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There are primarily two types of motherboards, AT motherboard, and ATX motherboard. AT motherboards are older, and not commonly used now a days. The AT and ATX motherboards differ in the form factor. Full AT is 12" wide x 13.8" deep, and Baby AT is 8.57" wide x 13.04" deep. Full-ATX is 12" wide x 9.6" deep and Mini-ATX is 11.2" wide x 8.2" deep. Other major differences include power supply connector, and keyboard connector. AT has 5-pin large keyboard connector, where as ATX has 6-pin mini connector. Similarly, AT has single row two connectors +/-5V, and +/-12V, whereas ATX motherboard has double row single connector providing +/-5V, +/-12V, and +3.3V.
A typical ATX PC motherboard with constituent components is given below:
The important constituent components of an ATX Motherboard are given below:
1. Mouse & keyboard 2. USB 3. Parallel port 4. CPU Chip 5. RAM slots 6. Floppy controller 7. IDE controller 8. PCI slot 9. ISA slot 10. CMOS Battery 11. AGP slot 12. CPU slot 13. Power supply plug in
1. Mouse & keyboard: Keyboard Connectors are two types basically. All PCs have a Key board port connected directly to the motherboard. The oldest, but still quite common type, is a special DIN, and most PCs until recently retained this style connector. The AT-style keyboard connector is quickly disappearing, being replaced by the smaller mini DIN PS/2-style keyboard connector.
You can use an AT-style keyboard with a PS/2-style socket (or the other way around) by using a converter. Although the AT connector is unique in PCs, the PS/2-style mini-DIN is also used in more modern PCs for the mouse. Fortunately , most PCs that use the mini-DIN for both the keyboard and mouse clearly mark each mini-DIN socket as to its correct use. Some keyboards have a USB connection, but these are fairly rare compared to the PS/2 connection keyboards. 2. USB (Universal serial bus): USB is the General-purpose connection for PC. You can find USB versions of many different devices, such as mice, keyboards, scanners, cameras, and even printers. a USB connector's distinctive rectangular shape makes it easily recognizable.
but is slightly shorter and . The EIDE drive connects to the hard drive via a 2-inch-wide. 6. also called the microprocessor performs all the calculations that take place inside a pc. 3. Modern CPUs generate a lot of heat and thus require a cooling fan or heat sink. RAM slots: Random-Access Memory (RAM) stores programs and data currently being used by the CPU. 9. and built-in battery. USB devices are hot swappable. SCSI drives show up in high end PCs such as network servers or graphical workstations. 7. 4. 8. Parallel port: Most printers use a special connector called a parallel port. RAM is measured in units called bytes. CPUs come in Variety of shapes and sizes. CMOS Battery: To provide CMOS with the power when the computer is turned off all motherboards comes with a battery. 40-pin ribbon cable. you will almost certainly notice a single connector that looks like a PCI slot. Parallel ports use a 25-pin female DB connector. The cooling device (such as a cooling fan) is removable. as opposed to the serial port. Floppy controller: The floppy drive connects to the computer via a 34-pin ribbon cable. 11. Majority of the PCs use EIDE drives. ISA slot: (Industry Standard Architecture) It is the standard architecture of the Expansion bus. IDE controller: Industry standards define two common types of hard drives: EIDE and SCSI. the most common onboard battery. which uses only one wire. 5. The PCI bus is used to connect I/O devices (such as NIC or RAID controllers) to the main logic of the computer. although some CPU manufactures sell the CPU with a fan permanently attached. AGP slot: If you have a modern motherboard. Parallel port carry data on more than one wire. which in turn connects to the motherboard. IDE controller is responsible for controlling the hard drive. 10. CPU Chip : The central processing unit. Parallel ports are directly supported by the motherboard through a direct connection or through a dangle. A floppy controller is one that is used to control the floppy drive. RAM has been packaged in many different ways. PCI slot: Intel introduced the Peripheral component interconnect bus protocol. These batteries mount on the motherboard in one of three ways: the obsolete external battery. PCI bus has replaced the ISA bus. which in turn connects to the motherboard.USB has a number of features that makes it particularly popular on PCs. The most current package is called a 168-pin DIMM (Dual Inline Memory module). You can insert or remove them without restarting your system. First. Motherboard may contain some slots to connect ISA compatible cards.
3-Volt DC power. The power supply connector has 20-pins. So remember if it does not go easily. Power supply plug in: The Power supply. When the computer is powered on. It contains basic instructions to interact with various hardware modules such as Motherboard controllers or that of interface cards. BIOS Firmware BIOS stands for Basic Input/Output System. Special notches in the slot make it impossible to install them incorrectly. +/-5-Volt. EPROM or flash memory. The BIOS accepts requests from the drivers as well as the applications as shown in the figure below. BIOS is the software that is run by a computer when first powered on. A computer motherboard inevitably contains a BIOS chip in the form of an onboard PROM. BIOS is also known as PC firmware because it is an integral part of the motherboard. CPU slot: To install the CPU. Be sure to plug in the CPU fan's power. provides the necessary electrical power to make the pc operate. just slide it straight down into the slot. and 3. and memory. as its name implies. It then loads the operating system and passes control to OS. it performs diagnostic tests on the computer hardware devices such as hard drive. FDD. and takes care of them. it is probably not correct. You also probably have a video card inserted into this slot. 13.usually brown. the power supply takes standard 110-V AC power and converts into +/-12-Volt. and the connector can go in only one direction. It searches for other BIOS's on the plug-in boards. This is an Advanced Graphics Port (AGP) slot 12. .
3. DRAM has been introduced in the earlier stages. DRAMs store data in the form of capacitive charges.faster at rewriting the chip A typical BIOS chip used on motherboards is shown in the figure below. It is important that the information is fetched by the CPU quickly to further processing. floppy drives. you can update a BIOS firmware using EEPROM using "boot to floppy". Though it is a square-type PLCC package. Firmware generally available in different forms: 1. 2. The motherboard BIOS is normally used to access basic hardware components such as the keyboard. you may need to get a new chip from the manufacturer. the RAM gets refreshed continually by the controller. and hard disk controllers. Flash ROM . EEPROM (Electrically Erasable Programmable ROM). Dynamic RAM (DRAM): In dynamic RAM. and running the Firmware update program. Figure 2 shows the BIOS after insertion into the socket. Important among there include the following: Dynamic RAM (DRAM) Synchronous RAM (SRAM) Synchronous DRAM (SDRAM) Rambus DRAM (RDRAM) Video RAM (VRAM) Windows RAM (WRAM) EDO RAM RAM stands for Ramdom Access Memory. BIOS chips come in different forms. Memory: PC memory stores data and programs currently being executed by the computer. and RAM versions available today are much bigger and faster than the earlier simple DRAMs.Firmware on adapter cards: A computer can contain several BIOS firmware chips.: BIOS chip BIOS chip after insertion into a socket. a DRAM needs to be refreshed on a continual basis. EPROM (Erasable Programmable ROM). and video boards may include their own BIOS software. RAID. There are several memory types available. for updating a BIOS firm using EPROM. Since any capacitor tends to be leaky. Adapter cards such as SCSI. .
memory modules are the those that get installed on the motherboard. This is quite useful in animation and other speed sensitive video applications. Normally. instead of a data rate of 133MHz. Hence faster data transfer between the CPU and the memory module occurs. Synchronizes to the memory bus clock. Synchronous DRAM (SDRAM): SDRAM works in sync with the motherboard. However. and you don't handle individual memory chips. Double Data Rate SDRAM (DDR SDRAM): DDR SDRAM is similar to SDRAM. in the sense that while one device write to VRAM. VRAMs are more expensive than DRAMs. but provide better graphic display. etc. DRAM is neither synchronized to the motherboard nor CPU. SDRAM doesn't require frequent recharge like DRAM. SDRAM reads only on the rising edge of a signal. The following are the prominently used memory modules (also called memory cards): Dual In-line Package (DIP) Single In-line Memory Modules (SIMM) Dual In-line Memory Modules (DIMM) Rambus In-line Memory Modules (RIMM) DDR DDR II . Memory bus clock is much faster than the motherboard clock. with the faster memory access schemes like DDR. This technique allows the DDR module to achieve speeds twice that of SDRAM. and hence works quite fast. CPU and memory module are synchronized to the motherboard. SDRAMs have speeds of the order of 133MHz. RDRAM chips are synchronized to the processor's memory bus. It is dual ported. enabling the SRAM to be in synchronization with the motherboard cloak. Inc. For example. VRAM and WRAM are slowly becoming obsolete. Comparison Chart: Memory Type DRAM SRAM RDRAM Synchronization CPU synchronized to the motherboard. DDR memory transfers data at 266MHz. 800MHz. Windows RAM (WRAM) is another type of memory used for graphics. Rambus memory is integrated onto Rambus Inline Memory Modules (RIMMs). Rambus DRAM (RDRAM): RDRAM technology was developed originally by Rambus. Video RAM (VRAM): VRAM is primarily used on video cards. and a few other passive components. another device can simultaneously do read operation. L-2 memory caches are usually made of SRAM and exhibit very fast read and write operations. but for the difference that DDR reads data on both the rising and falling edges of the clock.Synchronous RAM (SRAM): SRAM contains a clock built onto the memory module. and is similar to VRAM in functionality. Memory Modules: Memory modules are printed circuit cards made up of memory chips.
Typical SIMM package: Memory Size:64MB Memory Speed: 60nS Pins: 72 Dual In-Line Memory Modules (DIMM): DIMMs are very similar to SIMMs. you need to use 2-SIMMs paired together with any modern 64-bit processor. and 72-pin SIMM modules. The major difference is that a DIMM has two different signal pins on each side of the module as shown in the figure. As can be seen. and chip are shown in the figure above. Single In-line Memory Modules (SIMM): SIMM modules have several memory chips soldered in-line on its own circuit board. Since SIMM provides only 32-bit bus. and give raise to errors It is cumbersome to insert individual chips Used to take more power Because of the above problems. whereas a DIMM has 64-bit wide memory bus. memory chips were integrated into SIMM (Single In-line Memory Modules) that overcome several of the said problems. the edge connector pins on either side of a SIMM are shorted. Individual memory chips were inserted into the sockets. and AT systems came with DIP sockets. On a SIMM. a 72-pin SIMM has 32-bit wide memory bus. Typically. 2. There are two types of SIMM modules: 30-pin SIMM modules. This arrangement resulted in several DIP sockets being present on the motherboard. representing only one signal pin. . these chips used to take lot of space. One big advantage of DIMM is that only one module can be inserted into the motherboard. Due to size. There are several disadvantages because of this method: 1. If you need to enhance the memory. DIP chip DIP socket A typical DIP socket. there is only one chip per DIP package.Dual In-line Package (DIP): Initially. The chips used to dislodge from respective sockets. buy additional chips and insert into any existing DIP sockets. 3. A typical SIMM is shown in the figure below. PC XT. whereas you need two SIMMs (paired) when working with 64-bit microprocessors like Pentium II and above. 4.
We discuss various CPUs starting from Pentium IV. also called CPU (Central Processing Unit). and Socket Types: Micro processor. Memory Size: 2X512MB Memory Speed: 400MHzPC3200 Memory Type: Dual Channel DDR Pins: 184 Micro Processors. and onwards. A RIMM package using RDRAM Double Data Rate: DDR modules are also called DIMMs (Dual-In-Line-Memory Module). whereas DIMM have 168 pins. Rambus In-Line Memory Module (RIMM): Rambus inline memory modules (RIMMs) use Rambus Dyamic RAM (RDRAM) chips.Typical DIMM (using DDRAM): Memory size: 256MB Pins:168 pin package SIMMs typically have 72 pins. Socket 478 Socket 423 Socket 370 . The DIMM package using DDR is twice as fast as the one using SDRAM. A typical DDR module (DIMM) is shown above. is a major component of a micro computer.
7 .2.38" x 1.800 MHz (100 MHz .5 cm) Number of contacts: 478 Compatible package types: 478-pin micro FC-PGA 478-pin micro FC-PGA2 Compatible processors: Processors Intel Pentium 4 (1.4 GHz) Intel Celeron (1.200 MHz QDR) Socket size: 1..2 GHz) Intel Pentium 4 Extreme Edition (3.3. .2 GHz) Celeron D (to 3.4 GHz) This socket has currently been replaced with socket 775.5 x 3. Socket 8 Socket 7 Socket A Slot A Slot 2 Slot 1 Socket 478: Socket 478 is a PGA socket used by Intel Pentium 4 microprocessor family (not all P IV family processors support Socket 478).38" (3.4 . 3.3. Socket type: Socket 478 (mPGA478B) Front Bus Frequencies: 400 MHz .
2000 MHz) Socket 370: Socket 370 (PGA370) is a PGA socket compatible with Intel Celeron and Pentium III processors in Pin Grid Array (PGA) package. 100 and 133 MHz Supported Processors include the following: Intel Celeron (PPGA.Socket 423: The socket was used for low-end Pentium IV processors below 2000MHz frequencies. 300–533 MHz) Intel Celeron (FC-PGA. 370-pin Flip-Chip Pin Grid Array (FC-PGA) 370-pin Flip-Chip Pin Grid Array (FC-PGA2) Number of contacts: 370 Front Bus Frequencies: 66. 533–1100 MHz) Intel Celeron (FC-PGA2. Number of Contacts: 423 Compatible package type: Organic Land Grid Array (OLGA) Front Bus Speed: 100 MHz FSB Compatible Processors: Intel Pentium 4 (1300 MHz . It became obsolete with the advent of Socket 478. 900–1400 MHz) Intel Pentium III (FC-PGA. Socket 370 Processor package Salient Features: Compatible package types: 370-pin Plastic Pin Grid Array (PPGA). 500–1133 MHz) Intel Pentium III Tualatin (FC-PGA2) Celeron Tualatin (FC-PGA2) VIA C3 (FC-PGA) .
570 MHz) AMD K6-III (333 MHz .200 MHz).200 MHz processors. It is also used in Pentium MMX processor family.200 MHz) Intel Pentium MMX (166 MHz . Socket 7 Compatible Processor Salient Features: Compatible package types: 296-pin staggered Plastic Pin Grid Array (PPGA) 296-pin staggered Ceramic Pin Grid Array (CPGA or SPGA) 296-pin Flip-Chip staggered Ceramic Pin Grid Array 321-pin ceramic Ping Grid Array (CPGA) Number of contacts: 321 Front Bus Frequencies: 66 .Socket 8: Socket 8 was used for a very limited number of processor types.233 MHz) .266 MHz) Cyrix MII (233 MHz . 6x86L and 6x86MX (90 MHz . Pentium II OverDrive 300~333 Socket 7: Socket 7 was introduced by Intel for Pentium 133 .550 MHz) Cyrix 6x86.433 MHz) Intel Pentium (non-MMX) (75 MHz . The socket is being no more used by newer processors. Number of Contacts: 387 Front Bus Speed : 66-75 MHz Supported Processors include the following: Pentium Pro 150~200. AMD K6 (166 MHz .83 Mhz System Clock Supported Processors include the following: AMD K5 (75 MHz .300 MHz) AMD K6-2 (200 MHz .
3000+) Compatible package types: 462-pin ceramic Pin Grid Array (PGA) package. 166 MHz and 200 MHz Number of contact pins: 462 pin holes Compatible Processors include the following: AMD Athlon (650 MHz .1400 MHz) AMD Athlon XP (1500+ . Pentium III was the last microprocessor family that used the Slot 1. Pentium IV family of processors do not use Slot 1. 462-pin organic PGA.1800 MHz) AMD Sempron (2000+ .Socket A (Socket 462): Socket A (also called Socket 462) is a PGA socket compatible with AMD K7 family of processors. It has 242 contacts. The Slot 2 cartridge may house as many as four processors and an L2 cache. But Slot A is electrically different from that of Slot 1. Slot A: Slot A is used by AMD's Athlon family of processors. Socket A Processor for Socket A Bus Frequencies: 100 MHz. physically similar to that of Intel's Slot 1. . and some of low-end Celeron processors. Slot 2: Slot 2 is a 330 contact version of Slot 1. This connector is compatible with Pentium II family of processors.3300+) AMD Athlon MP (1000 MHz . 133 MHz. Slot 1: Slot 1 is a Slot-type connector.3300+) AMD Duron (600 MHz . Intel's Xeon processor uses Slot 2.
head arm secured in a chassis. A HDD consists of several platters (or hard disks) along with head actuator.Number of Contacts: 242 Processors types supported include the following: Intel Celeron (SECC. Flash ROM Computer Hard Disk Drive Working of a Hard Disk Drive Hard Disk Drive Interfaces Working of a HDD: The hard disk drive (Abbreviated as HDD or HD) holds the main storage media of a computer. CD/CDRW 3. 233-450 MHz) Intel Pentium III (SECC2. 233-466 MHz) Processors Intel Pentium II (SECC. 450-1133 MHz) Compatible package types: Single Edge Processor Package (SEPP) Single Edge Connector Cartridge (SECC) Single Edge Connector Cartridge 2 (SECC 2) Storage Devices. Hard Disk Drive 2. DVD/DVDRW 4. Commonly used storage devices include the following: 1. and Interfaces A computer normally contains several storage options. A schematic diagram of a HDD is shown in the figure below: .
The disks are sealed to prevent any dust or moisture entering the drive. Then each track is divided into Sectors. The storage is achieved by depositing a thin magnetic film on either side of each disk. The disks rotate at a very high speed ( several thousands of revolutions per minute). The data is accessed by specifying the disk number. The magnetically sensitive head reads/writes information when the disks rotate. enabling very fast read and write operations. A typical hard disk drive is shown in the figure. the surface of each disk is divided into concentric Tracks. track number.Schematic of a Hard Disk Drive Photo of a HDD that has two concentric disks The individual hard disks (platters) are used to store the information. The disks are mounted on a rotary drive. Basically. and the sector number. .
6. There are different versions of SCSI available today. 3. 8. are the commonly used with most Pentium computers. Small Computer Systems Interface (SCSI): SCSI is commonly used with server grade machines. 9. Figure: A 40-pin IDE cable connector Enhanced IDE (EIDE) is the enhanced version of IDE technology.. These include the following: IDE/EIDE SCSI Serial ATA Notebook IDE/PATA IDE/EIDE Hard Disk Drives: IDE (Integrated Drive Electronics). 5. SCSI-1 SCSI-2 SCSI-3 Ultra-2 Ultra-3 Ultra-320 Ultra-640 iSCSI Serial SCSI The various standards primarily differ in the following: . 4. Different versions of SCSI include the following: 1. IDE and its successor. also known as ATA is used with IBM compatible hard drives. 2. Enhanced IDE (EIDE). 7.Hard Disk Drive Interfaces: There are several standards connected with the Hard Disk Drives. IDE supports only two drives (one master drive and one slave drive) per channel. whereas SCSI can support 8 or more hard drives. and supports faster access to the hard disks.
820KB/sec. Normally. Many DVD drives can read data from a CD-R. A DVD drive is shown in the figure above. A double-layer. 8x is 10. You need to ensure compatibility with CD-R when procuring a DVD drive. CD-R drives are not compatible with DVD. A single-layer. 4x is 5. where as SCSI3 can go up to 40MB/sec. But.54KB/sec. and for transfer of data to and from a hard disk. some DVD drives may not be able to read CDRs. For example. with the advent of SATA. However. but contains larger storage space and can hold video. double-sided DVD-ROM disk can have capacity over 17GB. Following the convention.410KB/sec. Essentially. and 16x would be 21. Video Display Devices The display devices used commonly can be classified as below: .3MBps. SCSI-I has a throughput of 5MB/sec. The DVD specification supports access rates of 600KBps to 1. ATA was used to mean parallel transfer of bits between the motherboard and the hard drive. and Maximum number of devices that could be connected. DVD-R is a once-recordable form of DVD. and/or computer data. The original speed rating for DVDs is different from that of a CD-R. IDE/EIDE is usually associated with PATA. and you will not be able to read a DVD using a CDR. audio.640KB/sec. Earlier. For a DVD. single-sided DVD has a capacity of 4. Serial ATA (SATA): Serial ATA (SATA) is a next generation technology based on ATA. DVD and DVD RW DVD stands for Digital Video Disk (Also known as Digital Versatile Disk). traditional ATA was named as PATA (Parallel ATA).705KB/sec. 1x is 1352.7GB where as a CD-ROM has a capacity of around 650MB. Maximum throughput (MB/sec) Maximum cable length. DVD-RW or DVD-R/RW can be written multiple times. DVD looks very similar to CD-R. It looks very similar to that of a CD drive. 2x for a DVD drive is 2.
Normally. One is non-interlaced. Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) display Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) display Plasma Displays Cathode Ray Tube (CRT): CRT display is the most commonly used form of visual displays. A computer monitor using CRT display. an electron beam sweeps the display screen horizontally. This type of scanning (line-by-line) is known as raster scan. gradually down the screen. all the displays are interlaced to reduce flicker. through it is getting gradually replaced with LCD and Plasma displays. A synchronization (sync) signal brings the beam back to the top row of the display. one line at a time. . Figure: CRT cross sectional diagram showing important components of a CRT. There are two types of cathode ray displays. In a CRT. and the other is interlaced.
the screen is refreshed between 60-100 times per second. for non-interlaced display. A black and white monitor contains only one electron gun. each 800 pixels wide. produces images on the screen. The horizontal and vertical deflection takes place by applying appropriate voltages to the horizontal. alternate rows are scanned. and blue. whereas a color display monitor will have three electron guns. and vertical deflection plates. If a positive voltage is applied to the screen grid. One basic unit of measurement is "pixel". A screen displaying 800 x 600 pixels has 600 rows. Usually.As shown in the figure. The grid shown in the figure controls the speed with with the electrons hit the screen. and drives the video display. Graphics Cards: The graphics card resides in the CPU box. Given below are the commonly used screen resolutions: Display Type Number of pixels Video Graphics Array (VGA) 640 * 480 pixels Super Video Graphics 800 * 600 pixels Array(SVGA) eXtended Graphics Array 1024 * 768 pixels (XGA) Super eXtended graphics 1280 * 1024 pixels Array (SXGA) Screen resolution is always stated as the horizontal number of pixels by the vertical number of pixels. For non-interlaced display. making the screen brighter. green. If a negative voltage is applied to the grip. because of which the electrons are accelerated and hit the screen. the scanning is done continuously from top to bottom. The microscopic control of electron beam flow. each of which represent red. the electrons are decelerated and the screen will not glow. A typical graphics card is shown below: . A pixel is the smallest area in a graphics display that can be manipulated.
PCMCIA standards were developed for small. for graphic intensive applications. Though PCMCIA cards (PC Cards) were originally developed for use with Notebook computers. TV/Video connector.6 mm 54. such as rotating mass storage devices. PCM CIA Interface Cards (PC Cards) PCMCIA stands for Personal Computer Memory Card International Association.5 mm Depends on the functionality of the Back-end I/O Connector PC Card . Type II PC Cards are typically used for I/O devices such as modems. Important characteristics of PC Cards: Property Physical Connector Length Width Thickness Type-I Type-II Type-III Value Interface 68 pins 85. 3.0 mm 3. and SRAM cards. 2. the same are being extensively used in other devices also. Type-I PC Cards are typically used for memory devices such as RAM. Usually. and LAN cards. and a VGA connector. you need a higher end graphic adapter card.The graphics card shown includes DVI connector. Type-I 2. credit card-sized devices. Type-II 3. Type-III 1. The card has an on-board graphics processor with cooling fan. Type III PC Cards are used for devices that consist of thicker components. For normal desktop usage.0 mm 10. a video adapter will be sufficient. Types of PC Cards: There are 3 types of PC Cards.3 mm 5. Flash. 1. called PC Cards.
ME. Advantages of PC Cards: Several advantages offered by PC cards are as given below: 1. 6.11b/g Wireless PC Card A wireless LAN card is shown in the figure above. IEEE 802. Power Management: The Standard provides a means to interface to APM (Advanced Power Management). 3. This in turn improves performance.3V as well as 5V operation. Plug and Play: PC Cards can be inserted or removed while the system is powered-on. eXecute In Place (XIP): XIP allows operating system and application software to run directly from the PC Card. Low Voltage Operation: The Standard enables 3. 802.11b.11a.PCMCIA Card (PC Card) slots: Just like PC Cards. and eliminates the need for large amounts of system RAM. PCMCIA slots also come in three sizes: Type I slot: Holds up to one Type I card Type II slot: Holds up to one Type II card or two Type I cards Type III slot: Holds up to one Type III card or a Type I and Type II card. 98.11b. Typical specifications for the same are given below: Connection Type: Wireless Connector: PCMCIA Supported Wireless Standards: 802. but operates without being physically wired to a network device. DMA: The Standard allows cards to utilize Direct Memory Access technology directly in the hardware when matched with a corresponding host system. 7. 802. CardBus: CardBus allows PC Cards and hosts to use 32-bit bus mastering. It enables a mobile user to connect to a local area network (LAN) through a wireless connection. 4.11g Supported Operating Systems: Windows. 2000. 2. and 802. XP . PC Card Uses: Some of the frequently used PC Card types include the following: LAN card Wireless LAN card Modem card ATA flash disk card IEEE 1394/Firewire USB A wireless LAN serves the same functionality of a traditional LAN card. Linksys 802.11g specify the technologies for wireless LANs.
Avoid COM2 setting this IRQ to other devices. This IRQ is assigned to the serial ports COM 1. it may lead to serious IRQ conflicts resulting in a hung operating system. the system allowcates the different non-competing IRQ numbers to different devices. This IRQ uses IRQ 2 to talk to the CPU. Normally. This IRQ is assigned to the keyboard. Avoid COM1 setting this IRQ to other devices. and not available for other devices. The table below gives normally assigned IRQ numbers in Pentium compatible systems: :IRQ Usage 0 System Timer 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Comments This IRQ is used within the system board for system timing. Controller Memory Mapped Input/Output Addresses: . Not available to any other addKeyboard Controller in cards. This line is NOT Real Time Clock available to other add-on cards.IRQs. Since most Controller systems use FDC. Normally used for network Substitutes for IRQ 2 cards. do not use this IRQ for anything else. and COM 4. Unit (NPU) Primary Hard Disk This IRQ is assigned to the primary hard drive interface Controller Secondary Hard Disk This IRQ is assigned to the secondary hard drive interface. This IRQ is reserved for the internal real-time clock. However. do not use this IRQ for other requirements. It can also be made LPT1 available to other add-in cards. Numerical Processing Used for math co-processor. The system allocated IRQs may some times be manually changed. when you least anticipate it. If you are using PS/2 Mouse port on system. This IRQ is assigned to the parallel port LPT1. or others Not Assigned Left open for use with any other device This IRQ is used for the PS/2 style mouse port normally available on PS/2 Mouse Port many motherboards. but avoid using it for any other cards. Tied to IRQs 8-15 This IRQ was assigned to older EGA video cards. and I/O Addresses: IRQ ( Short for Interrupt ReQuest): An IRQ allows a device to request certain system resources on priority. This IRQ is assigned to a secondary printer port LPT2. It may lead to conflicts at a future time. it is used for sound card. and COM 3. Floppy Diskette This IRQ is assigned to the Floppy Diskette Controller. Not Assigned Can be used for network card. If LPT2 is not LPT2 or Sound Card available. This IRQ is assigned to the serial ports COM 2.
Used for the SCSI host adapters Could be used for a SCSI host adapter Could be used for a Network card. . Assigned to COM 3 and used with IRQ 4 Assigned to COM 1 and used with IRQ 4 A rule of thumb for IEQ. and the rest of the system. If you have installed any device recently. Assigned to LPT2 or LPT3 Optional address for sound cards and network cards Default for many network cards Assigned to COM 4 and used with IRQ 3 Assigned to COM 2 and used with IRQ 3 nother Network Interface Card choice Used for a SCSI host adapter or MIDI device. and the system may hang or not function normally. provided there are no conflicks.Input/output addresses ( I/O addresses for short) are resources used by almpst every device in the computer. LPT) is assigned to another device (say. and IO address conflicts is that the PC is unable to boot or giving error codes during boot process. If an address space allocated to one device (say. The I/O addresses represent the location in memory for a given device to exchange information between itself. This is assigned to the first parallel printer port (LPT1) in monochrome systems. Given below is the list of commonly used I/O address spaces allocated to various system devices: I/O Address Common Device using the Address Space 060h 064h 130 140 170h 1F0h 220 240 260 270 278h 280 300 2E8h 2F8h 300h 320h 330h 340h 360h 378h 3BCh 3E8h 3F8h and and and Used by keyboard controller Used by SCSI host adapters Secondary IDE Interface Primary IDE Interface Default address for Sound cards Optional address for sound cards and network cards Optional address for sound cards and network cards. remove or disable it and see if the PC boots properly. This is assigned to the first parallel printer port (LPT 1) in color systems. IDE controller) than I/O address conflict will arise. You can use this for a Network card when not assigned to any SCSI or MIDI device. These address spaces are permanently allocated to the system devices. Normally used with IRQ 7.
Cables and Connectors Serial Ports: The serial port is an Asynchronous port which transmits data one bit of data at a time. DB-25 Male Connector . Outline Diagram of DB-9 DB-9 Female Connector Pin description: Pin # Pin 1 Pin 2 Pin 3 Pin 4 Pin 5 Pin 6 Pin 7 Pin 8 Pin 9 Pin Description Data Carrier Detect DCD Received Data RxData Transmitted Data TxData Data Terminal Ready DTR Signal Ground Gnd Data Set Ready DSR Request To Send RTS Clear To Send CTS Ring Indicator RI 2. and easy to recognize. The connector is "D" shaped. The connector is "D" shaped. and not much used in modern day computers. Serial port hardware usually consists of a UART (Universal Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter). DB25: DB25 adheres to the RS-232C interface standard. It has 9 pins as shown in the figure. Most commonly used serial ports are given below: 1. and easy to recognize. It has 25 pins as shown in the figure. DB9: DB9 adheres to the RS-232c interface standard. DB-25 is normally used in older computers. The function of each pin is described below.
RJ-45 is commonly used for Ethernet network interface card (NIC). RJ-45 connector schematic RJ-45 connector crimped to a cable.3. RJ-11: RJ-11 is a 4-wire connector. commonly used with a modem. . where as RJ-45 is an 8-wire connector. Note that an RJ11 is a 4-wire connector. Schematic of RJ-11 Connector An RJ-11 Cable with Connector Pin # A1 A2 A3 A4 Function Ground Rx (Data Input) Tx (Data Output) Vc (Power) 4. It should not be confused with bigger RJ-45 cable and connector. RJ-45: An RJ-45 connector has 4 pairs of wires as shown in the schematic diagram below.
Hubs. Parallel Ports: 1. and the other is Cross-over cable. DB-25 DB-25 connector is most commonly used in conjunction with a parallel printer. Straight-through cables are used for connecting a network device to a work station. Pin # Pin 1 Pin 2 Pin 3 Pin 4 Pin 5 Pin 6 Pin 7 Pin 8 Pin 9 Pin 10 Pin 11 Pin 12 Pin 13 Pin 14 Pin 15 Pin 16 Pin 17 Pin 18 .RJ-45 connector is commonly used for Ethernet Networking ports.Pin 25 Function Strobe Data Bit 0 Data Bit 1 Data Bit 2 Data Bit 3 Data Bit 4 Data Bit 5 Data Bit 6 Data Bit 7 Acknowledge Busy Paper End Select Auto Feed Error Initialize Printer Select Input Ground (return for pins 0-7) The length of Parallel Printer cable usually limited to a maximum of 15 feet Other Type of Parallel Ports: . It has an 8 bit data bus as shown in the figure below. Devices that normally use RJ-45 ports include NICs. There are basically two types of cables. One is Straight-through cable. Switches. and Routers. Cross-over cables are used for connecting a hub to a switch or a hub to another hub.
and USB B. Connectors and Cables -ii 1. 200. The most important features of USB bus include the following: Plug'n'Play: USB is a truly plug-n-play port. Both are shown in the figure below. The standard is most suitable for transferring high volumes of information including video. is an additional enhanced Parallel port. . Pin # Pin 1 Pin 2 Pin 3 Pin 4 Function +5V DC DataData+ Ground USB"A" plugs are used towards the host system and USB "B" plugs are used towards the USB device. This is much more than what is normally required. or 400 mega bits per second (Mb/sec).Enhanced Parallel Port (EPP): The Enhanced Parallel Port (EPP) operates close to ISA bus speed and can achieve transfer rates up to 1 to 2MB/sec of data. USB USB stands for Universal Serial Bus. Given below are some of the important features of IEEE 1394 standard: Based on open licensing system. The difference between the two is in the physical layout of pins in the connector. You dont need to power-off the computer to remove or insert a USB device. 2. and its ready to use. Digital transmission with data rates of 100. Low cost cables and connectors USB connectros can be broadly divided into USB A. The port is automatically detected by the system. 127 physical devices: A USB can support up to 127 devices. FireWire/IEEE1394 FireWire/IEEE1394 port provides data rates up to 400 Mb/sec. Enhanced Capabilities Port (ECP): The Enhanced Capabilities Port (ECP). Hot plug and unplug: It is possible to insert an USB device and and unplug without affecting the functioning of a computer. and voice data.
Supports both asynchronous (Based on request-and-acknowledge form of computer communication. TPA+ PC Power Supplies PC power supplies deliver required DC power to the computer electronic sub-systems including Motherboard. differential signals. Peer-to-peer functionality Compatibility. Hot pluggable: Cables can be connected and disconnected without turning off power to the computer. TPATwisted-pair A. Flexible: You can connect FireWire cables in a daisy-chain or in branching cable configurations. Useful for video and audio). TPB+ Twisted-pair A. Ground Twisted-pair B. TPB+ Twisted-pair A. differential signals. Mouse. differential signals. and others. and isochronous data transfer. TPBTwisted-pair B. Hard drive. differential signals. TPATwisted-pair A. used typically with dial-up modems). lower speed USB devices can be connected with higher speed devices. guaranteed data transmission at a pre-determined speed. Plug and play: Automatically detected by the operating system during start-up or during usage. 18-28v no load. differential signals. differential signals. TPBTwisted-pair B. TPA+ 6 PIN IEEE1394 (with Power): IEEE1394 6-pin connector schematic. 4 PIN IEEE1394 (without Power) A IEEE 1394 Connector schematic Pin Pin #1 Pin #2 Pin #3 Pin #4 Function Twisted-pair B. differential signals. CDROM drive. Keyboard. Usually. Pin # 1 2 3 4 5 6 Function Power. regular CRT .( Continuous. differential signals.
An ATX power supply. +3. to enable the delivery of more +12 VDC current to the motherboard. and a simple ATX power supply with not have the +12V power connector.monitors derive power separately from the mains. PC power supplies work by converting the AC mains power supply to required DC power supplies. ATX12V will have a +12 V power connector. There are mainly two types of power supplies used in computers: ATX Power Supply ATX12V Power Supply ATX12V power supplies are intended to be downward compatible with ATX power supplies. 3. 5. 6. 2. 4. typically found in all Pentium class computers is shown below: The voltages produced by ATX/ATX12V power supplies are: 1.3 Volts DC +5 Volts DC -5 Volts DC +5 Volts DC Standby +12 Volts DC -12 Volts DC ATX and ATX12V power supply connectors pin configuration is shown below: . additional 4-pins are provided for taking care of +12 V power supply. As the PC components take more and more power. Thus.
Available in: ATX and ATX12V 20 Pin Molex ATX Power Connector: This is used to power the motherboard in ATX systems. and two connections of +3.available in: ATX/ATX12V To power up an ATX or ATX12V PSU for testing. a power supply may have a CPU power connector. Available in: ATX & ATX12V 4 Pin Molex Connector 4 Pin Molex Connector: This is used to power various components.3V. including hard drives and optical drives.available in: ATX (ATX12V have 24 pins) 4 Pin Molex P4 12V Power Connector: Used specifically for Pentium 4 Processor Motherboards. and an Auxiliary power connector. available in: ATX (integrated into the power connector in ATX12V) 6 Pin AUX Connector 6 Pin AUX Connector: Provides +5V DC. short pin 14 (PS_ON) with any of the ground pins. Following are the most commonly used power supply connectors: 4 Pin Berg Connector: Used to connect the PSU to small form factor devices. . such as 3.ATX12V Connector (it has 24 pins) ATX Connector (it has 20 pins) In addition to the Motherboard power connector.5" floppy drives.
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