This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
K.C. Yadav, AVP, Noida Technical Training Centre
Objective of FSSS » Inter facing of field equipments and instrumentation » Operational features of FSSS » Role of FSSS in starting/shutdown » Role of FSSS in maintaining the design prescribed values of the parameters
2 of 27
It must be recognized that no amount of written instruction can replace intelligent thinking and reasoning on the part of boiler operators, especially when coping with unforeseen operating conditions. It is operators’ responsibility to become thoroughly familiar, not only with immediate steam generating equipment but also with all pertinent control equipment. Satisfactory performance and safety depend to a great extent on proper functioning of controls and auxiliary equipment.
3 of 27
Purpose The FSSS is designed to ensure the execution of safe. 4 of 27 confidentia . orderly operating sequence in the start up and shutdown of fuel firing equipment and to prevent errors of omission and commission in following such a safe operating procedure.
5 of 27 confidentia . Secondary air damper modulation. Heavy oil on-off control and supervision. Flame scanner intelligence and checking. Pulveriser and feeder on-off control and supervision. on/off control and supervision. Overall boiler flame failure protection. Boiler trip protection. Light oil on-off control and supervision.Purpose Furnace purge supervision.
Prevent start-up of individual fuel firing equipment unless certain permissive. 6 of 27 confidentia . Subject continued operation of fuel firing equipment to ascertain safety interlocks remaining satisfied. Monitor and control proper component sequencing during start-up and shut-down of fuel firing equipment.Purpose Prevent any fuel firing unless a satisfactory furnace purge sequence has first been completed. interlocks have been satisfied.
Purpose Provide component status feedback to the operator and. 7 of 27 confidentia . to the unit control system and / or to the data logger. in some cases. Provide flame supervision when fuel firing equipment is in service and effect an Elevation Fuel Trip or Master Fuel Trip upon certain condition of unacceptable firing / load combination. Effect a Master Fuel Trip upon certain adverse Unit operating conditions.
Subsystem of FSSS Purge Permissive (s) HOTV Open/Close Interlocks HORV Open/Close Interlocks Oil Guns Start/Stop Cycle Boiler Protection Logics 8 of 27 confidentia .
) PA Fan Interlocks Coal Mill Start/Stop Interlocks Coal Feeder Start/Stop Interlocks Scanner Air Fans Seal Air Fans Secondary Air Damper Interlocks 9 of 27 confidentia .Subsystem of FSSS (Cont.
All Feeders Off All Flame Scanners Sense No Flame Both PA fans Off 10 of 27 confidentia .Purge Permissives All HFO Nozzle Valves Closed HFO Trip Valve closed No Boiler Trip From MFR A & B All Pulverizers Off.
) All Auxiliary Air Dampers Modulating and furnace to wind box P OK All Hot Air Gates Closed Air Flow > 30 % Mode Permit Proven (Air Flow < 40% Burner Tilt Horizontal) Drum Level Satisfactory FSSS AC / DC Power Available. 11 of 27 confidentia .Purge Permissives (Cont.
Boiler Trip persisting HFO Header temperature satisfactory >950 C HFO supply pressure > 15 Kg / cm2 All HONV’s closed No close / Trip command Open PB depressed 12 of 27 confidentia .HOTV Interlocks To Open HOTV : Permissives SET I No.
HOTV Interlocks To Open HOTV : Permissives SET II All HONV’s closed MFT acted HORV open Open PB depressed 13 of 27 confidentia .
Any HONV not closed and MFT acted 3. HOTV closes automatically under the following conditions: Any HONV not closed AND a) HFO pressure low < 3 Kg/cm2 OR b) Atomizing steam pressure low < 3. HOTV can be closed manually 14 of 27 confidentia . Loss of critical power > 2 Seconds 4.HOTV Interlocks 1. < 95 0C 2.5 Kg/cm2 OR c) HFO Header Temperature Lo-Lo for > 2 secs.
15 of 27 confidentia . HORV closes automatically when any HONV is not closed OR by pressing close PB.HORV Interlocks HORV can be opened by pressing the OPEN Push button (PB) from Console if All the HONV s are closed.
HFO Supply Scheme HFO PUMP-1 FROM AUXILIARY STEAM HEADER s HFO HTR-1 s HFO PUMP-2 FROM HFO DAY TANK s HFO HTR-2 s TO BOILER FRONT HFO PUMP-3 HFO HTR-3 s TO HFO DAY TANK 16 of 27 s confidentia .
HFO Scheme At Boiler Front HOTV FT AB ELEVATION HOFCV CD ELEVATION M SHORT RECIRCULATION FT EF ELEVATION HORV HFO SUPPLY LINE HFO RETURN LINE 17 of 27 confidentia .
mizing Steam Scheme AB ELEVATION CD ELEVATION EF ELEVATION Oil Gun Connection HFO NOZZLE VALVE SCAVENGE VALVE OIL GUN ATOMISING STEAM VALVE 18 of 27 confidentia .
atomizing steam and HFO isolation valves are open. corresponding scavenge valve is closed. Pairs are made for the opposite corners. (Pair 1-3 and Pair 2-4) When pair 1-3 start push button is pressed.Pair Firing Mode (Start Up) Pair firing mode is selected when no feeder is in service. 19 of 27 confidentia . it is engaged. A 30 second counting period is started A 70 second counting period is started Oil Gun No-1 advances from retracted position if.
Pair Firing Mode (Start Up) HEA igniter advances. Corner 2-4 can also be placed exactly in the same manner. Atomizing steam valve opens. 20 of 27 confidentia . Igniter starts sparking. When the 30 second counting period expires command will go to corner 3 and same events will take place. HFO Nozzle valve for corner 1 opens HFO catches fire and flame indication comes. After 25 seconds igniter retracts.
21 of 27 confidentia . First command goes for placing Pair 1-3 into service and Pair 1-3 is placed into service exactly in the same way as in the pair mode. Oil elevation is placed in service when Pair 1-3 or Pair 2-4 start Push Button is pressed. In elevation firing mode also the oil guns are proven on pair basis.Elevation Firing Mode (Start Up) Elevation firing mode is selected when any feeder is proven.
22 of 27 confidentia . a 30 second counting period is started.Elevation Firing Mode (Start Up) First start command goes to corner-1 then after 30 second start command goes to corner-3. After the start command has gone to corner 3. When 30 seconds counting period expires then start command goes for corner 2-4 and corner 2-4 are placed into service exactly in the same manner as in the pair mode.
PAIR FIRING MODE (SHUT DOWN) Pair firing mode is selected when no feeder is in service. HEA igniter advances and spark remains for 15 seconds. 23 of 27 confidentia . (Pair 1-3 and Pair 2-4) When pair 1-3 stop push button is pressed the following events take place A 30 second counting period is started A 340 second counting period is started Oil Gun No-1 HFO nozzle valve closes. Scavenge and atomizing steam valve opens. Pairs are made for the opposite corners.
When 5 minutes counting period expires scavenge valve and atomizing steam valve closes and further closing command goes HFO nozzle valves to reinsure that they are fully closed. When the 30 second counting period expires stop command will go to corner 3 and same events will take place.Pair Firing Mode (Shut Down) When atomizing steam valve is proven fully open. Corner 2-4 can be shut-down exactly in the same manner. a 5 minutes counting period starts. 24 of 27 confidentia . Oil Gun corner no-1 retracts to its home position.
When stop command has gone to corner 3. a 30 second counting period is started.Elevation Firing Mode (Shutdown) Elevation firing mode is selected when any feeder is proven. By pressing stop push-button of Pair 1-3 or Pair 2-4 the following events will take place. Corner 1-3 will be shut-down in the similar way as in the pair mode. When 30 seconds counting period expires then stop command goes for corner 2-4 and corner 2-4 are shut-down exactly in the same manner as in the pair mod 25 of 27 confidentia .
delay 10 seconds) Elevation Power Failure For > 2 seconds. Furnace Pressure High-High (> + 325 mmWCl.Boiler Trip Conditions Both FD Fans Off All ID Fans Off Inadequate Water Wall Circulation Loss Of Reheater Protection Deaerator level Lo-Lo ( -2134 mm 2 / 3 logic) All Boiler Feed Pumps Off Drum Level High-High (> + 250 mm. 2 / 3 logic) 26 of 27 confidentia . delay of 10 seconds) Drum Level Lo-Lo (< .375 mm.
27 of 27 confidentia . 2 / 3 logic) Loss Of All Fuel Unit Flame Failure Loss Of Critical Power For > 2 seconds Loss Of 220 V DC For > 2 seconds Loss Of ACS Power > 2 seconds Simulated Trip Air Flow < 30 % Both Emergency Push Buttons Pressed.Boiler Trip Conditions Furnace Pressure Lo-Lo (< -250 mmWC.
Cause of trip memory can not be reset till the furnace purge is completed. Coal feeders are tripped. MFT A & B trip lamp comes on and reset lamp goes off. 28 of 27 confidentia . Pulverizers are tripped.Boiler Trip When the boiler trips the following events takes place Boiler trip red lamp comes on. I D fans vane position is transferred to manual. P A fans are tripped. F D Fans Control is transferred to manual.
All HFO Nozzle valves closes. Loss of all fuel trip protection disarms. Cold air dampers opens 100 %. Upper and Lower Fuel air damper opens. HFO trip valve closes.Boiler Trip (Cont. Turbine Trips 29 of 27 confidentia . Auxiliary air damper opens and control is transferred to manual.) When the boiler trips ……. S/H and R/H spray block valves S-82 & R-31 closes and can not be opened unless furnace purge is completed.
Inadequate Water Wall Circulation 1. Boiler load > 60 % and less than two pumps or pump on and differential pressure < 10 psi. Boiler load < 60 % and no BCW pump on or pump on and differential pressure < 10 psi. 2. 30 of 27 confidentia .
3. Turbine not working and boiler working and hp/lp bypass opening < 2 %. Turbine trip or generator circuit breaker open and hp/lp bypass opening < 2 %.Reheat Protection 1. Turbine working (hp & ip cvs opening > 2 % and load shedding relay operated and hp/lp bypass opening < 2 %. 2. confidentia 31 of 27 .
MFT 5 SEC RESET Loss of all fuel arming SET Any elevation ¾ Nozzle valve proven All HFO Elevation Trip All feeders off 2 SEC All HFO Nozzle valve closed HOTV NOT OPEN Loss of all fuel trip 2 SEC All feeders off Loss of All Fuel Trip 32 of 27 confidentia .
Any Feeder Proven 2 Sec Elevation GH No Flame Vote Elevation FG No Flame Vote Elevation DE No Flame Vote Elevation BC No Flame Vote Elevation AB No Flame Vote Flame Failure Trip Flame Failure Trip 33 of 27 confidentia .
Flame Failure Vote Logics Elevation DE Scanners No Flame Feeder E Off Feeder D Off Elevation BC Scanners No Flame 2 Sec Elevation DE No Flame Vote Feeder C Off Feeder B Off Elevation AB Any HFO Nozzle Valve Not Closed Elevation AB 2/4 Nozzle Valve Not Proven Elevation AB Scanners No Flame 2 Sec Elevation BC No Flame Vote Elevation AB No Flame Vote Feeder A Off 2 Sec confidentia 34 of 27 .
ELEVATION GH ANY HFO NOZZLE VALVE NOT CLOSED ELEVATION GH 2/4 NOZZLE VALVE NOT PROVEN Flame Failure Vote Logics ELEVATION GH SCANNERS NO FLAME ELEVATION GH NO FLAME VOTE FEEDER H OFF 2 SEC ELEVATION FG SCANNERS NO FLAME FEEDER G OFF FEEDER F OFF ELEVATION FG NO FLAME VOTE 35 of 27 confidentia .
V. is open (all four) Mill outlet temp < 93 0 C Feeder local switch in Remote 36 of 27 confidentia .Mill Interlocks Start Permissive (s): Mill starts after the ‘ON’ push button is pressed if following conditions are fulfilled.D. Pulveriser Ready available signal will be available if following conditions are fulfilled M.
adequate Lub oil pressure not low for more than 300 sec No Mill trip existing 37 of 27 confidentia .Mill Interlocks Pulverizer start permit (if Nozzle tilt Horizontal & air flow < 40 %) OR Any feeder proven & NO MFT Tramp iron valve open Cold air gate open Feeder inlet gate open Lub oil level & temp.
Mill Interlocks P.A. duct Pressure. not lo-lo ( > 500 mmWCl AND (iii) Both FD s ON and both PA fans ‘ON’ or (Any PA fan ON and any FD Fan ‘ON’ and > 4 mills not ON) No Auto pulverizer unsuccessful start Seal air Header to mill under bowl DP satisfactory > 8" WCl Mill not ‘ON’ Pulverizer Ignition permit available.A. duct pr.A. (i) Hot P. not low (< 625 mmWCl) (ii) P. permit available. confidentia 38 of 27 .
) For Mill B AB elevation proven 3/4 HONV’s open OR Boiler load > 30 % and Feeder A or Feeder C proven. 39 of 27 confidentia .B speed > 50 % ( > 30 T/hr.Mill Interlocks FOR Mill A AB elevation 3/4 HONV’s open OR Boiler load > 30 % and Feeder .
Mill Interlocks For Mill C CD elevation proven AB oil elevation and feeder B proven OR OR Boiler load > 30 % & either feeder B or Feeder D proven For Mill D CD elevation proven OR Boiler load > 30 % and either feeder C or feeder E proven.G & H identical logic 40 of 27 confidentia .F. For Mill E.
Pulv ‘ON’ and lub oil pr. low > 10 secs. within 180 sec of feeder start) 41 of 27 confidentia . Loss of Elevation OR Unit Power for > 2 Secs Pulv ‘ON’ & seal air / under DP Low > 1 min < 5”wc Pulv ‘ON’ and lub oil pump OFF > 10 sec.e. < 1.76 Kg/cm2 Ignition permit required (> 180 secs) & ignition permit lost (i.Pulveriser Trip Conditions Auto / manual mode selected to manual & stop PB depressed. start command given & not ‘ON’ for > 2 Secs. Pulv.
Lo = < 525mm WC (instantaneous) MFT PA / FD Fan trip a) If both PA Fans & both FD fans running & any PA or any FD Fan trips then mills start tripping from top elevations with 2 secs time delay till 4 mills are available. b) If both PA / FD fans trip then all mills will trip. pr.Pulveriser Trip Conditions Any of the MDV is not fully open Hot PA duct. Lo . Lo < 625 mm of WCL (delay 5 sec) Hot PA duct. 42 of 27 confidentia . pr.
depressed or auto HAG open command is there AND NO HAG close command.Pulverizer Seal Air Valves Interlocks Valve opens when Pulverizer start command is given OR Millis ON Valve closes when Pulverizer is OFF Hot Air Gate Interlocks Hot air gate (HAG) opens when Pulverizer is ‘ON’ AND Hot air gate open P.B. 43 of 27 confidentia .
Pulverizer off 3.(Delay 40 sec) 6. Close P. depressed 5. Auto pulverizer run feeder speed to minimum 44 of 27 confidentia . Auto pulverizer unsuccessful start 7.B. Pulverizer outlet temp > 93 0 C 4. Feeder Trips.Hot air gate closes when 1. Loss of power > 2 secs 2.
Feeder Start Permissive (s) Pulveriser Ready is available Feeder speed demand at minimum Pulveriser manual mode Pulveriser ignition permit available No feeder stop command No MFT Pulveriser ‘ON’ 45 of 27 confidentia .
Feeder Trip Condition Ignition energy removed within 180 seconds of feeder start Feeder in manual mode & stop PB depressed Auto Pulverizer Feeder stop command Pulverizer OFF MFT No coal on belt Discharge plugged 46 of 27 confidentia .
The function of Secondary Air Damper Control System (SADC) is to proportion the total secondary air around the firing elevation as per the criteria spelt above. How this air is proportioned. depends on which fuel is being burnt. as the amount of fuel fired and confidentia the no. the number of elevations in service and the firing rate at each elevation.SADC The secondary air dampers located in wind box apportions the total secondary air between various elevations. of firing elevations decide the damper 47 of 27 . In fact the SADC system is a combination of both analog and digital system.
The auxiliary air dampers are positioned to maintain the required wind box to furnace differential pressure according to the boiler load. In the initial periods of operation, the flame condition with reference to ignition stability, ignition point relative to fuel nozzles, overall combustion conditions in the furnace are to be studied for various wind box to furnace differential pressures and the values are to be optimized at site (the values are adjustable). Based on this, the final curve showing the relationship between the wind box to furnace differential pressure versus the boiler load is to be decided for the type of coal used.
48 of 27
The auxiliary elevation dampers act as fuel (oil) air dampers when oil firing is taking place and is open to a preset position. The fuel (oil) elevation dampers are selected to be closed if there is a back up trip in that elevation and adjacent pulverizers are off and “No Boiler Trip” signal is present. When a HFO Elevation is started (i.e. when the associated “elevation back-up” trip is removed) the associated auxiliary air dampers in that elevation are set to preset position for HFO firing.
49 of 27
Above 30% MCR boiler load, the auxiliary air elevation associated with the main fuel elevation in service modulate to maintain the varying DP. Those not associated with any elevation in service are closed from top to bottom. The closing signal comes from FSSS. When the unit load is increased above 30% MCR, the Aux. air dampers of elev. AA,AB, BC, CD, DE, EF & FF are closed in a timed sequence (10 sec. interval) provided the associated coal elevations are not in service and the associated oil elevations are not in service. The auxiliary air dampers are closed, starting from the top elevation, progressing towards the lowest elevation.
50 of 27
51 of 27 confidentia . air dampers will be automatically switched to “Manual” control and then commanded to open 100%. Both ID fans are OFF. (+24V DC) Also the auxiliary air control loop is tripped to manual if any of the following conditions exist. if any one of the following conditions exist. Master fuel trip occurs. Failure of selected DP transmitter Furnace to Windbox DP very high (> 240mm WCL). Loss of unit critical power . Both FD fans are OFF. DP transmitter deviation high. All elevations of the aux.
ignition point relative to fuel nozzles. 52 of 27 confidentia . In the initial periods of operation. overall combustion conditions in the furnace are to be studied for various fuel air damper positions and the values are to be optimized at site. Based on this the final curve showing the relationship between the fuel air damper positions versus the fuel feed rate is to be decided for the type of coal used. the flame condition with reference to ignition stability.The fuel air damper control system positions the fuel air damper in proportion to the fuel firing rate.
Both ID fans are OFF.(+24 VDC) 53 of 27 confidentia . Loss of unit Critical Power.All elevations of fuel air dampers are commanded to open 100% when any one of the following conditions exist. Master fuel trip occurs. Both FD fans are OFF.
Accordingly the optimized settings are to be decided as above for the coal used. Fixed Carbon. 54 of 27 confidentia .On coal fired boilers the characteristics of fuel like. Volatile Matter and Ash composition will determine the optimum wind box to furnace differential pressures and the fuel air damper positions.
55 of 27 confidentia . if the coal quality changes or the coal source itself is changed.Later. it shall be necessary to once again carryout optimization studies for the new coal and revised settings are to be finalized.
56 of 27 confidentia .
Modulation of Auxiliary Air Dampers 57 of 27 confidentia .
Modulation of Fuel Air Dampers 58 of 27 confidentia .
Modulation of Over Firing Air Dampers 59 of 27 confidentia .
The two elevations of the over fire air dampers will be automatically switched to “Manual” control and then commanded to open 100%. if any one of the following conditions exist Master fuel trip occurs.(+24 VDC) Both FD fans are OFF. Loss of unit critical power . WB To Furnace DP exceeds 240mm WCL. confidentia 60 of 27 . Both ID fans are OFF.
61 of 27 confidentia .
62 of 27 confidentia .
Thank you 12th July. 2008 .