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For the system with following loop gain,

KG ( s ) H ( s ) =

K ( s + 2)( s + 7)( s + 12)

1. sketch the root locus by step by step process (Page 371 Dorf Book) a. Find the jω crossing points and the gain, K, at the crossing points. b. Find the asymptotes' angles and their intercept with real-axis. c. Find all break-away (or/and break-in) points, if applicable. 2. Depict the closed loop poles on the Fig. 5 such that the closed loop system has a damping ratio of 0.54. 3. What would be the approximate damping frequency, un-damped natural frequency, for the selected poles in section-5.

Step-by-step Solution (Refer to Page 371, Dorf Book): Step-1: Characteristic equation (C.E.): KG ( s ) H ( s ) = 0 ⇒ G ( s ) H ( s ) =

1 ( s + 2)( s + 7)( s + 12)

- Open loop poles & zeros: Poles: s= -2, -7, -12 => n=3 Zeros: None => m=0 Draw open loop poles and zeros on the s-plane: - Number of separate branches = n = 3 (since n>m) Step-2: The line between -2 & -7 has only one (odd number) pole on its right. So, according to the "Rules of Root Locus" it is a part root locus. Likewise is for the line between -12 to infinity. It has three (odd number of ) poles to its right side.

Pole-Zero Map 20 Ploes 15

10

5 Imaginary Axis

0

-12

-5

-7

-2

-10

-15

-20

-25

-20

-15

-10 Real Axis

-5

0

5

300 n−m 3−0 q = 0. Construct the RouthHurwitz array from q(s) and then force one row to zero.1.2 Asymptotes are shown in the following Fig. .number of asymptotes: n-m=3 n m σA ∑ ( Finite − poles) −∑ ( Finite − zeros) = = n−m ∑ (− p ) −∑ (− z ) i =1 i i =1 i n−m = (−2 − 7 − 12) − 0 = −7 3−0 ϕA = (2q + 1) 2q + 1 180 = 180 = 60. q(s)= 0. case-3 (Entire row is zero). The roots of the auxiliary equation gives you the cross points with imaginary axis. This will give you the value of K at crossing point with imaginary axis. Pole-Zero Map 20 Ploes 15 10 5 Imaginary Axis 0 -12 -5 -7 -2 -10 -15 -20 -25 -20 -15 -10 Real Axis -5 0 5 Step4: (Do it by yourself.180. Construct the auxiliary equation from the immediate row above zero row as described in chapter-6.) Find the characteristic equation.Step-3: Asymptotes: .

0622i Damping: 1 Overshoot (%): 0 Frequency (rad/sec): 4.4e+003 Pole: 0.Root Locus 20 15 System: sys Gain: 2. 1 dK K= = ( s + 2)( s + 7)( s + 12).11 .11 is applicable to this case.11 10 5 Imaginary Axis 0 -5 -10 -15 -20 -25 -20 -15 -10 Real Axis -5 0 5 .11. = 0 ⇒ 3s 2 + 42s + 122 = 0 ⇒ s1.00114 Overshoot (%): 100 Frequency (rad/sec): 11 10 5 Imaginary Axis 0 -5 -10 -15 -20 -25 -20 -15 -10 Real Axis -5 0 5 Step-5: Determine the breakaway points at which the root locus goes from real axis to complex plane.0.11. the breakaway point is s=-4.0126 + 11i Damping: -0.89 G ( s) H ( s) ds Out of which the s = -4. Root Locus 20 15 System: sys Gain: 48.1 Pole: -4.−9. So. 2 = −4.

7i Damping: 0. 5: Root locus and grids for constant damping ratio and un-damped natural frequency.14 15 0. i.03 + 4.9 -15 0.ω n .543 Overshoot (%): 13. You can that there are three segment for root locus one red.14 0 5 -20 Fig.Step-6: Not applicable to this case since there no complex pole or zero. has damping frequency of ω d = 4.To find the closed loop poles for damping ratio of 0.1 Frequency (rad/sec): 5. Root Locus 20 0.54.8 0. .54 -10 Real Axis 0.97 -10 0.54 0.68 0. constant ζ . 6.5 red/s (look at the circles for constant natural frequency).9 10 0. another is green and the last one is blue.26 0. The pole for the above specs.e. 5.8 -25 -20 0.26 -5 0. we need to draw the radial lines from origin from which the damping ratio is constant.59 5 Imaginary Axis 0 25 20 15 10 5 -5 0.4 0.97 System: sys Gain: 299 Pole: -3.The pole at intersection.4 0.7 rad/s and natural frequency of ω n = 5.68 -15 0.

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root locus to find stability

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