ring network and mesh network
are normally used.

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Chain Network
In chain network, all nodes are connected one after another on a line with both ends open.

A

B

C

D

E

Chain network is used when the networks nodes are arranged in a long line, e. g. along railway lines, highways, power supply lines, etc.

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Star Network
In star network there is a central node to which the other nodes are directly connected. There are no direct links between other nodes.

B A C

F

E

D
Star network is mainly used in access networks or rural telephone networks in which nodes are scattered here and there and the services are not important.
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Tree Network
A tree network can be considered as a combination of the chain and the star topologies.

A

B

C

D

E

Tree network is suitable for broadcast services.
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Ring Network
Ring network is such structure in which all nodes are connected one after another to form a circle.

A

B

E

C

D

Ring network is widely used in SDH networking due to its high survivability.
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Mesh Network
Mesh network is such a structure in which many nodes are interconnected together via direct links.

A

B

E

C

D

Mesh network is suitable for the regions with large amount of traffic and for high hierarchy communication networks.
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Sub-Network
In backbone networks or large region networks, there are a large number of NEs and links. In order to simplify the network management, a large network can be divided into several sub-networks according to the administrative regions.

A sub-network functions as a container. It can include NEs, links and even the lower level sub-networks.

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Sub-Network
NE

NE NE
NE NE NE Subnet NE NE

Sub-network A

Sub-network B

NE NE NE NE
Page 12

NE

NE

NE

Sub-network D

Sub-network C

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Summary

Network topology structures can be classified into five basic categories:      Chain Network Star Network Tree Network Ring Network Mesh Network

Sub-Network plays an important role when managing large networks.

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Chapter 1 Network Topology Structures
Chapter 2 Common Network Elements

Chapter 3 Survivable Network and
Protection Mechanisms

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Common Network Elements
 Terminal Multiplexer (TM)  Add/Drop Multiplexer (ADM)  Multiple ADD/Drop Multiplexer (MADM)  Regenerator (REG)

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TM

STM1/4/16/64

Low-rate SDH signal PDH signal. etc.

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TM
 Applications:

 Point-to-Point Network  Chain Network  Ring-Chain Combination
TM

TM

TM

ADM

TM

ADM
TM

ADM ADM
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ADM

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TM
 Configure a TM:

 Tributary Unit : 2M PD1: slot 7
SLOT 14

 Line Unit : STM-16 SL16: slot 12
Slot 20

SLOT 15 D75S
SLOT 16 SLOT 17 SLOT 11

SLOT 18

PIU PIU

SLOT 19

SLOT 6 SLOT 7

SLOT 12 SL16 FAN
SLOT 4 SLOT 5 SLOT 13

PD1

SLOT 8 SLOT 9 SLOT 10 AUX

CXL1/4, CXL16 CXL1/4, CXL16

OSN 1500B
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TM
 Configure a TM:

 Tributary Unit : 2M  PL1: slot 6, 7  Line Unit : STM-16  SL16: slot 12
SLOT 1 PIU SLOT 12 SLOT 20 SLOT 11 PIU SLOT 6 SLOT 7

PL1 PL1

SL16

FAN
SLOT 4 SLOT 5

SLOT 13

SLOT 8 SLOT 9 SLOT 10 AUX

CXL1/4, CXL16 CXL1/4, CXL16

OSN 1500A
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TM
 Configure a TM:

 Tributary Unit : 2M PQ1: slot 6  Line Unit : STM-16 SL16: slot 8
S L O T 1 D 7 5 S S L O S S T L L 2 O O T T D 3 4 7 5 S S L O T 6 P Q 1 S L O T 8 S L 1 6 S L O T 9 C X L 1 / 4 or 16 S L O T 10 C X L 1 / 4 or 16

S L O T 5

S L O T 7

S L O T 11

S L O T 12

S L O T 13

S L O T 14

S A P

S L O T 15

S L O T 16

S L O T 17

S L O T 18

Fiber routing panel SLOT 22 PIU SLOT 23 FAN SLOT 24 FAN SLOT 25 PIU

OSN 2500
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TM
 Configure a TM:

S L O T 1 9

 Tributary Unit : 2M PQ1: slot 2

D 7 5 5 S S

S L O T S S 2 L L 0 O O T T D 2 2 7 1 2

S S L L O O T T 2 2 3 4

S L O T 2 5

S L O T 2 6

S L O T 2 7

S L O T 2 8

 Line Unit : STM-64
FAN

P I U

P I U FAN

S L O T 2 9

S S S L L L O O O T T T 3 3 3 0 1 2

S S L L O O T T 3 3 3 4

S S L L O O T T 3 3 5 6

S L O T 3 7

A U X

FAN

SL64: slot 8
S L O T 1 S L O T 2 S L O T 3 S L O T 4 S L O T 5 S L O T 6 S L O T 7 S L O T 8 S L O T 9 S L O T 1 0 S L O T 1 1 S L O T 1 2 S L O T 1 3 S L O T 1 4 S L O T 1 5 S L O T 1 6 S L O T 1 7 S L O T 1 8

P Q 1

S L 6 4

X C S

X C S

S C C

S C C

Fiber Routing

OSN 3500
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TM
 Configure a TM:

S L O T 1 9

S L O T 2 0

S L O T 2 1

S L O T 2 2

S S L L O O T T 2 2 3 4

S L O T 2 5

 Tributary Unit : 2M

S L O T 2 6

S L O T 2 7

S L O T 2 8

S L O T 2 9

S L O T 3 0

PQ1: slot 2
 Line Unit : STM-64 SL64: slot 8

D D 7 7 5 5 S S

S S C C C C A B Fiber routing

S SLOT S 32 L L O O T T 3 3 4 1 SLOT 33

S L O T 3 5

S L O T 3 6

S L O T 3 7

S L O T 3 8

EOW

PIUB

PIUA

AUX Fiber routing

Fiber routing

FAN
S L O T 1 S L O T 2 P Q 1 S L O T 3 S L O T 4 S L O T 5 S L O T 6 S L O T 7 S L O T 8

FAN
S L O T 9 X C S A S L O T 1 0 X C S B S L O T 1 1 S L O T 1 2 S L O T 1 3 S L O T 1 4

FAN
S L O T 1 5 S L O T 1 6 S L O T 1 7 S L O T 1 8

S L 6 4
Fiber routing

Fiber routing

OSN 7500
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ADM

STM-1/4/16/64

STM-1/4/16/64

Low-rate SDH signal PDH signal. etc.

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ADM
 Applications:

 Chain Network  Ring Network

TM

ADM

ADM

TM

ADM

ADM

ADM

ADM
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ADM
 Configure an ADM:

 Tributary Unit : 2M PD1: slot 7  Line Unit : STM-16 SL16: slot 12, 13
SLOT 14

SLOT 15 D75S
SLOT 16 SLOT 17 SLOT 11

SLOT 18

PIU PIU

SLOT 19

SLOT 6 SLOT 7

SLOT 12 SL16
Slot 20

PD1

FAN

SLOT 13 SL16
SLOT 4 SLOT 5

SLOT 8 SLOT 9 SLOT 10 AUX

CXL1/4, CXL16 CXL1/4, CXL16

OSN 1500B
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ADM
 Configure an ADM:

 Tributary Unit : 2M PL1: slot 6, 7  Line Unit : STM-16 SL16: slot 12, 13
SLOT 1 PIU SLOT 12 SLOT 20 SLOT 13 SLOT 4 SLOT 5 SLOT 11 PIU SLOT 6 SLOT 7

PL1 PL1

SL16 SL16

FAN

SLOT 8 SLOT 9 SLOT 10 AUX

CXL1/4, CXL16 CXL1/4, CXL16

OSN 1500A
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ADM
S L O T 9 C X L 1 / 4 or 16 S L O T 10 C X L 1 / 4 or 16

 Configure an ADM:

 Tributary Unit : 2M

S L O T 1 D 7 5 S

PQ1: slot 6
 Line Unit : STM-16 SL16: slot 8, 11

S L O S S T L L 2 O O T T D 3 4 7 5 S

S L O T 5

S L O T 6 P Q 1

S L O T 7

S L O T 8 S L 1 6

S L O T 11 S L 1 6

S L O T 12

S L O T 13

S L O T 14 S A P

S L O T 15

S L O T 16

S L O T 17

S L O T 18

Fiber routing panel SLOT 22 PIU SLOT 23 FAN SLOT 24 FAN SLOT 25 PIU

OSN 2500

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ADM
 Configure an ADM:

 Tributary Unit : 2M PQ1: slot 2  Line Unit : STM-64 SL64: slot 8, 11

S L O T 1 9

D 7 5 5 S S

S L O T S S 2 L L 0 O O T T D 2 2 7 1 2

S S L L O O T T 2 2 3 4

S L O T 2 5

S L O T 2 6

S L O T 2 7

S L O T 2 8

P I U

P I U FAN

S L O T 2 9

S S S L L L O O O T T T 3 3 3 0 1 2

S S L L O O T T 3 3 3 4

S S L L O O T T 3 3 5 6

S L O T 3 7

A U X

FAN

FAN

S L O T 1

S L O T 2

P Q 1

S L O T 3

S L O T 4

S L O T 5

S L O T 6

S L O T 7

S L O T 8

S L O T 9

S L 6 4

S L O T 1 0

S L O T 1 1

X C S

X C S

S L 6 4

S L O T 1 2

S L O T 1 3

S L O T 1 4

S L O T 1 5

S L O T 1 6

S L O T 1 7

S L O T 1 8

S C C

S C C

Fiber Routing

OSN 3500
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ADM
 Configure an ADM:

 Tributary Unit : 2M PQ1: slot 2  Line Unit : STM-64 SL64: slot 8, 11

S L O T 1 9

S L O T 2 0

S L O T 2 1

S L O T 2 2

S S L L O O T T 2 2 3 4

S L O T 2 5

S L O T 2 6

S L O T 2 7

S L O T 2 8

S L O T 2 9

S L O T 3 0

D D 7 7 5 5 S S

S S C C C C A B Fiber routing

S SLOT S 32 L L O O T T 3 3 4 1 SLOT 33

S L O T 3 5

S L O T 3 6

S L O T 3 7

S L O T 3 8

EOW

PIUB

PIUA

AUX Fiber routing

Fiber routing

FAN
S L O T 1 S L O T 2 P Q 1 S L O T 3 S L O T 4 S L O T 5 S L O T 6 S L O T 7 S L O T 8

FAN
S L O T 9 X C S A S L O T 1 0 X C S B S L O T 1 1 S L 6 4 S L O T 1 2 S L O T 1 3 S L O T 1 4

FAN
S L O T 1 5 S L O T 1 6 S L O T 1 7 S L O T 1 8

S L 6 4
Fiber routing

Fiber routing

OSN 7500
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MADM
MADM

ADM

ADM

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MADM
STM-1/4/16/64 STM-1/4/16/64

...
STM-1/4/16/64
STM-1/4/16/64

Low-rate SDH signal PDH signal. etc.

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MADM
 Configure a double ADM:

 Tributary Unit : 2M PD1: slot 7  Line Unit : STM-16 SL16: slot 4, 5, 12, 13
SLOT 14

SLOT 15 D75S
SLOT 16 SLOT 17 SLOT 11

SLOT 18

PIU PIU

SLOT 19

SLOT 6
SLOT 7

SLOT 12 SL16
Slot 20

PD1

FAN

SLOT 13 SL16
SLOT 4 SLOT 5

SLOT 8 SLOT 9 SLOT 10 AUX

CXL16 CXL16

OSN 1500B
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MADM
 Configure a double ADM:

 Tributary Unit : 2M PL1: slot 6, 7  Line Unit : STM-16 SL16: slot 4, 5, 12, 13
SLOT 1 PIU SLOT 12 SLOT 20 SLOT 13 SLOT 4 SLOT 5 SLOT 11 PIU SLOT 6 SLOT 7

PL1 PL1

SL16 SL16

FAN

SLOT 8 SLOT 9 SLOT 10 AUX

CXL16 CXL16

OSN 1500A
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MADM
 Configure a double ADM:

 Tributary Unit : 2M PQ1: slot 6  Line Unit : STM-16 SL16: slot 8, 9, 10, 11
S L O T 1 D 7 5 S S L O S S T L L 2 O O T T D 3 4 7 5 S S L O T 5 S L O T 6 P Q 1 S L O T 7 S L O T 8 S L 1 6 S L O T 9 C X L 16 S L O T 10 C X L 16 S L O T 11 S L 1 6 S L O T 12 S L O T 13

S L O T 14
S A P

S L O T 15

S L O T 16

S L O T 17

S L O T 18

Fiber routing panel SLOT 22 PIU SLOT 23 FAN SLOT 24 FAN SLOT 25 PIU

OSN 2500
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MADM
 Configure a double

ADM:  Tributary Unit : 2M PQ1: slot 2  Line Unit : STM-64 SL64: slot 8, 11 slot 7, 12

S L O T 1 9

D 7 5 5 S S

S L O T S S 2 L L 0 O O T T D 2 2 7 1 2

S S L L O O T T 2 2 3 4

S L O T 2 5

S L O T 2 6

S L O T 2 7

S L O T 2 8

P I U

P I U FAN

S L O T 2 9

S S S L L L O O O T T T 3 3 3 0 1 2

S S L L O O T T 3 3 3 4

S S L L O O T T 3 3 5 6

S L O T 3 7

A U X

FAN

FAN

S L O T 1

S L O T 2

P Q 1

S L O T 3

S L O T 4

S L O T 5

S L O T 6

S L O T 7

S L O T 8

S L O T 9

S L 6 4

S L 6 4

S L O T 1 0

S L O T 1 1

S L O T 1 2

X C S

X C S

S L 6 4

S L 6 4

S L O T 1 3

S L O T 1 4

S L O T 1 5

S L O T 1 6

S L O T 1 7

S L O T 1 8

S C C

S C C

Fiber Routing

OSN 3500
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MADM
 Configure a double

ADM:  Tributary Unit : 2M PQ1: slot 2  Line Unit : STM-64

S L O T 1 9

S L O T 2 0

S L O T 2 1

S L O T 2 2

S S L L O O T T 2 2 3 4

S L O T 2 5

S L O T 2 6

S L O T 2 7

S L O T 2 8

S L O T 2 9

S L O T 3 0

D D 7 7 5 5 S S

S S C C C C A B Fiber routing

S SLOT S 32 L L O O T T 3 3 4 1 SLOT 33

S L O T 3 5

S L O T 3 6

S L O T 3 7

S L O T 3 8

EOW

PIUB

PIUA

AUX Fiber routing

Fiber routing

FAN
S L O T 1 S L O T 2 P Q 1 S L O T 3 S L O T 4 S L O T 5 S L O T 6 S L O T 7 S L O T 8

FAN
S L O T 9 X C S A S L O T 1 0 X C S B S L O T 1 1 S L 6 4 S L O T 1 2 S L 6 4 S L O T 1 3 S L O T 1 4

FAN
S L O T 1 5 S L O T 1 6 S L O T 1 7 S L O T 1 8

SL64: slot 8, 11
slot 7, 12

S S L L 6 6 4 4
Fiber routing

Fiber routing

OSN 7500
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REG

STM-1/4/16/64

STM-1/4/16/64

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REG
 Configure a REG:

 Line Unit : STM-64 SL64: slot 8, 11
S L O T 8 S L 6 4 S L O T 11 S L 6 4

S L O T 1

S L O T 2

S L O T 3

S L O T 4

S L O T 5

S L O T 6

S L O T 7

S L O T 9 C R G

S L O T 10 C R G

S L O T 12

S L O T 13

S L O T 14 S A P

S L O T 15

S L O T 16

S L O T 17

S L O T 18

SF64/16 SL64/16

Unused

Fiber routing panel SLOT 22 PIU SLOT 23 FAN SLOT 24 FAN SLOT 25 PIU

OSN 2500 Sub-rack
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Summary

There are four NE types for SDH network elements: TM, ADM, MADM and REG.

  

TM is used at the end stations. ADM is used at the intermediate stations. MADM is a multi-ADM NE, functioning as core

unit for constructing various networks.

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Chapter 1 Network Topology Structures
Chapter 2 Common Network Elements

Chapter 3 Survivable Network and
Protection Mechanisms

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What is a Survivable Network?
 A network that is capable of restoring services within a very

short period and without any human intervention in the event of a failure is called a survivable network.
 Requirements for survivability of network includes…

 Standby routes.  Powerful cross-connect capability.  Intelligence of Nodes.

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Classification of Protection Mechanism
Protection Mechanism of survivable network can be classified as follows:
 Linear Multiplex Section Protection

1+1 MSP 1:N MSP
 Protection Rings

Path Protection (PP) Ring * 2-fiber unidirectional PP Ring (Diverse Route)

2-fiber bidirectional PP Ring (Uniform Route)
Multiplex Section Protection (MSP) Ring 2-fiber unidirectional MSP Ring (2f_MS DPRing)

2-fiber bidirectional MSP Ring (2f_MS SPRing)
4-fiber bidirectional MSP Ring (4f_MS SPRing)
 Sub-Network Connection Protection (SNCP)
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Chapter 3 Survivable Network and Protection Mechanisms
3.1 Linear Protection 3.2 MSP Ring 3.3 Sub-Network Connection Protection (SNCP)

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Linear Protection System
Linear protection systems are the simplest among the protection mechanism and are mainly used in traditional systems.
Working Channel

A

B

C

D

Protection Channel

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1+1 Linear MSP System
In 1+1 linear MSP system, protection is realized via the “concurrent sending and selective receiving” function. Each side sends the service on both working and protection channels, but receives only from working channel. When the working channel fails, both sides switch to receive from the protection channel.

A

B

Switching
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1+1 Linear MSP System
 Switching modes of 1+1 linear MSP system:

 Unidirectional switching or Bidirectional switching  Revertible mode or Non-revertible mode
 Result:

 Unidirectional switching in revertible mode

 Unidirectional switching in non-revertible mode
 Bidirectional switching in revertible mode  Bidirectional switching in non-revertible mode
 APS protocol necessity:

 Unnecessary for unidirectional switching in non-revertible mode  Necessary for other modes
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1:N Linear MSP System
In 1:N linear MSP system, one protection channel protects the services on N working channels.
Switching

NE A

Switching

Switching

NE B

Switching

Protection Channel

Working Channel 1

Working Channel 2

Working Channel N
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1:N Linear MSP System
 Switching modes of 1:N linear MSP system:

 Bidirectional switching  Revertible mode
 APS protocol necessity:

 Necessary

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Linear Protection System
 Features:

 Based on TM (Terminal Multiplexer)  Switch within point and point  2 minutes later after configuration, APS protocol starts automatically

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Summary: Linear Protection System
 Protection switching criteria are SF and SD:

 SF (Signal Fail): R_LOS, R_LOF, MS_AIS, B2_EXC.  SD (Signal Degrade): B2_SD.
 APS Necessity:

 Except for unidirectional switching in non-revertible mode 1+1 MSP system, the others require the APS protocol.
 Network Capacity:

 1+1 linear MSP system: 1STM-N.  1:N linear MSP system without extra traffic: NSTM-N.  1:N linear MSP system with extra traffic: (1+N) STM-N.

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Questions
 Which protection switches fastest?  Which one can carry extra traffic?

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Chapter 3 Survivable Network and Protection Mechanisms
3.1 Linear Protection 3.2 MSP Ring 3.3 Sub-Network Connection Protection (SNCP)

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Protection Rings: Classification
Protection rings can be classified as follows:
 Based on traffic protection levels

Path Protection (PP) Ring *
Multiplex Section Protection (MSP) Ring

Sub-Network Connection Protection (SNCP)
 Based on traffic direction

Unidirectional protection ring Bidirectional protection ring  Based on the number of fibers Two-fiber protection ring Four-fiber protection ring
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Two-fiber Bidirectional MSP Ring (2f_MS SPRing)
 Fiber connection:

 Dual slots are necessary.  West is in the left dual slot,  East is in the right dual slot. W NE B E

NE A E W

E NE D W

out
W E NE C
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in

Two-fiber Bidirectional MSP Ring (2f_MS SPRing)
Half of each fiber (1~N/2 VC4) is defined as the working channel (S) and another half (N/2+1~N VC4) is defined as the protection channel (P).
Working channel (S): :#1VC4~#8VC4 S1 S2
NE A

Protection channel (P): #9VC4~#16VC4 P1 P2

NE B

2f_MS SPRing STM-16

NE D

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Two-fiber Bidirectional MSP Ring (2f_MS SPRing)
The profile view of one fiber for STM-16 2f_MS SPRing is shown below.

Working channel

Protection channel

VC-4 #1 VC-4 #2 VC-4 #3 VC-4 #4 VC-4 #5 VC-4 #6 VC-4 #7 VC-4 #8 VC-4 #9 VC-4 #10 VC-4 #11 VC-4 #12 VC-4 #13 VC-4 #14 VC-4 #15 VC-4 #16

Fiber

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Two-fiber Bidirectional MSP Ring (2f_MS SPRing)
Normal traffic flow between NE A and NE C:
S1

NE A

NE B

2f_MS SPRing STM-16
S2
NE C

NE D

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Two-fiber Bidirectional MSP Ring (2f_MS SPRing)
If the fibers between A and B are broken, the service between A and C will be switched to the protection channels.
P2

Bridging

NE A

P1

NE B

2f_MS SPRing STM-16
S2
NE C

NE D

S1

P2
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Two-fiber Bidirectional MSP Ring (2f_MS SPRing)
After the fibers between A and B are restored, the service will be normal 10 minutes later.
S1

NE A

NE B

2f_MS SPRing STM-16
S2
NE C

NE D

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Two-fiber Bidirectional MSP Ring (2f_MS SPRing)
 Protection switching trigger conditions:

 Automatic protection switching − SF (Signal Failure): R_LOS, R_LOF, MS_AIS, B2_EXC − SD (Signal Degrade): B2_SD  External initiated protection switching − Forced switch − Manual switch − Exercise switch  Protection switching restoration:  Automatic protection switching − Clear of SF (Signal Failure): R_LOS, R_LOF, MS_AIS, B2_EXC − Clear of SD (Signal Degrade): B2_SD − WTR (Wait to Restore): 10 minutes (5-12 minutes provisionable)  External commands − Clear of Forced switch − Clear of Manual switch
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Two-fiber Bidirectional MSP Ring (2f_MS SPRing)
 APS controller:

 Processes APS protocol and algorithm − APS protocol is carried in the K1, K2 bytes.
 Transition of APS controller status:

I = Idle
I I I I

P = Pass-through S = Switching WTR = Wait to Restore

S S P P WTR

WTR P P

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Two-fiber Bidirectional MSP Ring (2f_MS SPRing)
 Features of 2f_MS SPRing:

 Advantages: − Time slots can be reused − High network capacity: ½ x M x STM-N

 Disadvantages:
− Mechanism is complicated − Maximum number of nodes on one ring is limited to 16  Application: − Mainly for STM-4 and STM-16 or above systems − Scattered traffic distribution

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Four-fiber Bidirectional MSP Ring (4f_MS SPRing)
 Structure:

 Four fibers

 Working channels--S1,S2, carry normal traffic
 Protection channels--P1,P2, protect normal traffic

A

F

E
S1 S2 P1 P2

B
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D
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Four-fiber Bidirectional MSP Ring (4f_MS SPRing)
 Traffic flow when network is normal:

 Working channels=S1, S2  Protection channels=P1, P2

D->A

A->D

A

F

E
S1 S2 P1 P2

B
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D
D->A
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A->D

Four-fiber Bidirectional MSP Ring (4f_MS SPRing)
 Traffic flow after the working channel (s) is (are) broken only:

 Span switching D->A A->D

A

F

E
S1 S2 P1 P2

B

C

D
D->A A->D

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Four-fiber Bidirectional MSP Ring (4f_MS SPRing)
 Traffic flow after the working and protection channels are broken:

 Ring switching D->A A->D

A

F

E
S1 S2 P1 P2

B

C

D
D->A A->D

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Four-fiber Bidirectional MSP Ring (4f_MS SPRing)
 Protection switching trigger conditions:

 Automatic protection switching: Ring or Span − SF (Signal Failure): R_LOS, R_LOF, MS_AIS, B2_EXC − SD (Signal Degrade): B2_SD

 External initiated protection switching: Ring or Span
− Forced switch − Manual switch − Exercise switch

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Four-fiber Bidirectional MSP Ring (4f_MS SPRing)
 Protection switching restoration:

 Automatic protection switching: Ring or Span − Clear of SF (Signal Failure): R_LOS, R_LOF, MS_AIS, B2_EXC − Clear of SD (Signal Degrade): B2_SD − WTR (Wait to Restore): 10 minutes (5-12 minutes provisionable)  External command: Ring or Span − Clear of Forced switch

− Clear of Manual switch
 APS controller status:

 Idle  Switching

 Pass-through
 WTR
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Four-fiber Bidirectional MSP Ring (4f_MS SPRing)
 Features of 4f_MS SPRing:

 Advantages:
− Time slots can be reused − High network capacity: M*STM-N  Disadvantages: − Mechanism is complicated − Maximum number of nodes on one ring is limited to 16 − Expensive  Application: − Mainly STM-16 or above system − Scattered traffic distribution − Backbone system

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Summary: MSP Ring
MSP ring 2f_MS SPRing APS protocol necessary Nodes number on MSP ring ≤16 Similarity SCC unit configures MSP protocol 4f_MS SPRing

Dual slots
Bidirectional and dispersed services K*STM-N/2 capacity (without extra service) K*STM-N capacity (without extra service) Unique span switch K1&K2 in protection fiber

Difference

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Chapter 3 Survivable Network and Protection Mechanisms
3.1 Linear Protection 3.2 MSP Ring 3.3 Sub-Network Connection Protection (SNCP)

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Sub-Network Connection Protection (SNCP)
 Description:

 Protect one Sub-Network Connection

 Can be adapted to all networks
Sub-Network 1
SNC Starting Node

Working SNC

SNC Termination Node

NE A

Protection SNC Sub-Network 2

Selector

NE B

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Sub-Network Connection Protection (SNCP)
 Protection mechanism

Concurrent sending

2M
in out

 Concurrent sending (transmitting end)  Selective receiving (receiving end)
in out in

out

in

A
out
in

B
out

SNCP Ring

D
in out

Sub-Network 1

in out

C
out in

Sub-Network 2

STM-N

Selective receiving

2M
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Sub-Network Connection Protection (SNCP)
 Protection mechanism

Concurrent sending

 Concurrent sending (transmitting end)

2M
in out

out

in

 Selective receiving (receiving end)
out
in

A
out
in

B
in out

SNCP Ring

D
in out

Sub-Network 1

in out

C

out

Sub-Network 2

in

STM-N

Switching

Selective receiving

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2M

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Sub-Network Connection Protection (SNCP)
 Protection Restoration:

 Restoration time - 10 minutes (5-12 minutes provisionable)

S1

S1 P1

A D C

P1 B

A
D C

B

switching

10 minutes later
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Sub-Network Connection Protection (SNCP)
SNCP service
Working source

Detection point

Protection source

Service sink

 Protection switching trigger conditions

 Default − AU_AIS, AU_LOP, TU_AIS, TU_LOP, HP_LOM, HP_UNEQ B3_EXC, Unplug the line card  Optional

− HP_TIM, HP_SLM, B3_SD
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Summary
 A survivable network is capable of restoring services within a very short

time and without any human intervention in the event of a failure.
 Linear protection networks can be classified into 1+1 linear MSP system

and 1:N linear MSP system.
 Ring protection networks can be classified into Path Protection (PP) ring,

Multiplex Section Protection (MSP) ring, and Sub-Network Protection (SNCP).

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Summary
Item APS protocol Typical services Switch level (objective) Suitable networking Switching implementing boards Switch time Network Capacity (without extra service) 2f_MS SPRing necessary Bidirectional and distributed MS Only ring LU, XC ≤50ms unnecessary unidirectional and centralized SNC services All topology LU, XC ≤50ms SNCP

K*STM-N/2

STM-N

Extra traffic

Supported

Not supported

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Questions
 What is the difference between unidirectional ring and bidirectional

one?
 What’s the difference between SNCP and MSP?  Which protection network can carry extra traffic?

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