3.1 Specific energy 3.2 Determination of normal depth using various method 3.3 Control Section 3.4 Rapidly Varied Flow (RVF) 3.5 Gradually Varied Flow (GVF)

The energy grade line, water surface and channel bottom are not parallel; that is,
Sf ≠ Sw ≠ So where;

Sf = slope energy grade line
Sw= slope of the water surface So= slope of the channel bed

Where. z is the elevation of the channel’s centerline y the water depth .

. For a given approach flow conditions of velocity and depth. the unknown depth y2. It arises quite naturally from a consideration of steady flow through a transition defined by a gradual rise in the channel bottom elevation. (shown in the figure1).Specific Energy The concept of specific energy as introduced by Bakhmeteff (1932) has proven to be useful in the analysis of open channel flow. after a channel bottom rise of height ∆z is of interest.

the energy equation combined with continuity can be written as E1 = E2 y1 + Q²/2gA1² = y2 + Q²/2gA2² + ∆z (4. If for the moment we neglect the energy loss. but it would be equally possible for the specific energy to increase in the flow direction by dropping rather than raising the channel bottom.Cont’ : Specific Energy v²/2g Q y1 y2 = ? ∆z Q EGL Figure 1 :Transition with bottom step The specific energy decreases in the flow direction.1) .

(The component of the gravity force in the flow direction is just balanced by the resistance boundary friction.) .1) y= depth Q= discharge A= Cross-sectional area of flow ∆z= z2 –z1 = change in bottom elevation from cross section 1 to 2 If the specific energy is defined as the sum of depth and velocity head. In uniform flow. (From Equation 4. it follows that the possible solutions of the problem for the depth depend on the variation of specific energy with depth. for example. A more formal definition of specific energy is the height of the energy grade line above the channel bottom. so that the specific energy is constant in the flow direction. the energy grade line by definition is parallel to the channel bottom.Where is.

a : Coriolly coefficient (non uniform velocity correction coefficient) Normally in an open channel. velocity head is av²/2g where as 'a' = 1.3) (4.36 From 'v = Q/A'.0 --> 1.4) .2) if bed of channel given as datum. so Equation 4. E = y + aQ²/2gA² (4.2 may be written as.Specific Energy Equation in Open Channel (Specific energy = energy of water per unit weight (water) at cross section which is measured from channel bed) Total of Energy = height + depth of flow + energy of velocity H = z + y + av²/2g (4. therefore.E = y + av²/2g note.

H = z + y + av²/2g (total of Energy) Z = potential head (distance from the datum to channel bed) Y = Depth of flow av²/2g = velocity head (energy of velocity) .2).av²/2g EGL = E H y z Datum Figure 2 :Non Uniform Flow schematic Ө From Equation (4.

q) may be written/defined in 2 conditions as below.0 and A = by (4.5 (energy. q = flowrate per unit width (m³/s/m) q = Q/b .5) that there indeed is a unique functional variation between y and E for a constant value of q. and it is sketched as the specific energy diagram.E and y if q is constant q and y if E is constant i) E and y if q is constant From Eq (4. depth of flow.E.5) E = y + q²/2gy² y³ – Ey² + q²/2g = 0 (4.4.y and flowrate. a = 1.6) It is apparent from Equation (4. E = y + q²/2gy² where.Considered square channel (prismatic and straight)from Eq 4.5) Equation 4. .

Specific Energy Diagrams (E-y) y D y B v²/2g (head of velocity) y > yc y yc 45º C A Emin y < yc o E = y + q²/2gy² .

.Specific Energy Diagrams y y2 yc y1 Emin Eo E *Note q is constant.

E is minimum i.T = 1 – av²/gD At critical point.dy dA/dy = T .4) E = y + aQ²/2gA² dE/dy = 1 .v²/gD =1 .Fr = 1) v²/2g = D/2 or v/√(gD) = 1 T dy dA = T. v < vc ==> Subcritical flow (steady) y < yc .a (Q²/2g)(2/A³)dA/dy dE/dy = 1 – a(Q²/gA³).e. (froude.T = 1 – (av²/gA). dE/dy = 0 therefore. specific energy is minimum and normal depth at this point is 'critical depth'. v > vc ==>Supercritical flow (turbulant) Differentiation of Equation (4. yc If y > yc .At C.

at critical condition ==>> Fr = 1 y = yc v = vc vc /√(g yc )= 1 vc²/2g = yc/2 From the schematic diagram. D = A /T = by/b = y Therefore.(E = min. Hydraulic Depth. y = yc ) E = y + q²/2gy dE/dy = 1 – q²/gyc³ = 0 q² = gyc³ yc = ³√(q²/g) (a) (b) (c) .For a rectangular channel.

5yc or yc =(2/3)Emin (d) The point of minimum E is found by setting dE/dy equal to zero. and solving for y. .q² vc ²yc² vc ² vc Emin Emin (e) = gyc³ but q = vy = vcyc = gyc³ = gyc =√(gyc) or vc ²/2g = ½ yc = yc + q²/2gyc² = yc +(g yc³) / (gyc²) = yc + yc√2 = 1. which is called the critical depth yc. y increases with E. while on the lower branch y decreases with E. The corresponding velocity V is called the critical velocity Vc. On the upper branch. The result is yc = 2E/3. The critical depth divides the energy curve into two branches.

7) .5) E = y + q²/2gy² q² = 2gy² (E .y) (4.y E constant y1 yc E yc=2/3E y2 q – y curve q qmax q ii) q and y if E is constant From Eq (4.

7): = 2g(Ey² – y³) = 3yc² = 1. 4. *Critical Slope = slope at critical depth. dq/dy q² = 2gy² (E . for the supercritical flow.5yc 2qdq/dy = 2g(E 2yc – 3yc² = 0 yc qmax² = 2/3E = 2gy² = 2gy² = gyc³ (E – y) (from Eq. value of S is high. Therefore. Subcritical and supercritical flow normally depend on the channel slope.y) 2ycE E =0 Differentiation of Equation (4. S. .5yc – yc) (g) qmax = √(gyc³) Note.At critical point.7) (f) (1.

vc = √(gyc) .5yc yc = ³√(q²/g) 'q' is maximum at E constant yc = 2/3Emin qmax = √(gyc³) Velocity head (vc²/2g) is one-half of critical depth. yc vc²/2g = yc /2 Critical velocity (vc).Critical flow criteria (square/rectangular channel) Fr = 1.0 'E' is minimum for 'q' constant Emin = 1.

critical flow will occur when Fr = 1. it will expressed as below. T (for all channels) =0 (4.dE/dy = 1 – (Q²/gA³).0.8) Q² T/gA³ = 1 .In general.

If F > 1. yc dependent only on Q. the Froude number =1 v gyc is known as the Froude Number.Froude Number. F If F = 1. y = yc and flow is critical. F is independent of the slope of the channel. . Fr and Flow classification q2/gyc3 = 1 Then. If F < 1. y > yc and flow is subcritical. at critical conditions. y < yc and flow is supercritical. vc2/gyc = 1 v gyc at critical conditions So.

Flow characteristics of flow in rectangular channels .

Critical Depth in non-rectangular channels .

Critical conditions for channels of various shape .


13) .. Q = z√g or Q = z√(ga) z = Q/√(ga) ===>> cross section factor for Non uniform Flow (4. D = A/T (4. therefore z = Q/√(ga) = A√D (4.z) If Fr = a.10) may be define as Cross Section Factor (z) for critical flow.8) : Q² /g = A³/ T or Z = Q /√g = A√D where.11) is use generally in critical flow analysis. (Where as A√D is cross section factor.11) Equation (4.10) Equation (4.9) (4.12) (4.Cross Section Factor for Critical Flow (Z) From Equation (4..

1. Determine the specific energy for this channel.5:1 and width of channel is 2m. Example 2 From example 4. if the channel is a trapezoidal channel with side slope is 1. Depth of channel is 1m. Determine the specific energy for this channel. .Example Example 1 Water flows in a rectangular channel with 5 m width and 8m³/s flowrate.

trial and error and graphical .Example: a) A wide and straight river was flows with 3. calculate the depth (y2) for the same specific energy. Calculate the critical slope if Manning’s Coeffcient is 0. there are 2 solutions. (Type of flow: sub critical or supercritical).6m.5m³/s/m flow rate. b) Refer to question (a). What is the value of critical depth? If normal depth is 4.035. calculate the Froude number for this flow rate. What is Froude number for this condition? *For (b).

6 = 0. v = q/y = 3.5/4.81] = 1.6) = 0.0.76m/s (answer) Froude Number at y = 4.08m At normal depth.76/√(9. Flow Velocity.y = 4. therefore .Solution: q = 3.81)(4.5m³/s/m yc = ³√(q²/g) = ³√[(3.113 (answer) Note: Fr < 1.6m.6 is.Fr = v/√(gy) = 0. flow in this river is subcritical flow .5²)/9.

012 or 1/86 (answer) .From Manning Formula: Q = AR(2/3)√S / n Note:for a rectangular channel.5 x 0.035 / (1. q = y(5/3)S(1/2)/n At critical flow in Non-Uniform flow. q= Q/b. for a very wide channel. R = y Therefore.08)(5/3)]² = 0.q = yc(5/3)Sc(1/2)/n Sc = (qn/yc (5/3))² = [3.

the value of y2 is smaller than yc.6)² = 4.6 + (3.Solution (3 b) : Specific Energy for y1 = 4.5)²/19.383 m .62 (y)²' E = y + 0.5)²/19. therefore.63m but E = y2 + q²/(2gy2²) Where as y2 THERE ARE 2 METHODS:= depth at the same specific energy Trial & Error Method y2 should be in supercritical flow.6 is : E = 4.62 (4.E <<<< E – y Curved Method Graph 'y' vs 'E = y+ (3. If y2 >>>> .624/y² y = 0 – 5 meter y = 0.

Determine the depths (y1 and y2) for the same flow rate and specific energy. .8.Example 4 A rectangular channel with 3m width flows water at 12m³/s flow rate when Froude number is 0.

8 y1 = 1.8 (4/y1)/√(9.366 + (4)²/2(9.366m (depth for subcritical flow.366)² = 1.8 (subcritical flow) v/√(gy1) = 0.803m Calculation for y2 at the same flow rate and specific energy E1 = E2 = y2 + q²/2gy2² 1.81)(1/3) = 1.803 = y2 + 0.81y1) = 0.Solution 4 Q = 12m³/s v= Q/A = 12/3y1 = 4/y1 If Fr = 0.81)(1.E1 = y1 + q²/2gy1² = 1.815/y2² = (4²/9. yc= (q²/g)(1/3) .y1) Specific Energy.177m ( as a reference for trial & error method) Critical depth.

02 m (depth at supercritical flow) .81 1.01 1.82 1.803 1.8 y2 = 1.Trial & Error Method:Y2 1 1.02 E = 1.

6 m. critical depth b.7 m3/s.Exercise 1. For the bottom width of 3. A trapezoidal channel with side slope of 2 horizontal to 1 vertical is to carry a flow for 16. -Trial and Error -Graph -Design Chart 2. calculate a. A trapezoidal channel designed with 6 m width and side slope 1:2. critical velocity using : -Trial and Error -Design Chart . calculate the critical depth when the flow rate is 17 m3/s using .

subcritical & supercritical) Gauge station – to get flow rating curve which represents the 'flowrate' vs 'depth' relationship for the channel.3. .3 : Control Section Control Section may be define as : A section where a certain relationship can be established between flowrate and water level. Q and h It also controls the flow so that it can prevent the changes of flow types from happening (critical flow.

dam. weir. Examples.Control point Point where depth of steady flow can be determined due to grade change. The change of slope from mild to steep Free drop Entrance point from reservoir to steep channel Outlet point from steep channel to reservoir Flow over weir . etc.

Assume this channel's slope is 0 degree (flat) and no roughness coefficient (subcritical flow). EGL q²/2gy1² q²/2gy2² E2 y1 q y2 E1 B ∆z A Broad Crested Weir .Presence of Broad Crested Weir A rectangular channel with width b (constant along the channel) flows with q m³/s/m.

y (Channel Bed) versus Specific Energy.Curve of Depth. E for the Presence of Broad Crested Weir y q (constant) y1 y2 yc C B A E = y + q²/2gy² A' 45º E2 ∆Z E1 E .

∆Z From that figure.E1 = E2 + ∆Z note:y1 + or E2 = E1 ∆Z = height of Broad crested weir v1²/2g = y2 + v2²/2g+ ∆Z . E1 > E2 (at point B) If y2 = yc . Specific Energy at point A. E2 = Emin . depth of water flow become lesser from point A to point B. therefore ∆z = ∆zc (critical flow and this broad crested weir represent as control point) .

At this point. At this point. for E2 and water depth above weir is constant. y2 become lower until one point (point C). Specific energy. ∆z = ∆zc. E2 become minimum and y2 turn to yc. E-y curve for same q can not be used because minimum point for this curve is achieved and E2 < Emin. flow is critical and weir known as control point. E1’ = Emin + ∆z . If the height of weir increase greater than (∆z > ∆zc).If the weir increase more than before. E1 not enough for same q. yc so ∆z move to right side from point C. Therefore. specific energy will be decreased and water depth.

The depth at the upstream called backwater situation.In this condition. At the downstream of the weir supercritical flow will be happened. . total flow at point A cannot flow over weir but maintain at the back of the weir. This condition called ‘choke’ and water depth at the upstream is increase.

Example 5 Water flows uniformly at 15m³/s in a rectangular channel with 3 m width and 2. If broad crested weir is constructed. calculate the minimum height of this weir which can cause critical flow above the weir (critical depth).5 m depth.5 yc + ∆Zc . Solution:E1 = Emin + ∆Zc = 1.

it can be use as a flow gauge (use depth at upstream) . a) Determine the critical depth b) How the broad crested weir height effect the normal depth at the upstream and downstream of channel (assume no energy loss) c) Shows that.25 m. if broad crested weir in critical condition.Example 6 A rectangular channel with 5 m width. constructed on a mild slope conveying 8 m³/s and the normal depth is 1.

Examples of Weirs .



For same Q : Q = q1b1 = q2b2 q1 = Q/b1 q2 = Q/b2 b2 < b1 therefore q2 > q1 .Change of channel’s width (Narrowing channel) The similar concept like weir will be applied in this topic but the relationship between q-y is used because the width of channel will be changed and q also.

Plan Side plan .

5yc and yc ‘ = ³√(q’²/g) = ³√(Q²/b’2g) . b2 become minimum and q is maximum at same specific energy. When the channel’s become smaller. Therefore. y1 increase for E’.At critical point. the depth at upstream. E’ for critical depth yc’. E1 do not enough to support q so E1 need to increase for achieve suitable specific energy. y1’ + q1²/2gy1²’ = E’ y1’+ Q²/2gb1²’y12’ = E’ where E’ =1.

the structure will be controlled flow at upstream and this structure called venturi flume. .5y’c If control situation happened. b’ < bmin and specific energy at upstream E’ = 1. if E’ > E1.Therefore.

Example of flume .

The width will be decreased at downstream.0m width.2 m . Determine the maximum width for critical flow obtained at this part (downstream) b.Example 7 A rectangular channel flows at 3 m3/s with 2.8m. a. Calculate the depth at upstream (before throat) if the throat is 1. The normal depth is 0.

8 m depth. If one part of the channel was narrowing. calculate the maximum width of narrowing that can obtain critical water depth. .Example 8 The water flows uniformly at 16.5 m3/s in a rectangular channel with 3.0 m width and 1.

61 m.Example 9 A rectangular channel with 3.0 m at velocity 3. If the channel bed increase at 0. how much the width will be increased for maintain the same flow at the upstream? .0 m width and water depth 3.0 m/s.

1 Hydraulic Jump Types and Uses 3. Dissipated Energy and Power 3. Conjugate Depths.3.4.2 Momentum Principle.3 Length and Location of hydraulic jump .4.4 : RAPIDLY VARIED FLOW 3.4.

Net force= rate of change of momentum For RVF. if losses are unknown.Rapidly Varied Flow Developed mainly at hydraulic structures and most of the related problems can be solved by using the continuity equations and energy principles provided that the energy losses are known However. the momentum principle must be used. the momentum equation will be introduced in the context of the HYDRAULIC JUMP (an important phenomenon in open channel flow and an example of RVF – stationary surge wave) .

Flow in Open Channel Steady Flow Unsteady Flow Time Uniform Flow Non Uniform Flow Space Rapidly varied Flow Gradually Varied Flow The following classification is made according to the change in flow depth with respect to time and space. .

which implies that the depth does change with time ( y/ t ≠ 0) Space a flow can be classified as being: Uniform – if the depth of flow does not vary with distance ( y/ x = 0) Non uniform (varied flow) .The primary criteria of classification is the variation of the depth of flow y in time. x. t and space. Time a flow can be classified as being: Steady .if the depth varies with distance ( y/ x ≠ 0) Rapidly varied – the depth of flow changes rapidly over a relatively short distance such as is the case with hydraulic jump Gradually varied – the depth of flow changes rather slow with distance such as is the case of a reservoir behind the dam Next .which implies that the depth does not change with time ( y/ t = 0) Unsteady .


4.3.1 Hydraulic Jump: Types and Uses Hydraulic jump analysis is the most common application of the momentum equation in open channel flow. always is accompanied by a significant energy loss. The hydraulic jump. A hydraulic jump primarily serves as an energy dissipator to dissipate the excess energy of flowing water downstream of hydraulic structures such as spillway and sluice gate. . an abrupt change in depth from supercritical to subcritical flow.


Hydraulic Jump A hydraulic jump occurs in the transition from supercritical to subcritical flow. The intense turbulence in the jump cause mixing and energy dissipator. The hydraulic jump is often used down stream of spillways and drop structures to dissipate energy and prevent erosion in the downstream channel .


supercritical subcritical hydraulic jump .

one two three four .

. the water surface shoes undulations. Fr.4. For Fr = 1. . For Fr = 1 to 1.3. These types can be conveniently classified according to the Froude number. and the jump is called undular jump. and hence no jump can form.1 (a)Types of Jump Hydraulic jumps on horizontal floor are of several distinct types.7. the flow is critical. .

For Fr = 2.For Fr = 1.5 to 4. Each oscillation produces a large wave of irregular period which. .5. . there is an oscillating jet entering the jump bottom to surface and back again with no periodicity. This jump may be called weak jump. This jump may called an oscillating jump. and the energy lost is low. very commanly in canals. .7 to 2. a series of small rollers develop on the surface of the jump.5. The velocity throughout is fairly uniform. but the downstream water surface remains smooth.

The energy dissipation ranges from 45 to 70%. the downstream extremity of the surface roller and the point at which the high velocity jet tends to leave the flow occur at practically the same vertical section. The action and position of this jump are least sensitive to variation in tailwater depth.0 and larger.5 to 9. This jump may be called a steady jump. . generating waves downstream. and a rough surface can prevail. This jump may be called a strong jump. . . The jump is well-balanced and the performance is at its best. For Fr = 9. the high-velocity jets grabs intermittent slugs of water rolling down the front face of the jump.For Fr = 4.0. The jump action is rough but effective since the energy dissipation may reach 85%.


since the effective head will be reduced if the tailwater is allowed to drown the jump . weirs. it is used.4.3. and other hydraulic structures and thus prevent scouring downstream from the structures To recover head or raise the water level on the downstream side of a measuring flume and thus maintain high water level in the channel for irrigation or other water-irrigation or other water-distribution purposes To increase weight on an apron and thus reduce uplift pressure under a masonry structure by raising the water depth on the apron To increase the discharge of a sluice by holding back tailwater.1 (b) The use Practical Applications of the hydraulic jump are many.To dissipate energy in water flowing over dams.

To indicate special flow conditions.. such as the existence of supercritical flow or the presence of a control section so that a gauging station may be located To mix chemicals used for water purification To aerate water for city water supplies To remove air pockets from water supply lines and thus prevent air locking..Cont'd. .

Flat channel bed Uniform channel cross section Uniform velocity and water depth Ignore the stress at channel surface Frictionless Hydraulic jump occurs at short distance Momentum for water flows in the channel section per unit time (N) From Newton Second Law. the changing of momentum per time equal to combination of external forces ∑F = wQ(v2 – v1)/g M1 = M2 .2 Momentum Principles. There are several assumptions.3.4. Dissipated energy. Conjugate depth. Power Relationship between hydraulic jump equation and momentum equation.

∆E = E1 – E2 ∆E = (y2 – y1)3 /4y1y2 Power dissipated or obtained from jump.Hydraulic Jump Height/Depth (the different of height before & after hydraulic jump) . P = gQ ∆E (in W) (in m) (in m) . yj =y2 – y1 (in m) Conjugate Depth (determine the depth before & after hydraulic jump) y1/y2 = ´ (√1 + 8 Fr22 – 1) (in m) y2/y1 = ´ (√1 + 8 Fr12 – 1) (in m) Energy Loss from jump (into heat).




Calculate the height of hydraulic jump and the power dissipated. . 28.Example 1 At the bottom of spillway. a rectangular channel with 30 m width. The hydraulic jump is immediately (abruptly) occurred.96 m. the velocity of flow.2 m/s and depth before jump is 0.

Determine the energy loss and power dissipated in this situation. Normal depth before jump is 0.6 m.6 m width.Example 2 In a rectangular channel with 0. hydraulic jump occurs when Froude Number is 3. .

What is the head loss due to the jump? .0 m/s and 0.3 m respectively. If the velocity and the depth before the jump are 8.Example 3 A hydraulic jump is formed in a rectangular channel conveying water. calculate the depth after the jump.

Determine. The downstream depth of flow The energy (head) loss in the jump The upstream and downstream velocities Power dissipated .Example 4 Water flows at a rate 20 m3/s through a rectangular channel 4 m wide from a ‘steep channel’ to a ‘mild channel’. The upstream depth of flow is 1. creating a hydraulic jump.2 m.

The flow depth and velocity before the jump are 0. the flow depth and the Froude number after the jump the head loss and the dissipation ratio the wasted power production potential due to the hydraulic jump . respectively.8m and 7m/s. Determine.Example 5 Water discharging into a 10m wide rectangular horizontal channel from a sluice gate is observed to have undergone a hydraulic jump.

4.3.3 Hydraulic Jump Positions Length and location of Hydraulic Jump Hydraulic jump will be occurred when y0S < yc < y0M or y1 < yc < y2 .

n=0. The Manning’s coefficient.0016. At one point. Determine.015 to 0.Example A rectangular channel 3m width carries water at 12m3/s. Is the hydraulic jump occurs? The position of the jump (if its occurred) Power dissipated . the slope changes abruptly from 0.013.

3.5 : Gradually varied flow (GVF)
Computations of depths in a GVF
3.5.1 3.5.2 Computation of GVF by numerical integration Computation of GVF by direct step method


Cont’ : Gradually Varied Flow
We will discuss the gradually varied flow, which is the steady flow whose depth varies gradually along the length of the channel
EFFECT OF BED SLOPE AND CHANNEL FRICTION For a RVF, the influence of bed slope and channel friction was not mentioned and assumed that frictional effects may be ignored. (as changes take place over a very short distance) However, in GVF, bed slope and channel friction are very important and they actually determine the flow regime.

For a given specific energy or discharge, there are two possible flow depths at any section of a channel. Solution to the manning equation results in only one possible flow depth (normal depth)
For a given channel and discharge, normal depth; manning’s equation Critical depth;


q g




For a given channel chape and roughness, only one value of slope will produce the critical depth and known as critical slope (Sc)


.Classification of Open-Channel Flows Obstructions cause the flow depth to vary. Gradually varied flow (GVF) occurs over larger distances and usually connects UF and RVF. Rapidly varied flow (RVF) occurs over a short distance near the obstacle.

and inertial effects To derive how the depth varies with x. Now. and the free surface is stable In contrast to uniform flow. shear force.Sf S0. y and V vary slowly. flow depth reflects the dynamic balance between gravity.   In GVF. consider the total head .

z y dz dx dy dx v / 2g dv 2 g dx 2 2 dH dx Where H = total energy head z = elevation head. H Take derivative. as a function of x. total energy.Let’s evaluate H. v2/2g = velocity head .

Slope dH/dx of the energy line is equal to negative of the friction slope Bed slope has been defined Inserting both S0 and Sf gives .



Characteristic of Flow Profile The dynamic equation of GVF developed expresses the longitudinal surface slope of the flow with respect to the channel bottom. Assume the channel is prismatic . It can be used to describe the characteristics of various flow profile or profile of the water surface of flow.

ve) . Backwater curve if the depth of flow increases in the direction of flow (dy/dx = +ve) Drawdown curve if the depth of flow decreases in the direction of flow (dy/dx = .The flow profile represent the surface curve of the flow.





Numerical Analysis of Water Surface Profile There are several method to obtain surface water profile.  Depth (y) at some distances/lengths (L/x)  Distances/lengths from one point to one point when both depth are known .  Direct Integration  Numerical Integration  Direct Step Method  Graphical Integration  Numerical/Computer Methods Those method can identified.

5. all equation before can rewrite in finite diference.3. For any prismatic channel dy dx y x 1 Ko K So 1 Q 2 T gA3 2 x y 1 So 1 Q 2 T gA3 Ko K 2 For rectangular channel dy dx x y x So 1 1 Ko K yc y 3 3 2 y 1 So 1 yc y Ko K 2 .1 : Numerical Integration For this method.

therefore ∆x = length for each reache = L / no of reaches ∆y = the change of water depth in each reach (yi+1 – yi) y = average for water depth in each reach (yi+1 – yi)/2 .For very wide rectangular channel x x y s y s 1 yc y 1 yo y 3 3 Chezy 3 1 yc y 1 yo y 10 3 Manning If the channel length (L) divide by several small distances /lengths. it can call reach (∆x).

001 and n= 0.025.5 m3/s/m with channel bed slope. Show your calculation until level 4 only. . 0. Find the length of back water which is happened from one dam and obtained the 2 m water depth at the dam’s back. The calculation must from the dam to upstream until the water surface is 1% higher than normal depth.Example The very wide rectangular channel carry the water at 2.






3.5.2 : Direct Step Method In general. The direct step method is a simple step method applicable to prismatic channel. a step method is characterized by dividing the channel into short reaches and carrying the computation step by step from one end of the reach to the other. .








013 Determine the flow rate of this channel if the water depth is 1.Exercise A rectangular channel was designed. Sketch the M1 profiles clearly.26m for this channel. Channel bed slope = 1:1500 Manning’s coefficient = 0. calculate the distance which is the water depth change from 1. A weir constructed at the downstream and the M1 profiles was obtained at the back of the structure. Using the Numerical Integration Method (3 Level).5m to 1.5m to 1. .2 m.26m for this channel using Direct Step Method. The calculate the distance which the water depth change from 1. Width = 3 m.

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