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Cronyism udk c½dkeD0g'? Crony Capitalism udk c½dkeDt&if.vHk.a&.qH. 0g&Sifwef owif.htm. Favouritism in Organization. 9.zdkY &nf½G.a'gufwm cifarmifndK)? http:^^www.&½Hk.BuD.k 0ysuq f .uyHkEdSyfrD'D.k [m us.a&. yk*¾dKvfpGJxm. (February 1st. Left Out. R.cH0g'(favouritism)qkw tm½HkusrIay: rlwnfNyD.cs&r. a&. World Wide Words (2008) 5.f/tapmydik .f u urf.[m vlwpfa.yGm.k taMumif. udkawmh 1981ckESpfrSm wkdif.0g'qkdwJh bmomjyef[m 'Dpum.t&meJyY wf owfNyD.tjyefoabm (reciprocity)uda k rQmv f ifch sux f m.f/6 'Dpum.vHk.fawmh c½dkeDt&if.f 0ifwhJ acwfajymif. Khronios uqif.ay: ayguf vmwmuawmh&aD eqGe. The American Interest.f/ t"duuawmh 1997ckESpf tm&Sb@ma&.f reD. F.fvq Ykd Mdk u ygw.1998).rI jzpfoGm.k jzpfaewJh c½dek D (Crony)1 qkw d t hJ aMumif.vHk.odyfrwGif us.rI (democratization) vdkYac:ac:? trnfemrawG b.l cH0g'qkd w. aEG.rMunfhbJ cefYtyfae&may. zvS.rSm t"duaqG. International Journal of man power 19: (1998).rI (transition) vd k Y a c:ac:? 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(vlyk*¾dKvfawG) udk oD.vmwmudk awGY&w.u preferential treatment shown to select associates.vHk.f/ c½dkeDqkdwm[m vwfwavm jrefrmEkid if aH &.xuf ydkNyD. Business ethics: Asian Crisis stimulates establish.pG&J w dS ahJ emufpum.fomG . tusyt f wnf.org^plutocracy_defined.½Sdygw. ouf v mwmjzpf w . rSmawmh jrefrmjynfrmS vuf&&dS adS ewJh c½dek D t&if.vmMuyg w.awG[m olwdkY&JU wlawmf pyfolawGudk t&nftcsif. 8.f oabmarQmfvifhwmrsdK.fq&dk ifawmh cifAsm.tBuHay. 'Dpum.D tcGit hf a&.f&m taumif.rf(Times) r*¾Zif.eJo Y [ l m umv&SnMf umu wnf.fqkd&if c½dkeDrsm. Assessing the perception of human resource managers toward Nepotism: A crosscultural study.pGJ&Sdayr.udk yxrqHk.cifrSmawmh t&ifqHk.4427. Earth Times (16-28. (Jan^ Febr 2012) Issue.BuD. Corruption eJh Complancey qkdwJUav. NBER Working Paper No.vHk. tcGifhta&.f/ (3) txufyg taMumif.vHk. Nepot uqif . 10 Prendergest.a&. A Two-stage Model of Cronyism in Organizations in Corruption And Governance in Asia. S. t"dymÜ .yGm.u arG.com.f/ 2. Cronyism.fqkdwJhtjrifudk pwifajymqkdvmoluawmh EdkifiHawmfor®wpD..avm urSma&m? todynmavmurSmygc½dkeD vdkYqkdvdkufwmeJYwkefYjyefyHk(2)rsdK.tmPmudk csKyfukdiftkyfpdk.awGrSmawmh raumif. Francis Fukuyama.awmf pyfru I kd tajccHNy. cHcJh&w.tusyt f wnf.w.}}vdkY t"dyÜm.fvhdk qkyd gw.f vkq Yd &dk r.fvpf wpfa.ypfwJh C av.fqkd&ifawmU iuef.f/ 'DtwHkYtvS.vku d w f hJ c½dek u D kd .rSmjzpfygw. Dale.a&.pepf[m jrefrmjynfrmS wif r[kwyf gb. Kidd and Frank-Jurgen Richter.&SifpD.D wJrh w d af qG awGukd ac:a0:wmu aepw. .cGi&hf wmrsKd .ltqMum. oabmawG ouf0ifwhJ rdwaf qGzrYJG yI pkH rH sKd . Magharabi.oGm.om. wmrsdK.rI taMumif.f/ 'gayrJh c½dkeD0g'vdkrsdK. vHk.xkwf ay.ajymif.kH uawmh Nepotism qkw d hJ pum. H.&Sd&Sdr&Sd&Sd? bm oma&.u aygif.1999).vHk.wJholawGudk t&nf tcsif. udq k v dk w dk myg/ 'Dvt dk cGit hf a&.aEG.k toH.Abdalla.fuawmh ]]umv&Snf Mumaom}} vdYk t"dymÜ . toHk. Naresh Khatri.yGm.fvYdk uRr.vH.pm.D us.aqG&if. ay.fjyefYjyefYoHk. &Sdygao.eJYreD.eJY udkufnD oifhawmfr.qufqHcH&w.udk qkv d ydk g hf .qufqw H hJ yHpk rH sKd .D .fh aemufydkif. Johnson and Zafar U Ahmed ]] qdkwJhynm&Sif (3)OD.Modern Language Association(MLA): “nepotism.wJv h b l ufut wHt Yk vS.fh 1997ckESpf aemufydkif. &S&d rdS &S&d dS olrsm.f usio f l 8 awGu oHk. (a&.f/ qkv tm.Ny. G.f xifygw.fh t"dyÜm.f/ 3 rl&if.udkavhvm r.rm.olOD.f cyfqifqifwlwJh tkyfcsKyfa&.&Sipf epf (Crony Capitalism)? c½d k e D (Crony)^ c½d k e D t&if.f/ (5) c½dkeDt&if.pepf (Crony Capitalism) qk d w J h p um. Crisis stills apologists for corruption.f/ Vogl.yGm.f/ Plutocracy eJ Y Kleptocracy qk d w J h Plutocracy pum.fqkd&ift"dutaeeJY c½dkeD0g' (Cronyism)? c½de k t D &if. aumif. Johnson and Zafar U Ahmed.owJh vm.Bu.jrifU jzpfw.fvkdyJ owfrw S af c:a0:aeMuygap? aocsmwm wpfcu k awmh jrefrmjynf[m orkid .zkdYvkd r.f / Nepot qdkwmuawmh ]]wlom.yGm.udk . 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