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Curriculum Material and Development

Curriculum Material and Development

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Short Explanation abaut CURMADEV
Short Explanation abaut CURMADEV

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Published by: ChombrosShare on Mar 02, 2013
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The 21st century brings a revitalization to the education of students with learning and behavior problems. The era of the impact of No Child Left Behind and standards-based education and assessment continuously challenges educators to provide relevant and authentic education to our students. Although progress has been made in the education of these students, building upon those efforts is critical if our schools are to move toward achieving effective education for all students, whether in inclusive or spe-cial education settings. One of the most emphasized and fundamental areas within education is the curriculum to which students are subjected and that they are taught, along with the associated assessment of their learning. Since the beginning of formal education in our K through 12 system, educators have discussed, modifi ed, tested, revised, and adapted curricula. Although many of these efforts have contributed to effective change, many students still do not learn within prescribed curricula. These students require continuous curriculum differentiation, or adaptation, in order to succeed in today‟s classrooms, schools, and home environments. Here are some explanation about curriculum and how to implement it. The writer hope that this small information can satisfy the reader curiosity.

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Preface .................................................................................................................... 1 Contents .................................................................................................................. 2 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. What is a Curriculum? ................................................................................... 3 The Importance Of Curriculum ..................................................................... 4 Kinds of curriculum ........................................................................................ 5 The components of Curriculum ..................................................................... 6 The English curriculum of Senior High School in Indonesia ...................... 9 Curriculum Aims / Goals .............................................................................. 11 Curriculum Contents .................................................................................... 13 How to Implement ......................................................................................... 14 Conclussion and suggestion ......................................................................... 15

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1. What is a Curriculum?
The word curriculum comes from the Latin word meaning "a course for racing." It's interesting how closely this metaphor fits the way in which educators perceive the curriculum in schools. Teachers often speak about "covering" concepts as one would speak about "covering" ground. And that coverage is often a race against the testing clock. School mission statements often wax poetic about the development of the "total child." However, what drives the everyday functioning of those schools is the official curriculum and the tests that hold teachers and students accountable to that curriculum. In many literature curriculum is defined as: a written plan document or the quality of education that must be possessed by the learner through a learning experience. This understanding means that the curriculum must be contained in one or more documents or a written plan. Documents or written plan that contains a statement about the qualities a student should possess the following the curriculum. Understanding the quality of education here implies that the curriculum as a plan document quality learning outcomes that should be possessed of students, the quality of the material / content to be learned education of students, the quality of the educational process that should be experienced by learners. The curriculum in physical form are often the main focus in any curriculum development process as he describes the ideas or thoughts of the interface as a decision-making basis for curriculum development as an experience. Aspects that are not expressed explicitly but is implicit in the definition of curriculum as a document is intended that the plan was developed based on a certain idea about the quality of education is expected. Differences thoughts or ideas would lead to differences in the resulting curriculum, either as a document or as a learning experience. Therefore Oliva (1997:12) says "Curriculum itself is a construct or concept, a verbalization of an extremely complex idea or set of ideas".

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2. The Importance Of Curriculum
Every successful concept and project in life requires a proper framework and planning. This relates to all processes, including education. Whenever we embark on any new plan or procedure, we need to make sure that we have all the plans drawn up. What is on offer, what are the resources that we have, what are the steps, which we need to take and what are the goals that we need to achieve are some elements that need to be looked upon. A similar set of constraints when applied to education in schools and colleges gives birth to curriculum. A curriculum is a set of courses, including their content, offered at a school or university. The curriculum often contains a detailed list of subjects and the elements of teaching them. John Franklin Bobbitt‟s “The Curriculum” published in 1918 mentions curriculum as an idea that has its roots in the Latin word „race-course‟. He also explained “The Curriculum” as the course of deeds and experiences through which children grow up into adults and get going for success in the society. A curriculum is more than putting together a set of academically required subjects. It must consider all aspects of the student life, the learning needs of students, the time available for the sessions and the teachers‟ idea, capability and workload. Now that we know the constitution of a curriculum, let us study its importance in the lines that follow. a) All the things learned in the curriculum is closely related to one another. Students not only learn the facts unravel and less functional to solve the problems faced. b) The curriculum is consistent with the new theory of learning activities based on experience, ability, maturity and interests of learners. c) The curriculum is more likely the close relationship between the madrasas and the public, because the public can be a laboratory where students practice activities.

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3. Kinds of curriculum
1. Explicit This type of curriculum is what appears in documents and teachers' plans. 2. Implicit (or Hidden) This type of curriculum has to do with how particular assumptions about schooling and learning manifest in practice. For example, when a teacher has her or his desk at the front of the classroom and "teaches" from this area, the message that is being learned by students is that the teacher is in control, including being the knowledge authority, and is the center of attention. 3. Null The null curriculum is what is not taught. Not teaching some particular idea or sets of ideas may be due to mandates from higher authorities, to a teacher‟s lack of knowledge, or to deeply ingrained assumptions and biases. 4. Commentary These three types of curricula can allow us to identify the nature and emphases of the curricula in use in various schools and school districts.

Once you know the components of curriculum, it will be found that the types of curriculum includes: 1. Separated Subject Curriculum (Curriculum Subjects Separated Or Not Converge). The curriculum is said to be so because the data presented lessons to students in the form of a subject or subjects that are separate from one another. 2. Correlated Curriculum (Curriculum Correlations Or Mutually Associated lesson). Subjects in the curriculum must be connected and arranged in such a way so that one reinforces the other, that one complements the other. 3. Integrated Curriculum (Integrated Curriculum). Integrated Curriculum here means some subjects put together or combined. By eliminating the boundaries of subjects and learning materials are presented in the form of units or whole.

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4. The components of Curriculum
Curriculum has 4 components: A. Component 1: Curriculum Aims, Goals and Objectives Aims: Elementary, Secondary, and Tertiary Goals: School Vision and Mission Objectives: educational objectives Domains: 1) Cognitive – knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, evaluation 2) Affective – receiving, responding, valuing, organization, characterization 3) psychomotor – perception, set, guided response, mechanism, complex overt response, adaptation, origination.

B. Component 2: Curriculum Content or Subject Matter Information to be learned in school, another term for knowledge ( a compendium of facts, concepts, generalization, principles, theories. 1) Subject-centered view of curriculum: The Fund of human knowledge represents the repository of accumulated discoveries and inventions of man down the centuries, due to man‟s exploration of his world 2) Learner-centered view of curriculum: Relates knowledge to the individual‟s personal and social world and how he or she defines reality. Gerome Bruner: “Knowledge is a model we construct to give meaning and structure to regularities in experience” Criteria used in selection of subject matter for the curriculum: a) self-sufficiency – “less teaching effort and educational resources, less learner‟s effort but more results and effective learning outcomes – most economical manner (Scheffler, 1970) b) significance – contribute to basic ideas to achieve overall aim of curriculum, develop learning skills c) validity – meaningful to the learner based on maturity, prior experience, educational and social value

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d) utility – usefulness of the content either for the present or the future e) learnability – within the range of the experience of the learners f) feasibility – can be learned within the tile allowed, resources available, expertise of the teacher, nature of learner Principles to follow in organizing the learning contents (Palma, 1992) a) BALANCE . Content curriculum should be fairly distributed in depth and breath of the particular learning are or discipline. This will ensure that the level or area will not be overcrowded or less crowded. b) ARTICULATION. Each level of subject matter should be smoothly connected to the next, glaring gaps or wasteful overlaps in the subject matter will be avoided. c) SEQUENCE. This is the logical arrangement of the subject matter. It refers to the deepening and broadening of content as it is taken up in the higher levels. The horizontal connections are needed in subject areas that are similar so that learning will be elated to one another. This is INTEGRATION. Learning requires a continuing application of the new knowledge, skills, attitudes or values so that these will be used in daily living. The constant repetition, review and reinforcement of learning is what is referred to as CONTINUITY. C. Component 3 – Curriculum Experience Instructional strategies and methods will link to curriculum experiences, the core and heart of the curriculum. The instructional strategies and methods will put into action the goals and use of the content in order to produce an outcome. Teaching strategies convert the written curriculum to instruction. Among these are time-tested methods, inquiry approaches, constructivist and other emerging strategies that complement new theories in teaching and learning. Educational activities like field trips, conducting experiments, interacting with computer programs and other experiential learning will also form par of the repertoire of

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teaching. Whatever methods the teacher utilizes to implement the curriculum, there will be some guide for the selection and use, Here are some of them: 1) teaching methods are means to achieve the end 2) there is no single best teaching method 3) teaching methods should stimulate the learner‟s desire to develop the cognitive, affective, psychomotor, social and spiritual domain of the individual 4) in the choice of teaching methods, learning styles of the students should be considered 5) every method should lead to the development of the learning outcome in three domains 6) flexibility should be a consideration in the use of teaching methods Component 4 – Curriculum Evaluation To be effective, all curricula must have an element of evaluation. Curriculum evaluation refer to the formal determination of the quality, effectiveness or value of the program, process, and product of the curriculum. Several methods of evaluation came up. The most widely used is Stufflebeam's CIPP Model. Focus on one particular component of the curriculum. Will it be subject area, the grade level, the course, or the degree program? Specify objectives of evaluation. 1) Collect or gather the information. Information is made up of data needed regarding the object of evaluation. 2) Organize the information. This step will require coding, organizing, storing and retrieving data for interpretation. 3) Analyze information. An appropriate way of analyzing will be utilized. 4) Report the information. The report of evaluation should be reported to specific audiences. It can be done formally in conferences with stakeholders, or informally through round table discussion and conversations. 5) Recycle the information for continuous feedback, modifications and adjustments to be made.


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5. The English curriculum of Senior High School in Indonesia
Competency-Based Curriculum (KBK) or the Curriculum 2004, is the curriculum in the education sector in Indonesia which was implemented since 2004, although already there are schools that started using this curriculum since before the implementation. Materially, this curriculum is actually no different from Curriculum 1994, the difference is only in the way students learn in class. In the previous curriculum, students are conditioned by the system quarterly. While the new curriculum, students are conditioned in the semester system. In the past too, the students only learn the content of the subject matter alone, which received materials from the teacher alone. In the 2004 curriculum, students are required to actively develop the skills to apply science and technology without leaving the cooperation and solidarity, even among students actually compete with one another. So here, the teacher acting only as facilitators, but even so the existing education is education for all. In activities in the classroom, students are no longer objects, but the subject. And every student activity counts. Since the academic year 2006/2007, imposed a new curriculum called Education Unit Level Curriculum (KTSP), which is an improved curriculum 2004. The essence of the emergence of the KBK is in line with the meaning of the current reform of education and learning are always carried out from time to time and never stopped. Education and competency-based learning is an example of the changes meant for the purpose of improving quality of their education and learning. Our future is marked and inundated by information technology and also changing very fast (massive). This is because the world community has been plagued by a revolution in science, technology and art, as well as the currents of globalization, so it demands the readiness of all parties to adapt to existing conditions. This means we must be able to face a very complex society and global. In this context, reforms in education and learning is always carried out from time to time and never stop (never ending process). Education and

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competency-based learning is an example of the changes meant for the purpose of improving quality of their education and learning. Competency-based education emphasizes the ability to be possessed by graduates of an education. Competence is often called a standard of competence is the ability of graduates in general must be mastered. Competence according to Hall and Jones (1976: 29) is "a statement which describes the appearance of a certain ability unanimously that a blend of knowledge and skills that can be observed and measured". Competence (ability) is the main capital of graduates to compete on a global level, because competition is happening is the ability of human resources. Therefore. The application of competency-based education is expected to produce graduates who can compete at a global level. The implications of competency-based education is the development of the syllabus and competency-based assessment system. Paradigm of competency-based education that includes curriculum, learning and assessment, emphasizing the achievement of learning outcomes in accordance with the standards of competence. The curriculum contains the teaching materials given to students / student through the learning process. The learning process is implemented using the principles of learning that includes development of material selection, strategy, media, assessment, and resource or learning materials. The success rate of learning achieved by students / students can be seen on the ability of the student / students in completing the tasks that must be controlled in accordance with certain procedures staniar.

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6. Curriculum Aims / Goals
The curriculum provides educators with numerous options for entering into discussions and undertaking projects with students and community members to foster greater understanding. The goals of the curriculum are as follows: Institution should define overall goals and aims for the curriculum. Specific measurable knowledge, skill/ performance, attitude, and process objectives should be stated for the curriculum. Learning goals and outputs for every course and subject should be compatible with mission of institution. It means that achieving of learning goals of different subjects and courses will lead to reaching mission of institution at the end of student studding process. Planning of new curriculum and reform of old one asks for defining of philosophy which is ` behind ` the curriculum and all its elements. Learning goal and outputs should also determinate the educational philosophy and institutional culture. So, mission of institution, educational philosophy and institutional culture are key elements of educational settings necessary for curriculum implementation. An aim indicates the direction or orientation of a course in terms of its content. An aim is written in terms of level, teaching intentions and management of learning. The aims of the course encapsulate the purpose of the course and what the institution trying to do in providing the course. Aims are therefore more about teaching and the management of learning. Learning Outcome is an expression of what a student will demonstrate on the successful completion of a course. Learning outcomes are related to the level of the learning; indicate the intended gain in knowledge and skills that a typical student will achieve and should be capable of being assessed. Learning outcomes are more about the learning that is actually to be achieved by the learner. Outcomes ten formulated as competences. The outcomes are coherent with the educational vision. These objectives make it also clear to the student what may be expected of the course.

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The aims and learning outcomes of a course should determine the choice of teaching processes through which the module is presented. The teaching processes should be matched to the processes required of the student in attaining the intended learning outcomes of the course. Since a course will normally have several intended outcomes, different components of the course will be suited to different teaching and learning processes, and such a course should be presented through a variety of appropriate methods. (Educational) objectives are the end qualifications that are aimed to be reached by the student at the end of the study program. Curriculum is in continuous process of tuning objectives to the expectations of external actors (stakeholders) and internal actors (clients) Tuning of curriculum and objectives clarifies which course subjects or which groups of subjects contribute to the different objectives.
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It is an instrument to make sound decisions for the learning environment. It is an instrument for evaluating subjects reliably. Students can derive from the objectives what they may expect from a study program; the list of objectives guides their studies.

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7. Curriculum Contents
The contents of the curriculum program is anything that is given to students in the teaching and learning activities in order to achieve the goal. Curriculum includes the types of subjects that are taught and the content of the program each field study. Fields of study are tailored to the type, level and educational paths exist. Criteria that can help in the development of curricula in determining the content of the curriculum. Natara other criteria: 1. Curriculum content must be suitable, appropriate and meaningful to students' development. 2. Curriculum content should reflect the social reality. 3. The contents of the curriculum should contain a time-tested scientific knowledge 4. Curriculum contains clear learning materials 5. Curriculum content can grow achievement of educational goals. Curriculum materials is essentially the content of the curriculum developed and compiled with the following principles: 1. Curriculum materials in the form of learning materials composed of study materials or topics of the lessons that can be studied by the students in the learning process 2. Referring to the achievement of the objectives of each unit lesson 3. Directed at achieving national education goals. The content / curriculum materials are essentially all the activities and experiences that are developed and designed to achieve educational goals. In general, the content of the curriculum can be grouped into: 1. Logic, namely one based on knowledge of the true scientific procedure. 2. Ethics, the knowledge of good and evil, and moral values 3. Aesthetics, knowledge of the beautiful-ugly, which is the value of art.

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How to Implement
A plan for implementation, including timelines and resources required,

should be created. A plan for faculty development is made to assure consistent implementation. A. Management of curriculum implementation

Clear responsibility of certain bodies, comities and individuals should be one of key elements in the process of curriculum implementation. Role of the students in process of curriculum management should be clearly defined. The committee for coordination among courses in order to synchronize objectives of courses and overall curriculum should be established. Clear feedback on customer requests should be defined. B. Teaching environment Very important aspect of successful implementation of curriculum is teaching environment and fact whether the atmosphere inside the institution is encouraging for the people with ideas, initiatives and cooperation among students. It is desirable to establish a sort of “department of curriculum development”. The role of this department should be strengthening and expanding of faculty and curriculum development programs at the medical school and its clinical affiliates, with the purpose of enriching and advancing the school's educational mission. It should play a key role in the educational activities of the medical school, it works in collaboration with faculty to design, implement, and assess new courses, innovative teaching methods, and distance learning and educational technology initiatives. This department should provide programs in numerous aspects of classroom and clinical teaching, so that faculty can expand their knowledge base in education and enhance their teaching skills; develops workshops and seminars upon faculty request; assists individual faculty who would like to improve their teaching; and provides faculty with consultation on and assistance with projects in medical education

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9. Conclussion and suggestion
Evaluation of curriculum presents the final stage inside cyclic process of improvement and development of curriculum. Without evaluation procedure it would be hard to imagine monitoring of institution progress toward desired needs. This process is necessary to provide the evidences that institution made a step in the right direction, as well as useful information to stakeholders. It helps in the process of identification of problems inside curriculum and institution, solving of problems and redesigning of certain aspects of curriculum. Evaluation can be performed as short-term and long-term evaluation. Short-term evaluation has a role of “friendly” criticism, while the long term evaluation is a crucial one, with much deeper impact. Department for quality assurance is usually in charge for conducting of such procedures and it is up to them to decide about many aspects of this process. Evaluation of curriculum can be made through evaluation of many different aspects as:

Psychological and interpersonal skill

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Institutional issues Student passing rates Making of clinical mistakes Clinical problem solving Educational cost per student Cost efficiency of graduates as practitioners

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Continuing learning Professional satisfaction Practice behavior Educational achievement and cognitive development

It is very important to carefully define the appropriate time for evaluation for each of these areas as well as the methods for its measuring. Evaluation will only have full meaning if it is followed by action in order to improve areas which are estimated as weak points of curriculum. This action is obligatory for relevant bodies and management structures and should be described precisely inside document policy agreement.

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