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Dye classification Dyeing processes
Daniel 2004
Introduction to Coloration & Finishing



You can not assume that to dye any piece of fabric to a given colour, all you need to do is use a dye of that particular colour. No dye will dye all textile fabrics satisfactorily. This means, simply, that you must choose a dye that will suit the material (or a material that will suit the dye).

Introduction to Coloration & Finishing



Classification of Dyes
• No single class of dye can dye all fibres. • A specific class of dye can only be applied to a given type of textile fibre.

Introduction to Coloration & Finishing

2004 4 Dye for Cellulosic Fibres: • Direct Dyes • Azoic Dyes • Reactive Dyes • Sulphur dyes • Vat Dyes Introduction to Coloration & Finishing .

2004 5 Classification of dyes Dye Class Direct Main General description application Simple application. can also be applied on rayon. Introduction to Coloration & Finishing . silk & wool. moderate colour fastness but can be improved by aftertreatment with copper salts & cationic fixing agents. complete colour range. Mainly used for cellulosic fibres. cheap.

2004 6 DIRECT DYES • Direct dyes for Cotton.require only cooking salt & very hot to boiling water. • It is possible to improve on wash fastness by after-treatment of dyed article with dye-fixing agent. curtains & theatre productions. • Dyes have a good light fastness but only moderate wash fastness . Viscose. • These dyes are principally used for “not so expansive” products or product with fewer washes such as T-shirts. Silk & Nylon • Easy to dye . Introduction to Coloration & Finishing .

2004 7 DIRECT DYES Yellow Orange Pink Red Brown Violet Turquoise Black Forrest Green Fushia Scarlet Grey Blue Green Wine China Blue Introduction to Coloration & Finishing .

orange. generally good wet fastness but moderate to poor dry cleaning & rubbing fastness. (Naphthol) limited colour range (red.2004 Classification of dyes Main application Mainly applied on cellulosic fibres. especially on brilliant red shade. also called naphthol dye due to the use of naphthol. navy among the best). 8 Dye Class General description Azoic Complicated application. bright shade at moderate cost. . or ice colour because of the usage Introduction to Coloration & Finishing of ice during application.

2004 9 Azo Dye Synthesis Coupling • Blue component can be coupled with yellow or green componentIntroduction to Coloration & Finishing to form two different dyestuffs. .

followed by treatment in another component. O HO NH2 CH3 NO2 C NH Introduction to Coloration & Finishing . • This is done with impregnating the fibre with one component of the dye.2004 10 AZOIC DYES • The word 'Azoic' is the distinguishing name given to insoluble azo dyes that are not applied directly as dyes. but are actually produced within the fibre itself. thus forming the dye within the fibre.

the dyeing becomes one of the fastest available. • The deposition of the dye on the surface of the fibre produces poor rub fastness. but once the loose dye is removed by boiling the fabric in soap. Introduction to Coloration & Finishing .2004 11 AZOIC DYES • The formation of this insoluble dye within the fabric makes it very fast to washing.

2004 12 AZOIC DYES • Normally it is dyed in cold for all natural fibers • Naphtol dyes are not sold in the form of a "finished dye" but in form of their components (Insoluble azo base & fast colour coupling compound) which combine on the fibre to produce a water insoluble azo dye of exceptional fastness properties. Introduction to Coloration & Finishing .


most expensive.g. specially used in the dyeing of denim fabric. good all round fastness except indigo & sulphurised vat species. incomplete colour range (strong in blue & green but weak in brilliant red). e.2004 Classification of dyes 14 Dye General description Class Vat Difficult to apply (requires reduction treatment to make soluble in water & oxidation to resume insoluble state after dyeing). towel. Main application Commonly used for high quality cotton goods. . tending to decrease Introduction to Coloration & Finishing in popularity due to increasing use of reactive dyes.

2004 15 VAT DYES • INDIGO. Introduction to Coloration & Finishing . probably the oldest dye known to man. is one of the most important members of this group. • Natural indigo extracted from the plant 'Indigofera tinctorie' was used by the Egyptians in 200 BC. • The first synthetic indigo was introduced to the textile trade in 1897 & had the effect of completely replacing the natural product.

• Because of the time consuming & costly procedure in reducing vat dye into a watersoluble complex. dye manufacturers have produced a stabilized water-soluble vat dye. • After dyeing. Introduction to Coloration & Finishing .2004 16 VAT DYES • Although the vat dyes may be divided into 3 chemical groups. the fabric is oxidized & the dye again becomes water insoluble. they are similar in that they are insoluble in water & become water soluble when reduced in the presence of an alkali.



• This dye can be applied to cotton & viscose rayon by the methods used by applying direct cotton dyes. • After the dyeing, a simple treatment restores the vat dye to its normal insoluble state. • Solubilized vat dyes have an affinity for cellulose & Introduction to Coloration & Finishing animal fibres.



• Vat dyes are used in cotton dyeing where high wash & boil fastness required. • Because of the high alkali concentration in the dye bath, pure vat dyes cannot be used on animal fibres, (wool, natural silk, & various hairs). • Bright red is absent in vat dye range. • Solubilized vat dyes, not requiring the presence of alkali, can be used for dyeing on animal fibres. • Because they are dyed at low temperatures, they are used in Indonesian batik dyeing for green shades.
Introduction to Coloration & Finishing



• When the ultimate in wash & boil fastness is required. • Also used to dye over fibre reactive dyes for multi-layered dyeing.


Introduction to Coloration & Finishing


20 Dye Class Sulphur . cheap particularly for goods in dark dark shade. khaki & colour range (strong in brown but no bright shade).2004 Classification of dyes Main General description application Difficult to apply Mostly used for (application similar to vat heavy cellulosic dyes). navy. poor washing & rubbing fastness & sensitive to chlorine. black. may cause fabric rendering of celluloseIntroduction to Coloration & Finishing upon storage (aging). incomplete shades.

• The general disadvantage of the Sulphur dyes that they produce dull shades & lack a red. Introduction to Coloration & Finishing . washing & boiling far surpassed any cotton black known at that time.2004 21 SULPHUR DYES • The first Sulphur dye was discovered in France in 1873. • Its outstanding fastness to light. & further work done by Raymond Videl enabled the manufacture of 'Videl black".

Sulphur dyes are insoluble in water but are readily soluble in the solution of Sodium Sulphide.2004 22 SULPHUR DYES • The main advantage lays in their cheapness. • In their normal state. Introduction to Coloration & Finishing . ease of application & good wash-fastness. • In this form they have high affinity to the all cellulose fibres.

where a good wash but not boil-fastness is required.2004 23 SULPHUR DYES .USE: • The use of Sulphur dyes is restricted to dull brown. Khaki & Navy shades. Introduction to Coloration & Finishing . • Most Khaki & Navy overalls are dyed with Sulphur dyes.

but particularly linen & jute.USE: • An outstanding member of this family is Sulphur black. • It dyes all cellulose fibres.2004 24 SULPHUR DYES . to a lustrous & deep black with excellent wash & light fastness. • Sulphur dyes are dyed from a dye bath containing Sodium Sulphide & common or Glaubers Salt. Introduction to Coloration & Finishing . & are oxidized by airing or with some oxidizing agents (Sodium Bichromate or Hydrogen Peroxide) in a fresh bath.

selective dyes can also be applied on wool. moderate price. Introduction to Coloration & Finishing .2004 25 Classification of dyes Dye Class General description Main application Reactive Easy application. complete colour range. increasingly used in printing due to good fastness. Commonly used for all cellulosic goods especially in knitted fabric batchwise dyeing. good fastness due to direct reaction with fibres. silk & rayon.

Introduction to Coloration & Finishing . cannot be removed by washing or boiling.2004 26 REACTIVE DYES • This is an entirely class of dye introduced to the market in 1956. • They react chemically with the fibre being dyed & if correctly applied.

Introduction to Coloration & Finishing .2004 27 REACTIVE DYES • The main feature of the dyestuff is its low affinity to cellulose. therefore large amounts of salt are required to force its deposition on he fabric.

2004 28 REACTIVE DYES • After this has been achieved. • Only a successfully concluded reaction guarantees a fast dyeing. addition of alkali causes the deposited dyes to react with the fibre. • Basically there are two types of reactive dyes: the cold dyeing & hot dyeing types. Introduction to Coloration & Finishing .

USE: • Reactive dyes are used where bright dyeing with high light & wash fastness is required. their main usage is in dyeing cotton linen & viscose rayon.2004 29 REACTIVE DYES . Introduction to Coloration & Finishing . • Although some reactive dyestuffs have been specially modified to dye wool. • Cold dyeing is used extensively in batik work.

2004 Yellow 2GL 30 REACTIVE DYES • Cold water fibre reactive dyes. suitable for dyeing on cotton. rayon & hessian. silk. Golden Yellow 2RL Orange 2R Scarlet Red BG (primary) Red 4B (bluish red) Red 8B (magenta) Rubinole 5B Brilliant Blue 2R Brilliant Blue BL Violet 2R Turquoise 2G Navy GRL Brown 2R Brilliant Green BL (blue base) Black 2B (green base) Black B Introduction to Coloration & Finishing . jute. • Cannot be used on synthetics or fabric that has been coated with resin or drip-dry finish.

2004 31 Dye for Protein Fibres: • Acid Dyes • Metalcomplex Dyes • Chrome Dyes Introduction to Coloration & Finishing .

fastness properties may vary among individual dyes. Commonly complete colour used for wool. good bright shades.2004 32 Classification of dyes Dye Class Acid General description Main application Easy application. range with very silk & nylon. Introduction to Coloration & Finishing .

Pre-metalized dyes Introduction to Coloration & Finishing . Level dyeing acid dyes b. • They vary considerably in their basic chemical structure.they dye from an acid dye bath. Acid milling dyes c. but have one common feature . • All acid dyes can be grouped in 3 sub groups: a. silk & nylon.2004 33 ACID DYES • These dyes comprise a large number of dyes used for the dyeing of wool.

Introduction to Coloration & Finishing . • They are dyed from a dye bath containing strong acids (Sulphuric or Formic acid).2004 34 ACID DYES a. Level dyeing acid dyes: • These dyes produce bright dyeing. • These dyes exhibit low wash & light fastness. • The main feature is their good leveling properties.

Introduction to Coloration & Finishing . Acid milling dyes: • Selected because of their high & light fastness & are extensively used for dyeing woolen fabrics that are subsequently milled. • These dyes require great care in application because uneven dyeings are difficult or impossible to rectify.2004 35 ACID DYES b. • The dye bath requires the presence of weak acid (acetic acid) or acid releasing salts (ammonium sulphate or ammonium acetate) from which acid is liberated during dyeing.

2004 36 ACID DYES c. • Very good light fastness even in pale shades Introduction to Coloration & Finishing . Pre-metalized dyes • These dyes represent an extension of mordant dyes. • The metal component being already incorporated in the dye during manufacturing process.

Introduction to Coloration & Finishing . • A number of acid dyes are also used to dye nylon. brightness & ease of application. varying widely in their methods of dyeing. • Care must be taken to use the appropriate method as prescribed for a given dye.level dyeing.2004 37 ACID DYES . application & end use of the dyed fabric.USE: • The family of acid dyes is very large & diverse. fastness. • A choice of dyes should be made considering sometimes-incompatible factors: .

Mixes of primary colours (*) produce large range of tertiary colours. Dyes have very high light & wash fastness. Introduction to Coloration & Finishing .2004 38 ACID DYES for Wool. Bright strong colours. Dyeing at boil with addition of Acetic Acid. Nylon & Silk • Selection of milling & pre-metallised dyes.

Introduction to Coloration & Finishing . expensive. good fastness due to high molecular size & metal complex structure. for wool & complete colour range but Nylon.2004 39 Classification of dyes Dye Class Metalcomplex General description Main application Relatively difficult to Mainly used apply. duller shade than acid dyes.

Main application Mainly used for wool products especially for the end use of carpet. good all round fastness. Introduction to Coloration & Finishing . expensive.2004 40 Classification of dyes General Dye Class description Chrome Mordant Complicated application. complete colour range but very dull shade.

Acetate • Cationic Dyes for Acrylic Introduction to Coloration & Finishing .2004 41 Dye for Other Fibres: • Disperse Dyes for Polyester.

moderate price. Disperse Require skill in application (either by carrier or under high temperature). Introduction to Coloration & Finishing . limited solubility in water (normally dispersed in water for application). good fastness after reduction clearing treatment. sublimation property. complete colour range. can also be applied on nylon & Acrylic.2004 42 Classification of dyes Dye Class General description Main application Mostly used for polyester & acetate.

• These finely coloured particles are applied in aqueous dispersion to the acetate material & actually dissolved in the fibres.2004 43 DISPERSE DYES • The introduction of a new regenerated cellulose acetate fibre in 1920 led to the necessity to develop an entirely new range of dyes. Introduction to Coloration & Finishing . • It was found that acetate (or Celanese) fibre had hardly any affinity for water-soluble dyes. • A new dyeing principle was introduced: dyeing with water dispersed coloured organic substances.

Dacron.) Introduction to Coloration & Finishing .USE: • Basically developed for dyeing of acetate fibres. Disperse dyes are also used for dyeing of polyamide (Nylon) & acrylic (Orlon & Acrylan) fibres. etc. • With the addition of 'carriers' or swelling agents these dyes are also used in dyeing of Polyester (Terylene.2004 44 DISPERSE DYES .

2004 45 Classification of dyes Dye Class General description Main application Basic Careful application Mainly used (Cationic) required to prevent unlevel for acrylic. Introduction to Coloration & Finishing . dyeing & adverse effect in hand-feel. complete colour range with very good brilliant shades.

Introduction to Coloration & Finishing . were of the same type. but unfortunately they have very poor light & wash fastness. • “Basic dyes” dye wool & silk from a dye bath containing acid but dye cotton fibres only in the presence of a mordant usually a metallic salt that increases affinity of the fabric for the dye. malachite green & crystal violet. • Basic dyes include the most brilliant of all the synthetic dyes known.2004 46 CATIONIC & BASIC DYES • MAUVENE. including magenta. was a basic dye & most of the dyes which followed. the first to be discovered by Perkin.

Basic dyes are used extensively for dyeing cut flowers.2004 47 CATIONIC & BASIC DYES . With the introduction of cotton dyes possessing higher fastness properties their use for dyeing cotton has diminished. With the introduction of acrylic fibre a new range of 'modified' basic dyes – “cationic dyes” were perfected for dyeing of this material. dried flowers.USE: Basic dyes will dye wool & silk from an acid bath & are used where brightness is of prime consideration. also dyeing jute sisal. coir & wood (toys). Introduction to Coloration & Finishing .

Orlon) paper.2004 48 Cationic dyes • Cationic dyes for dyeing acrylic (Acrilan. Courtelle. YELLOW BLUE ORANGE TURQUOISE RED VIOLET PINK GREEN RHODAMINE to Coloration & Finishing BLACK Introduction . wood & dried flowers. Also used for dyeing silk & silk flowers in very brilliant colours.

2004 49 Chronology of Dye Companies ICI Mobay Sumitomo Hoechst Sodyeco Sandoz Sandoz Ciba + Geigy Ciba-Geigy Yorkshire Introduction to Coloration & Finishing Zeneca Miles BASF Bayer DyStar DyStar Clariant Ciba Crompton and Knowles .

• In brief. while the dyer ’s role is in the world of science & technology.2004 50 Colour Formulation • The choice of a specific colour for a particular material is the responsibility of the textile designer or colourist who perceives the colour to be in conformity with the fashion requirement. • It is the job of the textile dyer to match the designer ’s colour with the proper dyes or pigments as well as to meet the colour fastness requirements for the specific end-use of the material. Introduction to Coloration & Finishing .the designer ’s role is part of the world of artistry & creativity.

2004 51 Colour Formulation • Matching of colour shades by the dyer requires the skilful blending & formulation of different dyes & pigments. as well as an understanding of the nature of fibres & the numerous chemicals needed to carry the dyeing process. Introduction to Coloration & Finishing .

• Once the dyer has formulated a colour match & achieved a satisfactory sampling (often known as the lab-dip).2004 52 Colour Formulation • Colour match recipes are first developed on a small laboratory basis. this becomes the standard which all future dye lots or batches must follow. Introduction to Coloration & Finishing .

2004 53 Colour Formulation • In actual production. fabric lots & different dyeing machine settings. • This lot-to-lot shade variation is caused by several factors such as differences in dyes / auxiliaries concentration. Introduction to Coloration & Finishing . etc. each dye lot is more or less different in shade from all other lots. however.

2004 54 Colour Fastness • A good dye must withstand the subsequent treatment (e. • No dye or pigment is fast in all colour fastness. Introduction to Coloration & Finishing .g.light exposure. • The degree to which a dyed material can withstand such treatments & wearing is called colour fastness. dry cleaning.rubbing.g.). laundering. etc. etc. & conform with the colour fastness requirements. • Only a careful selection & formulation of dyes & auxiliaries can result in a desirable dyeing.) or environmental wearing (e.

2004 55 Visual Assessment methods Introduction to Coloration & Finishing .

2004 56 Principle of using Grey Scale • The result of a colorfastness test is rated by visually comparing the difference in color or the contrast between the untreated & treated specimens with the differences represented by the Scale. Introduction to Coloration & Finishing . • The colorfastness grade is equal to the gray scale step which is judged to have the same color or contrast difference.

2004 57 How to use Grey Scale Introduction to Coloration & Finishing .

Introduction to Coloration & Finishing . • light exposure. • dry cleaning. • perspiration & • rubbing (crocking).2004 58 Common colour fastness: • Laundering (washing).

2004 Dye classes’ colour fastness properties 59 Introduction to Coloration & Finishing .

Introduction to Coloration & Finishing . • full colour range.2004 60 Application of Pigments Popular especially in printing. Advantages : • easy to apply with good shade matching from lot to lot. & • can be applied on all textile fibres & their blends.

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