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ACTIVE-MATRIX ORGANIC LIGHT-EMITTING DIODE
SEMINAR REPORT 2012 ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT DTU
A S H WA N I R A N A 2K10/EE/017
TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION OLED COMPONENTS HOW DO OLEDS EMIT LIGHT? TYPES OF OLEDS PASSIVE -MATRIX ORGANIC LIGHT-EMITTING DIODE ACTIVE – MATRIX ORGANIC LIGHT-EMITTING DIODE SUPER AMOLED HD SUPER AMOLED COMPARISON TO OTHER TECHNOLOGIES ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES .
OLEDs can provide brighter. PDAs and digital cameras. Sony Corporation announced that it was beginning mass production of OLED screens for its CLIE PEG-VZ90 model of personal-entertainment handhelds. Currently. OLED display for Sony Clie Kodak was the first to release a digital camera with an OLED display in March 2003. crisper displays on electronic devices and use less power than conventional light-emitting diodes (LEDs) or liquid crystal displays (LCDs) used today.INTRODUCTION AMOLED is a display technology for use in mobile devices and televisions. the EasyShare LS633 Kodak LS633 EasyShare with OLED display . OLEDs are solid-state devices composed of thin films of organic molecules that create light with the application of electricity. OLEDs are used in small-screen devices such as cell phones. In September 2004. and active matrix refers to the technology behind the addressing of pixels. OLED describes a specific type of thin-film display technology in which organic compounds form the electroluminescent material.
Samsung Electronics announced that it had developed a prototype 40-inch. And in October 2007. media players and digital cameras. low-cost and large-size (for example. automotive dashboards. billboard-type displays. AMOLED technology is used in mobile phones. OLED-based. the first of its size. Because OLEDs refresh faster than LCDs almost 1. The newspaper of the future might be an OLED display that refreshes with breaking news and like a regular newspaper.000 times faster -. The XEL-1 was available in December 2007 for customers in Japan The Sony 11-inch XEL-1 OLED TV.a device with an OLED display could change information almost in real time. 40inch) applications Research and development in the field of OLEDs is proceeding rapidly and may lead to future applications in heads-up displays. you could fold it up when you're done reading it and stick it in your backpack or briefcase. home and office lighting and flexible displays. . Video images could be much more realistic and constantly updated.In May 2005. and continues to make progress toward low-power. Sony announced that it would be the first to market with an OLED television. As of 2012. ultra-slim TV.
Conducting layer . In this article. foil) . glass. this is where light is made.The substrate supports the OLED.This layer is made of organic plastic molecules (different ones from the conducting layer) that transport electrons from the cathode.The anode removes electrons (adds electron "holes") when a current flows through the device.The cathode injects electrons when a current flows through the device. we'll be focusing on the two-layer design. One polymer used in the emissive layer is polyfluorene. Anode (transparent) . . One conducting polymer used in OLEDs is polyaniline. in the latter design. OLEDs can have either two layers or three layers of organic material. Molecules commonly used in OLEDs include organometallic chelates. An OLED consists of the following parts: Substrate (clear plastic.OLED COMPONENTS Like an LED. an OLED is a solid-state semiconductor device that is 100 to 500 nanometers thick or about 200 times smaller than a human hair.This layer is made of organic plastic molecules that transport "holes" from the anode. Organic layers . Emissive layer . the third layer helps transport electrons from the cathode to the emissive layer.These layers are made of organic molecules or polymers. Cathode (may or may not be transparent depending on the type of OLED) .
With inkjet technology. Inkjet technology greatly reduces the cost of OLED manufacturing and allows OLEDs to be printed onto very large films for large displays like 80-inch TV screens or electronic billboards. This process is expensive and inefficient. OLEDs are sprayed onto substrates just like inks are sprayed onto paper during printing. Using a carrier gas increases the efficiency and reduces the cost of making OLEDs. where they condense into thin films. Organic vapor phase deposition (OVPD) .In a low-pressure. This can be done in three ways: Vacuum deposition or vacuum thermal evaporation (VTE) . Inkjet printing .In a vacuum chamber.The biggest part of manufacturing OLEDs is applying the organic layers to the substrate. Magnified image of the AMOLED screen on the Nexus One smart phone using the RGBG system of the PenTile Matrix Family . hot-walled reactor chamber. a carrier gas transports evaporated organic molecules onto cooled substrates. the organic molecules are gently heated (evaporated) and allowed to condense as thin films onto cooled substrates.
An electrical current flows from the cathode to the anode through the organic layers (an electrical current is a flow of electrons). the electron fills the hole (it falls into an . (This is the equivalent to giving electron holes to the conductive layer. The anode removes electrons from the conductive layer of organic molecules. The process is as follows: 1. electrons find electron holes.HOW DO OLEDS EMIT LIGHT? OLEDs emit light in a similar manner to LEDs.) 3. When an electron finds an electron hole. The battery or power supply of the device containing the OLED applies a voltage across the OLED. 2. At the boundary between the emissive and the conductive layers. through a process called electro phosphorescence. The cathode gives electrons to the emissive layer of organic molecules.
Manufacturers place several types of organic films on the same OLED to make color displays. The OLED emits light. 4. 5. the brighter the light. 6. .energy level of the atom that's missing an electron). The color of the light depends on the type of organic molecule in the emissive layer. The intensity or brightness of the light depends on the amount of electrical current applied: the more current. the electron gives up energy in the form of a photon of light. When this happens.
The TFT array itself is the circuitry that determines which pixels get turned on to form an image. determining which pixels get turned on and which pixels remain off. mainly due to the power needed for the external circuitry. External circuitry applies current to selected strips of anode and cathode. The intersections of the cathode and anode make up the pixels where light is emitted. Even with the external circuitry. Active-matrix OLED (AMOLED) AMOLEDs have full layers of cathode. PDAs and MP3 players.TYPES OF OLEDS: PASSIVE AND ACTIVE MATRIX Passive-matrix OLED (PMOLED) PMOLEDs have strips of cathode. PMOLEDs are most efficient for text and icons and are best suited for small screens (2.to 3-inch diagonal) such as those you find in cell phones. organic molecules and anode. the brightness of each pixel is proportional to the amount of applied current. PMOLEDs are easy to make. The anode strips are arranged perpendicular to the cathode strips. Again. organic layers and strips of anode. but they consume more power than other types of OLED. but the anode layer overlays a thin film transistor (TFT) array that forms a matrix. . passive-matrix OLEDs consume less battery power than the LCDs that currently power these devices.
The best uses for AMOLEDs are computer monitors.AMOLEDs consume less power than PMOLEDs because the TFT array requires less power than external circuitry. . so they are efficient for large displays. large-screen TVs and electronic signs or billboards. AMOLEDs also have faster refresh rates suitable for video.
with a Super AMOLED Plus screen 2. some of the Super AMOLED advantages are brighter screens. less sunlight reflection and reduced power consumption. This can lead to reduced real-world battery life in mobile devices but third party solutions. thinner with AMOLED Plus displays being 18% more energy efficient than the old Super AMOLED displays. SUPER AMOLED PLUS Super AMOLED Plus. Galaxy Nexus. such as an all white background. a main disadvantage for mobile users is the increased battery consumption when displaying an image that is primarily white. is a branding where the Pen Tile RGBG pixel matrix (2 sub pixels) is replaced with a traditional RGB sub pixel arrangement. with a HD Super AMOLED screen . Samsung Galaxy S II. improving detail. The screen technology is also brighter. One of the main differences from other display technologies is that the layer that detects touch is integrated into the screen rather than being overlaid on top. As with AMOLED and OLED displays.SUPER AMOLED Super Active-Matrix Organic Light-Emitting Diode or Super AMOLED is a display technology (variant from AMOLED) mainly for use in mobile devices such as mobile phones (see the list below for examples). such as Black Google Mobile. Compared with the first-generation AMOLED. have surfaced to help alleviate this behavior. 1. first introduced with the Samsung Galaxy S II and Samsung Droid Charge smart phones.
This may be called "HD Super AMOLED Plus". but only 0. AMOLED mobile phone users can save battery power by avoiding white backgrounds and many methods exist to achieve this. Samsung's Super AMOLED technology addresses this issue by reducing the size of gaps between layers of the screen. where power consumption is critical to battery life. Additionally. The first device to use it is the Galaxy Note: an Android v2. As an example. The second device to use it is Samsung's Galaxy Nexus phone . . COMPARISON TO OTHER TECHNOLOGIES AMOLED displays provide higher refresh rates than their passive-matrix OLED counterparts.3 phone with a 5.65" display with 1280x720 resolution.HD SUPER AMOLED HD Super AMOLED is a new Super AMOLED type display from Samsung. as it instructs the user to maintain the "white text on black background" theme to have a better battery autonomy.with a 4. However this required a change back to pentile RGBG subpixels. The phone (and the display) was announced in September 2011. PenTile technology is sometimes used. such as using Black Google Mobile to search with a black background. one commercial QVGA OLED display consumes 3 watts while showing black text on a white background. The change to LITI is also said to be an important step toward commercializing OLED TVs. and they consume significantly less power. which emits more light due to a lack of a R/G/B filter. thereby increasing brightness. though still using shadow mask (or fine metal mask (FMM)) technology.3" 1280x800 display. improving response time often to under a millisecond. rearranging the subpixels for each color and in the case of PenTile RGBW. This advantage makes active-matrix OLEDs well suited for portable electronics. albeit while introducing graininess. Samsung is expected to introduce a new screen using "Real Stripe" RGB subpixels with the move to the laser-induced thermal imaging (LITI) process. adding a white subpixel. The Windows Phone 7 platform takes advantage of this characteristic. The amount of power the display consumes varies significantly depending on the color and brightness shown.7 watts showing white text on a black background. AMOLED displays may be difficult to view in direct sunlight compared to LCDs because of their reduced maximum brightness. AMOLED also has contrast ratios that are significantly better than LCD. The higher resolution and dpi were made possible due to a change in materials and new manufacturing process. Because the black pixels actually turn off.
However. Lower cost in the future: OLEDs can be printed onto any suitable substrate by an inkjet printer or even by screen printing. theoretically making them cheaper to produce than LCD or plasma displays.The organic materials used in AMOLED displays are prone to degradation over a period of time. ADVANTAGES The different manufacturing process of OLEDs lends itself to several advantages over flat panel displays made with LCD technology. the displays may be produced inexpensively. fabrication of the OLED substrate is more costly than that of a TFT LCD. Current demand for AMOLED screens is high and. Rollroll vapor-deposition methods for organic devices do allow mass production of thousands of devices per minute for minimal cost. Light weight & flexible plastic substrates: OLED displays can be fabricated on flexible plastic substrates leading to the possibility of flexible organic light-emitting diodes being fabricated or other new applications such as roll-up displays embedded in fabrics or clothing. As the substrate used can be flexible such as PET. technology has been developed to compensate for material degradation. due to supply shortages of the Samsungproduced displays. certain models of HTC smartphones have been changed to use nextgeneration LCD displays from the Samsung and Sony joint-venture SLCD in the future. . lining up the different printed layers to the required degree of accuracy. although this technique also induces problems in that multi-layer devices can be challenging to make due to registration issues. until mass production methods lower cost through scalability. However. Construction of new production facilities in 2011 will increase the production of AMOLED screens to cope with demand.
enabling up to 100. This is lower than the typical lifetime of LCD. Better power efficiency: LCDs filter the light emitted from a backlight.000 hours to half original brightness (five years at 8 hours a day) when used for flatpanel displays. and then adds an expensive. blue OLEDs historically have had a lifetime of around 14. measured in purely dark conditions) and viewing angle compared to LCDs because OLED pixels directly emit light.000 Hz refresh rate. an OLED can theoretically have less than 0. In particular. time-consuming process that cannot currently be used on large-area glass substrates. Lifespan: The biggest technical problem for OLEDs was the limited lifetime of the organic materials. Response time: OLEDs can also have a faster response time than standard LCD screens. even as the viewing angle approaches 90° from normal. Wider viewing angles & improved brightness: OLEDs can enable a greater artificial contrast ratio (both dynamic range and static.01 ms response time. Whereas LCD displays are capable of between 2 and 16 ms response time offering a refresh rate of 60 to 480 Hz. while an inactive OLED element does not produce light or consume power. Specifically. it requires the use of Low-Temperature Polysilicon backplanes. OLED pixel colours appear correct and unshifted. DISADVANTAGES Current costs: OLED manufacture currently requires process steps that make it extremely expensive. LED or PDP technology— . allowing a small fraction of light through so they cannot show true black. LTPS backplanes in turn require laser annealing from an amorphous silicon start. so this part of the manufacturing process for AMOLEDs starts with the process costs of standard LCD.
Considerable research has been invested in developing blue OLEDs with high external quantum efficiency as well as a deeper blue color. as the OLED material used to produce blue light degrades significantly more rapidly than the materials that produce other colors. depending on manufacturer and model. which is unacceptable for some users. In order to delay the problem. manufacturer’s bias the color balance towards blue so that the display initially has an artificially blue tint. manufacturers optimize the size of the R. experimental OLEDs were created which can sustain 400 cd/m2 of luminance for over 198. Color balance issues: Additionally.000 hours for blue OLEDs. thus achieving the same brightness at a lower drive current. pushing their expected life past that of LCD displays by improving light out coupling. The red subpixel may be 10% smaller than the green.000 hours to half brightness. More commonly. G and B subpixels to reduce the current density through the subpixel in order to equalize lifetime at full luminance. some manufacturers' displays aim to increase the lifespan of OLED displays.000 hours for green OLEDs and 62. a blue subpixel may be 100% larger than the green subpixel. blue light output will decrease relative to the other colors of light. However. though. over-saturated colors. For example. This can be partially avoided by adjusting color balance but this may require advanced control circuits and interaction with the user.each currently rated for about 25.000–40. External quantum efficiency values of 20% and . This variation in the differential color output will change the color balance of the display and is much more noticeable than a decrease in overall luminance. In 2007. leading to complaints of artificial-looking. Efficiency of blue OLEDs: Improvements to the efficiency and lifetime of blue OLEDs is vital to the success of OLEDs as replacements for LCD technology.
such as Black Google Mobile. leading to poor readability in bright ambient light such as outdoors. blue diodes (430 nm) have only been able to achieve maximum external quantum efficiencies in the range of 4% to 6%. with the proper application of a circular polarizer and anti-reflective coatings. the diffuse reflectance can be reduced to less than 0. The most pronounced example of this can be seen with a near UV laser (such as a Bluray pointer) and can damage the display almost instantly with more than 20 mW leading to dim or dead spots where the beam is focused. However. Removal of this filter can lead to severe damage and an unusable display after only a few months of room light exposure. e-ink leads the way in efficiency with ~ 33% ambient light reflectivity. with reflectance approaching 80%. that provide black background alternatives when otherwise unavailable. With 10. Power consumption: While an OLED will consume around 40% of the power of an LCD displaying an image which is primarily black. This disadvantage has led to alternative mobile platform solutions. Outdoor performance: As an emissive display technology. Therefore. However. respectively. 19% have been reported for red (625 nm) and green (530 nm) diodes. UV sensitivity: OLED displays can be damaged by prolonged exposure to UV light. . enabling the display to be used without any internal light source. This can lead to reduced real-world battery life in mobile devices when white backgrounds are used. improved sealing processes are important for practical manufacturing. This is usually avoided by installing a UV blocking filter over the panel and this can easily be seen as a clear plastic layer on the glass.000 fc incident illumination (typical test condition for simulating outdoor illumination). The metallic cathode in OLED acts as a mirror. for the majority of images it will consume 60–80% of the power of an LCD: however it can use over three times as much power to display an image with a white background such as a document or website. Water damage may especially limit the longevity of more flexible displays. OLEDs rely completely upon converting electricity to light. unlike most LCDs which are to some extent reflective. Water damage: Water can damage the organic materials of the displays. that yields an approximate photopic contrast of 5:1.1%.
wikipedia. http://www.wikipedia. http://en.org/wiki/Active_matrix_addressing 6. http://www. http://www.com/oled-technology 5.org/soc/cpmt/presentations/cpmt0401a.com/amoled 4.org/wiki/AMOLED#cite_note-0 3.ewh.howstuffworks.ieee.com/doc/54428625/Ppt-on-Amoled-Super-Amoled .html 2.oled-info.com/oled3. http://en.BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. http://electronics. http://www.pdf 7.scribd.oled-info.
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