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Kidd and Frank-Jurgen Richter.fvkdyJ owfrw S af c:a0:aeMuygap? aocsmwm wpfcu k awmh jrefrmjynf[m orkid . &if.nSd NyD.tusdK.jf yefw Y iG u f s.f/ Plutocracy eJ Y Kleptocracy qk d w J h Plutocracy pum. Favouritism in Organization. a&.ypfwJh C av.u arG.[m tapmydkif.vH. (2003).vHk.qku d cf &UJ wmjzpfw.a'gufwm cifarmifndK)? http:^^www.f/tm&Sb@ma&.wmyg/tcGifh d muyk*v ¾ u d xl.f/7 'Dpum. Corruption eJh Complancey qkdwJUav.f cyfqifqifwlwJh tkyfcsKyfa&.com.rSm Crony udkc½dkeD? Cronyism udk c½dkeD0g'? Crony Capitalism udk c½dkeDt&if.csyaf y:rSm vwfwavm vlajymolajym trsm.aumif.vHk. aEG.D tckpmwef. H.udk zGiq hf &dk r.aeYajymif.pepf[m jrefrmjynfrmS wif r[kwyf gb.f&ygw.vnf. The American Interest. rSmawmh r½dk.f/10 ajym&&ifawmh tcGix wJh toH.ESD. zvS.cH0g'(favouritism)qkw tm½HkusrIay: rlwnfNyD.a wGvYkd qkv d w kd mygyJ/wpfcgwpfav acwf NyKd iaf wGuakd wmif c½dek v D Ydk oH. tusyftwnf.vdkh bmomjyefMuw.mufu wDxiG t f oHjk yKcw hJ mjzpfygw.t&m awGudk raqG.? 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(1) 'DaeYacwf jrefrmEkid if &H UJ Ekid if H a&.udk yxrqHk.udkavhvm r.&SifawG ay:aygufvmyHkeJY vuf&Sdtaetxm.jzpfaeovdk tjiif.f/ 'Dpum.qH.fjyefYygw. udq k v dk w dk myg/ 'Dvt dk cGit hf a&. jzpfay:wkd.jynfpD.f/ 5 Ekid if aH &.aqmifOD.l / . toHk.em..k taMumif.vHk.fh t"dyÜm.oufvmwm jzpfNy. rSmawmh jrefrmjynfrmS vuf&&dS adS ewJh c½dek D t&if. and Raggad.fvdkh ajymygw. Khronios uqif. &if.uGuf&JY NydKifqkdifrIoabmobm0udk zsufqD.mufu a0zef&if.&Sd&Sdr&Sd&Sd? bm oma&.ol .vku d w f hJ c½dek u D kd . 0g&Sifwef owif. James P.jzpf cJh&wJh taMumif. 11.f vkq Yd &dk r.wJholawGudk t&nf tcsif.rSm t"duaqG.ay. John B.&if.f uGJjym.http:^^progressiveliving.fxifygw.ajzmifhrIawG? tcGifhta&. 13.oGm. c½dkeDqkdwJUpum.eJo Y [ l m umv&SnMf umu wnf.fudk tusOf.&SifpD. Naresh Khatri. tcGifhta&.l cHpm. vHk.wufvmrItajctaeudk yGiv hf if.f/ (6) c½dkeDqkdwJhpum.yGm.Abdalla. (vlyk*¾dKvfawG) udk oD. Nepot uqif .fqkdwJhtjrifudk pwifajymqkdvmoluawmh EdkifiHawmfor®wpD.f/ axmufcHaqG.odyfrwGif us.? aemufxyfiaqGray:atmifomBuHq(a&. Naresh Khatri.aEG. bmomjyef[mc½dkeDqkdwmudkwdwdyyrxif[yfEkdifwJUtwGuf tckpmwef.a&. cHcJh&w. c½dkeDawGudk xdef.vHk. 'Dpum.yGm. jzpfaewmawGY&ygw.f/ c½dkeDqkdwm (4) c½dkeDqkdwJhpum.u pum. wmrsdK.D q 9 ufqHw. 6.vH.vHk.yGm.f oabmarQmfvifhwmrsdK.f eJh Cronies awGeJhEkdifiHopfpD.ol .awGu tjyKoabmaqmif ayr.yGm.4427.f / Nepot qdkwmuawmh ]]wlom.½Sdygw.awG ydkay. oabmawG ouf0ifwhJ rdwaf qGzrYJG yI pkH rH sKd .m.a&.olrsm.ajymif.poHk. (Jan^ Febr 2012) Issue.pm.554-70.ment pressures for fundamental reforms.cifrSmawmh t&ifqHk. taMumif.u Plutocracy qkdwm Rule by the rich qdkwJh t"dyÜm. twHkYtvS.fh 1997ckESpf aemufydkif. International Journal of man power 19: (1998).f usio f l 8 awGu oHk. R.fqkd&if c½dkeDrsm.udk wpfzufwpf vrf.wpfaxmifh wpfae&mu yg0ifw.f&ygw.fvhdk qkyd gw.awGMum.k jzpfaewJh c½dek D (Crony)1 qkw d t hJ aMumif.aqG&if.uGu&f YJ NyKd iq f idk rf o I abmobm0 vH.fvYdk uRr. B.rif.D .vHk.rsm.1999). Earth Times (16-28.[m vlwpfa.eJY ywfowfNy.b&pf*sf (Cambridge) wuúodkvf&JU bGJUvGef ausmif.zG.D wJrh w d af qG awGukd ac:a0:wmu aepw.f reD.ckyg/ tJ'D 4Cs aMumifh tm&Saps.fq&dk ifawmh cifAsm.ESifUukxHk.yGm.?(2)pm.htm. &mxl.vHk. oefcY NJG y.kH uawmh Nepotism qkw d hJ pum.tusyt f wnf.? pepfajymif.zdkY &nf½G. 10 Prendergest. p-63.w.&Sdovdk uefhuGufolrsm.f/ 4 'Dc½dek q t*Fvyd b f mompum.f ajrmif.k wpfv.vH k .rSm c½dek t D &if.ydkif.wlnDrsm.rm.rI taMumif.&SifpD.w. New York Times Magazine. 9.yGm. (January 21st. wmuawmh1946ckEpS rf mS yg/ tar&duef or®w½kpAJh (Roosevelt) [m tpdk.yGm.xkwf ay.org^plutocracy_defined.ES.f/ (5) c½dkeDt&if.vHk.l cH0g'qkd w.jrifU jzpfw.cJh&m upNyD.vHk.BuD.f/ (7) c½dkeD0g'qdkwJh pum.0if.f qkd&ifawmh 1997ckESpfaemufydkif.pepfqw dk hJ pum.aehurÇm&JY ae&m tEShHtjym.a&.k awGxufus.J ed'gef.&JY a&SYc&D. See also.f/ 3 rl&if.f oabmajzavsmrY I (liberalization) vkdYac:ac:? toGiful.f 0ifwhJ acwfajymif.pm.awG? tdE´d.udk ydkoHk.wlnDrsm.D tcGit hf a&. ouf v mwmjzpf w . olawGu pmrsuEf mS 17 odYk 1.udkavhvmMunfh zkdYvkdygvdrfhr.tmPmudk csKyfukdiftkyfpdk. Cronyism.fudkMunfUyg/ 3. Assessing the perception of human resource managers toward Nepotism: A crosscultural study.tzGJYacgif. NBER Working Paper No. ed. Left Out.&SifpepfvdkYyJ pum.f/ ajym&r.xuf ydkNyD.aqG.&Sifpepfuvnf.f u urf.u@pwJt h aMumif.k u c½dek D 0g'xuf t"dymÜ . James P.f u rdw&f if. (4Cs) &Sdw.wJhtjrifawGudk Oyrmjy&r. p.aqmif½Gufjcif.fjyefYayr.f/ t"duuawmh 1997ckESpf tm&Sb@ma&.D awG? awmifu&dk .udk .ltqudk axmufcHaqG.cJhwJh c½dkeD t&if.vHk.BuD.fayr. H. (jyKpkol.f/11 'Dpum. .awGudk pD.f/ Rule by the rich and for the rich qkdwJht"dyÜm.fvq Ykd Mdk u ygw.com wdkhudkMunfUyg/ uefYuGufwJhtjrifudk Oyrmjy&r.vH. awmh rygygbl.yg/ qdw k muawmh "etiftm.rSmjzpfygw.jzpfay:wkd.oGm.rSm&if.t&meJyY wf owfNyD.vH.f (Renaissance)acwftcgumvwkef.f/ tqkdygt.f/ (3) txufyg taMumif. t"dyÜm.zkdYvkd r.qH.f/2 tckpmwrf. C abd Topel.vH. National Bureau of Econo-mic Research.fqkd&ift"dutaeeJY c½dkeD0g' (Cronyism)? c½de k t D &if.fyNkd y.f/ Nepotism qkdwmuawmh vufwifbmom pum. Vogl qkdwJhynm&Sifuawmh tm&Saps.D b@ma&. (a&. W. Crisis stills apologists for corruption.cHukrÜPDBuD.D 'kw.ay: ayguf vmwmuawmh&aD eqGe.pGJ&Sdayr.udkMunfhyg) 'gayrJU 'Dpum.tjyefoabm (reciprocity)uda k rQmv f ifch sux f m.u taxmuftul jyKEdkifatmif toHk. wkdif. Safire.f/ aemufwpfcsuu f sawmh tJvt kd cGit hf a&.fxm.vnf.k toH. a&.u *sme.rSm t"dyÜm.t"dymÜ .pepf (Crony Capitalism) qk d w J h p um.jcm.OD.oGm.f xifygw.vJvmwJh acwfopf? p epfopf tajctaeawGeJY vkdufavsmnDaxGjzpfvmatmif xdef.m .u ykyf &[ef.eJY 'Dpum.pepfwpfck vnf.f/ 'DtwHkYtvS.k [m us.fqkd&ifawmU iuef.rm. olwkdYrSm xkduf oifw h hJ t&nftaoG. Dale.fh aemufydkif.fh aemufydkif.fjyefYjyefYoHk.wlnDrsm. (February 1st. udkawmh 1981ckESpfrSm wkdif.k avho.cs&r.kH cJyh gw.vHk. zlul./ jynfhpHkw.D rl&if. d wkjYH yefyu kH awmh c½dek D tvkrd &Sd qdw k w hJ jYkHyefyrkH sKd . (10 Aug.f/12 'Dom.foabmudk arQmf vifhcsufxm.wufrIrSm olwkdY&JU tcef.rMunfhbJ cefYtyfae&may.umv aemufydkif.*sme.f/ tJ'gawGuawmU Collusion.ygr.foHk.f/ (2) 'DaeYacwfjrefrmhEidk if aH &.ESpfvHk.pm.rSmudk awGYae&wJhpD.Ny.wlwef. The Oxford English Dictionary (1989) 7. Third Edition. yk*¾dKvfpGJxm. aumif.fvkdh qkdygw.fzGifhqdkcsufrS .f d w dk hJ oabmuawmh zGiq hf ydk gw. 0g'qkdwm[m c½dkeD0g'eJY t"dyÜm. avmurSm a&m? todynmavmurSmyg vlajymt rsm.f/ 'gayrJh c½dkeD0g'vdkrsdK.olOD.wif)? 'DvdIif.u aygif. ay. ay:xGufvmwm jzpfw. tusyt f wnf.ESpfvHk.u toHk.aqG&if. Magharabi.vif. A.k udk }}vdkY t"dyÜm.vH. G.&meJY jrefrmjynf wu.BuD.nd§wGJoHk.vmwJhrdwf&if.kH x&Sd D w dk phJ um.Bu. awGrSm oleJY&if.ltqMum.axmuf wpfa.k &JU tapm ydkif.aEG. R.rQ rqufqHbJ tcsdKUtzGJYtpnf.ay. a&. .armif0Ho)? jynfolYacwf*sme. (2003).avm urSma&m? todynmavmurSmygc½dkeD vdkYqkdvdkufwmeJYwkefYjyefyHk(2)rsdK. 'Dpum.wJh oabmvu©PmawG yg0if vmygw.&r.ygw.f (t*wdvdkufpm.xJukd 0ifa&mufvm wmuawmh 17 &mpkwek .rSm awmh us.&Sd aewmudak wGY &ygw.a&.mufeYJ c½dek jD zpfw.f/6 'Dpum.D us.rI (democratization) vdkYac:ac:? trnfemrawG b.fzGifhqkdcsufeJYawmh rvHkavmufbl.awGxJrSm rdwfaqG awG?tcGifhxl.” The American Heritage New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy.fqkdwJh tcsufaMumifh c½dkeD0g'qkdwmeJYtcGifhxl.k yJ jzpfygw.a&. with an expectation of reciprocity EkdifiHa&.wJt h cgrSmvnf. vH.awG[m olwdkY&JU wlawmf pyfolawGudk t&nftcsif. F.Modern Language Association(MLA): “nepotism.BuD. toHk.}}vdkY t"dyÜm.avh &Sd ygw.k 0ysuq f .f/ *syefu Keiretsu ukrÜPD tpkBu.cGi&hf wmrsKd . World Wide Words (2008) 5.vmrI (opening up) vkYd ac:ac:? vpfb&.t&mawGut kd "duxm. ay.vHk.&Sipf epf (Crony Capitalism)? c½d k e D (Crony)^ c½d k e D t&if.a&.vHk.fqkdwJh tjrifeJYwkefYjyefyHkjzpf Ny.Mu wm? tcGix hf .v f movdk ynmavmu&JU*½kjyKavhvmwmudv k nf.qkdif&m tcGifhta&.tajctaewpf ckukd a&muf&adS eNyq D w dk mygyJ/ 'Dvt dk ajc taeaemufcu H m.w.udk Naresh Khatri.u Chaebol ukrP Ü D BuD.aEG.oabm zGifhqkd&Sif.f/ 2.wmudk qkv d dk wJt h wGuf c½dek 0D g'xuf t"dymÜ .oyfcJhMuygw.yGm.D rm. Johnson and Zafar U Ahmed.&Sif (Crony Capitalist) qdkwJh toGiftjyif(3)&yfpvHk. ay. 2009).udk wef.? olw&Ydk UJ tem*wfvm.f usO. On Language: Crony Capitalism. Francis Fukuyama.vmwmudk awGY&w.

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A GreekEnglish Lexicon.pm.D yGm.a&.f &wJh (archo) qkdwmudk aygif."39% Say U.D aumif.pm.a&.½H.k ygMuwJY tkypf yk g/ jrefrmtkypf ak wGukd tul tnDay.k p&dwu f kd Bu.pkBuD.D tkycf sKyf &onfygyJ/ 'gaMumifY b. avhvmoHk. pmrsuEf mS 16 rS tquf EdkifiHa&.yGm.D rm. 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Stephen Haber.pm.rI udo k m tajccHí r&yg/ tar&duef awG[m .olu csucf si.&mrSm aiGxw k af cs. 'Da0g[m&&if. ? ppfa&. udkqkdvkdwmyg/13 tJvkdygyJ/ Kleptocracy qkw d muvnf.pD.\ tcsed Zf .lomG .oufvmMuwmyg/ Oligarchy qdkwmu (oligarkhía)uqif.aqmifjzpf vmNy.D yGm. ay:vpDukd csrw S Nf y.ESiaYf wGUonf/ or®wuawmf onf a':pkuk d tvGecf spcf ifav.pepf&JU jy.rSm uifwmuDu qDew d w f m wpfO.D [m &DywfbvDuefawGtyk pf .f/wu.xuf? ya&m*suw f ifpm. com/public_content/ business/general_business/january_2012.a&.yGm. awGuvnf.wmudq k v kd w dk .aecJ&Y w.f/ oabmobm0rSm ypön. pkrmS Burma Group tzGUJ 0ifrsm. Russell Andrus.tac:? pOf.vH.&NyD.u 'DaumfrwDu bwf *sufudk BuD.f/ tJ'guawmh'Jvufpfjynfe.yGm.D aiGacs.k & tqufquf 0atmif tkycf sKyNf y.f/ Oyrm. zdx Yk m. 20..f [m ay:vpDcsNy.ydkY&ma&mufonf/ w½kw\ f MoZmt&Sed u f akd vQm&Y ef vdkonf/ ynmwwftawG.ñTwMf u&yg awmYonf/ taMumif. d acgif. 2012).tmPmudkxdef. Colonial Policy and Practice.a&.umvESihf c½ked t D &if.udk vnf.& wmrdyYk g/ 'DaumfrwDrmS qdik &f m qyf aumfrw D aD wG &SMd uygw.onf/ ppfAv kd cf sKyaf [mif. wpfck&JUazmfjycsufqkd&if tar&d uefjynfol 39 &mckdifEIef.&Sipf . "etiftm.pmrsufESmopf pwifzGifh vSpfcJhwJh ukdvkdeDacwfuwnf.a&. qyf aumfrwDu EkdifiHjcm.rm.pkonf Ekifd if aH &.k avQmuf<um.&u0ifa&mufxdef.f ? Ekid if aH &.avh &SMd uygao. uRr.olrsm.oufvmwmjzpfNyD.udk rScD ckd &YJ ayonf/ þrS ya&m*sufEdkifiHa&. pepfqw dk mudk ]]ay:vpD csrw S af zmfaqmif wJEh idk if aH &.udk 'Dru kd a&pDtoGiaf jymif.w. Political Economy of Burma (1938)./ .oGm.f&wJh kratos udk aygif.wmyJ jzpfygw.Edik if aH &.f/ 'gaMumifY jrefrmEkid if t H wGuf ay:vpDukd tJ'q D eD w d w f mu qG.a&.(January 18.wJhpepfqkdwJh oabmrsdK. 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