INDEX

Acts of Congress (American), Alien and
Sedition Act (1798), 50, 168
Acts of Parliament (British)
Boston Port Act (1774), 33–4
Coercive or Intolerable Acts (1774), 32
Declaratory Act (1766), 81
Quebec Act (1774), 33–4
Stamp Act (1765), 50, 82
Adams, John, 45, 51, 53, 60, 76, 148
American minister received by George
III, 98
and Common Sense, 41, 42, 43
leader of Federalists, 168, 175, 195, 201
part of delegation to meet Lord Howe, 55
president of USA, 161–3
Thoughts on Government, 43–4, 51
Adams, Samuel, 144–5, 170–1
Addison, Joseph, 137
Aitken, Robert, 27–8, 30
see also Pennsylvania Magazine
Aldridge, A. Owen, 51
Alford (Lincolnshire), 12–13, 19
Alien and Sedition Acts of America (1798),
168
America
American Revolution, 34–43, 56–7, 60–2,
64–7, 78–9, 82–3, 89, 107, 127–8
Declaration of Independence, 52
reform of political system, 168–70,
175–8, 186–7, 189–90, 195
American Citizen, 171, 174, 190, 194, 198
American Mercury, 185–6
André, Major John, 75–6
Arnold, Benedict, 75
Audibert, Achille, 124–5
Austen, Robert, 24

Babcock, Elisha, 185, 186–7
Bache, Benjamin Franklin, 153
Bache, Richard, 27
Bache, Sarah, 76
Bank of North America, 92–4
Banks, Sir Joseph, 99
Barère, Bertrand, 135
Barlow, Joel, 130, 136, 140, 171, 185, 196, 197
Beaumarchais, Pierre-Augustin Caron de,
63, 66–8
Beck, Glenn, xi
Bell, Robert, 40–2
Benezet, Anthony, 29–30
Benn, Tony, xi
Biddle, Owen, 72
Birdsworth, William, 12–13
Bishop, Abraham, 185–6
Blake, William, 124
Blanning, Tim, 179
Bolingbroke, Henry St John, 140
Bonneville, Benjamin, xiii–xiv, 173, 187,
188–9, 204
Bonneville, Louis, xiii–xiv, 173, 187
Bonneville, Marguerite, xiii–xiv, 156, 165,
173, 180, 181–2, 187, 188–9, 202,
204–6
Bonneville, Nicholas, xiii–xiv, 109–10, 111,
156, 163, 164, 165, 173, 187
Bonneville, Thomas, xiii–xiv, 173, 187, 188,
204
Bonvouloir, Julien Alexandre Achard de, 62
Bordentown (New Jersey), 155, 169, 173,
174, 176, 180, 185, 204
Bossut, Charles, 96
Boston Port Act (1774), 33–4
Boston Tea Party (1773), 32–3

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– 251 –

252

A Political Biography of Thomas Paine

Boys, William, Collections for a History of
Sandwich, 10
Bradford, William, 29, 30, 34, 41–2
see also Pennsylvania Journal
Brand Hollis, Thomas, 108
Breckenridge, John, 177
Brissot, Jacques-Pierre, 109–10, 116, 124,
127, 128, 129, 132, 133, 135
see also Girondins
Broome, Ralph, 152
Burgess, Hazel, 10, 29, 164
Burgoyne, General John, 60, 61, 62
Burke, Edmund, xiii, 97, 100, 103–4, 116,
119, 123, 161
An Appeal from the New to the Old Whigs,
112–13, 115
Reflections on the Revolution in France,
xiii, 104, 105–6, 107, 113, 115, 123
Burke, Richard, 161
Burr, Aaron, 183, 200, 201
Carpenter, Stephen, 194–5
Carver, William, xiv, 24, 187, 188, 193, 195
Cato letters see Smith, William
Chalmers, George, 98, 99
Life of Thomas Paine Interspersed with
Remarks and Reflections, xii–xiii, 1–3,
6, 7, 8–10, 13–14, 15, 108, 112, 113,
118–19
Chapman, Thomas, 113–14
Chatelet, Achille Francois du, 110
Cheetham, James, 29, 31–2, 54–5, 154, 169,
174, 189, 198, 199–200, 203
American Citizen, 171, 174, 190, 194, 198
Life of Thomas Paine, xiii–xiv, 171, 193
Chemin-Dupontes, Jean Baptiste, 157
Christian Society, 16, 17
Christie, Thomas, 130
Churchill, Charles, 55
Clark, J. C. D., 39, 140
Clarkson, Matthew, 68
Clinton, Colonel De Witt, 182, 198
Clinton, George, 196, 202–3
Clinton, Sir Henry, 65
Clive, Robert (Lord), 25–6
Cloots, Anarcharsis, 135, 140, 141
Clymer, George, 96
Cobbett, William, xii, 3, 98, 151

Cocke, Frances see Pain, Frances
Cocksedge, Henry, 11
Coercive or Intolerable Acts (1774), 32
Coleman, Reverend Isaac, 6
Collins, Anthony, 5
Committee of Public Safety (France), 133,
142, 143–4
Condorcet, Marquis de, 109–10, 111, 115,
116, 128, 132, 133, 145
Constable, Daniel, 198
Constable, William, 198
Conway, General Thomas, 61–2
Conway, Moncure Daniel, 13, 17, 60, 102
Cornish, Sir Samuel, 16
Daggett, Daniel (pseudonym Jonathan
Steadfast), 186–7
Danton, Georges, 128, 129, 134, 141
see also Jacobins
Davie, William, 163
de Borda, Charles, 96
Dean, Andrew, 194
Deane, Silas, 63, 66–71, 77–8, 90, 123, 145,
202
Dearborn, Henry, 172–3
Declaration of Independence (1776), 52, 82
Declaratory Act (1766), 81
Dessault, Peter Joseph, 151
Devoe, Frederick, 90
Dragonetti, Giacinto, 36
Duane, John, 90
Dumont, Etienne, 110, 111
Dumouriez, Charles Francois, 133, 134
Dundas, Henry, 119–20

Copyright
Ellsworth, Oliver, 163
Emmet, Thomas Addis, 204
Erskine, Thomas, 125–6, 149

Farmar, Thomas, 198
Fellows, John, 182, 188–9, 193, 200
Ferguson, Adam, 63–4, 65
Ferguson, James, 7, 8
Ferguson, Robert A., 36
Fiennes, Celia, 1
Fitzgerald, Lord Edward, 130
Fitzroy, Augustus Henry (third Duke of
Grafton), 2, 11–12, 52

Index
Fitzsimons, Thomas, 92
Foljambe, Francis, 101, 102
Foner, Philip, 184
Foot, Michael, xi
Fosdick, Nicoll, 178
Fox, Charles James, 100, 160
France
Committee of Public Safety, 133, 142,
143–4
conflict between England and France,
179, 194
French Revolution, 103–6, 107, 109–12,
115, 127, 128–9, 170
involvement in the American Revolution,
63–70
monarchy and republics, 106, 110–11,
115, 117, 120, 127, 131–2, 178–9
Frankland, Frederick, 12
Franklin, Benjamin, 32, 60, 61, 70, 91, 153
on annual elections, 190
and Common Sense, 36, 41
involved in Indiana company, 74
minister to France, 63, 66
opposed to proprietors of Pennsylvania,
45–6
part of delegation to meet Lord Howe, 55
provides references for Paine, 26, 27, 30
views on slavery, 31
writes introductions to French contacts
for Paine, 94–5
Frederick William II, 96
Friends of Liberty, 124
Frost, John, 124–5
Fruchtman, Jack, 106
Fulton, Robert, 156
Fuseli, Henry, 119

253

rumours of revolt planned by Duke of
Gloucester, 57, 66
speech to parliament following defeat at
Yorktown, 79
Gerard, Conrad Alexandre, 69–70
Gerry, Eldridge, 162
Gidney, Rachel, 187
Gillray, James, New Morality, 159–60
Girondins, xiv, 127, 128, 133, 134, 135
see also Jacobins
Godwin, William, 108, 115, 160
Grace, Benjamin, 8, 9
Grantham (Lincolnshire), 12
Greene, General Nathaniel, 54, 59, 61, 76, 87
Grey, Charles, 124
Griffin, Dustin, 37
Haley, Captain Nathan, 177
Hall, John, 91–2, 93, 94, 174
Hall, Robert, 180
Hamilton, Alexander, 183, 184, 200
Hargrove, Reverend H., 173
Harrington, Charles, 24
Harrison Smith, Samuel, 163
Hawke, David Freeman, 180
Headstrong Club (Lewes), 15–16
Hicks, Willett, 205
Hindmarch, George, 12–13, 16, 19
Hitt, Zakarias, 196, 202, 203
Hobbes, Thomas, 35
Holcroft, Thomas, 108, 160
Howe, Richard (Viscount), 55–7, 60, 62
Howe, Sir William, 56, 57, 60–1, 62, 65
Howell, David, 87
Hulbert, John, 188, 189–90
Hustler, Devereux, 4
Hustler, Elizabeth (grandmother of TP), 4
Hustler, John, 103
Hutchinson, James, 76

Copyright

Gates, Horatio, 61, 62
George III, King, 11, 17, 19, 32, 33, 44, 50,
52, 56, 106, 176
and divine right of the monarchy, 39
list of charges in Declaration of Independence, 82
opening of parliament speech (1775),
42–3
and policy towards the American colonies, 32–3, 39, 42–3
receives John Adams, 98

Imlay, Gilbert, 130
Indiana Company, 74
Izard, Ralph, 76
Jacobins, 109, 116, 127, 131, 133, 134, 179
see also Girondins
Jarvis, John Wesley, 193–4, 195–6
Jay, John, 67, 69, 144–5, 153

254

A Political Biography of Thomas Paine

Jay’s Treaty, 145, 153–4, 161–2, 163
Jefferson, Thomas
American minister to France, 99–134
Declaration of Independence, 52
Louisiana Purchase, 172, 177–8, 200
president, 165, 167, 168, 171–2, 175,
176–7, 178, 181, 187–8, 189–90,
191–2, 198, 199, 200–1, 203
secretary of state, 135–52, 155
vice president, 162–4
Jenkinson, Charles (Lord Hawkesbury),
xii–xiii
Johnson, Joseph, 107, 114, 119, 124
Johnson, William, 133
Jones, Sir William, 183
Jordan, Camille, 156
Jordan, J. S., 107–8, 118, 119, 143
Keane, John, 7, 9, 180, 182
Kennedy, Patrick, 154, 155
King, John, 132
Kirkbride, Joseph, 61, 87, 88, 91, 169, 173,
174, 180, 181
Kirkbride, Mary, 61, 87, 88, 91
Knowles, Reverend William, 6, 7

Linn, William, 139
Livingston, Robert S., 78–9, 169, 172, 173
Locke, John, 35, 36, 53, 199–200
Louis XVIII, 158
Louis XVI, King, 109, 110, 115, 128, 131,
132
Louisiana Purchase, 170, 172, 173, 174,
176–8
McClenaghan, Blair, 73–4, 76
McConville, Brendan, 39
MacDonald, Sir Archibald, 125–6
McNeille, Daniel, 139
Madget, Nicholas, 174
Madison, James, 153, 155–6, 177, 196
Maitland, James (eighth Earl of Lauderdale),
129–30
Manley, James, 205
Marat, Jean-Paul, 132, 133, 134
Margate (Kent), 8–9
Marshall, John, 162, 200–1
Martin, Benjamin, 7, 8
Mason, John, 184
Melish, John, 193–4, 196
Merry, Robert, 130
Miranda, Francisco, 134
Mitchill, Dr Samuel L., 201
Monroe, James, 142, 143–4, 151, 153,
155–6, 173–4, 196, 198
Montgomery, General Richard, 41, 44–5,
47, 51–2
Moore, Dr Benjamin, 183–4
Moore, Dr John, 129–30, 132
Moraley, William, 29
More, Hannah, 122, 140
Morris, Gouverneur, 78, 99, 103, 104,
108–9, 111
American minister to France, 117–18,
123, 126, 135, 141, 142–3, 192
senator, 175, 184
Morris, Lewis, 99, 103, 104
Morris, Robert, 70, 71, 73–4, 77–80, 81, 82,
85, 87, 88–9, 92, 99
Morton, Walter, 204, 205
Murray, William Vans, 163

Copyright
Lafayette, Marquis de, 99, 103, 105, 106,
109, 110, 115–16, 127
Lambert, Mary see Paine, Mary
Landor, Walter Savage, xii
Lanthenas, Francois, 109–10, 111, 131, 136,
146
Laurens, Henry, 63, 67, 69, 72
Laurens, John, 76, 77, 87, 202
Le Patriote Francois, 128, 133
Le Republicain, 110
Le Roy, Jean-Baptiste, 96
Le Veillard, Louis-Guillaume, 95
Lee, Arthur, 63, 66–7, 90
Lee, General Charles, 45
Lee, William, 15
Letcombe, Joseph, 162
Levi, David, 147
Lewes (Sussex), xiv, 14–16, 17, 23, 25, 187
Lewis, Morgan, 198
Liddle, Terry, 17
Lindsey, Theophilus, 139
Linebaugh, Peter, 6

Index
New Rochelle (New York), xiii–xiv, 90, 135,
155, 177, 178, 180, 181, 182, 183, 187,
188, 190–1, 193, 202
New Shoreham (Sussex), 16–17, 25–6
Nicholson Few, Kitty, 101–2
North, Frederick (Lord North, PM), 22–3,
32, 83
Obama, Barack, xi
Oldys, Francis see Chalmers, George
Ollive, Elizabeth, 14, 23–5
Ollive, Samuel, 14, 23
Onslow, Lord, 120
Pain, Frances (née Cocke, mother of TP),
3, 4, 99
Pain, Joseph (father of TP), 3, 6, 99
Paine, Elizabeth (née Ollive, second wife of
TP), 23–5
Paine, Elizabeth (sister of TP), 2
Paine, Mary (née Lambert, first wife of TP),
8, 10–11
Paine, Thomas
bridge design and construction, 91–2,
94–6, 99–104, 156, 172–3, 174, 176
career as excise officer, 2, 11–12, 14–15,
19–23
career as stay maker, 6–7, 13
childhood, 1–2
commentary on American politics,
168–70, 175–8, 186–7, 189–90, 195
commentary on American Revolution,
xiv–xv, 34–43, 56–7, 60–2, 64–7,
78–9, 82–3, 89, 107, 127–8
commentary on conflict between England and France, 179, 194
commentary on French Revolution,
xiv, 103–6, 107, 109–12, 115, 127,
128–9, 170
commentary on monarchy and republics,
xi, 106, 110–11, 115, 117, 120, 127,
131–2, 178–9
commentary on reforms of political systems, xi, 116–17, 120, 123–4, 145–6,
151–2, 178–9
commentary on slavery in America
(MH), 29–31, 34, 52
deism, 140

255
early political influences, 31–2, 35
examinations of the prophecies, 197–8
health problems in later life, 193–4, 198,
203–6
imprisonment in France, 140–4, 153–4
involvement in Irish insurrection, 161
last will and testament, 204–5
letters to Rhode Island, 85–7, 169
problems with alcohol, 24, 114, 123,
131, 144, 155, 167, 170–1, 174, 193,
195, 204
public denial of American citizenship, xv,
192, 193, 196
raising money for American war effort,
73–4, 76–7, 202
religious beliefs and influences, xi, 3–6,
8, 9, 33, 39, 49, 132, 137–9, 147–9,
156–7, 170, 181, 182–5, 194, 196, 204
accusations of atheism, 171–2, 173
influential deist writers, 140
Methodist influences, 9
Quakers (Society of Friends), 3, 4,
30, 31, 44, 59, 132, 137, 139, 205
theophilanthropy, 157–8, 164–5,
188
requests financial aid from American
Congress, 90
scientific interests, 7–8
secretary to Committee for Foreign
Affairs, 60, 62, 66, 67, 68–9, 81, 109
service under General Greene, 54, 59, 61,
76, 87
service under General Roberdeau, 53–4,
60, 70
Silas Deane controversy, 66–71, 77–9,
90, 123, 145, 202
trial for libel, 114, 118
trial for seditious libel, 115, 118, 120–1,
125, 149
views on the Louisiana Purchase, 170,
172, 173, 174, 176–8
works
A Dialogue between the Ghost of General
Montgomery and an American Delegate, 51–2
A Letter to Abbé Raynal, 81–2
A Letter to the Honourable Thomas
Erskine, 149, 158

Copyright

256

A Political Biography of Thomas Paine
Address to the People of France, 128
African Slavery in America, 29–30, 31, 34
Agrarian Justice, 151, 154–5
Common Sense, xi, 7, 16, 22, 33, 35–45,
47, 48, 49, 50–1, 59, 60, 75, 88, 106,
123, 143, 169, 171, 196, 204
Compact Maritime, 163, 175
Discourse on the Existence of God, 158
Dissertation on First Principles of Government, 145–6
Dissertations on Government, 92–4, 105
Farmer Short’s Dog Porter: A Tale,
17–18, 28
Forester letters, 45–9, 50, 52
Four Letters on Interesting Subjects, 50
Letter Addressed to the Addressers on the
Late Proclamation, 121, 123, 124
Letter to George Washington, 153–4,
169
Letters to the Citizens of the United
States, 168, 169, 171, 174–6, 188,
189–90
‘Liberty Tree’, 34
Observations on Jay’s Treaty, 145
Of Gun Boats, 198–9
On the Word Religion, 181
Prospects on the Rubicon, 96–8
Reflections on the Life and Death of Lord
Clive, 25–6
Remarks on the Political and Military
Affairs of Europe, 195
Rights of Man, xii, 104, 105–26, 141,
152, 154, 161, 205
The Age of Reason, xii, 3, 5–6, 9, 131,
136–9, 141, 146–9, 154–5, 163, 165,
169, 170, 182, 197, 205
The American Crisis pamphlets, xi, 171,
196
Number 1, 54–5
Number 2, 57, 62
Number 3, 58–9, 60
Number 4, 61
Number 5, 61, 154
Number 6, 63–4
Number 7, 65
Number 8, 66, 73
Number 9, 73
Number 10, 74

Number 11, 80–1
Number 12, 82–3, 99
Number 13, 83, 85, 88
The Case of the Officers of Excise, 20–3,
143
The Death of General Wolfe, 18–19, 28
The Decline and Fall of the English
System of Finance, 151–2, 158
The Eighteenth Fructidor, 159–60
Palmer, Elihu, 164–5, 180, 193
The Prospect; or View of the Moral World,
180, 181, 182, 185
Palmer, Jane, 193, 204
Peale, Charles Wilson, 173, 176
Penn, William, 28–9, 45–6, 50–1
Pennsylvania Gazette, 85, 92, 94
Pennsylvania Journal, 30, 34, 53, 54
Pennsylvania Magazine, 27–8, 29, 31, 33, 55
People’s Friend and Daily Advertiser, 194–5
Pichegru, General Charles, 158
Pickering, Thomas, 163
Pinckney, Charles Cotesworth, 124, 155,
156, 162
Pintard, John, 205
Pitt, William (the Elder, first Earl of
Chatham), 52
Pitt, William (the Younger), 121, 134, 161,
179, 194–5
Paine criticizes his financial policies, 151
Paine criticizes his foreign policies, 96,
97–8, 102
Paine criticizes Regency proposals, 117
Price, Richard, 105
Priestley, Joseph, 8, 112, 139, 160
Providence Gazette, 85
Pryor, Thomas, 34
Public Advertiser, 198–9, 201
Purling, John, 17

Copyright
Quebec Act (1774), 33–4

Raynal, Guillaume Thomas Francois, 81–2
Reagan, Ronald, xi
Reed, Joseph, 73
Reeves, John, 126
Revelliere-Lepeaux, Louis Marie la, 157,
158, 159–60, 163, 188
see also theophilanthropy

Index
Revolution Society, 104, 105, 113
Rickman, Thomas Clio, 6, 14, 15, 19, 25,
105, 111, 118, 119, 130, 142, 166, 167,
204
Rittenhouse, David, 46–7, 91
Roberdeau, General Robert, 53, 54, 60, 70
Roberts, Hugh, 16–17
Robespierre, Maximilien, xiv, 127, 128, 133,
135, 141, 142, 143, 145, 153, 157, 179
see also Jacobins
Rockingham, Marquis of, 83
Rogers, Samuel, 169
Romayne, Nicholas, 177, 205
Romney, Mitt, xi
Rose, William, 108
Ross, James, 175
Royal Society, 8, 26, 99
Rumbold, Thomas, 16–17, 25–6
Rush, Benjamin, 31, 40–1, 45, 103
dreams he becomes American president,
148
objections to The Age of Reason, 169, 170
and slavery, 29, 30
suggests title of Common Sense, 36
Rutledge, John, 55
Ryder, Cornelius, 204

257

Spence, Thomas, 155
Stamp Act (1765), 50, 82
Staunton, Sir George, 101
Steuart, Charles, 30
Stone, John Hurford, 130
Swallow, William, 12–13
Talleyrand, Charles Maurice de, 162, 163
Tandy, Napper, 161
Taylor, Anthony, 180
Thatcher, Margaret, xi
The Prospect; or View of the Moral World,
180, 181, 182, 185
Thelwall, John, 160
theophilanthropy, 157–8, 157–9, 164–5, 188
Thetford (Norfolk), 1, 6, 7, 11–12, 99
Thibaudeau, Antoine Claire, 144
Thomas Paine Society, xi
Thomson, James, 36–7, 38
Tillotson, Archbishop John, 181
Tindal, Matthew, 5, 140
Toland, John, 5, 140
Tooke, John Horne, 108, 120
Treaty of Amiens (1802), 179
Treaty of Paris (1783), 98
Turner, Thomas, 189–90
Tyler, Royall, 88

Copyright

Sandwich (Kent), 8–10
Scott, George Lewis, 19–20, 22, 23, 26, 27
Scrase, Thomas, 14
Seymour-Conway, Francis, 11–12
Seymour-Conway, Henry, 11–12
Sharp, Granville, 30
Sharp, William, 119
Shelburne, Earl of (Marquis of Lansdowne),
82–3, 99
Short, William, 113
Sieyès, Emmanuel, 110–11, 128
Skipwith, Fulwar, 164–5
Smith, William, 44–9, 51–2
Society for Constitutional Information, 118,
119, 130
Society of the Friends of the Constitution
see Jacobins
Society of Theophilanthropists, 157–9
Solly, Richard, 8
Somersett, James, 30
Southey, Robert, xi–xii

Van Huele, Joseph, 163
Varnum, James Mitchell, 87
Varnum, Joseph Bradley, 203
Vergennes, Comte de, 69–70, 76
Verrall, Henry, 15
Vickers, Vikki, 8
Virginia Company, 74–5
Wakefield, Gilbert, 139, 140, 146–7
Walker, Thomas, 101, 102
Ward, Elisha, 192, 196
Washington, George, 32, 78–9, 82, 88–9,
90, 103, 104, 105, 125, 161, 162, 195
American Revolution, 54–5, 57, 60–2,
63–4, 72–4
correspondence with Paine, 63, 78, 110,
125
Letter to George Washington, 153–4, 169
reaction to Paine’s imprisonment in
France, 141, 142–3, 145, 153, 154, 192

258

A Political Biography of Thomas Paine

Watson, Elkanah, 76–7
Watson, Richard (bishop of Llandaff ), Apology for the Bible in a Series of Letters
Addressed to Thomas Paine, 147–8,
154–5, 197
Wesley, John
Sermons on Several Occasions, 9
Thoughts upon Slavery, 30–1
West, Benjamin, 100
White’s Hotel (Paris), 129–30, 133, 136
Whiteside, Peter, 101, 103, 119, 143
Wilkes, John, 52

Wilkie, George, 119
Wilkinson, John, 100, 101
William (Duke of Gloucester), 57
Williams, John, 140
Williams, Thomas, 148–9, 160
Witherspoon, John, 31, 60
Wolfe Tone, Theobald, 161, 163
Wollstonecraft, Mary, 130
XYZ affair, 162
Yorke, Henry Redhead, 163, 165–6

Copyright

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