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The Japanese architect Tetsuro Yoshida was a key mediator of architectural interchange between East and West through his travel in the West (1931–32) and Das japanische Wohnhaus (1935).
Tetsuro Yoshida (1894–1956) and architectural interchange between East and West
‘I have long been dreaming a dream: that I am a drop of dew on the leaf of a nameless plant deep in the valley of some faroff mountain range. The dewdrop rolls down into a little brook and mingles with its waters; the brook flows into a river which in turn discharges into the sea, and the waves of the sea in their turn lave the coasts of all the countries of the earth. Thus I picture to myself the cultural interchange of all peoples, and it has been my wish to take part, even if only as one little drop, in this important work.’ (Tetsuro Yoshida, 1955)1 Architectural interchange between East and West2 is no longer a new story. Not only was Western Modernism imported to the East, East Asian sources also provoked fashions in Europe such as Chinoiserie in the mid-eighteenth century and Japonisme in the mid- to late nineteenth. Frank Lloyd Wright (1867–1959) is considered to have shown this influence most clearly,3 but in European Modernism, too, the East Asian inspiration, especially the Japanese, was significant. European architects encountered Japan in various ways, but publications were the most common source, and among these Tetsuro Yoshida’s Das japanische Wohnhaus (1935)4 was especially influential. Its importance is shown by the fact that it was widely circulated immediately after publication and also that it was to a large extent written at the request of the leading Modernists Hugo Häring and Ludwig Hilberseimer, whom Yoshida met during his travels in Europe.5 Tetsuro Yoshida has not had much exposure in the West. Richard Neutra’s articles in Die Form of 1931 included several photographs of Yoshida’s Electrical Laboratory (1930) and Baba Residence (1928),6 but these seem hardly to have been noticed. Reni Türdinger’s obituary of Yoshida in Werk (1956)7 and Udo Kultermann’s half-page description of him in New Japanese Architecture (1960) and the Epilogue to the Pall Mall Press English version (1969) of Das japanische Wohnhaus provide documentation but fall short of picturing him adequately.8 To the student of Japanese modern architecture, he is remembered, at best, as the designer of the Tokyo Central Post Office building as illustrated in Stewart (1987).9 Japanese researchers have accumulated several studies on him,10 but these remain unknown in the West because of the language barrier. More importantly, most studies deal only in passing with Yoshida’s role as a bridge between Japan and Europe, and fail to describe the effect of his appearance in the European context. This paper sees Yoshida as an intermediary, who introduced Japanese architecture to the West as well as Western architecture to Japan. It accords with his life-long dream to be seen as ‘a drop of dew’ for ‘the cultural interchange of all peoples’. To illuminate this aspect, I will look at his career; consider the book Das japanische Wohnhaus and its impact; and then describe his contacts with European Modernists during his year-long travels in the West of 1931–32. I will follow up these explorations by considering what it was about his conception of architecture that enabled him to bring one culture to the other, and vice versa. The architect Tetsuro Yoshida (1894–1956) Born in Toyama Prefecture of Japan in 1894 (Meiji 27), Yoshida belongs to the same generation as the socalled ‘modern masters’ in Europe, being seven years younger than Le Corbusier and four years older than
1 Tetsuro Yoshida in his early years at Teishinsho
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24 . eyebrow window.13 Among the professors. 2 3 Alvar Aalto .235. The English architect Josiah Conder (1852–1920). which was merged into Tokyo Imperial University in 1886. Entitled ‘Future House Architecture in our Country’. Tadashi Sekino who was expert on Japanese Shinto shrine and Buddhist temple architecture. in the steep roof. Kyoto Central Telephone Ofﬁce Shinkumi Branch. Philippe Burty used the term ‘Japonisme’ in 1872 to mean ‘a study of the history. Many Western style buildings – mainly in historical revivalist and eclectic styles – were built by him. Consequent to the establishment of the architectural education system.cambridge. Asia and the West.14 The best-recorded part of Yoshida’s university education is his graduation thesis and design. who entered Japan in 1877. graduation design. etc. and architectural history. vol 12 . Yoshida was taught architecture in a modern way at Tokyo Imperial University between 1916 and 1919.12 In 1893 the famous Japanese Pavilion Ho-o-den was ¯ ¯ built at the World’s Columbian Exposition in Hyon-Sob Kim Chicago. aseismatic structure. and art of Japan’ in response to Japanese arts pouring into Europe during the 1860s. 2008 history 2 Tetsuro Yoshida. culture. the pioneer of Japanese architectural history. Art Association Building. however. elaborate brick works.64. stimulating many visitors including the young Frank Lloyd Wright. this was a period when interest in Japan increased dramatically. architectural planning. 1919 3 Tetsuro Yoshida.44 arq .org Downloaded: 26 Jun 2011 IP address: 130. his pupils and by others.11 On the other side of the globe. and by the time he was born Japan had already westernised many parts of its social structure following the Meiji Restoration of 1868. three were admired most – Yasushi Tsukamoto in charge of architectural planning. Especially. 1922–24. aroused the admiration of students. and Chuta Ito who covered ¯ architectural history across Japan. The curriculum comprised four thematic areas taught by different professors: construction and materials. He was the contemporary of ‘Bunriha’ or Japanese Secessionist architects like Mamoru Yamada (1894–1966). Kikuji Ishimoto (1894–1963) and Sutemi Horiguchi (1895–1984). it criticised a materialistic tendency of the time caused by Tetsuro Yoshida (1894–1956) and architectural interchange between East and West http://journals. had played an important role in educating Japanese architects and establishing a Western-style architectural department in the College of Engineering. no 1 . the erudite lectures of Professor Ito ¯ (1867–1954). This building is reminiscent of Fritz Schumacher’s works in Hamburg.
this white-tiled.235.org Downloaded: 26 Jun 2011 IP address: 130. as in Kyoto Central Telephone Office Shinkumi Branch (1922–24) . in which personal and social demands could be harmonised. ‘Japanese modern architecture gave birth Hyon-Sob Kim Tetsuro Yoshida (1894–1956) and architectural interchange between East and West http://journals. Yoshida’s career as a progressive Modernist came into full bloom with the Osaka Central Post Office of 1936–39 [9–10].history arq . this building does not have any decoration. and the arrangement of windows in the front facade is compact and well-proportioned. The facade is also devoid of ornament. tower-like stack and decorations in doors allude to National Romantic motifs in Scandinavian countries. Yoshida could produce a number of Modernist buildings.24 . However. five-storey steel-reinforced concrete building not only pursued the function of fast and efficient delivery of mail but also gave a symbolic image to modern Tokyo. Nonetheless. this ministry sought to pursue rationality and progressiveness in its works like the post. both in plan and in elevation. notably the clear post-beam structure that echoes Japanese timber- 4 5 4 Tetsuro Yoshida. This eclectic gesture proves that he was still bound to nineteenth-century historicism. front facade of Beppu City Auditorium. it was built beside the main station as a steel reinforced concrete structure covered with tiles – but grey ones this time. alludes to Classical taste. In other words. Yoshida’s work has a power in its austere and rigorous organisation. Yoshida signalled his entry to the modern architectural stream with the completion of Tokyo Central Post Office (1927–31) [6–8].19 His early works show some north-German influence from Fritz Schumacher. In addition. vol 12 . 2008 45 scientific development. no 1 . Yet its floors were rectangular thanks to the better-shaped site and. 1926–28 5 Elevations of Beppu City Auditorium. and Yoshida is considered to have achieved his own mastery of Modernism with this building. with its symmetrical facade and plan. the expression of structure is more lucid with minimised visible framework. this Modernist architecture has many things in common with the traditional Japanese house in its principles. or Art Association Building . an expression of frankness and rationality that Yoshida (1935) emphasised as a quality of the Japanese house.18 In this liberal atmosphere. and also some Scandinavian National Romantic details as in Beppu City Auditorium (1926–28) [4–5]. Consequently. Tokyo Central Post Office became not only Yoshida’s first masterpiece but also one of the heroic examples that heralded Japanese Modernism in architecture.cambridge. With this building. such as those of Stockholm Town Hall (1909–23) by Ragnar Östberg framed building and allows a maximum size of opening in the wall as well as a flexible division of floors. The overall facades and details like rounded arches. corbelled balcony. and therefore it was appropriate that Teishinsho-related buildings should be the vehicles for ‘Shinkenchiku’ or new architecture. the overhang on the roof of Osaka Central Post Office is a unique design element reminiscent of traditional Japanese eaves. telegram and telephone services. Like its Tokyo counterpart. although the cornice-like horizontal line below the top storey still remains. and with an open layout in plan. in elevation.15 The graduation design ‘Bijutsu Kyokai’. Osaka Central Post Office illustrates a much more distilled Modernist image than the Tokyo office. reflects the ¯ contemporary Secessionist trend in the parabolic dome on the tower and entrance details.16 but the whole composition. the 25-yearold Yoshida started working at the Buildings and Repairs Section in ‘Teishinsho’ or Ministry of Communications. Newly established.64. Located just beside Tokyo Station. Unlike the earlier designs. anticipating the character of designs to come. The contrast of the white tile wall and the black-framed large window array in the facade represents the clarity and simplicity of modern architecture. and argued for cultural expression of life’s ideal value in a reformed house. However.17 A week after graduation in July 1919.
When he died of a brain tumour in 1956. But at the same time. he must be placed within a broader scope. For this building. invited competition entry. like the Training School for Senior Mariners (1943) and dormitories for Lighthouse-Keepers (1943). Nevertheless. rear view. there can be seen a passage with railway tracks for the efﬁcient delivery of mail. no 1 . Hideo Gozaka’s entry won the competition.org Downloaded: 26 Jun 2011 IP address: 130. in 1952. As a Modernist who learned from Western architectural development. he attempted to combine traditional Japanese architectural principles with what he learned from contemporary European architecture. Hokuriku Bank Niigata Branch.46 arq . Tokyo Central Post Ofﬁce. he submitted grand but unsuccessful designs to invited competitions for the Tokyo Municipality Government Office and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs Office . This white reinforced-concrete building became a symbol of the modern Tokyo 8 Tokyo Central Post Ofﬁce. he undertook private projects including several villas for the Baba family [14–20].20 Following the Osaka Central Post Office. most of which were realised. Yoshida’s architectural work was just one aspect of his career: he was also a prolific writer. as a Japanese Modern architect. which was one reason why Yoshida resigned from Teishinsho in 1944. Yoshida is remembered as one of the leaders of ‘Teishin Kenchiku’ or Architecture of Teishinsho. whose Electrical Laboratory in Tokyo (1929) was included in Hitchcock and Johnson’s The International Style (1932). but they were relatively small projects. However. eight leading architects were invited. Ministry of Foreign Affairs Ofﬁce.235. 1936–39. vol 12 .21 However. The framework of this building was more clearly expressed in the facade than that of Tokyo Post Ofﬁce 10 Osaka Central Post Ofﬁce. and a large percentage of his designs were for the ministry-related public works.24 . He is seen as the architect of Teishinsho because his career started in the ministry.64. Even when employed in Hyon-Sob Kim 6 Tetsuro Yoshida. 1981) Teishinsho. Gozaka accepted to a large extent Yoshida’s ideas and advice for the executed design (Mukai. Yoshida’s position is not limited to that of official architect. Fewer works were accomplished in the early 1940s because of war-time retrenchment. two years later he obtained a professorship from Nihon University and proceeded with independent projects like the Niigata Branch of Hokuriku Bank (1950–51)  and Mimatsu Bookstore (1953). Yoshida designed several more Teishin buildings. In the basement. beam and spandrel around windows) even more vividly than that of Osaka Central Post Ofﬁce 12 Tetsuro Yoshida. However.23 Tetsuro Yoshida (1894–1956) and architectural interchange between East and West http://journals. Finally. 2008 history 6 7 8 to its own unique design beyond just a simple imitation of the West’ as Yakushiji (1968) argued. The facade of this building expresses the structure (column. ground ﬂoor (left) and basement (right) plan.cambridge. 1952. 1950–51. which is connected to Tokyo Station 9 Tetsuro Yoshida. he left almost one hundred designs. including Mamoru Yamada and Kenzo Tange. The wholly glazed staircase and the overhangs on the roofs are notable 11 Tetsuro Yoshida. Along with Mamoru Yamada. he established the architect’s position there.22 That is to say. 1927–31 7 Bird’s-eye view of Tokyo Central Post Ofﬁce with Tokyo Station at bottom right. he applied up-to-date rational building types on Japanese soil. Osaka Central Post Ofﬁce.
org Downloaded: 26 Jun 2011 IP address: 130. and these became his German trilogy . no 1 .64.history arq . vol 12 .235. He also published two other books through the same publisher Ernst Wasmuth: Japanische Architektur (1952) and Der japanische Garten (1957). Hokuo¯ Tetsuro Yoshida (1894–1956) and architectural interchange between East and West 12 Hyon-Sob Kim http://journals. 1930). introducing Japanese architecture to the West.cambridge. he tried to introduce Western architecture to Japan by writing or translating books such as Sekai-no-GendaiKenchiku (World contemporary architecture. 2008 47 9 11 10 Das japanische Wohnhaus and its impact The first and primary route by which Yoshida introduced Japanese architecture to Western architects was the 1935 book Das japanische Wohnhaus.24 . In reverse.
the intimate relationship between architecture and nature. 1957). V Building timbers. the book’s content is no less important than the circumstantial factors. The organisation is very practical. It is composed of nine chapters – I Introduction. and the book was established as a classic on traditional Japanese architecture. So to speak. were Japanese sources27 – and tried to describe the Japanese house as correctly and concisely as possible. was Yoshida’s book so successful? Above all. and R. heating.28 He emphasised particularly. naturally. lighting and water supply and drainage. which corresponds with Bruno Taut’s impression of Japan. and standardisation. making it accessible to foreign architects and even laymen. rationality. However. this book lacks descriptions of some important details like the ceiling structure or the roof construction method. the revised edition (1954) and the English version. He claimed in his preface that he was surprised at their strong interest in the ‘japanischen Wohnungsbau’. 1886). he aimed at the modern rational through the traditional Japanese. could also be applied to modern architecture. posthumous publication. Also. and the whole composition and Yoshida’s literary style are clear and concise with high-quality Hyon-Sob Kim 14 15 illustrations [14–15]. or Japanese house building.25 Owing to increasing demand. A. IX Problem of urban planning and housing – and an appendix of standardisation and workmanship.48 arq .235. appeared two decades later. Some of the harshest criticism came.64. Cram’s Impressions of Japanese Architecture and Allied Arts (New York. S. who lived in Japan between 1933 and 1936 and praised Yoshida as the most excellent architect in Japan. By the time of its publication. its Architecture. it was published when interest in Japanese architecture was keenest among the European architects participating in the Modern Movement. E. during his travels in Europe between September 1931 and June 1932. Baltzer’s Das japanische Haus (Berlin. from the historic background through to the structural and technical details.26 Why. and actually built several houses. vol 12 . Art and Art Manufactures (London. 2008 history 13 no-Kenchiku (the translation of Nordische Baukunst by Rasmussen. III Plan. As examples of the ‘contemporary’ traditional Japanese house. including Christopher Dresser’s Japan. structural beauty. and that he was recommended to write a book on this theme by Häring and Hilberseimer in Berlin. Response to the book was not completely favourable. As soon as it appeared. II Historical development. from Bruno Taut (1880–1938).org Downloaded: 26 Jun 2011 IP address: 130. surprisingly. he included over twenty photographs of his own designs – Baba Nasu Villa (1927) and Baba Ushigome Residence (1928). 1940.30 As well as introducing the Japanese house to the West.’33 He also criticised the inclusion of extravagant Tetsuro Yoshida (1894–1956) and architectural interchange between East and West http://journals. he argued that the merits of the traditional Japanese house should be synthesised with a modern life style as the European influence becomes stronger in the contemporary Japanese house. He digested over thirty references – most of which. Morse’s Japanese Homes and their Surroundings (Boston.24 . 1903). no 1 . such as ‘rationality’ and ‘standardisation’. then. The Japanese House and Garden (1955). 1905). several books on Japanese architecture had already been published in the West. Yoshida mentions various advantages of the traditional Japanese house: for example. IV Examples of plan. it was written by a ‘Japanese’ architect who had been educated and practised in Japan. VIII Garden. ‘Sauberkeit (übertriebene Reinlichkeit)’ or purity (exaggerated cleanliness)29 as Japanese aesthetics.31 The implicit message of the book was that the values of the traditional Japanese house. 1882).24 while Manfred Speidel in a recent paper (2005) praised the book as ‘something like the solution to a thirty years long mystery about the Japanese House’. VI Construction and constructional details. Publication by the internationally renowned Wasmuth may have doubled its impact. VII Ventilation.cambridge. its flexibility. But it was not the first. F. Das japanische Wohnhaus was widely read and reviewed and Kultermann later summarised its impact as bringing about ‘a considerable stir in Europe and America’.32 His first objection was to the excessive descriptions of technical details: ‘Can there be any German architect that is going to build a Japanese house in Berlin on the basis of the size and detail of the Japanese architecture? Even if there is one. room allocation and interior design. 1978) and Sweden-no-Kenchikuka (Swedish architects.
main entrance. is the interior of Baba Residence at Ushigome. captioned ‘Open veranda in a country house. kitchen entrance. Japanische Architektur (1952) and Der japanische Garten (1957) 14 First image of Das japanische Wohnhaus (1935) and ‘Introduction’. 1928’. The top left image. 7. main garden.org Downloaded: 26 Jun 2011 IP address: 130.cambridge. From left. front garden. light garden. captioned ‘Reception room of a house in Tokyo. The image. 1927’ is that of Baba Villa at Nasu by Yoshida.235. teahouse.history arq . tea-garden. Garden design by Tamura 17 Outside view of Baba Residence at Ushigome (the reception room part) from the main garden.24 . 5. and bottom left is an outside view of Baba Residence at Ushigome 16 Site plan of Baba Residence at Ushigome (1. 9. no. 2. 3. kitchen yard). Tokyo by Yoshida 15 Inside of Das japanische Wohnhaus (1935). vol 12 . 4. 8. back garden. 2008 49 13 Book jackets of Yoshida’s German trilogy on Japanese architecture published by Verlag Ernst Wasmuth. 6. no 1 . 4 in the site plan  16 17 Tetsuro Yoshida (1894–1956) and architectural interchange between East and West Hyon-Sob Kim http://journals.64. Das japanische Wohnhaus (1935).
1931).37 This argument is credible because Aalto’s adoption of this art display custom exactly corresponds with Yoshida’s explanation of the Japanese tokonoma tradition – displaying only one Hyon-Sob Kim Tetsuro Yoshida (1894–1956) and architectural interchange between East and West 21 http://journals. and also between the Mairea garden with its hillock and his illustration of ‘tsukiyama’ garden. but even added to it. From Shin-NihonJutaku-Zushu (1931) ¯ 19 Cover page of ShinNihon-Jutaku-Zushu ¯ (Illustrations of New Japanese Houses. Pallasmaa suggested similarities between the shelf of the Mairea flower room and Yoshida’s illustration of various ‘tana’.64. This photograph was to be published again by Asplund (1931)  and also by Yoshida himself (1935)  21 Published version of Gunnar Asplund’s inaugural lecture at Stockholm’s Royal Institute of Technology in November 1931 (Byggmästaren: Arkitektupplagan. vol 12 . Yoshida had used his pen name ‘Tetsuro Shima’ until this publication 20 Inside page of ShinNihon-Jutaku-Zushu ¯ that shows the veranda image of Baba Villa at Nasu. And further criticism followed against the idealisation of Japan. no 1 .24 . Alvar Aalto is one of the most notable architects to have been influenced by the book. As a 18 portfolio of the two Baba houses. This photo symbolises Asplund’s adoption of Spenglerian ‘inﬁnite space’ 19 20 illustrations of Katsura and aristocratic villas to beautify a text mainly concerned with ordinary people’s houses. 1931) by Yoshida.36 I have proposed a further possibility that the art display concept in the house came from the Japanese tradition of the ‘tokonoma’ or picture recess.cambridge. This photo was not included in the illustrations of Das japanische Wohnhaus. The main building located on a ridge of a mountain and the bath hut below the steep slope are connected by a staircase. 2008 history 18 Tetsuro Yoshida. Taut’s arguments did not suppress the book’s popularity. the sliding door next to the main staircase and the glass door to the flower room’. Asplund used Yoshida’s Baba Nasu Villa veranda image as the opening illustration.org Downloaded: 26 Jun 2011 IP address: 130. 1927. Juhani Pallasmaa’s interview with one of Aalto’s assistants revealed that he referred to it for some details in the Villa Mairea (1937–39)  – such as ‘the main entrance.34 Despite their validity. and the way it differed from the reality he had experienced.235.35 In addition.50 arq . Baba Villa at Nasu. certainly it was used to introduce the Japanese house to European architects.
Johannes Brinkman in Rotterdam. Josef Frank (Vienna). because there is no diary for those days. Robert Vorhölzer (Munich). Holland. Noormarkku. visiting Switzerland. and it is unbalanced from the viewpoint of this research. France. Hungary.41 His official duty was to investigate Western broadcasting facilities. in the sliding door. Sweden. For almost a year before moving on to the United States he traversed Europe extensively from his base-camp in Berlin. but he spent only September 1931 to June 1932 in Europe. winter garden or ﬂower room of Villa Mairea. Richard Döcker (Stuttgart). Another architect influenced by the book was Egon Eiermann (1904–70). he made a report entitled ‘Hamburg-Hosokyoku¯ ¯ Chosa-Hokokusho’ (Report on Investigation into ¯ ¯ Hamburg Broadcasting Station) on his return. Mukai’s assessment was carried out to confirm what was inherited from Europe by Japanese modern architecture. the Japanese style window lattice and the paper lampshade or a few pictures and seasonally changing them. and Sigfried Giedion (Zurich). what was the effect of his travel in terms of the East-West interchange? Satoru Mukai’s Yoshida-Tetsuro-Kaigai-no-Tabi. Italy. and whom did he meet? Even more crucially. Rudolf Steiger. Austria. etc. he seems personally to have been more interested in seeing European buildings and in meeting their architects. is the essential source.38 In his lectures as professor at Karlsruhe he mentioned it so often that his students said he must have slept with the book under his pillow. Wilhelm Kreis (Dresden). including Werner Moser. 1937–39. Alfred Fischer (Karlsruhe). Indeed. not to ascertain what Yoshida brought to Europe. England. a compilation of Yoshida’s diaries and letters with annotations. ‘ORDERED TO GO TO FRANCE AND CANADA (TRAVEL EXPENSES SEVEN THOUSAND YEN PAID) TEISHINSHO’. Yoshida interacted with Western architects by meeting them personally. no 1 .235. where did he visit. Yet. It remains uncertain whom Yoshida met elsewhere. Mention of his stay in Europe and of the specific Berlin architects in the preface raises questions about his travels.cambridge. These are just two possible examples: many more architects were impressed by the book. vol 12 . Yoshida travelled around Europe and America for exactly one year. it is probable that he met Johannes Duiker in Amsterdam. Eiermann’s own housecum-atelier (1959–62)  in Baden-Baden was indebted to Yoshida from concept to detail. Czechoslovakia.39 Arguably.64. Here we are concerned with the transfers both ways. Germany. As a kind of civil servant. Ernst Wiesener (Brno). departing from Tokyo on 29 July 1931 and arriving in Yokohama on 28 July 1932. this conceptual link is critical in the design. Denmark.org Downloaded: 26 Jun 2011 IP address: 130.history arq . 2008 51 22 22 Alvar Aalto. who is usually regarded as ‘the most important German architect in the Miesian direction’ of the post-war period. But according to the schedule in his notebook. This room illustrates Japanese characteristics most vividly. Considering the importance of the art display function in the art collector’s house. Gunnar Asplund and Ragnar Östberg (Stockholm). Yoshida’s travels in Europe Before writing Das japanische Wohnhaus. Max Ernst Haefeli. Gerrit Rietveld in Hyon-Sob Kim Tetsuro Yoshida (1894–1956) and architectural interchange between East and West http://journals. for example. he was sent out to the West by the government. Belgium. He met many prominent architects.42 However.24 . as mentioned in Das japanische Wohnhaus.40 Why was he there. Norway.
he did not leave a diary of his four and a half months in Berlin.cambridge. But […] I plucked up the courage […] to write him a letter. 2008 history 23 Utrecht. Presumably. Yoshida knew what to see. as evinced by the case of Hilberseimer.52 arq . Gropius’s block embraces standardisation.46 Also. In the diary of 19 October. Hans Scharoun and Mies van der Rohe. Erich Mendelsohn. he clearly preferred the more rational direction in design.50 He showed little interest in the houses by Le Corbusier. whose reinforced concrete tectonic demonstrated affinity with Japanese timberframed structure. he carried for reference his university lecture notes of Professor Ito. Similarly. Franz Hoffmann. the home is the place of rest. he described it in detail and praised its high aesthetic value that overcomes the contemporary functionalist ideology. of a woman’s residence and a child’s education on the one hand. but he fully respected Corbusier’s master Auguste Perret. and F. Victor Bourgeois in Brussels. there were many more architects with whom Yoshida had a relationship in Berlin.48 Influenced by Key but rejecting the American feminist Charlotte Perkins Gilman. and the place of the social round on the other’. His disregard for Le Corbusier is rather unexpected. This tendency had already been evident in his early distinction from Japanese Secessionist architects. regarding it as his ‘mental pabulum’ and ‘spiritual home’. Taut and Poelzig. Yoshida found that many Western architects were eager to know about Japanese architecture. In the preface of his posthumous publication Swedenno-Kenchikuka. With its prefabrication module. Hans Luckhardt. R. Häring was the central figure among the Berliners for Yoshida to contact. Alfons Anker. After seeing the City Hall. he again expressed a deep affection for Swedish architecture.’47 It is not clear what sparked his fascination with Swedish architecture. especially Östberg’s Stockholm Town Hall (1909–23) . Yerbury in London. Yoshida’s diaries illustrate his ¯ opinions about buildings and architects that he saw and met. I hoped to meet Östberg. no 1 . but he noted the following architects’ addresses: Hans Poelzig. Bruno Taut. He had perused many Western magazines in Japan45 and even published the book Sekai-no-Gendai-Kenchiku (World Contemporary Architecture. and he vividly revealed his admiration for its designer Ragnar Östberg (1866–1945): ‘When I departed from Japan. Because it is composed of over a score of blocks by 16 different architects. while Stam’s simple and modular design appealed to him for the same reason. but his connection with the country could be traced back to his university Hyon-Sob Kim graduation thesis referring to the Swedish feminist writer Ellen Key (1849–1926) in support of his argument about the house’s meaning. he noted that ‘as a container of family life. That was perhaps the reason for visiting Perret’s buildings in Paris but not Le Corbusier’s. 1930). and it continued throughout his later work. he showed a clear indebtedness to Swedish National Romanticism. I didn’t feel like meeting him because I was overwhelmed by the greatness of the designer and felt severely my own shortcomings.org Downloaded: 26 Jun 2011 IP address: 130. In a letter to one assistant Tetsuro Yoshida (1894–1956) and architectural interchange between East and West http://journals. not only because of his position as the secretary of Der Ring but also because of his intellectual interest in broad themes including East Asian aesthetics. which deals with modern buildings in 13 Western countries. Walter Gropius. but he thought that ‘Gropius’s was very good as expected’ and Mart Stam’s also pretty good.43 He had already entertained Yamada two years before. which Yoshida emphasised as a merit of Japanese architecture in Das japanische Wohnhaus.49 Another notable comment was on the Weissenhofsiedlung in Stuttgart (1927) .51 Although Yoshida enjoyed cordial relations with architects like Häring and Taut. The less eye-catching but lasting beauty of his work exactly corresponds to Yoshida’s personality.64. Also in some of his early works like the above-mentioned Beppu City Auditorium.24 .235. however. In undertaking this trip.44 whose travels became an inviting precedent for his colleague Yoshida. it presents a good indication of Yoshida’s architectural leanings. which was the reason for his visiting Stockholm for his first excursion (18–24 October 1931) after settling in Berlin. vol 12 . he was obsessed with the beauty of Swedish architecture. Hugo Häring. Wassili Luckhardt.52 Soon after landing in Europe. Most of all.
Our house is our castle. we can say that Yoshida’s role in Asplund’s lecture was critical. and the other was to preserve the values of traditional Japanese architecture. Probably. When he emigrated to Sweden in 1933. but it no longer needs to be surrounded by wall and moat.24 . and the sliding door/ window which he was so interested in is a practical tool for the spatial transition and for the flexible structure. no 1 . the meeting with Yoshida (9–13 February 1932)62 became one more catalyst in his attraction to Far Eastern culture. During his stay in Berlin. he took with him ‘an understanding of Asian design’ according to Penny Sparke (1996). but what was his underlying motive? There were perhaps two needs that he had to satisfy. the earth embraces us again. 1909–23 24 architect in Teishinsho on 27 September. Because they want the actual size of the (Japanese style) sliding window.59 He had also shown a favourable attitude towards East Asia in Architektur als Symbol (1931): ‘Japan has freed us from the curse of monumentality. and send them to me’.history arq . About a month after his visit (19 November).’60 As Karin Lindegren has claimed (1996). from one inhabitant to the next. Maybe we will adopt what has long been practised in Japan. just as the Japanese do. He emphasised ‘infinite space’. Yoshida carried with him some copies of his recently published Shin-NihonJutaku-Zushu (Illustrations of New Japanese Houses.53 In Stockholm. Therefore. Interestingly.56 The first direct effect of Yoshida’s contact with European architects was manifested by Asplund. Considering Hyon-Sob Kim Tetsuro Yoshida (1894–1956) and architectural interchange between East and West http://journals. 1918) and concluded with the prediction that European architects would adopt the flexibility of the Japanese house: ‘Maybe we in Western Europe are coming closer to the Japanese idea of the house. Yoshida visited the Dessau Bauhaus and delivered a short lecture there about Japanese architecture (7 November). as a not too fixed. These were the duties naturally assigned to Japanese architects of the time – also to all architects outside the West. Remove entire walls during the summer for increased ventilation. 1931). which through this influence became something else. Yoshida’s meeting with Josef Frank (1885–1967) in Vienna was also fruitful. he reported this and asked to be sent some detail drawings of the Japanese house: ‘I met quite a few Swiss architects and was guided to their architecture.54 According to Hideo Yahagi (1975). by Asplund (22 October). vol 12 . The gifts of East Asia were dreams come true.63 Modern rationality and traditional Japan Yoshida’s interaction with the West occurred both through travel and publication. according to requirements.55 ¯ a private compilation of drawings and photographs of the two Baba residences [17–20]. One was to receive and to digest Western Modernism with its developed science and technology. and the same photograph was to be published again in Das japanische Wohnhaus . but it is unlikely that many students attended because it was unscheduled and took place on a Saturday.org Downloaded: 26 Jun 2011 IP address: 130. particularly about the sliding window. of nature and of art. This attitude might be comparable to the Meiji Japanese notion of ‘Wakon Yosai’. too. but all were keenly interested in Japan.64 but it was more positive in reflecting the latest social developments than the more passive former generation’s ethos.’57 It is uncertain when Asplund started accepting these Japanese architectural characteristics so positively.61 To Frank. Asplund gave his inaugural lecture on becoming professor at Stockholm’s Royal Institute of Technology. The influence began with the smallest thing but finally led to a revision of the concepts of humanity. The inside-out and outside-in transition that this veranda photo symbolises exactly accords with the spatial concept that Asplund emphasised in the lecture. changing our houses from one season to the next. The leading Austrian Modernist and disciple of Adolf Loos had carried out interiors for the Museum for East Asian art in Cologne (1912)58 and illustrated a Japanese atmosphere in his interior furnishings shop ‘Haus & Garten’ (1925). and permanent object. the conception of space in Oswald Spengler’s Der Untergang des Abendlandes (The Decline of the West. 1959–62 24 Ragnar Östberg.235. but certainly his discussion with Yoshida encouraged him. heavy. he showed or gave copies of this book to those expressing a strong interest in the Japanese house. please make various drawings of it with wheels and others. or Japanese spirit plus Western technology. Frank’s view of China and Japan was significant despite his somewhat romantic attitude. Stockholm Town Hall.cambridge. Asplund inserted as the opening illustration the veranda photograph of Yoshida’s Baba Villa at Nasu. This presumably raised further questions about the Japanese house among European architects. 2008 53 23 Egon Eiermann’s house-cum-atelier. when this lecture manuscript was published in the leading Swedish architectural journal Byggmästaren (1931). because it disclosed ‘his second confession of identity’. which had been included in Yoshida’s Shin-Nihon-Jutaku-Zushu [20–21] – ¯ Yoshida must have given his book to Asplund. Baden-Baden.64. prompting them to ask him to write his book. he was asked about Japanese architecture.
Asplund and Aalto are prime examples. That was his dream. He (1942) defined this quality as ‘the attitude of harmonising with others by controlling the self’ and argued that it brings together all adjectives that describe Japanese architecture. it provided fertile soil to make possible a more active cross-cultural exchange in architecture. most efficient and most economic’. Although there has been much research on Japanese contributions to Western architecture. Apart from the invisible Japanese sources already adopted by Modernism. ‘simple’.235. it was easily absorbed by European Modernism. and it seems that little evidence had been discovered by the time of Yamada’s remark. he took pride in his country’s architectural heritage and worked hard to publish the German trilogy about Japanese architecture. This was the basis of Yoshida’s admiration of Perret. But the more fundamental aspect in common that Yoshida wanted to see was the character of ‘jiyokusei’ or self-restraint. Conclusion In research on East-West exchange in architecture. He needed a strategy to reconcile the two seemingly contradictory attitudes. ‘intermediate’. ‘natural’. efficient and economic. Chisaburoh Yamada (1976) judged that ‘the Japanese contribution to the development of Western architecture prior to World War II was insignificant except in the United States’ because modern architecture was born of ‘faith in European civilization’. He passionately studied Western models and applied the new architecture to his buildings. the influence of Wright on Europe played an additional role in passing over to European Modernists the East Asian spatial concept that he had digested. and perhaps the way forward was theoretically to identify the modern rational architectural principle with the traditional Japanese. Western publications on Japanese architecture since the late nineteenth century had always reminded Europeans of the existence of Japan. Therefore. East Asian aesthetics was an important inspiration. and behind them all was the hidden effort of Yoshida. At the same time.cambridge. The one-year stay in the West was an invaluable chance for him to keep up with contemporary trends. It was this double-faced standpoint that motivated him to play the crucial role in the architectural interchange between East and West as well as to participate in forming the Japanese modern. material is accruing to show that for leading modern architects in Europe. the gradual internationalisation of the trend was meaningful to him not only because it was healthy. but also because it could be supposed to be Japanese in principle. while studies concerning Europe have been limited mainly to Art Nouveau architecture. which he believed ‘healthiest. he saw the possibility of an intersection of the modern rational and the traditional Japanese. the latter with timber. he retained the traditional method of building for many private houses. there seems little doubt that Yoshida was earnest regarding these matters. especially Wright. Hyon-Sob Kim Tetsuro Yoshida (1894–1956) and architectural interchange between East and West http://journals. no 1 . the decline of individualism and the rise of social consciousness in architecture after the First World War seemed very desirable. 2008 history his career and personality.69 But along with the increasing criticism against the narrowness of Pevsner’s view. The best example showing the parallel between modern rationalism and Japanese tradition is the post and beam structure.64.org Downloaded: 26 Jun 2011 IP address: 130.24 . it was easy for European Modernists to neglect other cultural sources including the Japanese68 because they pursued an idea of universality that could be applied anywhere in the world. We can suggest two reasons for this lack of research. the former made with reinforced concrete. Not surprisingly. so it was hardly possible to distinguish Japanese space from the modern one. inspired by what they found. Influenced by Nikolaus Pevsner. the pioneer of clear concrete structure in the West. ‘pure’. Certainly. From another aspect. However. Though he extracted these features as contrasting with the ‘supposedly’ Western characteristics or the general Eastern conception of the West. and his praise for the contemporary architectural stream in the West was coloured by the way he sensed traditional Japanese architectural principles there. In this context. In the meantime.67 There is as yet relatively little material on what East Asia meant for European Modernists in the 1920s and early 1930s. Educated in the modernised system. To him. Thereafter. the story from a Far Eastern country might sound like a fairytale. and ‘connotative’. He emphasised the simple and clear expression of rationalist architecture as ‘the traditional taste’ of Japan. during the time when the so-called International Style was formed and proclaimed. vol 12 . Moreover. Yoshida showed a favourable attitude towards modern rational architecture.65 he detected the same quality in the Western modern architect’s struggle to create rational architecture ‘sacrificing the small self’. and he tried not to be out of date in international terms. ‘humble’. While most of his public buildings are presented as modern. he was a key mediator of architectural interchange between East and West. and valued a machine aesthetic that reflected the latest technology for its own sake.66 At this point. we have found that the Modernists looked at Japan and other cultures time and again. he had sought Shinkenchiku as other Japanese colleagues did. This point of view is confirmed most clearly by the preface of Sekai-no-Gendai-Kenchiku published one year before his travels abroad. For these reasons. which became possible through his travel and publications. Japanese architecture was not new to European Modernists. First. most of it has focused on American architects. such as. discussion about the Japanese role in European modern architecture between the two World Wars has been limited. Coming through the Art Nouveau period. this attitude has lost credibility. Architects like Häring.54 arq . for Japanese fashion had swept European art circles for decades around 1900. Yoshida’s position is important because he fills a void in history.
) For the detailed description. 19. 3. Das japanische Wohnhaus (Berlin: Verlag Ernst Wasmuth. Kenchikuka-Yoshida-Tetsuro-toSono-Shuhen. 1939) and The Natural House (New York: Horizon Press. edn. p. 13–62. In German magazines. and published Japanische Architektur (1952). Tetsuro Yoshida. (Author’s translation from Japanese. 25. by Marcus G. ‘Mr. 2000). (Author’s translation from Japanese. 35. Kenchiku-Zasshi. Das japanische Wohnhaus. 22. 1950) and ‘Saikin-no-Sekai-noKenchiku’ (World Contemporary Architecture Nowadays. u 27. 7. wrote several articles like ‘Kuzukago’ (Trash can. 36. p. Udo Kultermann. 2007). and have been reluctant to use the word ‘Orient’ owing to its negative implications. Dreams of the Other: A Hundred Years of Japanese Architecture and German Town Planning in a Mutual View. he designed five villas at Ushigome (1928). vol 12 . 773–774. ‘Yoshida-Tetsuro-noSotsugy¯ -Setke-ni-Tsuite’. the relation between Japan and Europe extends into that of ‘East and West’.He categorised these into nine points in the introduction. I have adopted the term ‘East Asia’ rather than the Euro-centric ‘Far East’ to indicate China. two Western references were included: Baltzer’s Das japanische Haus (Berlin. 1969). v. so in this research. ‘Preface’. 1987). 70–71. 170–171. etc. p. Ableitung.24 . Der japanische Garten (1957) and Sweden-no-Kenchikuka (1957). 28. 941–944. 31. Nihon-noKindaikenchiku (Japanese Modern Architecture). Mukai. for example. see Taut’s diary of 29 September 1935.Mukai. by Satoru Mukai and Yoshichika Uchida (Tokyo: Kajima-Shuppankai. 1981). 6. Nevertheless.Taut praised ‘seijunsei’ (Sauberkeit) as ‘the quality that Japanese art contributed to humankind but which should also be achieved in all world art’.) 33. Karasuyama (1937) and Atami (1940). 2002). and ‘Epilogue’.He translated four books on Japan by Bruno Taut including Houses and People of Japan (1937. The Making of A Modern Japanese Architecture (Tokyo: Kodansha. Die Form. Werk (November 1956). of which structure and view became a starting point of his book. 61–64. Yoshida found it in New York Library and made some notes on it. Nihonkenchikukakai-KinkishibuKenkyuhokokush¯ (2000). Kobe. pp. 70–103 (p. we can say that he is the most excellent architect. ‘The Presence of Japanese Architecture in German Magazines and Books 1900–1950’ (paper presented at Japan-Germany architectural exchange symposium. Yamanote (1936). p. see ¯ Okawa and Tadokoro. Ueno.235.Among them. 32.. 6. p. 194–212. 1929). Nasu (1928). 18.For the analysis of the book. pp. p. and Kevin Nute. 21. Yoshida’s archive holder and one of his pupils. 25–26. 98). For the first proper account of Yoshida’s works. YoshidaTetsuro-Kaigai-no-Tabi. pp. (Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten. See. 57–59. in Yoshida-TetsuroKenchiku-Sakuhinshu. This paper uses the opposition of ‘East and West’ to highlight cultural differences as well as geographical distance. Modern Architecture Through Tetsuro Yoshida (1894–1956) and architectural interchange between East and West Hyon-Sob Kim http://journals. 14. 57. Ibid. by Satoru Mukai (Tokyo: Tsushin-Kenchiku-Kenkyusho.Taut’s diary of 12 September 1935. especially by Hideo Yahagi. 1955). 8.Pallasmaa. ‘Kaisetsu – Sakuhin-to-sono-Hensen’ (Interpretation – Works and their Transition).Juhani Pallasmaa. 1129 (1977. Korea and Japan. See Frank Lloyd Wright. Das japanische Wohnhaus. The Unknown Wheel: Japanese Tokonoma Concept in Alvar Aalto’s Villa Mairea (Pori: Pori Art Museum.Gabriel P. originally written 1942). ed. just as Europe has been a cultural centre of the West. no 1 .. trans.Manfred Speidel. xi and 15. by Juhani Pallasmaa (Helsinki: Alvar Aalto Foundation. Nihon-noJutaku (Japanese version of Das japanische Wohnhaus) (Tokyo: Kajima.See a series of papers by Hiroshi Adachi and his students in Kobe: ‘Information of Japanese architecture in the Western World since recent 19th century’. 12. pp. Kant¯ . 2 vols. ed. in Villa Mairea 1938–39. Kenchikuka-Yoshida-Tetsuro-to-SonoShuhen (Tokyo: S¯ moshob¯ . 7. Frank Lloyd Wright and Japan (London: Routledge. too. 2. 4. pp. 2008 55 Notes 1. 8–15 (p. I. there are many articles and papers. ‘Nihon-no-Jutaku-noKonnichisei’ (Contemporaneity of Das japanische Wohnhaus). the remarkably changed edition of Das japanische Wohnhaus (1954). New Japanese Architecture (London: Architectural Press. cited in Mukai. 5.Hyon-Sob Kim. Yoshida. and Satoru Mukai. pp.Peter Blundell Jones and Eamonn Canniffe. pp.64. ‘Image and Meaning’. KenchikukaYoshida-Tetsuro-no-Tegami. 13. Schwierigkeiten’. which was published in Japanese in Mukai.’ (8 February 1934). as in Edward Said’s ‘Orientalism’ (1978). 1960). co-translation with Hideo Shinoda. 13–15. 1993) that tries to find value in ‘the Other’ culture. 24. in The Japanese House and Garden (London: Pall Mall Press. 2nd rev.Yoshida. 1975). pp. An Organic Architecture (London: Lund Humphries. 1954). ‘KenchikuYish¯ -to-Jiyokusei’ (Architectural o design and jiyokusei or selfrestraint). 175.Yakushiji. 99. 20.Ibid. See Terunobu Fujimori. 1954). August o 1970). 26. ‘Vorwort’. I hope this research will suggest one possibility of a ‘positive Orientalism’ (Arthur Versluis. Hiroshi Yakushiji and others.. 1980).) 34. 1949) and Steel Eiler Rasmussen’s Nordische Baukunst (1940) into Japanese. Yoshida is the most excellent Japanese architect along with Mr. Yoshida-Tetsuro-Kaigai-no-Tabi. Richard Neutra. 180–183.Kultermann. p. p. 9. Mukai. (On o Tetsuro Yoshida’s Graduation Design) (paper presented at the conference of Architectural Institute of Japan. 3. 23. 38. Japan has represented the East (Asia) since late nineteenth century. As for the former. 10. The Japanese House and Garden. Sims (London: Architectural Press.org Downloaded: 26 Jun 2011 IP address: 130. 30. 16. 1968). 203–214. and Stewart. See Yoshida. 132. and ‘It is not proper to write critically about my own country’s thing’.For the Baba family alone. p. ed. 1993). Weisberg and others. 22–28 and 92–97. Hiroshi Yakushiji. pp. Tetsuro Yoshida. p. 29. 64. and ¯ Mitsuo Okawa and Shinnosuke Tadokoro. And he is very kind. Yoshida-Tetsuro-KenchikuSakuhinshu (Tokyo: T¯ kaidaigakuo Shuppankai. 37.’ (15 September 1933). 26. p. ‘Gegenwärtige Bauarbeit in Japan’ and ‘Japanische Wohnung. Das japanische Wohnhaus. 11. 6 (1931). 24–25 September 2005). Yoshida is one of the most excellent architects – no. only works with wonderful views are selected’. Reni Türdinger.Taut wrote in his diary: ‘Mr. p. see Yakushiji’s ‘Kaisetsu – Sakuhin-to-sono-Hensen’ (1968). 10). pp. Japonisme: Japanese Influence on French Art 1854–1910 (Cleveland: Cleveland Museum of Art. 1903) and Kümmel’s ‘Japanische Baukunst’ in Wasmuth Lexikon der Baukunst (Berlin. 12. 15. 17.Yoshida’s responses to the latter two criticisms were respectively: ‘The illustration aimed at the effect of photographs. o o Besides these books. 1969). p.history arq .cambridge. Cited in Mukai. 175. ‘Nachrufe: Architekt Tetsuro Yoshida’. David Stewart. Yoshida. 1935). pp. 1998). (Author’s translation. Hideo Yahagi.
68. pp. ‘Yoshida-Tetsuro-noDaigaku-Sotsugy¯ -Ronbun-nio tsuite’. 5. I cannot but raise Auguste Perret’s architecture as the best. August 1969).Though Frank’s role in this interior design was rather limited.) 54.org Downloaded: 26 Jun 2011 IP address: 130. pp. 4 (2000). 67. pp. 861–862. Japanese architects of the time looked through Western magazines every month. Shin-Nihon-Jutaku-Zushu ¯ (Tokyo: K¯ y¯ sha.As symptomatic in Clay Lancaster’s studies on Oriental influence on the West. ed. 2008 history Case Studies 1945 to 1990 (Oxford: Architectural Press. pp. 1931). pp. 297–310.) YoshidaTetsuro-Kaigai-no-Tabi. 101). ‘Oriental Contributions to Art Nouveau’. See Clay Lancaster. 1996). ‘Zhongti Xiyong’ in China (Chinese essence and Western function) and ‘Dongdo Seogi’ in Korea (Eastern spirit and Western instrument).’ (Author’s translation. 64. France. 64. p.In the nineteenth-century modernisation period.) 48. ‘Geonchukga Yoshida Tetsuro-ui Haeoechuljjang-i ganneun Geonchuksa-jeok Uiui’ (The Historical Significance of the Architect Tetsuro Yoshida’s Travel Abroad).’ (Diary of 5 December. 64. 52. he published a book entitled H¯ okaikan-Kenchiku (Broadcasting os¯ Hall Architecture) (1938) on the basis of this report. by Nina Stritzler-Levine (New Haven: Yale University Press. ed. America.Guided by Richard Döcker (5 December 1931). o o 56.Yoshida constructed his theory of Japaneseness in architecture on the premise that Westerners are inclined more to conquer nature than to accommodate themselves to it: ‘According to Western philosophy.According to Yamada. […] We talked about the new architecture in Germany and Sweden. Mart Stam’s was quite good. 108.Concerning his graduation thesis. After comparing architecture with music. 225 (2007). 9. 199–206.‘I met Asplund at his office for the first time. Architektur als Symbol (Vienna: Löcker Verlag. the other East Asian countries also had the similar ethos.Häring met Yamada at least five times and guided him to Siedlung Siemensstadt. Austria. Mukai. 63. (Author’s translation. ‘Wagakuni-Shorai-no-JutakuKenchiku’ (Future house architecture in our country). Czechslovakia.‘I didn’t care about Corbusier. 53. 217–224. p. Gropius’s was good as expected. 30. though it is not known which magazines he had read. Yoshida’s view of Perret was well described in his article ‘Kuzukago’. Kenchikuka-YamadaMamoru-no-Tegami. p. ‘Messaggio sull’architettura moderna’ (1914): ‘[…] we must resolve the problem Hyon-Sob Kim Tetsuro Yoshida (1894–1956) and architectural interchange between East and West http://journals. pp. author’s translation. by Satoru Mukai (Tokyo: Yamada-MamoruKenchiku-Jimusho. Yoshida wrote in his diary that ‘it imitates Japan very much’. 51.Yoshida. Daehangeonchukhakhoenonmunjip: Gyehoekgye (Journal of Architectural Institute of Korea: Planning and Design). 63–66 and Hideo Yahagi. Anyway. And this was especially the case for Yoshida.64. 58.Tetsuro Yoshida. 46.This book.Penny Sparke. 1976). (Author’s translation. England. ‘Oriental Forms in American Architecture 1800–1870’.56 arq . Pittsburgh. ‘Josef Frank and the Swedish Modern Movement in Design’. 118–127. of which exterior colour was good as a whole. Yoshida-Tetsuro-Kaigai-no-Tabi. Switzerland. p. and asked me various questions about it. 55. 44. 40. Italy.235. 26. 96–101 (p. Sekai-no-Gendai-Kenchiku.Yoshida-Tetsuro-Kaigai-no-Tabi. his play with ‘spare black wooden moldings’ in some rooms was clearly reminiscent of the traditional Japanese interior. is a compilation of pamphlets that had been published every month since the year before. few studies have focused on Europe of 1920s–30s. too. It is the thing that man has to conquer to form culture and the thing that should be used. 10. p. p. The Art Bulletin.’ Yoshida. 183–193. 59. 1931). Yoshida-Tetsuro-Kaigai-noTabi. ‘Ostasien’.) Yoshida-Tetsuro-Kaigai-no-Tabi. 217–219. p. 35 (1953). p. 5.One simple example can be found in Giovanni Bernasconi’s Futurist writing.) Tetsuro Yoshida. Yakushiji.Frank guided Yoshida to several places including Werkbund Siedlung (9 Feb. 2002). p. Yakushiji. p. 160. see Mukai. pp. and Sweden in that order. Dialogue in Art: Japan and the West. Translation by Peter Blundell Jones.Tetsuro Shima (pseudonym of Yoshida).) 42. 1982). in Josef Frank: Architect and Designer. and entertained him at his house for lunch and presented him with his own book (which must be Architektur als Symbol) (13 Feb. 2007).) also reflect this situation. The Art Bulletin. I don’t care about Taut’s and Poelzig’s. in Josef Frank: Architect and Designer. and The Japanese Influence in America (New York: Walton Rawls. Hokkaido. 1963). pp. by Simon Unwin and Christina Johnsson as ‘Our architectural conception of space’ in Architectural Research Quarterly. trans. which had not been completed yet. 61.Later.This section basically follows one part (Chapter 3) of my former article published in Korea in Korean. 39. vol 12 . ‘Scharoun and Häring and East-West Connections’ (paper presented at the 60th Annual Meeting of Society of Architectural Historians. sent him three issues of Innen Dekoration (12 Feb. Yoshida-Tetsuro-Kaigai-noTabi. 20. 146–147. It deals with modern architecture in Germany. the designer of two houses and the site architect during the construction. 203–210. YoshidaTetsuro-Kaigai-no-Tabi. ‘Kaisetsu – Sakuhin-to-sonoHensen’.).cambridge.Yoshida-Tetsuro-Kaigai-no-Tabi. (On Tetsuro Yoshida’s Graduation Thesis) (paper presented at the conference of Architectural Institute of Japan. 60. Kenchiku-Zasshi (March 1950). 41. A series of articles in Chisaburoh Yamada (ed. no 1 .Peter Blundell Jones.24 . 11–15 April 2007). 1996). He was interested in Japanese architecture. Yamada (Tokyo: Kodansha. 1.Yoshida-Tetsuro-Kaigai-no-Tabi. (Author’s translation.Josef Frank. ‘Kuzukago’. nature does not have any value in herself. 88–89. ed. pp. Frank: Life and Work (Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 104–108. Russia. 27–31. 45.Karin Kirsch. 34 (1952). 1. he was clearly well informed.After visiting the shop (13 February). especially the sliding window. p. 57. 27–31. ‘Architektur als Symbol: Theory and Polemic’. Holland. 65. ‘Var Arkitektoniska rumsuppfattning’.Travel record dated 1 July 1931. 151–160. 29 (1947).’ (Author’s translation. Belgium. p. rang him to invite him out (11 Feb. 47. p. he describes: ‘If you seek after the genuine architecture like this [genuine music] in contemporary architecture. 43. 121–122.Karin Lindegren.). to keep up to date with the latest developments. Byggmästaren: Arkitektupplagan (1931). ‘Japanese Building in the United States before 1900: Their Influence upon American Domestic Architecture’. (Author’s translation. Denmark.) 66. which he edited under the pseudonym of Tetsuro Shima. Christopher Long. The Art Bulletin. Sweden-noKenchikuka (Tokyo: Sh¯ kokusha.).). Hyon-Sob Kim. p. 49.Yoshida-Tetsuro-Kaigai-no-Tabi. 46. ‘Kenchiku-Yish¯ o to-Jiyokusei’. Die Neue Wohnung und das Alte Japan (Stuttgart: Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt. 62. I was interested in houses. by Chisaburoh F. o 1957).Erik Gunnar Asplund. 50.
22 Peter Blundell Jones. o 1–8. who has faithfully encouraged my researches including this project for the last six years.24 . 69. opened his house and let me freely use his materials. 23 Hiroshi Yakushiji and others.64. 1931). 1918–39’ at the same institution on a research grant from the AHRC. no 1 . ‘Introduction’. Katsuhira Kannon provided me with many documents concerning Teishin Kenchiku. Das japanische Wohnhaus (Berlin: Verlag Ernst Wasmuth. 1960). Hyon-Sob Kim School of Architecture University of Sheffield The Arts Tower Western Bank Sheffield s10 2tn uk h. Mr. Yoshida archive holder and one of his pupils. I deeply appreciate their kind support. whose grant (AR119293) made this research possible. Werkarchiv Egon Eiermann. Theory and Design in the First Machine Age (London: Architectural Press. 9–24 (p.235. 16). 21 SAAI. Cited in Reyner Banham. Illustration credits arq gratefully acknowledges: Author.Yamada. 10–13.kim@sheffield. vol 12 . 17–20 ¯ o o Acknowledgements My sincere thanks should be given to the AHRC. University of Sheffield. 2008 57 of Modern architecture without cribbing photographs of China. 1968).org Downloaded: 26 Jun 2011 IP address: 130. in Dialogue in Art: Japan and the West. YoshidaTetsuro-Kenchiku-Sakuhinshu (Tokyo: T¯ kaidaigaku-Shuppankai. Biography Hyon-Sob Kim completed his doctoral thesis on Alvar Aalto’s Villa Mairea at the School of Architecture. Persia or Japan’. pp.uk Tetsuro Yoshida (1894–1956) and architectural interchange between East and West Hyon-Sob Kim http://journals.ac. 14–15 Tetsuro Yoshida.s. 24 Byggmästaren: Arkitektupplagan (1931). 16 Tetsuro Yoshida. Yahagi Hideo.cambridge. and Mr. Author’s address Dr. 129. 1935). Shin-Nihon-JutakuZushu (Tokyo: K¯ y¯ sha. in 2005 and is currently researching ‘East Asian influence on modern architecture in Europe. and to Professor Peter Blundell Jones. p. 9.history arq .
64.org Downloaded: 26 Jun 2011 IP address: 130.24 .http://journals.cambridge.235.
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