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ORACLE QUESTION BANK AND ANSWERS 1. What is RDBMS? What are different database models?

RDBMS : Relational Database Management System. In RDBMS the data is stored in the form of tables i.e. rows & columns. The different database models are 1. HDBMS = Hierarchical Database Management system. 2. NDBMs = Network Database Management System. 3. RDBMS = Relational Database Management System.
2. What is SQL?

SQL stands for Structured Query Language. SQL was derived from the Greek word called "SEQUEL". SQL is a non- procedural language that is written in simple English.
3. What is a transaction?

Transaction is a piece of logical unit of work done between two successive commits or commit and Rollback.
4. What is a commit ?

Commit is a transaction statement that make the changes permanent into the database.
5. What is a Rollback?

Rollback is a transaction statement that undoes all changes to a savepoint or since the beginning of the transaction.
6. What is DDL?

DDL - Data Definition Language. It is a set of statements that is used to define or alter the user_defined objects like tables, views, procedures, functions etc., present in a tablespace.
7. What is DML?

DML - Data Manipulation Language. It is a set of statements that is used for manipulation of data. Eg:-. Inserting a row into a table, delete a row from a table etc.
8. What is Locking?

The mechanism followed by the SQL to control concurrent operations on a table is called locking.
9. What is a Dead lock?

When two users attempt to perform actions that interfere with one another, this situation is defined as Deadlock. Eg:- If two users try to change both a foreign and its parent key value at the same time.
10. What is a Shared Lock?

The type of lock that permits other users to perform a query, but could not manipulate it, i.e. cannot perform any modification or insert or delete a data.
11. What is Exclusive Lock ?

The type of lock that permits users to query data but not change it and does not permits another user to have any type of lock on the same data. They are in effect until the end of the

transaction.
12. What is Share Row-Exclusive lock ?

Share Row Exclusive locks are used to look at a whole table and to allow others to look at rows in the table but to prohibit others from locking the table in Share mode or updating rows.
13. What are Group - Functions ?

The Functions that are used to get summary information about group or set of rows in a table. The group functions are also termed as aggregate functions. Following are the examples of aggregate functions : 1. AVG() - To find the average value 2. MIN() - To find the minimum value of the set of rows. 3. MAX() - To find the maximum value of the set of rows. 4. COUNT() - To find the total no of rows that has values. 5. SUM() - To find the summation of the data of a given column.
14. What is indexing ?

An index is an ordered list of the contents of a column or a group of columns of a table. By indexing a table, it reduces the time in performing queries, especially if the table is large.
15. What are clusters?

A Cluster is a schema object that contains one or more tables that have one or more columns in common. Rows of one or more tables that share the same value in these common columns are physically stored together within the database.
16. What is a View?

View is like a window through which you can view or change the information in table. A view is also termed as a 'virtual table'.
17. What is a Rowid?

For each row in the database, The ROWID pseudocolumn returns a row's address. ROWID values contain information necessary to locate a row: * which datablock in the data file * which row in the datablock (first row is 0) * which data file (first file is 1) Values of the Rowid pseudocolum have the datatype ROWID.
18. What is a PRIMARY KEY ? PRIMARY KEY CONSTRAINT:

1. Identified the columns or set of columns which uniquely identify each row of a table and ensures that no duplicate rows exist in the table. 2. Implicitly creates a unique index for the column(S) and specifies the column(s) as being NOT NULL. 3. The name of the index is the same as the constraint name. 4. Limited to one per table.
Eg:CREATE TABLE loans( account NUMBER(6), loan_number NUMBER(6), ...... CONSTRAINT loan_pk PRIMARY KEY

The following are the type of integrity * Entity integrity * Referential Integrity . CONSTRAINT borrower FOREIGN KEY (account) REFERENCES customer(account)). loan_number)).(account. What is a Unique constraint? UNIQUE CONSTRAINT : 1. A mechanism used by the RDBMS to prevent invalid data entry into the base tables of the database. 2. 3. 22. 3. 20. 21. What is a foreign key ? FOREIGN KEY CONSTRAINT : 1. Eg :1. 2. 19. enforcing the not null characteristic. Implicitly creates a unique index on the specified columns. Can not reference a remote table or synonym. What is the difference between a unique and primary key? The Primary key constraint is a constraint that takes care maintaining the uniqueness of the data. Can be in the same table as referenced primary key. Explicit reference to a PRIMARY KEY column CREATE TABLE accounts( account NUMBER(10) . Eg:CREATE TABLE loans( loan_number NUMBER(6) NOT NULL UNIQUE ). CONSTRAINT borrower FOREIGN KEY (account) REFERENCES customer). No limit to the number of foreign keys. the value in the foreign key matches a value in the primary key or is null. Enforces referential integrity constraint which requires that for each row of a table. Defined on tables so conditions remain true regardless of method of data entry or type of transactions. Implicit reference to a PRIMARY KEY column CREATE TABLE accounts( account NUMBER(10). 2. Index name is the given constraint name. 2. 4. What is data integrity ? what are the types of integrity? 1. Ensures that no two rows of a table have duplicate values in the specified columns(s). The Unique key constraint maintains only the uniqueness of the data and does not enforce the not null characteristic to the data column. creates a self-index.

26. Oracle compares Char values using the blank-padded comparison semantics. • Where a value is not meaningful. What is VARCHAR2? How is it different from CHAR? The Varchar2 datatype specifies a variable length character string. Oracle Subsequently stores each values in the column exactly as you specify. you can supply the maximum number of bytes of data that it can hold. Record Datatype 25. When you create a varchar2 column. 29. What is datatype mixing? 27. Oracle returns an error. Composite Datatypes Internal Datatypes 1. * Foreign key * Update Delete restrict action * Delete Cascade action 24. The Char datatype length is 1byte. Date Datatype 3. What are pseudo-columns in ORACLE? The columns that are not part of the table are called as pseudocolumns . A Null can arise in the following situation • Where a value is unknown. Raw and Long Raw datatypes 4. Character Datatype 2. What is NULL? A data field without any value in it is called a null value.* General Business rules 23. Oracle blank-pads the value to the column length. 28. What are different datatypes? The following are the different datatypes available in Oracle 1. Table Datatype 2. What is a sequence? A sequence is a database object from which multiple users may generate unique integers. The maximum size of the Char datatype is 255. Internal Datatypes 2. What is a Referential Integrity ? Enforces master/detail relationship between tables based on keys. If you insert a value that is shorter than the column length. If you try to insert a value that exceeds this length. Rowid Datatype Composite Datatypes 1.

Function Name 1. Removes the spaces towards the left of the string. Returns m raised to the n power. 32. What are Conversion Functions? The functions used to convert a value from one datatype to another are being termed as conversion functions. Returns characters with all the letters forced to lower case. sqrt(x) 7. Function Name 1. Mod(m. trunc(n. Returns n rounded to m places right of a decimal point. Returns the remainder of m divided by n. lower(n) Purpose Returns the character having an ascii value. 4. 31. returns the sqrt value of x. initcap(n) 3. Chr(n) 2. What are single row character functions? The function that process a value of data which is of character datatype and returns a character datatype after every row is being processed are termed as single row character functions.30. round(n) 6. What is Like operator? How is it different from IN operator? The type of operator that is used in character string comparisons with pattern matching.n) 5. ABS(n) 2. power(m. Floor(n) 3.n) 4.m) Purpose Returns the absolute value of a number Returns the largest integer value equal or less than n. Like operator is used to match a portion of the one character string to another whereas IN operator performs equality condition between two strings. . What are Single Row number Functions? The type of function that will return value after every row is being processed. Returns character with first letter of each argument in UPPERCASE. Following are some of the row number functions. Returns n truncated to m decimal places. ltrim(n) 33.

n can be positive or negative. For instance: from DEC 8 bit multi-lingual characters to HP 8 bit multi-lingual character set. 34. Converts a character value into a number.b) New_time function returns date and time in a time zone b and time in time zone .a.e) 35. What are Date functions? Functions that operate on Oracle Dates are termed as Date functions.PDT YST. Converts rowid values to character datatype. All date functions return a value of date datatype except the function months_between returns a numeric value. Convert function converts two different implementations of the same character set . What is Convert function? Description Atlantic Stand or daylight time Berning stand or daylight time Greenwich Mean time. Following are the some of the character expressions: Character expression AST BST. Returns the date of the last day of the month containing the date 'd'.(fmt)) To_number(n) rowidtochar(n) Purpose Converts a value of number datatype to a value of character datatype. Returns date of first day of week named after char that is later than d.char) MONTHS_BETWEEN(d. . n must be an integer. Function ADD_MONTHS(d.Function Name To_char(n.n) Purpose Returns the date 'd' plus n months. Yukon standard or daylight time. the result of this conversion is always 18 character long. a and b are character expressions.BDT GMT PST. char must be a valid day of the week. Pacific standard time. LAST_DAY(d) NEXT_DAY(d.YDT 36. What is NEW_TIME function? SYNTAX : new_time(d. returns no of months between dates d & e.

[default]).[search2. What is ASCII Function? The Ascii function returns the collating sequence of the first character of l char. What is a soundex function? Soundex is a functions that returns a character string representing the sound of the words in char. Format models do not affect the actual internal representation of the .result1.floor(n). 45. Eg:. If the replacement string is not supplied. On EBCDIC systems. all other letters in lowercase. What is Greatest Function? The Greatest function returns the greatest of a list of values.[source]) 37. the ASCII function will return EBCDIC collating sequence values. 39. All expr after the first are converted to the datatype of the first before comparison is done. 44.HP's Western European 8 bit Ascii set . This function returns a phonetic representation of each word and allows you to compare words that are spelled differently but sound alike. Eg:. What is a translate function? The function that returns a character after replacing all occurrences of the character specified with the corresponding character is called as translate function. What is a replace function? Replace function returns character with every occurrence of the search string replaced with the replacement string. There is no corresponding EBCDIC function.TRANSLATE('Hello'.with first letter of each word in uppercase.US7bit Ascii character set . What is a Decode Function? The Decode function is used to compare an expression to each search value and returns the result if expr equals the search value.'L') 38.soundex(char).Following are the character sets US7ASCII WE8DEC WE8HP F7DEC .result2].search1. What is INITCAP Function? The initcap function returns char.Decode(expr.Western European 8 bit Ascii set . all occurrences of search_string are being removed. 40. A word is delimited by white space 42. 43. Replace allows you to substitute one string from another. What is a Floor function? Floor Function returns the largest integer equal to or than n Eg:.'l'. Eg:. 41.DEC's French 7-bit Ascii set convert(char [destination]. What are Format models? Format models are used to affect how column values are displayed when a format retrieved with a select command.

view etc. 46.3) from dual 5. 48. A test for inclusion in a range 5.column.5) "Floor" from dual Examples for Date Function 1."Friday") from dual 47.5) "Modula" from dual 3. What is an expression? An expression is a group of value and operators which may be evaluated a single values. Select abs(-15) "Absolute:" from dual 2. Select mod(7. Select floor(7. Number function Examples for Number Function: 1. Select next_day(sysdate. What are the types of expression? The different types of expressions are 1. Select power(2. A comparison with any or all members in a list or a subquery 3. A test for membership in a list or a subquery 4.85.1) from dual 4. Logical expression 2. A test for nulls. Select sysdate -90 from dual 5. 51. What are cursors? . What is a synonym? The synonym is a user defined object that is used to define an alias name for the user defined objects like table. 50. A test involving pattern matching 8. A comparison with expression or subquery results. Negating expression. Select sysdate from dual 2. 6. Select sysdate-to_date(23-Sep-93) from dual 3. Select sysdate + 90 from dual 4. What are the 7 forms of condition? There are totally 7 forms of condition 1. A combination of other conditions 51. Give 5 examples for DATE. A test for existence of rows in a subquery 7. Arithmetic expression 4. What is a condition? A Condition could be said to be of the logical datatype that evaluates the expression to a True or False value. Compound expression 3. Select round(1235. 49. 2.

What are exceptions? The block where the statements are being defined to handle internally and user-defined . How to define a cursor in PL/SQL? Cursor variable is <query> 59. The following are the different type of conditional constructs of PL/SQL 1. loop exit when<conditon> end loop 4. insert or select into statements.Oracle uses work areas called private SQL areas to execute SQL statements and store processing information. What are the different conditional constructs of PL/SQL? The statements that are useful to have a control over the set of the statements being executed as a single unit are called as conditional constructs. This private SQL work area are known as cursors. How to define a variable in PL/SQL? Variable name datatype<size> <not null> <:= value> 58. 53. Implicit cursors are the type of cursors that is implicitly opened by the Oracle itself whenever you perform any DML statements like update. How is an array defined in Pl/SQl? Typedef <identifier> table of <datatype> index by binary_integer. What is a PL/SQL? PL/SQL is a transaction processing language that offers procedural solutions. delete.. 54. 55. for <var> in range1. 57. While <condition> loop end loop 3. What are explicit cursors? Cursors that are defined for performing a multiple row select are known as explicit cursors. 52. if <condition> then elsif<condition> then end if 2. for i in <query/cursor identifier> loop end loop 56.range2 loop end loop 5.What is an embedded SQL? All the SQL statements written in a Host language are known as Embedded SQL statements.

What are roles? A role is a collection of related privileges that an administrator can grant collectively to database users. Too_many_rows 61. 66. rollback. ----if x > y then raise a. No_data_found 3. exception when a then statements. How can we alter a user's password in ORACLE? In order to Alter the password of the user we have to use the following statement : ALTER USER user_name identified by passwd Eg:. How is the performance of Oracle improved by PL/SQL in Oracle? Without PL/SQL the ORACLE RDBMS must process SQL statements one at a time. declare a exception. This reduces the I/O operations. end if. Each SQL statement results in another call to RDBMS and higher performance overhead. 64. What is SCHEMA? A SCHEMA is a logical collections of related items of tables and views. In order to invoke the variable that is an exception type use the raise statement. begin statements. What are the systems exceptions? When an Oracle error is internally encountered PL/SQL block raises an error by itself. 2.PL/SQL errors. 60.Alter user sam identified by paul . end. Following are some of the internal exceptions: 1. 65.. This overhead can be significant when you are issuing many statement in a network environment. 63. when others then commit.How to define our own exceptions in PL/SQL? Define a PL/SQL variable as an exception in the variable declaration section. With the PL/SQL all the SQL statements can be sent to RDBMS at one time.. What are profiles ? A Profile is a file that contains information about the areas that a user can access . Value_error 4. With PL/SQL a tool like Forms can do all data calculations quickly and efficiently without calling on the RDBMS .. Such errors are called as internal or system defined exception. Zero_divide. 62.

such as calculating fields in a dataentry form. PCTUSED:. The server's primary job is to manage its resource optimally among multiple clients that concurrently request the server for the same resource. A server ( or back end ) focuses on efficiently managing its resource such as database information. * Performing application logic. Types of Client Server Architecture : . * Managing presentation logic such as popup lists on a dataentry form or bargraphs in a graphical data presentation tool. * Requesting and receiving information from a database server. 71. * Controlling database access and other security requirements. What are PCTFREE and PCTUSED parameters? PCTFREE:. What is a Client-server architecture? A client/server system has three distinct components • focusing on a specific job. Both the clients and the server run communication software that allows them to talk across a network. A client application ("the front end") is the part of the system that users employ to interact with data. A network and communication software are the vehicles that transmit data between the clients and the server in a system.PCTUSED is a percentage of used space in a block that triggers the database to return to the table's free space list. * Validating data entry.PCTFREE controls how much of the space in a block is reserved for statements that update existing rows in the object. 68. What is a block in Oracle? The Place where the data related to Oracle are stored physically in an Operating System is known as Block. The client applications in a client/server database system focus on jobs such as * Presenting an interface a user can interact with to accomplish work. * Centrally enforce global data integrity rules across all client applications. • a database server • a client application and a network.67. 69. What is an extent? An extent is nothing more that a number of contiguous blocks that ORACLE-7 allocates for an object when more space is necessary for the objects data. 70. * Protecting database information with backup and recovery features. What is a tablespace in Oracle? A tablespace is a partition or logical area of storage in a database that directly corresponds to one or more physical data files. Database servers concentrate on tasks such as * Managing a single database of information among many concurrent users.

It stores the SQL Statements and PL/SQL Procedures. Dictionary Cache:. Single-Task server : In host-based database server system a user employs a dumb terminal or terminal emulator to establish a session on the host computer and run the client database application. There are basically 5 types of segments • Data segment : Contains all the data of each table • • Index segment : Contains all the index data for one or more indexes created for a table. What is SGA? SGA is System Global Area. Read consistency in Oracle is achieved by a statement SET RANSACTION READ ONLY 75. Read consistency Temporary segment : Whenever a processing occurs Oracle often requires temporary work space for intermediate stages of statement processing. The library cache and dictionary cache makes up the shared pool. Dedicated Client Server Architecture 2. . Segments are the next logical level of a storage tablespace. The data may be a table or index data required by DBMS to operate. listener and front-end server process to serve the requests of many clients with minimal process overhead on the database server. What is a segment in Oracle? Explain the different types? The place where the data are stored in the allotted tablespace are called as segments.1. Bootstrap segment : Contains information of the data dictionary definition for the tables to be loaded whenever a databases opened. Multi-threaded Client Server Architecture 3. 74. What is read-consistency in Oracle? Read consistency in Oracle is a process that ignores the changes by others in a table whenever a table is queried. What is the use of Rollback segment? It is a portion of a database that records the information about the actions that should be undone under certain circumstances like Transaction Rollback & Read consistency .Holds dictionary information in memory. Library Cache:. Rollback segment : Contains the recorded actions which should be undone under certain circumstances like Transaction rollback. • • 73. 72.Task Client Server Architecture Dedicated Server : Connects the Client Directly to the dedicated server Multi-Threaded Server : It is a type of architecture that is a combination of dispatcher. Single. The shared pool combined with buffer-cache make up the System Global Area. These area are known as temporary segments.

SYS is the owner of database's data dictionary table. What is a Log File ? The files that contains information about the information of recovery of oracle database at the event of a SYSTEM CRASH or a MEDIA Failure. What are database files? The physical files of Oracle are known as database files. What are Back Ground Process? The Process of server is being classified into two processes namely Foreground and Background. Oracle Administrator is the main person who takes care of assigning the set of to act as DBA for monitoring certain jobs like 1.Determines the maximum number of datafiles that can ever be allocated for the database Max Log Files:. Parameters Max data files:. 2. Foreground handles the request from client processes while Back-Ground handle other specific row of the database server like writing data to data and transaction Log Files. System Userid- Whenever You create a database an userid is automatically created related with database administration connections. 4.. 3. This account/userid is called System Userid. ORACLE ADMINISTRATOR:- The person who takes care of monitoring the entire performances of the database system is called as an Oracle Administrator.Determines the maximum number of log groups for the database. 77. 80. Creating primary database storage structure. 83. SYS Userid:- It is a special account through which DBS can execute special database administration connections. SQL*DBA:- SQL*DBA is a utility through which you can manage a database system effectively. . 82. Backing up and restoring. Max Log Members:. 79.the place where the data related to recently requested transaction is stored.Buffer and Cache:. Monitoring database performance and efficiency. 81.Maximum number of members for each log group. the privileges and the rights of users over different objects. views etc. Manipulating the physical location of the database. 76. Data Dictionary:- It provides the details on the database objects such as columns. the oracle users. TO CREATE DATABASE:Determining appropriate values for the file limit parameters of the create database command. 78.

How to delete duplicate rows in a table? delete from tablename where rowid not in (select min(rowid) from tablename group by column1.. What is an init file? Init files are known as Initialisation Parameter files.84. .DCF. How to create a table using select and insert statements? Using Select statement: Create table tablename as <Query > Using insert statement we cannot create a table but can only append the data into the table Using Insert statement: Insert into tablename <Query> 91. What does an UPDATE statement do? To update rows in a table. What does an Delete statement do? To remove the rows from the table. It contains all the system executable code named as ORACLE. 87. What does an Select statement do? To query data from tables in a database 90. What does an insert statement do? To insert new rows into a database . 89.column2...) 92. What is a control file ? What is its significance? A control is a small binary file. What is an instance? An Oracle instance is a mechanism that provides the mechanism for processing and controlling the database. A control file always consists of the following 1: Name of the database 2: Log files 3: Database creation 86. Init files are used for setting the parameters • for an Oracle instance • for Log files 85. 88.

98. Dismount the database from the instance 3. often located on a remote database. Opening the mounted database Shutdown is a process making the Oracle Database unavailable for all the users. Start a new instance for the database 2. customize all aspects of an application definition using std-fill-in. What are snap-shots? A Snap-shot is a table that contains the results of query of one or more tables or views. There are three phases to database shutdown 1. What is mounting of database? 95. Sql*Forms is a Client. A database trigger is a stored procedure that is associated with a table. Oracle automatically fires or executes when a triggering statement is issued. What are triggers and stored Procedures? A procedure is a group of PL/SQL statement that you call by a name. 97. What is startup and shutdown? Startup is a process making the Oracle Database to be accessed by all the users There are three phases to database startup 1. Terminate the instance. 94. What are Packages? A package is an encapsulated collection of related program objects stored together in the database. 99.93. • • . What is a two-phase commit? 96. Close database 2. Compiled version of procedure that is stored in a database are known as Stored Procedures.interface to enhance the productivity and reduce learning time. The component of this tool is specially designed for application developers and programmers and it is used for the following tasks : define transactions that combine data from multiple tables into a single form. What is SQL*Forms? Is it a Client or a server? Sql*Forms is a general purpose tool for developing and executing forms based interactive applications. Mount the database to the instance 3.

Any packaged procedure that affects basic SQL*FORMS function is a restricted packaged procedure. 3.Error handling Triggers. 4. 102.100. Key-triggers 2. These objects contain all the information that is needed and produce the SQL*Forms application. That is the values of all the system variables corresponds only to the current form. Using packaged procedure we can build triggers to perform the following tasks to • reduce the amount of repetitive data entry. What is a system variables? A System variable is a SQL*Forms variable that keeps track of some internal process of SQL*Forms in state. Block 3. The system variable helps us to control the way an application behaves. 105. Validation Triggers 6. What is the difference between the Restricted and Un-Restricted Packaged Procedure? Any packaged procedure that does not interfere with the basic function of SQL*Forms is an unrestricted packaged procedure. What are the different types of objects in SQL*Forms? A SQL*Form application is made up of objects. Form 2. The variable stores a string value upto 255 characters. What are Global Variables? A Global variable is a SQL*Form variable that is active in any trigger within a form and is active throughout SQL*Form(Run-Form) session. Fields 4. What are different type of triggers? The following are the different type of triggers they are:1. 104. Pages 5. Message . Triggers . 101. What are Packaged Procedures ? A packaged procedure is a built in PL/SQL procedure that is available in all forms. Restricted packaged procedure can be used only in key-triggers and user-named triggers. Following are the objects of the SQL*Forms: 1. 103. The un-restricted packaged procedure can be used in all types of triggers. SQL*Forms maintains the value of a system on a performance basis. • control the flow of application • ensuring the operators always follow sequence of actions when they use a form. Navigational Triggers. Query-based Triggers 5. Transactional Triggers.

Master-Block : A master block is associated with a master-detail relationship. 6.field 110. Look-up field 6. 2. What does Message procedure do? The Message procedure displays specified text on the message line. Control Block : Control block is not associated with any table in the database. The returned value is in form of a string. 108. Single-record Block : A single record block can display only one record at a time. 4. 5. 107. Enterable-field 4. 106. scrolled . Form-Level-Procedures. What are Pages? Pages are collection of display information such as constant text and graphics All fields are displayed in a page. The detail block displays detail records associated with master records in a block.6. What is a Block and its types? Explain the different types of blocks? Block is an object of Forms that describes section of a form or a subsection of a Form and serve as the basis of default database interface. Types of Blocks 1. What does Name_in function do? The Name_in packaged function returns the contents of the variable to which you apply it. 3. non-enterable field 7. The master block display master records associated with detail records in the detail block. What is a Screen Painter? This is a SQL Forms "work area" where you can modify the layout of forms. . The screen painter displays one page area at a time.Base .table field 2. It is made up of fields that are base table fields. Hidden-field 5. Multi-record Block : A multi-record block can display more than one record at a time. such as temporary data fields. What are the different field types? The different types of fields in SQL*Forms are 1. 112. Non-enterable Block : A non-enterable block consists of all non-enterable fields.What is page Zero? The place where the hidden fields are being placed in an application 111. 109. Control-field 3. Detail Block : Detail Block is associated with a master block in master-detail relationship.

What does ANCHOR_VIEW procedure do? Anchor_view moves a view of a page to a new location on the screen. that is synchronize updates the screen display to reflect the information that SQL*Forms has in its internal representation of the screen. 121. What does Go_Block packaged procedure do? The Go_Block packaged procedure navigates to the indicated Block. The actions of an On-Error triggers is used for the following purposes: • • Trap and recover an error. 115. If the target is non-enterable an error occurs. 124.113. Syntax : CALL(Formname). How to call a form from inside a form? In order to call a form from inside a form we have to use the CALL packaged-procedure. SQL*Forms runs the called form with the same SQL*Forms options as the parent form. 118. What does copy procedure do? The Copy procedure writes a value into a field. This procedure effectively changes where on the screen the operator sees the view. What does CLEAR_EOL procedure do? Clear_Eol clears the current field's value from the current cursor position to the end of the line or field. 114. What is the Array size parameter? The Array-Size parameter is a block-characteristic that specifies the maximum number of records that SQL Forms (Run-Form) can fetch from the database at one time. opens a query and fetches a number . 120. In order to activate this option in the Select attribute section invoke the option called Automatic Hint. What is SYNCHRONIZE procedure does? The synchronize procedure synchronizes the terminal screen with the internal state of form. What does On-Error trigger do? The On-error trigger fires whenever SQL*Forms would normally cause an error message to display. replace a standard error message with a customized messages. In the field definition screen of the fields we are having an option called Hint value. How to see key map sequences? In order to see key map sequences we have to press the SHOW KEY screen key function. 119. How to give automatic hint text for fields? In order to give automatic hint text for fields. 122. Copy exists specifically to write a value into that is referenced through NAME_IN packaged function. 117. When call runs an indicated form while keeping the parent form active. What is EXECUTE_QUERY procedure ? The Execute_query procedure flushes the current block. 116. 123. How to send parameters to another form? In order to send parameters across the forms we use the global variables.

129. What is an On-Insert trigger? How is it different from Pre-insert trigger? An On-insert trigger replaces the default SQL*Forms processing for handling inserted records during transaction posting. How to customize system message in SQL*Forms? Inorder to customise the system messages the On-Message trigger is used. Then give the form name. What are V2 Triggers? V2 Triggers are the types of Triggers in which we can perform only a simple query. 128. In that form put a X in the Pop-Up field to make the current page as Pop-Up.of selected records. If there are changes to commit. 131. And we cannot write a PL/SQL block. But we can change from single query group multi groups. In the next field give the new name. An On-insert Trigger fires during the Post and Commit Transactions event. Usually by default a group will bare the field which are references by a single query. or single field. 133. It fires once for each row that is marked for insertion into the database. Press Accept to Execute. 125. What is the difference between a Trigger and a Procedure? Procedures can take in arguments where as Triggers cannot take in arguments. How to define the fields in WYSIWYG Format? What you see is what you get 127. What is a Group in SQL * REPORTWRITER? Group in ReportWriter:Group is a collection of fields. 126. How to rename a Form? To rename a form select the rename option in the Action Menu. What is a Pop -up page? How to define one? Pop-Up Pages:- Pop-Up page is a SQL*Forms object which overlays on an area of the current displayed page in response to some event or for user call.Child Relation:- . Press Accept. 134. How do you define a Parent-child relationship in Reportwriter? Parent . To define a Pop-Up page use the page definition form which is in the Image-Modify option. Specifically it fires after the Pre-insert trigger and before the Post-insert trigger. 132. SQL*Forms prompts the operator to commit them during the execute query event. How to Call a stored procedure from inside a form? To call a Stored Procedure inside a form Trigger Text : Procedure name<paramaters> 130.

In the Child Query Form we should give the Parent Query Name in the desired position and the common columns in both queries. 3. 2. After defining the queries in the Query option. Exports does this by changing the data and table structures in to ASCII or EBCDIC codes. Import is a utility with which we can write the data from Export file to database. 138. 135. Procedure for Defining a Matrix Report : 1. What is a Rowcount function in ReportWriter? It is a field level function that is used for generation of automatic row numbers related to database column that does not have null values. We should first enter the Parent Query and then the Child Query. How do you define a matrix report? Matrix Report:Matrix Report is a Report that consists of Two Parent Queries and one Child Query. What are exp and imp utilities? Export & Import:Export utility is to write data from database to operating system files called Export Files.To define a Parent-Child relationship first we need more that one query. How do you execute a report from within a form ? Use the following command to run a report from the FORM. In the Group option Place All the Groups in the option called Matrix Group Define the Print Direction for Query1 as Down Define the Print Direction for Query2 as Across Define the Print Direction for Child Query as Cross tab 137. Define a Child Query. In the Definition screen specific which column of the child is to be related to the Query1 and to Query2. Export files can be only read by Import. . 136. host('runrep <rep_name> term=<terminal_type> userid=<userid/passwd>). Define Two Parent Queries.

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