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Retaining Wall Design Example

# Retaining Wall Design Example

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# CE 437/537, Spring 2011

Retaining Wall Design Example

1/8

Design a reinforced concrete retaining wall for the following conditions. f'c = 3000 psi fy = 60 ksi
HT = 18 ft

surcharge = qs = 400

psf

Fill: φ = 32o Unit wt = 100 pcf

tf wtoe tstem wheel Natural Soil: φ = 32o allowable bearing pressure = 5000psf

Development of Structural Design Equations. In this example, the structural design of the three retaining wall components is performed by hand. Two equations are developed in this section for determining the thickness & reinforcement required to resist the bending moment in the retaining wall components (stem, toe and heel). Equation to calculate effective depth, d: Three basic equations will be used to develop an equation for d.
M u = φM n a⎞ ⎛ M n = As f y ⎜ d − ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ a⎞ ⎛ M u = φAs f y ⎜ d − ⎟ [ Eqn 1] 2⎠ ⎝ C = T , 0.85 f c' a b = As f y As = 0.85 f c' ab fy [ Eqn 2]

strain compatibility :

0.003 ε s + 0.003 a 0.003 = , = β1 a / β1 d d ε s + 0.003

Assuming β1 = 0.85, εs 0.005 0.00785 0.010
a = 0.235, a = 0.235 d d

a/d 0.319 0.235 0.196

and choosing a value for εs in about the middle of the practical design range,
[ Eqn 3]

CE 437/537.71 in d 2 Equation for area of reinforcement. the top-of-wall elevation is determined by the client. The bottom-of-wall elevation is determined by foundation conditions. 2. Estimate thickness of base. k M u = 0.07 (18' x 12"/') = 15. As. Texas) 1. and b = 12in (1-foot-wide strip of wall.85) 3ksi (12 in )(0.1" use tf = 16" . 1: M u = φ As f y 0.7 ksi As d Design Procedure (after Phil Ferguson.883d = 0.90(0. Usually.85 c ab ⎟ f y ⎜ d − ⎟ ⎜ fy ⎟ ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝ ⎠ And substituting Eqn.90 As 60 ksi 0. Spring 2011 Retaining Wall Design Example 2/8 Substituting Eqn. 2 into Eqn.235d b f y ⎜ d − ⎟ fy 2 ⎠ ⎝ 0. in the direction out of the paper).235)(0. tf ≈7% to 10% HT (12" minimum) Tf = 0. 1: ⎛ f' ⎞ ⎛ a⎞ M u = φ ⎜ 0. Determine HT. 3 into the above: M u = φ 0.883 d M u = 47.85 f c' 0.883)d 2 M u = 5. HT = 18 feet.883d Inserting the material properties: f'c = 3 ksi and fy = 60 ksi. The area of reinforcement required is calculated from Eqn. Univ.235 d ⎞ ⎛ 0.

9 k − ft 3 2 k in 5.71 Mu = d2 k in ) = 5.5in 65.CE 437/537. d: Pfill = 1 ( k a γ h ) h (1 ft out of page) 2 1 − sin φ 1 − sin( 32 o ) ka = = = 0. The stem is a vertical cantilever beam.71 in d 2 .8in ft 1 t stem = 11.67 ft ) 2 (1 ft ) = 4310 lb 2 Pfill = Psur = k a q sur h (1 ft ) = 0.67 ft in in/ft h tf = 16in wtoe tstem wheel ka γ h ka qs calc.0 in ) = 14. Design stem (tstem.8in + 2 in cover + (1.67 ft 16.31)(100 pcf )(16.31 1 + sin φ 1 + sin( 32 o ) 1 (0. Asstem).31 ( 400 psf )(16. acted on by the horizontal earth pressure.6)(2070 lb )( ) = 65. Spring 2011 Retaining Wall Design Example 3/8 3.9 k − ft (12 use t stem = 15in .6)(4310 lb )( ) + (1.67 ft )(1 ft ) = 2070 lb h h M u = ( Earth Pressure LoadFactor)( Pfill )( ) + ( Live LoadFactor)(Psur )( ) 3 2 16. d = 11. ( assume #8 bars ) 2 in in in d = 15 − 2 − 0.5 = 12. h = 8 – 16 /12 ft h =16.3in .67 ft M u = (1.

Use a key to force sliding failure to occur in the soil (soil-to-soil has higher friction angle than soil-to-concrete).67 ft )( wheel )(1 ft ) = 1670 Wstem = (150 pcf )(16.33 ft of wall 0. 2 ft bar in 1. Choose Heel Width. Spring 2011 Retaining Wall Design Example 4/8 calc. Fresist = Fsliding FS FS = Factor of Safety = 1.13 .7 ksi As (12. As = 1.79 in 2 in 2 in in bar 12 = 7.CE 437/537.31 × 400 psf )(18 ft )(1 ft ) = 2230 lb Fsliding = 5020 lb + 2230 lb = 7250 lb . Neglect soil resistance in front of the wall.9 k − ft (12 in ) = 47.62 WT = W fill + Wstem + W found 15in 18 ft 12in Fresist = (Vertical Force)(coefficient of friction) tf = 16in W fill = (100 pcf )(16.5 for sliding set Fresist = WT (tan φnatural soil ) tan φnatural soil = tan(32 o ) = 0.31 × 100 pcf )(18 ft ) 2 (1 ft ) = 5020 lb 2 = (0.67 ft )( W found lb wheel ft 12 in + 15in 1 ft (1 ft ) = 2810 lb in 2 12 ) 16 15 = (150 pcf )( ft )( wheel + ft + 3 ft )(1 ft ) = 200 plf wheel + 850 12 12 Fsliding = Pfill + Psur Pfill = Psur 1 (0.33 in 2 ft As of one #8 bar = 0.5in ). wheel Select wheel to prevent sliding.7 ksi As d 65.79 use #8 @ 6 in 4. As: M u = 47.

= = 1.35 k = 17.5 lb 7250lb = 3660lb + 1870 wheel . Spring 2011 Retaining Wall Design Example 5/8 ⎡ lb lb lb lb ⎤ ⎢1670 ft wheel + 2810 + 200 ft wheel + 850 ⎥(0.53k 2.5 ft + − 5.25 ft ) = 29.CE 437/537.23k (9 ft ) = 50. σ v at end of toe = WT = W fill + Wstem WT M L + .02 k (6 ft ) + 2.67 klf × 7.47 > 2.5 ft )(8 ft ) + ( 2.5 ft 5. wheel = 7.42 ft .85k )(5. Check Overturning.5 ft 1.2 k − ft = = 2.75 ft L = = 1.2 k − ft 6.81k + 2.62 ft use wheel = 7. equation is valid only if e < bL bL2 6 6 + W found WT = 12. OK M over 50.625 ft ) + (0.2 k − ft 12in 18 ft M resist = W fill ( M resist 7. 0.53k ( 2.69 k M = M over − W fill (5.75 ft + W found ( ) 2 = (1.875 ft ) + W found (0) 2 2 − 12.96 ft . Check Bearing.81k )(3.875 ft − M = 50.5 ft + 0.35k tf = 16in M resist = 124. OK k WT 6 6 6 17.68 ft .5 ft 15 + ft + 3 ft ).69 .25 ft + Wstem (3 ft + ) 2 3' 15" 7.2 k − ft M resist 124.875 ft ) 12.5' 11.20klf × 7. assume wtoe = 3 ft 2 12 1. ∴ e < .9 k − ft L 11.5 1.9 k − ft Check that e < L/6: e= m 29.81k ( 2.0 = FSover . M over = P fill ( M over 18 ft 18 ft ) + Psur ( ) 3 2 = 5.2 k − ft 7.45 k + 2.125 ft ) + 2.25 ft ) + Wstem (7.62) ⎦ 7250lb = ⎣ 1.

88klf (7. d = 21.9 in for shear.7 ksi As (21.5 ft in wu L2 2.5 in in 81.0in for flexure ft in M u = 5.6 k φVc = (0.88 Mu = klf 16 ft )(1 ft ) 12 + 1. ft in 2 1. OK 7.69 k (1 )(11.83 in .4 in (assume #8 bar ).71 Shear: Vu = wu (7. Heel Design.6( 400 plf ) W = 2.75 ft ) 2 6 6/8 σv = 17. Flexure: W = Wheel + W fill + Wsur W = 1.0 k − ft (12 ) = 47.5 ft ) = 2.2(100 pcf )(16. d = 13.07in 2 ft in 2 0. 21.71 d 2 . load on heel is due to the weight of heel + fill + surcharge as the wall tries to tip over. controls Shear controls the thickness of the heel. As = 1.67 ft )(1 ft ) Vu Mu wu 16 7.75) 2 f c' bw d = (0.07 ft use #8 @ 8" . Max.80 ksf < 5.7 ksi As d use t heel = 21.75 ) ft ft + = 2.88 klf (7. 1 t heel = 21.9 in + 2 in cover + in = 24. 2 Reinforcement in heel: M u = 47.0 k − ft 2 2 k 2 d in in k 81.79 bar (12 in ) = 8.9 k − ft 1 ft (1 )(11.0 k − ft (12 ) = 5.5 ft ) 2 = = 81. Spring 2011 Retaining Wall Design Example 29.75) 2 3000 psi (12 in ) d setVu = φVc .600lb = (0.75) 2 3000 psi (12 in ) d .0 ksf = allowable bearing capacity.2(150 pcf )( + 1.5 ft ) = 21.9 in ).CE 437/537.

24 ksf )(3 ft − ft )(1 ft ) = 6.74 ksf + 4. d for flexure controls .125 ft + Wstem × 1.25' 7.2 12.0k − ft [ ] σv = σ vA 32.8k − ft 2 2 3 k 2 d in in k 19.74 ksf 11.35k ) + 1. (did not recalc foundation wt b. d = 6.2 k − ft ) − 1.6(50.82 ksf (8. d = 21.6(0.96ksf = 4.82 ksf A B C σ vC = 2.2(Wsoil × 2.75 ft ) = 3.CE 437/537.00 ksf )(3 ft )(1 ft )( 3 ft ) = 19.5in for flexure ft in M u = 5.82 ksf 18 (8.75 ft ) 1 (1 ft )(11.78ksf σ vB = 0. Earth Pressure at Tip of Toe: Wu Mu ± bL 1 2 bL 6 Wu = 1.5' M u = 1.75 ft d for flexure: M u = (3.7 k .53k + 2. OK .24 ksf ft 12 11. neglible change) M u = 1.5" – 3"cover-1/2"=18" σ vcritical sec tion = 0.75 ft + ft ) = 4.78 + 1.7 k 45.96ksf = 0.82 ksf + 4.81k + 2.82 ksf + 4.6 M over − 1.0 ft ) 3' 1.4 ksf )(18 ft )(1 ft ) = 32. Spring 2011 Retaining Wall Design Example 7/8 8.125 ft ) + 2.53k ( 2.81k (1 ft ) = 45.750lb > Vu .2(W fill + Wstem + W found ) + 1.6 (Wsur ) σv = Wu = 1. Toe Design.75 ft ) 2 6 ksf = 2.71 d 2 .c.71 d for shear: Assume theel = ttoe = 21.74 ksf − 0.75 Vu = 1 18 ( 4.74 ksf − 0.8k − ft (12 ) = 5.74 k 2 12 φVc = (.74 ksf − 1.5in Critical section for shear occurs at "d" from face of stem.74 ksf )(3 ft )(1 ft )( 3 ft 1 2 ) + (1.75)2 3000 psi (12in )(18in ) = 17.2(12.0k − ft + (1 ft )(11.

8k − ft (12 0. say #4 ft in 2 0.28 ft .20 in 2 bar (12 in ) = 8.28 in 2 ft in 2 bar (12 in ) = 33in . Spring 2011 Retaining Wall Design Example 8/8 Reinforcement in toe: M u = 47.7 ksi As (18in ). try smaller bars .7 ksi As d 19. As = 0.6in ft in 2 0.28 ft use #4 @ 8" 0.CE 437/537.79 in ) = 47.

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