Dry weather flow in sewers



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Report 177

London1 1998

Dry weather flow in sewers

C M Ainger R J Armstrong D Butler

LiLi.J sharingknowledge• buildingbestpractice
6 Storey's Gate, Westminster, London
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flow Dry weather is all flow in a sewer that is not directlycausedby rainfall. The concept is used in the design, operation and modelling ofwastewatertreatment works and sewer systems, and for consentsetting in water qualityplanning. It has traditionally beendefinedin terms ofquantity,but its qualityis also important. Dry weatherflow is a convenientconcept, but attemptsto define it more precisely leadto problemsin its measurement and application. This report reviews the dry weatherflow information needsofdesigners, operatorsand modellers and compares these with current practicesfor gathering information. This highlightsthree problems: seasonal differences in infiltration,attenuationofflows within the sewer system, and difficulties in measuringpollution loads that are influencedby sediment deposition and erosion.

Thereview is followedby an analysisof historic dry weatherflow data, whichbreaks new groundby assessingthe effect ofinfiltrationon the quality parameters. The results ofthis analysisareused to producenew guidanceon per capita contributions to domesticflows; diurnal variation;estimationof infiltration, and estimationofcrude
wastewaterloadswhen aiming for 50% solids removal in primarysedimentation. Guidanceis also given on datacollection and differentdefinitions ofdry weatherflow appropriatefor differentapplications.

Dry weather flow in sewers

Construction IndustryResearch andInformation Association CIRIAReport 177

© CIRIA 1998
ISBN 0-86017-493-X
Construction IndustryResearch and Information Association 6 Storey'sGate, Westminster, London SW1P 3AU Telephone: 0171 222 8891 Facsimile: 0171 222 1708 Email: switchboard@ciria.org.uk

Publishedby CIRIA. All rightsreserved. No part ofthis publication may be reproduced or transmittedin any formorby any means,includingphotocopying and recording,withoutthe written permission ofthe copyright holder,application for which should be addressedto the publisher.Suchwrittenpermissionmust alsobe obtainedbefore any partofthis publication is storedin a retrieval system ofany nature.

Dry weatherflow, waterquality,modelling Reader Interest
Sewerage undertakers, wastewater treatmentplantundertakers, and waterqualityplanners.

AVAILABILITY Unrestricted CONTENT STATUS USER Original analysis

Committeeguided Civil engineers and waterquality
planners CIRIA Report 177


The projectwas funded by SouthernWater Services Limited.the members ofthe SteeringGroupand all thosewho providedinformation to the research contractor.the work was guidedby a SteeringGroup: ProfDavidBalmforth (Chairman) Sheffield HallamUniversity Neil Burns Southern WaterServices Ltd WRc Ian Clifforde KieranDowney Ken Muiholland Martin Osborne RogerSaxon MrBob Smisson Graham Squibbs Dr Hugh Tebbutt East ofScotland Water TheWaterExecutive .R156 Infiltration drainage— manualofgoodpractice and Book 14 Designof flood storage reservoirs. Sheffield Hallam University CIRIA's researchmanagerfor the projectwas Dr JudyPayne.Foreword Thisreport produced as a result ofCIRIA Research Project533 Characterisationof was dry weather flow in sewers. The principalauthorsare Mr Charles Ainger.Northern Ireland Reid CrotherConsultants Ltd EnvironmentAgency Smisson Foundation North West Water Ltd Independent Consultants Now Professor ofWaterManagement. CiRlAReport 177 3 . Followingestablished CIRIA practice. The report's purposeis to describe current needsand practicesand to develop new guidelines for estimating the quantityand qualityofdry weatherflow in sewers. London. Other CIRIAurban drainagepublicationsincludeR14 1 Design ofsewersto control sediment problems. The projectwaspart ofCIRIA'swiderprogrammeofwork on urban drainage. The reportwas writtenunder contractto CIRIA by Montgomery Watsonin association with Imperial College. CIRIA is grateful for the help given to the projectby thefunders. Mr Robert Armstrong and Dr DavidButler.North West WaterLimited.The WaterExecutive — NorthernIrelandand SADWSS.

1 Introduction 6.2 Methodology ofanalysis 6.3 Qualification ofresults 6.4 Summary ofneeds 3 CHARACTERISTICS OF DRYWEATHER FLOW 3.2 Estimationofcommercial and industrialDWF 4.6 Seasonalvariation 6.3 Diurnal variation CURRENT KNOWLEDGE ANDPRACTICE 4.2 Objectives 1.4 Per capita contributions 6.1 Introduction — basicdefmitions 12 12 12 13 13 2 2.3 Estimationofinfiltration 4.2 UsageofDWF—quantity 2.2 Data deficiencies ANALYSIS OF DATA 6.3 Scope and approach 1.4 Data for wastewater treatmentdesign 4.7 Modellingrequirements 6.2 Qualityparameters 3.5 Data for sewerage systems modelling 14 14 15 16 17 20 20 21 27 30 30 38 40 43 43 4 5 PROBLEMS AND DATADEFICIENCIES 5.3 UsageofDWF—quality 2.1 EstimationofdomesticDWF 4.1 Quantity parameters 3.1 Problems with DWF definition 5.1 Background 1.5 Diurnal profiles 6.8 Conclusions from the analysis 45 45 47 49 49 49 52 53 55 59 6 59 61 4 CIRIAReportl77 .4 Readerguide CURRENT NEEDS 2.Contents Listofboxes Listoffigures Listoftables Glossary Abbreviations 1 page 6 6 7 8 11 INTRODUCTION 1.

1 Introduction 64 7.5 Estimating crude wastewater loadfor UWWTD 50% removal in primary sedimentation 67 7.2 Per capita contributions 64 7.7 Definitionof DWF 68 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FURTHER WORK 8.4 Infiltration 66 7.2 Sampling and laboratory procedures 8.3 Other issues 8 69 69 69 69 71 Bibliography CIRIAReportl77 . 1 Refinement of characterisation 8.3 Diurnal variation 65 7.6 Data collection 67 7.7 GUIDANCE FOR FUTURE PRACTICE 64 7.

28 29 Variationofdaily peakflow (afterLuck and Ashworth.3 Total flow volume minusinfiltrationagainst massofammonia Figure 56 6.4 Dimensionless DWF profiles Figure 56 6. 1995) .2 Ratioofextreme flows to average dailyflow (afterASCE/WPCF) Figure 35 4. (1990)) Domestic dailywaterusage patterns(afterButler and Graham.4 Figure 4.3 Diurnal profiles afterremoval ofinfiltration Figure 47 5.11 Total measured dailyflow at Site X Figure 60 6. 1995) Figure characteristics ofwastewater from several catchments(after 4.1 Flow recession after rain Figure 46 Figure 5.3 PredictionofDWF profile(after Butler and Graham.7 Figure 58 6.2 Box 6.1996) ofpercapita domestic DWF (after Components 31 Butler and Gatt.LIST OF BOXES Box 3. 1995) 45 5.3 Figure 3.10 Diurnal variationofBODconcentration Figure 60 6.4 Variationof loadsto treatment Figure 53 6.2 Figure 3.2 Total flow volume minusinfiltrationagainst massofammonia Figure 55 6.2 Effects of infiltration 46 5.1 Box 3.8 Attenuation ofdiurnal ammoniaprofile Figure 58 6.6 Diurnal patternover consecutive days Figure 57 Diurnalvariationof ammoniaconcentration 6.12 Dimensionless diurnalprofilesof SS and ammonia Figure 6 CIRIAReportl77 .1 Box 6.1 Total flow volume minusinfiltrationagainstpopulation Figure 54 6.2 Formsof nitrogen Formsofphosphorus Mass flow and flowvolume calculation Removal ofinfiltrationand calculationofaverage concentration 23 24 50 51 LIST OF FIGURES Figure 3.5 Attenuation ofdiurnal profiles Figure 57 6. 1996) 33 4.1 22 ClassificationofCODfractions 25 Daily total coliforms (Jefferies eta!.9 Diurnal variationofsuspended solids concentration Figure 59 6.1 Figure 3.4 Figure Settling 38 Andoh and Smisson.

2 44 53 55 64 65 CIRIA Report 177 7 . 1995) Effluent standardsfordischargesto sewers (Gledhill.1 Table 4.5 Table4.6 Table4.1 Table6. 1989) Annual volume ofwastewater produced from variouscommercial sources (Henze et a!.1 Table4.2 Table 4.LIST OF TABLES Table 2.7 Table6.3 Summaryofdata requirements Quantity ofwater consumed for varioushousehold purposes Typicalmajor pollutantcharacteristics in domesticDWF Proportion ofwater consumed forvarious office purposes (Gray. 1986) Industrialwater usageand wastewater production (alter Henze et a! 1995) Suggested defaultvalues for MOSQITO (afterFWR. 1994) Calculatedper capita flow and load Per capita loadsfrom concentration Parametervaluesfor UK catchments Dimensionless profiles for DWF parameters 18 30 37 39 39 40 41 Table4.2 Table7.1 Table7.4 Table4.

oil films orbanksidelitter. bedload biochemical oxygen demand catchment chemical oxygen demand combined sewer combined sewer overflow Anarea served by a singledrainage system.to a stormwaterretentiontank.Glossary aerobic Conditionsin whichdissolved oxygenis present. or by saltating. bathroomsand similarfacilities. to a watercourse or other disposal point. 8 CiRlAReport 177 . aesthetic pollution anaerobic attenuation Aspectsofpollutionsensedby sight or smell. Sewerconveying both wastewater and surface water. Conditionsin whichdissolved oxygen is not present. The escape ofwastewater from the sewerage system into the surrounding soil via cracksor malfunctioning pipejoints. The amountofdissolved oxygen consumed by microbiological actionwhen a sampleis incubatedin the dark at 20°C. That part of the sediment loadthat travels by rolling or sliding along the sewer invert or deposited bed. lavatories. High concentrations ofpollutantsthat are generatedin the early partofa storm. The reduction in peakflow or concentration and increasein minimum flow and concentrationofthe diurnal variation in wastewater flow as it passesthroughthe sewerage system. ofa substance over a periodof24 hours. Liquid discharged from a given process. washing machines. such as floating solids. The measure ofoxygen required to oxidise all organic material in a water sample with a strong chemical. causedby thescouringout ofdepositedmaterial first foul flush in thesewer system. Device on a combined orpartially separate sewerage systemthat allows flows in excess ofthe capacityof the system to be discharged to anothersewer. The variationin flow rate or in the concentration(or massflow) Wastewater discharged from kitchens. consent conditions diurnal variation domestic wastewater effluent exfiltration The conditions imposed by the regulatorbefore permittingthe dischargeofa potentially pollutingflow to a watercourse. usually potassium dichromate.

Stormwater runoffthatenters a sewer indirectly. stormwater or other unwantedliquids. Sewer that conveys only foulwastewater (knownas a sanitary sewer in the USA). Materialtransportedin a liquid that settles or tends to settle. formula A foul sewer gross solids infiltration (to sewer) inflow Large faecal and organicmatter and other wastewaterdebris. Theability oftheflow in a sewer to transportsuspendedsolids withouta long-term build-upofdeposits occurring.designedto convey wastewater. CRIA Report 177 9 . leakingjoints or defectsin the conduit. estuary or coastal water into which the outfallfrom a combined sewer overflow or wastewater treatmentworksdischarges. Separatesystemin which somesurface water is admittedto the sewers that convey foul water. Formula for calculatingthe minimumflow a sewer system overflow has to allow to pass forwardto treatmentbefore spill occurs. viapurpose-formed openings. suspensionor as a discrete solid and discharged to a watercourse thus adversely affecting its quality. sewage sewer Pipeline or other conduit. sewer or receivingwater. MOSQITO non-volatile suspended solids A dynamic sewer qualitymodel. Watercourse. Fine suspended solidscontainedin wastewater.but not or both.fixed suspended solids Thosesuspended solids remainingalter a sampleofwastewater has been heated to 500°C.normallyunderground. Sewer conveying either foulwastewater surface water. river. Any substance conveyed in solution. Wastewater. partiallyseparate system pollutant receivingwater runoff sanitary solids sediment self-cleansing Waterfrom precipitation whichflows offa surface to reacha drain. Fixedsuspendedsolids. separatesewer settling velocity Terminalvelocity at whicha particle falls in a still liquid(same asfall velocity). Passageofwater from the groundinto a sewer orother conduit.

surfacewatersewer suspended solids tradeeffluent unionisedammonia Ammoniadissolved in water exists mostly in the ionised form N}14. volatile suspended solids wastewater 10 CiRlAReport 177 . System of sewers and ancillaryworksthat conveys wastewater The massofa substance dividedby the mass ofthe same A sewer designedto carry the runoff from paved surfaces. from any industrial or commercial activity. The largelyorganicfractionofsuspendedsolids drivenoffas gas at a temperature of500°C. volume ofwater. Waterdischarged as a result ofcleansing.but someis present in an umonised form NH3.culinaryor industrial processes (seealsofoulwastewater). Solids transportedin suspension in the wastewaterflow and prevented from settlingby the effects offlow turbulence. or in part. Wastewater dischargeresultingwholly. It is this latter form which is most toxic to fish.seweragesystem specific gravity to a treatmentworks orother disposal point.

oils and greases Maximum daily peakflow MinistryofHousing and LocalGovernment Most probable number National WaterCouncil Polychiorinated biphenyls Population-generated flow Peak factor Short-chain fatty acid Suspended solids SCFA SS TKN TOC TSS UPM UWWTD Total Kjeldahlnitrogen Total organiccarbon Total suspended solids Urban pollutionmanagement UrbanWastewater TreatmentDirective Volatile fatty acids Volatile suspended solids Wastewater treatmentworks 11 WA VSS WwTW CIRIAReportl77 .Abbreviations BOD( COD CSO DO DWF Biochemical oxygendemand(five-day) Chemical oxygen demand Combined sewer overflow Dissolved oxygen thy weatherflow Dryweatherload Flow to full treatment DWL FF1 FOG MDPF MHLG MPN NWC PCB PG PF Fats.

There is also uncertaintyabout the quantities ofpollutants enteringthesewers from differentsources . When using dry weatherflows. To review recentand currentresearchon prediction ofDWF and assess its potential as a practicalengineering tool. To identify further research requirements and associateddata collection and analysis needs.1 BACKGROUND Information on the quantity and qualityofdry weatherflow in foul and combined sewersis neededin the design oftreatmentworksand as input to water quality models used in urban pollution management. 5. designers of wastewater treatmentworksand water qualityplanners. The needfor betterguidanceon dry weatherflow (DWF) is urgent ifsewerage undertakersare to adopt urban pollution management (IJPM) procedures and meet the requirements ofthe Urban WasteWaterTreatmentDirective(UWWTD). Relatively little information is available.Introduction 1. and the level ofinfiltration. water qualityplannersand regulatorson typical quantities and qualities ofdry weatherflow.and the mechanisms of transportwithin the sewer.especially for solidsand their associated pollutants . there are significantdifferences from locationto location. very little accountis taken ofthe transformations that occur as the wastewater flows throughthe sewer system. designersof wastewatertreatmentworks. individual domestic water consumption. Guidance is needed by sewerage engineers. thepresenceof industrial and trade wastes.2 OBJECTIVES The objectives this report are: of 1. 12 CIRIAReportl77 . Dry weatherdomestic wastewater flows are similararound the world. To review existingavailable dataon DWF characteristics and assessits suitability for designand modelling purposes. Wastewater containsa complexmixtureof natural organicand inorganicmaterialswith a small proportionofman-madesubstances derived from commercial and industrial practices. 3. 2. for use by sewerageengineers. Relatively little is knownabout the detailedcomposition ofwastewaterand few specific studies havebeencarried out. 1. Even within the UK. To describe current practicesand datarequirements. 4. To provideconcise guidelines on typical DWF quantityand quality for different catchmenttypesand applications. diet. but flow and qualityvary considerably in detail with climaticconditions.the availabilityofwater and its characteristics. particularlyon flowquality.

Readersare thereforeurged to to studysections that describepracticesoutside theirimmediatesphereofinterest.1. Existingdata on dry weatherflow has been collected and analysedin order to calculate per capita outputsforflow and qualityparameters. and water qualityplannersand regulators. Temporal and seasonal changesin wastewater quantity and qualityare considered. needsand practicehas beengatheredfor this report by literature survey and by interviewing several water plcs. How does my perception ofDWF comparewith that of otherswho use the same term? Read Chapter2 Read Chapter3 Read Chapter4 Read Chapter 5 Read Chapter6 Read Chapter 7 Read Chapter 8 So what is everybody interested in whenthey talk about DWF? Now I know what things othersare interestedin. 1. The following guide is designedto help readers use the report in this way. how do they deal with them? Everything seems straightforward. includingthe designers. to see if this resultedin more consistentfigures acrossthe range ofcatchments. The reportis written for all those interested in dry weatherflow characteristics. Informationfrom the literaturesurvey and the consultationprocess is includedin Chapters2. It deals only with flows in combined and foul sewers.3 SCOPE AND APPROACH covers sewer flows madeup ofdomestic wastewater. Although infiltrationis important. commercial and This report industrialdischargesand infiltration flows that are not directlyinfluencedby rainfall. Informationon currentknowledge. what'sthe problem? So what'snew? All I needto know is what numbers to use . As there is usually an interface betweendifferentusers — a sewerage network connects to a wastewater treatmentplant and both connect to a receiving watercourse — it is importantto promote better understanding ensure effective communication. dependingon his needs. consultantsand academics. 3 and 4. Controlof infiltrationto sewers.4 READER GUIDE Thetermdry weather iswidelyused but there is no commonaccepted meaning. as is solid materialthat enters the sewer under dry weatherflow conditions. One oftheinnovationswas to try to remove the effects ofinfiltrationbefore analysis.operatorsand modellers ofsewerage systems and wastewater treatmentworks. its estimation is not considered in detail as this has been the subject of anotherCIRIA study. flow Each userhas his owndefinition.whereare they? Wheredo we go from here? CIRIA Report 177 13 .

The following is an alternativedefinitionofdry weatherflow writtenin terms ofwater quality parameters ofinterestto designers ofwastewatertreatmentprocesses: DWL=PH+J where DWL (2.2) P H J = = = = dry weatherloadofpollutant(g/day) populationserved average domestic waste contribution ofpollutant(g/capita day) industrial dischargeofpollutant(glday) ValuesofDWL can be calculated for each pollutantofinterest. 14 CIRIAReport 177 . The needsofusers are reviewed below.2 Current needs 2.1 INTRODUCTION . it is difficult to find a universally acceptable definition ofDWFbecauseofthedifferent ways in whichit is used. The dry weatherflow in a sewer system is the wastewater treatment commercial propertiesand industry that is being transportedto wastewater works(WwTW) or other disposal point. The basic definitionofDWF is all flow in a sewer except that caused directly by rainfall. as this is assumed not to be a source of pollutants.BASIC DEFINITIONS a from the domesticpopulation. It shouldbe noted that Equation2. The average dailyDWF is given by: DWF=PG+I+E where DWF (2. DWF shouldthereforeoccur only in combined sewers or the foul(sanitary)part ofa separate system. E is sometimes deemed to includemetered commercial discharges.2 does not includeinfiltration. In most sewer systems the flow will also includeinfiltrationfor at least part ofthe year.1) P G I E = = = = = dry weatherflow (m3/day) populationserved average domesticwastewater contribution (m3lcapira day) infiltration(m3/day) industrial effluent discharged 24 hours (m3/day) in The fonnula givesan averageflow rate whichin practicewill vary through the day.

They are also concerned with diurnalvariationsin DWF for simulations over periodsofseveralhours. acceptability ofan overflow shouldbe basedon its effect on the receivingwatercourse rather than FormulaA. whichthe authorspreferred. CiRlAReport 177 15 .but B Thereportalsoproduced felt that these formulae includedtermsfor whichinsufficient datawas available.3) In additionto peakflows.2 USAGE OF DWF — QUANTITY Sewerage designers. Maximumvaluesof industrial inputsand infiltrationare used.It is interestingto note that the authors ofthe reportthat producedFormulaA concluded that flow isbasically unsatisfactory. (2. Modellers ofsewerage systemsare often more interested in actual rather than theoretical maximum values. minimumnight flows areestimatedto checkagainst deposition of suspended solids and generation ofhydrogensulphide. I and E are as definedfor Equation2. they Withthe advent ofUPMprocedures. This would alsobe done with maximum valuesbut using currentper capita figures and industrial outputs. operators and modellers A designerofsewerage systems is typically interested in peak flows as given by the followingequation: Designflow = (Peaking factor)x (PG+E) + I whereP. especially whentheyare tiying to veri1' models against field measurements. (2.4) This formulaisbased on DWF — including infiltration— and is used by both sewerage designersand water qualityplanners.1 Estimatesofpopulationand per capita outputare usually based on somedate in the future to allow for anticipatedchanges. the custom ofexpressing the setting [ofan overflow] as a multiple ofdry weather Formula and Formula C. In theUK combined sewer overflow settingsarefrequently based on FormulaA (MHLG 1970): Q = DWF+ 1360P + 2E where = flow beingpassed forward treatmentbefore spill occurs to Q P and E areas defined forEquation2. G. Sewerage operatorsmaywish to know whether existingsystemshave adequatecapacity.1 DWF.

relative density and settlingvelocity is requiredto predictthe behaviourof solids and pollutants attachedto them. operators and modellers WwTW designers.detailsofwastewater flow are required. Most ofthese pollutantsare derived from DWF.Before theintroduction ofFormulaA the treatment works overflow would havebeen set at 6DWF. ammoniaand suspended solids. 2.2.1 USAGE OF DWF . This shouldtake account ofany balancing arrangementsthat are proposed or in place. Flows between FF1 and FormulaA are diverted to stormtanks.QUALITY Sewerage designers. 2.2. sewer designrequiresinformation on sedimentcharacteristics if thesewersareto be designed as self-cleansing.Informationon particlesize. 16 CIRIA Report 177 .3 Water quality planners For waterqualityplanning modelling.2.6 m/s to 0. althougha design velocity of0. chemical oxygen demand (COD). that lead to minimumvelocity requirements.5) FF1 = flow to full treatment P. The stormtanks typically hold two hours offlow at a flow rate equal to the difference between Formula A and FFT. This includesestimatesof summer and winterinfiltrationrates.1 Withthe advent ofthe UWWTD.and details oftheir diurnal variation. includingdeterminationofdischargeconsent and conditions. They alsohave an interest in overflow settingsand stormtank capacities becauseofthe intermittentimpactsthese haveon receivingwatercourses. Flow to full treatment (FF1) has been limitedto traditionally FFT=3PG+I+3E where (2. Sewerquality modelling is usually carried out to estimatepollutantdischargesfrom combined sewer overflows understorm conditions. operatorsand modellers use DWF in a numberofways. operatorsand modellers As wellas peak flow. I and E are as defined for Equation2. Sewerqualitymodellers needinformation on the concentrations ofvariousquality parametersin DWF. G. Inlet works aregenerallysized to acceptflows up to Formula A. and the domestic and trade components ofthe wastewater. If all or partofthe incoming flow is pumped then measuresoftheflow arrivingunder differentpumpingregimes will be required. which introduces a possible requirementto treat only thediurnal cycle.so the stormtank storagewould havebeen two hours at 3DWF.75 rn/sat peakDWF is usually considered acceptable. there is a need to know more about actual peakflows arrivingat a treatment works under dry weatherconditions. In combined systemsit may be surface-derived solids.3 2.3. whichis equivalent to six hours atDWF. The most commonly required quality parametersare biochemical oxygen demand(BOD).so it is importantto represent DWF accurately.such as road grit.2 WwTW designers.

3 Water quality planners Water quality plannersrequireinformation on the concentrations ofparametersused in solids.Ifnutrient removal is to be includedthen information on total nitrogenand total phosphorusloadswill be necessary. Details are neededof how flows and qualityparametersvary duringthe day. major surface water inputs or sedimentation in the sewers in dry weather. operatorsand modellers For the designofsecondary treatmentprocesses.Ifthe discharge dischargeconsents— usuallysuspended consentsrequire nutrientremoval the concentrations ofother nitrogen compounds and phosphorusare also needed. the wastewater treatment works designerrequiresinformation on the loads ofsuspended solids. sulphates. is neededfor estimatingremoval at primarysedimentation. Waterqualityplanners are also interested in the concentrations ofany substance likelyto cause harm to the environmentsuch as those on the UK RedList and the EU Black and Grey Lists. Anyspecialcharacteristics ofthe wastewater shouldbe identified. Ideally. treatmentworksdesigners would like information on the levels ofall other parametersthat mayaffectthe treatmentprocess — suchas temperature. pH. Increasingly the practiceis to carry out field measurements at proposed treatmentworkssites wherethe sewerage system alreadyexists. heavy metals and pesticides.2. The daily variationin flow and qualityof the wastewater may alsobe required for modelling. This knowledge is particularlyimportant in thelightoftheUWWTD requirement to remove 50% oftotal suspended solidsand 20% ofBODat primarytreatment. The methodfor obtainingthe dissolved fractionshould be given in the manual for the softwarebeing used and this shouldbe confirmed before testing is carriedout. Thesehave typically been expressed in kg/day. rather than simpleestimatesoftotal dailyloads and peak flows. significanttrade effluentcomponents. The needs arecategorised as follows: H M high importance medium importance Whereno categoryis given the parameteris oflow importance. More detaileddatais requiredfortreatmentworksmodelling. The split between particulateand dissolved COD/BOD is required. Awide range ofvaluesis used for calculatingnitrogenand phosphorusloads. 2. 2.3. CIRIAReportl77 17 .3. BOD and ammonia arrivingat the works. BOD and ammonia. historyof shock loads. such as large seasonal variation in inputs.4 SUMMARY OF NEEDS A summaryofDWF data needsis given in Table 2. particularly ofvolatile suspended solids. Informationon settleability.1. Treatmentmodels can be either CODor BODbased and use either TKN or ammonia.2 Ww1W designers.

Flow Diurnal Profile.1 Summary ofdata requirements Design PARAMETER Design SIJBDWISIONS SEWERAGE Operations Modelling H H WATER QUALITY TREATMENT Modelling Planning Operations Modelling H H H H H H H Flow H Averagedaily flow H H H H H Peak Daily Flow Diurnal Profile.Table 2. Quality H H H H H Suspended Solids TotalSuspended Solids Volatile Suspended Solids Settlabiity H H H H H H H H H H H H 0 Settling Velocity Particle Size Distribution Particle Density(ies) H H H H H Oxygen Demand TotalBOD Dissolved BOD H M M TotalCOD H H H H H H H H Dissolved COD Total Organic Carbon Nitrogen H M Total Nitrogen Annnonia TKN H M H M H H H H H H H Nitrate Nitrogen Characterisation of dry weather flow in sewers .

etc. H H H H H H H H H H H H H Aesthetics Pesticides & Herbicides Bacteriological Total Coliforms Faecal coliforms Escherichia Coliforms Faecal Streptococci H Pathogens H H M M H H H H H H . Grease.PARAMETER Design M M SUBDWISIONS SEWERAGE Design Operations Modelling M M H H M M WATER QUALITV TREATMENT Operations Modelling Planning Modelling Phosphorus Total Phosphorus Orthophosphate Soluble Reactive Phosphorus Other Salts H H H H H Chloride M M Sulphide/Sulphate Heavy Metals.etc. Poisons.Oil. Alkalinity pH Temperature Conductivity H Characterisation of dry weather flow in sewers lclI .

Someinfiltrationcontributes to DWF most ofthe time.suchas hospitalsand hotels.1 3.3 Characteristics of dry weather flow 3.1 QUANTITYPARAMETERS Domestic The quantityofdomestic wastewater flow is usually expressed in terms of the volume generatedper person per day. 20 CIRIA Report 177 . Understandingand quanti!'ing it is importantbecausethepresence ofexcessive amountsmay cause one or more of the followingproblems (Ledbury. The foul part ofa separate sewerage system can also suffer from ingressof rainwaterthrough illegal or misconnected surface wateryard gullies. These giveuseftil estimatesof maximum flows to designers and operatorsbut can lead to confusion during analysisofactual flow measurements. 3. 3.2 Industrial For commercialproperties. This volumevariesbetween weekdays and weekends. resultingin possible surchargeconditions and (exceptionally) flooding • dischargeof dilutedraw or poorly treatedwastewater at overflows during periodsof high groundwater table or rainfall • overloading of pumpingstations and wastewater treatment works. and manholes.3 Infiltration and possible loss ofwastewaterinto the surroundingground(exfiltration) through cracks and fissures.1. as litresper capita per day.1. Most industrial outputs are subject to tradewaste consents that lay down maximum volumesof dischargeper day and per three-monthperiod. flow quantityis usually expressed as dailyoutputper bedfor schools as outputper capita andfor office premisesand warehouses as outputper unitarea offloor space. and between differentregionsofthe UK. 1981): Sewerage systems are subject to the intrusionofgroundwater (infiltration) • increased sediment entry resultingin higher maintenancerequirements and possible surface subsidence due to erosionofthe surroundingsoil • effective capacity oftheseweris reduced. as outputsare not always at theirmaximum. and seasonally. This response to storm inputsis referredto as inflow. 1982: Fiddesand Simmonds. There maybe longer-term trends because ofchanging lifestyles. roofdownpipes or throughmanholecovers.1. It also vanes with land use and socio-economic mix. Infiltrationis considered a part ofDWF but inflow is not. This is then added to the residentpopulation to give a population equivalent. Infiltration also leads to additionalpumpingand treatmentcosts.pipejoints and couplings. Sometimes the total commercial and industrial flows are dividedby the domestic per capita outputto give an effective additional population.

which damagesaquaticlife. From the point of view oftreatment works designers and operators. The quality parameters that needto be considered are described below. For sewer quality modelling. massflow rate is thebetterparameterbecause concentration varieswith infiltration. WwTW modelling and for receiving water quality planning. in the UK the bodies responsible for operatingwastewater treatmentworks review the full spectrum of chemicalslikelyto be discharged to sewers by each industry. BOD takes five days. and peak concentrations usually occur at timesofpeak flow. Other measures ofBUD. CUD is quickerand easier to measurethan BUD so efforts havebeenmadeto relate BUDto CUDloads on a sitespecific basis. To simplify matters. Industrialdischargesare subject to consents that are often set in tenns of CODand suspended solids. a That part ofthe oxygendemandwhich is readilybiodegradable is measuredby the biochemical oxygen demand(BUD)test.3.2. Limitson oxygendemandare usually set for treatmentworks effluents. the chemical oxygen demand(CUD).Wastewater characterisation by CODfractionation is therefore regarded as an indispensable stepfor the reliable modelling ofbiological treatmentprocesses (Orhon.2 Oxygen demand Oxygendemandis one ofthe most commonly used measures ofDWF quality.quality parametersare more commonly expressed as concentrations.1 QUALITYPARAMETERS Range and units A full list ofthequality parameters that could be considered in dryweatherflow would be extensive. The actual measurement of qualityparametersis always in terms ofconcentrationand conversionto massflow requiresa corresponding measurement offlow rate. CiRlAReport 177 21 . CUD tests do not differentiate betweenbiodegradable and inert organicmatter or between readilyand slowly biodegradable fractions. However. 3. Oxygendemandingsubstances can also enterwatercourses from combined sewer overflows during wetweather. 1994). are sometimes requiredfor treatment models.2. This is particularlyso if plant optimisation is being carried out or if nutrientremoval stages are proposed. this reportconcentrateson thosepollutantsfoundin dry weatherflow from domestic premises. Substances outside of these consentsshouldbe regarded as illegal dischargesand should not thereforebe considered in a characterisation process. It is importantas a measure ofthe depletionofdissolved oxygen in receiving waters. and determinetheir acceptability in terms of treatability oreffecton treatment processes.2 3.DWF has high oxygen demandand knowledge ofthis is needed to predictthe quantity in overflow spills. This is becauseboth concentrationand flow rates vary over the periodofa day. The standardBUDtest. These illegal dischargescan sometimes be causedby accidental spillage. No universal relationship has beenfound between the two parameters. Cautionhas to be applied whencalculatingmass flow — it is not the average concentration from a number ofsamplestaken over a day multiplied by the averagedaily flow. Forthe purposes ofcharacterising DWF. such as the 20-dayBUD. BUD is a subset ofthe total amount ofsubstances that can be oxidised by chemical means. so it is importantfor treatmentworksdesigners and operatorsto know the oxygen demandofthe incoming flow and howmuch has to be removed. the major quality parametersare usually expressed in terms ofmass(kg) per day.

There is no universal relationship betweenTOC and BOD. Most ofthese sanitarysolids are finely divided and carried in suspension in the bulk sewer flow. The soluble fractionof readily biodegradable organicmatter (rapidlyhydrolysable) constitutes 10-15%ofraw wastewater total COD. It can be furtherdividedas shown in Figure 3.also knownas aesthetic. Organic compoundsthat can be directly metabolised are limitedto small molecules ofvolatilefatty acids (WA.Total influentCOD has two major components: total non-biodegradable or inert COD and total biodegradable COD.3 Solids Wastewater containssolid material generatedby domestic appliances.refractory or intractablesolids)that are introducedinto the systemby water closets. ofcolloidalor fine can Oxygen-demanding nature. There aresome largergross solids(greaterthan 6 mm in two dimensions. and amino acids make up most of this fraction. Carbohydrates. alcohols. The hydrolysis under aerobic conditions is rapid and will be complete within a few hours. Readilybiodegradable Slowly biodegradb1e substzate substrate Rapidlyhyclrolysable substrate Slowlyhy&olys able substrate Figure 3. Hence the extentofthe sewer network will alter the size ofthisfractionconsiderably. peptones. butthere is a theoreticalrelationship between TOC and COD: C(12) + 02 (32)= CO2 (44) hence TOC x 2. Althoughnot comprehensively defined. Different removal methodsgive different resultsso it is importantto be clear on the methodused.1 Classification ofCOD fractions Analternativeto COD is a total organiccarbon(TOC)test. A knowledge ofthe particulate relative amountsof particulateand dissolved oxygen demandis required for some purposes. ethanol. This is sometimes used for reasonsof speed and reliability. also known as short-chainfatty acids (SCFA)).67 = COD substances be fullydissolved in the DWF.1. Methods used for measuringthe dissolved portion involve removingthe suspended matterby settlementor filtration. orattached to other matter suspended in theflow. and glucosecan accountfor between 50% and 70% of the readily availableCOD in DWF. 3. Meedsand Balmforth(1995) have suggested the following categories (the list includessolids that enter the sewer in surface runoff): condoms disposable nappies faeces 22 CIRIAReport 177 . some toilet paper and most sanitaryrefuse. WA.these includesomefaecal stools.2.

During low flow periods. urea and variouschemicalsand solvents. Deposited sediments can contribute tofirstfoulflush effects during stormevents. OrganicNitrogen Ammonia(NH4) Ammonianitrogenis producedat the first stage of decomposition oforganicnitrogen (eitheras ammonium salts or free ammonia). ammonia. Fine solids are importantin sewer systemdesign. It is the gross solids that cause aesthetic pollutionofreceivingwaters from combined sewer overflows. but quantitiesofeach ofthese solids maybe transportedunderdry weatherconditions. nitrite. 1996. (1996) havesuggested three classes ofsolids: sanitarysolids.which shouldensurethat they are kept in suspension and transportedto theoutlet. amino acids.1 Forms ofnitrogen Total Nitrogen Organicnitrogen. shoes. To determine design velocities one or more ofthefollowing parametersneedsto be known: particle size. Volatile suspended solids (VSS) gives an indicationoforganiccontent. Despite CIRIAReport 177 23 . Box 3.ammonia.fine tissue paper leaves miscellaneous (paperorigin) miscellaneous (fat origin) paper towels plastic sanitarytowels sweet wrappers tampons. and nitrate. Less common items are toothbrushes. Nitrate is nitrogenin its most highly oxidised form. TSS maybe further sub-divided into volatileand non-volatile. NationalBag It and Bin It Campaign.2. solids may deposit on the pipe invert or sediment bed but will be re-eroded as flow buildsup onceagain.1. nitrite and nitrate: but is expressed in a varietyofways as shownin Box 3. razor blades. Organicand ammoniacalnitrogen. Theseparametersgovern the rate at whichsewer sediments build up during dry weather. 3.relative density and settlingvelocity. 1993. Nitrogenexists in four mainforms: organic. It is the sanitarysolids that are most associatedwith DWF. Butler eta!. Total KjeldahlNitrogen(TKN) Nitrite(NO2) and Nitrate (NO3) One ofthe most commonly used measuresof nitrogen is total ammoniaand discharge consentsfor WwTW often set a limit on the concentration oftotal ammonia. stormwater solids (both transportedmainly in suspension and measured by the total suspended solids (TSS)test) and grit (carried mainlyasbedload). Nitriteis an intermediate oxidation state not normally present in large amounts. Molecular nitrogen bound to proteins. syringes.1995).4 Nitrogen Nitrogen is an importantelementsince biological reactions can only proceedif it is present in sufficient quantities.. rags or even puppies or kittens (Burchmore and Green. Friedleret a!. Treatmentworksdesigners use settleabilityas a measureof how quicklyparticles will settleand therefore how many will be removedby primary sedimentation.size distribution.

brewingand paper industriescan alsocontainvery high concentrations. organicsulphurcompounds and sulphatesare reducedto form sulphides. The principalproduct. Box 3. Phosphorus concentrations havediminisheddramaticallyin areas wherelegislation has imposed significant reductions in the amounts ofphosphorususedby manufacturers ofsynthetic detergents. ata high temperature. 1972). Orthophosphates are directly available forbiologicalmetabolism. Underanaerobicconditions. Organicphosphorusis bound in organicmatter. The usual forms found in solution includeorthophosphates. then excessive algal growthwill be prevented whatever the nitrogen Phosphorus. 3. Phosphorus can be expressed as total. leather. Somemodellers oftreatment worksprocesses prefer to work in terms ofTotal KjeldahlNitrogen(11(N)in order to carry out massbalance calculations. Organicsulphur compoundsare presentin excretaand industrialeffluents. The sulphatepresentin wastewateris derived principally from the municipal water supply but it can also be derivedfrom saline groundwaterinfiltration(Thistlethwayte.is formedmainly in the slimethat growson the wall ofsewers. organicor inorganic phosphorus(seeBox 3. 1994a). polyphosphates and organic phosphate. nitrate and nitrite. and effluents from the meat. it is unionised ammoniaabove a certainconcentration thresholdthat is most toxic to fish. hydrogen sulphide. Apartfrom the hydraulic and aestheticeffects. but polyphosphates must undergo (rather slow) hydrolysis to become available.6 Sulphates Domesticwastewater containssulphurcompounds. 24 CIRIA Report 177 . Themajorsources of phosphorus in domestic wastewater areexcreta(50-60%)and polyphosphate buildersin synthetic detergents(35-50%). Inorganicforms ofphosphorusexistas orthophosphate.this. Organically bound phosphate is usually ofminor importance. When usingthis measure oftotal nitrogen it is possible to keeptrack ofconversions between ammonia. OrganicPhosphorus InorganicPhosphorus 3.5 Phosphorus is a nutrientand in fresh waters is most often rate limitingfor If the small amountofphosphorusthat is present in wastewateris algal growth. The ratio ofunionised ammoniato total ammoniavarieswith pHand temperatureofthe receiving water and its toxicity depends on the dissolved oxygen concentration (Foundation for WaterResearch.2. metaphosphate or polyphosphate. like nitrogen. Nitrogenin the form ofnitrate is a nutrientand can promoteweed and algal growth (eutrophication) in receivingwaters. mercaptans and other compounds.2 Formsofphosphorus Total Phosphorus Total phosphorusexistsin organicand inorganic forms and is associatedwith eutrophication ofreceivingwaters. removed. Nutrient removal is sometimes requiredby dischargeconsents.2.2). concentration. The most favourable conditions for its production are small-diameter pipes filled with anaerobic wastewater for a long period. respiration ofthe algae and weedscan reduce dissolved oxygenlevels.

carbonates and hydroxide Alkalinityresults compoundsof calcium. electrical equipment.gravitysewers. and ladders(Boon. toxic gas that can cause seriousodour nuisance.00 24.. 1976). After few days' adaptationthe tolerance increases to 100 mg/i (Degremont. 1990) CIRIA Report 177 25 .2 shows the diurnal pattern oftotal coliforms with flow in sewer samplestaken in Dundee. magnesium. 1992) through chemicalcorrosion.in bath and laundrywastewaters(Siegristet a!. DailyTotal Coliforms 60 50 —40 C 30 20 0. sodiumand potassium. Methodologies for estimating therate ofgenerationof hydrogen sulphidehavebeen developed (Pomeroy. groundwater chemicals.00 17. thereby rapidly reducing DO concentrations. 1973). a 3. and wet wellsofpumpingstations. whereit reducesthe settleability ofsludge. Hydrogen sulphidealso causes problemsat treatmentworks.00 9.00 11n(twsl MI11to M&IØI Figure 3.00 20. Sulphides in concentrations of25 mg/I or more completely inhibitbiological growth in non-acclimatised activated sludgeprocesses.2.Hydrogen suiphidecan contaminate the atmospherein manholes. but theyare also present. Hydrogen sulphidein damp conditionscan damageconcrete. The alkalinityin wastewater helps to neutraliseany added acids and is particularlyimportantwherebiological nutrient removal is practisedorproposed. Whilethis does happenin the UK the problem is not as widespread as it is in hot climates. little is known about their numbers orbehaviourin seweragesystems. step-irons. 1976). 3. in smallamounts.2 Daily totalcoliforms(Jeffenes et al. Figure 3.2.8 Microbiological parameters Despitethe importance ofcolifonn bacteriaas indicators ofthe presenceofpathogenic micro-organisms.7 Alkalinity from the presence ofbicarbonates.00 4.00 12. and is expressed as mg/I and domestic CaCO3 Wastewater alkalinityis derived from water supply. It is supposed that most coliformbacteriaareintroducedinto the system viathe WC.It is acutely toxicto aquaticorganismsand could be a factor in fish kills near combined seweroverflows as it reacts immediately with any dissolve oxygenpresent. It is a flammable.

3. oils and greases into the sewer. Wastewater with adversepH is difficult to treat by biological meanswithoutacclimatisation. and subsequent scouring-off increases concentrations the flow. Thus. margarine. nuts and somefruit) and. this correlation is dependenton catchmentcharacteristics and thetime ofyear at whichthesamplesaretaken. Chloridecan alsobe introduced into sewers in coastalareas by saline intrusion. Fats are only sparingly soluble in water and are converted by hydrolysis to yieldfatty acids.9 Temperature Wastewater is warm (18°C in summerand 10°C in winter) becauseofwarm wastesfrom residentialand industrial areas.2. whichis a normalconstituentof urine. ThepH valueis importantbecausetherange that supports biological life is limited to betweenpH 6 and pH 9. Chemical reactionsare also very much linked to pH values.the chloridecontent is more or less constant.2. cereals.2. there is a relationshipbetween the number offaecalcoliformbacteriain flows ofwastewater and other physico-chemical water quality parameters. Bacterialgrowthoccursin sewer in slimes. The majorsources offats arefood preparation (butter. to a lesserextent. meats. proportional to population. Temperature is importantbecause it affects the rate ofchemicaland biological processes in the sewer and at the treatmentplant.vegetablefats and oil. It is also importantin terms ofits impacton receiving waterqualitybecauseit influencesdissolved oxygen saturation levels. Extremes oftemperaturecan be causedby industrial discharges. 1959). 3.According to Ashley and Dabrowski (1995). Fats.2. Duringdry weatherand in sedimentdeposits. 26 CIRIAReportl77 . oils and grease Fats is a general term often used to describe the whole range offats. Payneand Moys (1989) reportthat concentrations ofbacteriaare influenced by season. The chlorideconcentration The effectsofexcessive chloride contenton treatmentprocesses includethe following: • • • • • 3. 3. They are among the more stable organiccompounds (FOG) discharged and arenot easily degradedbiologically.12 increased effluent suspended solids and increased effluentturbidity decreasein organicremoval efficiency loss ofreactorvolatilesolids significantreduction in the levels and type ofprotozoa in the activatedsludge inhibition ofphosphorusremoval • inhibitionof nitrification. the ratio offaecal to total colifonnsis lowerduringthe summerthan in the winter.2 in hard water areas) and is heavily influenced the pH ofthe by local municipalwater.10 pH ThepH is a measureof the acidity ofwastewater. excreta. except when influencedby trade wastes(Escritt. Domestic wastewateris normally slightlyalkaline(pH 7.11 Chloride ofwastewater is mostly due to thepresenceofcommon salt. However. particularlyat high tide. Higher pH valuesare usually associated with industrial wastes.

Other substances can be toxicto humans. In somecases their dischargeto receivingwatersis strictly limitedto safeguard aquaticlife. usually ofindustrialorigin. with water demandsmuch higher in summer. Traditionally in the UK treatment works havebeen designedfor a flow to full treatmentdefined by Equation2. Diurnal patternsvary with the day ofthe week and with the season. or the Health and Safety at WorkAct 1974 — it can be provedthat theirdischargesare creating a nuisance. To mitigate such effects from commercial premises. whichoperateat high temperaturesand use powerful detergents. Because ofdiurnalvariation. A numberofsubstances. A subset ofthese substances is listed in UK legislationon Environmental Protection(Prescribed Processes and Substances) Regulations1991 and Trade Effluents(Prescribed Processes and Substances) Regulations 1989.At least one water service company in the UK issuesguidelineson waste disposal to cateringpremises.Fats cause problems in sewer systems becausetheycan solidify and cause blockages.3. Some substances interferewith the biological processes at treatment works by killing the microbes that carry out the treatment.treatmentworks and sewer systemsare designedto handle peak as well as minimumflows. arenot subject to tradeeffluentcontrolsbut couldbe prosecuted underthe Environmental ProtectionAct 1990. A diurnal pattern from domestic propertiesis illustratedin Figure3. zinc from galvanisedcisterns and other heavymetalsfrom householdproducts. Discharge ofsuch substances to sewers is either prohibitedor their concentrations are severely restricted in the UK. Theseeffectsmay alsocause grease traps to be by-passed.3 DIURNAL VARIATION Both flow rate and qualityparametersvary diurnally. purpose-built fat and grease traps can be installed. In recent yearsseasonal trends havebecome somewhat exaggerated. 3. Theseare containedin the EuropeanFramework Directive(1976). allows fat to travel furtherdown the drainagesystemwhereit congeals in public sewers rather than private drains.5. These includecopperand lead from pipework. The increaseduse ofautomatic dishwashers.2. This subset is called the UK Red List. dishwashers and washing machines. pesticides. persistentorbio-accumulative that priorityhas beengiven to eliminatingthem from the environment.Most ofthese are toxic in all but the smallesttrace quantities. CIRIA Report 177 27 . the WaterIndustryAct 1991. havebeen considered so toxic. However. Most ofthese substances are from industrial sources.13 Othersubstances Many other substances can be present in DWF includingheavymetals. Diurnal profilescan alsobe affected by varying levels of infiltration. Diurnal variations mayvary within a sewerage system becauseofattenuationeffects. These must be emptiedregularlyby a registered waste contractor. Restaurants if 3. baths. DWF should not includesignificant quantitiesofthese substances. known as theEuropeanBlack List. and there may also be long-term trends. herbicides. polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB5) and phthalates.The Framework Directivealso containsa Grey List ofother harmfulsubstances. a studyby Comberand Gunn (1996)has identifieda number ofsources ofheavymetalsin domestic wastewater.

00 24. 1995) 28 CIRIA Report 177 .3 Domestic daily waterusagepatterns(afterButlerand Graham.00 18.00 15.00 12.00 15.00 12.00 6.00 lime(Pie) Domesticdailywaterusage patterns 10 2 8 E I 2 0 3.00 6.00 21.00 21.00 9.00 24.00 9.Domestic daily waterusage patterns 10 0 '5 0 3.00 lime Figure 3.00 18.

1400 Diurnal Profile Dry Days . The plots exhibit an unusuallevel ofvariationas the site was subject to tidal influences.4.August95 1200 1000 800 0 U- 600 400 200 0.00 3. It is expectedthat plots for inland sites would of also showdailyvariationsbut perhapswith not such a wide range.00 15.00 18. Luck and Ashworth (1996) plottedthe dailydry weatherflows arrivingat a particularsite in August 1995. They areincludedhereas a reminderthat tidal influences canhavea significanteffecton the characterisation DWF in coastalareas.00 lime (hrs) Figure 3.5.00 6. Theseplots are shownin Figure3.4 Variation ofdaily peakflow (afterLuck and Ashworth.00 12.00 9.00 21. This has led to the conceptofmaximum daily peakflow (MI)PF)which is defined as the maximumflow arrivingon any diy day. 1996) CIRIA Report 177 29 . For many mediumto large treatmentworks the MDPF may be significantly lowerthan theflow calculated from Equation2.TheUK application oftheUWWTD suggests thatworks maybe designedto treat the diurnal cycle. Using the definition of a dry day as a day with no rainfollowinga 24-hour periodwith no rain.

30 CIRIAReport 177 .1). TheWC discharge volume is typically 9 litres.and the final thirdfor other uses such as washingup.1 Quantify ofwafer consumed for vanous household purposes Component WC flushing Washing/bathing Water consumed (litres/capita day) 52 37 22 15 Water consumed (%) 35 25 15 Food preparation/drinking Laundry 10 Car washing/garden use Other TOTAL 7 15 5 10 100 148 Most of this water is returnedfor treatmentvia the sewerage system.1 ESTIMATION OF DOMESTIC DWF Average flows and loads In thedomestic environment.5 litres. Changesin water use patternsand applianceownership mayalter these proportions. a Butler (1991. there is a strong linkbetweenwater consumption and wastewatergeneration. Approximately a third is used for WCflushing.1993) has shown howapplianceusagefrequency and volume influences the make-upofdomestic DWF inputs. Clearly. automatic dishwashersand showers. machineshave reducedconsumption to 90 litres. or less.4 Current knowledge and practice 4. waterby-lawsrequirethat all new WCs installed to have maximum flushvolume of7. It is estimatedin the UK that about 95% ofwater used appears as DWF in the sewer network (DoE.a third for personal washing.1. Implications for DWF are discussed later in Section 4. although it shouldbe noted that. 1992). Increasesofownershipand improvements in perfonnancehaveresultedin substantial increases in the frequency of use ofwashing machines. since January 1993.from 50 litres in the 1970s to water-conserving models now discharging just 20 litres.with water-efficient machinesusing as little as 60 litres.Dishwashers have alsoexperienced a reduction. Average shower volumes are 50% ofbath volumes. water is used in three main areas.1. Figure4.4 Water consumption trends.1 shows the combination ofappliancesthat is responsible for thecharacteristic diurnal pattern. Discharge volumes for washing machines have reducedsince the 1970s when discharge volume was estimatedby Rump(1978)as 115 litres. laundry and food preparation(seeTable 4. Thatwhichdoes not return is either consumed or used externallyfor gardenwatering and carwashing.1 4. Table 4. Morerecently.

1 Components of per capita domestic DWF (after Butlerand Gatt..00 6.00 Time (hrs) Figure 4.00 21. for boardingschools.00 24. However. hotels.00 3. In many broadly residential catchinentsthere will be buildings.2. Escntt (1984) quotes measurements made on a new housingestatewith no infiltration which gaveaper capita valueof 122 litres per day.00 15. 113 litres in medium-sized towns. 1991. CIRIAReportl77 31 . 1996) A review ofUK texts shows a wide range ofreportedfiguresforper capita DWFs. Edwards and Martin. hospitalsand similar residential establishments. and 142 litres in large towns. there is a considerable range ofvaluesbetween individuals.other than domestic dwellings. Ji be used.Componentsof per capita domesticDWF C C C U C 0.00 18. Typical valuesofwastewaterproduction from commercial sources are given in Section 4. 1995) and hence.00 12. primarilydue to the widespreaduse ofa 13. Iinhoff(1971)suggests the range offlows is 140 to 300 litrespercapita per day. Studiescommissioned by the water industry haveshown that per capita consumption is risingby about 1% a year in the UK. Bartlett(1979)suggests water usage is rarely less than 140 litresper capita per day. 1989). Currentdesign guidance on DWF estimation is includedin the British Standardon Sewerage (BS8005:1987). He estimatedper capita values at 68 litresin villages. The following advice is given: Typical discharge guresforsimilar developments to those under consideration may.6-litre WC cistern. using the 95% translationquoted earlier. the flow could be taken as that from normal domestic dwellings. However. Themost recentdataset for Englandshows a meanwater consumption figureof 145 litrespercapita per day (Russac eta!. Higher figures (25%)have beenreportedin Scotland (Gray. a domestic wastewaterflow of 138 litresper capita per day. with a meanof 180 litres.00 9. such as schools and hospitals. In the absenceofsuch dataafigure of220 1(200/ + 10% infiltration)may be assumedwhich when multipliedby the populationgives the averageflow or dry weather flow..

The methoduses the principles ofprobability theory. For larger sewerage schemes. Buildingdrainageand small sewerage schemes are designedusing the discharge unit method. each contributing200 litres/day.4. This takes accountof diurnal peaks and the daily andseasonalfiuctuationsin water consumption together with an allowance for extraneous flows such as infiltration. BS8005: 1987 states: Foulsewersarefrequently designedto carryfour to six times DWF.1) where PF P 0. the flow ofwastewater from a residential area has a distinctdiurnal pattern — low flows occur at night. 1995) suggests that peakflow forfoul seers serving residential developments is 4000 litres/unit dwelling/day. This is equivalent to threepersons per property. with peakflows occurringduring the morningandevening. North American engineers have established that peakflow ratesgenerallydecrease from inlet to outfall ofthe seweragenetwork and have therefore relatedthe magnitudeofthe peak factor to position in thenetwork. This relationship with populationhas alsobeen describedalgebraically with equations typically ofthe form: PF = pa (4. A third approach is basedon US practice. 32 CIRIA Report 177 . Accordingto the ASCEIWPCF Manual of Practicefor GravitySanitarySewerDesignand Construction (1982) peakflows can be determinedquantitatively using peakfactors related to population served (see Figure 4.as describedbelow. = = peak factor population drained in l000s In combined sewers. a differentapproach is taken. as dry weatherflow represents a small portion ofdesignstormflows. In a similar way. As previously described. Additionofthe relevantdischargeunits enables peakflow ratesfrom groupsofappliancesto be estimated. with a peakofsix timesDWF and 10% infiltration.2).1. and dischargeunits areassignedto individualappliancesto reflect their relativeload-producing effect. The most commonly used versionofthis method is that recommended by the British Standardon BuildingDrainage(BS8301:1985). A more detailedexplanation ofthis method is given by Wise and Swaffield (1995). thelargerfigure and relating to sub-catchments the smaller to trunk sewers. This derivation does not matchcurrent knowledge on per capita contributions (see Section 7. It is therefore possible to define an averageDWF and describepeakflow as a multiple ofthis average flow.2.2 Peak flows Peak DWFs in foul sewers can be estimatedby severalmethods. This is accomplished by determiningthepopulationserved or the averageflow rate at a particularpoint.peakDWF is not a significantissuefor sewer capacity. Average flows areestimatedper capita and peakflows are determined by the application ofpeak factors.SewersforAdoption (WaterServices Association.2).15 <a<0.

HE. In "HandbookofApplied Hydraulics.l 67 14 Curve B. "Sewerage andSewage Treatment.. NewYork (1953) 8th CurveA2source: Babbit. Thesewere obtainedby gaugingrelatively small catchmentareas of uniformcomposition. UnitedStatesArmy. Inc.M."2nd cdii. Curve Gsource: Fair."Forecasting Sewage at ToledounderDry-Weather Conditions. John Wiley &Sons. NewYork(1954) Curve A2. W. Washington D. 92. pe.McGraw-Hill Book Co.. John Wiley &Sons. 1982) 4.Rtion(Inthousids) 7th CurveAsource: Babbit.Ratio ofextremeflowsto average dailyflow 0 Curve A CrjveB — — — Curve C • ...3 Variability Pioneeringwork on DWF measurement in sewers was carried out in South Africamore than 30 years ago." Corps ofEngineers.. "Sewerage andSewage Treatment.G..News-Rec.G." cdii.CurveD Curve G CurveA2 —Curve E2 I Popi.. and Bauman. is+j equals population in thousands 4+ wherep Figure 4. Inc..2) = = Z s CIRIA Report 177 = = flow rate mean valueofrecorded flows confidence coefficient standard deviationof recorded flows 33 .. 175 (1945) Curve F source: "ManualofMilitaryConstruction.. He alsofound thatthe day-to-day variationin flowfor any particularcatchinentwas significant. NewYork(1958) CurveBsource: Harman. Shaw (1963)suggested construction ofwhat he called contributor hydrographs.M.C."Waterworks and Sewerage. "WaterSupplyand Waste-Disposal.. Ohio.1. NewYork(1952) Curve Esource: Gifit." 1st cdii.." cdii.C. andGeyer.2 Ratio ofextreme flowsto average daily flow (afterASCE/WPCF.. Inc. "EstimatingVariations in Domestic Sewage Flows. John Wiley&Sons." Eng. and to develop a hydrographsuitablefor use he suggested the following expression: Q=Q0+Zs where Q Q0 (4. J.. 1233 (1918) CurveC source: Youngstown. H. report Curve Dsource: MarylandState Department ofHealthcurve preparedin 1914..HE. ER. 50. ____ 4+ +1 CurveG..

Rates offlow greater than the average peak flow rate were plotted and found to approximateto the normal probability distribution.Aftercat-tying out a statistical analysisusingvarious integralvaluesofthe coefficient Z he suggested a valueofZ = 2 would be suitable for design purposes. Gainesalso produced algebraic equations to fit these curves: PF = aQb (4. The flow datawas again foundto be normally distributedat any particulartime ofday. The most recentUK research in this area is by Butler and Graham (1995). Ifthe data is normallydistributed this would be equivalent to assuminga confidencelimit of approximately 95%.3) where peak factor Q average flow 1. 4.025 <b <0. Flows at the± 95% confidence 34 CIRIA Report 177 .064 It is interestingthat both Gainesand Shaw noticedthenormal distributionofmeasured sewer flows. This work clearly showedthe stochastic nature ofDWF patterns. In theUSA. 1986) and similar results were obtained. The accuracyofthe predictedmean dailyand peak flows fell within ± 10%of measured values and the overallfit ofthe data throughoutthe day was found to be good (seeFigure level were alsowell modelled. who developed a model to predict the spatial and temporalvariationofdomesticDWF in sewer networks. Colorado.358 <a <5.155 PF = = 0. To facilitatecomputer simulationthe contributorhydrographs were fitted to a series ofsine wavesofdifferent amplitude. This consistedofsome 3500measurements offlow in the range 0. producing similarbut individual DWF diurnal plots. a recent study has been reportedby Gaines(1989) in the city ofDenver. located correctlyin time. The stochastic nature ofDWF impacts and DWF patternswas recognised and the binomialdistributionwas usedto model inflow from individual appliances.3).28 litres/s to 4248 litres/s. The necessary input data was providedby a small-scale domestic appliance usagesurveyand the model wasverifiedon a smallcombined sewer networkusing25 days ofDWF data. Further measurements along the same lines were madein Johannesburg by Stephenson and Mine (1985.

Again. 1995) 4. although there is an economy ofscaleas increase in occupancy effectively reducestheper capita demand. Watersupplycompanies themselves balance flows by pumpingat night to take advantage ofcheap-rate electricity. any increase or decreasein household occupancy levels is likelyto cause a commensurate increaseor decrease in water consumption.such as a high proportionofretiredpeople. a The use ofcheap-rate night-time electricity for dishwashersand washingmachinesmay increase night time DWF.PecIdiaid EWFprdIle C O. In the UK there is downward trend in occupancy level. will also result in changes in the amountofwaterconsumed and hence in the amountdischarged fortreatment (Russacet a!.4 Waterconsumptiontrends It is difficult to predictfuture trendsin water consumption..Changesin population structure. Binnie and Herrington(1992) havepredictedthat climatechange in the UK will lead to an increase in domestic water consumption of 10% by 2031.CO &OD 6W 9W 12(X) 1SW 1&W 21W 24W mm(Pws) Figure 4.1. Perhaps5% might be returned as DWF. and storingwater during theday. In particular.3 Prediction ofDWFprofile (afterButlerand Graham. Demographic changes will occur and these will bring about commensurate changesin water demand. 1991). This could be reducedby water metering:it has beendemonstrated in meteringtrials on the Isle of Wight that a 10% reduction in demandcan be expectedifmeteringis widely introduced. water meteringwill affect these patternsifwater is cheaperat night. CIRIAReport 177 35 . This sectiondescribes possible changesthat might havean effect on per capita DWF. due to increasedgarden wateringand personal showering.

(1996)for example.A major featureof demand-side management..2. Thevariation in concentrations(denotedby brackets) is causedmainlyby dilutiondue to varying degrees ofinfiltration. Detailed studiesin France (Chebbo et a!. the values presentedare linkedby a standardper capita consumption. Approximately 60%ofsuspended solids (200 mg/I) can normallybe removed by sedimentationgiven adequatetime (one to two hours). 1990) supports this assertionand also shows that approximately one third is mineral in content. in somecases followed by representative range (in brackets).001 on a wet basis. Reductionin water use has beenbroughtabout in the pastby water rationingwith public co-operation.5 Domestic wastewater quality The majorquality parametersand theirimportance are describedin Section 3. chemicaland microbiological characteristics.4). an area ofacuteconcern(CIWEM.Beckeret a!. 1990) haveshownthat suspended solidsin sewers under DWF consist predominantly (25%by mass) offine particles(30<d50<38 . A valueof200 litresper capita per day is used. Changesin the use ofwater-usingapplianceshavealreadyoccurred. (1966) state that specific gravities(SG) ofsanitary solidsrange from less than 1.4 otherwise. 1995). Valuesfor total BOD5and suspended solidsare useful.2 draws together typical pollutantlevels in UK domesticDWF. However.including physical. To try to ensure consistency within the table. settleability depends on the range ofparticlesizes.. a Thedata is expressed as loadper capita (which hasbeen arguedto be the more fundamentalvalue)andas concentration. These can vary from catchinentto catchment(seeFigure4. Fair et a!. Values in thetable havebeencompiledfrom many sources. Chebbo eta!. low-flush WCs. but more detailedknowledgecan be usefulfor optimising treatmentplant design. These changeswill continueto affect DWF.9 m/s. is the introduction ofwater saving appliances(minimumflow plumbingfixtures such as low-flow taps. their densitiesand henceparticle settlingvelocity. 4. It has alsobeen observed that pollutantconcentrationis correlatedwith particlesettlingvelocity fraction.tm).with increasedownershipof washing machines. somein tenns ofper capita load and some as concentration.but maybe as low as 1.0 to 1.m and 1. are compatible with existingfixturesand are cost-effective (NRA.2 on a dry basis. An importantelementfor thefuture will be education ofthe public on the needfor water conservation and the measuresneeded to implementit. Valuesgiven are means. 36 CIRIA Report 177 . (1990)found the SG to be 1. Workin Brussels (Verbancket a!.dishwashersand showers.6 for particlesless than 100 p. Table 4. compost and chemicaltoilets) and water-efficient luxury appliances(such as ecolabelled washingmachinesand dishwashers).1.showedthat most ofthe particulateCOD and phosphorusin wastewateris associatedwith solidswith settling velocities in the range 0.04 to 0. 1996).It is likelythat these will be steadily introduced on thebasis that they provide comparable service.

2 (6.2): soft water 20 20 20 100 100 dependenton watersupply 100 Totalcoliforms Faecalcoliforms Viruses 1 lO-lOMPN/lOO ml 1 0- I MPN/l00 ml 021 infectious units/100 ml * items/capitaday CiRlAReport 177 37 .15 300(180-450) Gross solids Sanitary refuse Toiletpaper Temperature Chemical BOD5 7 18 (15-20)°C: summer 10°C: winter Soluble Particulate Total COD Soluble Particulate 20 40 60 35 75 110 lOU 200 300 (200-400) 175 375 550 (350-750) Total TOC Nitrogen 40 4 8 200(100-300) 20 40 0 <1 OrganicN Ammonia Nitrites Nitrate Total Phosphorus Organic Inorganic 12 60 (30-85) 5 10 15 1 2 3 Total pH Chlorides Alkalinity FOGs Microbiological 7.5):hard water 7.2 Typical majorpollutant characteristics in domestic DWF (compiled from a numberofpublishedsources) Parametertype Parameter Load gicapita day Concentration mg/I (based on 200 litres/capita day) 240 60 Physical Suspended solids Volatile Fixed Total 48 12 60 0.6-8.Table 4.7-7.8 (7.

pubsand hotels.3 shows howtoilet usage is an even more dominantcomponent ofwater use (63%)than in the domestic enviromnent. — Iliracombe — St.001 001 0..washingand sanitaryfacilities. 1981). but patternsofuse are inevitably differentto those generated by domestic usage.2 ESTIMATION OF COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL DWF of Commercialusage water includes wastewater from businessessuch as shops. Estimates offlow are sometimes basedon the numberofemployees (allowingabout 20% of thedomestic consumption per employee) and sometimes on thefloor areaofthe commercial district (Barnes eta!.Elgin —Chesiesir —Warmwell Perci Eastbourr e I 0.4Settlingcharacteristics ofwastewater Andoh and Smisson.. offices. This factor maygive rise to significant'export' ofBODby commuters from residential to commercial areas.1 1 I 10 100 Settling velocity (crWsec) from severalcatchments (after Figure 4. 38 CIRIA Report 177 . laundries. sports complexes and light industrialunits. 1996) 4. For example. Table4.4 givesexamplesofannual wastewater volume producedby a varietyofcommercial sources. Table 4. Austell Miriehead — .— —— Totnes —.—. Demandis generated by drinking. Typicalcommercial establishments include restaurants.

1995) Category Placesofwork Campingsites Cottages Military installations Volumeofwastewater (m3lyr) 15-20 25-30 40-60 50-60 15-20 Per Employee Person per day Cottage Permanentresident Employee Bed Bed Bed Employee Hospitals 150-250 100-150 60-100 100-150 50-60 Nursing homes. Industrialeffluents can be highlyvariable (in both quantity and quality terms)due to such practicesas batchdischarges. Theprocessing liquorsfrom main industrial processes tend to be relatively strong while wastewaters from rinsing.personal hygiene) cooling processing (manufacture. Industrial wastewaters often contain: • CiRlAReport 177 extremesin organiccontent 39 . wasteandby-product removal. washing.effluents result from the following water uses: • • • • sanitary(washing. washingand condensing are comparatively weak.3 Proportion ofwater consumed for various office purposes(Gray. Thedetailedrate ofdischargewill vary from industry to industry and will depend significantly on the actualprocesses used.operation start-upsand shut-downsand workinghours distribution. Swimming baths Visitorper day Thecomponent ofDWF generated by industrialprocesses canbe an importantone in specific situations. but it is more difficultto characterise generallybecauseofthe large varietyofindustries. 1989) Component WCflushing Urinalflushing Washing Water consumed (%) 43 20 27 9 Canteenuse Cleaning TOTAL I 100 Table 4.. boardinghouses Restaurantsetc.drinking.Table 4.4 Annualvolume of wasfewaterproduced from various commercial sources (Henzeet al. sanatoriums Hotels. transportation) cleaning. In most cases.

By comparison with Table4. 1986) Quality component pH suspended solids BOD FOGs inflammables / hydrocarbons temperature Range 6-10 Problem corrosion 200 mg/I low <500mg/l 100 ing/l prohibited max. excess sludge wastewater treatmentplantoverload fouling hazardous. Martin eta!.• a deficiency of nutrients • • • inhibitingchemicals (toxins.bactericides) organiccompounds whichare resistantto biodegradation heavymetalsand accumulative persistentorganics.6. explosive vapours promotes corrosion. This table lists water consumption.numberofjoints and pipe size total length ofsewer (includinghouse connections) number and size ofmanholes and inspection chambers age ofsystem. It is conventional to allow at least 50% ofdomestic per capita flows foreach employee.5). Indeed the concentration ofpollutantsthat maybe discharged is strictly controlled (seeTable 4. increasessolubility causes treatmentinhibition sewer corrosion. HCNgas accumulation in sewer Theextreme variabilityand industry specific nature ofthese flows is amply illustratedin Table 4. Constituents ofindustrial effluents affectthe biodegradability ofthe wastewaterthat contain the wasteand hence may inhibitconventional biological treatment. Table 4. 1975.5 Effluentstandards for discharges to sewers (GIedhiII. 4. 43°C 10 mg/I sewerblockages. wastewaterproduction and pollutantload for a comprehensive list ofindustries.H2S gas in sewer up to 500mg/I toxic metals sulphate cyanides 500-1000mg/i 0-1 mg /1 treatmentinhibition. Mann (1979) suggests that a figureof40-80 litresper capita per eight-hourshift is appropriate..3 ESTIMATION OF INFILTRATION The level ofinfiltrationis site specific and is basedon the following components (Stanley.3 it can be seen that this representsabout 20% ofdailyper capita output. CiRlAReport 177 . 1982): • • • • • • • 40 typeof subsoil height ofgroundwaterlevel abovesewers standardofworkmanship in laying pipes typeofpipejoint. Most industrial premiseswill havea domestic component oftheirwasteand ideally the estimation ofthis shouldbe basedon a detailedsurvey offacilitiesand their use.

7-1. disinfectants Large variations in the water consumption depending on type of production 7-16 kg BOD7/t 500-1500 g BOD1/t 1000-2000 g BOD7/t 1000-2000 g BOD7It 500-2000 g BOD7/t 10-20 g Tot-P/tp Slaughtering + meat 10-25 kg BOD7/t 6-15 kg BOD1/t m3* 3-12 m3/tp 1-15 m3/tp 500-2000 g BOD7/t 500-1000 g BOD7/t 3-7 m/ m3 4-15 kg BOD1/t 1000-3000 g BOD7/m3 = product 3-7 m3/ m3* Caution: High pH t = ton raw material Caution: flotables 2-4 m3/t 4-8 m3/t 5-10 m3/t 5-10 m3It specialities Meat specialities Breweries Beerand soft drinks Canneries Potatoes (thy peel) Potatoes (wet peel) Beetroots Carrots Peas Mixed production (vegetables) 3-6 kg BOD7/t 5-1kg BOD7/t 20-40 kg BOD7/t 5-15 kg BOD7/t 15-30 kg BOD7/t 5000-10000 g BOD7/m3 10-50 kg BOD7/t 1000-2000 g BOD.7-2. dangerous chemicals(allergies) 100-1000 g BOD7/m3 200-600 g BOD7/m3 500-1500 g BOD7/m3 100-300 g BOD1/m3 1000-2000 g BOD7/m3 1000-2000 g BOD7/m3 Textile industuiy The whole industry Cotton Wool Synthetic fabrics Tanneries Tanneries 50-100 kg BODilt 70-120 kg BOD7/t 15-30 kg BOD7/t 30-100 kg. stiff hair.7-2. hydrogen sulfide gas. extreme pH-value.0 kg BOD7/t 0./m3 2000-3000 g BOD7/m3 3000-5000 g BOD7/m3 800-1500 g BOD7/m3 1000-2000 g BOD7/m3 if = ton finished product t = ton raw material 15-30 m3/t 20-30 m3/t Fish 8-15 m3/t 4-8 m3/t t = ton raw material Caution: High water temp.6 Industrial water usage and wastewater production (after Henze Ct al. BOD.4-1.Table 4.7-2.4-2. 1995) Specific pollution volumes Industry/ production Water Specific waste- consumption water production Concentration in the effluent Remarks t = tonne weighed in milk 0. chlorine gas.0 m3/t 0.0 kg BOD7/t Caution: pH-variations discharge/emission of 0.7-2.5 m3/t Dairies Milk for consumption Cheese Mixed production Slaughterhouse Slaughtering 0.7/t 30-100 kg BOD7/t 100-250 m3/t 100-250 m3/t 100-250 m3/t 50-100 m3ft 150-250 m3/t t = ton raw material t = ton raw material .7-3.7 m3/t 0.0 m3/t 0.0 m3/t 3-8 m3/tp tp = tonne product Caution: Strong smell.7-2.0 m3/t 0.8 kg BOD7/t 0.

0.5-1.03 kg Cr/cl approx. 0.5 m3/m2 100-200 g Cu/rn2 0-5g Sn/rn2 Before own treatment approx. 7 kg ZnJd approx. 70% lower water consumptionbut the same emission of pollution (kg BOD1Jt) Caution: High temp. complex builders = rn laminate 0-5 g Pb/rn2 200-400 g BOD1/m2 Photolabs 0.Industry! production hair Water Specific waste- consumption water production Concentration in the effluent Remarks Caution: chromium.8-1.5-1.3 gCdJm3 m3/d. 200 11(1-It) approx. acids Caution: Solvent Lt = low-pressure washing Car repair/wash Cars Lorries -- approx. sludge and Mixed production Hides Fur Laundries Wet washing 20-70 m3/t 20-40 m3/t 60-80 m3/t 20-60 m3/t 20-70 m3/t 20-40 m3/t 60-80 m3/t 20-60 m3/t Specific pollution volumes 1-4 kg Cr/t 0-100 kg S2/t 10-20 kg Tot-N/t 20-40 kg BOD. The table shows an average printer with a water consumptionof 30-40 170-230 g Zn/rn3 1. 400 11(Lt) approx.3 gAg/ni3 0.0 gCr/m3 0.5 gCNIni3 100-200 g Cu/rn3 O-5g Sn/rn3 0-5 g Pb/rn3 Laundries using counter-current wash have approx. 100 g CN/m3 After own treatment 1-10 g hm/m3 0.1-0.04 kg AgJd approx.01 kg CdJd Caution: Solvent.5 m3/m2 0.pH-variations.0-1. heavymetals. approx.5-1.5 rn3Im2 0. allergic reactions The expensesare based on an investigation made in the trade.5-1. 10m3/h 3-30 g hm/m2 2-20 CN/m2 Electrical circuit industries 0. m2 = m2 surface area hm = heavy metals have a flow < 50% of all galvano-industries 1m3/h Caution: Solvents.ft 10-20 kg Tot-P/t 30-70 g Cr/rn3 0-100 g S2/m3 200-400 g Tot-N/rn3 300-800 g BOD7/m3 10-50 g Tot-P/rn3 I tonne of washing Galvanic industries 20-200 I/rn2 20-200 1/rn2 <1 m3/h' max.2-0. 0. 1200 1I(Ht) Ht= high-pressurewashing .extremepH-value.5 rn3/m2 400-700 BOD'Im3 50-100 g EDTA/m3 Printing houses 30-40 m3/d 30-40 m3/d = m2 emulsion There are large variations in the pollution Caution: Damage to the skin by contact. 150 g hm/m3 approx.cyanide.

Infiltrationalong sewer lines usually arises as a result of poordesigndetailingor construction.5 DATA FOR SEWERAGE SYSTEMS MODELLING In computermodels ofsewersystems. but in practicemuch higher figures are used. In theUK.0 m3 per dayper mm diameterperkm length (Metcalfand Eddy. This is complicatedby thefact that infiltration levels canvaiy seasonally with catchmentwetness. Several nominalrules havebeen proposed for makingallowance for infiltrationflows at the designstage and two ofthese are outlined below.rateshave been measuredfrom 35 m3to 115 m3 per day per km length. diurnal profiles offlow canbe specified.ammoniaconcentrationscan be assumedtobe independentof theflow and ofBODand SS concentrations (nutrientloading is independentof flow) • BODand SS concentrations are inversely relatedto flow andpositively correlatedto each other.4 DATA FOR WASTEWATER TREATMENTDESIGN Schwinnand Dickson (1972) studied the magnitude. In old sewers.there was no significantcorrelation between the flow rate and the constituentpollutant concentrations.Infiltration can only reallybe assessed by field measurements.7 for use with the MOSQITO sewer modelling software. older editions ofSewersforAdoptionsuggested an allowancefor infiltration of 10%ofthedesign flow of6 DWF. Aalderink's(1990) study analysedthe correlation between dry weatherflow rate and concentrations ofpollutant. For smaller foulsewers serving housing estates. variabilityand inter-relationships betweenvarious pollutants at a treatmentworks(anunonia. Out ofsix water qualityparametersmeasured. 4.total nitrogen. and will generally increaseas the system degradesphysically. Stanley (1972)found ratesin existingsewers subject to infiltrationranging from 15% to 49%ofaverageDWF (19 to 102 litresper capita perday).The Foundationfor Water Research report on Development ofthe UrbanPollutionDatabase (1994b) suggests the revised default values shown inTable 4. 1991). 4. and phosphoruswere measuredin several raw domestic wastewaters). but the most extremeBODand SS concentrations generallydo not occur simultaneously • no pronouncedseasonal variations or differences betweenthedays oftheweek in the concentrations datawere found. CIRIA Report 177 43 . BODand anunonia.01 m3to 1. Theprimaryconclusions for thecatchmentstudied were: • for design purposes. For insewer waterquality modelling the three parametersusually requiredare the concentrations ofsuspended solids. Typical design guidanceis to allow 10% ofdesignper capita water consumption(in effect20 litres/capitaday). The amountofinfiltrationrangeswidely from 0.

7 Suggested Research.5 g/capita day 210 = 44. 44 CIRIA Report 177 .1 g/capita day 455 = 95. 1994) Parameter Flow (litres/capitaday) Total suspended solids(mg/I) BOD (mg/I) COD (mg/I) Ammonia (mg/I) Default value 210 250 = 52.3 g/capitaday Theother parametersquotedrelate to surface sediments and pipe sediment characteristics.defaultvalues for MOSQITO (afterFoundation for Water Table 4. No suggestions for the diurnalvariationofflow or qualityparametersare given.6 g/capita day 30 = 6. There does not seem to be any recommendation relating to DWF derived solids.

25 mm on any one day. The definition holds forwastewaterthat is essentiallydomestic in character. One ofthe main reasons for this is the inclusionof infiltration.1 Flow recession afterrain CIRIA Report 177 45 . The last rain occurredabout 09:00 on day 1 ofthe plot. This is the most widely used in practice(IWEM.1.1 5. Plotted againstthis are the flows from the following week duringwhichno rain occurred.1 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Time(days) Figure 5.5 Problems and data deficiencies 5.5 0. The graph indicatesthat indirect rainfall effectscontinuefor up to sevendays afterthe last rain beforea constant diurnal type and antecedent pattern is achieved.1 shows a seven-clayperiodfollowing a periodofrainfall. 1992) Fl 0.4 13-19Oct Flow20-26 Oct Rainfall 13-19 Oct 03 a E -20 E E E -30 IL 02 -40 II C 0.Where there is a significantindustrialcomponent it should be basedon the flow on five workingdays. This duration mayvary with catchment catchment wetness. To overcome this problem the Institute ofWaterPollution Control(IWPC. Figure5. Estimates ofinfiltrationare difficultto arrive at theoreticallyand the only this exact way ofestimation for existingsystems isbyfield measurement —but even can lead to confusion. butthere can be problemswith interpretation. 1975) defined dry weatherflow as The average dailyflow to the treatmentworks duringsevenconsecutive days without rainfollowingseven days duringwhich therainfall didnot exceed 0.1 PROBLEMS WITH DWF DEFINITION Delayed rainfall effects The conceptual definitionofthe quantity ofDWF is relatively straightforward.

08 0.02 0 00:00 06:00 12:00 18:00 00:00 Time (I-bum) 06:00 12:00 18:00 00. whilst havinga similar shape. —OCT —JAN 0.are differentin magnitude.3 Diurnalprofilesafterremovalofinfiltration 46 CIRIA Report 177 .02 0. however.1.03 0.12 0. for the same site in Januaryand October.01 0 00:00 06:00 12:00 18:00 00:00 lime(Hours) Figure 5.1 0.2 shows the diurnalprofilesfor two dry weatherdays. a significantdifficulty with this definitiondue to seasonal variation. in accordance with the abovedefinition.2 Seasonal variation There is.08 0.5.06 OCT 005 0. It can be seen that the two.07 0.3 compares the two profiles after the removal ofthe infiltration component wherethe two can be seen tobe almost identical. Figure 5.2 Effects ofinfiltration JAN 0.06 U0.0C Figure 5. The initial difference would therefore seem to be due solely to a seasonal difference in the level ofinfiltration. However.04 0. Figure 5.04 0.

4500 4000 25000 3500 3000 2500 15000 30000 a I0 . Significant shortfallsare identified. i.3.1. during and after rain. One explanationfor this is that the higher flows are scouringout sediment deposited on other dry days. On the dry days immediately after rain. The additionalloadsare unlikelyto be derived from the rainfall. However it is still only calculated over a quarter-yearperiod.4 Variation ofloadsto treatment 5. ofall dayswhen The medianflow is that valuewhich. the loadsare higher than on the dry days before rain. the median value over 24 hours rain didnot exceed) mm (infour quarters oftheyear). Furtherwork is needed to determine whetherthis explanationis correct and whetherthe effect occurs on other catchments. Figure 5. 5. It is also not clear if someofthe valuesincludefor non-metered commercial CIRIAReport 177 47 . a C g 20000 E 2000 0 1500 1000 10000 5000 DTotI 8O TotaI SS TotaI Flow 500 L Tim.It mightbe expected that oncethe effectsofdirect runoff haveended then the total load of BOD.4 shows the loads ofsuspended solidsand BOD delivered to a treatmentworks site before.1 to 4.e.Anattemptto overcome this difficulty was madeby theNationalWaterCouncil(NWC. No definition ofa dry day in terms of quality parameters has beenfound. Othervaluesare perceived to be designvaluesand mayallow for future increases in water consumption and mayalso allow for allowances for infiltration.4. but there arealsothequality aspects to consider. when selected from a given numberofall the eligibleflows ranked in order ofmagnitude. ammoniaand other quality parameters will return to thoseexpected on other drydays. whoseDWF definition states The median flow in dry weather. forms the mid-point ofthe series. In this section a reconciliation is attempted to see howfar current knowledgegoes to meeting the needs. The currentlyused methodologies and figures in relationto DWF havebeen described in Sections 4.3 Delayed rainfall effects on quality Theabove definitions consideronly flow. The review ofcurrentpracticehas revealed a range ofcurrently used values for domestic per capita outputsto sewers. Figure 5. Someofthese valuesare intendedto represent actualper capita outputsthat mayincrease in the futureor mayalreadyhave increased since theywere estimated.2 DATA DEFICIENCIES A summaryofthe needsofthe varioususers ofDWF was presentedin Section 2. Rain occurred on day 3 and the other days were dry. that it is 1979).

Several references investigated attemptsto characterisein-sewerqualityparametersin terms ofconcentration.inputs. with a wide range ofvaluesquoted foreach parameter. to derive defaultprofileswhichare attributable to smallareas. However. These referenceshave not beenquoted as it was stated in Chapter3 that a more relevant measure for the major parameters was in terms of load. References quotingper capita outputsofthe major parametersin terms ofload were more limitedand it seemed prudent to try to use availabledata to confirmthe accuracy ofthe figures. there are someparametersthat may impairthe efficiency oftreatmentprocesses whose effectdepends on concentration. Yet anotherareafor confusion could alsocentre on the export and importof certainparameters. This is discussed further in Chapter6. It is probably impractical to define defaultdiurnal profilesfor larger catchmentsdue to theirdependence on catchmentcharacteristics. as people conunute from home to work. however. Guidanceon howto estimateinfiltrationvaluesappearsto be limited. such as BOD. It maybe possible. 48 CIRIA Report 177 . Someguidance is available on peak dry weatherflow in sewers but virtually no guidance is available on the diurnal variationofdry weatherflowand quality parameters.

SS. For thepurposesofthis studytheareawas calculated by applyingthetrapezoidalruleto the hourly data: volume= (time step)/2* (first + last + (2 x intermediate)) (6. The datasets include those on the Urban PollutionDatabase. The concentration readingsfor the qualityparameterswere then converted to massflow by multiplyingby the flow rate: concentration(mg/I) x flow rate (m3/s)= mass flow (g/s) (6. An example of these calculationsis shownin Box 6. The numberof 24-hourdata sets for each site rangedfrom 1 to 25.2 METHODOLOGY OF ANALYSIS The analysisis concentrated on parameters for whichdatawas availableat hourly intervalsover 24-hourperiods: flow. There was insufficient information on other parameters. as faras possible. tojusti!'detailed analysis. Plottingall the data sets for each site on a single graphfor each parameterenabledan assessment ofthe amount ofscatterin the resultsbetween datasets to be made.andthat real differences are slight. ammoniaand either BOD or COD.6 Analysis of data 6. A basic hypothesis was adopted for the analysis: that apparentdifferences in DWF characteristicsbetween catchments arecausedmainlyby differences in infiltration rates. This mass is equal to the area under the curve on a graph ofmassflow against time. additionaldatasupplied by water undertakingsin England and Scotland: and daily summaiy datafor 76 WwTW sites in England and Wales providedby the Smisson Foundation. Flow-only datawas available for severalmore sites.2) The total volume offlow in the 24-hourperiodwasalso calculated. Data sets were obtainedfrom 95 sites whereat least somequality parameterswere measuredat frequent (hourly or shorter) intervalsover a 24-hourperiod. the data was expressed graphicallyby plottingeach parameteragainst time. Therefore. 6.1. ammoniaand BOD/COD betweenthe sites. SS. This facilitatedthe comparison ofthe diurnal profilesofflow. As a first step. existingdatahas beenanalysed. An average concentration over 24 hours for the qualityparameterswas then obtainedby dividing thetotal massby thetotal volume offlow.1 INTRODUCTION To characterise DWF. calculations were carried out using flows net of infiltration. such as dissolved BOD. CiRlAReport 177 49 .1) The total mass ofeach quality parameterover the 24-hourperiodwas then calculated.

Box 6.1 Mass flow and flow volume calculation


C flow volume

ammorna con-

ammoniamass ammoniamass flowg/s g 1.222 0.834 0.560 0.372 0.372 0.470 0.907 2.745 4.536 3.077
1.986 1.545 1.543 1.408 1.114 1.238 1.133 1.804 1.602 1.556 1.333 1.421

centration mg/I 34.9 26.9 19.3 13.3 12.4 14.7 21.1 37.6 56.7 44.6 29.2 27.1 25.3

00:00 01:00 02:00 03:00 04:00 05:00 06:00 07:00 08:00 09:00 10:00 11:00 12:00 13:00 14:00 15:00 16:00 17:00 18:00 19:00 20:00 21:00 22:00 23:00 00:00

0.035 0.031 0.029 0.028 0.030 0.032 0.043 0.073 0.080 0.069 0.068 0.057 0.061 0.057 0.056 0.055 0.055 0.058 0.060



1672 1342 1512

102.6 104.4 111.6 135.0 208.8 275.4 268.2 246.6 225.0 212.4 212.4 203.4 199.8 198.0 203.4 212.4 217.8 230.4 235.8 216.0 185.4 153.0

12985 13584

9100 6334 5565 5310 4536 4236 4267 5258 6138

19.9 22.5

31.1 26.7 25.5 19.9 22.2 16.2 29.5 34.9

5230 4964

0.067 0.064 0.056 0.047


0.907 1.387 1.326


68.4 4584.6 m3

Totalflow volume

Total mass ofammonia

125737 g

Average concentration = 125737/4584.6

= 27.4 mg/I

ColumnsA, B and D containmeasuredvalues. ColumnsC, E and F contain values calculated fromEquations6.1 and 6.2 as follows: Cell C(I) = ((cell B(I) + cell B(I+l))/2) x (cellA(I+l)- cell A(I)) x 3600 Cell E(I) = cell D(I) x cell B(I) Cell F(I) = ((cell E(I) + cell E(I+l))/2)x (cellA(I+l)- cell A(I)) x 3600


CIRIA Report 177

Thetotal measured flow was then split into population-generated and infiltration components using the formulagiven in the CIRIA reportControl ofInfiltration to
Sewers (1997):

PG= (DWF -Mm) F
where DWF =



= = =

averagedaily diy weather flow minimum night-timeflow factor

flow population-generated

Oneproblem in using this equationis its sensitivity to thefactor F, and this is discussed later in this Chapter. Examples ofthe calculationare shownin Box 6.2.
An averageconcentrationofthe qualityparametersover 24 hours was also calculatedby dividingthe total massby the total volume ofpopulation-generated flow.

Box 6.2 Removal ofinfiltration and calculation ofaverage concentration
INFILTRATION = (average minimum) / 0.9 = (0.53 -0.28)/0.9= 0.025 m3Is Columns A and B containmeasured values average flow= 0.053 m3/s volume ofinfiltration in24 hours = 0.025 x24 x3600= 2186 m3



flow m3/s



B flow m3/s


totalflow infiltration


0.035 0.031 0.029 0.028 0.030 0.032 0.043 0.073 0.080 0.069 0.068 0.057 0.061

0.010 0.006 0.004 0.003 0.005 0.007 0.018 0.048 0.055 0.044 0.043 0.032 0.036

13:00 14:00 15:00 16:00 17:00 18:00 19:00

0.057 0.056 0.055 0.055 0.058 0.060 0.061 0.067 0.064 0.056 0.047 0.038

0.032 0.031 0.030 0.030 0.033 0.035 0.036 0.042 0.039

01:00 02:00 03:00 04:00 05:00 06:00 07:00 08:00 09:00 10:00 11:00 12:00

20:00 21:00 22:00 23:00 00:00

0.022 0.013

CiRlAReport 177



Wheredatawas at hourly intervals, valueswere frequentlymissing.Ifan isolated value was missingthis was addedby interpolation. Ifseveral data valueswere missingthe datawas rejected. Thetime ofday at which measurements startedvaried betweendata sets. In order to standardisethe datafor comparison the datasets were rearrangedto run from midnightto midnight. Anomalies were noted in someoftheflow data. There were sites wherethe measured minimumflow at night was less than that measuredat a site upstream. This could indicatea bifurcationor significantexfiltration betweenthe two sites, or an error in flow measurement at one or both ofthe sites.

At somesites the averagemeasuredflow varied significantly from day to day. Examination ofthe flow hydrographs suggested that in somecases these differences were probably due to measurement problems rather than real changes. Littlebackground information was available to confirmjudgementson qualityofflow dataso all flow datahas beentaken at face value.

In somecasesflow data was suppliedas an integral part ofthedataset. In othersthe

flow data was suppliedseparately from the qualitydata. There were indicationswith some ofthe separately suppliedsets that the flow data had beencollectedto GMT. which is standardpracticefor flow monitoring,whereasthe qualitydatahad been collectedto BST. For other sets the time base to which the clocktimes referredwas not clear and an assumption had to be made. Because ofthe limitednumber ofusabledata sets for most sites, no differentiation has beenmadebetweenweekday and weekend



of infiltration

As mentioned earlier, the estimation ofthe infiltrationcomponent of measuredflow is sensitiveto the valueused for F in Equation6.3. In the most upstreamparts ofsewer systemsF is thought to be in the range 0.88 to 0.92 in line with minimumnight-time flows. Because ofattenuation,this factor is likelyto decreasein the downstream reaches oflargersystems. F shouldalso take into accountflows from industrial premises, which may be working24-hourdays. As insufficient knowledge was availablefor someofthe datasites thevalueofF to be used was uncertain.Experience in usingtheformulahas also shown it to be very sensitive to the accuracy ofthe flow data—for averagedaily flows ofless than 10 litres/sthe flow rates needto be accurateto 0.1 litre/s.

In theabsenceofbetter information about the sites, a constantvalueofF = 0.9 has been used for all infiltrationcalculations. To illustratethe sensitivity to F. one ofthe datasets with the highest daily flow volume was considered. This location is described asbeing on a trunk sewer,and as such a lowervalue ofF is likelyto apply. For this site:
flow = 353 1/s Average measured Minimummeasured flow = 204 I/s with F = 0.9. populationgeneratedflow = 166 litres/s with F = 0.8 (allowingf-rattenuationat this downstream site), population-generated
flow 52 1871/s.

CIRIA Report 177


To establish dailypercapitacontributionofflow,the total volume netofinfiltrationwas the correlated thecontributingpopulation.The graphis presented in Figure 6.1. which also contains thebest-fit regressionline, its equation andcorrelation coefficient.The slope ofthe line correspondsto thepercapita output offlow:


Netflow volume = (percapitaoutput) x (population)




6 C 0 2500

0 8 0

















Figure 6.1 Total flow volume minusinfiltration against population
Similarregressions carriedout for total daily loads ofBOD, suspendedsolids and were ammonia against populationin orderto estimate the dailyper capitaoutputs ofthese parameters. The results ofthese regressionsare presented inTable6.1.

Table 6.1 Calculated per capita flow and load FLOW BOD
67.7 0.709 SS 56.0 0.658 NH4 6.2 0.567

Per capita dailyoutputfrom population (g)

148 0.558

Unfortunately,the contributingpopulationswere known for relativelyfew sites. This reduced data set, together uncertaintyabout the reliabilityofsome ofthe data, has resulted in a largeamount ofscatter as indicated by the correlation coefficient.


Because the aboveresults were not felt to be conclusiveitwas decidedto try to make as much use ofthe availabledata as possibleby adoptingan alternative methodology.Thetotal daily loadsfor each qualityparameterwere nowcorrelatedagainst total dailyflow volumes net of infiltration.Thecorrelation oftotal mass ofammonia against net flow volume ispresented in Figure 6.2.



was still low.8. Anomalies in the data are mentionedabove. Revised concentrations for suspended solids.2.0. a figureforper capita flow of 140 litres/capitaday was used. Point 1 is thepoint given as the example in the calculations showing the sensitivity to thefactorF.2. Load= concentrationxvolume (6. This was replottedusingthe estimate ofnetflowcalculatedwith F = 0. three ofthe datapointswere recalculated.8718 * * — C 600000 : I- 400000 * * C 300000 200000 ' C C C C C * $ 100000 0 0 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000 NetFlowVolume lm) Figure 6. In this casetheflow rateswere adjustedto includeadditional infiltrationand the masses ofSS. The pointsare indicated in Figure6. Using information about the catchment.5) The correlationcoefficientforthis relationship. The regression through the revised points(Figure6. BOD and ammoniaand the new correlation coefficients are shownin Table6.2 Total flow volume minus infiltration againstmass ofammonia The slopeofthis regressionline nowrepresentsthe concentrationofammonia net of infiltration. BODand ammoniawere recalculated using the revised values. but However. In order to convert concentration to load.671x 700000 R2 — 0.900000 800000 y—41. 54 CIRIA Report177 .87.3) shows a much stronger correlation than was shown previously. The third point is a site where sufficient background information was availableto confirmthe flow monitorwas under reading. Point 2 is a site wherethe apparentinfiltrationwas lowerthan at an upstreamsite on thesame sewer. the desiredoutputofthe analysiswas not concentration per capita load. Analysis showed it to be heavily influencedby the highervalues on therightofthe graph.For this site the flow rates were corrected and the masses ofthe qualityparametersrecalculated.

9 0.926 54.857 53. Note that if infiltrationis removed then the diurnal profilesfor population-generated flow are identical. The effects ofseasonally varyinginfiltrationlevels have alreadybeen discussed.E C I 0 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000 Net Flow Volume (m3) Figure 6. 6. SS and ammoniagenerally supportthose derived by the preferred method ofanalysisadoptedearlier. The varying levels ofinfiltration alsoaffectthe shape of the diurnal curve expressed in dimensionless form by dividingthroughby the averageflow.6 Percapita dailyoutput(g) (based on 1401/cd) It canbe seen that these valuesofper capita output ofBOD. This is shownin Figure 6.3 Total flow volume minusinfiltration againstmass ofammonia Table 6.2 Percapita loadsfrom concentration BOD Concentration basedon net flow (mg/I) Correlation coefficient basedon net flow 383 SS NH4 47 0. CIRIAReportl77 55 .946 6.4.5 DIURNAL PROFILES Examinationofthe diurnal plots illustrates someofthe spatial and temporalvariations referredto earlier.58 392 0.

03 0 JAN ocr 0.4 0.02 0. The amount ofattenuationdepends on the size and steepness ofthe sewer system. 0.08 0.2 0 00:00 0300 06:00 0900 12:00 1500 18:00 2100 0000 TIME (Hours) Figure 6.5 shows diurnal profilesfor the same day for two pointsalong the same trunk sewer. UPSTREAM 18 16 DOWNSTREAM 0 > 15 IS 14 12 Dl IS > < 08 0 c 0.07 0.04 U.4 Dimensionless DWFprofiles Figure6.6 0 U- t U 0.01 0 0000 oaoo C60 09:00 12:00 15:00 18:00 21:00 00:00 Time(hrs) Figure 6.Dimensionless DWF Profiles 0.5 Attenuation ofdiurnal profiles 56 CIRIA Report 177 .05 0.06 0. From this it can be seen how the diurnal profileattenuatesas it moves downstream.

It is certainly thecase that few ofthe dimensionless profilesexamined exceededa peak oftwicethe averageflow.6 showthe dailypeaks barelyexceeding 1. but it is interestingto notethat thestart ofthe morningincreasein flow starts at the same time on all three workingdays.) Figure 6. Thequalitydeterminands also showa diurnal variationin concentration. . It can be seen that a very consistent pattern is exhibited.0. ofthis diurnalvariationcanperhapsbe explainedby the varying ratios of infiltrationto population-generated flow throughthe day.day 0. an hour later on the Saturdayand an hour later still on the Sunday.6 Diurnalpatternsover consecutive days Figure 6..05 0 04 0. but not the whole.06 0. Thereareobviousdifferences.02 0.(Hoar. Part. Figure6.7 shows the diurnal variationofammoniaat the upstream site used in Figure 6.DryDay1.5 over three dry days.5 and 6. This mightbe partlybecauseofthe effects ofinfiltration. Despitethese differences there is very little difference in the peakflows. £ a a a £ • £ U a 10 . AnalysisofFigures6. 00:00 03:00 06:00 09:00 12:00 15:00 18:00 21:00 00:00 Time (Hours) Figure 6.6 comparesthe diurnal pattern ofthe inflowto a WwTW overfiveconsecutive diy days.01 00'OO 03:00 0600 09:00 12:00 1000 18:00 21:00 00 00 Tin.03 —Thuraday —Fuday —Sunday Mnnday —Satu.8 timesthe averageflow.7 Diurnalvariation of ammonia concentration CIRIA Report 177 57 .DryDey2*DryDay3 60 2 50 40 C S U 0 30 C 0 U C 20 I U 0 2 I.

The analytical resultsforthese parameters are less consistent. Figure6.9 and 6. Over short time scalesammoniais a largely conservative parameter.Like flow rate.8 comparesthe upstream and downstreamdiurnalvariationsin ammoniaconcentrationfor the same sites used for flow in Figure6.The patternsare shownin Figures6.10. this pattern tends to attenuate' in the downstream directiondue to the processes ofadvection and dispersion in the flow. Dry day 600 500 1 a Dry day 2 a Dry day 31 a 400 300 C 200 0 U 100 U . a a a £ a • a a * a • a • • a £ a a a a a • all a £ 03:00 a U a a 06:00 09:00 12:00 15:00 18:00 21:00 00:00 00:00 Tim. It is therefore easy to obtain representative samplesand the analytical techniquesare relatively robust.5. (Hours) solids concentration Figure 6. Suspended solidsare more difficultto sample representatively and someBOD load is attachedto suspended matter.8 Attenuation ofdiurnalammoniaprofile Forsuspended solidsand BOD such aclearlydefinedpattern is not apparentalthough there are consistentlowerconcentrations in the small hours ofthe morning. . Some ofthe observed variabilityis probablydue to samplingand analysiserrors.9 Diurnalvariation ofsuspended 58 CIRIA Report177 .carried as a dissolved load. —UPSTREAM —DOWNSTREAM! J40 00:00 03:00 06:00 09-00 12-00 15:00 18:00 21:00 00-00 Time(Hours) Figure 6.

Defaultdiurnal profilesshould thereforebe developed basedon areas ofabout this size.so it has not been possible to review long-term effects — suchas changing infiltrationlevels — on the various parameters. profiles (and loads) can be generatedfrom a suitable in-sewermodel. — a [DrYY1 DtyDay3 a •DryDay2 a a N I n 03:00 • 0 00:00 I I I • • 12:00 I I 06:00 09:00 15:00 18:00 21:00 00 Tuve(Hoits) Figure 6. This would permitthe definingofdefault diurnal based on flows net of profiles. due to the effects ofattenuationand advection and dispersion.0 C200 . they are dependenton the size.a 400 350 . and this is especially necessary for thequality parameters.7 MODELLING REQUIREMENTS Per capitainputs. Most detailedmodels ofsewerage systems typically divide the catchmentinto contributingareas in the range 1 ha to 5 ha.4 above. Aswith WwTW modelling. Another requirementis the diurnalvariationofthe flow and quality parameters. A difficulty with doing this is that the flows generatedare so small that theycan be difficultto measure. For WwTW modelling it is not believed possible to arrive at default diurnal profilesas. havealreadybeendiscussedin Section 6. I a a . However.10 Diurnalvariation ofBOD concentration 6.6 SEASONALVARIATION Very few ofthe data sets contained range ofeventsthat covereda long time period.It is thereforesuggested that population-generated flow and infiltrationare input as two separate entitiesinto the model. definingdefault diurnal profilesmay not be possible in terms oftotal flow becauseofthe effects ofvaryinginfiltrationlevels. is detailedbelow. whichhas one ofthesmallestdaily total flows.flows and general nature ofthe catchment. a 300 E '25. X. To illustratethe principles an attemptto definediurnal profiles for one site. CIRIA Report 177 59 . It would also allow defaultvalues ofparameters infiltrationto be defined. which are one ofthe requirements for modelling for both in-sewer flows and quality and WwTW flows andquality.. a 6. The diurnalprofilestobe appliedto in-sewer models shouldbe appropriateto the size oftheindividual contributing areas.

0000 0007 0. The methodology would be to find a valueofinfiltrationwhich. when applied in the way illustratedin the examples given in Section 6. producedan average adjustedammoniaconcentrationequalto the accepted defaultnet concentration. Theseprofileshavebeen basedon a singleeventfora single site.24 1040 1912 27. Ifa definitivevaluefor net ammonia concentrationcould be arrivedat then this mayprovidea better meansofseparating infiltration.Figure6. Default profilesshould ideally be developed from a range ofeventsfor a range ofsites.11 shows a typical dailyflow hydrographfor the site.006 0. It canbe seen that the hydrographis stepped as flows are only presentedat a resolution ofone litre/second..005 0004 0 003 0002 0 001 00:00 02:24 04:40 07:12 09:36 7200 TI.4.11 Total measured daily flow at SiteX It has been noted that measurements ofammoniaconcentrationtend to be fairly consistentacross most ofthe data sites. This lack ofresolution affectsthe accuracy with whichEquation6.. This methodology has beencarried out for one eventfor Site X assumingadefault net ammoniaconcentration of47 mg/l in line with the calculationsin Section 6. 14..12 Dimensionless diurnalproifies of SS and ammonia FromFigure6.36 0000 Figure 6. r-ss • 004 •0 060 040 020 0000 03 00 0600 09:00 TIM 200 5:00 4:00 2700 0000 Figure 6. It is 60 CIRIA Report 177 . The resultingvalue ofinfiltrationwas used to calculateadjustedconcentrationsfor ammonia and SS at hourlyintervals.3 for separating infiltrationcan be used.4. There is a consequent knockon effect in defining a default diurnal profilefor flow that is net ofinfiltration.12 it canbe seen that ammoniaand suspended solids concentrations have differentdiurnalprofilesanddifferentdefault profiles shouldthereforebe specified. Theseadjustedvalueswere then converted to dimensionless profilesby dividingthroughby the average net concentrations.

valuesestablished using the limiteddatasets with population available havebeen supported by an alternativetechnique. Anotheraspectthat it was hopedwould be addressed from a modelling point ofview was the settleability of the suspended sediments in the DWF and theireffecton the measuredconcentrations of SS and BOD or COD. They havebeen developed to represent an averagecondition and mayneed refinement for particularcatchments. but lack ofbackground knowledge ofthe studycatchmentsand uncertaintiesover the accuracy ofthe datamakesit difficult tobe sure. shouldbe used as a framework for furtheranalysisleading to a greater understandingofthe nature ofDWF. 6. The hypothesis. There can also be temporalvariationsat the same site with differences between weekdayand weekendprofiles. and someofthe methodologies for analysingDWF developed as partofthis project.but eventhis might not provesatisfactory by itselfas these may all needadjustmentfor differences in topography. The resultsofthe analysishaveshownthat the dimensionless hydrographs can vary from location to location evenwithin the same sewerage system. under-estimation offlow will lead to under-calculation ofthe masses of thequality parameters.8. To demonstrate this. There is thereforea probability that the derived per capita and net concentrations are too low. As no datasets with complete datahavebeen rejected the inclusion ofpossibly erroneous datacould lead to a bias in the regression analysis.3 Diurnal variation As with other parametersit was hopedto be able to developsome standarddiurnal profiles forflow and the major qualityparametersby removingthe effects of infiltration. the effects ofinfiltrationhavebeen removed. whichwould be ofuse in sewer system modelling has been developed. Inaccurate flow rate measurement tends on the wholeto lead to under-estimation rather than over-estimation of infiltration rates.1 CONCLUSIONS FROM THE ANALYSIS The basic hypothesis The basic hypothesis behindthis analysis is that apparentdifferences in DWF characteristics between catchments are caused mainlyby infiltration. 6. It CIRlAReportl77 61 . Furthermore.8 6. Aninitial set ofdefaultdiurnal profiles. Three profiles arepresentedfor flow.2 Per capita outputs Absence ofpopulation datafor a significantproportionofthe datasets has madeit difficult to establish definitivevaluesforper capita outputsofflow and the various qualityparameters. In principleit should be possible to develop a seriesofprofilesfor catchmentsofdifferentsizes.8.). Againlittle datawas availablewith which to attemptthis. anunoniaand suspended solids/BOD. These differences havebeen attributedto the processes ofattenuationfor flow and advection and dispersionfor the quality parameters. However. 6.8. Much ofthe analysis supports the hypothesis. SS and ammoniathat are net of infiltration. appropriateto relatively small areas (1-5 ha. This alternative techniquealsoestablished concentrations forBOD. Most available analyses seem to havebeencarried out on sedimentsamples rather than samplescollected from the flow.believed that there are not enoughappropriatesites with suitable data in the current data set to complete this exercise.

8. This was partly due to the requirement to estimatea value ofthefactorF and partly due to notbeing able to makea sufficiently accurate estimate ofthe minimumflow at sites wherethe average flow was low and flow rate was availableonly in litre/second increments. Difficulties were encountered with the use ofthis fonnula. Thetime shift from GMT to BST shouldalso notbe forgotten ifmeasurements continueon a GMT basis during summer months. If. the depositedmaterial which is scouredout during stormsshould prove readilysettleable and would then be removed in the primarytanks. There could alsobe problemswith sewer systems thatdepositsedimentin sewer duringdry weatheronly for the deposited loadto be flushedout during storms. Over the periodofa year 50% removal ofin-sewersolidsmay wellbe achieved. as in the UWWTD requirementfor 50% removal ofsolids duringthe primarysedimentation process. then animoniaconcentrations mayoffer an alternativemethodology for estimatinginfiltration. Ifsomeofthe solidsload is transportedby bedloadin the sewer system it may notbe picked up in the sampling for suspended solids thus leadingto an under-estimation ofthe solids load removed. as appears to be the case. Overall infiltrationin the analyses for this study rangedfrom 0% to 89%oftotal measuredflow.5 Sampling and analysis Thequalityresults ammonia most sites analysed producereasonably consistent for for results from day to day. to inconsistencies in the sampling and analysis techniquesfor these two variables. 6. tending to confirmtheanalysisofvery high infiltration. 62 CIRIA Report 177 .However. It appears that ammoniacan be measuredreasonably accurately and consistently. therefore.3. Infiltration.8. This has implications for WwTW operatorswhoare trying to demonstrate compliance with percentage removal effluentconsents. evenat high inflowrates.9 wouldbe likely to apply. Because ofin-sewer deposition the suspended solids measurements at the inlet may be untypically low in dry weather. where crude wastewaterload and concentrationis the startingpoint. There are probably larger sources oferror in the crude wastewater rather than the more homogeneous settled wastewater. The quality parameterconcentrations for this site were alsoveiy low.4 Estimation of infiltration The calculations estimateinfiltrationin this report were carried out using Equation to 6.has been demonstrated thateven for a single site the diurnal patternswill valy from day to day and especially from weekday to weekend.with a meanof45%. The catchmentwith the highestcalculated infiltrationserved a relatively small populationand was thereforeone to whichthe defaultvalue ofF = 0. At the moment compliancewill bejudged against samples takenatthe worksinlet and at theoutletfrom theprimarytanks wherethere is theprobability thatboth samples couldbe in error.2. It isbelieved that in part this scattercould be due to prior deposition ofsuspended solidsand associated BOD upstreamin the sewer system and in part. could be estimatedby findingthe flow rate necessary to adjust the measured ammoniaconcentrationto the expectednet average value usingthe calculationsset out in Box 6. 6. whereas the resultsfor suspended solids and BODhave containeda large amountofscatter. ammonialoadsper capita for domestic wastewater are relatively constantacross the range ofcatchmentareas.

CIRIAReportl77 63 . particlesize and other properties. Such propertieswould alsobe ofinterestto WwTW designers and modellers so that percentage removals in primarytanks could be estimatedmore accurately. Thesemodels could predictthe likelybehaviourofthe The valuesofparametersrequiredwould includeinlonnation on the propertiesofthe settleable solids so that theirin-sewerbehaviourcould be predictedaccurately. to in-sewerwater qualitymodels. Furtherwork on this aspect is required. In this contextthe ratio ofvolatile to total suspended solidsis also required.better analysismethods are advisable. In caseswhere meeting50% removal mayotherwise involve adding chemical dosingand extra sludge treatment.The overalleffectofthese factors is likely tobe an under-estimate ofactual incoming of wastewater loadsin many catchmentsand hence an under-estimate suspendedsolids removal against consenttargets. Iffirm valuesfor the DWF parameters couldbe established they couldbe used as inputs sewer systemand developtheoreticalinlet concentrations for suspended solids against which the measuredsettledwastewaterconcentrations could bejudged. During the development ofthe UPMprocedures solidsanalysisseemsto have concentrated on sedimentsamplingrather than suspended solids samplingfor settleable solids.

1 are valid defaultparametervaluesfor UK catchments. 64 CIRIA Report 177 . preferably.1. wherethe studyresults. or in catchmentswith very little non-domestic contributionincluded in the domestic DWF component. or wherethere is more unmeasured commercial contributioncountedin with the domestic. Where no new guidance is given the readershould referto the tables oftypicalpractice in Chapter4 or. PG. Table 7.2 PER CAPITACONTRIBUTIONS Theanalysis carried heresupports the view that the flow and load domestic out contributionsshownin Table7. particularlylowerones. warrant it and providea useful stepforward.For Scotlandtheper capita wastewater flow figure shouldpossibly be increasedby 25% in line with the statementin Section4. and not accepted as betterthan default' valueswithoutrigorousreview ofsamplingand analysis procedure (see Section 7. The 220 litres/capitaday figure (includinginfiltration)which is quotedas a default in BS8005: 1987 shouldno longerbe used. steeper catchmentswith very little in-sewerdepositionofload. longertravel time catchmentswhichare more proneto in-sewer deposition.1 Parametervalues for UK catchments Parameter Wastewater flow (litres/capita day) Contribution 140-150 55-60 55-60 SS (g/capita day) BOD5 (g/capita day) Ammonia(g/capita day) 6-7 Valuestowardsthe high end ofthe quotedrangesmaybe valid for smaller.5) and catchmentspecific reasonsfor the difference. derived from crude wastewatersamplingand analysis. Lower values may be valid for larger.1 INTRODUCTION Thischapter givesnewguidance. 7.1. Usersofhydraulic and water qualityanalysissoftware are reconunended to check any default valuesofdataused to see ifthese shouldbe amendedto the guidancegiven here. Guidanceis given on both parametervaluesand on methodology. Parametervaluesoutside these ranges. thebackground references direct. evenifofan interim nature.7 Guidance for future practice 7.shouldbe viewed with suspicion.

2 06:00 07:00 08:00 09:00 10:00 11:00 12:00 13:00 14:00 15:00 16:00 17:00 18:00 19:00 20:00 2.08 0.87 0.25 BODISS 0.44 1.87 0.12 1.60 0.75 0.87 0.63 0.2 1.87 0.07 0.2 (390 mg/I for BOD/SS and 47 mg/i for ammonia)they will produce dailyper capita loadsin line with Table 7.74 1.2 1.6 0.2 1.16 1.11 0.11 0.2 1. suggested Table 7.12 1.05 1.08 0.87 1.68 1.87 0.73 0.2 1.66 0.87 0.95 1.2 1.58 1.16 1. These are presentedin Table7.2 1.6 0.87 0.6 0.96 0. Thevalues for BOD/SS and ammoniaare tabulatedas fractionsofan averageconcentrationnet of infiltration.2.9 1.65 0.23 1.30 0.87 0.87 0.87 0.2 1.87 0.87 0.83 1. Whencombined with flows generatedat 140 litres/capitaday and using averageconcentrations from Table6.87 0.3 DIURNAL VARIATION For key studies and major catchmentsthe following interimdimensionless profilesare for modelledareas of 2 ha to 5 ha.6 0.51 1.87 0.87 0.60 21:00 22:00 23:00 24:00 0.14 1.87 0.6 NH4 0. CIRIAReport 177 65 .87 0.55 Thediurnal flow hydrographis tabulated in dimensionless form.92 0.87 0.30 1.2 1.26 1.6 0.87 0.2 0.2 Dimensionless profiles forDWF parameters Time 01:00 02:00 03:00 04:00 05:00 Flow 0.

is made.note that this dataindicatesthat peakflow will be lowerthantheold standard x DWF' at any populationlarger than 40. I 7.but areprobably safegiven that sewer sizes are determinedby nearestavailable larger pipe size rather than actual peak flow rate. For purely domestic catchmentsthiswould meancalculatinginfiltrationbased on 115 to 120 litres/capitaday. There may thereforebe a casefor not includinginfiltrationin the DWF termin Formula A. as it is basedon themost real data.7). For new residential developments.for the same population. Atthe site with the highest infiltration(in the data analysedin Chapter6). particularly seawater. Wherethe results ofthe method are uncertain. 1995). In any case. Therefore the more extreme linesare safer to use. i. Forlargercatchments. 66 CIRIA Report 177 .e. Theassumption is alsothat infiltrationdoes not contribute to the qualityparametersofBOD.2) is recommended.the results ofthis studyindicatethat a check againstthe ammonialoadusing 47 mg/i and concentration (Box6. 45% oftotal DWF (includinginfiltration). theUS practice(Figure4. the peak flows quoted in BS8005:1987 and in Sewers forAdoption arebasedon high litres/capitaday. where sewer modelling is not being used to generatetheprofile. the wastewater concentrations were so low thatthey would probablybe lowerthan the consentstandardsof someWwTW effluents.Data is best analysed in terms oflitres/day/kmlmm diameter beforetransfer and application.4. whichwill often be larger.000. This makes difficult demandsin estimatingthe factor 'F' for larger catchmentsand in havingsufficiently accurate and reliable night-timelow-flow measurements in small catchments. This comparesto the 20 litres/capitathy allowedin BS8005 and 120 litres/capitaday effectively allowed in SewersforAdoption (Water Services Association. SS or ammonia. Infiltrationdiluteswastewater.4 INFILTRATION Infiltrationshould estimatedfrom flow survey data using the methodproposed in the be CIRIA report Control ofinfiltrationto sewers. in the lower-density US areas than in the UK. Thebestestimatefor long-term infiltration is from existinglocal catchmentswith of similarconditions. However peakflow attenuationis really related to storage and length in the sewer system. but over thetime scaleofayear or more it mayvary considerably (seeSection 7.8. Overthe time scale of 24 hours it could reasonably assumed to be constant. The profileshavebeen developed net ofinfiltrationand the infiltrationcomponent ofDWF has tobe added as a separateentity.2) can be used as a checkor as a preferred estimatewhen theminimum-flow data is knownto be unreliable. but it could contribute to chlorideand sulphateconcentrationsdue to ingress ofinfiltration water containingthese. Most standardtemporaryflow monitorsused in the UK cannot provide accurateenoughlow-flow dataforthis analysis.Profiles for larger areas can then be developed by the use ofthe computermodel ofthe sewerage system. In theabsenceofany other datafor new sewerage systems in areas with high groundwater levels it is suggested that an allowance basedon the averagefindingin Section 6.

covering both dry weatherand all stormflow periodsand succeeding days (whenhigh previously depositedloads may be washed through and settled out). A 'sourceload' calculation usingvaluesgiven in Section 7.The presenceofa flume would also createa larger upstream depth. 7. samples shouldideallybe takenjust downstream ofan areaofhigh turbulence. CIRIAReport 177 67 . Thesemay lead to unnecessary investmentand operationalcostin chemically assistedsedimentation and additional sludgetreatmentand disposal expenditure. 3. 2. A year's crude wastewatersampling and analysis. However.2. A massbalance comparison againstthe combination ofannual settledwastewater suspended solids load plus annual dry solids primarysludgemake (afterallowingfor any co-settled surplusactivated sludge). In order to achievebetterflow measurement one possible method wouldbe to install a temporary flume in a manholewith the upstream depth being measuredby a downward pointingultrasonic monitor.especially during the early hours ofthe morning. Flumes for insertion in sewer pipes ofvarioussizes are manufactured in the USAwhere revenuegenerationis based on the amount ofwastewater transportedand treated. The choice ofan appropriate method of flow measurement to achieve the desired accuracy and reliability is thereforecrucial. The correspondingly small depthsofflow. which mightcause the upstream sewer to fail its levelof-service requirements under stormconditions. or failure ofthe flow monitor. On the negative side. such a temporaryis knownto havebeen installedin a foul sewer of 150 mm diameter without apparentproblem when a conventional ultrasonic Doppler flow monitorlocated in a similar manholewas in dangerofcausingblockage because ofragging. Sewer flows from small areas tend to be correspondingly smalland therefore difficult to measureaccurately with conventional sewerflow monitors.5 ESTIMATING CRUDE WASTEWATER LOAD FOR UWWTD 50% REMOVAL IN PRIMARY SEDIMENTATION The low estimates ofwastewater load that can arisefrom dry weatherdepositionin the sewer (and samplingand analysis difficulties) may givemisleadingresultsfor suspended solids removal in primarysedimentation. the reducedupstream velocities might give rise to deposition ofsedimentand hence no representative samples. It has beenarguedthat the installationofsuch a flume may representan obstruction to flow.6 DATACOLLECTION Oneofthe pointswhichhas come to light duringthe analysisofexistingdata was the amountofwater quality data whichhad its value reducedby apparentlyinaccurateflow rate measurement. whichmightfacilitatethe collection of quality samplesfrom smallareas. Collecting and analysingwater quality samplesfrom sewers is an expensive exercise. whichensures mixing ofthe flow.7. Flumes do not represent an obstruction to flow that mighttrapsuspended particles or bedload. Also. also makethe collection of representative samplesdifficult. All ofthese shouldbe compared and reconciled as far as possible beforedrawing conclusions on percentage suspended solids removal in primarysedimentation. When such estimates are being made theyshouldbe assessed using three separate methods: 1. It would therefore seem profligatenot to getfull valuefrom it by ensuringaccurateand consistent flow rate measurement.

7. Infiltration represents a significant unknown. 68 CIRIA Report 177 . efforts havebeen madehere to characteriseDWF in sewers in the absenceof infiltration. At least threepossible DWFvalues could existfor a catchment. SummerDWF — a worst case basedon summerpopulation-generated flows and low infiltration— used for settingWwTW effluent standards or modelling ofriver impact (includingmaximum consented loads)against lowflows and high temperatures:and in estimatingworst (lowest velocity) sewerconditions for deposition. 3. and each has its appropriate use: 1. infiltration. AnnualaverageDWF — based on annual average population. To try to deal with this problem. odourand hydrogen sulphide generation. whichcan only reallybe quantified by field measurement. In holiday resortsfor examplethe summerpopulation can be significantly greater than the winterone.7 DEFINITION OF DWF Oneofthe main concernsexpressed by consultees with the current definition ofDWF was the inclusion of. generatedflow and infiltration— used for estimating long-term runningcosts ofpumpingstations and treatmentworks. Infiltrationhas thereforeto be added as a separate entityat a later stage. and variability of. It alsovaries seasonally so the question arisesas to whichvalue to use in the calculationofDWF. Even withoutinfiltrationthere are catchmentswhere the DWF can vary with the time ofyear. and sludge treatmentand disposal. and the per capitawater usageand wastewater contributionmaybe different. Winter DWF — a worst casebasedonwinter population-generated flows and highest infiltration— used for assessing possible maximum flows for sewer design and maximum daily dry-weather peakflow to treatment. 2.

Flow measurements shouldbe continuous throughoutthe period. after 24 hourswith less than 1 mm ofrain. The review of existingdatahas shown a procedures large variationin these parametersfrom day to day. it will be necessary to collecta new dataset to ensurethat datato cover all the aspects raised in this reportaremeasured. Ifa new datacollection exercise is carriedout then someoftheparametersofdry weatherflow which are currently not ofhigh general interest could be includedin the analysis. in order to assessthe effect ofthese definitions on qualityparameters. Some ofthese parameters.It is Alternatively. in particularnutrients. Better indicationof howmuch of this varianceis due to sampling. 8. how much to laboratory procedures. Data from smallareas could be used to establishthe requireddefaultdiurnal profilesfor sewerage modelling purposes. Selected sites shouldbe distributedthroughoutthe UK and givea representative coverage ofthetopographical types. steep. In order to refine the characterisation ofdomestic flows. The literaturesearchfor this project did not turn up any significantdetailson this topicalthoughit has been the subject ofan earlier CIRIA report.8 Recommendations for further work 8.to relate them better to catchmentcharacteristics. microbiological parameters. believed that the analytical procedures measuring these parametersare relatively for robust but care and attention needsto be takenin the laboratory. Dry days shouldbe selected in line with the varyingcurrent definitions. It would be prudent to investigate some ofthese further.3 OTHER ISSUES Several ofthe consultees cited fats. and oestrogenmimicscould become issues in the future.1 REFINEMENT OF CHARACTERISATION One ofthe problemsencountered with trying to characteriseDWF with the existing datasets was lack ofbackground information about theareas contributingto the measurementsites. and how much due to real changesis necessary to allow bettercharacterisation these parameters. moderateand flat. i. 8.. Theareas sampledmust containonly domesticproperties. in order to meet the requirement ofuniformdevelopment theareas selected might necessarily haveto be small. etc.2 SAMPLING AND LABORATORYPROCEDURES Further research would alsoappear to be needed into the samplingand laboratory for suspended solids and BOD. of new methods shouldbe soughtwhichminimisethis variance. CIRIA Report 177 69 . Twenty-four-hour quality sample sets shouldbe takenat regularintervalsover the periodofat least a year so that sampling at differentlevels ofinfiltrationis included and seasonal variations can be examined. oils and greaseas an area ofconcernabout which there appearedto be little information. Data to be collected shouldincludeparametersto assessthe settlementpropertiesofthe suspended matter in the flow.e. after sevendry days.

were another issue raisedby some consultees.It is not clear what aspects ofaestheticpollutants shouldbe investigated. It would appear that the primaryconcernsare the removal ofsuch pollutants at scumboards and screensat overflows and at screensat the inlets to WwTW. 1996). A final areain needoffurther investigation is in-sewerprocesses that maycause (Hvitved-Jacobsen eta!. 1996). 1995). Aesthetic pollutants. Onemethod ofreducingthe impactof aestheticpollutants maybe to educate the public not to dispose in the WC substances that mightcause aestheticpollution(Souteret a!.... 1993 and Balmforth eta!. changesto the quality parametersduringtheirtransport throughthe sewer system 70 CiRlAReport 177 . 1995). Some research into the sources and transportofaestheticpollutants is currentlyin progress (Butlerand Graham et a!. especially flotables. Research is continuingin theUK in this area(Ruffet a!.

33. Tech. Sd. 77-85 ASCE/WPCF (1982) Manual ofPracticefor GravitySanitarySewerDesignand Construction ANDOH. Conf on Urban Storm Drainage. Sd. P J... J (1995) Sewage andindustrial effluent treatment. HEDGES. C J A and HERRINGTON. 9. 989-994 BARNES. Oxford ASHLEY. Germany) Proc. P R (1992) Possible effects ofclimatechangeon water resources and water demand (ICE. MEEDS. Tech. R M and DABROWSKI. 31. W (1995) Dry and stormweathertransportof coliforms and faecal streptococci in combined sewage Wat. Tech. Part1 — Design 7 Construction BS8005: 1987 CIRIAReportl77 71 . 10/11. London F A. R E (1979) Public health engineering— Sewerage Applied Science.. curve Wa!.Harlow BARTLETF. R P M (1996) Thedistributionofchemicalconstituentswithinthesewagesettlingvelocity grading BECKER.33. on Engineeringin the Uncertainty ofClimaticChange BRITISH STANDARDS INSTITUTION (1985) Code of practiceforBuildingDrainage BS8301: 1985 BRITISH STANDARDS INSTITUTION (1987) Sewerage. D. 7th mt. R P M (1996) in The practicaluse ofwastewatercharactensation design Wat. B W and VALLENTINE. 7. London)Symp.A practical guide Btackwell Science. 127-134 ARUNDEL. R Y G and SMISSON. 143-146 BINNIE. 22. BLISS.. 9. E and THOMPSON. 311-320 BALMFORTH D J. GOULD. Sci. Sci. B (1996) Performance ofscreens in controllingaestheticpollutants (Hanover.Bibliography AALDERJNK. R H (1990) Estimationofstormwater qualityflow characteristicsand overflow loads from treatmentplant influentdata Wat. HR (1981) Water andwastewaterengineeringsystems LongmanScientific and Technical. Tech. P D and SMISSON.

A consultation paper DoE. M (1993) InterimReporton Sewage-Derived Aesthetic Pollution Foundation for WaterResearch.I BOON. 73-79 BUTLER. P. Civ. MUSQUERE. D (1993) Theinfluence ofdwellingoccupancy and day ofweekon domestic appliancewastewater discharges Build. J W. Engrng. IWEM. A G (1992) Septicity in Sewers: causes.. June. Instn. 118. G. NJ D (1995) Modellingdry weatherwastewater flow in sewer networks ASCE. 2. Tech. consequences. D and YU. 5. 161-173 BUTLER. 22. D (1991) A small scale study ofwastewater dischargesfrom domestic appliances J. A M (1996) Heavymetalsenteringsewage treatmentworksfrom domestic sources J. 28. V and BACHOC. 79-90 BIJRCHMORE. D and GRAHAM. Report No. 10. Y L (1996) Gross solidsmovement in sewers: laboratorystudies as a basisfor model J. S D W and GUNN.. DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENT (1992) Using water wise/v. 121. MAY. BUTLER. 10/11. & Envir. MILISIC. D. andEnv. Feb. Env. Marit.. Sd. CIWEIvI. 1. S and GREEN.. 4th edn. FR0339 BUTLER. 52-58 London J a DEGREMONT (1973) Water TreatmentHandbook. CIWEM. R W P and ACKERS. Wat. 10. 103-1 12 CHARTERED INSTITUTE OF WATERANDENVIRONMENTAl MANAGEMENT (1996) Water conservation andreuse Proceedings ofconference held in London CHEBBO. andEnergy.. 6. Engrs Wat. 2. C (1996) Sediment transportin sewers Part 1: background Proc. and containment Instn.London 72 CIRIA Report 177 . J. 2. Mangt. 2. 178-185 BUTLER. A (1990) Charactensationofsolids transferredinto sewer trunks duringwet weather Wat. 23 1-238 COMBER. 137-142 CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY RESEARCH AND INFORMATION ASSOCIATION (1997) Controlofinfiltrationto sewers DAVIES.

Oxford HENZE. MULLER. D (1996) A study ofWCderivedsewer solids Wat. K and MARTIN.9. Butterworths CiRlAReport 177 J 73 . international practice Edited and revised by Haworth. 24-26 GRAY. CIWEM. Water Pollut. D M and BUTLER. Wiley. chemical and biological reactor IJ'atSci. P (1986) Why investingin effluent treatmentmakessense Technology Ireland. NEILSEN.EDWARDS. T and AAJENSEN. July/August. Tech. 9. Chichester FAIR. and ARVIN (1995) Wastewater treatment— biological and chemical treatmentprocesses Springer-Verlag HVITVED-JACOBSEN. 61. J C and OKUN. J B (1989) Peak sewage flow rate: prediction and probability J. 477-488 ESCRITT. W and ThISTLETHWAITE. Tech. L B (1984) Sewerage and sewage treatment.. 2nd edn. 1241 GLEDHILL.. W D. Chichester FIDDES. London ESCRI'fl'.K. E. LARSEN. Vol 2: Water supplyand wastewater removal Wiley. BROWN.11-13 FOUNDATION FOR WATER RESEARCH (1994a) Urban PollutionManagement (UPM.L B (1959) Sewerage and sewage disposal— calculationsanddesign Contractors Record. M. 328pp IM}{OFF. N F (1989) ofurban Biologyofwastewatertreatment Oxford University Press. ControlFed. HARREMOES. 33. JANSEN. GEYER. L (1995) A methodology for surveying domestic water consumption J. N (1981) Infiltration — do we have to live with it? Public HealthEngr.7. T. D (1966) Water andwastewaterengineering. G M. N (1995) The sewer as a physical. 9.. P H.) — aplanningguidefor the management wastewater dischargesduring wet weather FWRFR/CL0002 Manual FOUNDATION FOR WATERRESEARCH (1994b) The development ofthe urbanpollutiondatabase FR0441 FRIEDLER.1. D K B (1971) Disposalof Sewage andOther Water-Borne Wastes. Sci. D and SIMMONDS. 17-24 GAINES. 31.

Sci. McGraw-Hill. C. N A (1982) Infiltration investigation. ConS. KING. Tech. 43. RW(1982) Sewersystem evaluation and rehabilitation The Public Health Engr. Ireland MANN.. Connemara. London NATIONAL RIVERS AUTHORITY (1995) Saving water.. WRc MARTIN. NewYork J 74 CIRIA Report 177 . H K and McGREGOR 1(1990) Microbiological aspects of sewage and sewage sludge in Dundee. 17.. 27-52 LEDBURY. N and NOTF. INC (1991) Wastewater engineering:treatment. 4. Dec. PaperNo. 10/11. Suppl.Scotland Wat. E H (1988) Small Water Pollution Control Works: Designand Practice Ellis Horwood/Wiley. H T (1979) Septic tanks andsmallsewagetreatmentworks Report No.B and ASHWORTH. London. D T (1996) Maximium dailypeakflow (MDPFI)— a new approach to STW loadprediction Proc. D. disposal andre-use 3rd edn. QUICK. NATIONAL BAG IT and BIN IT CAMPAIGN (1995) LeedexPublicRelations. Technical Committee on StormOverflows and DisposalofStorm Sewage HMSO. JEFFERIES. 22. No. on SewerModelling and Environmental Implications. NewYork MINISTRY OF HOUSING and LOCAL GOVERNMENT (1970) FinalReport. 234-240 LUCK. J(E ConfOnRestorationofSewerage Systems Thomas Telford Ltd. 9. C. D J (1995) Full-scale testingof mechanically raked bar screens J. NRA NATIONAL WATER COUNCIL (1979) Median flow in dry weather NWC Bulletin.INSTITUTE OF WATER POLLUTION CONTROL (1975) Glossaryofterms in waterpollution control IWPC ManualofBritishPracticein WaterPollution Control INSTITUTION OF WATER and ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT (1992) Preliminaryprocesses: a handbook ofUK waterpractice 3rd edn. 10. B and BALMFORTH. 117 NICOLL. 614-620 METCALF and EDDY. TR1O7. London. analysisand costibenefit of remedial action. No. 175-185 MEEDS. The NRA 'sapproach to water conservation anddemandmanagement. YOUNG. ('IWEM.

V A (1963) I . J D and MOYS. 6. D E and DICKSON Jr. Poll. 1811-1815 RUMP. Eng. K Wand STIFF. M and BOYLE.S 33. ('on. DAVIES. S Afr. M and GREEN. JWE. 342-351 SCHWINN. 5. W (1976) Characterisation of rural household wastewater Env. 249-256 CIRIA Report 177 75 SHAW. D and STEWART. (1989) 0 Bacteria in urban drainagesystems— literaturereview hvdraulics ResearchReport. RD (1976) The problemof hydrogen suiphide in sewers Claypipe development association RUFF. A (1996) The UK bag-it-and-bin-it campaign: is it the most environmentally effective way of dealingwith domestic sanitarywaste Environmental Pollution— ICEP3. 2059-2065 Thedevelopment ofcontributory hydrographs for sanitarysewers and theiruse in sewer design Civ. 246 SIEGRIST. WALSH. M J (1993) Laboratory study ofthe gross particulate retentionperformances oflarge scale model CSO structures Proc. IWEM. S J. S. SAUL. D (1994) Modellingofactivatedsludgesystems Technomic PAINTER. A J. January 1989 PETTS. M J (1987) An assessmentofper capita loads ofa domestic sewage — An interimreport WRc laboratory record525-S POMEROY.OFWAT(1996) demandfor water in England and Wales Report on recentpatterns of Office ofWaterServices. 496-498 PAYNE.. RUSHTON.Niagara Falls. D A V. 11. J W. ASHLEY. R J (1991) Insightsinto domestic demandfrom a meteringtrial J. Fed.f on UrbanStorm Drainage. B H (1972) Nitrogenand phosphorusvariations in domestic wastewater I. 6th mt. R M. ofWar. ASCE.. H A (1958) Some characteristics ofa domestic sewage WaterPollutionResearch paper Water and wastetreat. 2. 5. May ORHON. N H. WITF. Canada. 44. R. BUTLER.j.R 190. ME (1978) The demandmanagement ofdomestic water use J. 533-548 SOUTER.. K Rand SIMPSON. No. 173-182 RUSSAC. 102 (EE3). 9. Cont. Engr.

D and HINE. WATERPOLLUTION CONTROL FEDERATION/AMERICAN SOCIETY OF CIVIL ENGINEERS (1969) Designand constructionofsanitary and stormsewers.a design andconstructionguidefor developers. 107-112 TEBBU'IT T H Y (1992) Principlesofwater quality control. D and HINE. K B (1972) The control Butterworths. 22.4th edn. 4th edn. Harlow 76 CIRIA Report 177 .. 247-257 WATERSERVICES ASSOCIATION (1995) SewersforAdoption WRc . Manual No. M (1990) Sewersedimentand its relationwith the quality characteristics ofcombined sewer flows Wat.9 New York WISE. A E (1985) Sewerflow models for various types ofdevelopment in Johannesburg L&IJESA. A F E and SWAFFIELD.2 STEPHENSON. Instn. J A (1995) Water.STANLEY. 10/11. 4th edn. LongrnanScientific and Technical. Tech.. Sci. Engrs. Sydney ofsuiphidesin sewerage systems VERBANCK. LondonProject Report No.London.. October 1985 STEPHENSON. sanitary and waste services for buildings. G D (1975) Designflows infoul sewerage svtems DoE. ofCiv. PergamonPress D ThISTLETHWAYTE. A E (1986) Simulationofsewer flow MunicipalEngr.

Transport and the Regions Dudley Engineering Consultancy Edmund Nuttall Limited Galliford plc GIBB Ltd Golder Associates(UK) Ltd ScottWilson Kirkpatrick& Co Scottish Hydro-Electric plc Sir William Halcrow& PartnersLtd South Bank University & Safety Executive Henry Boot & Sons PLC Higgs & Hill ConstructionHoldings Ltd Health Highways Agency. DETR South WestWater Services Ltd Southern Water Services Ltd TarmacConstruction Ltd Taylor WoodrowConstructionHoldings Ltd ThamesWater Utilities Ltd The Environment Agency Thorburn Colquhoun Union Railways Limited HR Wallingford Ltd HutterJennings and Titchmarsh Hyder Consulting Limited Institution of Civil Engineers International Mining Consultants Limited John Laing Construction Ltd WardellArmstrong Wessex Water plc Keller Foundations Kennedy and Donkin Environmental WS Atkins ConsultantsLimited Yorkshire Water Services Limited .CIRIA Core Programme Members April 1998 Alfred McAlpine ConstructionLtd AMEC Plc Aspinwall Kvaerner Technology Ltd L G Mouchel & PartnersLtd London Underground Limited Maunsell Ltd & Co Limited BAA plc BachySoletanche Limited Balfour Beatty Ltd Binnie Black & Veatch Cementitious Slag Makers Association Miller Civil Engineering Ltd Montgomery Watson Ltd Mott MacDonald Group Ltd National Power PLC North West Water Ltd NorthumbrianWater Limited Ove Arup Partnership Owen WilliamsGeotechnical Ltd Posford Duvivier Reid CrowtherConsulting Limited Rendel Palmer & Tritton Charles Haswell and PartnersLtd Curtins Consulting Engineers plc Dames & Moore Davis Langdon Department & Everest of the Environment.

and compares these with current practices for gathering information. attenuation of flows within the sewer system and difficulties in measuring pollution loads that are influenced by sediment deposition and erosion. New guidance is included on per capita contributions to domestic flows. operation and modelling of wastewater treatmentworks and sewer systems. *1 cfC— .Dry weather flow is all flow in a sewer that is not directlycaused by rainfall. The concept is used in the design.and of crude wastewater loads when aiming for 50% solids removal in primary sedimentation. operators and modellers. This highlightsthree problems: seasonal differences in infiltration. estimation estimation of infiltration. Guidance is also given on data collection and definitionsof dry weather flow appropnate or tterentappcatons. The book's analysis of historic dry weather flow data breaks new ground by assessing the effect of infiltration on quality parameters. diurnal variation. and for consent setting quality planning. in water This book reviews the dry weatherflow informationneeds of designers.

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