Index From Breast Cancer in the Eighteenth Century

INDEX

Aberdeen, 33
acidicity, 7–8, 21, 26
age, 12, 13, 17, 45, 46, 47, 70
Aitken, John, 1
alcohol, 15, 25, 113
Amelia, Princess, 14, 82
Amsterdam, 43
anaesthesia, 36
anamnesis, 7, 17, 22, 75, 80
anatomy, 9–10, 31, 57
animal testing, 19, 33
Anne of Austria, 63–4
antiquity, ix, 12, 13, 28, 33, 42, 64
apothecaries, 23, 28, 75, 79, 95, 104
Aristotle, 10
Astell, Mary, 57, 64–5, 111
Astruc, Jean, 2–3, 10, 47, 119, 121
Avicenna, 42
axilla, 45, 72–3, 86, 87, 88, 94, 99, 105, 121,
122

Bissett, Charles, 19
black bile (melancholy humour), 7, 26
blood transfusion, 31
Boëthius, 28
booksellers, 62
Borsay, Peter, 62
Boulton, Richard, 7, 49
breastfeeding, 14–16
Bridgewater, Duchess of, 113
Bright, Timothie, 30–1
Brisbane, John, 31
Brookes, Richard, 4, 45
Brooks, Catherine, 59
Buchan, William, 16, 17, 18, 19, 33, 38, 45,
71
Burney, Fanny (Madame D’Arblay), x, 38,
80–4, 101–3, 105–7, 116
Burrows, John, 16, 47, 98, 113, 122

Copyright

Ball, John, 9, 25–6, 47, 97–8, 120, 124
Ballard, George, 57, 65, 111
Banister, John, 35
Barber, Mary, 63
Barbette, Paul 43
Barker, Jane, 56–7
Bath, 32, 62, 94–5
Bayfield, Robert, 10
Beckett, William, 20–1, 39, 49, 53, 117
Bedford House of Industry, 94
Bedford, 76
Bedfordshire, 15, 70, 105
Bell, Benjamin, 1, 15, 44, 51, 52
Bell, John, 62–3
Berry, Helen, 55
Birmingham, 33

Calamy, Edward, 114
cancer
as crab, 4
as metaphor, ix, 1, 2
causes, 7–8, 12–14, 17–19, 47
contracted, 19–22
definitions, 2–5
inherited, 19
nature of, 1–2, 124
risks, 8–18
see also diagnosis
Carmichael, Richard, 13
Cary, Mordecai, 67
castration, 51
cautery, 39–41,
celibacy, 16
Celsius, 43
Charleton, Walter, 9

– 177 –

178

Breast Cancer in the Eighteenth Century

chastity, 64, 66
childbirth, 110
childlessness, 13, 16–17, 29
children and cancer, 13, 21–2
Chiselden, William, 60
Chute, Anthony, 29
Coates, Lesley Barbara, 28
Coke, Lady Mary, 14–15, 118–9
Collier, Jeremy, 103, 110
Coltman, George, 47
consciousness during surgery, 36–8
Cooper, Mr, 75–6
Cornwell, Bryan, 4, 13, 16, 18, 35
courage, 108–113
Coventry, 53
Cowper, William, 110, 119
Crane, Elaine, 108
cruelty, 42, 44, 49, 50–1, 91, 117
Culpeper, Nicholas, 31
curiosities, 56–7
De Motteville, Madame, 63
De Moulin, Daniel, xi, 16, 17, 20, 51
De Viry, Madame, 15
death, 4–5, 18, 22, 32, 36, 38, 49, 57, 78, 82,
87, 98, 108, 113, 118–24
Defoe, Daniel, 69
diagnosis, 5–7, 75–6, 97
diet, 6, 15, 16, 24–6, 27, 35, 61, 74, 90
ass’s milk, 15, 25
crab meat, 25
vegetarian, 26
Digby, Sir Kenelm, 29
Dionis, Pierre, 12, 16, 42, 50, 71, 91, 92, 97
distilling houses, 28, 57, 59
Dominiceti, Bartholomew di, 11
Dubois, Monsieur, 82
Duden, Barbara, xi, 6, 35, 75
Duncan, Andrew, 31, 44, 71, 73

ethics see medical ethics
Ewart, John, 32, 73–4, 100–1
fainting 37, 115
Falconer, William, 18
family and friends, 5, 38, 55, 60, 61, 65–6,
67, 120
fear, 71, 75, 78, 81–3, 85
Fearon, Henry, 2, 9, 10, 12, 17, 18, 19, 37,
45, 46, 51, 53, 73, 74, 92–3, 109, 118,
120
first intention, 46, 50–1,
Fissell, Mary, xi, 62, 75
Fludd, Robert, 29
Frewen, Thomas, 2
Galenic medicine, 3, 7, 8, 9, 12, 23–6, 30,
42, 48
Garengeot, René–Jacques Croissant de, 51
glands, 6, 9, 86, 87–8
Gooch, Benjamin, 2, 3–4, 16, 22, 45, 48,
53, 72
gout, 12
Greatrakes, Valentine, 68–9
Gregory of Nyssa, 64
Gregory, James, 98–9
grief, 18, 26
Guy, Melmoth, 10–11, 57
Guy, Richard, 10, 12, 13, 18, 34, 65, 66, 74,
92–3, 122

Copyright
early radical mastectomies, 44, 50, 52, 106
Edinburgh, 31, 71
Eedes, Mr, 9
electricity, 24, 31–2, 73
emotions, 10, 13, 15, 18, 26, 32, 39, 50, 71,
76, 78, 81–3, 89–101, 116–9, 124
see also fear, grief
empathy, 32, 39

haemorrhoids, 12
Halsted, William, 52
Hanawalt, Barbara, 100
Harvey, William, 31
Hastings, Lady Betty, 114–15
Heister, Lorenz, 2, 10, 16, 40, 54
Helmont, Jean Baptiste van, 30
Helmontian theory, 25–7, 30
Hélvetius, Adrian, 48, 54
Herbert, Lady Lucy, Mother Theresa, 56
Herefordshire, 95
heroism of patients, 107–13
Higgs, Joseph, 33
Hill, Sir John, 12, 17, 44, 46
Hippocratic texts, 12, 16, 26, 42, 43
hospitals, 20, 28, 71
Bath City Infirmary and Dispensary, 32

Index
Bath Hospital, 94
Bedford Infirmary, 103–5
Edinburgh Infirmary, 98–9, 104
Middlesex Hospital, 4–5
St George’s Hospital, 80
St Thomas’s Hospital, 20
Surrey Dispensary, 74
Surrey Infirmary, 86
Westminster Hospital, 34
Westminster Infirmary, 74
Hungerford, 31
Hunter, John, 6, 38, 122–3
Hunterian Collection, London, 123
Huntingdon, 62
hysteria, 18, 99
Ilchester, Earl of, 112
Ingram, Dale, 43
instruments, 39, 48, 110
Irish, David, 7
Jewson, N. D., 28
Johnson, Mr., 65
Jones, John, 37
Justamond, J. O., 34, 41, 74, 98

179

male gaze, 66
male lactation, 10
malignancy, 4, 5, 45, 122
Margate, 11
Marryat, Thomas, 33
mastectomies, 12, 15, 23, 37, 38, 41–8, 68,
71, 77, 78–88, 106
see also early radical mastectomies
medical ethics, 41, 42, 44, 45, 49, 71, 73, 78,
86, 91, 96, 116–8, 121, 123
medications, 6, 23, 27–35
arsenic, 24, 32, 40–1, 92, 118
carbonic acid, 32
chocolate, 26
goose dung, 59
laudanum, 37, 61, 83
leeches, 70, 74, 75–6, 94, 105
lizards, 29
mercury, 11, 30, 33, 39, 73, 105, 123
millipedes, 89
mummy, 29
opium and opiates, 36–8, 41, 73, 83, 87,
97, 100, 115, 119, 121
toads, 31
waters, 27
women’s milk, 9, 15, 29, 121–2
see also plants as remedies
melancholia, 13, 18, 42, 90
menopause, 12–14, 27, 47
menstruation, 9, 10, 12–14, 27, 29, 47, 48,
90
metastasis, 45, 47, 52, 72–3, 86, 87, 94,
121–2
midwifery, 16, 68
milk sores and abscesses, 5, 14, 15
miracles, 64
Moore, James, 36
Morgan, Alexander, 67
Morris, David, 103, 107
Moyle, John, 7, 43
Musin-Pushkin, Alexei Semionovich, 34
Mustow, Robert, 35, 36–7, 78–9

Copyright

Kay, Richard, 84–6
King, Helen, 9, 64
King, Kathryn, 56
kitchen terminology, 4, 6, 50, 58, 74, 79, 86,
90, 103, 124
La Vauguion, Mr de, 50
Larrey, Dominique-Jean, 82, 116
Latta, James, 12, 20, 22, 36, 77, 122
Le Dran, Henri–François, 122
Leake, John, 31
Leiden, xi
leprosy, 20
London, ix, 31, 46, 62, 70, 71, 74, 80, 87,
122
see also Southwark
lymph nodes, 45, 52, 53,
lymph, 8, 24 30, 122
Macrina, 64
Madame D’Arblay see Burney, Fanny
Manning, Henry, 26
male breasts cancers, 10–11

Nayler, Richard, 13, 16
Needham, Dr, 9
Nicolson, Arthur, 19
Nirenberg, David, 20
Nisbet, William, 1, 19, 29, 46, 120

180

Breast Cancer in the Eighteenth Century

Nooth, James, 17, 79, 90, 94–6, 112
Norford, William, 112–3
Norwich, 22
Nottingham, 21
nuns, 16, 56–7
Olson, James, xi
ovaries, 13
Ovid, 47
Oxford, 74
pain, ix, 7, 38, 44, 51, 56, 57, 69, 70, 73, 76,
78, 79, 80, 94–101, 119
see also treating pain
palliative treatment 5, 23–7, 33, 38, 43, 46,
47
Paracelsians, 30
Paris, 48
passions see emotions
patients
Mrs A., 73–4, 95–6
Mrs Ad—m, 122–3
Susan Alford, 32, 100–1, 103
Mrs Allen, 93–4
Betty Anton, 98–9, 104
Alice Aris, 113
Mrs Arscott, 60–1
Elizabeth Auger, 86–7
John Ayther, 11
Mrs B., 80
Mrs Baker, 33
Mrs Ball, 95
Elizabeth Bar, 15
Margaret Baxter, 89
Elizabeth Benham, 73
Jane Brown, 74
Mrs Brownless, 18
Mrs Childley, 120
Miss Clarke, 12–13
Lady Louisa Clayton, 14–15
Lady Cockburn, 118–9
Mrs Cockran, 75
Mrs Coleman, 57
Mrs Corbet, 111–12
Mary Crease, 27
Frances Day, 103–5
Mrs Dorothy Pocock, 69
Mrs Driver, 84–6

Elizabeth Ellis, 93
Mrs Evans, 66
Mrs Farhill, 6, 38
Mrs Finch, 94
Mrs Hales, 61
Mrs Harley, 70
Mrs Harris, 33
Mrs Hays, 68
Miss J— M—, 37, 79
Mrs Jennings, 15, 75–7
Janet Kirkpatrick, 70
Mrs M., 123–4
Christie McKenzie, 98–100
Thomas Maynard, 10
Mrs Elizabeth Moore, 114
Hannah Murray, 58–9
Mrs P., 40, 121
Elizabeth Robinson, 74
Mrs S., 87, 94–5
Mrs Slingsby, 108
Mary Smith, 3, 98
Mrs Smith, 73, 93
Mrs Shaw, 57
Mrs Stout, 94
Jane T., 79, 90, 112
Miss T., 96
Rev. Mr T—s W—e, 11
Mrs Townshend, 9, 109–10
Mrs Tuckwell, 74
Elizabeth Turner, 72
Lady Waldegrave, 118–9
Anne Wildman, 94
Mrs Woaden, 110–11, 119
Mary Woodward, 80
Miss Worthington, 52
see also Astell, Mary; Burney, Fanny;
Barker, Jane; Seward, Anna; Hastings,
Lady Betty

Copyright

Patterson, John, 58
Payne, Linda, 42
Pearson, John, 3, 4, 19, 20, 22, 25, 53
pectoralis major, 11, 52, 53, 54, 73, 80, 87,
88
Pelling, Margaret, xi
Perry, Ruth, 57
Peyrilhe, John, 19, 53
phlebotomies, 12, 15, 26–7, 35

Index
plants as remedies, 29, 30, 33, 35, 58–9
carrot, 29–30
celandine, 59
guaiacum, 29
hemlock, 23, 24, 33–5, 37, 74, 79, 87,
123
nightshade, 31
Peruvian bark, 60
pokeweed, 59
sarsaparilla, 89
tobacco, 29
Pliny, 28–9
Pope, Alexander, 111–12
Porter, Dorothy, 107
Porter, Roy, xi, 61, 107, 108
Portland, Duchess of, 40
providence, 13, 79
see also religion
quacks, 40, 49, 68, 69, 73–4, 88, 105, 120
Quakers, 67
reading, 61–4
recipes, x, 3, 28, 57, 59, 60, 62
relapse, 46, 84
religion, 113–6
Rey, Joselyne, 37
Ribes, Monsieur, 82
Rodman, John, 18
Rowley, William, 14, 19, 40–1, 43, 69, 75,
84, 93, 117–19, 121, 123–4
Russell, Richard, 27

181

Sontag, Susan, 64
Southwark, 20, 66
spa towns, 71
stays, 15, 17–18, 61
Steele, Richard, 107
Stolberg, Michael, xi
Störck, Anton, 33–4
Stratford-upon-Avon, 109
Stubbe, Henry, 68
Sulphur, 30
surgery, 3–4, 5, 23, 24, 32, 33, 35, 38,
39–41, 97
surgical techniques, ix, 48–54
syphilis, 33
testicles, 13
timidity, patients’, 66, 77, 93
Tissot, S. A. D., 12
tongue, 8, 21, 33
treating pain, 35–9, 112
Tulp (Tulpius), Nicholas, 20
Turner, Daniel, 2, 89

Copyright

Saviard, Barthélemy, 43
Scarry, Elaine, 102
screaming, 101–3, 111
scrofula, 3, 13, 20, 68
sea bathing, 11, 27
secretiveness, 64–7
Seward, Anna, 89, 94
Sharp, Samuel, 45, 51
side-effects, 34
sleep, 36, 119
sleeplessness, 15
Slingsby, Henry, 108
Sloane, Sir Hans, 5
smell, of tumours, 30, 40, 80
Smith, Samuel, 20–1
social class, 18, 28, 37, 59, 61, 66, 70, 73, 118

ulceration, 3, 4, 11, 19, 20, 22, 27, 30, 32, 40,
43, 44–5, 49, 60, 64, 76, 88, 96, 97, 99,
101, 124
unruliness, patients’, 88, 112
Uppsala, 31
vagina, 6, 9
virus, 7, 44
Walworth, 73
Ward, John, 9, 109–10
Warner, Joseph, 3
weakness of women, 9, 18, 110
Wear, Andrew, xi, 25, 71, 121
White, Robert, 33, 52
Willich, Anthony Florian Madinger, 17–18
Willis, Thomas, 20
Wilmer, Bradford, 53
Wiseman, Richard, 17, 49, 74, 87–8,
womb, 7, 8, 9, 12, 13, 14
women’s knowledge, 56–64
Woolley, Hannah, 50
Young, George, 38
Young, Samuel, 4, 75, 76–7, 94, 104–5

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