Low Level 1. Features of windows2003 ACTIVE DIRECTORY Easier Deployment and Management ADMT version 2.

0—migrates password from NT4 to 2000 to 20003 or from 2000 to 2003 Domain Rename--- supports changing Domain Name System and/or NetBios name Schema Redefine--- Allows deactivation of attributes and class definitions in the Active directory schema AD/AM--- Active directory in application mode is a new capability of AD that addresses certain deployment scenarios related to directory enabled applications Group Policy Improvements----introduced GPMC tool to manage group policy UI—Enhanced User Interface Grater Security Cross-forest Authentication Cross-forest Authorization Cross-certification Enhancements IAS and Cross-forest authentication Credential Manager Software Restriction Policies Improved Performance and Dependability Easier logon for remote offices Group Membership replication enhancements Application Directory Partitions Install Replica from media

Dependability Improvements--- updated Inter-Site Topology Generator (ISTG) that scales better by supporting forests with a greater number of sites than Windows 2000. FILE AND PRINT SERVICES Volume shadow copy service NTFS journaling file system EFS Improved CHDSK Performance Enhanced DFS and FRS Shadow copy of shared folders Enhanced folder redirection Remote document sharing (WEBDAV) IIS Fault-tolerant process architecture----- The IIS 6.0 fault-tolerant process architecture isolates Web sites and applications into self-contained units called application pools Health Monitoring---- IIS 6.0 periodically checks the status of an application pool with automatic restart on failure of the Web sites and applications within that application pool, increasing application availability. IIS 6.0 protects the server, and other applications, by automatically disabling Web sites and applications that fail too often within a short amount of time Automatic Process Recycling--- IIS 6.0 automatically stops and restarts faulty Web sites and applications based on a flexible set of criteria, including CPU utilization and memory consumption, while queuing requests Rapid-fail Protection---- If an application fails too often within a short amount of time, IIS 6.0 will automatically disable it and return a "503 Service Unavailable" error message to any new or queued requests to the application Edit-While-Running

http://www.microsoft.com/windowsserver2003/evaluation/overview/technologies/defa ult.mspx 2. Difference between NT & 2000

NT SAM database is a flat database. Where as in windows 2000 active directory database is a hierarchical database. In windows NT only PDC is having writable copy of SAM database but the BDC is only read only database. In case of Windows 2000 both DC and ADC is having write copy of the database Windows NT will not support FAT32 file system. Windows 2000 supports FAT32 Default authentication protocol in NT is NTLM (NT LAN manager). In windows 2000 default authentication protocol is Kerberos V5. Windows 2000 depends and Integrated with DNS. NT user Netbios names Active Directory can be backed up easily with System state data 3. Difference between 2000 & 2003

Application Server mode is introduced in windows 2003 Possible to configure stub zones in windows 2003 DNS Volume shadow copy services is introduced Windows 2003 gives an option to replicate DNS data b/w all DNS servers in forest or All DNS servers in the domain. Refer Question 1 for all Enhancements 4. Difference between PDC & BDC

PDC contains a write copy of SAM database where as BDC contains read only copy of SAM database. It is not possible to reset a password or create objects with out PDC in Windows NT.

5. Difference between DC & ADC

There is no difference between in DC and ADC both contains write copy of AD. Both can also handles FSMO roles (If transfers from DC to ADC). It is just for identification. Functionality wise there is no difference.

6. What is DNS & WINS

DNS is a Domain Naming System, which resolves Host names to IP addresses. It uses fully qualified domain names. DNS is a Internet standard used to resolve host names WINS is a Windows Internet Name Service, which resolves Netbios names to IP Address. This is proprietary for Windows 7. Types of DNS Servers

Primary DNS Secondary DNS Active Directory Integrated DNS Forwarder Caching only DNS 8. If DHCP is not available what happens to the client

Client will not get IP and it cannot be participated in network . If client already got the IP and having lease duration it use the IP till the lease duration expires. 9. what are the different types of trust relationships

Implicit Trusts Explicit Trusts—NT to Win2k or Forest to Forest 10. what is the process of DHCP for getting the IP address to the client

There is a four way negotiation process b/w client and server DHCP Discover (Initiated by client) DHCP Offer (Initiated by server) DHCP Select (Initiated by client)

DHCP Acknowledgement (Initiated by Server) DHCP Negative Acknowledgement (Initiated by server if any issues after DHCP offer) 11. Difference between FAT,NTFS & NTFSVersion5 NTFS Version 5 features Encryption is possible We can enable Disk Quotas File compression is possible Sparse files Indexing Service NTFS change journal In FAT file system we can apply only share level security. File level protection is not possible. In NTFS we can apply both share level as well as file level security NTFS supports large partition sizes than FAT file systems NTFS supports long file names than FAT file systems 12. What are the port numbers for FTP, Telnet, HTTP, DNS

FTP-21, Telnet – 23, HTTP-80, DNS-53, Kerberos-88, LDAP-389 13. what are the different types of profiles in 2000

Local Profiles Roaming profiles Mandatory Profiles 14. what is the database files used for Active Directory

The key AD database files—edb.log, ntds.dit, res1.log, res2.log, and edb.chk—all of which reside in \%systemroot%\ntds on a domain controller (DC) by default. During

AD installation. What is the authentication protocol used in NT NTLM (NT LAN Manager) 17. Dcpromo lets you specify alternative locations for these log files and database files NTDS. what is the use of terminal services Terminal services can be used as Remote Administration mode to administer remotely as well as Application Server Mode to run the application in one server and users can login to that server to user that application. What is the location of AD Database %System root%/NTDS/NTDS>DIT 16. what is the protocol used for terminal services RDP 20. what is the port number for RDP 3389 Medium Level . Borrowing network bits to combine several smaller networks into one larger network does supernetting 18. What is subnetting and supernetting Subnetting is the process of borrowing bits from the host portion of an address to provide bits for identifying additional sub-networks Supernetting merges several smaller blocks of IP addresses (networks) that are continuous into one larger block of addresses.DIT 15. 19.

Inter-site replication can be done B/w BHS in one site and BHS in another site. How to monitor replication We can user Replmon tool from support tools 4. Brief explanation of RAID Levels Microsoft Windows XP. We can use RPC over IP or SMTP as a replication protocols where as Domain partition is not possible to replicate using SMTP 3. A disk initialized for basic storage is called a basic disk. Additionally.1. Microsoft Windows Millennium Edition (Me). mirror sets.0 or earlier. stripe sets. stripe sets. Microsoft Windows NT. Windows Server 2003 and Windows XP. Any volume sets. Dynamic Disk Storage . Microsoft Windows 2000. Intra-site replication can be done between the domain controllers in the same site. Basic Disk Storage Basic storage uses normal partition tables supported by MS-DOS. such as primary partitions. Microsoft Windows 95. Windows 2000 and Windows Server 2003 offer two types of disk storage: basic and dynamic. Inter-site replication can be done between two different sites over WAN links BHS (Bridge Head Servers) is responsible for initiating replication between the sites. Difference between inter-site and intra-site replication. Protocols using for replication. If an authorized DHCP finds any DHCP server in the network it stop serving the clients 2. Microsoft Windows 98. A basic disk contains basic volumes. and logical drives. extended partitions. server in windows 2000 must be validate by AD before starting service to clients. mirror sets. Windows XP does not support these multidisk basic volumes. basic volumes include multidisk volumes that are created by using Windows NT 4. what is the difference between Authorized DHCP and Non Authorized DHCP To avoid problems in the network causing by mis-configured DHCP servers. and stripe sets with parity. such as volume sets. or stripe sets with parity must be backed up and deleted or converted to dynamic disks before you install Windows XP Professional.

you can perform disk and volume management without the need to restart Windows. or the Standard. Enterprise and Data Center versions of Windows Server 2003. follow these steps: 1. all volumes on the same disk must use the same storage type. Click Convert. Windows XP Professional. mirrored volumes. or Windows 2000 Datacenter Server. such as simple volumes. A basic or dynamic disk can contain any combination of FAT16. In the lower-right pane. right-click the basic disk that you want to convert. You can also right-click My Computer and choose Manage if you have My Computer displayed on your desktop. and then click Control Panel. Click Performance and Maintenance. Windows 2000 Advanced Server. However. A dynamic disk contains dynamic volumes. click Administrative Tools. and then doubleclick Computer Management. 5. Log on as Administrator or as a member of the Administrators group. click Disk Management. FAT32. striped volumes. Click Start. A disk system can contain any combination of storage types. 3. You cannot create mirrored volumes or RAID-5 volumes on Windows XP Home Edition. 4. and then click OK. 7. 8. Note: Dynamic disks are not supported on portable computers or on Windows XP Home Edition-based computers. However. Storage types are separate from the file system type. . With dynamic storage. 6. or NTFS partitions or volumes. you can use a Windows XP Professional-based computer to create a mirrored or RAID-5 volume on remote computers that are running Windows 2000 Server. and then click OK. Click Details if you want to view the list of volumes in the disk. Select the check box that is next to the disk that you want to convert (if it is not already selected). Windows 2000 and Windows Server 2003. 2. Click Yes when you are prompted to convert the disk.Dynamic storage is supported in Windows XP Professional. To do this. In the left pane. and then click Convert to Dynamic Disk. and RAID-5 volumes. To convert a Basic Disk to a Dynamic Disk: Use the Disk Management snap-in in Windows XP/2000/2003 to convert a basic disk to a dynamic disk. spanned volumes. A disk initialized for dynamic storage is called a dynamic disk. You must right-click the gray area that contains the disk title on the left side of the Details pane. or Windows XP 64-Bit Edition-based computers.

If one of the disks fails. but does not have to be. A mirrored volume cannot be extended. A striped volume cannot be mirrored or extended and is not fault-tolerant. you must first back up the data or move it to another volume. It can be formatted with a file system and assigned a drive letter. A simple volume uses free space from a single disk. mirrored. Windows 2000 and Windows Server 2003. The system volume can be. The boot volume can be. the portion of the RAID-5 volume that was on that failed disk can be re-created from the remaining data and the parity. after you convert a basic disk to a dynamic disk. the data can still be accessed from the remaining disk. or RAID-5. but does not have to be. the same as the system volume. RAID 0 – Striping RAID 1. spanned. A striped volume is a volume whose data is interleaved across two or more physical disks. A spanned volume is created from free disk space that is linked together from multiple disks. The system volume contains the hardware-specific files that are needed to load Windows (for example. Striping is also known as RAID-0. Volumes on dynamic disks can have any of the following layouts: simple. Additionally. Boot. it becomes a spanned volume. local access to the dynamic disk is limited to Windows XP Professional. A simple volume can be extended within the same disk or onto additional disks. the dynamic volumes cannot be changed back to partitions.Mirroring (minimum 2 HDD required) RAID 5 – Striping With Parity (Minimum 3 HDD required) . All of the data on one volume is copied to another disk to provide data redundancy.ini. A RAID5 volume cannot be mirrored or extended. If you want to keep your data. the same as the boot volume.Warning: After you convert a basic disk to a dynamic disk. You must first delete all dynamic volumes on the disk and then convert the dynamic disk back to a basic disk. If a simple volume is extended across multiple disks. Parity (a calculated value that can be used to reconstruct data after a failure) is also striped across the disk array. It can be a single region on a disk or consist of multiple. and Ntdetect. A spanned volume cannot be mirrored and is not fault-tolerant. If a physical disk fails. striped. The data on this type of volume is allocated alternately and evenly to each of the physical disks. concatenated regions. The boot volume contains the Windows operating system files that are located in the %Systemroot% and %Systemroot%\System32 folders. Mirroring is also known as RAID-1. Dynamic Storage Terms A volume is a storage unit made from free space on one or more disks. A RAID-5 volume is a fault-tolerant volume whose data is striped across an array of three or more disks. Ntldr.com). A mirrored volume is a fault-tolerant volume whose data is duplicated on two physical disks. You can extend a spanned volume onto a maximum of 32 disks.

which maintains Indexes about objects.Configuration partition 2. What are the different backup strategies are available Normal Backup Incremental Backup Differential Backup Daily Backup Copy Backup 6. Active directory depends on two Internet standards one is DNS and other is LDAP. Information in Active directory can be queried by using LDAP protocol 8. Schema Partition 3. Schema partitions can be replicated between the domain controllers in the in the entire forest. 7. reliable. Where as Domain partition can be replicated between the domain controllers in the same domain . It contains full information of the objects in its own domain and partial information of the objects in other domains. Because of AD hierarchal structure windows 2000 is more scalable.500 standards where information is stored is hierarchal tree like structure. which maintains the relation ship between resources and enabling them to work together.RAID levels 1 and 5 only gives redundancy 5. Domain partition 4. Active directory is derived from X. What is a global catalog Global catalog is a role. What is Active Directory and what is the use of it Active directory is a directory service. Application Partition (only in windows 2003 not available in windows 2000) Out of these Configuration. what is the physical and logical structure of AD Active directory physical structure is a hierarchal structure which fallows Forests— Trees—Domains—Child Domains—Grand Child—etc Active directory is logically divided into 3 partitions 1. Universal Group membership information will be stored in global catalog servers and replicate to all GC’s in the forest.

What is the process of user authentication (Kerberos V5) in windows 2000 After giving logon credentials an encryption key will be generated which is used to encrypt the time stamp of the client machine. If produces time stamp matches to its time stamp. LDAP and Global catalog Kerberos – 88. User name and encrypted timestamp information will be provided to domain controller for authentication. what is the use of LDAP (X. what is the role responsible for time synchronization PDC Emulator is responsible for time synchronization. what are the problems that are generally come across DHCP Scope is full with IP addresses no IP’s available for new machines If scope options are not configured properly eg default gateway Incorrect creation of scopes etc 13. Again client decrypts and if produced time stamp information is matching then it will use logon session key to logon to the domain. LDAP – 389. which is used to exchange directory information from server to clients or from server to servers 12. Ticket granting ticket will be used to generate service granting ticket when accessing network resources 10. what is TTL & how to set TTL time in DNS TTL is Time to Live setting used for the amount of time that the record should remain in cache when name resolution happened. . Then Domain controller based on the password information stored in AD for that user it decrypts the encrypted time stamp information. what are the port numbers for Kerberos. It will provide logon session key and Ticket granting ticket to client in an encryption format.9.500 standard?) LDAP is a directory access protocol. Global Catalog – 3268 11. Time synchronization is important because Kerberos authentication depends on time stamp information 14.

The maximum number of Dfs roots per domain is unlimited. Domain DFS is used in a domain environment which can be accessed by /domain name/root1 (root 1 is DFS root name).DHCP backup %System root%/system32/dns %System root%/system32/WINS %System root%/system32/DHCP 16. what is DFS & its usage DFS is a distributed file system used to provide common environment for users to access files and folders even when they are shared in different servers physically.We can set TTL in SOA (start of authority record) of DNS 15.000 . We cannot provide redundancy for stand alone DFS in case of failure. rename. Both the cases we need to create DFS root ( Which appears like a shared folder for end users) and DFS links ( A logical link which is pointing to the server where the folder is physically shared) The maximum number of Dfs roots per server is 1. The maximum number of Dfs links or shared folders in a Dfs root is 1. How to take DNS and WINS. We can perform fallowing operations from recovery console We can copy. What is recovery console Recovery console is a utility used to recover the system when it is not booting properly or not at all booting. or replace operating system files and folders Enable or disable service or device startup the next time that start computer Repair the file system boot sector or the Master Boot Record Create and format partitions on drives 17. Stand alone DFS can be used in workgroup environment which can be accessed through /server name/root1 (root 1 is DFS root name). There are two types of DFS domain DFS and Stand alone DFS. The maximum numbers of Dfs root replicas are 31.

Can we establish trust relationship between two forests In Windows 2000 it is not possible. what is RIS and what are its requirements RIS is a remote installation service. which is used to install operation system remotely. Client requirements PXE DHCP-based boot ROM version 1. or a network adapter that is supported by the RIS boot disk. What is FSMO Roles Flexible single master operation (FSMO) roles are . Should meet minimum operating system requirements Software Requirements Below network services must be active on RIS server or any server in the network Domain Name System (DNS Service) Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) Active directory “Directory” service 19.00 or later NIC. In Windows 2003 it is possible 2. How many root replicas can be created in DFS 31 20. High Level 1. What is the difference between Domain DFS and Standalone DFS Refer question 17.18.

only one DC in the entire directory is allowed to process updates. it is replicated from the schema master to all other DCs in the directory. while discarding the changes in all other DCs. Once the Schema update is complete. you must have access to the schema master. In such cases. Windows 2000/2003 incorporates methods to prevent conflicting Active Directory updates from occurring. provides the flexibility of allowing changes to occur at any DC in the enterprise. the Active Directory performs updates to certain objects in a single-master fashion. such as the Active Directory. Although this resolution method may be acceptable in some cases. but it also introduces the possibility of conflicts that can potentially lead to problems once the data is replicated to the rest of the enterprise. In a forest. This is similar to the role given to a primary domain controller (PDC) in earlier versions of Windows (such as Microsoft Windows NT 4. there are times when conflicts are just too difficult to resolve using the "last writer wins" approach.0). Windows 2000/2003 Single-Master Model To prevent conflicting updates in Windows 2000/2003. For certain types of changes. There can be only one schema master in the whole forest. In a single-master model. . it is best to prevent the conflict from occurring rather than to try to resolve it after the fact. there are five FSMO roles that are assigned to one or more domain controllers. Brief all the FSMO Roles Windows 2000/2003 Multi-Master Model A multi-master enabled database. One way Windows 2000/2003 deals with conflicting updates is by having a conflict resolution algorithm handle discrepancies in values by resolving to the DC to which changes were written last (that is. To update the schema of a forest. The five FSMO roles are: Schema Master: The schema master domain controller controls all updates and modifications to the schema. "the last writer wins"). in which the PDC is responsible for processing all updates in a given domain.Domain Naming Master Schema Master PDC Emulator Infrastructure Master RID Master 3.

All Windows 2000/2003-based computers within an enterprise use a common time. Note: The Infrastructure Master (IM) role should be held by a domain controller that is not a Global Catalog server (GC). The PDC emulator of a domain is authoritative for the domain. If the Infrastructure Master runs on a Global Catalog server it will stop updating object information because it does not contain any references to objects that it does not hold. This DC is the only one that can add or remove a domain from the directory. When a DC creates a security principal object such as a user or group. it attaches a unique Security ID (SID) to the object. it represents the reference by the GUID. Infrastructure Master: When an object in one domain is referenced by another object in another domain. The PDC emulator at the root of the forest becomes authoritative for the enterprise. that DC issues a request for additional RIDs to the domain's RID master. cross-domain object references in that domain will not be updated and a warning to that effect will be logged on that DC's event log. Relative ID (RID) Master: The RID master is responsible for processing RID pool requests from all domain controllers in a particular domain. there can be only one domain controller acting as the RID master in the domain. and it is not important which domain controller holds the infrastructure master role. all the domain controllers have the current data.Domain naming master: The domain naming master domain controller controls the addition or removal of domains in the forest. If all the domain controllers in a domain also host the global catalog. Windows 2000/2003 includes the W32Time (Windows Time) time service that is required by the Kerberos authentication protocol. The infrastructure FSMO role holder is the DC responsible for updating an object's SID and distinguished name in a cross-domain object reference. Each DC in a domain is allocated a pool of RIDs that it is allowed to assign to the security principals it creates. the SID (for references to security principals). At any one time. This SID consists of a domain SID (the same for all SIDs created in a domain). and the DN of the object being referenced. This is because a Global Catalog server holds a partial replica of every object in the forest. As a result. It can also add or remove cross references to domains in external directories. and a relative ID (RID) that is unique for each security principal SID created in a domain. and should be . There can be only one domain naming master in the whole forest. there can be only one domain controller acting as the infrastructure master in each domain. At any one time. When a DC's allocated RID pool falls below a threshold. The domain RID master responds to the request by retrieving RIDs from the domain's unallocated RID pool and assigns them to the pool of the requesting DC. The purpose of the time service is to ensure that the Windows Time service uses a hierarchical relationship that controls authority and does not permit loops to ensure appropriate common time usage. PDC Emulator: The PDC emulator is necessary to synchronize time in an enterprise.

All PDC FSMO role holders follow the hierarchy of domains in the selection of their in-bound time partner.Domain-specific and one for each domain. Account lockout is processed on the PDC emulator.Domain-specific and one for each domain.configured to gather the time from an external source. The PDC emulator performs all of the functionality that a Microsoft Windows NT 4. How to manually configure FSMO Roles to separate DC’s How can I determine who are the current FSMO Roles holders in my domain/forest? Windows 2000/2003 Active Directory domains utilize a Single Operation Master method called FSMO (Flexible Single Master Operation). PDC . the PDC emulator role holder retains the following functions: Password changes performed by other DCs in the domain are replicated preferentially to the PDC emulator. In most cases an administrator can keep the FSMO role holders (all 5 of them) in the same spot (or actually. there can be only one domain controller acting as the PDC emulator master in each domain in the forest. At any one time.0 or earlier are all upgraded to Windows 2000/2003. The five FSMO roles are: • • • • • Schema master . Editing or creation of Group Policy Objects (GPO) is always done from the GPO copy found in the PDC Emulator's SYSVOL share. and domain controllers that are running Windows NT 4. RID master . In a Windows 2000/2003 domain.0-based or earlier clients. Infrastructure master . member servers.Forest-wide and one per forest. The PDC emulator still performs the other functions as described in a Windows 2000/2003 environment. Domain naming master . Authentication failures that occur at a given DC in a domain because of an incorrect password are forwarded to the PDC emulator before a bad password failure message is reported to the user.PDC Emulator is domain-specific and one for each domain. on the same DC) as has been configured by the Active Directory installation .Forest-wide and one per forest. unless configured not to do so by the administrator. 4. as described in Understanding FSMO Roles in Active Directory.0 Server-based PDC or earlier PDC performs for Windows NT 4. This part of the PDC emulator role becomes unnecessary when all workstations.

PDC Emulator. Open the Active Directory Users and Computers snap-in from the Administrative Tools folder. However. any Tree Root Domain. PDC Emulator. one can accomplish this task by many means. or any Child Domain) Method #2: Use the GUI The FSMO role holders can be easily found by use of some of the AD snap-ins. while seizing the roles from a non-operational DC to a different DC is described in the Seizing FSMO Roles article. With that knowledge in hand. and Infrastructure Masters via GUI To find out who currently holds the Domain-Specific RID Master. the administrator can make better arrangements in case of a scheduled shut-down of any given DC. Use this table to see which tool can be used for what FSMO role: FSMO Role Schema Domain Naming RID PDC Emulator Infrastructure Which snap-in should I use? Schema snap-in AD Domains and Trusts snap-in AD Users and Computers snap-in Finding the RID Master. and Infrastructure Master FSMO Roles: 1. the Forest Root Domain) The first DC in a domain (any domain. there are scenarios where an administrator would want to move one or more of the FSMO roles from the default holder DC to a different DC. Method #1: Know the default settings The FSMO roles were assigned to one or more DCs during the DCPROMO process. and what role it holds. . The transferring method is described in the Transferring FSMO Roles article.e. This article will list a few of the available methods.process. including the Forest Root Domain. an AD administrator must have the exact knowledge of which one of the existing DCs is holding a FSMO role. How to find out which DC is holding which FSMO role? Well. The following table summarizes the FSMO default locations: FSMO Role Schema Domain Naming RID PDC Emulator Infrastructure Number of DCs holding this role One per forest One per forest One per domain One per domain One per domain Original DC holding the FSMO role The first DC in the first domain in the forest (i. In order to better understand your AD infrastructure and to know the added value that each DC might possess. and better prepare him or herself in case of a non-scheduled cease of operation from one of the DCs.

Register the Schmmgmt. Press Add and press Close. Right-click the Active Directory Domains and Trusts icon again and press Operation Masters. 4. 8. Press OK. Press OK. 3. On the Console menu. You should receive a success confirmation. Select Active Directory Schema. Click the Active Directory Schema icon. 2. 6. . Right-click the Active Directory Users and Computers icon again and press Operation Masters. After it loads right-click it and press Operation Masters. Caution: Using the Ntdsutil utility incorrectly may result in partial or complete loss of Active Directory functionality. When you're done click Close. Method #3: Use the Ntdsutil command The FSMO role holders can be easily found by use of the Ntdsutil command.2. From the Run command open an MMC Console by typing MMC. 3. Finding the Schema Master via GUI To find out who currently holds the Schema Master Role: 1. 3. Press the Close button. 4. press Add/Remove Snap-in. 5. Finding the Domain Naming Master via GUI To find out who currently holds the Domain Naming Master Role: 1. Select the appropriate tab for the role you wish to view. When you're done click Close.dll library by pressing Start > RUN and typing: 2. 7. Press Add. Open the Active Directory Domains and Trusts snap-in from the Administrative Tools folder.

Type connect to server <servername>.CN=NTDS Settings. and then press ENTER again.CN=Servers.CN=Default-First-SiteName. and then press ENTER. 4. and then press ENTER.DC=net PDC . At the select operation target: prompt. and then press ENTER. 2.CN=Sites. At the server connections: prompt.DC=net Domain . 6.CN=SERVER100. select operation target: List roles for connected server Server "server100" knows about 5 roles Schema .CN=Default-First-SiteName. On any domain controller. type q. 3.1. and then press ENTER. and then press ENTER again.CN=Sites. Note: To see a list of available commands at any of the prompts in the Ntdsutil tool. type Select operation target.CN=NTDS Settings. click Run. At the FSMO maintenance: prompt.CN=Sites. where <servername> is the name of the server you want to use.CN=C onfiguration.CN=Servers.CN=Servers. type Ntdsutil in the Open box. click Start. Type roles.CN=SERVER100. type ?.DC=net .CN=Default-First-SiteName.CN=Conf iguration.DC=dpetri.CN=C onfiguration. Type connections. type List roles for connected server. 5.DC=dpetri. and then click OK. and then press ENTER again.CN=NTDS Settings.DC=dpetri.CN=SERVER100.

CN=NTDS Settings.CN=SERVER100.DC=dpetri. In the Command Prompt window. such as GPOs and FSMO roles.CN=Configuration. click Start. .CN=NTDS Settings.CN=Servers. and then click OK. Note: You can download THIS nice batch file that will do all this for you (1kb). Method #4: Use the Netdom command The FSMO role holders can be easily found by use of the Netdom command. Type q 3 times to exit the Ntdsutil prompt. The Support Tools pack can be found in the \Support\Tools folder on your installation CD (or you can Download Windows 2000 SP4 Support Tools. about any DC. You must either download it separately (from here Download Free Windows 2000 Resource Kit Tools) or by obtaining the correct Support Tools pack for your operating system.exe is a part of the Windows 2000/XP/2003 Support Tools.CN=SERVER100. Method #5: Use the Replmon tool The FSMO role holders can be easily found by use of the Netdom command. Replmon. On any domain controller.CN=Default-First-SiteName. But Replmon can also provide valuable information about the AD. 1.RID .CN=Servers.DC=net Infrastructure . Install the package before attempting to use the tool.CN=Si tes.CN=Sites. click Run. mostly with those that are related with AD replication.exe is a part of the Windows 2000/XP/2003 Support Tools. 2. Replmon can be used for a wide verity of tasks. and also about other objects and settings. found in the Windows 2000 Resource Kit (and can be downloaded here: Download Free Windows 2000 Resource Kit Tools). Close the CMD window. Note: You can download THIS nice batch file that will do all this for you (1kb). Just like Netdom.DC=dpetri. Download Windows XP SP1 Deploy Tools). type netdom query /domain:<domain> fsmo (where <domain> is the name of YOUR domain). This tool is basically a one-click Ntdsutil script that performs the same operation described above.DC=net select operation target: 8.CN=Default-First-SiteName. type CMD in the Open box. Another Note: Microsoft has a nice tool called Dumpfsmos.CN=Conf iguration.cmd. Netdom.

Click Ok when you're done. and select Properties. PDC . and then click OK. In most cases an administrator can keep the FSMO role holders (all 5 of them) in the same spot (or actually. Moving the FSMO roles while both the original FSMO role holder and the future FSMO role holder are online and operational is called Transferring. expand it. 2. . However. type REPLMON in the Open box. and click to select the server you want to query. How can I forcibly transfer (seize) some or all of the FSMO Roles from one DC to another? Windows 2000/2003 Active Directory domains utilize a Single Operation Master method called FSMO (Flexible Single Master Operation). click Run. Make sure your AD domain name is listed in the drop-down list. 5. On any domain controller.PDC Emulator is domain-specific and one for each domain. In the site list select your site. Click Finish. as described in Understanding FSMO Roles in Active Directory. 3. RID master . In the Add Server to Monitor window. The five FSMO roles are: • • • • • Schema master . Domain naming master . Right-click Monitored servers and select Add Monitored Server. Right-click the server that is now listed in the left-pane. click Start. Click on the FSMO Roles tab and read the results. 6.Domain-specific and one for each domain.Forest-wide and one per forest.Domain-specific and one for each domain. on the same DC) as has been configured by the Active Directory installation process. 4. Infrastructure master .1. and is described in the Transferring FSMO Roles article.Forest-wide and one per forest. there are scenarios where an administrator would want to move one or more of the FSMO roles from the default holder DC to a different DC. select the Search the Directory for the server to add. 7.

try to get it back on line. to a different DC. non-operational holder. What will happen if you do not perform the seize in time? This table has the info: FSMO Role Schema Loss implications The schema cannot be extended. you will probably not be able to change or troubleshoot group policies and password changes will become a problem. Domain Naming RID PDC Emulator Infrastructure Important: If the RID. It is necessary to reinstall Windows if these servers are to be used again. NT 4. However. almost none. Only seize a FSMO role if absolutely necessary when the original role holder is not connected to the network. and transfer the FSMO roles to a reliable computer. there will be no time synchronization in the domain. Will be missed soon. the best thing to do is to try and get the server online again. and is described in this article. or Domain Naming FSMOs are seized. The following table summarizes the FSMO seizing restrictions: . Group memberships may be incomplete. Schema. If you only have one domain. If a DC holding a FSMO role fails. Chances are good that the existing DCs will have enough unused RIDs to last some time. Unless you are going to run DCPROMO. when the original FSMO role holder went offline or became non operational for a long period of time. Administrators should use extreme caution in seizing FSMO roles. This operation. should be performed only if the original FSMO role owner will not be brought back into the environment. in most cases. the loss of the PDC Emulator FSMO role might become a problem unless you fix it in a reasonable amount of time).However. then there will be no impact. If a DC becomes unreliable. in the short term no one will notice a missing Schema Master unless you plan a schema upgrade during that time. so it is not a problem to them to be unavailable for hours or even days. the administrator might consider moving the FSMO role from the original. Since none of the FSMO roles are immediately critical (well. unless you're building hundreds of users or computer object per week. then the original domain controller must not be activated in the forest again. then you will not miss this FSMO role.0 BDCs will not be able to replicate. The process of moving the FSMO role from a non-operational role holder to a different DC is called Seizing.

FSMO Role Restrictions Schema Original must be reinstalled Domain Naming RID PDC Emulator Can transfer back to original Infrastructure Another consideration before performing the seize operation is the administrator's group membership. click Run. Type connections. type ?. type q. 1. as this table lists: FSMO Role Schema Domain Naming RID PDC Emulator Infrastructure Administrator must be a member of Schema Admins Enterprise Admins Domain Admins To seize the FSMO roles by using Ntdsutil. 4. and then press ENTER. 5. 2. and then press ENTER. and then press ENTER. . On any domain controller. Type connect to server <servername>. Type roles. type Ntdsutil in the Open box. click Start. and then press ENTER. Note: To see a list of available commands at any of the prompts in the Ntdsutil tool. At the server connections: prompt. 3. and then click OK. follow these steps: Caution: Using the Ntdsutil utility incorrectly may result in partial or complete loss of Active Directory functionality. where <servername> is the name of the server you want to use. and then press ENTER again.

DC=dpetri.CN=Configuration.) ) Depending on the error code this may indicate a connection. ldap.CN=Default-First-SiteName.DC=dpetri.6.CN=Configuration.CN=Sites.CN=Default-First-SiteName.CN=Servers. ldap_modify_sW error 0x34(52 (Unavailable).CN=NTDS Settings. where <role> is the role you want to seize. problem 5002 (UNAVAILABLE) .CN=Sites.CN=Servers.DC=net Infrastructure .CN=SERVER100.CN=NTDS Settings. Server "server100" knows about 5 roles Schema . to seize the RID Master role. For example.CN=NTDS Settings.CN=SERVER100. Transfer of infrastructure FSMO failed. Click on Yes.CN=Configuration.DC=dpetri.CN=Default-First-SiteName. data 1722 Win32 error returned is 0x20af(The requested FSMO operation failed.CN=Configuration. The current FSMO holde r could not be contacted.CN=Configuration.DC=net fsmo maintenance: .CN=Default-First-SiteName.CN=Sites. or role transfer error.. You will receive a warning window asking if you want to perform the seize.CN=Servers.DC=dpetri.CN=NTDS Settings.CN=Sites.DC=dpetri. fsmo maintenance: Seize infrastructure master Attempting safe transfer of infrastructure FSMO before seizure.CN=Servers.CN=NTDS Settings.CN=Servers.CN=SERVER200. proceeding with seizure .CN=SERVER100. Ldap extended error message is 000020AF: SvcErr: DSID-03210300.CN=Default-First-SiteName.CN=Sites.DC=net RID . you would type seize rid master: Options are: 7.CN=SERVER200.. Type seize <role>.DC=net Domain .DC=net PDC .

so there is no guarantee that the files are going to be the same size across all domain controllers. . 6. 9. After you seize or transfer the roles. Windows 2000 and Windows Server 2003 servers running Directory Services (DS) perform a directory online defragmentation every 12 hours by default as part of the garbage-collection process.the database file cannot be compacted while Active Directory is mounted. Determine which roles are to be on which remaining domain controllers so that all five roles are not on only one server. and then press ENTER until you quit the Ntdsutil tool. This can be used specifically when the entire OU is disturbed in all domain controllers or specifically restore a single object. 8. Difference between online and offline de-fragmentation The size of NTDS.DIT will often be different sizes across the domain controllers in a domain. This defragmentation only moves data around the database file (NTDS. If the first domain controller is out of the forest then seize all roles. Objects that are restored will be replicated to all domain controllers in the domain. Note: Do not put the Infrastructure Master (IM) role on the same domain controller as the Global Catalog server. Remember that Active Directory is a multi-master independent model where updates are occurring in each of the domain controllers with the changes being replicated over time to the other domain controllers. type q. 5. What is the difference between authoritative and non-authoritative restore In authoritative restore. not the database. which is disturbed in all DC’s In non-authoritative restore. If the Infrastructure Master runs on a GC server it will stop updating object information because it does not contain any references to objects that it does not hold. This is because a GC server holds a partial replica of every object in the forest. The changed data is replicated between domain controllers. Repeat steps 6 and 7 until you've seized all the required FSMO roles.DIT) and doesn’t reduce the file’s size .Note: All five roles need to be in the forest. what is Active Directory De-fragmentation De-fragmentation of AD means separating used space and empty space created by deleted objects and reduces directory size (only in offline De-fragmentation) 7. Restored directory information will be updated by other domain controllers based on the latest modification time.

the database self-tunes and automatically tombstoning the records then sweeping them away when the tombstone lifetime has passed to make that space available for additional records.DIT file that has been defragmented offline (compacted). Reboot the server. The database file cannot be compacted while Active Directory is mounted (or online).exe In the command window. Press Enter again to start the OS. with no DS running. file maintenance:compact to c:\temp . To create a new. select the OS option. can be much smaller than the NTDS. defragmenting the NTDS. You’ll see a dialog box that says you’re in safe mode..DIT file isn’t something you should really need to do. Select the Directory Services Restore Mode option. Use the local SAM’s administrator account and password to log on. W2K will start in safe mode. smaller NTDS. but this is limited to the disposal of tombstoned objects.Active Directory routinely performs online database defragmentation. Normally.DIT file and to enable offline defragmentation. From the Start menu. (Enter the commands in bold. and press F8 for advanced options.. for example if you deleted a large number of records at one time. Click OK. So why defrag it in the first place? One reason you might want to defrag your NTDS..DIT file is to save space.DIT file probably won’t help your AD queries go any faster in the long run. you’ll see the following text. and press Enter. However. Defragging the NTDS. An NTDS.) C:\> ntdsutil ntdsutil: files file maintenance:info . select Run and type cmd.DIT file on its peers. perform the following steps: Back up Active Directory (AD).

dit Restart the computer. After 60 days object will be deleted permanently from all Dc’s. . 9. How to deploy the patches and what are the softwares used for this process Using SUS (Software update services) server we can deploy patches to all clients in the network. which can only available in Enterprise Edition and Data center edition. Then. How to define alert mechanism Spot Light . 8. 11. What is Clustering. Then approved update will be deployed to clients We can configure clients by changing the registry manually or through Group policy by adding WUAU administrative template in group policy 12. We need to approve new update based on the requirement. If the process was successful.DIT file with the new.You’ll see the defragmentation process. enter quit to return to the command prompt. Briefly define & explain it Clustering is a technology. (Enter the commands in bold. SNMP Need to enable . replace the old NTDS. what are the monitoring tools used for Server and Network Heath. We need to configure an option called “Synchronize with Microsoft software update server” option and schedule time to synchronize in server. What is tombstone period Tombstones are nothing but objects marked for deletion. We can configure cluster by installing MCS (Microsoft cluster service) component from Add remove programs.dit %systemroot%\ntds\ntds. what is white space and Garbage collection refer question 7 10. and boot as normal.) C:\> copy c:\temp\ntds. which is used to provide High Availability for mission critical applications. It will be remain 60 days by default (which can be configurable) it adds an entry as marked for deletion on the object and replicates to all DC’s. After deleting an object in AD the objects will not be deleted permanently. compressed version.

For SNMP programs to communicate we need to configure common community name for those machines where SNMP programs (eg DELL OPEN MANAGER) running. 16. This can be configured from services. How to configure SNMP SNMP can be configured by installing SNMP from Monitoring and Management tools from Add and Remove programs. What is SOA Record SOA is a Start Of Authority record. When the original server backs we need to FAILBACK the application Quorum: A shared storage need to provide for all servers which keeps information about clustered application and session state and is useful in FAILOVER situation. We can configure TTL. which is a first record in DNS. especially in a split namespace scenario. In windows 2003 it is possible. Server Cluster: This provides High availability by configuring active-active or active-passive cluster. They also help . which is used to identify the status of other servers in cluster. Stub zones are a new feature of DNS in Windows Server 2003 that can be used to streamline name resolution.SNMP service -. This is very important if Quorum disk fails entire cluster will fails Heartbeat: Heartbeat is a private connectivity between the servers in the cluster. Usually preferable at edge servers like web or proxy.In Windows we can configure two types of clusters NLB (network load balancing) cluster for balancing load between servers. 15. Is it possible to rename the Domain name & how? In Windows 2000 it is not possible.Security 14. What is a Stub zone and what is the use of it. When active server fails the application will FAILOVER to stand by server automatically. refresh. This cluster will not provide any high availability.msc--. 13. In 2 node active-passive cluster one node will be active and one node will be stand by. and retry intervals in this record. On Domain controller by going to MYCOMPUTER properties we can change. which controls the startup behavior of DNS.

What is the difference between IIS Version 5 and IIS Version 6 Refer Question 1 21. the disk configurations (including basic and dynamic volumes). and how to perform a restore. Can we use a Linux DNS Sever in 2000 Domain We can use. volumes. What is ASR (Automated System Recovery) and how to implement it ASR is a two-part system. making DNS more efficient especially over slow WAN links. does the backup portion. and partitions on (at a minimum) the disks . ASR reads the disk configurations from the file that it creates. The ASR Wizard. system services. and all the disks that are associated with the operating system components. 17. What are the (two) services required for replication File Replication Service (FRS) Knowledge Consistency Checker (KCC) 19. located in Backup. But the BIND version should be 8 or greater 20. It restores all the disk signatures. What are the different types of partitions present in AD Active directory is divided into three partitions Configuration Partition—replicates entire forest Schema Partition—replicates entire forest Domain Partition—replicate only in domain Application Partition (Only in Windows 2003) 18. it includes ASR backup and ASR restore.reduce the amount of DNS traffic on your network. You can access the restore portion by pressing F2 when prompted in the text-mode portion of setup. The wizard backs up the system state. ASR also creates a file that contains information about the backup.

Domain controller policy. because by default it will be associated with domain GPO. but under some circumstances it might not be able to. and you can designate the server file system path to which the folder should be redirected. ASR will try to restore all the disk configurations. ASR then installs a simple installation of Windows and automatically starts a restoration using the backup created by the ASR Wizard. FRS (File replication service) is responsible for replicating all policies and scripts 25. Local policy and Group policy Domain Policy will apply to all computers in the domain. By default domain controller security policy will be associated with domain controller GPO. Once you create the group policy and link it to the appropriate folder object. The %USERNAME% variable may be used as part of the redirection path.that you need to start the computer. What is Domain Policy. What is the use of SYSVOL folder Policies and scripts saved in SYSVOL folder will be replicated to all domain controllers in the domain. 22. 24. Local policy will be applied to that particular machine only and effects to that computer only. What are the different levels that we can apply Group Policy We can apply group policy at SITE level---Domain Level---OU level 23. you can choose Basic or Advanced folder redirection. native & intrim…. 26. What is folder redirection? Folder Redirection is a User group policy. thus allowing the system to dynamically create a newly redirected folder for each user to whom the policy object applies. the administrator needs to navigate to the following location in the Group Policy Object: User Configuration\Windows Settings\Folder Redirection In the Properties of the folder. Where as Domain controller policy will be applied only on domain controller. an administrator can designate which folders to redirect and where To do this. What different modes in windows 2003 (Mixed.etc) .

0 or Windows 2000 in your environment. To activate the new domain features. The following table summarizes the Active Directory features that are available by default on any domain controller running Windows Server 2003: .0–based or Windows 2000–based domain controllers to the environment. the administrator can raise the domain functional level to Windows Server 2003 (read Raise Domain Function Level in Windows Server 2003 Domains for more info). Note: Network clients can authenticate or access resources in the domain or forest without being affected by the Windows Server 2003 domain or forest functional levels. Additional Active Directory features are available when all domain controllers in a domain or forest are running Windows Server 2003 and the administrator activates the corresponding functional level in the domain or forest. all domain controllers in the forest must be running Windows Server 2003. and the current forest functional level must be at Windows 2000 native or Windows Server 2003 domain level. ensure that you will never need to install domain controllers running Windows NT 4.0 or Windows 2000–based domain controllers in the environment will no longer function. After this requirement is met.What are the domain and forest function levels in a Windows Server 2003-basedActive Directory? Functional levels are an extension of the mixed/native mode concept introduced in Windows 2000 to activate new Active Directory features after all the domain controllers in the domain or forest are running the Windows Server 2003 operating system. the administrator can raise the domain functional level (read Raise Forest Function Level in Windows Server 2003 Active Directory for more info). Any existing Windows NT 4. To activate new forest-wide features. When the first Windows Server 2003–based domain controller is deployed in a domain or forest. Before raising functional levels to take advantage of advanced Windows Server 2003 features. When a computer that is running Windows Server 2003 is installed and promoted to a domain controller. After this requirement is met. Important Raising the domain and forest functional levels to Windows Server 2003 is a nonreversible task and prohibits the addition of Windows NT 4. all domain controllers in the domain must be running Windows Server 2003. These levels only affect the way that domain controllers interact with each other. a set of default Active Directory features becomes available. new Active Directory features are activated by the Windows Server 2003 operating system over its Windows 2000 counterparts.

Efficient search capabilities Search functionality is object-oriented and provides an efficient search that minimizes network traffic associated with browsing objects. Secure Lightweight Directory Active Directory administrative tools sign and Access Protocol (LDAP) traffic encrypt all LDAP traffic by default. Active Directory quotas Quotas can be specified in Active Directory to control the number of objects a user. Partial synchronization of the Provides improved replication of the global catalog global catalog when schema changes add attributes to the global catalog partial attribute set. not the entire global catalog. group. Only the new attributes are replicated. For example. Drag and drop functionality Allows you to move Active Directory objects from container to container by dragging one or more objects to a location in the domain hierarchy. You can also add objects to group membership lists by dragging one or more objects (including other group objects) to the target group. Ability to add additional domain Reduces the time it takes to add an additional domain controllers by using backup media controller in an existing domain by using backup media. the domain or forest operates by default at the lowest functional level that is possible in . Signing LDAP traffic guarantees that the packaged data comes from a known source and that it has not been tampered with. Universal group membership Prevents the need to locate a global catalog across a caching wide area network (WAN) when logging on by storing universal group membership information on an authenticating domain controller. Application directory partitions Allows you to configure the replication scope for application-specific data among domain controllers. When the first Windows Server 2003–based domain controller is deployed in a domain or forest. or computer can own in a given directory partition. Members of the Domain Administrators and Enterprise Administrators groups are exempt from quotas. InetOrgPerson class The inetOrgPerson class has been added to the base schema as a security principal and can be used in the same manner as the user class. Saved queries Allows you to save commonly used search parameters for reuse in Active Directory Users and Computers Active Directory command-line Allows you to run new directory service commands tools for administration scenarios. you can control the replication scope of Domain Name System (DNS) zone data stored in Active Directory so that only specific domain controllers in the forest participate in DNS zone replication.Feature Multiple selection of user objects Functionality Allows you to modify common attributes of multiple user objects at one time.

This mode is only used when you upgrade domain controllers in Windows NT 4. a set of advanced features becomes available. If you raise the domain functional level to Windows Server 2003. Domains that are upgraded from Windows NT 4. universal groups. but fewer features than the Windows Server 2003 forest functional level supports. The Windows Server 2003 functional level supports the most advanced Active Directory features. you can raise domain levels by increasing the forest level settings Windows Server 2003 interim • • Supported domain controllers: Windows NT 4.0 domains to Windows Server 2003 domain controllers. When you raise the functional level of a domain or forest. Windows Server 2003 Supported features: There are no domain-wide features activated at this level. For example. you can redirect the Users and Computers containers. global catalog support Windows 2000 native • • Supported domain controllers: Windows 2000. logon timestamp attribute updated and replicated. This applies to the forest functional level as well. the Windows Server 2003 interim forest functional level supports more features than the Windows 2000 forest functional level. Domain Functional Level Domain functionality activates features that affect the whole domain and that domain only.0.0. Windows Server 2003 • • Supported domain controllers: Windows Server 2003 Supported features: domain controller rename. only Windows Server 2003 domain controllers can operate in that domain or forest. Windows . their corresponding features. Constrained delegation. All domains in a forest are automatically raised to this level when the forest level increases to interim.that environment. you cannot introduce any domain controllers that are running versions of Windows earlier than Windows Server 2003 into that domain. The four domain functional levels. Windows Server 2003 is the highest functional level that is available for a domain or forest.0 or created by the promotion of a Windows Server 2003-based computer operate at the Windows 2000 mixed functional level. converting groups between security groups and distribution groups. Windows Server 2003 Activated features: local and global groups. Windows 2000. and supported domain controllers are as follows: Windows 2000 mixed (Default) • • Supported domain controllers: Microsoft Windows NT 4. however. This allows you to take advantage of the default Active Directory features while running versions of Windows earlier than Windows Server 2003. SidHistory. User password support on the InetOrgPerson objectClass. Windows Server 2003 Activated features: group nesting.

Windows 2000 (default) • • Supported domain controllers: Windows NT 4. Print-Rate-Unit Windows Server 2003 • • Supported domain controllers: Windows Server 2003 Activated features: all features in Interim Level. domain controllers that are running earlier operating systems cannot be introduced into the forest. The following describes the domain functional level and the domain-wide features that are activated for that level. Print-Memory. Windows Server 2003 New features: Partial list includes universal group caching. See the "Upgrade from a Windows NT 4. domain controllers that are running earlier operating systems cannot be introduced into the domain. if you raise forest functional levels . install from media. Message Queuing-Multicast-Address. Note that with each successive level increase. Defunct schema objects. if you raise the domain functional level to Windows Server 2003. Windows Server 2003 interim • • Supported domain controllers: Windows NT 4. Trust-Attributes.0.0. ISTG Aliveness no longer replicated. Dynamic auxiliary classes. quotas. Trust-Type. After the domain functional level is raised. Improved Replication Topology Generation. InetOrgPerson objectClass change. You can raise the domain functional level to either Windows 2000 native or Windows Server 2003. Print-Rate. Message Queuing-Secured-Source. Domain Rename. Windows 2000. Activated features: Windows 2000 features plus Efficient Group Member Replication using Linked Value Replication. rapid global catalog demotion. 15-second intrasite replication frequency for Windows Server 2003 domain controllers upgraded from Windows 2000 After the forest functional level is raised. and their supported domain controllers are listed below. Security-Identifier. domain controllers that are running Windows 2000 Server cannot be added to that domain. Cross Forest Trust. For example. Trust-Partner. application partitions. Single Instance Store (SIS) for System Access Control Lists (SACL) in the Jet Database Engine. ms-DS-Entry-Time-To-Die. No global catalog full sync when attributes are added to the PAS Windows Server 2003 domain controller assumes the Intersite Topology Generator (ISTG) role.2000 domains maintain their current domain functional level when Windows 2000 domain controllers are upgraded to the Windows Server 2003 operating system. the corresponding features. the feature set of the previous level is included. Improved topology generation event logging.0 Domain" section of this article. Forest Functional Level Forest functionality activates features across all the domains in your forest. Attributes added to the global catalog. For example. ms-DS-TrustForest-Trust-Info. Trust-Direction. Three forest functional levels. Windows Server 2003. Application Groups.

• Public IP address/UDP port 4500 to the server's private IP address/UDP port 4500. Windows server 2003 and Windows server 2003 interim ( Only available when upgrades directly from Windows NT 4. Windows 2000 Native mode. Raising domain and forest functional levels is required to enable certain new features as domain controllers are upgraded from Windows NT 4.0 or Windows 2000 Server cannot be added to the forest. These mappings are required so that all Internet Key Exchange (IKE) and IPSec NATT traffic that is sent to the public address of the network address translator is automatically translated and forwarded to the Windows Server 2003-based computer 28. Ipsec usage and difference window 2000 & 2003. except . For example. unintended side effects may occur because of the way that network address translators translate network traffic If you put a server behind a network address translator. Microsoft doesn’t recommend Internet Protocol security (IPSec) network address translation (NAT) traversal (NAT-T) for Windows deployments that include VPN servers and that are located behind network address translators. Application directory partitions can contain any type of object.0 to Windows 2003) Forest Functional Levels: Windows 2000 and Windows 2003 27. you may experience connection problems because clients that connect to the server over the Internet require a public IP address.0 and Windows 2000 to Windows Server 2003 Domain Functional Levels: Windows 2000 Mixed mode. domain controllers that are running Windows NT 4. Applications and services can use application directory partitions to store applicationspecific data. When a server is behind a network address translator. How to create application partition windows 2003 and its usage? An application directory partition is a directory partition that is replicated only to specific domain controllers. Only domain controllers running Windows Server 2003 can host a replica of an application directory partition. static mappings must be configured on the network address translator. A domain controller that participates in the replication of a particular application directory partition hosts a replica of that partition. configure the network address translator with the following static network address translator mappings: • Public IP address/UDP port 500 to the server's private IP address/UDP port 500.to Windows Server 2003. to reach a Windows Server 2003-based computer that is behind a network address translator from the Internet. Different Active Directory features are available at different functional levels. To reach servers that are located behind network address translators from the Internet. and the server uses IPSec NAT-T.

The next time that user attempts to log on.security principals. Once the universal group membership information is obtained. the authenticating domain controller running Windows Server 2003 will obtain the universal group membership information from its local cache without the need to contact a global catalog. . who is managing these policies. TAPI is an example of a service that stores its application-specific data in an application directory partition. Who are the users effecting by these polices. 31. GPMC & RSOP in windows 2003? GPMC is tool which will be used for managing group policies and will display information like how many policies applied. GPMC will display all the above information. on which OU’s the policies applied. For testing and troubleshooting purposes. Information is stored locally once this option is enabled and a user attempts to log on for the first time. Application directory partitions are usually created by the applications that will use them to store and replicate data. 29. By default. Is it possible to do implicit transitive forest to forest trust relation ship in windows 2003? Implicit Transitive trust will not be possible in windows 2003. the universal group membership information contained in the cache of each domain controller will be refreshed every 8 hours. The domain controller obtains the universal group membership for that user from a global catalog. Between forests we can create explicit trust Two-way trust One-way: incoming One-way: Outgoing 30. it is cached on the domain controller for that site indefinitely and is periodically refreshed. What is universal group membership cache in windows 2003. What are the settings enabled in each policy. members of the Enterprise Admins group can manually create or manage application directory partitions using the Ntdsutil command-line tool.

If it is applied on user it will apply where ever he logs on to the domain. domain controller. Using the Recovery Console. Because the Recovery Console is quite powerful. It will be appear in Start menu—Programs. In addition. Once user click the shortcut or open any document having that extension then the application install into the local machine. domain. 33. it should only be used by advanced users who have a thorough knowledge of Windows 2000. Internet Explorer Maintenance. read and write data on a local drive (including drives formatted to use NTFS). the results can conflict. and organizational unit). format drives. 32. you can start and stop services. How to use recovery console? The Windows 2000 Recovery Console is a command-line console that you can start from the Windows 2000 Setup program. and Group Policy Software Installation. and perform many other administrative tasks. If any application program files missing it will automatically repair. Folder Redirection. DFS in windows 2003? Refer Question 17 on level 2 34. you must be an administrator to use the Recovery Console. or if you need to reconfigure a service that is preventing your computer from starting properly. It will not install automatically when any application program files are corrupted or deleted. site. When policies are applied on multiple levels (for example.msi package for that application With Assign option you can apply policy for both user and computer. With Publish option you can apply only on users. including Administrative Templates. Security Settings.RSoP provides details about all policy settings that are configured by an Administrator. Scripts. There are two ways to start the Recovery Console: . Assign & Publish the applications in GP & how? Through Group policy you can Assign and Publish the applications by creating . RSoP can help you determine a set of applied policies and their precedence (the order in which policies are applied). If it is applied to computer then the policy will apply to user who logs on to that computer. The Recovery Console is particularly useful if you need to repair your system by copying a file from a floppy disk or CD-ROM to your hard drive.

you can install the Recovery Console on your computer to make it available in case you are unable to restart Windows 2000. and Windows 98 operating systems and other point-to-point protocol (PPP)-enabled systems to dial into a local Internet service provider to connect securely to their corporate network through the Internet Netdom. you can run the Recovery Console from your Windows 2000 Setup disks or from the Windows 2000 Professional CD (if you can start your computer from your CD-ROM drive). enableing remote users to access corporate networks securely across the Microsoft Windows NT® Workstation.If you are unable to start your computer. You can then select the Recovery Console option from the list of available operating systems 35.exe is domain management tool to rename domain controller SID history • What is Bridge Head Server? • Crisis Management? • Mail flow in Exchange Server. • DMZ concept in Firewalls. Windows® 95. As an alternative. PPTP protocol for VPN in windows 2003? Point-to-Point-Tunneling Protocol (PPTP) is a networking technology that supports multiprotocol virtual private networks (VPN). • Is NAT uses Port Number if so what is the Port number? • Difference between Schema Master and Global Catlog? .

. what is the issue if both resides on same system? • When you require a Infrastructure Master. Read about RIS. • How to trouble shoot if a DHCP client won’t get IP from DHCP Server? • What is online and offline fragmentations? • Garbage collections and white spaces? • Tell me one example when Infracture master and Global catalog will be on one DC.• Difference Between Incremental and Differential Backup? Which is best backup Microsoft has recommended? (depends on the volume of data) • How DNS and DHCP are integrated? • • If RID master fails what happens? tool used for FSMO? • Difference between Assigning and Publishing through Group Policy? Netdom.exe is domain management tool to rename domain controller Second level • What are the services installed when RIS is installed.

Auditing Enable auditing for the success and failure of user and group management on the source domain.0 Service Pack 4 (SP4) or later with 128-Bit encryption. Registry .0 domain to a Windows Server 2003-based domain. Add the Domain Admins global group from the target domain to the Administrators local group in the source domain. Note: This article assumes that the source domain is running Windows NT 4. and that the target domain is a Windows Server 2003-based domain in native mode. Note: There must be no members in this group. Groups Add the Domain Admins global group from the source domain to the Administrators local group in the target domain. Create a new local group in the source domain called Source Domain$$$. the following domain and security configurations are required. Enable auditing for the success and failure of Audit account management on the target domain in the Default Domain Controllers policy.0-to-Windows Server 2003 Migration: Before you upgrade a Windows NT 4. Trusts Configure the source domain to trust the target domain. the Windows Server 2003 must have 128-Bit encryption (which comes as a default setting in Windows 2003). Also.• What are Windows 2003 modes? • • • What are FSMO roles and explain then? Stress on PDC emulator? 2003 advantages? • About migration?(W2k to W2k3 and NT to W2k3). How to Set Up ADMT for a Windows NT 4. Configure the target domain to trust the source domain.

Administrator rights on each computer that you migrate. A member of the Administrators group in the source domain. Intraforest Migration . How to set up ADMT for a Windows 2000 to Windows Server 2003 migration How to Set Up ADMT for a Windows 2000 to Windows Server 2003 Migration You can install the Active Directory Migration Tool version 2 (ADMTv2) on any computer that is running Windows 2000 or later. including: Microsoft Windows 2000 Professional Microsoft Windows 2000 Server Microsoft Windows XP Professional Microsoft Windows Server 2003 The computer on which you install ADMTv2 must be a member of either the source or the target domain. assuming that the Source Domain\Domain Administrators group is a member of the Administrators group on each computer. Administrator rights on each computer on which you translate security.On the PDC in the source domain. You will have the appropriate rights when you log on to the PDC that is the FSMO role holder in the target domain with the Source Domain\Administrator account. User Rights You must log on to the computer on which you run ADMT with an account that has the following permissions: Domain Administrator rights in the target domain. and on any computers on which an agent must be dispatched. add the TcpipClientSupport:REG_DWORD:0x1 value to the following registry key: HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\System\CurrentControlSet\ Control\LSA Administrative Shares Administrative shares must exist on the domain controller in the target domain on which you run ADMT.

Create a new local group in the source domain that is named %sourcedomain%$$$. The account you use to run ADMT must have enough permissions to complete the required tasks. The user account you use to run ADMT must be an Administrator in both the source and the target domains for the automatic configuration to succeed.Intraforest migration does not require any special domain configuration. the migrated objects no longer exist in the source domain. While this may ease configuration. User and Group Migration You must configure the source domain to trust the target domain. you must make some domain and security configurations. the sIDHistory and password are automatically migrated during all intraforest migrations. C$ and ADMIN$. Interforest Migration ADMT requires the following permissions to run properly: Administrator rights in the source domain. However. Optionally. Specifically. . it is not required to finish the ADMT migration. The account you use to run ADMT must have enough permissions to perform the actions that are requested by ADMT. and must be a member of the local Administrators group on each computer to be migrated. Turn on auditing for the success and failure of Audit account management on both domains in the Default Domain Controllers policy. Because the object is moved instead of copied. Before you migrate a Windows 2000-based domain to a Windows Server 2003-based domain. Administrator rights on each computer on which you translate security. For example. These migrations are said to be destructive because after the move. the target may be configured to trust the source domain. Computer migration and security translation do not require any special domain configuration. Intraforest migration is a move operation instead of a copy operation. The account must have permission to create computer accounts in the target domain and organizational unit. and to create accounts in the target domain. the account must have the right to delete accounts in the source domain. some actions that are optional in interforest migrations occur automatically. each computer you want to migrate must have the administrative shares. There must be no members in this group. Administrator rights on each computer that you migrate. Requirements for Optional Migration Tasks You can complete the following tasks automatically by running the User Migration Wizard in Test mode and selecting the migrate sIDHistory option.

pes file that you created in step 2. If you type the optional password at the end of the command. do not complete this step until you are ready to migrate. and must be installed by an administrator. modify the following registry key to have a DWORD value of 1.pes file you created in step 2 to the designated Password Export Server in the source domain. even by the operating system. reliable link to the computer that is running ADMT. but can point to removable media such as a floppy disk drive. ZIP drive. For Windows Server 2003 target domains. When you are prompted to do so. the 'Migrate sIDHistory' may be delegated. sourcedomain is the NetBIOS name of the source domain and path is the file path where the key will be created. ADMT prompts for a password. and the system will not echo it as it is typed. If you are ready to migrate passwords. HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\System\CurrentControlSet\ Control\LSA\AllowPasswordExport . After the installation completes. Move the . The installation of the DLL is protected by a secret key that is created by ADMTv2. In this example. Pwmig. To install the password migration DLL: Log on as an administrator or equivalent to the computer on which ADMTv2 is installed. specify the path to the . Note: For Windows 2000 domains. see Windows Server 2003 Help & Support. but make sure it has a fast.exe is located in the I386\ADMT folder on the Windows Server 2003 installation media. or writable CD media. This can be any domain controller. run the ADMT KEY sourcedomainpath [* | password] command to create the password export key file (. For maximum security. If you type the asterisk (*). the account you use to run ADMTv2 must have domain administrator permissions in both the source and target domains. You can turn on interforest password migration by installing a DLL that runs in the context of LSA. For more information.exe tool. or the folder to which you downloaded ADMTv2 from the Internet. At a command prompt. Install the Password Migration DLL on the Password Export Server by running the Pwmig.pes). passwords are shielded from being viewed in cleartext. ADMT protects the . This must be a local file path. The path must be local. you must restart the server.pes file with the password.Configure the source domain to allow RPC access to the SAM by configuring the following registry entry on the PDC Emulator in the source domain with a DWORD value of 1: HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\System\CurrentControlSet\ Control\LSA\TcpipClientSupport You must restart the PDC Emulator after you make this change. By running in this protected context.

. Version 2. As a system administrator. secure. groups. You can then use the task-based wizard to migrate users. and computers.0 Service Pack 4 or later.0 of ADMT is from Windows Server 2003 and has many new features: Scripting and Command line interface Password Migration Sid Mapping Files for Security Translation Windows 2000 Attribute Exclusion Agent Credentials Migration Log Skip Membership Restoration • Question on System State data Backup? • Diff types of DNS roles and Zones? • • What are the steps you follow when you are promoting a server as ADC in windows 2003? What are the two parameters you run before upgrading the server to an ADC(/forestprep. you can use this tool to diagnose any possible problems before starting migration operations to Windows 2000 Server Active Directory. and migrate Microsoft Exchange Server mailboxes. /domainprep). so you can maintain your existing Windows NT 4.0 domains while you deploy Windows 2000. In many cases.The Active Directory Migration Tool v2 is included in the I386\Admt folder on the Windows Server 2003 CD. if there is a problem. The tool's reporting feature allows you to assess the impact of the migration. The tool also provides support for parallel domains. set correct file permissions. Note: To successfully run the AD Migration Tool the source domain must be running Windows NT 4. and the target domain will be a Windows 2000based domain in Native mode. you can use the rollback features to automatically restore previous structures. The Active Directory Migration Tool provides an easy. and fast way to migrate to Windows 2000 Active Directory service. both before and after move operations.

A. Group Policy is a one of the most useful tools found in the Windows 2000/2003 Active Directory infrastructure. • How do you promote a server to a domain controller(in windows 2003) over a slow wan links. or you can add "Group Policy Object Editor" snap-in to MMC.msc from the Run command. Take the backup of systemstate from the DC and restore it in the server where you are promoting using “dcpromo /adv” and select restore from backup. but have many fewer configuration options that the full-fledged Group Policy in AD. 5. 4. 3. Working with Group Policy This article deals with the mechanism of deploying and verifying GPO deployment. Configure user's desktops Configure local security on computers Install applications Run start-up/shut-down or logon/logoff scripts Configure Internet Explorer settings Redirect special folders In fact. Group Policy can help you do the following: 1. 6. Here are some basic terms you need to be familiar with before drilling down into Group Policy: Local policy . and is not inherited from the domain.• What is the authentication process? • What is the role of GC in authentication process? • What happens if DNS server fails. 2. you can configure any aspect of the computer behavior with it.Refers to the policy that configures the local computer or server. It will not deal in the GPO itself and the settings inside it (these settings and configurations will be discussed in different articles). Can a user is able to login if the DNS server fails(if you have only one DNS Server). Local Policies also exist in the Active Directory environment. Although it is a cool toy. . working with it without proper attention can cause unexpected behavior. You can set local policy by running gpedit.

GPO behavior Group Policy is processed in the following order: Local Policy > Site GPO > Domain GPO > OU GPO > Child OU GPO and so on. The GPT is located within the Netlogon share on the DCs. GPT . The Netlogon share replicates among all DCs in the Domain. and Domain policy is being overridden by OU policy. you can go to the Run command and type %logonserver%\Netlogon. Any GPO that is created is not effective until it is linked to an OU. The Netlogon's real location is: C:\WINDOWS\SYSVOL\sysvol\domain. You can configure a GPO – Group Policy Object . The content of the Netlogon share should be the same on all DCs in the domain. What does it mean "stronger"? If you configure a GPO and linke it to "Organization" OU. then the Dallas GPO is more powerful and the computers in it will not allow installation of printers. domain level or OU level.The GPC is the store of the GPOs. If there is an OU under the previous OU.GPO .POL files for policy of Windows NT/98. The GPC is where the GPO stores all the AD-related configuration. configured with opposite settings. and Full Control for the Domain Admins group. scripts and .Group Policy Object . all settings from all GPOs are merged and inherited by the computers or users. it finds the DC and looks for the Netlogon share in it. When you apply couple of GPOs at different levels and every GPO has its own settings. When you configure a Site policy it is being overridden by Domain policy. GPC – Group Policy Container . Netlogon share . Domain or a Site.com\SCRIPTS When a domain member computer boots up. and is accessible for read only for the Everyone group. GPOs inherited from the Active Directory are always stronger than local policy. The rule is simple.at the site level. its GPO is stronger the previous one.Refers to the policy that is configured at the Active Directory level and is inherited by the domain member computers.Group Policy Templates . The GPOs are replicated among the Domain Controllers of the Domain through replication of the Active Directory. The example above is true when you have different GPOs that have similar configuration. and in it you configure Printer installation – allowed and then at the "Dallas" OU you configured other GPO but do not allow printer installation. Group Policy sections Each GPO is built from 2 sections: . the GPO is stronger.The GPT is where the GPO stores the actual settings. as more you get closer to the object that is being configured. To see what DC the computer used when it booted.A share located only on Domain Controllers and contains GPOs.

Installing it on computers without SP2 will generate errors due to unsupported and newer .ADM files for the Microsoft operating systems Tools used to configure GPO You can configure GPOs with these set of tools from Microsoft (other 3rd-party tools exist but we will discuss these in a different article): 1.msc – to invoke the Group Policy tab on every OU or on the Domain.this utility is NOT included in Windows 2003 server and needs to be separately installed. GPMC utility . 3. Many programs that are installed on the computer add their . Within these two section you can find more sub-folders: • • Software settings and Windows settings both of computer and user are settings that configure local DLL files on the machine.use gpedit. You cannot choose to apply the setting on a single user. When you right-click a link you can: Edit a GPO . After creation you should link the GPO to an OU that you choose.or dsa.ADM files.or dssite.This setting allows you to temporarily disable a link if you need to add settings to it or if you will activate it later.Creating a GPO When you create a GPO it is stored in the GPO container. command.ADM files. . User configuration contains the settings that configure the user after the logon. You can add more options to administrative templates by right clicking it and choose . all users. Domain or OU.ADM files to %systemroot%\inf folder so you can add them to the Administrative Templates. Linking a GPO To link a GPO simply right click an OU and choose Link an existing GPO or you can create and link a GPO in the same time.or .• • Computer configuration contains the settings that configure the computer prior to the user logon combo-box. You can download . you need to install it on computers running Windows XP SP2. are affected by the settings. Link/Unlink a GPO .This will open the GPO window so you can configure settings. Group Policy Management Console . Active Directory Sites and Services . including administrator. 4. You can also drag and drop a GPO from the Group Policy Objects folder to the appropriate Site.msc from the Run 2.msc . Active Directory Users and Computers snap in .msc – to invoke the Group Policy tab on a site. Administrative templates are settings that configure the local registry of the machine. You can download it from HERE Note that if you'd like to use the GPMC tool on Windows XP.or gpmc. Group Policy Object Editor snap-in in MMC .

The GPO with the lowest link order is processed last. There you can use the drop-down menus to see computer or user settings. you can easily create a group of Win XP computers and apply the GPO only to that group. and therefore has the highest precedence. you can simply see what the configurations of any GPO are if you point on that GPO and go to the Settings tab. use the Enforce option of a link. if we configure the "Default domain policy" with the Enforce option. Now. In this example you can see that choosing "Block inheritance" will reject all upper GPOs. group or computer that the GPO will apply onto. Enforcing a GPO is a powerful option and rarely should be used. Security Filtering Filtering let you choose the user. GPO1 have Allow printer installation among other settings but GPO2 is configured to prevent printer installation among other settings. You can see in this example that when you look at Computers OU. Now. Link order When linking more than one GPO to an OU. you might want to disable the user settings in that GPO. Blocking inheritance will block all upper GPOs. there could be a problem when two or more GPOs have the same settings but with opposite configuration. . it will overcome the inheritance blocking. this will reduce the amount of settings replicated and can also be used for testing. To disable one of the configurations simply choose the GPO link and go to Details tab: How do I know what are the settings in a GPO? Prior to the use of GPMC. with GPMC. Block/Enforce inheritance You can block policy inheritance to an OU if you don’t want the settings from upper GPOs to configure your OU.Enabling/disabling computer or user settings GPO has computer and user settings but if you create a GPO that contains only computer settings. To block GPO inheritance. In case you need one of the upper GPOs to configure all downstream OUs and overcome Block inheritance. three different GPOs are inherited to it. Because the two GPOs are at the same level. If you configured "Computers" OU with a GPO but you only want to configure Win XP stations with that GPO and exclude Win 2000 stations. there is a link order which can be changed. an administrator who wanted to find out which one of the hundreds of settings of a GPO were actually configured .had to open each GPO and manually comb through each and every node of the GPO sections. like. simply right click your OU and choose "Block Inheritance".

Logon to computer (If the settings are of "user settings" in GPO) Restart of the computer (If the settings are of "computer settings" in GPO) Every 60 to 90 minutes. the computers query their DC for updates. A user or a group that you configure in the filtering field have by default the "Read" and "Apply" permission.This option save you from creating complicated OU tree with each type of computer in it. Going to the Advanced Tab will let you configure the ACL permission with the highest resolution. the installation of the Office suite could have followed the user to any computer that he logs onto. You can also choose to check what is the results for other users on to that machine. How the GPO is updated on the computers GPO inherited from AD is refreshed on the computers by several ways: 1. If any configuration change requires a logoff or a restart message will appear: You can force logoff or reboot using gpupdate switches. . 1. you can see that "Authenticated users" are listed. The default result is for the logged on user on that machine. you can go to Delegation tab and see the permissions. If you use /v or /z switches you will get very detailed information. In the above example. for user settings. 4. If you want to configure these permissions with higher resolution. like servers or other machines. Note: Windows 2000 doesn't support the Gpupdate command so you need run a different command instead: for computer settings. The term for the results is called RSoP – Resultant Sets of Policies. Using filtering narrows the installation options. You can see what GPOs were applied and what GPOs were filtered out and the reason for not being deployed. In both commands you can use the /enforce that is similar to the /force in gpupdate. You can add the /force switch to force all settings and not only the delta. Office 2K3 will be installed on all computers that are part of the two listed groups. How to check that the GPO was deployed To be sure that GPO was deployed correctly. Manually by using gpupdate command. 3. If we still were using Authenticated users. By default when you create a GPO link. Use gpresult command in the command prompt. you can use several ways. 2.

1.2. The snap-in has two modes: Logging mode which tells you what are the real settings that were deployed on the machine Planning mode which tells you what will be the results if you choose some options. This option is not so compatible because you need to browse in the RSoP data to find the settings. . In the example above example you can see the summary of applied or non applied GPOs both of computer and user settings. When looking at the Settings tab we can see what settings did applied on the computer and see which is the "Winning GPO" that actually configured the computer with the particular setting. This option also displays the summary of the RSoP and Detailed RSoP data in HTML format. Group Policy Results in GPMC. This is the most comfortable option that let you check the RSoP data on every computer or user from a central location. Resultant Set of Policy snap-in in MMC.

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