You are on page 1of 93

Interface Overview

Packet Tracer 4.0 does not have the ability to undo actions. If you make a mistake, you have to correct it manually. Therefore, it is a good idea to save often or save copies of your work.

When you open Packet Tracer 4.0, by default you will be presented with the following interface:

This initial interface contains ten components. If you are unsure of what a particular interface item does, move your mouse over the item and a help balloon will explain the item. 1 Menu Bar This bar provides the File, Options, and Help menus. You will find basic commands such as Open, Save, Print, and Preferences in these menus. You will also be able to access the Activity Wizard from the File menu. This bar provides shortcut icons to the File menu commands, including the Activity Wizard. On the right, you will also find the Network Information button, which you can use to enter a description for the current network (or any text you wish to include).

2 Main Tool Bar

3 Common Tools Bar This bar provides access to these commonly used workspace tools: Select, Move Layout, Place Note, Delete, Inspect,

1

Add Simple PDU, and Add Complex PDU. See "Workspace Basics" for more information. 4 Logical/Physical Workspace Bar 5 Workspace You can toggle between the Physical Workspace and the Logical Workspace with the tabs on this bar. This area is where you will create your network, watch simulations, and view many kinds of information and statistics.

6 Realtime/Simulation You can toggle between Realtime Mode and Simulation Mode with the tabs on this bar. Bar 7 Network Component Box 8 Device-Type Selection Box This box is where you choose devices and connections to put onto the workspace. It contains the Device-Type Selection Box and the Device-Specific Selection Box. This box contains the type of devices and connections available in Packet Tracer 4.0. The Device-Specific Selection Box will change depending on which type of devices you clicked. This box is where you choose specifically which devices you want to put in your network and which connections to make. This window manages the packets you put in the network during simulation scenarios. See the "Simulation Mode" section for more details.

9 Device-Specific Selection Box 10 User Created Packet Window*

* You can freely resize the User Created Packet Window (UCPW) by placing the cursor near the left edge of the window (it will turn into a "resize" cursor) and then drag the cursor left or right. You can hide the window from view by dragging the edge all the way to the right. When the UCPW is hidden, you can bring it back by placing the cursor on the edge (notice when the resize cursor appears) and then dragging the edge back.

2

Workspaces and Modes
Packet Tracer 4.0 has two workspaces (Logical and Physical) and two modes (Realtime and Simulation). Upon startup, you are in the Logical Workspace in Realtime Mode. You can build your network and see it run in real time in this configuration. You can switch to Simulation Mode to run controlled networking scenarios. You can also switch to the Physical Workspace to arrange the physical aspects (such as location) of your devices. Note that you cannot ?run? your network while you are in the Physical Workspace. You should return to the Logical Workspace after you are done in the Physical Workspace.

Setting Preferences
You can customize your Packet Tracer 4.0 experience by setting your own preferences. From the Menu bar, select Options-->Preferences (or simply press Ctrl-R) to view the program settings. Under the Interface panel, you can toggle the Animation and Sound settings to suit your system's performance. You can also manage information clutter with the Port Labels Always Shown setting. You can also toggle the Logging feature, which allows the program to capture all Cisco IOS commands that you enter and export them to a text file (refer to the "Configuring Devices" page for more information). Lastly, you can also change the program?s base language by choosing from the Languages list and then pressing the Change Language button.

Under the Administrative panel, you can manage the background images that are available in the program. You can also set a password to prevent others from tampering with the images. Note that the password is case-sensitive.

3

Setting a Background You can replace the blank workspace with a background image of your choice. The recommended format for background images is 4 . Just put image files in the program's backgrounds/logical folder. Note that background images do not affect any network functions. Choose from the list of available images from the Select Background Image window. press the Set Tiled Background button in the Logical Workspace Bar. You can revert to a blank workspace at any time by pressing the Reset button. They are simply visual aids. You can create or customize your own images and use them as backgrounds in the Logical Workspace. and add them to the Administrative panel list. and press the Apply button. You can only set background images that are available in the Administrative panel. To set a background.

Lab Objectives I.0 user interface. OSI model: 7-layer framework for looking at network protocols and devices. a GUI may be used to configure such interfaces. and the returning echo reply. 5 . This should take 30 minutes to complete. When adding photorealistic files. 6. Viewing Help and Tutorials Creating Your First Network Sending Simple Test Messages in Realtime Mode Looking Inside Packets in Simulation Mode Viewing Device Tables and Resetting the Network View Tutorial View Tutorial View Tutorial View Tutorial View Tutorial Capturing Events and Viewing Animations in Simulation Mode View Tutorial VII. 7. session. communication and cabling. Fast Ethernet Interface: 100 Mbps Ethernet port. use . 5. you can use these directions to step through Packet Tracer yourself. 2.png or . Other supported file formats are .0 Lab Introduction Welcome to Packet Tracer 4. For text or drawings. ICMP ping: command consisting of an echo request message from one device to another. consisting of the application. In Packet Tracer 4. My First Packet Tracer 4. network. it is best to use . II. IV.0's features. Reviewing Your New Skills Important Terminology 1.0. Tutorial Open this tutorial to see a demonstration of the Packet Tracer 4. VI. Research has shown that users who master some basic tasks early get much more out of the software. transport. Represented by envelopes in Packet Tracer 4. Ethernet: one of the most common LAN standards for hardware. IP address: 32-bit address assigned to devices as identification in the network.bmp.jpg format.jpg and .0 Simulation Mode.bmp formats.. presentation. data link. V. 3.png. or view a tutorial version of this. III. a grouping of data appropriate to a given layer in the OSI model. 4. PDU: protocol data unit.0. This lab is designed to familiarize you with Packet Tracer 4. Packets: OSI Layer 3 protocol data units. and physical layers.

Scenario: one topology with a set of PDUs that you have placed in the network to be sent at specific times. 6 . Close all of the Help content windows and tutorials. Device Tables: includes ARP. When the tutorial finishes.8. I. 5. switching. 10. click on the Pause button in the playback controls. Open the Help content through the Menu Bar.0. Using different scenarios. you can experiment with different combinations of packets using the same base topology. Pay closer attention to the Getting Started page as it will help with the tutorial in the next step. Viewing Help and Tutorials (View Tutorial) 1. and routing tables. stores pairings of IP Addresses and Ethernet MAC addresses. F1. 9. ARP Table: Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) table. 2. 7. Click on the Back button to view the previous caption. 8. Open the tutorial at the end of the page.0 that are documented. When the first caption appears. They contain information regarding the devices and protocols in the network. click on the Rewind button to re-start the tutorial. to learn the basics of the graphical user interface of the program. 6. Skim through the sections of the Help content to get a rough idea of the features and functionality of Packet Tracer 4. 9. 4. 3. Click on the Forward button to skip to the next caption then click on Pause. as shown below. by clicking on the question mark on the Main Tool Bar or by using the shortcut key. 10. Launch Packet Tracer 4. Continue viewing the tutorial by pressing the Play button.

select the Copper Straight-through cable (solid black line) and make a connection between the devices with it. Change the PC's name (where it says ?PC Name?) to Tokyo. duplex. In this case. such as bandwidth. Open the PC's configuration window and change its settings by going to the Config tab. Under Connections. using the Delete tool. they will clutter the workspace. and subnet mask in this window. Now.1. 2. mouse over or hover over the device to see basic configuration information. name it Paris and set its IP address as 192. Under Interface. Third.168.1 (it will assume other settings for you). Try all 3 ways to learn about this device. Creating Your First Network (View Tutorial) 1. a PC's ARP table will appear. 6. 3. II. Select the Generic PC under End Devices and drag it as the first PC onto the workspace. Make sure that the Port Status is on. Drag another PC to the workspace.1. and use a Copper Cross-over cable instead.0.2. 4. and if you mouse over or hover over either PC. remove the Copper Straight-through cable.? Your network should look similar to this: 7 . First. 5. The red lights on the link indicate that the connection is not working. Start creating your network by loading a background grid using the Set Tiled Background button. you'll see the link status indicated as ?up. use the Inspect Tool to view tables the network device will build as it learns about the network around it. Always remember to close windows after you're done viewing them. Second. MAC address. The lights should turn green at this point. Make sure that the Port Status is on. click on the device with the Select Tool to bring up the device configuration window where you will see several ways to configure the device. Note for future reference that you could modify other Ethernet interface settings.168. otherwise.Congratulations! You have found some resources to help you get the most out of Packet Tracer 4. click on FastEthernet and set the IP address as 192.

7. Reposition your network devices by dragging them. Add an overall network description by using the ?i? button on the upper right corner of Packet Tracer 4.0. Then add some text labels on the logical workspace by using the Place Note tool. 8. Single click on the Tokyo PC. Turn the PC on and off and on again, while paying attention to the link lights. 9. Do the same step for the Paris PC. Turning devices off will result in red link lights ? meaning that the link is down. 10. Save your work by using the FILE -> SAVE AS? option and creating a filename meaningful to you. Congratulations! You have created your first network.

III. Sending Simple Test Messages in Realtime Mode (View Tutorial)
1. Start with your original saved file open. 2. Notice you are in Realtime Mode. Use the Add Simple PDU tool to send a simple 1-time ping message called an echo request, to the other PC, which responds with an echo reply because you have properly configured their IP address settings. 3. Scroll around in the User Created Packet Window to see the different aspects of this ping message, including an indication that the ping was successful. 4. Alternatively, toggle the PDU List Window to see a larger display of this message. You can save one or more of these messages as a scenario. When you start, you are in Scenario 0. Label this first scenario with an ?i? note. Different

8

scenarios allow you to use the same topology for experiments with different groupings of user created packets. 5. Click on ?New? to create a new scenario. New scenarios will always initially be blank. 6. Add two packets by using the Simple PDU tool, perhaps a PDU from Paris to Tokyo and a different PDU from Tokyo to Paris. Then add a little ?i? note describing the scenario, to complete Scenario 1. An example is shown below:

7. Go back and forth between Scenario 0 and 1. Several different scenarios can be saved for a single network. 8. Now delete Scenario 1 using the Delete button. 9. You are back at Scenario 0. If you want to remove the PDU, you could scroll across in the User Created Packet Window and click on (delete) on the last column. Do so. 10. Delete the whole scenario. Congratulations! You can send and organize simple test messages in Real-time Mode.

IV. Capturing Events and Viewing Animations in Simulation Mode (View Tutorial)
1. 2. 3. 4. Start with your original saved file open. In Realtime Mode, send a simple PDU from Tokyo to Paris. Delete the PDU by using the method learned in the previous section. Switch to Simulation Mode. In this mode, time freezes, therefore you can watch your network run at a slower pace, observing the paths that packets take and inspecting them in detail ? ?packet tracing!?

9

5. Under the Event List Filters, click on All/None to uncheck all fields, and then click on ICMP to only view ICMP packets in the animation. 6. Add a simple PDU from Tokyo to Paris. Notice that the newly created PDU is added to the User Created PDU List, this packet has been captured as the first event in the Event List, and that a new packet icon (envelope) appears in the workspace. The eye icon at the left of the Event List indicates that this packet is currently displayed as an envelope. 7. Click on Capture/Forward button once. This acts like a network sniffing program, capturing the next event that occurs on the network. Note that after clicking on Capture/Forward, the packet in the workspace moves from one device to another (this is the ICMP echo request message from Tokyo to Paris). Another event is also added in the Event List ? this reflects the change that happened in the workspace. The first time through an animation, the meaning of the Capture/Forward is ?Capture?; after resetting the simulation, the meaning would be ?Forward.? 8. Adjust the speed of the animation by dragging the Play Speed slider to the right. 9. Click on Capture/Forward button a second time. This captures the next network event (this is the echo reply from Paris to Tokyo, shown as successful with a green check mark on the envelope), and the animation plays faster this time. Dragging the speed slider to the opposite direction (to the left) would have slowed the animation. 10. Click on Capture/Forward button again. At this point, Paris has already sent an echo reply to Tokyo therefore, there are no more ICMP events left to capture. A ?No More Events? window will appear notifying you of this, as shown in the screenshot below. Click OK.

Congratulations! You have successfully captured events and viewed animations in Simulation Mode.

10

Continuing from the last activity. Click on Capture/Forward button once. Notice that this time. 6. 3. but in this case for the echo reply packet from Paris to Tokyo. In this case this shows the details of the inbound echo request packet from Tokyo to Paris. 11 . Click again on the packet in the workspace to open the PDU Information window. which shows similar information. 2. Click on the packet envelope on the workspace to bring up the PDU Information window like the one shown in the screenshot below. and the ?No More Events? message will occur automatically. Note that only the Out Layers can be viewed in the case of this original echo request message. 7. Click on Reset Simulation again. Use the Next Layer and Previous Layer buttons to see details of the packet processing at the relevant OSI Layers. 5. 4. This shows exactly what is in the PDU headers. Looking Inside Packets in Simulation Mode (View Tutorial) 1. This window contains the OSI model tab which shows how the packet is processed at each layer of the OSI model by the current device. 8. For this row. Close this window. This clears the entries in the Event List except for the original packet. Close the PDU Information window. click on Reset Simulation. The echo request and echo reply will be automatically captured. This time click on Auto Capture/Play. The whole row in the Event List is also highlighted. information regarding the In Layers and Out Layers can both be viewed. Click on the Outbound PDU Details tab. clicking on the color square in the Info column is equivalent to clicking directly on the packet envelope (try it!).V. and note that this packet is indicated in the Event List by the eye icon. broken up into header type and the individual fields in each header. Click on the Outbound PDU Details tab. Click on the Inbound PDU Details tab.

The ARP tables always appear on the same spot. This is so because the ARP entries for both devices have already been learned. Delete the PDU using the method learned in the previous sections. and use the Back. Play. Also note the change in which packet is highlighted in the Event List. Start by closing the existing workspace and reopening your original saved file. view the logic that devices use when processing them. Notice that the entries in the ARP tables are NOT cleared. to open up the PDU Information window. you can either click on the packet ?envelope? directly. In Realtime Mode. and Forward functions to study packet animations. Click on the Back Button twice to rewind the animation one step at a time. Reposition one of them to make them both visible. Notice that the ARP tables are filled in automatically as shown here: 4. This time click Auto Capture/Play and the packet animation will automatically occur. send a simple PDU from Tokyo to Paris. 2. or click on the Info column in the Event List.9. Viewing Device Tables and Resetting the Network (View Tutorial) 1. 12 . Congratulations! You can now look inside packets. 3. 10. Now click on the Capture/Forward button twice to forward the packet through the animation. VI. Remember that at any time. You can also resize the tables for better viewing. Open the ARP Tables for both PCs by clicking on each PC using the Inspect tool. Deleting the user created PDUs does not reset what already occurred in the network. Click on the Back Button twice to rewind the animation.

does not reset the device tables. there are no new ARP packets issued. Congratulations! You can now view device tables. The Reset Simulation button clears all entries in the Event List. make sure that ICMP and ARP are checked so that you can view ICMP and ARP packets in the animation. Create a new simple PDU from Tokyo to Paris. Notice that since you reset the network earlier. Notice that the ARP tables are cleared. Reviewing Your New Skills • • • • • Single-clicking on the Delete button removes the entire scenario including all the PDUs associated with it. Notice that even though the Event List is cleared (except for the user created PDU). you can use this workspace to complete many of the labs you encounter in your CCNA coursework. Congratulations. This time. and allows you to restart the animation. 10. 8. In the Event List Filters. and reset the network. so that the devices in the network can learn about each other. the ARP tables are empty.0! There are many other features that were not covered in this lab. they lose temporary information like the tables they learned. By doing so. please view the tutorials and go over the help files. you are ready to build and analyze many different networks in Packet Tracer 4. In conjunction with Realtime Mode. the ARP tables still remain full. 9. Click on Reset Network. except for User Created PDUs. Click Reset Network. Click on Capture/Play. Have Fun! The Logical Workspace The Logical Workspace is where you will spend the majority of your time building and configuring your network. since the ARP tables are full. 7. VII. This. The Reset Network button power cycles devices by turning them off and then on. Doing so will empty the tables.5. Saving your work periodically prevents you from losing configurations and changes in the network that you want to keep. Notice that a new ARP request packet appears automatically on the Event List. Click on Auto Capture/Play to watch the animation. 6. 13 . ARP request packets need to be issued before the ICMP ping packets. To learn more about them. It turns all devices off and then turns them back on so the tables that the devices built are lost along with configurations and other information not automatically saved. The Reset Network button allows you to power-cycle all of the devices in your network. Click on Reset Simulation. however. reset simulations. Double-clicking on (delete) in the far right column in the PDU List window deletes individual PDUs. Go to Simulation Mode.

To quickly create many instances of the same device. click on the desired device model from the Device-Specific Selection box. press the Cancel icon for that device. Make advanced configurations and view network information from a router or switch's CLI interface. first choose a device type from the Device-Type Selection box. press and hold the Ctrl button. you will want to create devices. Finally. 14 . you can do any of the following: • • • • Add modules to your devices to gain additional interfaces. Alternatively. This is done by picking devices from the Network Component box. Configure device parameters (such as the device name and IP address) through graphical dialogue boxes or the Cisco IOS (in the case of routers and switches). Connect your devices by choosing the appropriate cables (also found in the Network Component box). Cancel this operation by pressing the Cancel icon for that device. click on a location in the workspace to put your device in that location. Note that you must turn off a device (by clicking its power button) before you can add a module. Creating Devices To place a device onto the workspace. Then. and then release the Ctrl button.First. If you want to cancel your selection. click on the device in the Device-Specific Selection box. You can also click and drag a device directly from the DeviceType Selection box and a default device model will be chosen for you. Then. you can click and drag a device from the Device-Specific Selection box onto the workspace. The device is now locked and you can click on the workspace multiple times to add multiple copies of the device.

click on a device to bring up its configuration window. and Zoom Out buttons. When you have found the module you want to add. simply drag it from the list into a compatible bay on the device picture. and you should turn the device back on after you are done. By default. you can undock the window so that you can move it around and freely resize it. The mouse pointer will change into a "connection" cursor. You can browse (by clicking) through the list of modules and read their description in the information box at the bottom. Then click the appropriate cable type.Adding Modules Most Packet Tracer 4. and a list of compatible modules is on the left. You can also resize the entire configuration window by dragging its borders with the mouse. Click 15 . You can remove a module by dragging it from the device back into the list.0 devices have modular bays into which you can insert modules. Alternatively. first click the Connections icon from the Device-Type Selection box to bring up the list of available connections. An interactive picture of the device is on the right of the panel. You must turn off a device (by clicking its power button) before you can add or remove modules. you will be in the device's Physical Device View subpanel. In the workspace. Making Connections To make a connection between two devices. You can resize the picture with the Zoom In. Original Size.

Move your entire workspace around with the click-and-drag mouse action. the mouse cursor will change into an "X. along with link lights showing the link status on each end (for interfaces that have link lights). Cancel this operation by pressing the cable type's Cancel icon. press and hold the Ctrl button. Write and place sticky notes anywhere on the workspace.on the first device and choose an appropriate interface to which to connect. This action draws a rectangle around the objects so you can drag all of them simultaneously. To quickly make many connections of the same type. Then click on the second device and do the same. The connection cursor is now locked and you can repeatedly make the same connection type between devices." You Move Layout Place Note Delete 16 . and release the Ctrl button. A connection cable will appear between the two devices. When you select the Delete tool. click on a cable type in the Device-Specific Selection box.0. You can also select multiple objects by holding down the mouse button and then dragging your cursor over them. Logical Topology Editing Tools You can use the tools in the Common Tools bar to edit the layout of your topology Tool Select Use Click objects and drag them around. please read the "Connections/Links" help page. Press the keyboard Esc key for quick access to this tool. For a full list of connections supported in Packet Tracer 4. Delete objects from the workspace. This is the default tool.

Cisco IOS: Routers and Switches For routers and switches. you need to configure some basic settings (for example. You can set basic parameters through the device's GUI configuration screen (click the Config tab from the device's configuration window). or note) that you wish to delete. connection. Different devices have different settings available. Refer to the "Configuring Devices" section of the help files for all supported Cisco IOS commands. You can use the software to make advanced configurations and view various network information in real time (if you are in Realtime Mode). Refer to each device's help page for detailed information. show interfaces. Here are a few examples of the commands available to you: ping. you will have access to the Cisco IOS with a limited set of commands. Inspect Add Simple PDU Add Complex PDU Look at a device's tables (such as ARP and MAC tables) if it has any. Refer to the "Simulation Mode" help section for information. traceroute. ip access-list. Refer to the "Simulation Mode" help section for information. an interface's IP address and subnet mask). and switchport access vlan. Managing Workspace Clutter (Docking/Undocking Subwindows) 17 .can then click on any object (a device. Configuring Devices To make most of the devices useful.

each building can contain many wiring closets. The Physical Workspace is divided into four layers to reflect the physical scale of four environments: Intercity. Tutorial Open this tutorial to learn how to create and arrange devices in the Logical Workspace. Many windows can be docked to or undocked (floated) from the workspace. The wiring closet view is where you actually see the devices you created in the Logical Workspace. Each city can contain many buildings. you can dock a second window next to that first window. or bottom edge of the workspace.There may be times when you need multiple windows open on your screen (especially when you start running simulations and have to keep track of many things at once). you can arrange popup and sub-windows in various ways. a window's title bar is unnamed. Some more hints regarding docking and undocking windows: • • • • In a docked position. right. the window may be at the top or left border. they are arranged in networking racks and on tables. press and hold the Ctrl key as you drag it. 18 . Simply drag a window by its title bar until your cursor is near an edge and then release the mouse button. The Physical Workspace The purpose of the Physical Workspace is to give a physical dimension to your logical network topology. drag the window by its docked title bar and move it out of the workspace edge to anywhere on your screen. To undock a window. If you do not want a window to dock anywhere as you drag it around. Open this tutorial to learn how to configure and connect devices. The intercity is the largest environment. It can contain many cities. Use the window's Close button (x) as a hint to where the title bar is. It gives you a sense of scale and placement (how your network would look in a real environment). you are in the Intercity view (or "map"). The window will dock to that edge. Building. You can double click a window's title bar to quickly toggle between the docked or undocked state. You can drag floating windows (via their title bar) and dock them to the left. If there is already another window at an edge. City. When you first enter the Physical Workspace. To minimize the visual clutter. and Wiring Closet. Finally.

you can also return to the Intercity environment by clicking on the Intercity button in the Physical Workspace Bar. Click on the Building icon to zoom to that building's interior." You can click and drag the City icon to move it around in the intercity map. All buildings are limited to one floor.By default. You can also simply click on the City icon to zoom to that city's map. From the City view. The Home City also contains one default building called "Corporate Office. 19 ." This building also can be moved anywhere around the city. the intercity contains one city called "Home City.

The Corporate Office contains one default wiring closet called "Main Wiring Closet." Click its icon to view its contents. The "Main Wiring Closet" initially houses all the devices that you created in the Logical Workspace. You can also return to any of the previous environments (Intercity or City) by clicking the corresponding buttons in the Physical Workspace Bar. Learn how to move these devices around in the building or even the city in the "Moving Devices" section. It neatly arranges devices onto racks and tables so you can see where your devices physically are. 20 .

Milpitas has a building called "Linksys." Similarly. The Physical Workspace: Moving Devices The Physical Workspace allows you to move your devices to various locations. New cities (and buildings and closets) always initially appear on the top left corner of the workspace. 21 .Wiring closets. You will first need to create new locations to expand your physical topology." which are connected via a serial link. including two routers named "Router0" and "Router1. In this example. you can create new buildings in the City environment and new closets in the Building environment. In the Intercity environment. all devices are located in the MDF." which has a wiring closet called "IDF. To keep things simple." and a new city called "Milpitas" is created. Inside San Jose is a building called "Cisco." Initially. To avoid confusion. You can place new buildings and closets directly onto the Intercity environment with the New Building and New Closet buttons. and cities can all be renamed. you should create locations according to the established hierarchy. you can create cities with the New City button. Similarly. the default "Home City" is renamed to "San Jose. you should immediately rename and move them. buildings." which has a wiring closet called "MDF.

If you exit out to Intercity view. for example. the line represents the serial connection between Router0 and Router1. Click on Router1. then go through the hierarchy to find the IDF and select Move to IDF. you would first need to go into the MDF. click the move object button. The line tells you that there is a connection between the devices of these cities. you will see a black line between Milpitas and San Jose. In this case. Inside the MDF. You can quickly return to the default wiring closet in any environment by pressing the Working Closet button on the far right of the Physical Workspace Bar 22 .If. you want to move Router1 into the IDF.

You can move buildings to other cities or directly onto the intercity. Note that this mesh area appears as a circle or an oval depending on the dimensions of the background image used. scaled by the width and height of the source image. you can also move buildings and wiring closets. However. the mesh is circular. If the background source image is square. otherwise. the mesh is oval. If the background image is a rectangle.In addition to moving devices with the Move Object button. The Physical Workspace: Wireless Devices The Physical Workspace provides the dimension of distance to wireless devices. all moves are possible. In general. 23 . There are few restrictions on where you can move objects and devices. The procedure is the same. This range is indicated by a gray mesh area surrounding the access point. Devices are not confined by racks or tables and can go anywhere. Access points can establish connections with wireless end devices that are within a certain range. Wiring closets can be placed directly onto cities or the intercity. something bigger cannot be moved inside something smaller. you should maintain their hierarchy to avoid confusion.

perform these steps: • • • Place that image in the "backgrounds/city" folder. City. it associates with Access Point1. so it has no connectivity. For example. PC1 is within the wireless range of both Access Point0 and AccessPoin1. Navigation Panel You can click on the Navigation button from the Physical Workspace Bar to bring up the navigation panel of the entire Physical Workspace. just like in the Logical Workspace (see "Getting Started"). The Grid tool allows you to set the grid spacing for each level and the ability to choose the color of the grid lines. However.In this example. The navigation panel contains a physical locations tree that allows you to select a location and then jump to that particular location on the Physical Workspace. Note the following: • • • PC0 is within the wireless range of Access Point0. Add this image to the program under the Administrative panel of the program options. In the city where you want to apply the background. and Building levels. so it associates with Access Point0. three wireless-enabled PCs and two access points are created. click the set background button on the Physical Workspace Bar. When using your own images. The Physical Workspace: Special Notes Using Custom Backgrounds The Physical Workspace comes with a default set of backgrounds (for the Intercity. They have all been moved from the default wiring closet and placed directly onto the "streets" of the city (for demonstration purposes). pay attention to the environment for which an image is appropriate. Applying a Grid You can click on the Grid button from the Physical Workspace Bar to apply a customizable grid to the Intercity. an image with the map of San Francisco is appropriate for the City environment. and Building environments). Note that the dimensions of your background images affect the scale and appearance of certain objects. because it is closer to Access Point1. PC2 is not in range of any access point. City. You can replace the background of each environment with your own background images. Wiring Closet Limit 24 . To use such an image. Tutorial Open this tutorial to see aspects of the Physical Workspace in action.

End devices are placed on tables. nothing "runs" until you play it. your network runs in real time. When you play the simulation. You can set up scenarios.Each wiring closet can house as many as three racks. Whenever you type a command in the CLI (such as ping or show). or event by event. other aspects of the network will still run in real time. If the Logical Topology contains more devices than a single wiring closet can house. However. your network is always running (like a real network) whether you are working on the network or not. In Simulation Mode. the result or response is generated in real time and you see it as such. In Realtime Mode.0 operating modes reflect the network time scheme. they are displayed in real time. All network activity. the link lights for that connection will appear." If you delete that building from the City environment. However. however quickly or slowly you like." Operating Modes Packet Tracer 4. Deleting Objects You can use the Delete tool from the Common Tools Bar to delete cities. You can see the network run step by step. cannot be deleted in the Physical Workspace. Your configurations are done in real time. as soon as you make an Ethernet connection. another wiring closet will automatically be created in the default building. You will still be able to access the original wiring closet. its link light will respond immediately by turning red. For example. such as sending a ping packet from one device to another. you have direct control over time related to the flow of PDUs. and the network responds in real time. Devices. you will see graphical representations of packets traveling from one device to another. investigating many types of information on specific objects at specific times. showing the connection?s state (see the "Connections/Links" page for details). Inspecting Devices 25 . although you may need to move wiring closet icons around the building so they do not visually overlap. That new wiring closet will become the default wiring closet. You can pause the simulation. three tables. if you turn off a port. or two racks and one table. happens in real time. however. For example. the devices in that closet will be extracted and placed directly onto the building "floor. the devices will be placed onto the city "streets. you can use the Add Simple PDU and User Created PDU List buttons to graphically send pings. two tables and one rack. or step forward or backward in time. When you view network statistics. The network responds to your actions immediately as they would in a real device. all other devices are mounted on racks. In addition to using Cisco IOS to configure and diagnose networks. Realtime Mode In Realtime Mode. and wiring closets. If you delete a wiring closet from the Building environment. particularly the flow of PDUs across the network. buildings.

click on the router to bring up the list of available tables. be sure to issue the copy run start Cisco IOS command sequence on all routers and switches to retain the current network configuration after the reset. Pressing this button will also clear all events if you are running a simulation with the network. you can use the Add Simple PDU and User Created PDU List buttons to ping or send other PDUs (see the "Simulation Mode" section for details). See the "Simulation Mode" help section for more information. to inspect a router's ARP table. choose the Inspect tool. you can simply mouse-over a device to view details such as the link status. you can view the result of the ping from the User Created Packet Window. you will lose the current running configuration on all routers and switches. Simulation Mode 26 . If you reset the network. IP address.As the network is running. However. Before you press the Reset Network button. In addition to the Inspect tool. the entire ping sequence happens in real time. The drawback is that you will not see PDU icons traveling slowly through the network. Resetting the Network The Reset Network button on the Realtime Bar allows you to power-cycle all of the devices in your network. The Reset Network button is also available in Simulation Mode. For example. and then choose ARP Table. and MAC address of all the ports on a device. you can use the Inspect tool to view a device's tables as they are populated and updated. pressing it turns all devices off and then turns them back on. Sending PDUs graphically Although Simulation Mode is the preferred mode for sending PDUs graphically.

Note that while a simulation is playing. The Event List window records (or "captures") what happens as your PDU propagates the network.In Simulation Mode. You can see what types of packets are being propagated in the network by looking at its Type field from the Event List. When you switch to Simulation Mode. you can watch your network run at a slower pace. You can use the Back button to revisit a previous timeframe and view the events that occurred then. 27 . You will still have access to the Play Controls on the bar. the Simulation Panel will appear. observing the paths that packets take and inspecting them in detail. You can graphically create PDUs to send between devices using the Add Simple PDU button and then pressing the Auto Capture/Play button to start the simulation scenario. If you need greater control of the simulation. That is because some devices can generate their own packets (such as CDP packets) as the network runs. You can also hide the Event List (and the entire Simulation Panel) with the Event List button in the Simulation Bar. You can choose to hide these packets from view by unchecking the appropriate filter from the Event List Filters menu. Pressing the Auto Capture/Play toggle button again will pause the simulation. which clears all entries in the Event List. You can control the speed of the simulation by using the Play Speed Slider. You can clear and restart the scenario with the Reset Simulation button. The Play Control buttons are found in both the Simulation Panel and the Simulation Bar. you may see packets that you did not create yourself. use Capture/Forward button to manually run the simulation forward one step in time.

If you filter out some type of PDUs on the Event List Filters. propagation delay. At Device: This field indicates the packet's current location. Time is determined by the events that occur. If this option is off. CDP. and a randomly injected process delay. Some events occur very frequently. You can keep track of event timing by looking at the Time field in the Event List. The simulation runs more quickly because you will not see the filtered events. when actually they may be separated by milliseconds or by minutes. The Event List keeps track of all such PDU instances and lists their information in various fields: • • • • • • Visible: An "eye" icon in the field means that an event is happening at the current simulation time. You can enforce a constant delay of 1 ms between events by using the Constant Delay option. This field is also the simulation time index. Whatever packets that are currently visible in the scenario animation will have this icon in the field. Some events occur very infrequently. The Auto Capture Indicator will tell you where the Event List stopped recording. various factors will contribute to the event's overall delay: transmission delay. On the workspace. You can rearrange each of these fields in the Event List by dragging a field's title to the desired position. you just do not see them. Time: This field indicates the timeframe that the event occurred. happening every few milliseconds. Info: This field shows detailed information about the packet instance. An event can be defined as any instance of a PDU that is generated in the network. TCP. Time only advances when there are events to be captured. If the network has no further events. happening every minute or so. EIGRP. time will essentially halt (until the next event occurs). they will not show up on the Event List. or UDP). ICMP. network events appear to happen one after another at the same speed (set by the slider).The Events List and Time Flow of Events Packet Tracer 4. They are still in the network. 28 . DHCP. Last Device: This field indicates the packet's previous location.0 simulations do not run on a linear time scale. Type: This field indicates the packet type (ARP. broken up into each layer of the OSI model. relative to the last time the simulation scenario restarted. Learn more about this field in the "PDU info" page. but all filtered PDUs still affect the network. RIP.

You may want to uncheck some categories in the Event List Filters to avoid being confused by other packets in the network that you do not wish to observe. and changing the configuration on a device. Press the Reset Network button. click on the source device. such as deleting a device. graphical way to send pings. which will be on standby until you press the Auto Capture/Play or Capture/Forward button. the source device will queue an ICMP or ARP packet (or both). Tutorial Open this tutorial to learn the basics of Simulation Mode. it simply pauses the simulation and removes the visual clutter of events currently displayed on the Event List. and then click on the destination device. When you press one of these buttons. the packets will start moving and you can observe the ping process. After you make the request.000 and the Event List is cleared. Switch to another scenario (see the "Managing Simulation Scenarios" section below). Modify the network in some way. To send a ping. Restarting a simulation does not erase current or scheduled PDU processes. adding a device. Switching to Realtime Mode (and switching back). press the Add Simple PDU button (the cursor changes to a "packet" icon). You will restart the simulation if you do any of the following: • • • • • • • Press the Reset Simulation button. the Add Simple PDU button is essentially a quick. Simulation Mode: PDU Information 29 . You can keep track of all of the PDUs you created with the Add Simple PDU button in the User Created Packet Window. the simulation time resets to 0. Enter any command in a device's global configuration mode (in the CLI).0. Remove a PDU from the Protocol Data Units List (see the "Managing Simulation Scenarios" page). The only way to remove PDU processes is from the User Created Packet Window (discussed on the " Managing Simulation Scenarios" page). You may want to read this section's "Special Notes' page to fully understand all aspects of this tutorial. Note that pings will only work if the devices have configured ports.Restarting a Scenario Whenever a simulation restarts. See the "Scenarios" page for more information. Sending Simple PDUs (Ping) In Packet Tracer 4. You can send pings between devices that have at least one interface with an IP address.

and Outbound PDU Details. and source and destination addresses. This tab only applies if the device has a PDU to send.During a simulation. FCS. and it is the last layer that outgoing PDUs pass through when they exit the device. The OSI Model tab shows how the packet is processed at each layer of the OSI model by the current device. The tab shows exactly what is in the PDU's headers. This is because the physical layer is the first layer that incoming PDUs encounter. and the outgoing layers (Out Layer) show the process a device goes through when it sends a packet to one or multiple ports. The In Layer is meant to be read starting from bottom to top (from Layer 1 to Layer 7). 30 . For example. it will not appear if the PDU originated from that device. while the Out Layer is read from top to bottom (from Layer 7 to Layer 1). The incoming layers (In Layer) show how the device processes an incoming or a buffered packet. you can click on a packet (on the topology or the corresponding event in the Event List) to bring up its information window and view its details. Inbound PDU Details. a PDU may have an Ethernet II and an ARP header. so the tab will show information such as the preamble. The Outbound PDU Details tab shows similar information for outgoing packets. The process is further separated by the direction in which the packets are traveling?incoming versus outgoing. broken up into header type and the individual fields in each header. The details window contains three possible tabs: OSI Model. The Inbound PDU Details tab only applies if the PDU you clicked on is being received on the device.

Transfer: Moves the PDU from the inbound OSI stack to the outbound OSI stack. and the information window is replaced by a question window that asks you what the device does to a PDU on a given layer. In this case. Challenge Mode You can quiz yourself on the encapsulation process by entering Challenge Mode when viewing PDU information. a device will receive a PDU and then. If you answer correctly. Select from a multiple-choice list. Transmit: Sends the signal out the physical media. Queue: Holds the PDU for processing or sending at a later time. Press the Challenge Me button to do so. You can press the Hint button if you need help. send out a PDU.Most of the time. both the Inbound PDU Details and the Outbound PDU Details tabs apply. Tutorial 31 . De-encapsulate: Removes a header or a header and trailer from this layer's PDU to create the PDU at the next higher layer. Drop: Eliminates the PDU. Accept: Accepts and finishes processing of the PDU. The layer details is hidden. as a result. the details for that layer are shown and the question window advances to the next layer. Each Challenge Question may contain the following answers: • • • • • • • Encapsulate: Adds a header or a header and trailer to this layer's PDU to create the PDU at the next lower layer.

When you first switch to Simulation Mode.Open this tutorial to see Challenge Mode in action. you can set up and simulate complex networking situations (scenarios) through the User Created Packet Window (UCPW) found on the lower right corner of the application. 32 . and you can switch between scenarios by choosing from the scenario drop-down menu. You can create and delete scenarios with the New and Delete buttons." You can edit the name of the scenario. and you can write a description for the scenario by clicking the Scenario Description icon next to its name. You can put the Protocol Data Units List in its own window on the workspace by pressing the Toggle PDU List Window button. Simulation Mode: Managing Simulation Scenarios In Packet Tracer 4. The Protocol Data Units List is an important part of the UCPW that tracks all of the PDUs you created for the current scenario. Press the button again to integrate it back into the UCPW. the default scenario is "Scenario 0. A scenario is a set of PDUs that you have placed in the network to be sent at specific times.0.

(It will no longer be part of the scenario. You can double click a PDU's colored "tile" in the Protocol Data Units List to bring up the PDU's Color Selector and then change the color.) Delete: You can double click this button to remove the PDU from the list. Source: This field shows the name of the device from which the PDU originated. Edit: You can double click this button to edit the PDU properties. Destination: This field shows the name of the device that the PDU is ultimately trying to reach. Fail. (See the next page ("Custom PDUs") for more details.Each PDU in the PDU list has the following fields: • • • • • • • • • • • Fire: You can double click on this field to "send" the PDU immediately in realtime mode or queue for transmission in simulation mode. Periodic: This field indicates whether the PDU is to be sent periodically (Y) or not (N). 33 .) Time: This field displays the simulation time (or timeframe) that the PDU is scheduled to be sent. Color: This field shows PDU color as it appears in the animation. Num: This field shows a numerical index for the PDU. or In Progress). Type: This field specifies the PDU protocol type. Last Status: This field indicates the PDU's last known status (Successful.) User-created PDUs are initially assigned a random color in the animation. (See the tip box below for information about changing the PDU color.

the PDU may have the following settings: Destination IP Address. POP3. Restarting the scenario simply clears all PDUs currently propagating in the network and resets the simulation time. You can choose which port that the PDU will be sent out (or leave it at the default). Packet Tracer 4. and then click your source device to bring up the Create Complex PDU dialogue. The PDUs on the Protocol Data Units List will propagate the network at their specified times when you run the scenario again. HTTP. and Sequence Number. To remove a PDU you created. Note that user-created PDUs are not "cleared" from the Protocol Data Units List when the simulation restarts (such as by pressing the Reset Simulation button). IMAP. SMTP. Telnet. TFTP. SFTP. other 34 . SSH.0 supports custom PDUs with source and destination ports corresponding to the following application layer protocols: • DNS. Simulation Mode: Complex PDUs In addition to simple. press the Add Complex PDU icon. You can also change the PDU's type by selecting from the list of applications. you can also send customized PDUs. SNMP. Ping. NetBIOS. Depending on the application. quick pings. select it on the Protocol Data Units List and double click its Delete button. FTP.You can rearrange the placement of each of the fields in the Protocol Data Units List by dragging a field's title to the desired position. Destination Port. Source Port. TTL (Time-to-Live). HTTPS. Finger. In the Common Tools Bar.

The IOS status messages or indicators will synchronize with the simulation's events and play speed. the appropriate PDU animation icons will appear on the workspace (as if you had used the Add Simple PDU button).You can also set the PDU's timing parameters. it will be sent periodically at intervals you specify (also in seconds). Note that packets created by IOS commands do not appear on the User Created PDU List. The master timeline is always advancing when you are in Realtime Mode (moving at the speed of realtime). you can also edit the network directly in Simulation Mode. the command prompt). You have full access to the Common Tools Bar and the Network Component Box. when you issue the shutdown command on a port. Time Management Between Realtime and Simulation Mode Realtime Mode and Simulation Mode shares a common "master" timeline. time does not actually "travel backwards". For example. if Event A occurs. The PDU can be a One Shot event. the PDU can be a Periodic event. which can be thought of as a "segment" of the master timeline. Event B will take place after Event A. You also retain access to the Cisco IOS (or in the PC's case. however. Tutorial Open this tutorial to learn how to use scenarios. Thus. You can use the back button to view a previous network state. The master timeline only moves forward. after you issue the ping command sequence from a router's IOS. Simulation Mode: Special Notes Editing the Network and Using the Cisco IOS in Simulation Mode Although Realtime Mode is the preferred mode for network configuration. but you would need to press the Play or Forward button to watch the PDUs propagate. the Protocol Data Units List. you will be running under simulation time. When you play this scenario. the result will not be what you would expect. You can use the play or forward buttons to move forward in simulation time. and the Create Complex PDU dialogue. The master timeline will remain at its "most-forward" state. and you should 35 . Any command that does not involve the propagation of PDUs in the network will have a realtime response. which will cause the master timeline to advance accordingly. For example. For example. it is impossible to interfere or pre-empt an event that already has occurred. At that point. even if you think you have "forced" Event B to occur first. and then you use the back button to move back in time to create Event B. you cannot "see" it in numerical form. Command sequences that do cause or affect the propagation of PDUs will require the user to press the Play or Forward button in order to see the results. it is to be sent at a time you specify (in seconds). Alternatively. the master timeline pauses and falls somewhat under your control. you cannot "reset" it nor move backwards in time. appearing to be very slow. that port will go down immediately. the network responds to most of your command sequences in realtime. When you work with the IOS in Simulation Mode. When you switch to Simulation Mode. The master timeline is transparent to the user.

that ping will proceed (even if you have not pressed the play or forward button back in Simulation Mode). It can be connected to the following port types: 10 Mbps Copper (Ethernet).. the simulation time will restart at 0. and then switch to Realtime Mode. etc. Console connections can be made between PCs and routers or switches. Certain conditions must be met for the console session from the PC to work: the speed on both sides of the connection must be the same.g. If you choose the Serial DCE connection type and then connect two devices. router to hub. 100 Mbps Copper (Fast Ethernet). The DTE clocking is optional. the master timeline will continue off of the last event in Simulation Mode and move forward at realtime speed again. Copper Crossover This cable type is the Ethernet media for connecting between devices that reside on the same layer (e. that event will continue and finish in realtime.). through switch to PC. PC to printer. hub to hub. Phone line connections can only be made between devices with modem ports. If you clear the event list. Each cable type can only be connected to certain interface types. the data bits must be 7 for both or 8 for both. When you switch back to Realtime Mode. the first device will be the DCE side and the second device will be automatically set to the DTE side. If you started some event in Simulation Mode. You can tell which end of the connection is the DCE side by the small ?clock? icon next to the port. hub to router. the parity must be the same. Connections / Links Packet Tracer 4.g..0 supports a wide range of networking cable connections. For example. if you created a ping between two devices in Simulation Mode. etc. Cable Type Description Copper Straight. and then you switch to Realtime Mode. The standard application for modem connections is an end device (such as a PC) dialing into a network cloud. 100 Mbps Copper (Fast Ethernet). Note that you must enable clocking on the DCE side to bring up the line protocol.This cable type is the standard Ethernet media for connecting between devices that reside on different layers (e. The reverse is true if you choose the Serial DTE connection type. and it can only be connected between serial ports.000.not consider using the back button for that purpose. PC to PC.). It can be connected to the following port types: 10 Mbps Copper (Ethernet). Fiber media is used to make connections between fiber ports (100 Mbps or 1000 Mbps). and 1000 Mbps Copper (Gigabit Ethernet). A serial connection is typically a WAN link. the stop bits must be 1 or 2 (but they do not have Serial DCE and DTE Fiber Phone Console 36 . but the master time will continue from the last event. and 1000 Mbps Copper (Gigabit Ethernet).

It is not detecting any signals. The port is in a ?blocking? state due to Packet Tracer's Layer 2 loop-breaking process. However. Typically. In this case. Note that you need to turn off a device before adding or removing modules. The physical link is down. (This appears only on switches.0 supports a wide array of modules for many devices. Link Light Status Bright green Blinking green Red Amber Meaning The physical link is up. and printers). However. and everything that is created in the Logical Workspace is initially placed in the same wiring closet in the Physical Workspace.to be the same). See the ?Wireless Devices? page under the ?Physical Workspace? section for more information regarding distances. the distance from any access point to any end device is essentially the same. and the flow control can be anything for either side. this is not indicative of the line protocol status on the link. Recall that the logical topology does not reflect physical distances. this means it will associate (physically) with the nearest access point. insert a wireless module. when you turn off 37 . Some connections do not have link lights. To establish a link. servers. Link Status When you connect two devices. you will typically see link lights on both ends of the connection. The device will automatically try to associate itself with an access point. and turn on the device.) Devices and Modules Packet Tracer 4. Wireless Links You can establish wireless links between access points and end devices (PCs. Also. There is link activity. if two or more access points are in the same closet. an end device will associate with the access point that was created first. simply remove the existing module on an end device.

The pages in this section show all of the Packet Tracer 4. If you did not save the running configuration. or remove a module by dragging it from the bay back to the list. develop a habit of saving their running configurations to the startup configuration before you press their power buttons (or the Reset Network button in Simulation Mode). You can interact with the device by pressing its power button. it will be lost. On these pages. You will see an interactive photo of the device on the main panel and a list of compatible modules on the left. you are first presented with the device's Physical Device View. Physical Configuration and Module List When you click on a device on the workspace. add a module by dragging it from the list into a compatible bay. When the network contains routers or switches. You can also zoom in and out of the photo with the zoom controls. they will load their startup configuration files. you can click on the thumbnail image of each device or module to view a larger image.switches or routers and then turn them back on.0 devices and their supported modules. Devices and Modules: Routers All images on this page are thumbnails on which 38 .

The NM-1FE2W Module provides 1 FastEthernet interface for use with copper media. Single port network modules offer autosensing 10/100BaseTX or 100BaseFX Ethernet. The TX (copper)version supports virtual LAN (VLAN) deployment. Ideal for a wide range of LAN applications. Module Name NM-1E Thumbnails Description The NM-1E features a single Ethernet port that can connect a LAN backbone which can also support either six PRI connections to aggregate ISDN lines. The NM-1FE-TX Module provides 1 Fast-Ethernet interface for use with copper media. Ideal for a wide range of LAN applications. together with two serial/ISDN backhaul lines. in addition to 2 Wan Interface Card expansion slots. The NM-1FE-FX Module provides 1 Fast-Ethernet interface for use with fiber media. two integrated Wan Interface Card (WIC) slots. Ideal for a wide range of LAN applications.you can click to bring up a larger image. and still allow multiple serial or ISDN in the same chassis. the Fast Ethernet network modules support many internetworking features and standards. Router: 2620XM The Cisco 2620XM Multiservice Router provides a one-network module slot platform with one to two fixed 10/100BASE-T Ethernet port(s). and one Advanced Integration Module (AIM) slot. the Fast Ethernet network modules support many internetworking features and standards. Single port network modules offer autosensing 10/100BaseTX or 100BaseFX Ethernet. the Fast 39 NM-1E2W NM-1FE-FX NM-1FE-TX NM-1FE2W . or 24 synchronous/asynchronous ports. The NM-1E2W provides a single Ethernet port with two WIC slots that can support a single Ethernet LAN.

Ideal for a wide range of LAN applications. with each port individually configurable in synchronous NM-2FE2W NM-2W NM-4A/S NM-4E NM-8A/S 40 . The NM-4E features four Ethernet ports for multifunction solutions that require higher-density Ethernet than the mixedmedia network modules.Ethernet network modules support many internetworking features and standards. together with two serial/ISDN backhaul lines. The NM-2FE2W Module provides 2 FastEthernet interface for use with copper media. and still allow multiple serial or ISDN in the same chassis. and transport of legacy protocols such as Bi-sync and SDLC. the Fast Ethernet network modules support many internetworking features and standards. Applications for Asynchronous/Synchronous support include: Low speed WAN aggregation (up to 128 Kbps). dial-up modem support. offering mixedmedia dial support in a single chassis. in addition to 2 Wan Interface Card expansion slots. The 4-port asynchronous/synchronous serial network module provides flexible multi-protocol support. Async or Sync connections to management ports of other equipment. The NM-2W Module provides 2 Wan Interface Card expansion slots. The TX (copper) version supports virtual LAN (VLAN) deployment. NM-2E2W The NM-2E2W provides two Ethernet ports with two WIC slots that can support two Ethernet LANs. It can be used with a broad range of interface cards supporting a diverse array of physical media and network protocols. with each port individually configurable in synchronous or asynchronous mode. Single port network modules offer autosensing 10/100BaseTX or 100BaseFX Ethernet. The 8-port asynchronous/synchronous serial network module provides flexible multi-protocol support.

or asynchronous mode, offering mixedmedia dial support in a single chassis. Applications for Asynchronous/Synchronous support include: Low speed WAN aggregation (up to 128 Kbps), dial-up modem support, Async or Sync connections to management ports of other equipment, and transport of legacy protocols such as Bi-sync and SDLC. NM-8AM The NM-8AM Integrated V.92 analog modem network module provides costeffective analog telephone service connectivity for lower-density remoteaccess service (RAS), dial-out and fax-out modem access, asynchronous dial-ondemand routing (DDR) plus dial backup, and remote router management. Both the 8-port and 16-port versions use RJ-11 jacks to connect the integrated modems to basic analog telephone lines on the public switched telephone network (PSTN) or private telephony systems. The WIC-1AM card features dual RJ-11 connectors, which are used for basic telephone service connection. The WIC1AM uses one port for connection to a standard telephone line, and the other port can be connected to a basic analog telephone for use when the modem is idle. The WIC-1T provides a single port serial connection to remote sites or legacy serial network devices such as Synchronous Data Link Control (SDLC) concentrators, alarm systems, and packet over SONET (POS) devices. The WIC-2AM card features dual RJ-11 connectors, which are used for basic telephone service connection. The WIC2AM has two modem ports to allow multiple data communication connections. The 2-port asynchronous/synchronous serial network module provides flexible multi-protocol support, with each port individually configurable in synchronous or asynchronous mode, offering mixedmedia dial support in a single chassis. Applications for

WIC-1AM

WIC-1T

WIC-2AM

WIC-2T

41

Asynchronous/Synchronous support include: Low speed WAN aggregation (up to 128 Kbps), dial-up modem support, Async or Sync connections to management ports of other equipment, and transport of legacy protocols such as Bi-sync and SDLC.

Router: 2621XM

The Cisco 2621XM Multiservice Router provides a one-network module slot platform with one to two fixed 10/100BASE-T Ethernet port(s), two integrated WIC slots, and one Advanced Integration Module (AIM) slot. The 2621XM supports the same modules that the 2620XM supports.

Router: Router-PT

The generic router provides ten slots, one console port, and one auxiliary port. Module Name PT-ROUTER-NM-1AM Thumbnail Description The PT-ROUTER-NM-1AM card features dual RJ-11 connectors, which are used for basic telephone service connection. The WIC-1AM uses one port for connection to a standard telephone line, and the other port can be connected to a basic analog telephone for use when the modem is idle. The PT-ROUTER-NM-1CE features a single Ethernet port that can connect a LAN backbone which can also support either six PRI connections to aggregate ISDN lines, or 24 synchronous/asynchronous ports.

PT-ROUTER-NM-1CE

42

PT-ROUTER-NM-1CFE

The PT-ROUTER-NM-1CFE Module provides 1 Fast-Ethernet interface for use with copper media. Ideal for a wide range of LAN applications, the Fast Ethernet network modules support many internetworking features and standards. Single port network modules offer autosensing 10/100BaseTX or 100BaseFX Ethernet. The TX (copper)version supports virtual LAN (VLAN) deployment. The single-port Cisco Gigabit Ethernet Network Module (part number PT-ROUTER-NM1CGE) provides Gigabit Ethernet copper connectivity for access routers. The module is supported by the Cisco 2691, Cisco 3660, Cisco 3725, and Cisco 3745 series routers. This network module has one gigabit interface converter (GBIC) slot to carry any standard copper or optical Cisco GBIC. The PT-ROUTER-NM-1FFE Module provides 1 Fast-Ethernet interface for use with fiber media. Ideal for a wide range of LAN applications, the Fast Ethernet network modules support many internetworking features and standards. Single port network modules offer autosensing 10/100BaseTX or 100BaseFX Ethernet. The single-port Cisco Gigabit Ethernet Network Module (part number PT-ROUTER-NM1FGE) provides Gigabit Ethernet copper connectivity for access routers. The module is supported by the Cisco 2691, Cisco 3660, Cisco 3725, and Cisco 3745 series routers. This network module has one gigabit interface converter (GBIC) slot to carry any standard copper or optical 43

PT-ROUTER-NM-1CGE

PT-ROUTER-NM-1FFE

PT-ROUTER-NM-1FGE

Async or Sync connections to management ports of other equipment. and transport of legacy protocols such as Bi-sync and SDLC. PT-ROUTER-NM-1SS Devices and Modules: Switches All images on this page are thumbnails on which you can click to bring up a larger image. dial-up modem support. alarm systems. and packet over SONET (POS) devices. Applications for Asynchronous/Synchronous support include: Low speed WAN aggregation (up to 128 Kbps). PT-ROUTER-NM-1S The PT-ROUTER-NM-1S provides a single port serial connection to remote sites or legacy serial network devices such as Synchronous Data Link Control (SDLC) concentrators. Switch: 2950T-24 44 . The 2-port asynchronous/synchronous serial network module provides flexible multi-protocol support. Switch: 2950-24 The Cisco Catalyst 2950-24 is a member of the Cisco Catalyst 2950 series switches. fixed-configuration. offering mixed-media dial support in a single chassis.to mid-sized networks. It does not support add-in modules. It is a standalone.Cisco GBIC. managed 10/100 switch providing user connectivity for small. with each port individually configurable in synchronous or asynchronous mode.

The PT-SWITCH-NM-1CFE Module provides 1 Fast-Ethernet interface for use with copper media. and Cisco 3745 series routers. Switch: Switch-PT The generic switch provides ten slots. Cisco 3725.Cisco Catalyst 2950T-24 is a member of the Catalyst 2950 Series Intelligent Ethernet Switches. PT-SWITCH-NM-1CE The PT-SWITCH-NM-1CE features a single Ethernet port that can connect a LAN backbone which can also support either six PRI connections to aggregate ISDN lines. Ideal for a wide range of LAN applications. This network module has one gigabit interface converter (GBIC) slot to carry any standard copper or optical Cisco GBIC. standalone switch that provides wire-speed Fast Ethernet and Gigabit Ethernet connectivity for midsized networks. The TX (copper)version supports virtual LAN (VLAN) deployment. or 24 synchronous/asynchronous ports. The single-port Cisco Gigabit Ethernet Network Module (part number PT-SWITCH-NM1CGE) provides Gigabit Ethernet copper connectivity for access routers. and one auxiliary port. Single port network modules offer autosensing 10/100BaseTX or 100BaseFX Ethernet. one console port. It is a fixed-configuration. It does not support add-in modules. Cisco 3660. PT-SWITCH-NM-1CFE PT-SWITCH-NM-1CGE 45 . the Fast Ethernet network modules support many internetworking features and standards. The module is supported by the Cisco 2691.

This network module has one gigabit interface converter (GBIC) slot to carry any standard copper or optical Cisco GBIC. Cisco 3725. and Cisco 3745 series routers. PT-SWITCH-NM-1FGE Bridge-PT This bridge provides two slots. PC-PT 46 . Ideal for a wide range of LAN applications. the Fast Ethernet network modules support many internetworking features and standards. The single-port Cisco Gigabit Ethernet Network Module (part number PT-SWITCH-NM1FGE) provides Gigabit Ethernet optical connectivity for access routers. Devices and Modules: End Devices All images on this page are thumbnails on which you can click to bring up a larger image. The module is supported by the Cisco 2691. Cisco 3660. Single port network modules offer autosensing 10/100BaseTX or 100BaseFX Ethernet. The bridge supports the same modules that the Switch-PT supports.PT-SWITCH-NM-1FFE The PT-SWITCH-NM-1FFE Module provides 1 Fast-Ethernet interface for use with fiber media.

the Fast Ethernet network modules support many internetworking features and standards. and the other port can be connected to a basic analog telephone for use when the modem is idle. and PC-HOST-NM-1CE PC-HOST-NM-1CFE PC-HOST-NM-1CGE 47 . The module is supported by the Cisco 2691. or 24 synchronous/asynchronous ports.This workstation provides a console port and one slot. Cisco 3725. The PT-HOST-NM-1CFE Module provides 1 Fast-Ethernet interface for use with copper media. which are used for basic telephone service connection. The TX (copper)version supports virtual LAN (VLAN) deployment. The single-port Cisco Gigabit Ethernet Network Module (part number PT-HOST-NM-1CGE) provides Gigabit Ethernet copper connectivity for access routers. The PT-HOST-NM-1CE features a single Ethernet port that can connect a LAN backbone which can also support either six PRI connections to aggregate ISDN lines. Module Name PC-HOST-NM-1AM Thumbnail Description The PT-HOST-NM-1AM card features dual RJ-11 connectors. Cisco 3660. The WIC-1AM uses one port for connection to a standard telephone line. Ideal for a wide range of LAN applications. Single port network modules offer autosensing 10/100BaseTX or 100BaseFX Ethernet.

PC-HOST-NM-1FFE The PT-HOST-NM-1FFE Module provides 1 Fast-Ethernet interface for use with fiber media. Cisco 3660.11b networks. The wireless interface module provides one 2. the Fast Ethernet network modules support many internetworking features and standards. Ideal for a wide range of LAN applications.Cisco 3745 series routers. This server supports the same modules that the PC-PT supports. The module is supported by the Cisco 2691. 48 . The module operates at 11 Megabits/second and supports protocols that use Ethernet for LAN access. This network module has one gigabit interface converter (GBIC) slot to carry any standard copper or optical Cisco GBIC. Single port network modules offer autosensing 10/100BaseTX or 100BaseFX Ethernet. This network module has one gigabit interface converter (GBIC) slot to carry any standard copper or optical Cisco GBIC.4GHz wireless interface suitable for connection to 802. The single-port Cisco Gigabit Ethernet Network Module (part number PT-HOST-NM-1FGE) provides Gigabit Ethernet optical connectivity for access routers. PC-HOST-NM-1FGE PC-HOST-NM-1W Server-PT This server provides one slot. and Cisco 3745 series routers. Cisco 3725.

Single port network modules offer autosensing 10/100BaseTX or PT-REPEATER-NM-1CFE 49 .Printer-PT This printer provides one slot. Ideal for a wide range of LAN applications. This printer supports the same modules that the PC-PT supports. Hub-PT This hub provides ten slots. The PT-REPEATER-NM1CFE Module provides 1 Fast-Ethernet interface for use with copper media. or 24 synchronous/asynchronous ports. Devices and Modules: Other Devices All images on this page are thumbnails on which you can click to bring up a larger image. the Fast Ethernet network modules support many internetworking features and standards. Module Name PT-REPEATER-NM-1CE Thumbnail Description The PT-REPEATER-NM1CE features a single Ethernet port that can connect a LAN backbone which can also support either six PRI connections to aggregate ISDN lines.

PT-REPEATER-NM-1FFE PT-REPEATER-NM-1FGE 50 . This network module has one gigabit interface converter (GBIC) slot to carry any standard copper or optical Cisco GBIC. PT-REPEATER-NM-1CGE The single-port Cisco Gigabit Ethernet Network Module (part number PTREPEATER-NM-1CGE) provides Gigabit Ethernet copper connectivity for access routers. This network module has one gigabit interface converter (GBIC) slot to carry any standard copper or optical Cisco GBIC.100BaseFX Ethernet. The module is supported by the Cisco 2691. and Cisco 3745 series routers. The PT-REPEATER-NM1FFE Module provides 1 Fast-Ethernet interface for use with fiber media. Single port network modules offer autosensing 10/100BaseTX or 100BaseFX Ethernet. The module is supported by the Cisco 2691. The TX (copper)version supports virtual LAN (VLAN) deployment. Cisco 3725. The single-port Cisco Gigabit Ethernet Network Module (part number PTREPEATER-NM-1FGE) provides Gigabit Ethernet optical connectivity for access routers. Cisco 3725. Cisco 3660. the Fast Ethernet network modules support many internetworking features and standards. and Cisco 3745 series routers. Cisco 3660. Ideal for a wide range of LAN applications.

This repeater supports the same modules that the Hub-PT supports. which are used for basic telephone service connection. It provides ten slots.Repeater-PT This repeater provides two slots. Access Point-PT This access point has a built-in antenna and provides one slot. The WIC-1AM uses one port for connection to a standard telephone line. alarm systems. a console port. Packet Tracer 4. PT-CLOUD-NM-1S 51 . and the other port can be connected to a basic analog telephone for use when the modem is idle. The PT-CLOUD-NM-1S provides a single port serial connection to remote sites or legacy serial network devices such as Synchronous Data Link Control (SDLC) concentrators. Cloud-PT Although a ?cloud? is not a single device.0 gives you access to a representation of a cloud. and an auxiliary port. Device Name PT-CLOUD-NM-1AM Thumbnail Description The PT-CLOUD-NM-1AM card features dual RJ-11 connectors. This access point supports the same modules that the Hub-PT supports. and packet over SONET (POS) devices.

the networks you make in Packet Tracer 4. on the other hand. Routers and switches. The IOS Command Log window will keep track of all the IOS commands you entered in any given work session.Configuring Devices As with real networks. are advanced devices that can be configured with much more sophistication. Press the View button to bring up the IOS Command Log window. The log clears any time you start a new workspace or open a file. Some of their settings can be configured in the Config tab. Logging IOS Commands If you enabled the IOS logging feature (found in Options --> Preferences). but most advanced configurations will need to be done through the Cisco IOS.0 must be properly configured before they "work". You will also find the complete listing of supported IOS commands for routers and switches in this section. 52 . You can export the log into a text file with the Export button (found in the Options window). You need to manually press the Update button to see your commands. This section explains the Config tab for all devices. For simple devices. this may just mean entering some fields (such as an IP address and subnet mask) or selecting options in a graphical configuration panel (accessed by the Config tab). you can keep track of all IOS commands you entered in a work session.

To configure an interface. Configuring Routers The Config tab offers three general levels of configuration: global. the lower window will display the equivalent Cisco IOS commands for all your actions. press the GLOBAL button to expand the Settings button (if it has not already been expanded). open this tutorial to see a demonstration of a network being configured. Global Settings In global settings.Tutorial After reading through all the pages in this section. you can change the router's display name as it appears on the workspace and also the hostname as it appears in the Cisco IOS. Load an existing configuration file (in . You can also manipulate the router configurations files in these various ways: • • • • • Erase the NVRAM (where the startup configuration is stored). 53 . To perform a global configuration. press the ROUTING button. Throughout your configurations in the Config tab. Export the startup and running configuration to an external text file. To configure routing. Save the current running configuration to the NVRAM. press the INTERFACE button to expand the list of interfaces. and then choose the interface. routing.txt format) into the startup configuration. and interface. and then choose Static or RIP. Merge the current running configuration with another configuration file.

You can also set a default gateway. Enter an IP address into the Network field and press the Add button. You can enable RIP on specified networks by choosing the RIP subpanel. Each static route you add requires a network IP address.Routing Configuration You can make static routes on the router by choosing the Static sub-panel. subnet mask. and next hop address. The RIP-enabled network is 54 .

and Subnet Mask. Each interface type may have different configuration options. and Duplex setting. you can also set the MAC Address. You can disable RIP on a network by clicking the Remove button to remove it from the list. but in general. For Ethernet interfaces. IP Address. Bandwidth. Interface Configuration A router can support a wide range of interfaces. copper Ethernet.added to the Network Address list. you can set the Clock Rate setting. including serial. modem. For serial interfaces. you can set the Port Status (on or off). Routers: IOS 55 . and fiber Ethernet.

0. User Mode • • • • • enable exit logout ping WORD show o cdp entry * [ version | protocol ] WORD [ version | protocol ] interface [ Ethernet <0-9>/<0-24> | FastEthernet <0-9>/<024> | GigabitEthernet <0-9>/<0-24>| Serial <0-9>/<0-24> ] neighbors [ detail ] clock controllers [ Ethernet <0-9>/<0-24> | FastEthernet <0-9>/<0-24> | GigabitEthernet <0-9>/<0-24> | Serial <0-9>/<0-24> ] frame-relay lmi map pvc history interfaces [ Ethernet <0-9>/<0-24> | FastEthernet <0-9>/<0-24> | GigabitEthernet <0-9>/<0-24> | Loopback <0-2147483647> | Serial <09>/<0-24> ] o o o o o 56 . Use the Copy and Paste buttons to copy and paste text to or from the command line. This page lists the Cisco IOS command tree for Packet Tracer 4.0 routers.Click on the CLI tab in the router configuration window to access the router's Cisco IOS command line interface. The tree contains only Cisco IOS command chains that are supported in Packet Tracer 4.

C.C.B.B.D | A.D A.D ] configure [ terminal ] copy running-config startup-config startup-config running-config debug ip rip [ events ] disable enable erase startup-config exit logout no debug [ all | ip rip | ip rip events ] ping [ WORD ] [ Protocol ] [ Target IP address ] [ Repeat count ] [ Datagram size ] [ Timeout in seconds ] [ Extended commands ] [ Sweep range of sizes ] reload show access-lists [ <1-999> | WORD ] arp cdp entry * [ version | protocol ] WORD [ version | protocol ] interface [ Ethernet <0-9>/<0-24> | FastEthernet <0-9>/<0- • • o o • • • • • • • o • o • • o o o 57 .B.o ip • dhcp binding eigrp interfaces [ <1-65535> ] neighbors [ <1-65535> ] topology [ <1-65535> | all-links ] traffic [ <1-65535> ] interface [ Ethernet <0-9>/<0-24> | FastEthernet <0-9>/<024> | GigabitEthernet <0-9>/<0-24> | Serial <0-9>/<0-24> ] brief nat translations protocols rip database route [ connected | eigrp | rip ] o version traceroute WORD Enable Mode • o o o clear arp-cache cdp table ip nat translastion * route [ * | A.C.

B.C.C.B.C.D A.B.D | any | host A.B.B.C.B.C.D ] [ deny | permit ] [ A.D A.C.D | any | host A.D A.B.B.C.D | any | host A.o o o o o o o o o • o • • 24> | GigabitEthernet <0-9>/<0-24>| Serial <0-9>/<0-24> ] neighbors [ detail ] clock controllers [ Ethernet <0-9>/<0-24> | FastEthernet <0-9>/<0-24> | GigabitEthernet <0-9>/<0-24> | Serial <0-9>/<0-24> ] frame-relay lmi map pvc history interfaces [ Ethernet <0-9>/<0-24> | FastEthernet <0-9>/<0-24> | GigabitEthernet <0-9>/<0-24> | Loopback <0-2147483647> | Serial <09>/<0-24> ] ip access-lists [ <1-199> | WORD ] dhcp binding eigrp interfaces [ <1-65535> ] neighbors [ <1-65535> ] topology [ <1-65535> | all-links ] traffic [ <1-65535> ] interface [ Ethernet <0-9>/<0-24> | FastEthernet <0-9>/<024> | GigabitEthernet <0-9>/<0-24> | Serial <0-9>/<0-24> ] brief nat translations protocols rip database route [ connected | eigrp | rip ] running-config startup-config version traceroute [ WORD ] [ Protocol ] [ Target IP address ] [ Source address ] [ Numeric display ] [ Timeout in seconds ] [ Probe count ] [ Minimum Time to Live ] [ Maximum Time to Live ] undebug [ all | ip rip | ip rip events ] write [ erase | memory | terminal ] Global Mode • access-list (named ACL is under the "ip access-list" branch in Global Mode) o <1-99> [ deny | permit ] [ A.D ] [ A.C.C.D ] 58 .D ] remark LINE o <100-199> [ deny | permit ] [ icmp | ip ] [ A.B.C.B.

C.D A.C.• • • • • • o o o o • o o o o • • o o o o o [ deny | permit ] [ tcp | udp ] [ A.B.C.C.C.D A.C.D A.B.B.B.D A.C.D <1-65535> A.D ] pool WORD nat inside source list [ <1-199> | WORD ] interface [ Ethernet | FastEthernet | GigabitEthernet | Serial ] <0-9>/<0-24> [ overload ] list [ <1-199> | WORD ] pool WORD [ overload ] static A.B.B.B.B.D A.C.B. ][ 0-4294967295 ] GigabitEthernet <0-9>/<0-24>[ .B.B.C.C.B.B.D | any | eq <0-65535> | host A.D static [ tcp | udp ] A.C.B.D ] [ A.D [ A.D A.B.C.C.B.C.D <165535> pool WORD A.C. ][ 0-4294967295 ] Serial <0-9>/<0-24> ip access-list extended [ <100-199> | WORD ] standard [ <1-99> | WORD ] dhcp excluded-address A.D route A.B.D | any | host A.D [ <1-255> ] Ethernet <0-9>/<0-24> [ <1-255> ] FastEthernet <0-9>/<0-24> [ <1-255> ] GigabitEthernet <0-9>/<0-24> [ <1-255> ] Serial <0-9>/<0-24> [ <1-255> ] line console <0-0> no access-list [ <1-99> | <100-199> ] cdp run enable secret hostname interface Ethernet <0-9>/<0-24> FastEthernet <0-9>/<0-24> GigabitEthernet <0-9>/<0-24> Serial <0-9>/<0-24> 59 .C.B. ][ 0-4294967295 ] FastEthernet <0-9>/<0-24>[ .D netmask A.C.D | gt <0-65535> | lt <0-65535> | neq <0-65535> | range <0-65535> <065535> ] [ eq <0-65535> | gt <0-65535> | lt <0-65535> | neq <065535> | range <0-65535> <0-65535> ] remark LINE cdp run enable secret [ 0 | 5 ] LINE end exit hostname WORD interface Ethernet <0-9>/<0-24>[ .C.

D ] pool WORD nat inside source list [ <1-199> | WORD ] static A.B.D ] any host A.C.C.B.C.B.B.B.B.B.o ip access-list extended [ <100-199> | WORD ] standard [ <1-99> | WORD ] dhcp excluded-address A.C.D [ A.B.D ] any host A.B.B.B.D [ A.D <1-65535> A.B.C.C.C.C.C.D exit no deny A.C.D [ A.B.B.C.C.C.D • o o o • • o deny A.C.B.D ] any host A.D [ A.B.D [ A.C.D o permit A.D <1-255> Ethernet <0-9>/<0-24> [ <1-255> ] FastEthernet <0-9>/<0-24> [ <1-255> ] GigabitEthernet <0-9>/<0-24> [ <1-255> ] Serial <0-9>/<0-24> [ <1-255> ] router eigrp <1-65535> rip username WORD router eigrp <1-65535> rip username WORD password [ 0 ] LINE o o • o o • Standard Access List Configuration Mode • o default deny A.C.D A.B.B.D A.C.C.B.C.C.D A.B.D static [ tcp | udp ] A.D ] any 60 .D <1-65535> pool WORD route A.

C.D | any | host A.B.C.C.B.D | any | host A.B.D [ A.C.D ] [ deny | permit ] [ tcp | udp ] [ A.C.B.B.B.B.C.D ] [ A.D | any | host A.D o permit A.C.D | any | host A.D ] [ A.B.D A.D | gt <0-65535> | lt <065535> | neq <0-65535> | range <0-65535> <0-65535> ] [ eq <0-65535> | gt <0-65535> | lt <0-65535> | neq <0-65535> | range <0-65535> <065535> ] exit no [ deny | permit ] [ icmp | ip ] [ A.D A.B.B.B.D | any | host A.D • o o o • permit A.D ] [ deny | permit ] [ tcp | udp ] [ A.B.B.C.B.B.D ] [ tcp | udp ] [ A.D A.C.D A.B.B.B.B.C.D | gt <0-65535> | lt <065535> | neq <0-65535> | range <0-65535> <0-65535> ] [ eq <0-65535> | gt <0-65535> | lt <0-65535> | neq <0-65535> | range <0-65535> <065535> ] remark LINE Ethernet / FastEthernet / GigabitEthernet Interface Mode 61 .B.B.B.C.B.D | any | host A.D A.C.D | any | host A.B.C.C.C.D A.C.B.C.D A.B.B.B.C.B.D A.D A.D | any | eq <0-65535> | host A.C.C.C.C.D | gt <065535> | lt <0-65535> | neq <0-65535> | range <0-65535> <0-65535> ] [ eq <0-65535> | gt <0-65535> | lt <0-65535> | neq <0-65535> | range <065535> <0-65535> ] deny [ icmp | ip ] [ A.C.C.C.C.B.C.B.D | any | host A.B.B.B.C.C.D | any | host A.D A.B.C.C.D ] [ A.B.D | any | host A.B.D | gt <065535> | lt <0-65535> | neq <0-65535> | range <0-65535> <0-65535> ] [ eq <0-65535> | gt <0-65535> | lt <0-65535> | neq <0-65535> | range <065535> <0-65535> ] permit [ icmp | ip ] [ A.D ] [ A.D remark LINE Extended Access List Configuration Mode • o o • o o • • o o • o o • default [ deny | permit ] [ icmp | ip ] [ A.B.B.D ] any host A.D | any | host A.C.B.B.D | any | eq <0-65535> | host A.C.B.C.D A.D A.C.B.D A.D A.D ] [ A.C.D ] [ tcp | udp ] [ A.C.D ] [ A.B.D ] any host A.C.C.host A.C.C.B.C.D A.D | any | eq <0-65535> | host A.D [ A.C.B.C.C.C.C.D | any | host A.C.B.C.C.C.D A.C.D ] [ A.B.B.D | any | eq <0-65535> | host A.C.C.B.C.B.B.B.B.B.D ] [ A.

C.C.D A.B.D A.D A.B.C.D A.C.B.D hello-interval eigrp <1-65535> [ <1-65535> ] nat [ inside | outside ] summary-address eigrp <1-65535> A.B.C.D [ <1-255> ] no 62 .H.B.B.D A.H no arp timeout bandwidth cdp enable delay description duplex ip access-group [ <1-199> | WORD ] [ in | out ] address hello-interval eigrp <1-65535> nat [ inside | outside ] summary-address eigrp <1-65535> A.B.B.C.C.B.B.C.• • • • • • • • o o o o o • • o o o o o o o o o o • • arp timeout <0-2147483> bandwidth <1-10000000> cdp enable delay <1-16777215> description LINE duplex [ auto | full | half ] exit ip access-group [ <1-199> | WORD ] [ in | out ] address A.C.C.D hello-interval eigrp <1-65535> <1-65535> nat [ inside | outside ] summary-address eigrp <1-65535> A.D [ <1255> ] mac-address shutdown speed shutdown speed [ 10 | 100 | 1000 | auto ] (10/100 options are only available for FastEthernet and GigabitEthernet interfaces and 10/100/1000 options are only available for GigabitEthernet interfaces respectively) Ethernet / FastEthernet / GigabitEthernet Sub-Interface Mode • • • • • • • o o o o • arp timeout <0-2147483> bandwidth <1-10000000> delay <1-16777215> description LINE encapsulation dot1Q <1-1005> [ native ] exit ip address A.D [ <1-255> ] mac-address H.

D A.C.C.C.B.C.• arp timeout bandwidth delay description encapsulation dot1Q ip address hello-interval eigrp <1-65535> nat [ inside | outside ] summary-address eigrp <1-65535> A.B.D [ <1255> ] o shutdown shutdown o o o o o o Serial Interface Mode • • • • • • o o o • • o o • o o o o o • • o o o o o o o bandwidth <1-10000000> cdp enable clock rate <300-4000000> (only certain clock rates that are listed are valid) delay <1-16777215> description LINE encapsulation hdlc ppp frame-relay [ ietf ] exit frame-relay lmi-type [ cisco | ansi | q933a ] map ip A.D <16-1007> [ broadcast cisco | broadcast ietf | cisco | ietf ] ip access-group [ <1-199> | WORD ] [ in | out ] address A.C.D hello-interval eigrp <1-65535> <1-65535> nat [ inside | outside ] summary-address eigrp <1-65535> A.D A.B.D A.B.B.C.B.D ip access-group [ <1-199> | WORD ] [ in | out ] address 63 .B.C.B.D [ <1-255> ] keepalive no bandwidth <1-10000000> cdp enable clock rate description encapsulation frame-relay lmi-type [ cisco | ansi | q933a ] map ip A.C.

B.5 | 2 ] Router RIP Mode • • • • • o o o o o • o o o o o • auto-summary distance <1-255> exit network A.C.C.B.B.C.B.C.hello-interval eigrp <1-65535> <1-65535> nat [ inside | outside ] summary-address eigrp <1-65535> A.D A.D passive-interface default Ethernet <0-9>/<0-24> FastEthernet <0-9>/<0-24> GigabitEthernet <0-9>/<0-24> Serial <0-9>/<0-24> version <1-2> passive-interface default Ethernet <0-9>/<0-24> FastEthernet <0-9>/<0-24> GigabitEthernet <0-9>/<0-24> Serial <0-9>/<0-24> version <1-2> Router EIGRP Mode 64 .D no auto-summary distance <1-255> network A.D [ <1o o o • • 255> ] keepalive ppp authentication shutdown ppp authentication chap shutdown Line Console Mode • • • • • • • • • databits [ 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 ] default [ databits | flowcontrol | history size | parity | speed | stopbits ] exit flowcontrol [ NONE | hardware | software ] history size <0-256> no [ databits | flowcontrol | history size | parity | speed | stopbits ] parity [ even | mark | none | odd | space ] speed <0-4294967295> stopbits [ 1 | 1.

C.C. the lower window will display the equivalent Cisco IOS commands for all your actions. The global level offers the same settings as the router's does.• • • • • o o o o o • o o o o o • auto-summary exit metric weights <0-8> <0-256> <0-256> <0-256> <0-256> <0-256> network A.B. is where you can manage the switch's VLAN database.D exit network A.D ] no auto-summary metric weights network A. The switching level. Global Settings In global settings.B.D [ A.B. You can also manipulate the switch's configurations files in these various ways: 65 . The interface level configurations also offer access to the switch's VLAN settings.C.B.B.B. a switch's Config tab offers three general levels of configuration: global. Throughout your configurations in the Config tab.C. however.B. switching. you can change the router's display name as it appears on the workspace and also the hostname as it appears in the Cisco IOS.D Configuring Switches As with a router.C.D A.D [ A.C. and interface.D ] passive-interface default Ethernet <0-9>/<0-24> FastEthernet <0-9>/<0-24> GigabitEthernet <0-9>/<0-24> Serial <0-9>/<0-24> variance <1-128> passive-interface default Ethernet <0-9>/<0-24> FastEthernet <0-9>/<0-24> GigabitEthernet <0-9>/<0-24> Serial <0-9>/<0-24> variance <1-128> DHCP Configuration Mode • • • default-router A.C.

VLAN Database Configuration You can manage the switch's VLANs from the VLAN Database sub-panel. Save the current running configuration to the NVRAM. Load an existing configuration file (in . To associate a particular interface with a VLAN. go to that interface's configuration panel. 66 . You can remove a VLAN by selecting it in the list and then pressing the Remove button. You can add VLANs by entering a name and a VLAN number and pressing the Add button. You can see all existing VLAN entries in the list below the button.• • • • • Erase the NVRAM (where the startup configuration is stored). Export the startup and running configuration to an external text file. Merge the current running configuration with another configuration file.txt format) into the startup configuration.

you can set the Port Status (on or off). For each interface.Interface Configuration Switches have only Ethernet-type interfaces.0. the switch allows all VLANs 67 . In Packet Tracer 4. You can also change an interface into a VLAN trunk port. and then use the drop-down menu on the right to select the VLANs you want that trunk to handle. an interface is a VLAN access port assigned to VLAN 1. You can use the drop-down menu on the right side of the screen to reassign the port to another existing VLAN. and VLAN Switch Mode. Duplex setting. By default. Bandwidth.

Switches: IOS Click on the CLI tab in the switch configuration window to access the switch's Cisco IOS command line interface. Use the Copy and Paste buttons to copy and paste text to and from the command line. The tree contains only Cisco IOS command chains that are supported in Packet Tracer 4.(1 to 1005) on a trunk port by default. However. In the drop-down menu. It is simply a way to display VLANs (or a range of VLANs) that the trunk supports. This page lists the Cisco IOS command tree for Packet Tracer 4.0 switches. even if the VLAN does not actually exist on the switch. you cannot block VLANs that do not exist. User Mode • • • • • enable exit logout ping WORD show o cdp entry 68 .0. you can see the current VLANs and block (uncheck) them from the trunk. This does not affect the switch's functionality.

o o o o o o o • * [ version | protocol ] WORD [ version | protocol ] interface [ Ethernet <0-9> / <0-24> | FastEthernet <0-9> / <0-24> | GigabitEthernet <0-9> / <0-24>| Serial <0-9> / <0-24> ] neighbors [ detail ] clock history interfaces Ethernet <0-9>/<0-24> FastEthernet <0-9>/<0-24> GigabitEthernet <0-9>/<0-24> Switchport Trunk Vlan <1-1005> ip interface brief Vlan <1-1005> mac-address-table version vlan traceroute WORD Enable Mode • o o o • • o o • • • • • • o • • o o clear arp-cache cdp table mac-address-table dynamic configure terminal copy running-config startup-config startup-config running-config disable enable erase startup-config exit logout ping [ WORD ] [ Protocol ] [ Target IP address ] [ Repeat count ] [ Datagram size ] [ Timeout in seconds ] [ Extended commands ] [ Sweep range of sizes ] reload show arp cdp entry * [ version | protocol ] WORD [ version | protocol ] interface [ Ethernet <0-9>/<0-24> | FastEthernet <0-9>/<024> | GigabitEthernet <0-9>/<0-24>| Serial <0-9>/<0-24> ] 69 .

C.neighbors [ detail ] o o o o o o o o o • o • clock history interfaces Ethernet <0-9>/<0-24> FastEthernet <0-9>/<0-24> GigabitEthernet <0-9>/<0-24> Switchport Trunk Vlan <1-1005> ip interface brief Vlan <1-1005> mac-address-table running-config startup-config version vlan traceroute [ WORD ] [ Protocol ] [ Target IP address ] [ Source address ] [ Numeric display ] [ Timeout in seconds ] [ Probe count ] [ Minimum Time to Live ] [ Maximum Time to Live ] write [ erase | memory | terminal ] Global Mode • • • • • • o o o o • • • o o o o o o • cdp run enable secret [ 0 | 5 ] LINE end exit hostname WORD interface Ethernet <0-9>/<0-24> FastEthernet <0-9>/<0-24> GigabitEthernet <0-9>/<0-24> Vlan <1-1005> ip default-gateway A.B.D line console <0-0> no cdp run enable secret hostname interface Vlan <1-1005> ip default-gateway vlan <1-1005> vlan <1-1005> Ethernet / FastEthernet / GigabitEthernet Interface Mode 70 .

H no arp timeout description ip address mac-address shutdown 71 .H no cdp enable description duplex mac-address shutdown speed switchport access vlan mode native vlan trunk [ allowed | native ] vlan shutdown speed [ 10 | 100 | 1000 | auto ] (10/100 options are only available for FastEthernet switchport access vlan <1-1005> mode [ access | trunk ] native vlan <1-1005> trunk allowed vlan WORD add <1-1005> all except <1-1005> none remove <1-1005> native vlan <1-1005> and GigabitEthernet interfaces and 10/100/1000 options are only available for GigabitEthernet interfaces respectively) VLAN Interface Mode • • • • o • • o o o o o arp timeout <0-2147483> description LINE exit ip address A.D A.B.C.D mac-address H.H.• • • • • • o o o o o o o • • • o o o o cdp enable description LINE duplex [ auto | full | half ] exit mac-address H.B.C.H.

72 . use a terminal window.5 | 2 ] Configuring PCs You can configure a PC's global settings and interface settings with the Config tab. the Desktop tab provides tools to configure IP settings.• shutdown VLAN Configuration Mode • • • exit name WORD no name Line Console Mode • • • • • • • • • databits [ 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 ] default [ databits | flowcontrol | history size | parity | speed | stopbits ] exit flowcontrol [ NONE | hardware | software ] history size <0-256> no [ databits | flowcontrol | history size | parity | speed | stopbits ] parity [ even | mark | none | odd | space ] speed <0-4294967295> stopbits [ 1 | 1. configure dial-up settings. Additionally. and open a host command line interface.

Interface Configuration PCs can support an Ethernet (copper or fiber). you can change the PC's display name. IP Configuration Utility In the Desktop tab. You can also set a gateway for the PC. These options vary slightly for each interface type. and you have established user name authentication on the router (using the Cisco IOS global mode command username WORD password LINE). you can use the Use DHCP button to automatically obtain an IP address. modem. The cloud acts like a phone company between the PC and the router. 73 . Mac Address. click the IP Configuration icon to bring up this utility. You can establish a modem connection by connecting the PC to a cloud that is connected to a router. Bandwidth. click the Dial-up icon to bring up this utility.Global Settings In the global settings. In general. Duplex. you can manually set all three fields. subnet mask. or wireless interface. you can set the interface Port Status. Several conditions must be met before the connection can be successful: • The router has a modem. and default gateway from the router. IP Address. Otherwise. Modem Dial-up Utility In the Desktop tab. If the PC is connected to a configured port on a router. and Subnet Mask .

use the Terminal application to gain access to that device's CLI. Use the Disconnect button to terminate the connection at any time. Choose the appropriate connection parameters for the console session. password. In the Desktop tab. and then press the OK button. You entered the correct user name. Note that you still must configure all relevant IP settings manually if you want to ping between the PC and the router. 74 . press the Dial button to make the call. If all the requirements are met. The status line (as well as link lights) will tell you if the connection is successful. Terminal Utility If the PC is connected to a router or a switch via a console connection (via the PC's RS 232 port).• • The cloud's modem ports have valid phone numbers. The Terminal window appears with the device's CLI. click the Terminal icon to bring up this utility. and number to dial on the PC's modem utility.

press the INTERFACE button to expand the list of interfaces. choose the Settings button under CONNECTIONS . To configure connections. To configure an interface. press the GLOBAL button to expand the Settings button (if it has not already been expanded). you can issue the following commands: • • • • • • • • ping WORD tracert WORD ipconfig help ? dir ls arp -a Configuring Clouds The Config tab offers three general levels of configuration: global. 75 . and then choose the interface.Command Prompt Utility In the Desktop tab. connections. To configure at the global level. Global Settings The only global setting available for a cloud is its display name. In the prompt. and interface. click the Command Prompt button to bring up the command prompt.

The connection will now appear on the list. choose a port and one of its sub-links. and you can set a phone number into which another device with a modem can dial. 76 . and set DLCIs to the interface. Then from the right side. choose an LMI (ANSI.Connection Settings You can use this sub-panel to establish connections between sub-links on the cloud's ports. You can remove a DLCI from the port with the Remove button. Cisco. Interface Configuration Clouds can support two interface types: modem and serial. or Q933a). Press the Add button to make a connection between those two sub-links. From the left side. For a serial port. choose another port and one of its sub-links. enter an identifying number and a name for it. you can toggle its status. For a modem port. To add a DLCI. and then press the Add button to add it to the list. You can remove a connection from the list with the Remove button. you can toggle its status (on or off).

Its port settings cannot be modified. In general. Hubs A hub is a multiport repeater that regenerates the signal it receives on one port and forwards it out all other ports. but you can toggle the Port Status.Configuring Other Devices The configuration options for all other devices are relatively simple. Bandwidth. Bandwidth. and Duplex. Repeaters A repeater is a simple two-port device that regenerates the signal it receives on one port and forwards it out the other port. The available settings for its two Ethernet ports are Port Status. Bridges A bridge is basically a simplified two-port switch. 77 . It does not have VLAN or trunking functions. The available settings for its Ethernet port are Port Status. you can change their display names in their global settings sub-panel and make basic settings on each interface. Access Points An access point is basically a repeater with one wireless port and one Ethernet port. Its port settings cannot be modified. The settings for the wireless port are fixed at 11 Mbps at half duplex. and Duplex.

In addition to key combinations. and then release the key. continuously placing devices or continuously making connections). You can move the selected objects as one unit. you can set the display name and the gateway IP address. and then release the key. Action Go to the Logical Workspace. It also serves as a "cancel" key?it closes certain pop-up windows or cancels/stops the current action (e. Start a New network. Press Alt plus the underlined letter in the in the menu bar to open the menu. In the global settings. Keyboard Shortcuts Many actions in Packet Tracer 4. you can press that key to select it. click and drag the cursor to draw a selection rectangle around the objects you want to select. Bandwidth.g. and Subnet Mask. MAC Address. Esc: This key is a shortcut to the Select tool in the Common Tools Bar. The available settings for its Ethernet port are Port Status. In fact. choose a specific device or a connection type. You can now quickly place multiple instances of that device on the workspace or make connections of that type between devices. whenever you see an underlined letter in any option or dialogue. You can also delete them with the Del key. Duplex. the following keys deserve extra attention: • • • • Alt: Press this key to activate the Menu Bar options. you can hold Shift. Printers A printer has the same configuration options as a server. Alternatively. Press and hold the Shift key. Switch to Simulation Mode.0 are keyboard-accessible for your convenience.Servers A server functions like a PC except that it does not have the PC's utilities. and then release the key. Go to the Physical Workspace. click on all the devices you want to select. Press and hold the Ctrl key.. Shift: Use this key with the mouse to select multiple objects. Ctrl: Use this key to quickly create multiple devices and connections. Shortcut Shift + L Shift + P Shift + R Shift + S Ctrl + N 78 . IP Address. Then press the underlined letter in the command name that you want. The Ctrl key can also be used to prevent windows from docking (press and hold the key as you drag a window). Switch to Realtime Mode.

Choose No in confirmation dialogues. Save the current network to a different name (Save As). Save the current network. Time Constants Packet Tracer 4. Press the Add Simple PDU button. If you have selected multiple objects.0.0 uses the following time constants: RIP default update RIP default timeout RIP default flush timeout RIP default hold-down MAC table entry timeout ARP request timer ARP table entry timeout 30 sec 3 min 4 min 3 min 5 min 2 sec 4 hrs 79 . Open the About page. Run the Activity Wizard. Choose the Delete tool. Choose the Inspect tool.Ctrl + O Ctrl + S Ctrl + Shift + S Ctrl + P Ctrl + W Ctrl + R Alt + F4 Esc M N Del I P C C N Y F1 F11 F12 Open an existing network. Print the current network. Choose the Place Note tool. Choose Yes in confirmation dialogues. Exit Packet Tracer 4. Choose the Select tool. Choose the Move Layout tool. View Preferences. Open the Help Files. Open the Tutorials. Choose Cancel in confirmation dialogues. Press the Add Complex PDU button. pressing Del will delete them.

CDP update timer CDP neighbor hold-down timer DHCP client timeout CSMA/CD waiting time to resend LMI timeout LMI signaling HDLC keepalive HDLC timeout NAT entries timeout NAT entry encapsulated in a UDP NAT entry encapsulated in a TCP NAT entry encapsulated in a IC PTL2LBP* advertise timer PTL2LBP* block timer CHAP timeout CHAP re-authenticate timeout DIALING no answer timeout DIALING no dial tone timeout PPP keepalive interval Timeout EIGRP Hello time interval period EIGRP Hold time interval period ICMP 1 min 3 min 5 sec random 15 sec 5 sec 5 sec 15 sec Depends on the encapsulation protocol 5 min 24 hrs 1 min 2 sec 6 sec 5 sec 10 sec 5 sec 2 sec 5 sec 15 sec 5 sec 15 sec 1 ms *Packet Tracer Layer 2 Loop Breaking Protocol 80 .

How repeaters process frames When a repeater receives a frame: • The repeater forwards the frame to the other port. a collision occurs and the hub forwards a jam signal to all ports. 81 . o If the receiving port is a trunk (and so the frame is a Dot1q frame): It gets the frame's destination VLAN number from the VLAN tag in the Dot1q header. If one port receives a frame. The following pages describe how protocols. The port is a trunk port and the frame is not a Dot1q frame. Layer 1 Models How hubs process frames When a hub receives a frame (flowchart here): • • If two or more ports receive frames at the same time.. features. o Otherwise. continue to process the frame.0. o It drops the frame if (any): The port is an access port while the frame has a Dot1q encapsulation format. Refer to these models if you find discrepancies between real-world situations and Packet Tracer 4.0 Packet Tracer 4. It drops the frame if the receiving port is a blocking port (set by the Packet Tracer Layer 2 Loop Breaking Protocol [PTL2LBP]) and the frame is not a PTL2LBP frame. the program is inherently limited by modeling decisions. the hub forwards the frame to all ports except the receiving port. and functions are modeled in Packet Tracer 4.0 simulates the behavior of real networks and devices using models. It determines which VLAN the frame is destined.0 simulations.Modeling in Packet Tracer 4. Layer 2 Models How switches process incoming frames When a switch receives a frame (flowchart here): • • • It compares the receiving port's type (trunk or access) to the frame's format. As with all simulations. It checks if it (the switch itself) has that particular VLAN configured.

RIP versions The router deals with RIP packets differently depending on what version of RIP it is running. it resets the entry's timer. If it is running RIPv2. The frame's destination MAC address is a CDP multicast address. When the timer expires (5 min). If the RIP version is not set. it creates a new MAC entry in the table and starts a timer for it. it removes the entry. The frame's destination MAC address is a broadcast MAC address. o If the receiving port is an access VLAN (the frame is destined for that VLAN). The packet will successfully exit a port if the port is (all): • • • Functional (the port exists. it can: Send and receive RIPv1 packets. Send broadcasts. Receive RIPv1 and RIPv2 packets. RIP-enabled. and the line protocol is up). the switch broadcasts the frame to all trunk ports (except the receiving port) that allows that VLAN number. The frame's destination MAC address matches the active VLAN interface's MAC address. it can: Send and receive RIPv2 packets. • o o • o o • o o o If it is running RIPv1. Not RIP-passive. it refers to that VLAN's MAC table: If the frame's source MAC address is in the MAC table. It sends it to a higher process if (any): The frame is a PTL2LBP frame. 82 . Layer 3 Routing Models .If that VLAN is configured. it can Send RIPv1 packets. If not.RIPv1 RIPv2 EIGRP How a router starts the RIP process The router generates a RIP request packet to be sent out all ports. Send broadcasts. it continues to process it. Send multicasts. If that VLAN is not configured.

ignore the route portion if the metric is now 16. If the packet contains information about a network that does not exist in the RIP database. it is added to the database. or Class E address. For existing routes. to the metric). • • The router sends regular updates every 30 seconds. The AFI is not the IP family. process it: Look through each RIP route portion of the packet (the portion from address family identifier. Set the next hop to the incoming port's address. How a router processes incoming EIGRP packets When a router receives an EIGRP packet (flowchart here): 83 . For new routes. Send the RIP response out the same port. If the packet is a request packet. which contains information about a route or the entire routing table (depending on the request). If it is. The packet's RIP version does not match the router's RIP version.How a router sends RIP updates There are two types of RIP updates: regular and triggered. Check the port to see if it is a passive interface. drop the packet. or AFI. Ignore any portions where (any): The metric is greater than infinity. the metric is set to 16. process the packet: Create a RIP response packet. The router sends triggered updates only when a route has changed or an interface changes state (up or down). Send out new and updated routes on the next triggered update. How a router processes incoming RIP packets When a router receives a RIP packet (flowchart here): • o o o o • o • o o o o o o o It drops the packet if (any): The incoming port does not have a valid IP address or is not RIPenabled. Class D. The packet came from the router itself. update it with the latest information. The update contains all of the information in the routing table. If the packet is a response packet. If a network already has an entry in the RIP database. A RIP packet can contain up to 25 RIP route portions. The source IP address is not from a directly connected network. If it is not a passive interface. It is a broadcast.

then it removes the acknowledged packet from the neighbor's output queue. If not. If there are not. If the sequence numbers are the same or the one on the packet is smaller than the last heard. o If so. then it processes the Update packet. it checks the sequence number on the packet and the neighbor's last heard sequence number. If not. If so. o If it is not enabled. It checks if the packet is an Query packet. then it processes the Hello packet (skip to next section). o 84 . then it drops the packet. When an EIGRP process receives an EIGRP packet: • • It makes the following checks and drops the packet if (any): The receiving interface does not have EIGRP enabled. It checks if there are any packets in the neighbor's output queue. then update the last heard. then the router drops the packet. o The receiving interface is passive. If so.• It checks to see if the EIGRP process for the autonomous system that is specified in the packet is enabled. it checks if the packet came from an existing neighbor. It checks if the packet is a Hello packet. It checks if the neighbor already exists in the neighbor table. then it processes the Rep o o When an EIGRP process processes a Hello packet: • • It checks if the Hello packet has matching K values as the EIGRP process. It checks if the packet piggybacks an Acknowledgment. it sends the packet to that EIGRP process. The packet does not come from the same subnet as the receiving interface. then it drops the packet. If so. then it processes the Query packet. Otherwise. If the packet did come from an existing neighbor: It checks if the packet is an Acknowledgment packet. If so. If so. o Otherwise. it removes the acknowledged packet from the neighbor's output queue. then it removes neighbor from the router's neighbor table. It checks if the packet is an Update packet. If the sequence number on the packet is larger than the last heard. o Otherwise. then it sends an Acknowledgment packet back to the neighbor. o If so. It checks if the packet is an Reply packet. then it updates the last-heard time and hold timer.

then reply the best route to the queried neighbor. o If the new best route is feasible. It sets the network to PASSIVE state. then it replaces the best heard in the reply table with the replied route. it add the new neighbor to the neighbor table. o If it is. It checks if the replied route is better than the best heard in the reply table. o If so. When an EIGRP process updates the topology table with a route: • • • • • Checks if the network is in ACTIVE state. When an EIGRP process processes a Reply packet: • • • It makes the following checks and drops the packet if (any): The replied route does not exist. then it adds all successors for the network to the routing table. It checks if the new best route is unreachable or there is no feasible successor. If so. then processes the last Reply packet to a query. It updates the topology table with the best route. The neighbor who replied was not queried. o 85 . and send a full update of its topology table to the new neighbor. o o o When an EIGRP process processes a last Reply packet to a query: • • • It replies to all queried neighbors with the best-heard route from the reply table. The network is not in ACTIVE state. it ignores the update. o If either is true. It gets the new best route and new best metric to the network. It checks if the replied route is the last expected reply. It gets the old best route and old best metric to the network. then it queries neighbors about the route. It adds the route to the topology table. then it removes the network from topology and routing table. If there is no neighbor to query. It checks if updating the topology table does not cause the process to query other neighbors. When an EIGRP process processes a Query packet: • • • It updates the topology table with the route in the query.o If not. If it does not. When an EIGRP process processes an Update packet: • It goes through all routes in the Update packet and updates the topology table.

The packet's destination MAC address does not match its own MAC address. Layer 4 Models How devices process UDP packets This procedure explains how a device sends and receives UDP packets. When the device wants to send a packet: o It encapsulates the payload with a UDP header. it sends out the ICMP. o It sends the packet to the lower layer for processing. If the packet contains the message "TTL Exceeded" or "Echo Reply." It checks to see if it has recently sent an ICMP message with the same identification as the received ICMP message.0 models the TCP process in a way similar to how it models the UDP process. it drops the packet. Layer 7 Models How DHCP clients processes incoming packets When a DHCP client device receives a packet: • • It drops the packet if (any): The packet is not a valid DHCP packet.Update neighbors. It then maps the local port information and sends the payload up to a higher layer (the application layer) for processing. it uses the information in the packet (including client IP address. If so. • • When the device receives a packet: It de-encapsulates it and examines the UDP header for port information. It does not accurately model the real TCP protocol. It checks the packet's DHCP type (its DHCP message). Layer 3 IP Models How devices process incoming ICMP packets When a device receives an ICMP packet: • o It checks the ICMP message contained in the packet. and o o 86 . server IP address. o o How devices handle TCP packets Packet Tracer 4. offered IP address. o If the packet is a DHCP-OFFER packet. If it cannot find the upper process based on the port information.

Other Models How routers process incoming packets (NAT process) When a router receives a packet: • It checks if the receiving port is a NAT outside port. 87 . If the packet is a DHCP-OFFER packet. TCP or ICMP to get the packet's source and destination port. If the packet is a DHCP-ACK packet.gateway address) to construct an DHCP-REQUEST packet and sends it back to the server. server IP address. and the gateway IP address from the packet and sets its IP address configuration accordingly. it gets the IP address. It checks the packet's DHCP type (its DHCP message). and gateway address) to construct a DHCP-REQUEST packet and sends it back to the server. It refers to the NAT table (using the global addresses) for the neccessary translation. it uses the information in the packet (including client IP address. How DHCP servers processes incoming packets When a DHCP server device receives a packet: • o • o o o It drops the packet if: The packet is not a valid DHCP packet. subnet mask. it will drop the packet. but the outgoing port of that route entry is the same as the receiving port. If the packet is not a DHCP-OFFER or a DHCP-ACK packet. If it finds a match for the packet (a translation exists): It replaces the inside address and port with the local version. It finds a route. It drops the packet if (any): There is no route. It translates the destination IP address and port o If the receiving port is not a NAT outside port. o If so: It checks to determine whether the packet is UDP. offered IP address. subnet mask. o If the packet is a DHCP-ACK packet. it gets the IP address. o If the packet is not a DHCP-OFFER or a DHCP-ACK packet. and the gateway IP address from the packet and sets its IP address configuration accordingly. it will drop the packet. or if it is a NAT outside port but the requested IP address is not in the NAT table: The router checks to see if there is a route to the destination IP.

Sends out the IP packet. o If a match exists. it sends a reply with the receiving port's MAC address. o If a match does not exist. Sends an ARP request out. For a UDP packet the timer is 5 minutes. it: Sets the packet's destination MAC address to the entry's MAC address. How routers process outgoing packets (NAT process) When a router wants to send a packet out a port: • It checks if the outgoing port is a NAT inside port. it sends a reply with the receiving port's MAC address. o How devices use ARP to send IP packets When a device sends an IP packet (flowchart here): • • • If the destination IP is a broadcast. If the destination IP is a unicast. If there is a route. it looks up the ARP table to see if the destination IP matches an entry's IP address in the ARP table. 88 . For a TCP packet the timer is 24 hours.If there is a route. it: Drops the IP packet. It captures the packet's source and destination ports and sets a timer for the packet (depending on the packet's encapsulation type). Adds that request to the list of ARP requests. Sets and starts the timer for it as it waits for an ARP reply. If so: It looks up its NAT table for the necessary translations. For an ICMP packet the timer is 1 minute. but the outgoing port of that route entry is the same as the receiving port. it sets the packet's destination MAC address to the multicast MAC address and sends the packet out. It drops the packet if (any): There is no route. If the destination IP is a multicast. it sets the packet's destination MAC address to the broadcast MAC address and sends the packet out. or if it is a NAT outside port but the requested IP address is not in the NAT table: The router checks to see if there is a route to the destination IP. It looks up the NAT table o If the receiving port is not a NAT outside port. It finds a route.

A request for the same IP address is already sent. it drops the packet. The packet's source IP is not in the same subnet as the receiving port's subnet. If the ARP table already contains an entry with the IP and MAC addresses found in the packet. The device is a switch and an active VLAN interface is not up. How devices process incoming ARP packets When a device receives an ARP packet (flowchart here): • • It drops the packet if (any): The receiving port is not up. Adds the request to the list of existing requests. Sets and starts a timer for this request. If the ARP table does not contain an entry with the IP and MAC addresses found in the packet. the device sends a reply with the receiving port's MAC address. refer to "How routers process ARP requests. If they match. o o o 89 . Drops the request from the list if time expires.How devices send ARP requests When a device wants to send an ARP request (flowchart here): • o o o • o o o o o o o It will NOT send the request if (any): The sending port is down. it checks to see if the packet's destination IP matches the receiving port's IP address. It: Constructs an ARP request for the IP address in question. it just resets that entry?s timer. If the above is not true. Sets the destination MAC address to the broadcast address. the device checks if it submitted a request for the IP address found in the reply. Waits for an ARP reply. The sending port does not have a valid IP address. If the packet is in the ARP request list: The device now removes the request from the list. If they do not match: If the device is not a router. Sends the request. o If the packet is an ARP request. it proceeds to process the packet: o It checks to see if the packet is an ARP request or an ARP reply. If the device is a router." o If the packet is an ARP reply. it proceeds with the ARP request. it will make a new entry with those addresses. If none of the above is true. It drops the packet if there is no such request in the list. That entry will be removed from the table when its timer expires.

CCNA4: These include concept builders (modeling problems). and troubleshooting problems relevant to Academy Course CCNA 4. o If the receiving port is not a NAT outside port. skill builders (procedural labs and skills exams). They are all categorized into the following folders: CCNA1: These include concept builders (modeling problems). and troubleshooting problems relevant to Academy Course CCNA 2. the router sends a reply with the receiving port's MAC address. design problems. skill builders (procedural labs and skills exams). design problems. It should not be confused with the Spanning Tree Protocol. but the outgoing port of that route entry is the same as the receiving port. and troubleshooting problems relevant to Academy Course CCNA 1. CCNA2: These include concept builders (modeling problems). the router checks the NAT table for the packet's destination IP. Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing. skill builders (procedural labs and skills exams). If there is a route. Networking Basics. WAN Technologies. It finds a route. If the receiving port is a NAT outside port. Some activities may have additional handouts in Word format. o How switches break loops Packet Tracer 4. Routers and Routing Basics. nonstandard algorithm to break Layer 2 loops. design problems. It drops the packet if (any): There is no route. or if it is a NAT outside port but the requested IP address is not in the NAT table: The router checks to see if there is a route to the destination IP. Included Activities The SAVES directory of Packet Tracer contains sample activities and network files. it sends a reply with the receiving port's MAC address. If the requested IP address is in the NAT table.How routers process ARP requests When a router receives an ARP packet (continuing from "How devices process incoming ARP packets"): • It checks the NAT status on the receiving port. and troubleshooting problems relevant to Academy Course CCNA 3. 90 . skill builders (procedural labs and skills exams). design problems. CCNA3: These include concept builders (modeling problems).0 uses a proprietary.

However. from 91 . Note: Personal Folders Users can create their own folders in the SAVES directory. Some instructors may want to give students a pre-existing topology via a .0 is limited due to fundamental changes in protocol modeling and GUI programming.? or ?Create a routing loop and show how the TTL field of the IP packet is decremented. Note: PT3.2 files loaded into PT 4. and ?Build a model demonstrating the behavior of ARP. other instructors may want to focus students on modeling a sequence of networks. Though this is often limited by the current device and protocol feature set of Packet Tracer 4. one at a time. CDP. For example. ask questions about those networks. especially device algorithms and networking protocols. to investigate the microgenesis of complex networking phenomena normally occurring at rates of thousands and millions of events per second. Concept Builders Concept builders are model-building inquiries and investigations leading to studentcreated explanations and animations of networking concepts.? Other prompts might include ?Build a PT network that compares and contrasts the behavior of hubs and switches. Given the open-ended inquiry nature of modeling.pkt file and focus students on different packet scenarios. Note that in general you will need to adjust both the GUI features (moving devices around) and configurations (via GUI and command line interface) of the PT 3.pka file. It is our hope that as you create your own Packet Tracer activities. They have no instructions. or EIGRP.? More complex modeling might be prompted by ?Model a network that you use at home or at work. One intended use for Packet Tracer 4. forwarding. and aging behavior of switches.2 files PT3. RIP.REFERENCE TOPOLOGIES: These are ?starter topologies? that were used for testing purposes.2 files can be used in PT4. the more they can learn from the tool.pka activity files. obtain access to important graphical representations of those networks. learning.2 topologies may still be useful as starting points. Classroom research has shown that the earlier users learn the basics of creating Packet Tracer networks from scratch.pkt files. but may be useful starting points for activities you would like to create. trace.? ?Demonstrate the building of RIP and EIGRP routing tables. Ver 3. animate those networks by adding their own data packets.2 program.2 files can be obtained from the Packet Tracer ver3. a simple concept builder prompt might be ?Illustrate the forwarding behavior of hubs? or ?Demonstrate the filtering. PT v3. The term "packet tracing" describes an animated movie mode where the learner can step through simulated networking events. flooding. you will consider sharing them with the Academy community.0.? ?How does switch behavior differ from router behavior??.0. reasonably sophisticated models can be built. ping.? ?Illustrate the behavior of ping with empty ARP tables on a LAN and across a WAN. Concept building problems are probably best written as blank or partially completed .pkt network files and . it is somewhat difficult to author an appropriate .0 but please note that the backwards compatibility of PT 4. and often leads to more questions and research projects. and finally annotate and save their creations.? Many users may want to model networks they encounter at home or at work. both . Model-building may be an effective way to learn many networking concepts.0 is for students to construct their own model or virtual networks.

or just for practice (similar to an e-lab. hopefully getting more out of their often limited time on real equipment. Office.pkt files with either integrated or printed instructions (handouts). Some instructors have students use Packet Tracer to verify the functionality of IP addressing schemes they have designed. translatable GUI) may also be relevant for contextualizing casestudy type design problems. after having worked on real equipment (as a post-lab review). or what some call a lab ?entry? ticket). but without as much structure). customizable device names. place note tool. isolating. routers. They may range from very simple (?devise a classful addressing scheme for a network consisting of 2 PCs and 2 routers?). The use of the . Skill builders may be also be authored as . and fixing the simulated network from a previously bugged network file.pkt files: given the open-ended nature of many design problems it may be difficult to author a ?graded? . City.pka activity because the current version of the activity wizard has no provision for determining equivalence between the mulitple correct answers that often occur in design problems. Hence students might create and test their lab configurations before attending class. Some instructors have students create designs in Packet Tracer and defend them in classroom ?design reviews? before allowing students to implement them on real equipment. to complex (doing large parts of the semester case studies in Packet Tracer). and clouds. Troubleshooting problems may range from simple (Ethernet speed and duplex mismatches. such as PC to PC. Troubleshooting Troubleshooting activities include diagnosing. Skill builders can be as complex as Packet Tracer versions of hands-on skills exams. and then on to more complex combinations of switches. and PC to switch. 92 . Some instructors have students present their Packet Tracer models to the class. ability to load background images. Within the limits of Packet Tracer modeling and supported command set. Skill Builders Skill builders support algorithmic problem solving in support of the development of networking procedural knowledge. PC to hub. simple skill building problems can include having students complete hands-on practical labs in Packet Tracer before working on real equipment (as a pre-lab. IOS configurations may be exported (as text files) for input into real switches and routers. and Wiring Closet views). For example.scratch. Skill builders may be authored as simple . IP addresses on the wrong subnet. and a variety of other annotation features (such as ?i? boxes for network and scenario descriptions. to intermediate (?devise a VLSM addressing scheme for a school with various classroom and administrative subnet needs?). Design challenges are probably best done as blank or partially-completed . for example. such configuration files may be imported back into Packet Tracer.0 (with its Inter-City.pka activity timer is particularly relevant for skill building activities.pka files with the configurable components specified in the grading tree. The physical mode of Packet Tracer 4. friendly competitions Design Challenges Design challenges are constraint-based problems with multiple correct solutions.

incorrect choices of cables. The use of the .pka-file activity timer is particularly relevant for troubleshooting activities. friendly competitions to see how efficiently students can repair a network. even very complex networks with thousands of potential configurable components can have a single bug introduced. For example. multiple interacting network faults).pka files with the configurable components specified in the answer network ( grading tree) of the Activity Wizard. 93 .pkt network files and . Precisely controlled troubleshooting situations may be authored as . incorrect routing updates. for example.pka activity files may be effectively authored for troubleshooting-type problems. Both . and fix that one bug to complete the activity. or missing clock settings on serial interfaces) to complex (improper VLSM schemes. isolate.pka activity authored which requires the student to diagnose. and a .