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OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 1

(yxrwGJ)
rmwdum

-- pmtkyfwGifyg0ifolrsm;.udk,fa&;tusOf;csKyf// 5
-- pma&;ol.ed'gef;pum;// 12
-- aerwjnid>nj\\ 19

tcef;(1) 21
pnf;pHepf=uD;ol//udk,fhtm;udk,fudk;aomOuUX=uD;//
rSwfom;bG,faumif;aomAkdvfcsKyfjrpum;//vdrfnmwJhyifvkHpmcsKyf//
rmemyavmpmcsKyfeSifhu|efkyfqkawmif;//

tcef;(2) 35
OuUX=uD;. *k%faus;Zl;udkatmif;arhowd&=ujcif;//
ekdifoef;wif. ekdifiHa&;b0//vuf0JnDnGwfa&;okH;ygwDnDvmcH/ 1958-rGefjynfol@wyfOD;
tvif;0ifyGJ// wyfOD;.trSKaqmifopf//1960-ckeSpfa&G;aumufyJ/G /
rGefoHCmtzGJ@a=ujimpmwrf;// jynfe,ft=uHay;tzGJ@eSifhrGefvl=uD;wkd@.qEN// armfvjrdKifc&dkif
rGefausmif;om;or*~zGJ@pnf;/ 1961-aumvdyfrGeftoif; trSKaqmif//
rif;0if;xdefeSifhpwifqkHqnf;//

tcef;(3) 69
wyfOD;.=udK;yrf;rSK//rGefvlxkpkpnf;nDnGwfvm//rGefjynfe,ftvkyfnDnGwfa&;
aumfrwD//jynfe,fay;a&;OD;ek.rlopf(5)&yf//0ef=uD;jzpfvmaomekdifatmifxGef;//
1961-ckeSpfawmif=uD;jrdK@jynfe,faygif;pkHnDvmcH//
wyfOD;tvif;0ifvmjcif;tay:ekdfifcsrf;.oabmxm;// usm;pmau|;cH&aomedkfifcsrf;//

tcef;(4) 86
wyfOD;trsdK;oRD;rdwifh//armfvjrdKifc&kdifrGefausmif;ol/om;rsm;toif;zGJ@pnf;jcif;//
aumhbdef;pnf;&kH;a&;c&D;pOf// wm0efausaomrsdK;cspfrGefvli,fwOD;//
rif;0if;xdef.trsdK;om;a&;tjrif//trsdK;om;0g'// ArmudkvdkeDvufopf0g'//
2 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

tcef;(5) 112
AuouGefz&if//OD;oGif.rGefjynfe,fqef@usifqENjyyGJ//rGefjynfe,faz:xkwfa&;
aumfrwD.rGefjynfe,fqENjyyGJ=uD;// wkdifwvkH;tdrfykdif&Sif//rGefpHoltkwf*l//
ppfwyfrStm%modrf;jcif;// rmHaw;ta=umif;// ekdifausmfat;eSifhaqG;aeG;cef;//
(7)Zlvkdifta&;cif;// rGefausmif;om; awmckd&ef pdwftm;oef// xkH;tkdif&GmaEG&moDoifwef;//
jidrf;csrf;a&;urf;vSrf;csuf// awmwGif;ukd,fpm;vS,feSifhedkifa&$usif&efukefa&muf//

tcef;(6) 146
OuUX=uD;ta=umif;pkaqmif;&SmazG//i,fcspfu|rf;aqGrd=unfcifxl;///rsdK;cspfrGefoRD;ysdKwOD;//ra
tmifjrifaomjidrf;csrf;a&;aqG;aEG;yGJ// rif;armifwif.ay;pm//
rif;0if;xdef.jidrf;csrf;a&;tjrif// edKifa&$usif.awmwGif;taexm;//

tcef;(7) 161
urm0ufaps;a&mif;yGJ//edkifa&$usif.i,fpOfb0//&mrntzGJ@wGif;jy\em// rGefzkd;csdKeSifh
rGefoef; &mrnrSxGuf// rGefwkdif;&if;om;tpnf;&kH;zGJ@// rGefvli,ftzGJ@// rGeftrsdK;om;ae@//
zqyv.a&G;aumufyJ/G / rGefvlrsdK;wkd@oydwfarSmuf// zqyvtrwfeSifhtjydKiff//
wkdif;&if;om;tpnf;&kH;uGJjyJ// jynfaxmifpkrGef// rGefvGwfvyfa&;tzGJ@//
trsdK;om;awmif;qkdcsuf(7)csuf// zqyv.vlenf;pkrl// ‘rGefudkwywf&kduf’//
wkdif;&if;om;a=ujimcsuf//

tcef;(8) 188
rGefvlrsdK;a&;&mtzGJ@csKyf// usdKufokwfrGefvlxk&Sif;vif;yGJ=uD;// rGefjynfe,fawmif;qkdrSK//
tiftm;opfrGefwkdif;&if;om;tpnf;&kH;// rGefvli,f.f awmif;qkdcsufrsm;//
&GmvGwf&Gmwkdif;&if;om; A[kdtpnf;a0;// ,kd;',m;cspf=unfa&;c&D;//
rGefeSpfzGJ@aygif;pnf;nDnGwfrSK// apmbOD;=uD;. tiftm;jya&;t=uH//
rGefeSifhu&iftajcaerwl// Zmojyifta&;awmfykH// edkifbvGifwkd@ zrf;qD;cH&//
&JcsKyfAdkvfcsKyfxGef;vSatmifeSifh awG@qkHyJ/G / armfvjrdKifudk rGef-u&ifodrf;// tpdk;&.
Om%feD/Om%feuf// armfvjrdKifrS rGef-u&if qkwfcGm// zqyv.jynfe,fray;a&;rl//
rGeftrsdK;om; OD;ek// rGefvl=uD;rsm;qENuGJjym;// ekdifpHolusqkH;// ekdifbvGifxyfrHzrf;qD;cH&//
urm0ufppfoifwef;// urm0uf&Gmtm;rD;&SdK@//
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 3

tcef;(9) 224
rGefacgif;aqmifrsm;awma&muf// rGefu&ifyËdyuQ// rGefzdk;csdKeSifh ekdifvSarmif wkd@.aphpyfa&;//
apmbOD;=uD;usqkH;// ordkif;a=umif;=uD;rm;wJhrGefvlrsdK;// edkifbvGifaxmifrSvGwf// edkifbvGif.
a=ujimpmwrf;// rGefpdef'kdif.vkdvm;csuf// '*kHoHCmtzG@J=uD;.a=ujimcsuf//
pkHprf;a&;aumfr&Sif.oabmxm;// rGGeftrsdK;om; nDnGwfa&;wyfaygif;pk//
awmfvSefa&;e,fajra&muf ekdifbvGif// edkifpdef'kdif. acsycsufpmwrf;&Snf//

tcef;(10) 242
edkifbvGifrSedkifa&$usifodk@//ulrifwefjy\em//rGefudkjynfe,fray;/u&ifudkwkd;csJ@
jynfe,fay;//rGefrsdK;cspforwekdifcspfvSKdif// awmwGif;rGefjynfe,ftpkd;&xlaxmif//
1954-ckeSpf armfvjrdKifrGeftrsdK;om;nDvmcH// rGefjynfol@wyfOD;zGJ@pnf;//
vlrsdK;pkrsm;nDnGwfa&;wyfaygif;pk// OD;atmifoef;. jywfom;aomtjrif//
wyfaygif;pkzGJ@pnf;a&;edkifa&$usifwkd@.c&D;pOf// csif;trsdK;om;wdk@. vGwfvyfa&;
qkH;&SKH;aomae@// xdkif;rGefwkd@.xl;qef;aom‘waygif/’// A*kd;&kd;ruoufaownf//
crf;em;aomrGefwkd@.[Hom0wD// a&mifeDuGefjrLepfpcef;// tysdK=uD;rwifh// a0gq&mawmf//
edkifa&$usiftwGufarwWmpm//

tydkif;(11) 286
uGefjrLepfygwDeSifhvlrsdK;pkwyfaygif;pkzJ@G // zqyvtpdk;&eSpfjcrf;uGJ//
rGefwyfOD;rl0g'ajymif;vJ&efajcvSrf;// edkifa&$usif.owday;pm// edkifxGef;cif. tjyefc&D;//
edkifa&$usif.wm;jrpfpm// tvif;0ifa&;wyfO;D =udK;yrf;// wyfOD;. tvif;0iftcrf;em;//
rGefjynfopfygwDzJ@G pnf;jcif;// wyfOD;tvif;0ifwJhtay: ekdifa&$usif. tjrifoabmxm;//

tceff; (12) 308


wa,mufxJuseftvHrvSJaomOuUX=uD;//wukd,fawmfc&D;onf// u&ifpcef;
odk@a&muf//armfvjrdKifc&kdifeSifhoxkHc&kdifpnf;&kH;e,fajr//okH;ygwDaqG;aEG;yGJ// ajy;&v$m;&//
r'nwzGJ@pnf;jcif;// rdrda'oodk@tjyef// a'ocHawGu=udKqkd// edkif"rRaeeSihfu&ifyÉdyuQ//
jynfol@wyfOD;eSifhwkdif;&if;om;pnf;vkH;jcif;// 1960-ckeSpf a&G;aumufyGJ// &ckdif-
rGefjynfe,fta&;//ppfwyfrStm%modrf;ydkufjcif;//
4 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

tcef;(13) 333
edkifa&$usifta=umif;jyD;jynfhpkH// jidrf;csrf;a&;aqG;aEG;yGJysuf//
rGefacgif;aqmifrsm;zrf;qD;cH&jcif;// rGefausmif;om;rsm;vSsdK@0Sufpnf;a0;//
rGefausmif;om;toD;oD;wkd@.awmfvSefa&;tjrif// awmfvSefa&;orm;- 'kd@rGefausmif;om;//
rGefausmif;om;acgif;aqmiftoD;oD;tay:okH;oyfcsuf//
rif;ausmfat;ta=umif;jyefajymif;ajym=u//

tcef;(14) 354
rGefjynfopfacgif;aqmifrsm;tm;okH;oyfrdjcif;// udk,fhudk,fudka0zefqkH;r//
rif;xGef;azeSifhrif;om&ifudkpHxm;//&mZm"d&mZfrif;eSifh rGefol&Jaumif;rsm;tm;
wrf;wrdjcif;//ppftpdk;&eSifhwyfaygif;pk aqG;aEG;yGJysuf// rGefausmif;olrsm;tm; awG@qkH//
arA,feSifhjyif;ysaompdwfqEN// tcspfa&;wGif OD;a%Smufjzifh qkH;jzwfol//
rGefvlrsdK;tay:arA,f.tjrif// rGefjynfopfygwD.oD;jcm;aqG;aeG;rSK/

aemufqufwJGrsm;

(u) &mrnwdkif;vkH;qkdif&mrGeftzGJ@csKyftajccHOya'pnf;rsOf; 373


(c) rGefjynfol@wyfOD;.tajccHOya'pnf;rsOf; 382
(*) gl.njtcjgu%j 392
(C) ukd;um;aompmtkyfpmwrf;rsm; 394
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 5
pmtkyfYyg0ifaomyk*~dKvfwkd@.udk,fa&;tusOf;/
1963-ckeSpfa&S@ydkif; 1963-ckeSpfaemufykdif;
rif;0if;xde/f usKHu'gwf&Gm/Zmwd/ armfvjrdKif 1963-ckeSpfwGif/ zrf;qD;xdef;odrf;cH&onf/
'D*&Daumvdyf/ (bDat)wef; ausmif;om;/ 1964-ckeSpfwGif axmifrS vGwfvmonf//
aumvdyfausmif;om; nDnGwfa&; wyfOD; &efukefvkyfom;aumvdyfY ynmoif=um;
acgif;aqmif/ausmif;om;or*~acgif;aqmif// &if;/ Armjynf uGefjrLepfygwD tzGJ@0ifjzpf
vmonf// 1966-ckeSpfyJcl;&dk;r uGefjrLepf
pcef;odk@awmckdcJhol//
rif;armifwif/ uavmhaomhZmwd/ 1964-ckeSpfrSm udk0if;a,mf/ rif;xGef;azwdk@
&efukefwuUodkvf(bDat)wef;ausmif;om; twlawmodk@oGm;cJhonf//wdwfwckd;jyef0if
/&efukefwuUodkvfrGeftoif;trSKaqmif// vmonf/aemufydkif;1969-ckeSpfrSm awmckd/
rGefjynfopfygwDeSifh/ yl;aygif;cJhonf// 1971
- ckeSpfwGif/ rGefjynfopfygwDrS/ cGJxGuf jyD;
bdwfpcef;udkxlaxmif//
rif;ausmfat;/ urm0uf&GmZmwd/ &efukef/ 1966-ckeSpfrSm zrf;qD; xdef;odrf;cH&onf//
trsdK;om; owif;pm owif;axmuf/ rGef zrf;qD;cH&pOf/ armfvjrdKif trSwf(5)
jynfe,faz:xkwfa&; tvkyfnD nGwfa&; ppfaxmuf vSefa&;pcef;Y nSif;yrf; eSdyfhpuf
aumfrwD/ jyef=um;a&;Xme wm0efcH/ cH&ojzifh aoqkH;oGm;onf//
1962-ckeSpf urm0uf&GmrS xGufjyD; xkdif;
rGefvli,frsm;eSifhqufoG,f,l&ef oGm;onf//

rif;0if;a,mf/ urm0uf&GmZmwd/ armfvjrdKif 1964-ckeSpf rif;armifwif/ rif;xGef;az


'D*&Daumvdyf/ (bDat)wef; ausmif;om;/ wdk@eSifh twlawmckd//1964-ckeSpf tukefwGif
1963-ckeSpf armfvjrdKif 'D*&Daumvdyf zrf;qD;cH&onf// 1967-ckeSpfrSm axmifrS
rGeftoif;OuUX// vGwfjyD;awmckd/ bdwfpcef;OuUXjzpfvmol//
rif;xGef;az/ xkH;tdkif&GmZmwd/ armfvjrdKif 1964-ckeSpf rif;armifwif/ rif;0if;a,mf
'D*&Daumvdyf (tdkifat)wef;ausmif;om;/ wkd@eSifh twl awmckdonf/ rGefjynfopfygwD
1962-ckeSpf aumvdyfrGeftoif;/ wGJbuf eSifhyl;aygif;cJhonf/ 1966-ckeSpfrSm zrf;qD;
twGif;a&;rSL;/ 1963-ckeSpfaumvdyf xdef;odrf;cH&onf/ 1990-ckeSpf
rGeftoif;/ twGif;a&;rSL;/ armfvjrdKifc&kdif a&G;aumufyJGwGif/ =umtif;jrdKe,f/ rGef'Drdk
rGefausmif;ol/om;rsm;toif;/ trwfavmif;tjzpf0ifta&G;cHol//
wGJbuftwGif;a&;rSL;//
6 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)
rif;om&if/ uGmef&kduf awmfuem&GmZmwd/ &efukefwuUokdvfr[m0dZ…1ausmif;om;/
1963-ckeSpf/ armfvjrdKif 'D*&Daumvdyf/ 1971-ckeSpfwGif emJazodef;(yi)/ emJqmef
(tdkifat) wef; ausmif;om;jzpfonf/ tmJwdk@eSifh twlawmckdonf// emJwvrGef
1963-ckeSpf aumvdyfrGeftoif;trSKaqmif odk@ emrnfajymif;onf// 1981-ckeSpfwGif/
wOD; jzpf onf// rGefjynfopfygwD taxGaxGtwGif;a&;rSL;
jzpfvmol//
rif;oef;xGef;/oxkH/ rGefvlrsdK;a&;&mtzGJ@csKyf/ 1963-ckeSpfwGif/ xdef;odrf;cH&jyD;/ 1968-
ekdifxGef;pdef. om;jzpfonf// armfvjrdKif ckeSpfwGif axmifrS vGwfvmonf// ausmif;
aumvdyf/ (tdkifat)wef; ausmif;om;/ q&mjzpfvmol//
1963-ckeSpfrGeftoif; wGJbuftwGif;a&;rSL;
jzpfonf//
rif;azodef;/urm0uf/armfjrdKif'D*&Daumvdyf 1963-ckeSpfwGifxdef;odrf;cH&onf/ 1970-
(bDat)wef; ausmif;om;/ 1962-ckeSpf ckeSpfrSmaxmifrS vGwfonf// 1987-ckeSpf
aumvdyf rGeftoif; twGif;a&;rSL;// 1963- ekdifwifatmif/ ekdifatmif&Sdefwkd@eSifh twl
ckeSpf aumvdyf rGeftoif; 'kOuUX// 1963- awmckdonf// rGefjynfopfygwD/ A[kd
ckeSpf armfvjrdKif aumvdyf ausmif;om; aumfrwDjzpfvmonf// (r'w)wyfaygif;pk/
nDnGwf a&;wyfOD; OuUX/ armfvjrdKif c&kdif ekdifiHjcm;qufqHa&; wm0efcHjzpfvmonf//
rGefausmif;ol§om;rsm;toif;OuUX// 1990-ckeSpfwGif/ r'wtrSKaqmifeSifhtwl/
(r'w/zuf'&,fwuUokdvf)udkxlaxmif//
rif;armif[ef/ xkH;tdkif/ 1963-ckeSpfwGifxdef;odrf;cH&// 1964-ckeSpf
rSmaxmifrS vGwfonf// rif;xGef;aznDr/
rdpdefeSifh tdrfaxmif usonf// usef;rma&;
rSL;// aemufpD;yGm;a&;orm; jzpfvmol//
rdwifapmOD;/ rk'kHjrdK@/armfvjrdKif'D*&Daumvdyf/ (bDuGef;)pD;yGm;a&;bGJ@&//emrnfausmfw&m;
(bDat)wef;ausmif;ol 1962-ckeSpf &kH;csKyfa&S@ae jzpfvmonf// 1990-ckeSpf
armfvjrdKif aumvdyf rGeftoif;/ 'k OuUX// a&G;aumufyGJrSm/ rk'kHjrdK@e,f ajrmufydkif;
(trft,f'D) trwfjzpf vmol//
rd,Ofwif/ oHjzLZ&yfjrdK@/ (tdkifat)wef; oHjzLZe,f/jrdK@e,for0g,rOD;pD;Xme/
ausmif;ol1962-ckeSpf armfvjrdKif aumvdyf/ t&m&Sd jzpfvmol//
rGeftoif;/wGJbuftwGif;a&;rSL;/1963-ckeSpf
aumvdyfrGeftoif;.'k/OuUX//
rdcifxm;a&$/ xkH;tdkif&Gm/ (bDat)wef;/ zg;tHjrdK@trSwf(1)tpdk;& txufwef;
1962-ckeSpf aumvdyf rGeftoif;/ wGJ- ausmif;q&mrjzpfvmol//
twGif;a&;rSL;/ 1963-ckeSpf/ 'k-OuUX//
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 7
rdtkH;&D/urm0uf&Gm/rk'kHtrwfedkifbdk;pdef.oRD; ynma&; wuUodkvfokd@ ajymif;onf/
armfvjrdKif aumvdyfrGeftoif;trSKaqmif// ynma&; 'D*&DbJ@G jzihf ausmif;jyD;onf//
txufwef;ausmif;/ ausmif;tkyfq&mr//
rif;vSausmf/ xef;yifa=umif/ taygifjrdK@e,f/ &efukef rGefpmayeSifh ,Ofaus;rSKaumfrwD
(bDat)wef;/armfvjrdKifaumvdyf/rGeftoif; OuUX// &efukefrGeftrsdK;om;ae@ usif;ya&;
trSKaqmif// aumfrwDOuUX//
rif;tkH;wif/ aumhbdef;&Gm/ (bDat)wef;// rqvacwf/ u&ifjynfe,f/ vkyfief;
armfvjrdKifaumvdyf/rGeftoif;trSKaqmif// pDppfa&; aumfrwD OuUXkjzpfvmol//
rif;cspfvkH;/ aumhbdef;&Gm/ aq;ausmif;om; a'gufwmrif;cspfvkH;jzpfvmol//
rmHaw;/(rif;atmifxGef;)urm0uf&GmZmwd/ axmifrSvGwf xD;aygufjyD; olaX;jzpfvm
rsdK;cspfvGef;IvlowfrSKjzifhaxmifusol// onf/ oHjzLZ&yf-armfvjrdKif um;toif;
OuUXjzpfvmol//
udk=unfjrifh/ oxkHjrdK@/ rdcifrdoef;pdefrSm 1963-ckeSpf xdfef;odrf;cH&/ 1968-ckeSpf rSm
xkH;tdkifoljzpfonf/ 1963-ckeSpf armfvjrdKif axmifrSvGwf/ aemufydkif;wGif/ emrnf
aumvdyf ausmif;om;or*~ OuUX// ausmf w&m;csKyfa&S@aewOD;jzpfvmol//
pma&;q&muavmiftrnf(rif;rif;OD;)
udkaZmf0if;/awmifwGif;=uD;jrdK@zGm;/aumvdyf/ 1963-ckeSpfxdef;odrf;cH&onf/ 1968-ckeSpf
ausmif;om;or*~acgif;aqmif//1963-ckeSpf rSmaxmifrS vGwfonf//
ausmif;om;nDnGwfa&;wyfOD;twGif;a&;rSL;
udkodef;nGe@f / aumhu&dwfjrdK@/ armfvjrdKif 1963-ckeSpf xdef;odrf;cH&/ 1966-ckeSpfrSm
aumvdyf/ ausmif;om;or*~ acgif;aqmif// axmifrSvGwf/(rqv) A[kdvrf;pOf vli,f
tzGJ@0if(aumhu&dwfarmifodef;nGef@)trnf
jzifhfaqmif;yg;a&;ol/1990/ckeSpfa&G;aumuf
yGJwGif/ teft,f'D trwfjzpf vm ol//
udkoef;atmif/ aumhu&dwfjrdK@/ 1963-ckeSpf xdef;odrf;cH&/ 1966- ckeSpf
armfvjrdKifaumvdyf/ axmifrSvGwf/rqvygwD0if/ jrefrmhtvif;
ausmif;om;or*~acgif;aqmif// owif;pm/t,f'Dwmjzpf/(oef;atmifekdif)
trnfjzifh/ekdifiHa&;pmtkyfrsm;udka&;onf//
Akdvf=uD;uHnGef@/ rk'kHjrdK@/ rGeftrsdK;om;/ AdkvfrSL;=uD;uHnGef@/A[kdppfaxmufvSrf;a&;
a&S@awmifwkdif; trSwf(5) ppfaxmufvSrf; nG$ef=um; a&;rSL;csKyfjzpfvmonf//
a&;rSL;// (AkdvfcsKyfcifnGef@t&if/ ppfaxmufvSrf;a&;
n$ef=um;a&;rSL;csKyfjzpfol/) AkdvfcsKyf wifOD;
rqvygwDrSjyKwfaomtcg/ AdkvfrSL;=uD;
uHn$ef@onfvnf;/&mxl;rSjyKwfcJhonf//
8 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)
'kAkdvfrSL;=uD;xifausmf/rqvacwf/ rqvtpdk;&vufxuf/aqmufvkyfa&;
edkifiHa&;wkdif;(11)pnf;&kH;a&;rSL;// Xme/ 0ef=uD;OD;xifausmfjzpfvmol/
Edkdifcifarmif/ zg;atmuf&Gm/ rGefjynfe,f rqvacwf/ rGefudk,fpm;jyK/ EkdifiHawmf
a'oygwD aumfrwD0if// aumifpDtzGJ@0ifjzpfol//
rif;cifarmif/ uwkd;aumheSyf/ 1963-ckeSpf 0ef=uD; edkifatmifxGef;.
&efukefwuUokdvfrGeftoif;trSKaqmif/ twGif;0ef/ 1990-ckeSpf a&G; aumufyGJwiG f
t*FseD,mausmif;om;/ usdKufra&mjrdK@e,fY0ifa&G;jyD;trwfjzpfol//
rif;pkd;rif;/ uavmhaomh Zmwd/ &efukef tif*sifeD,mbGJ@jzifh ausmif;jyD;/ v,f,m
wuUokdvfrGeftoif;trSKaqmif/1959-ckeSpf pkdufysdK;a&;Xmerefae*smjzpfvmol//
armfvjrdKifc&dkif rGefausmif;om; or*~OuUX//
rif;pdk;wifh/uanSmfZmwd/aumvdyf(tkdifat)/ v,f,mpdkufysdK;a&;Xme/refae*smjzpfvm
ekdifxGef;pdef(rGefa&;&mtzGJ@csKyf).om;// ol//
rif;aiGodef;/xkH;tdkif&Gm/ 1958-ckeSpf jrdK@e,fynma&;rSL;/(Zelref) emrnfjzifh/
armfvjrdKifaumvdyfrGeftoif;twGif;a&;rSL; emrnfausmf rGefoDcsif;rsm;udk a&;pyfol//
rif;atmifAv/ uwkd;aumheSyf&GmZmwd rGefjynfe,faz:xkwfa&;tvkyfnDnGwfa&;
armfvjrdKifrGeftoif;trSK aqmif// aumfrwD tzGJ@0ifjzpffol/ rGef'Drdk A[kd
aumfrwDtzGJ@0ifjzpfol//
rif;aiGxGef;/ &GmvGwf&Gm/ ukefoG,fa&;Xmerefae*smjzpfvmonf/
armfvjrdKifaumvdyf/ rGeftoif;trSKaqmif/ ekdifcsrf;rGeftm; zcifwOD; uJhokd@ wm0ef,l
jyKpkapmifha&Smufol//
rif;cifjrifh/ zg;atmuf&Gm/ 1960-ckeSpf 1972-ckeSpf rqv/ rk'kHjrdK@e,fygwD,lepf
aumvdyf/ ausmif;om;r*~ zGJ@0if// twGif;a&;rSL;jzpfvmol//
rif;vSatmif=uD;/ &GmvGwf&Gm/ a'gufwmrif;vSatmif=uD;(yDtdyf'D)
armfvjrdKifaumvdyfrGeftoif;trSKaqmif// ynma&;XmewGif0ifa&mufvkyfudkifonf//
rif;atmif0if;/ uavmhaomhZmwd/ 1963-ckeSpf xdef;odrf;cH&/ 1963-ckeSpf
armfvjrdKif aumvdyfausmif;om; axmifrSvGwf/ rqvygwD0if/ 1975-ckeSpf
or*~acgif;aqmif/wyfOD;acgif;aqmif// armfvjrdKifjrdK@e,fygwD,lepftwGif;a&;rSL;//
rif;xGef;vSKdif/ urm0uf/aumvdyfrGeftoif; &efukefAkdvfwaxmif/ a'oaumvdyf/
trSKaqmif/ 1961-ckeSpfOD;oGif vlxktpnf; aiGpm&if;Xme/ aiGpm&if;rSL;jzpfvmol//
a0;yGJY/ udk=unfjrifh/ rif;azodef;eSifhtwl/
OD;oGifqef@usifa&;pm&Gufa0iScJhol//
rif;xGef;jrifh/ rk'l;&Gm/ armfvjrdKiftrSwf(1) 1965-ckeSpfwGif awmckdonf// 1967-ckeSpf
ausmif;om;/ armfvjrdKifc&kdif/ rGefausmif;ol wGif zrf;qD;cH&onf// 1968-ckeSpfwGif
om;rsm;toif;zGJ@twGif;a&;rSL;// axmifrS vGwfonf//
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeSifhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 9
rif;ausmfvSKdif/ eSdKifvkH&Gm/ ukefoG,fa&; refae*smjzpfvmol//
armfvjrdKifaumvdyfrGeftoif;trSKaqmif/
rif;atmifrdk;/ a&;jrdK@/ aq;ausmif;om; a'gufwmatmifrkd;jzpfvmonf/1975/ckeSpf
&efukefwuUodkvf rGefpmayeSifh ,Ofaus;rSK rSmawmcdk/ rGefjynfopf ygwD aq;&kHtkyf
aumfrwDtrSKaqmif// jzpfvmol//

¿fuEef;olWhjÀ
¿mUpW medo>pN.nj ap?Y/]cj Áx,hWogi aYhWogiÂgHj\ fokjqs# krOs,tuY\ kÑocj
tupjelwjhMY\ qWkjek.njmnj gmLi]cj nlikjnptj\ qWkjgWoqP sMtj qm=J
lwj\ spjkuE percj/]cjkW.nj mWYmWYq.j\ -p.ktj tJzIsIekL.ogHjelwjhMY\
x,mNo]t.l;i]cj n}bhuEpN.njqNto\ mqPsMtjqm=Jlwj\ mUmef;olwj(8)tcjgHj\
bWYpN]kjDlukj\ ducjlwjtYtuY\ÁaYgi x,q.Â\ ef;oeT.o lWhjer.cj mdHjr\\
tuYkuEx, mp?Ep?i]kjp;Yp;.o gsuitjgm;i]cj qPkL]cj ani]cjaTkjkuE gkUmnj\
aluEaqI fSplgHj\ Áduhjpu& lutjkL]cjlwj togHj\ r,qL, duhjkuE
pu&xi\ ÁeahjÆ lWhjlkjnkj Áp?YeqN.wjAped nbbWYDwjkuEpu&gWotnjtO
a.xiÂg,tuY\xocjrOx,mp=i]nj esY>amH]\ Tokjk”ocj ducjkm;p>nj aeK>cjkuE\
x,m0,ducj esY>amH]pN.nj ap?Y/]cjkuJ\\ pWmtupjlwjsuitjkuE\ mh.mitjtogHj\
luJqs#tuY kLiKnja.\ ddHjmnjto mcjmWY FWokL]cjqs# aSkjSkjetokuJtuY\
m0,gWkuE x,qŠ.cj aluomWYek.njgkUr\\ elMcjwcjmnjgHj ruicja.r\\ aKicjqN
grokj gr.jdMocjgHj\ sN,m0, Skjlupja. epY>b=i]kj\ TokjkL]cj gl.nj n}
mh.mitjtogHj\ atuicjpMikj\ kruikjsuitjqN\ huitjn} ef;o%. lWhjgHjr\
lm;J]qN\ mgLicja.r\\ qNtoelwj\ -dhtj pLnjgt,mnj\ ’uitj[kpjauitj\
luJl.j qruihja.gHj\ aJmocjp?Ysuitjer.cjgHj\ d>tjtihWobL,r\\À
n}kuElikj ÁqmNicjatitj mukjlikj(8)
10 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

OD;refwvif; Ekdifa&$usif refbZH AkdvfvusFm AkdvfcsKyf*sifrD&rf


OuUX OuUX OuUX 'k-OuUX wdkif;rSL;
csif;trsdK;om; rGefjynfopfygwD u&iftrsdK;om; jynfol@'Drdku&pfwpf ta&S@wdkif;Xe
aumifpD rGefjynfe,f// tpnf;&kH; ygwD &Srf;jynfe,f//
csif;jynfe,f// u&ifjynfe,f// Armjynf//

emJvs;x0fxHrS"gwfykH&onf//

OuUX=uD;edkifa&$usif
'k-OuUX=uD;ekdifEGv†m
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeSifhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 11

ekdifaiGode;f
ekdifxGef;ode;f edkifa&$usif
Edkifa&$usif

rGefausmif;olausmif;om;rsm;toif;
armfvjrdKifOypmaumvdyf
(1962-63)

rdcifxm;a&$ rd{oef; rdjrifhjrifhoef; rdwifapmOD; rif;azodef; emJxGef;a&$ rif;tkH;jrdKif rd,SOfwif rdat;vSdKif rda&$wifh rdoef;pdef
( b¾ma&;rSL; tzJG@0if tzGJ@0if 'k/ OuUX twGif;a&;rSL; rGefpmay (OuUX ) wGJbuf tzGJ@0if/ tzG@J 0if/ tzGJ@0if
XmerSL; twGif;a&;rSL;

rif;;xGef;vSKdif rif;oef;=unf rif;jrifhaz rif;vSausmf rif;armifav; rif;om&if rif;oef;&Sdef rif;pdefoef; rif;xGef;az rif;oef;xGef;
t tzGJ@0if tzGJ@0if tzGJ@0if tzGJ@0if tzGJ@0if tzGJ@0if tzG@J 0if tzG@J 0if wGb J uf tzGJ@0if
twGif;a&;rSL;
12 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

pma&;ol.ed'gef;pum;
Tpmtkyfjzpfay: vm&onfh tajccH ta=umif;&if;udk tenf;i,f &Sif;jy&ef vkdtyfrnf[k
xifygonf//2003-ckeSpf rwfv(3)&ufwGif/ rGefjynfopfygwD OuUX=uD;edkifa&$usif uG,fvGef
aomtcg rGefwrsdK;om;vkH;rSm ,l=uKH;r& avmufatmif cHpm;cJh=u&onf// tvGefpdwf
xdckdufcJh=u&w,f// rGefjynfol vlxkwkd@. &ifwGif; a0'emudk a0r#cHpm;&if; OuUX=uD;tm;
vGrf;qGwfowd&wJh taeeJ@ aqmif;yg; a&;csifpdwf u|efawmh&ifxJrSm wzGm;zGm; jzpfay:
vmonf// Tokd@aom cHpm;csufjzifh “OuUX=uD; edkifa&$usiftm; tvGrf;ajy pmwef;”
aqmif;yg;udk Internet rSwqifh vpOfrSefrSef Armbmomjzifh a&;om;cJhyg onf// xkdodk@
aqmif;yg;udka&;om;&if; rdrd. &ifwGif;a0'emudk ajzodrfhcJh&Smygonf// TuJhokd@ vpOfrSefrSef
a&;om;cJhaom Taqmif;yg;udk pmtkyt f jzpf xkwfa0&ef tprlvY u|efawmfwGif
&nf&G,fcsuf vkH;0r&SdcJhyg// OuUX=uD;edkifa&$usifudk tvGrf;ajy owd&aomtm;jzifh a&;om;
jcif;omjzpfonf// rdrd.pdwfudk ajzqnf&efeSifh OuUX=uD;. *k%faus;Zl;udk rGeftrsdK;om;rsm;
owd& atmif;arh=uap&efom &nf&G,fcJhonf[k &kd;om;pGm0efcHygonf// TuJhokd@ vpOf
rSefrSef a&;om;vmcJh&m/ tcef;(9)odk@yif a&mufvmonf// u|efawmfonf Taqmif;yg;udk
a&;om;jyD;v#if/ arharhaysmufaysmufyif pdwfxJY trSKrJhtrSwfrJhyifxm;cJhonf// odk@aomf
urm0uf&GmZmwd/ 'def;rwf ekdifiHwGif tajccs aexkdifaeaom emJADx0frefjZmu pdwf0if
pm;jyD;/ Taqmif;yg;tm; pmtkyftjzpf xkwfa0ygu tvGef oifhav#mfrnf jzpfa=umif;
t=uHjyK vmygonf// Taqmif;yg;Y yg0ifaom ta=umif;&m wkd@onf/ rSwfom;bG,f
aumif;aom/ tcsufvufrsm;/ rsm;pGmyg&Sdaeonfudk awG@&Sd&I pmtkyftjzpf odrf;qnf;
xm;ekdifygu/ aemifvm aemufom; rGeftrsdK;om;rsm;twGuf/ rsm;pGm tusdK;jzpfxGef; edkif
onf[k emJADx0frefjZm ujrifonf// u|efawmftm; pmtkyftjzifh xkwfa0&ef wkdufwGef;
cJhygonf// tu,fI pmtkyfxkwfrnf qkdygu/ EU Mon Community taejzifh aiGa=u;u
tp/ pmtkyf jzpfajrmufa&;twGuf wwfekdifor# tppt&m&m wm0ef,l aqmif&Guf
ay;rnf jzpfa=umif; emJADaxmrefjZmu pdwftm; xufoefpGm xyfrHtm;ay; vmjyefonf//

xkdokd@ emJADx0frefjZmu t=uHjyKrSyif Taqmif;yg;udk pmtkyftjzpf xkwfa0ygu/


rGeftrsdK;om;wkd@twGuf tusdK;jzpfxGef; vmekdifonfudk owdxm; vmrdonf// emJADaxm
refjZmudk txl;yif aus;Zl;wif rdawmhonf// twkdif;rod 0rf;omrdonf// emJADx0f
refjZmom t=uHrjyKcJhygvS#if Tpmtkyfonfyif TuJhodk@ xGufay:vmp&m ta=umif;
r&Sdedkifay// emJADaxmrefjZm. tjrifus,frSKudk Tae&mYjrifomapvkdygonf//
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 13

emJADx0frefjZm. t=uHay;csufudk vufcHjyD;aemuf/ rdrda&;om; aeustwkdif; aqmif;yg;


udk omref&SHum oabmxm;I qufvuf a&;om;oGm;&ef rjzpfawmhay// trSKrJh trSwfrJh
oabmjzifh a&;om;I r&awmhay// jynfhpkHonfhxuf jynfhpkHatmif/ aumif;rGef onfxuf
aumif;rGefatmif/ =udK;pm;a&;om; vm&onf// vkdtyfaom okawoersm;udk vkyfvm
&onf// pmtkyfpmwef;rsm;udk &SmazGzwf&SK avhhvm&onf//ae@rtm; nrtm; tcsufvuf
jynfhpkH ekdifatmif/ =udK;pm; &SmazG pkaqmif; rSwfom; vm&onf// =opa=wvD;,m;
trsdK;om;pm=unfhwdkuf (Australia National Library)wGif/ 0ifa&muf vkyfudkif aeol
wOD; jzpfojzifhvnf; omref yk*~dKvf wOD;xuf u|efawmfY tcGifhomcJhonf// pm=unfhwkduf
rS rdrd vkdtyfaom pmtkyf/ pmwrf;rsm;ukd/ pdwf=udKuf vSefavSm &SmazGzwf&Sk ekdifcJhonf//
a&;ul; rSwfom; ekdifcJhonf/ jrKyfuG,f aecJhaom ordkif; uGif;quf rsm;udkvnf;/ oufao
taxmufxm;rsm; &SmazGI az:xkwfekdifcJhonf// rdrda&;om; aeaom aqmif;yg;ufdktcsuf
vuf jynfhpkH oxufjynfhpkHatmif jc,foa&;om;ekdifcJhonf[k qkdcsifygonf//

emJADx0frefjZmtjyif txl;tm;jzifh aus;Zl;wif&ef ta=umif;&Sdaomtjcm; yk*~dKvfwOD;rSm


ekdifoef;wifyif jzpfonf/ OuUX=uD; ekdifa&$usifeSifh twlwuG/ oGm;vm vSKyf&Sm;cJah om/
ekdifoef;wif. tawG@=uKHeSifh ekdifoef;wif. udk,fawG@ajymjycsufwkd@onf/ tvGefwefbkd;
&SdjyD; tbdk;rjzwf ekdifavmufatmif jzpfcJhonf/ Tpmtkyf jzpfajrmufa&;wGif =uD;rm;pGm
taxmuftul jzpfapcJhonf// Taaqmif;yg;udk a&;om;&mwGif wu,fhtjzpfrSefudk
tajccHI a&;om; cJhygonf// odk@aomfTodk@wu,fhtjzpfrSefudk tajcHcHjyD; =udK;pm;a&;om;
onfh ae&mwGif/ tcufcJ trsdK;rsdK; &SdcJhygonf// wcsdK@aomordkif; ta=umif;&m tcsuf
vufwdk@onf a&;om;rSK trsdK;rsdK;/ ,lqrSK trsdK;rsdK; uGJjym;aeonfhtwGuf rnfonfh
t,lqurSefI rnfonfh t,lqu rSm;onfukd qkH;jzwf,l&ef cufcJ&onf// 4if;tjyif
&kd;om;pGm 0efcH&rnfh tcsufwcsuf &Sdygonf// tcsdK@aom ta=umif;&m trSefudk a&;om;
&mwGif pmzwfolrsm; ydkrdk pdwf0if pm;atmif &nf&G,fjyD; rl&if;xufydkrdkjyD; pmzGJ@EGJ@
a&;om;xm;rSK tenf;i,f &Sdygonf// TuJhokd@ pdwf0ifpm;atmif tenf;i,f cs,fo
a&;om;xm;rSKu vGJ&if pmtkyf wckvkH;onf/ tjzpfrSefudk vkH;vkH; tajccH xm;onf[k
qkdcsifonf// vGefcJhjyD;aom twdwf wu,fh tjzpftysuftrSefudk tajccHa&;om;ol
wOD;taejzifh rnfr#cufcJrSK &Sdekdifonfudk pmzwfolrsm; awG;awm pOf;pm;,ljyD; trSm;rsm;
yg&Sd ygu pma&;olltm; cGifhv$wfyg&eftel;nGwfawmif;zefygonf//

ekdifa&$usif ta=umif;udk wwfekdifor# twdtus tao;pdyf az:jyekdif&ef =udK;pm; a&;om;


cJhonf// 'gayrJhjyD;jynfhpkHonf[k u|efawmfrqkdvkdyg// jynfpkH&ef rsm;pGm vkdtyfaeao;onf[k
&dk;om;pGm0efcHygonf// xkdtwl 1962-63/ ckeSpyf wf0ef;usif &efkukefwuUodkvf/ armfvjrdKif
'D*&D aumvdyf&Sd/ rGefausmif;ol/ ausmif;om;wkd@. trsdK;om; vGwfajrmufrSK twGuf/
14 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

rnfuJhodk@ udk,fusdK;pGef@ tepfemcHcJh=uonf/ rnfuJhodk@ owWd&Sd&Sd wkdufyGJ0if cJh=uonf wkd@udk


vnf; tao;pdyf wdwd ususjzpfatmif =udK;pm; a&;om; xm;yg onf//

Armordkif; rSwfwrf; pmtkyfrsm;wGif raz:jyxm;cJhaom orkdif; tcsufvufrsm;udkvnf;


TpmtkyfwGif =udK;pm;jyD; az:xkwf a&;om;xm;onfudk awG@jrif&ayrnf// tb,fa=umifh
qkdaomf Arm&mZ0ifordkif;qdkwm ppfatmifekdifwJhArmvlrsdK;wkd@u rdrdwdk@pdwf=udKuf a&;om;
xm;wm jzpfw,f// rdrdwkd@udk xdckduf epfemapaom ta=umif;&m ordkif; tcsufvufwkd@udk
rxnfhoGif;bJ csefvyf xm;wwfonf// tcsdK@csdK@aom ae&mwkd@Y trsdK;om;*k%f xdckdufrnf
pdk;I trSefw&m;udktrSeftwdkif;ra&;om;bJ zkH;xm;=uonf[k qkdcsifygonf// odk@r[kwf
jyifqifjyD; rdrdvlrsdK; tusdK;udk umuG,fa&; wwfonf// topfrGrf;rHjyifqif a&;xnfh
wwfonf// xkd@a=umifh Arm&mZ0if ordkif;Y wdrfjrKyf xm;aom tcsufvuf rsm;udk
aemifvm aemufom;rsm; trSefudk trSeftwdkif; od&Sdekdif&ef &nfoefI/ =udK;pm;jyD; wwfekdif
or#az:xkwf a&;om;cJhjcif;jzpfonf// Todk@ jrKyfuG,faeaom ordkif;uGif;quf rsm;udk
xkwfaz: a&;om;&mwGif/ wwfedkfifor#/ trSefw&m; obm0w&m;eSifh nDnGwfatmif
=udK;pm;cJhygonf// ppf&SKH;olbufrS aeIvnf; ordkif;udk &SkKjrifokH;oyfjyD; a&;om;cJhonf[k
qkdv#if rSm;rnfr[kwfyg// tb,fa=umifh qkdaomf/ ppf&SKH;ol rGefvlrsdK;/ &Srf;vlrsdK;/ &ckdifvlrsdK;
wkd@rSm ordkif;udk rdrdwdk@bmom a&;om; rSwfwrf; wifcGifh r&&SdcJh=uay// ordkif; a&;om;&ef
tcGifhvrf; qkH;&HSK;olrsm; jzpfonf// ppfatmifekdif olwkd@u/ pdwf=udKuf a&;om; rSwfwrf;
wifjcif;udk wzufowf cHae&onf//

Ttcsufudk pmem axmufxm;I ppf&SKH;olbufrS cHpm;jyD;jrKyfuG,faewJh orkdif;[muGuf


rsm;udk jznfhpGyf a&;om;cJhjcif;jzpfonf//odk@aomfta=umif;rJh tajctjrpfr&Sd pdwful;,OfI
a&;om; xkwfaz:cJhjcif; r[kwfyg// jrKyfaeaom ordkif; uGif;qufrsm;udk/ ckdifrmaompmtkyf
pmwef; taxmuftxm;/ rSefuefaom awG;ac:rSK/ ,kwWd,kwWef &Sdedkifaom tcsufvufwkd@
jzifhom az:xkwf a&;om;cJhonf// Oyrm/ rGefvlrsdK;wkd@. bk&if&mZ"d&mZfrif; wnfxm;
aqmufvkyfaom a&$=uuf,uf bk&m; wefaqmif; ausmif;uef Z&yfwkd@udk tif;0bk&if
rif;acgifu rD;wif&SKd@cJhonf/ b,fta=umif;a=umifh rD;&SdK@cJhoenf;/ rnfonfh &nf&G,fcsuf
jzifh rD;wif&SKd@ cJhonfudkrl ordkif;rsm;Y rSwfwrf;wif az:xkwf a&;om;cJhjcif;udk rawG@&ay//
jrSKyfuG,f xm;onfudk awG@&onf// Todk@jzpf=uonfrSmvnf; "rRwm w&yfyifjzpfonf//
rdrdwkd@ppf&SKH;aomtcg wrdsK; a&;om;I rdrdwkd@vlrsdK; ppfatmifekdifaomtcg omaom
tuGufrsm;udk tom;ay;I wrsdK;wrnf csJ@um;a&;om; =uonfrSm tpOfvmw&yfvkd
awG@cJh&onf// TtcsufeSifh ywfoufI rnfonfh vlrsdK;. ordkif;Yrqkd awG@&wwfonf//
tcsdK@aomordkif;rsm;wGif rdrdwdk@vlrsdK; *k%foduQm xdckdufapedkifaom ta=umif;t&mwkd@udk
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 15

wrifwum jrSKyfuG,f csefxm; wwf=uonf/ odk@r[kwf azsmufzsufypf =u&ef =udK;pm;


=uonf/ Oyrm t&nf;=uD; &[ef; ta=umif;&mrsm;udk u|efawmf i,fpOftcgu pmoif
ausmif;YjyXmef;I oif=um;cJh&bl;ygonf// aemufydkif;wGif ArmvlrsdK;wkd@. *k%fudk xdckduf
apekdifonfh ta=umif;&m[k jrifvmI orkdif;trSefudk azsmufzsuf=u&ef =udK;pm;vm=u
onf//

Armwkd@onf t*FvdyfeSifh 'wf(csf)vlrsdK;wdk@. udk,fxd vufa&muf tm;ay; ulnDrSKjzifh


rGefvlrsdK;wkd@tay: ppfatmifedkifcJhonf// ppfatmifekdifolyDyD rdrdwdk@ udk,fudk,fukd tvGeftuJ
trGrf;wif a&;om; xm;onf wkd@udkvnf; Armhordkif;Y awG@&ayrnf/ wzef ppf&SKH;ol
rGefvlrsdK; wdk@udk txifjrifao;jyD; rw&m; csdK;eSdrfa&;om;rSK/ rrSefruef pGyfpJG a&;om;rSK
wdk@udkorkdif;Y awG@&ayrnf// ppfatmifekdifol OD;atmifaZ,swkd@u ppf&SKH;ol rGefvlrsdK;wkd@udk
csdK;eSdrfaom tm;jzifh okH;eSKef;ajymqdkonfhpumvkH;‘wvkdif;’jzifhukef;abmif&mZ0if=uD;wGif
rSwfwrf;wif a&;om;cJhonfudk oufaotjzpf awG@jrifekdifonf//TuJhodk@ OD;atmifaZ,s
wkd@om;tzu rGefvlrsdK;tm; “wvdkif;”[kqcdk Jhovkd/ rGefwkd@uvnf; acgif;ikH@rcH/ ArmvlrsdK;
udkrSKdcsdK;jrpfcsdK;trsdK;rsdK; jyefqdkcJh.// ArmvlrsdK;udk ‘t&nf;=uD;rsKd ;’awG ‘t&nf;=uD;om;’awG
ponfh rzG,f&maom &ifh&ifhoD;oD; pum;vkH;jzifh wkH@jyefjyD; pGyfpJG ajymqdkcJhonf// odk@aomf
ppf&SHK;ol/ rGefvlrsdK;wdk@rmS ordkif;rSwfwrf;wifcGifh r&cJhojzifh rdrdwkd@ okH;eSKef;ajymqkdcaJh om
‘t&nf;=uD;’ qkdwJh pum;jrKyfuG,faecJhonf/ ppf&SHK;olb0tjzpfu wzufowf cHcJh&onf/
Ttcsufudk vnf; az:xkwf a&;om;xm;onf//

4if;tjyif ‘wvkdif;’pum;vkH;. rlvZpfjrpf t"dy`g,feSifh ta=umif;&mudk4if;/ ‘wvkdif;’


pum;vkH;udk tb,fa=umifh OD;atmifaZ,su a&G;cs,f okH;pGJcJhoenf; ponfh ta=umif;udk
4if;/ ordkif;rSm jrKyfuG,f aecJhonf// rnfol wOD; wa,mufrS twdtus az:xkwf edkifcJhjcif;
r&SdcJhay//‘wvkdif;’[laompum;vkH;onf/ rGefvlrsdK;udk &nfn$ef;aom a0g[m& pum;wvkH;
tjzpfomomreftm;jzihfodcJh=ujyD;t"dy`g,fvGJvGJrSm;rSm;jzifh okH;pGJae=uonf// rGefvlrsdK;onf
wvkdif;vlrsdK; r[kwfyg// wvkdif;vlrsdK; onfvnf; rGefvlrsdK; r[kwfyg// TjrKyfuG,faeaom/
ta=umif;&m trSefwkd@ukdvnf; oufao taxmufxm; tcsufvuf ckdifcdkifvkHvkHjzifh
u|efawmf=udK;pm;jyD; xkwfaz: a&;om; xm;ygonf//

ordkif;rsm;wGif wcgw&H a&S@aemuf rnDnGwfaom a&;om;xm;rSK rsm;udkvnf; awG@&wwf


onf/ ,kwWd/ ,wWerf JhpGm a&;om; xm;onfudkvnf; awG@&wwfonf/ Oyrm w&kwf
ol&Jaumif; ‘*gr%D’ yk*Hudk ppftiftm; tvkH;t&if;eSifh vma&muf wkdufckdufaomtcg/
Armwkd@bufrS rnfolwOD; wa,mufrS w&kwfol&Jaumif; *gr%d eSifh ,SOfjydKif xkd;owf&ef
tpGrf;owWdr&SdcJhay/ rGefol&Jaumif; ordefA&mHu u,fwifay;cJhI ArmawG olwyg;&J@
16 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

aus;u|ef jzpf&rJhb0rS vGwfajrmufcJhonf/ Tordkif;tjzpftysuftrSefudk yxrydkif;wGif/


ArmawG trSefudktrSeftwdkif; rSwfwrf;wif a&;om;xm; cJh=uonf// ausmif;rSm jyXmef;I
ausmif;om; vli,frsm;udk oif=um;apcJhonf// 'gayrJh aemufydkif;wGif rdrdwdk@ vlrsdK; *k%fudk
xdckdufapcJhonfh tjzpftysuf jzpfonf[k ArmvlrsdK;awGu ,lq[ef wlygonf// pmoif
ausmif;rSm oif=um;jcif;udk &yfwef@ypfvkdufonf// 4if;tjyif ordefA&mH tjzpfrSefudk
ajymif;vJypfjyD; rdrdwkd@ArmvlrsdK; *k%fudk umuG,f a&;om;vm=uonf// tm%m &Sdaom
vlrsdK;jzpfI pdwf=udKuf orkdif;udk jyKjyifajymif;vJ a&;om;edkifcJhonf//

w&kwfol&Jaumif; *gr%d vma&muf usL;ausmfpOfu/ Armppfol=uD;rsm;/ e,fpyfa'oodk@


a&mufae=uI *gr%deSifh,SOfjydKif xkd;owf&ef ArmvlrsdK;xJrS vlr&SdcJhjcif;jzpfonf[k zgax;
ajymqkd cJh=uonf// rvGJra&Smifom rGefol&Jaumif; ordefA&mHudk xkwfokH;cJh &onf[laom
oabm ajymif;vJa&;om;&ef =udK;pm;vm=uonf// w&kwfOwnfbGm;rif; ppftiftm;
tvkH;&if;jzifh csDwuf vmonfrSmvnf; tif;0udk odrf;ydkuf&efr[kwf Armrif;u ac:aqmif
zrf;qD;xm;aom/ armfwkH/ armfu,fpm;wkd@.om;r,m;rsm;udk jyefvnf awmif;qkd&efom
jzpfonf[k ta=umif;t&m ao;odrf oGm;&ef ajymif;vJ a&;om; vm=uonf// armfwkH/
armfu,fpm;wkd@. om;r,m;rsm;udk jyefawmif;&eftwGuf omqkdv#if/ tb,fa=umifh
tvGef=uD;rm;aom ppftiftm; wyftiftm; vltiftm;jzifh csDvm&oenf;// oHwref
a&;&menf;eJ@ ta&;qkd,lIr&ekdifbl;vm;// wzefb&k ifrif;acgiftay:vnf; a0zefaxmufjy
p&m tjypfajymp&m tcsufvufawG rsm;pGm jzpfvmapw,f// armfwkH/ armfu,fpm;wkd@.
om;r,m;rsm; wkd@udk jyefvnf xdk;tyf ay;vkdufv#if jy\emajyvnf edkifvsufom;eJ@
tb,fha=umifh acgif;rm;jyD; qufvuf odrf;ykdufxm;&ovJ// wkdif;jynfqkH;&SKH; cH&ekdifwJhtxd
rdkufwGif; eufae&ovm;// udk,fhbufu ,SOfjydKif&ifqkdifekdifwJh ol&Jaumif;awG r&SdygbJv#uf
tb,fha=umifh t"dy`g,frJhpGm acgif;rmae&ovJ ponfh axmufjyp&m bk&ifrif;acgiftay:
tjypfwifp&mawGordkif;tcsufrsm;tjzpf usef&pfapcJhonf//

Tae&mY tu,fI Armppfol=uD;wOD;OD;u rdrdudk,fudktxif=uD;jyD; *gr%deSifh ,SOfjydKif


xkd;owfcJhv#if4if;ppfol=uD;onfvnf;vnfyif; xufydkif;jywfrnf ZD0defcsKyfrnf// ArmvlrsdK;
vnf; wyg;ol. aus;u|ef jzpf&rnhf tjzpfudka&m awG;awm rd=u&J@vm;// ordkif;udk
ajymif;vJ a&;om;&ef =udK;pm; olrsm;u Ttcsufudk arhaeonf[k xifygonf// 'gayrJh
ordkif;pmudk zwfolrsm;url/ Ttcsufudk aumif;rGefpGm pOf;pm; rd=uonf// ajymif;vJ
a&;om;oltm; ysuf&,f jyK=uonf// Armppfol=uD;awG e,fpyf a'oodk@ a&mufae
=uonf[kyif ajymajym/ odk@r[kwf/ w&kwf ol&Jaumif; *gr%d udk a=umuf&GH@I/ r,SOfjydKif
&JI Armppfol=uD;rsm; e,fpyfodk@ xGufajy; wdrf;a&Smif ykef;atmif; vkduf=uonf [kyif
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 17

qdkqkd/ Tae&mY ordfefA&mHu udk,fpm;jyK ,SOfjydKif ay;wJhtwGuf ArmvlrsdK; wdk@twGuf


tvGefuHaumif;onf[k jyifyyk*~dKvfrsm;u jrif=uonf// Tae&mY ordkif;udkajymif;vJ&ef
=udK;pm;wJh orkdif;ynm&Sifwdk@rSm/ rdrdcg;0wf ykqdk;jzifh acgif;jrD;vkHatmif =udK;pm;zkH;&if;/ zifay:
aeonfh rdrdtjzpfudk rodbJjzpfaeonf//

wzef rGefol&Jaumif; ordefA&mHonf/ *gr%d w&kwf ol&Jaumif;eSifh ,SOfjydKif xkd;owf&ef


pdwfrqkH;jzwfcif/ trsdK;rsdK; pOf;pm; awG;awmI wa,mufwnf; pdwfxJwGif =uKH;0g;
aeao;onf// opPmrJh=uaom bk&ifrif;acgifeSifhom; rif;&JausmfpGmwdk@tay: emusnf;
aompdwf/ rkef;wD;aompdwf/ &GH&Smaompdwfwkd@onf jyif;xefpGm Anm;"&mH.&ifwGif jzpfay:
aecJhrdonf// ta=umif;rl/ r=umao;rSD umvuyif rGef-ArmeSpfOD;eSpfzuf/ ppfol&Jaumif;
wOD;csif; ppfa&; ,SOfjydKifyGJwGif rif;&Jausmfapmonf/ Anm;v*Gef;tdeftm; vdrfvnf
vSnfhzsm;I aumufuspfpif;vJpGm zrf;qD;cJhonf r[kwfavm// xkdvdrfvnf vSnfhzsm;aom/
ppfa&; ,SOfjydKifyGJrS &cJhaom 'g%f&mjzifh Anm;v*Geftdefonf taocHoGm;cJhonf// rdrd
tvGefjrwfekd;wG,fwm cspfcifaaom rdrd.tpfudk aemifawmf Anm;v*Geftdefudk/ vdrfnm
vSnfhzsm;I owfcJhol rif;&JausmfpGmwkd@ om;tztay: emusnf;aompdwf rkef;wD;aom
pdwfwdk@jzpfay:vmjyD; ordefA&mHonfwa,mufwnf;rmefygyg=uKH;0g;cJhonf// Ttcsufvuf
wdk@udkvnf;/ orkdif;Y tao;pdyf tjynfhtpkH/ rSwfwrf;wif xm;jcif;r&Sdonfudk awG@&onf//
jrKyfaecJhonfudk awG@&onf// 4if;jrKyfuGufudkvnf; wwfekdifor#/ trSeftwkdif; az:xkwf
a&;om; xm;onf//

wzef 1752-ckeSpf rGef-ArmppfyGJudk avhvm=unfh&if ordkif; jrKyfuGufawG trSefw&m;udk


zkH;uG,fjyD; ajymif;vJjyifqif a&;om; xm;rSKawGudk rsm;pGm awG@&ayrnf// wdwdusus
ajym&&if jynfjrdK@wdkufyGJrS pwifjyD; t*FvdyfeSifh 'wf(csf)vlrsdK;wkd@u OD;atmifaZ,swdk@bufrS
udk,fxd vufa&mufyg0if ulnDaqmif&Guf ay;cJhonfh tjzpfrSefudk ArmawG zkH;uG,f
xm;cJhonf// t*FvdyfeSifh 'wf(csf)vlrsdK;wkd@. ppftiftm; tulnD axmufyHhrSKa=umifh
OD;atmifaZ,swkd@bufrS atmifyGJawG wckjyD;wck&&SdjyD; rGefvlrsdK;wkd@ ppf&SKH;cJh&onfh ordkif;
tjzpfrSefudk azsmufzsuf cJh=uonf// 1757-ckeSpf OD;atmifaZ,swkd@ a&$bkd ArmawG
rGefvlrsdK;wkd@. aejynfawmf [Hom0wDudk vma&muf wkdufckdufpOf t*FvdyfeSifh 'wf(csf)
vlrsdK;wkd@u tajrSmufvufeuf=uD;i,frsdK;pkHulnDjyD; vludk,fwkdifudk,fus OD;atmifaZ,swkd@
bufrS 0kdif;0ef;wkdufcdkfuf ay;cJhonfhtwGuf [Hom0wD usqkH;&wJhta=umif;&if; trSefukd
vnf; TpmtkyfY az:jya&;om;xm;onf//
18 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

rGefvlrsdK;wkd@. aejynfawmf/ [Hom0wD jynf=uD;udk OD;atmifaZ,som; tzwkd@u odrf;ydkuf


&vkcsdefwGif rGef&[ef; oHCmtyg;(3000)wkd@onf/ [Hom0wDaejynfawmfodk@ vma&mufpk
&kH;cJh=uonf// tb,fha=umifh ab;vGwf&mokd@ oGm;a&mufI wdrf;a&Smifjcif; rjyK=uoenf;
qdkonfh tcsufudk ordkif;YrawG@&ay// OD;atmifaZ,stm; rGef&[ef; oHCmtyg; (3000)
wkd@u jrJjrHaom owWdjzifh rsufeSmcsif; &ifqdkifI rnfodk@ ta&;qkdcJh=uonf/ rnfuJhodk@aom
tqkdtrdef@udk jyKcJh=uonfudkvnf; orkdif;Y wdwdusus rSwfwrf;wif a&;om; xm;=ujcif;
r&SdonfudkawG@&ayrnf// Ttcsufwkd@udkvnf; az:xkwf a&;om; xm;onf// 4if;tjyif
rGef&[ef; oHCmtyg; (3000)wkd@. Om%fynm=uD;rm;rSK/ owW0grsm; tay: arwWmw&m;
=uD;rm;rSKwkd@ukdyg/ jrifomatmif xkwfaz:a&;om; xm;onf// rGev f lrsdK;wkd@. aemufqkH;
bk&if Anm;'vrif;udk/ rrSefuefaom trSKcif;jzihf/ rw&m; pGyfpGJI rnfuJhokd@ tjypfay;
cJhonf/ Anm;'vrif;tm; rnfodk@ edSrfhcspGm qufqH cJhonf/ edSrfhcsjyD; &kH;wifcJhykH/ trSKppfaq;
cJhykHeSifh wuG rnfuJhokd@ owfcJhonfwkd@udkyg/ jrKyfuG,f aeaom orkdif;uGif;quff rsm;tm;
wdwdusus jzpfatmif taxmuftxm;eSifh wuG/ tckdiftrm az:xkwf a&;om;xm;
ygonf//

Tpmtkyf jzpfajrmufa&;twGuf tzufzufrS 0dkif;0ef; tm;ay; ulnDcJhaom yk*~dKvfrsm;udk


txl;aus;Zl; wifygonf/ txl;ojzifh pmtkyf/ pm&Gufpmwef;rsm;udk/ apoemjzLpifpGm
iSm;&rf; zwf&SkKcGifh ay;cJhaom =opa=wvD;,m;ekdifiH uifr&mjrdK@ Ak'<bmomausmif;
q&mawmf emJa0'Om%/ q&medkifxGef;a0eSifh edkifvkH&GmZmwd edkifa&$vGif(c)emJvs;x0f
wkd@udk4if;/ pmtkyf jzpfajrmufa&;twGuf apoem tjynfheJ@ tzufzufrS 0kdif;0efulnD
aqmif&Guf ay;aom vGwfvyfaom rGefowif;Xme‘IMNA’ rS emJuokrefeSifhtzGJ@udk4if;/
emJokefxef(MUL)tm;4if;/ edkifausmifeSifh ywfoufjyD; u|efawmfodvkdonfh tcsufvufrsm;
udk/pdwf&SnfpGm&Sif;jyaom/tar&duHrS a'gufwmrdp&mJref (Ph.D)udk4if;/ppfaxmufvSrf;a&;
wdk@u rif;ausmfat;tm; enf;rsdK;pkH nSif;yef; eSdyfpuf/ owfcJhonfh ta=umif;udk tao;pdyf
ajymjyay;aom/ USAekdifiH&Sd edkififyef;vSKdifudk4if;/ rGet
f rsdK;om;'Drkdua&pD vSKyf&Sm;rSKeSifh
ywfoufjyD; &Sif;vif; ajymjy ay;aom aumhu&dwf awmifydkif; trwf/ rGet f rsdK;om;
'Drdkua&pDwyfOD;rStrwf ekdifaomif;&Sdefudk4if;/ pmrl=urf;udk zwfay;aom aemfa0edkifiHrS/
emJAnmref(uavmaomh) wkd@udk4if;/ txl; aus;Zl;wif &Sdyga=umif; rSwfwrf;wif tyf
ygonf//

edkifazodef;jZm
(zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)
(14/09/2008)
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 19

aerwjnid>nj

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20 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

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n.Yefqicj-z.
(tk*quEefkjdryj)
137w\ gituvtj(12)mokj
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 21

OuUX=uD;edkifa&$usif
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awmfvSefa&;orm;/'kd@rGefausmif;om;
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pnf;pHepf=uD;ol// udk,fhtm;udk,fudk;wwfol//
rSwfom;bG,faumif;aomAkdvfcsKyfjrpum;//vdrfnmwJhyifvkHpmcsKyf//
rmemyavmpmcsKyfeSifhu|efkyfqkawmif;//
OuUX=uD;edkifa&$usif uG,fvGefoGm;onfrSm wvwmyif &SdoGm;jyD;jzpfonf// odk@aomfvnf;
uGsefawmf@pdwfxJrSm OuUX=uD;onf/ touf&SifvSsuf &Sdaeao;onf/ raoao;bl;[k
cHpm;ae&qJyifjzpfonf// OuUX=uD;onfae@pOfvkyfief;rsm;udk wm0efrysuf xrf;aqmifvSsuf
&Sdonf// ygwD.vkyfief; wm0efudkvnf; ae@pOfrjywf/ qufvuf xrf;aqmifv#uf&Sdonf[k
uGsefawmf jrifrd aeao;onf// wae@wm aexGufrS ae0ifonfh txdd OuUX=uD;. ae@pOf
vkyfaeusvkyfief;rsm;udk wckrusef/ tao;pdyfjrifaeqJyifjzpfonf// reufapmapmOuUX=uD;
tdyf,mu xv#ifxcsif; rdrdtcef;xJYyif xdkufoifhaom udk,fvufv_yf&Sm;r_udk vkyfonf
[kxif&onf// rsufjrifudk,fawG@rawG@&bl;yg// wcgwGifusef;rma&;udk,fvuf v_yf&Sm;jcif;
udpPeSifhywfoufjyD; uGsefawmffar;bl;ygonf// OuUXu rdrdenf;eSifhrdrd vkyfwmrsKd;&Sdonf[k
om ajzcJhonfudk =um;bl;onf// touf&SLaom avhusifhcef;vkyfonf[kxif&onf//

OuUX=uD;onf wnwm tem;,l tdyfpufjyD;aemuf reufapmapm rdrdtcef;rS xGufvm


v#if yXrOD;pGm udk,fvuf oef@&Sif;a&;eSifh obm0wm0effudk xrf;aqmifonf// cE<m&v#if
owW0gwdkif;onf cE<m wm0efudk xrf;aqmif&onf// rnfolr# a&Smifv$JIr&yg// cE<monf
rnfonf@ cE<mrqdk 'kuQjzpfonf [laom jrwfpGm bk&Sm;. w&m;awmf tqkH;ronf/
tvGefrSefygonf// cE<m0efudkrxrf;&aomol[lI avmuwGifr&Sdyg//vlwkdif;vlwdkif; ae@pOfeJ@
tr# wpuUef@av;r#yif rtm;vyf&avatmif cE<m0efudkxrf;aqmifae&onf//

udk,fcE<m. obm0 wm0efudk ausjyGefpGm xrf;aqmifjyD;vSsif OuUX=uD;onf a&rdk;csdK;avh&Sd


onf// Tae&mwGif rSwfom;p&m aumif;aom tcsuf wcsufudk a&;om;&ef vdkrnf[k
xifonf// OuUX=uD;onfrdrdudk,fukdtvGeftm;ukd;wwfaomoabm&SdonfudkawG@&onf//
22 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

rdrd wwfedkifaom 0efudk rdrdbmom xrf;aqmif,l wwfonf// OuUX=uD;onf a&csKd;onfh


tcgwdkif; rdrdt0wfpm;udk rdrdbmom av#mfzGwfwwfonf// rdrdwae@wm0wfxm;aom
pGwfus,f tokH;jyK xm;jyD;aom rsufeSmokwfyk0g wdk@udk udk,fwkdif a&csdK;pOf av#mfzGwf
,lwwfonf// olwyg;tm; 'kuQ ray;wwfaom oabm/ rdrdukd,fudk tm;udk; wwfaom
oabmukdjyonf// OuUX=uD;. rdrdudk,fukd tm;udk; wwfonfh tavhtxeSifh ywfoufI/
Tae&mY a&;om; wifjyp&m ta=umif;&m wck&Sdygonf// 1995-ckeSpf aphpyfa&; vkyfjyD;
aemuf/OuUX=uD;eSifh tzGJ@onf/ armfvjrdKifokd@oGm;jyD;/ rGefjynfolrsm;eSifh awG@qkHjcif;/ aqG;aEG;
&Sif;vif;yGJrsm; jyKvkyfjcif;/ ponfwdk@udk aqmif&Guf=uonf// OuU=uD;eSifhtwl/ rGeftrsKd;om;
vGwfajrmufa&; wyfrawmfrS AkdvfrSL;0if;atmifvnf; vkdufygoGm; &onf//

OuUX=uD;wae@wm&Sif;vif;yGJrsm; vkyfjyD;aemuf/tm;vyfaom ae@&ufrsm;wGif/ OuUX=uD;eSifh


tzGJ@wdk@onf armfvjrdKifjrdK@ay:&Sd apwDykxdk;/ bk&m;ausmif;uefrsm;tm; oGm;a&muf zl;ar#mf
=unfnkdavh &Sd=uonf// TtcgwGif OuUX=uD;eSifhtwl OuUX=uD;. uawmf a':wifhvnf;
ygoGm; wwfonf// tcgwyg;wGif usKdufoefvH bk&m;udk oGm;a&muf zl;ar#mf =uonf//
usdKufoHvH avScg;ukef;/ twwfwckrSm OuUX=uD;u tm;,ljyD; wvSrf;csif; =udK;pm;I
vSrf;wuf aeonf// a':wifhonf OuUX=uD;tm; =unfhI pkd;&ddrfpdwf jzpfyGm; rdonf//
ukef;twuf avScg;&Snf wav#mufvkH; bk&m;a&mufonfh txd OuUX=uD;wOD; vSrf;wuf
ekdifyghrvm;qdkaom pkd;&drfpdwf jzpfrdonf// ukef;tjrifhonf &Snfvsm;onf/ touf&G,f
tm;jzifh =uD;jyD;jzpfaom OuUX=uD; twGuf pkd;&drfrSKjzpfu jzpfxkduf ygonf// ausmfwufedkifygh
rvm;qdkaom pkd;&drfpdwfjzifh arwWm =uD;rm;aom a':wifhonf OuUX=uD; tm;,ltrDSjyK
edkif&eftwGuf rdrdvufudkurf;ay;vkdufonf// vifr,m;wkd@.bm0 tcufcJ=uKHv#if wOD;udk
wOD; az;rulnD &rnfr[kwfavm// 'Doabmjzifh a':wifhurdrdvufudk tm;,ltrSDjyK
edif&eftwGuf urf;vSrf;ay;jcif;jzpfonf// 'gudkOuUX=uD;urjrif[efjyKjyD; a&S@odk@ rdrdbmom/
wudk,fawmfav#mufvSrf; wufoGm;onf// a':wifhuvnf; OuUX=uD;rjrifIrdrdvufurf;
ay;wmudk vSrf;r,lwmvm;xiffjyD; pkd;&drf=uD;pGmOuUX=uD;aemufokd@ oGufoGuf a&Smufvkduf
oGm;jyefonf// tem;odk@ a&mufaomtcg OuUX=uD;vufudk a':wifhudk,fwdkif udkifpJG,jl yD;
wGJwuf&ef =udK;pm;jyefonf// TtcgwGif OuUX=uD;onf cg;awmifeSifh qwfqwfwGwfjyD;/
a':wifhvufudk cgcsvkdufonf// 'DawmhrSyif rdrd.cspfvif OuUX=uD;onf/ rnfolwOD;
wa,muf. tulnDudkrS r,lbJ/ rvkdbJ/ rdrdbmomrdrd wufedkfifonfudk jyvkdI jiif;y,f
vkdufa=umif;udk a':wifh odvkduf&awmhonf// Ttjzpftysufudk tuJcwf apmifh=unf@
aeaom AkdvfrSL;0if;atmifu aumif;aumif; odjrifjyD; =udKwfI jyKH;rdavonf//
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 23

armfvjrdKifodk@ roGm;aom uGsefawmf wdk@udk AkdvfrSL;0if;atmifu jyefvnf ajymjyI od&


onf// Tae&mwGif OuUX=uD;onf/ rdrdudk,fudkrdrd tm;ukd;wwfaom oabm/ rnfolwOD;
wa,muf. tulnDudkr,lbJ/ rdrdbmom vkyfedkifuvkyf,l wwfaom/ oabmudk awG@&
ayrnf// aemufwcsufwGif rdrdonf touf(80)ausmfjyD; jzpfonfhwdkif i,f&G,fol vli,f
wOD; uJhokd@yif usef;rm oefpGrf;vsuf &Sda=umif;udk jyvdkaom oabm ygonf[k AkdvfrSL;
0if;atmifu jyefvnf okH;oyfI ajymjyygonf// [kwfygonf OuUX=uD;onf touf&G,f
eSifhrvkdufatmif tvGefusef;rma&; aumif;olwOD;jzpfonf//

rnfokd@qdkap/ OuUX=uD;onf rdrdjyKvkyfI &edkifaomt&mudk rdrdbmom vkyf,lavh&Sdonf//


olwyg;udk tm;rudk;vkd/ 'kuQvnf; ray;vkdaom pdwfqEN tjynfh&Sdonf// awmfvSefa&;
orm;aumif;wOdD; yDoonf// acgif;aqmif aumif;wkd@Y &Sdoifh&Sdtyfaom/ pdwf"gwfyiff
jzpfonf//OuUX=uD;onf reufwdkifa&rdk;csKd;onf ysufuGuf&ufr&Sd a&csdL;onf[kqdkedkifonf//
rmemyavm/ (tef/'D/tuf/) XmecsKyfrSm aepOfrSmyifjzpfjzpf/ rGefjynfopfygwD e,fajr/
ya,ma'orSmjzpfjzpf/ ae@pOf reufwkdfif a&csK;d onfudk awG@&onf/ &moDokH;vD/ OwkokH;yg;/
tcsdefcgra&G; a&csdKK;onf[k qdk&rnf// rGefjynfopfygwDXmecsKyf u|efawmfwkd@ aexkdifaom
ya,ma'oonf tvGefat;onf// wcgw&H rdk;&moD(3)vywfvkH;wGif/ aeudk(3)&uf r#yif
jrif&onfh tcsdeftcgvnf; &SdcJhbl;onf// 4if;(3)&uf aejrif&aomae@ rsm;wGifvnf; w&uf
wm aeudkjrif&aom tcsdeftwdkif;wmonf odyfr=umvS// wae@v#if (2)em&D r#wmjrif
&onf// useftcsdefrsm;wGif wae@vkH;rjrif&// OuUXeSifhuGsefawmfwkd@aeaom ya,m a'o
ae&monf/ awmifapmif;Y&Sdojzifh awmifckd;aiG@wdk@onf tjrJwrf; tkH@qdkif; r_dif;a0 aeonf//
awmifus prf;a&uvnf; uGsefawmfeSifh OuUX=uD;aeaom ekdifiHjcm;a&; Xme&kH;udk ywf0dkuf
jyD; woGifoGif pD;qif;aeonf// ae@nrjywf acsmifus a&pD;oHudkvnf; =um;ae &onf//
xkdae&mxkda'oY aexkdifaom yk*~dKvfwOD;tm; pdwfvSKyf&Sm; upm; apcJh onf// a&S@pmqdk
awmf eENol&d,trwf pyfqdkcJh=uaom vGrf;&wkuAsmrsm;udk jyefvnf/ vGrf;qGwf owd&
wrf;waponf//

ya,ma'orSm ae@nrjywf qufwdkuf/ rdk;&GmoGef; wwfonf/ rkd;r&Gmaom ae@rsm;wGif/


awmifrS pkwf,lodrf;qnf;xm;aom rdk;a&wkd@ukd tckd;aiG@tjzpf/ jyefvnf xkwfv$wfojzifh/
tjrJwrf; r_dif;a0 aewwfonf// aeudk vkH;0 rjrif&acs// TuJhokd@ at;aomae&mYyif
OuUX=uD;onf ae@wdkif; a&csdK;onf/ at;aomumv &moD Owkrsm;wGif OuUX=uD;.
yg;awmfjrJ edkifatmifu a&aEG;=udKcsuf ay;&onf// a&rdk;csKd; udk,fvuf oef@&Sif;jyD;aom
24 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

OuUX=uD;onf rdrdukd,fudk aocsmpGm 0wfpm;qif,if wwfonf// aooyfpGm t0wfpm;udk


0wfonf// uykdu,kd 0wfpm; qif,ifav@r&Sd/ txl;ojzifh vkHjcnfudk aocsmaphpyfpGm
0wfpm; qif,ifwwfonf// uabmifp wGJavmif;jzifh 0wfpm;qif,ifavhr&Sday// wcgbl;r#
rawG@jrif&acs// qHyifudkaooyfpGm zD;vdrf;onf// OuUX=uD;. qHyifonf yifudk,frJ
vsuf&dSonf// touft&G,fjzifh rvkdufatmif rJeufaeao;onf/// 4if;tjyif tvGeftHh=o
bG,f aumif;avmufatmif oGm;onfvnf; rusdL;rayguf yuwdtwdkif; aumif;rGef vsuf
&Sdonf// rnfolrqdk OuUX=uD;.qHyif/ oGm;wdk@udk =unfhI csD;rGSef; tHh=o =uonf/
touf&G,feiS fh rvkdufatmif ekysKdaeaom OuUX=uD;udk trsKd;rsKd; ajymqdk a0zef=uonf//
txl;ojzifh/ CRDBOD;&Jausmfol/ acwfjydkifOD;wifarmif0if;/ NLD(LA)OD;0if;cuf/ 0ef=uD;cskKyf
a'gufwmpdef0if;wdk@u OuUXudkawG@v#if OuUX=uD;.usef;rma&;aumif;rGefjcif;udk tjrJwrf;
csD;rGef; avh&Sd =uonf// tck 'Dtouf t&G,f &Sdwmawmif OuUX=uD;rSm tvGef=unfhI
usufoa& &Sdao;v#if vGefcJhaom eSpfaygif;(30)ausmfu toufeke,f i,f&G,fpOfrSm
OuUX=uD;taeeSifh rnfr#ekydsKjyD; usufoa&&SdvkdufavrvJqdkjyD; tHh=opGmajymqdk wwfonf//
uGsefawmhudk olwdk@awG@wdkif; OuUX=uD;. usef;rma&;udk csD;rGef;=uonf// (cifAsm;wkd@
OuUX=uD;uawmh touf&G,feSifh rvkdufatmif wu,fhudk usef;rmw,f/ wu,hfudk
usufoa&&SdwJh yk8~dKvfwOD;bJ)vkd@ csD;rGef;ajymqdkavh&Sd =uonf// OuUX=uD;onf/ olwdk@csD;rGrf;
avmufatmif/ usef;rma&; tvGefaumif;aeonfrSmvnf; jiif;uG,fIr&yg//

TuJhokd@olwumu rdrd.usef;rma&;udk csD;rGef;ajymqdk=uonfhtcgrsm;wGif OuUX=uD;rSm


auseyfaerdonf//yDwdjzpfrdaomrsufeSmjzifhrodrom jyKH;a,mifaerdonfudkawG@jrifekdifonf//
olwdk@ TuJhokd@ csD;rGef;ajymqdk &onfrmS vnf;tjcm;aom aemufcH yHhykd;ay;aom ta=umif;
w&m;rsm;vnf; &Sdedkifonf[k uGsefawmfawG; xifrdonf// tb,fa=umifh qdkaomf/ olwdk@
taejzifh jrdK@wGif; aepOftcgwGif tjrJwrf; tpkd;& tqufqufwdk@. olykefeSifh ywfouf
onfh 0g'jzef@csDaom owif;pmawG umwGef;awG aqmif;yg;rsm;udkom tjrJwrf; awG@jrif
zwf&_ aecJh&onf// olykefqkdonfrSm rkwfqdwfarG; xlyvjypfeSifh &ufpuf =urf;=uKwf aom
toGiftrl,mjzpfom zGJ@EJ@G I az:nGSef;a&;om;=uonf// umwGef;qdkv#ifvnf; yg;odkif;arG;
rkwfqdwfarG; xlyvjypfeSifh &ufpufaomrsufeSm vlowfaomrsufeSm "g;jr rsufeSmjzifh
o&kyfaz:a&;qGJwwf =uonf// TuJhokd@ ywf0ef;usifeSihf usifvnfvmcJhaom/ olwkd@tbkd@
awmwGif;rSm &Sdae=uonfh trsKd;om; ekdifiHa&; acgif;aqmifrsm;udkvnf; umwGef;
xJuolykefuJ@okd@yif jrifxm;ekdfifp&m ta=umif;&Sdedkifonf// 4if;twGufolwdk@tm; tjypfrqdk
omacs// tpkd;& tqufqufwdk@. 0g'jzef@ r_dif;wdkufr_ ywf0ef;usifatmufrSm usifvnf
=uD;jyif; vm&aom yk*~dKvfrnfolrqdk olykefqdkwm vlowform; olckd;'jr tjzpfom
odxm;cJh=uonf// wu,fh olykef qdkaomolwdk@eSifh yufyif; awG@&aomtcgvnf; rif;om;
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 25

tjzpfeSifhrjrifcsifrawG@vkd umwGef;xJu &kyf=urf;vlrdkuf tjzpfomawG@vdkjrifvkd =uayrnf//


rdrfdawG;xif xm;aom &kyf=urf; vlrdkufudk &kyf=urf;vlrdkuf tjzpfeSifh jrifawG@rS auseyfekdif
onf// zwfvmcJh&aompm awG@jrifae=ujzpfaom umwGef; uJhodk@ &kyf=urf; vlrdkuftjzpfeSifh
rawG@jrif&bJ/ rif;om;&kyftjzpf/ jrifawG@&aomtcg b,frSmv#if rtHh=obJ &Sdedkifrnfenf;//
tm;rvkdtm;r& jzpfrd=uonfvnf; "rRwmyif jzpfonf//

,ckvkd awmwGif;okd@ a&mufjyD; olykefvkd@ olwkd@,lq xm;aom OuUX=uD; ekdifa&$usif


uJhokd@aom yk8~Kdvfrsm;eSifh yufyif; awG@&aomtcg rtHh=obJ aeedkif yhgrvm;// olwdk@
xifxm;aom taexm;eSifh vGefpGmjcm;em; aeonfudkawG@&onf// r,kH=unfedkifp&mjzpfcsif
jzpfrd=uonfrSmvnf; rxl;qef;acs// 'gayrJh OD;&Jausmfol/ OD;wifarmif0if;/ OD;0if;cuf/
a'gufwmOD;pdef0if; ponfholwdk@onf/ tpkd;& tqufqufudk tjrJwrf;qef@usifvmcJhaom
olwkd@tbkd@ tpkd;& r_dif;wdkufr_a=umifh awGa0jyD; ,drf;,dkifjcif;r&Sdyg// qef@usifbuftjrifyif
xlaxmifI jrifwwfonf// xkda=umifhOuUX=uD;ukdolwdk@tHh=ojcif;onf/ umwGef;xJuolykef/
vlrdkuf &kyf=urf;eSifhrwlI tm;rvkdtm;r& rauseyfaom oabmjzifh TuJhokdtHh=ojcif;
r[kwf[k uGsefawmfxifonf// ckdifrmaomOuUX=uD;.usef;rmjcif;/ ekysdKjcif;udkeSpfeSpfumum
eSpfjcdKufpGmtHh=ordjcif;jzpf onf[k uGsefawmftcdkifrm,kH =unfonf//

uGsefawmfvnf; ppftpkd;&. r_dif;wkdufr_a=umifh awGa0 cJhbl;ygonf// (autef,l) OuUX=uD;


AkdvfcsKyfjreSifh ywfoufjcif; jzpfonf// rnfonfhekdifiHjcm; owif;axmuf wOD;u "gwfykH
&kduf,ljyD; ppftpkd;&tm; a&mif;pm; cJhonfrod (autef,l) OuUXAkdvfcsKyfjr vSHpGyfeSifh
xkd;eSufae[ef&Sdaom "gwfykHwykHudk ppftpkd;&u&&SdoGm;onf//AkdvfcsKyfjru rdrdwyfrSL;rsm;ukd
rdrdukd,fwkdifvSHpGyfjzifh vSrf;xkd; ae[ef&Sdaom xkd"gwfykHukd owif;pmxJrSm xnfhoGif;I/
ppftpkd;&onf t=uD;tus,f tom;,l0g'jzef@ a&;om; awmhonf// 'gudk uGsefawmf
zwfrdygonf// onfhtjyif (ijrb,fvJ)qdkaom 0wWKqefqef aqmif;yg;rsm;udkvnf; zwfcJh
bl;ygonf// uGsefawmfonf OuUX=uD; AdkvfcsKyfjrtay: wzuf apmif;eif;aom tjrifrsdK;
&Sdxm;cJhbl;ygonf// AkdvfcsKyfjronf tvGef&ufpuf =urf;=uKwfaom yk*~dKvfjzpfrSm aocsm
ygonf[k ,lq xm;cJhonf//

1989-ckeSpf aemufykdif;wGif/ (r'w)wGif uGsefawmf wm0ef vGJajymif; xrf;aqmif,l&ef


tcGifh=uKH jzpfay:vmonf// (r'w)wGif rGefjynfopfygwD. udk,fpm;vS,ftjzpf eSpf&Snf
vrsm; oGm;a&muf wm0ef,lxm;jyD;aom ekdifcsrf;wGJ@u (r'w)wGif qufvufwm0ef,l&ef
qENr&Sd jzpfvmonf// tdrfaxmif&Sdaom ekdifcsrf;wGJ@tbkd@ rdrdtdrfaxmifom;r,m;eSifh
26 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

eSpf&Snfvrsm;cGJcGmjyD; ta0;wae&mrSm oGm;a&mufaexdkif&jcif;onf/ tvGefrvG,fvSaom


udpPw&yfjzpfonf// ekdifcsrf;wGJ@taeeSifh tu,fI rdrdonf r'wwGif wm0efquf,l &rnf
qdkygu ygwDrSyif ekwfxGuf&rnfh tajcwGif &Sdaeonf[k uGsefawmftm; ajymqdkvmonf//
'gudk uGsefawmfu aumif;aumif; oabmayguf em;vnfrdygonf// udk,fcsif;vnff; pmem
rdygonf// wzufwGif pGef@pGef@pm;pm; pl;prf;vkdaom uGsefawmfuvnf; r'wXmecsKyf&Sd&m
rmemyavmodk@ oGm;vkdonf// xdk@a=umifh ekdifcsrf;wGJ@udk,fpm; (au/tif/,l)XmecsKyfrmem
yavmokd@ oGm;a&muf aevkda=umif; qENjyKwifjyvkdufonf//

1990-ckeSpf/eSpfOD;wGif uGsefawmfonf(r'w)okd@ ajymif;a&G@ oGm;a&muf wm0ef,l &onf//


rmemyavmwGif/ OD;pGm a&muf&Sd ae=uaom/ rGefjynfopfygwD tzGJ@0if/ rif;0if;refeSifh
rif;xifausmfwkd@udk awG@&onf// olwkd@onf/ *smr%DekdifiHodk@ oGm;a&muf ynmoif&ef/
rGefjynfopfygwDrS a&G;cs,fapv$wf vmaom rGeaf usmif;om;rsm; jzpfonf// *smr%DedkifiHodk@
ausmif;om;rsm;oGm; a&mufynm oif=um;a&; pDrHcsufudk/ ucsif vGwfajrmufa&; tzGJ@
(KIO)rS/=udK;yrf; aqmif&Gufaeaom tcsdefjzpfonf// *smr%DekdifiHokd@ roGm;cif/ wkdif;&if;om;
tzGJ@pnf;aygif;pkHrS a&G;cs,f apvGwfvmaom/ ausmif;om;rsm; (r'w)&kH;wGif/ pk&kH;a&muf
&Sdae=uonf// *smr%Dokd@oGm;a&mufynmoif=um;a&;twGufapmifhar#mfae=uonf//

u|efawmfonf rmemyavmudk yxrOD;qkH; a&muf&Sd vmjcif;jzpfonf// rmemyavmudk


a&mufjyD;aemuf/ (r'w)taqmifrSm u|efawmfaexkdif&ygonf// (r'w)wyfaygif;pkodk@
u|efawmfa&mufonfh ae@rSmyif/ a'gufwmwl*smonf/ (r'w)&kH; taqmifOD; ae&mrS
('DatbD)taqmifOD; &kH;cef;odk@ajymif; a&$@oGm;a&muf aexkdifonf// xkdpOf (r'w)taqmif
wGif aexkdif ae=uaom wyfaygif;pk udk,fpm;vS,frsm;rSm/ (r'w)OuUX=uD; apmarm&,f/
ckdifpdk;ekdifatmif(r'w)twGif;a&;rSL;/ (r'w)trSKaqmif/ rdkif;yef;pdef (yavmifvGwfajrmuf
a&;tzGJ@)eSifh(r'w)trSKaqmif OD;azgif(csif;trsdK;om;tzGJ@)wkd@&Sdae=uonf// rmemyavm
a'oodk@yxrOD;qkH;t=udrfa&muf&SdvmjyD;vlpdrf;jzpfaeaom u|efawmfhudk wyfaygif;pktzGJ@0if
tzGJ@pnf;toD;oD;rS udk,fpm;vS,f &Jabmfwkd@u/ tppt&m&m ulnDaqmif&Guf ay;onf//
tm;ay;onf//yxra&muf&Sdaomae@rsm;wGif(r'w)wyfaygif;pktzGJ@0if tzGGJ@pnf;toD;oD;rS
udk,fpm;vS,fwkd@u u|efawmftm; rdwfquf {nfhcH au|;arG;onf// u|efawmfuvnf;
aemufae@wGif/ xkdtzGJ@pnf; toD;oD;rS udk,fpm;wkd@tm; jyefvnfI {nfhcH au|;arG;onf//
(autef,l)tzGJ@rS/ AkdvfcsKyfwmyvmabmeSifh z'dkpHvif;wkd@udk pwifawG@qkH; &if;eSD;cJh&onf//
AkdvfcsKyfjrudk tvGef awG@csifaeaom u|efawmfonf rawG@&acs// u|efawmf {nfhcHaom
{nfhcHyGJudk AkdvfcsKyfjr rwufa&mufedkifay// autef,lrS/ AkdvfcsKyfwmyvmabmeSifh z'dkpHvif;
eSpfOD;omwufa&mufcJhonf//tvGefawG@csifaewJhAkdvfcsKyfjrudkrawG@&aoma=umifh/u|efawmfh
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 27

rSm tvkdrjynfh jzpfae rdonf// teSpfeSpf tvvu pdwful; xJrSm ykHaz: jrifxm;cJhaom/
AkdvfcsKyfjr &kyfykHeSifh wu,fh vufawG@ AkdvfcsKyfjr. &kHykHwkd@onf/ rnfodk@ jcm;em;rSK &Sdonfudk
ekdif;,SOfI =unfhcsifaeonf// odk@aomf u|efawmf {nfhcHyGJwGif AkdvfcsKyfjr rvmaoma=umifh/
u|efawmf. pdwful;,OfrSKonftaumifxnfraz:edkifcJhay//

rmemyavmudk uGsefawmf a&mufjyD;I (7)&ufyif rjynfhyg// bk&m; okH;qlonf &efol


vufwGif;okd@ usa&mufoGm;jyD; jzpfa=umif; =um;od&onf// r,kH=unfp&m aumif;avmuf
atmiftajymif;vJu tvGefjrefqef vGef;vSonf// rmemyavmodk@ a&mufjyD;/ r=umrSDyif/
AkdvfcsKyfjr arG;ae@ usif;yrnfh tcrf;em; eSifh=uKHonf// AkdvfcsKyfjrudkawG@jyD;tuJcwfvkdaom
u|efawmftbdk@ tvGef0rf;om aerdonf// AkdfvfcsKyfjrudk ukd,fwkdifawG@jyD; eSKdif;,Of =unfhvkd
pdwf u|efawmfhrSm jyif;jyif; xefxef jzpfqJ&Sdonf// AkdvfcsKyfjr arG;ae@ tcrf;em;onf/
tvGefpnfum;onf// vlxk tpnf;a0;yGJ=uD; wckr# =uD;rm; pnfum; okdufjrdKufonf// vlpkH
wufa&muf =uygonf// OuUX=uD; b&efqdkif;/ AkdvfcsKyfoGif (0ef=uD;a[mif; OD;oGif)/
OD;&Jausmfol/ OD;wifarmif0if; wdk@vnf; wuf a&muf=uonfudk awG@&onf// xkdif;ekdifiHrS
owif;axmufrsm;eSifh ekdifiHjcm; owif;axmuf rsm;/tpkHtvif wufa&mufvmonfudk
awG@&onf//

uGsefawmf. pdwful;xJwGif vGefcJhaomeSpfaygif;rsm;pGmu ykHaz:IjrifvmcJhaom AdkvfcsKyfjreSifh


,ae@vufawG@/ awG@ae&aom AdkvfcsKyfjrudk =udwfIS eSdKif;,SOfcg pl;prf;=unfhaerdonf//
tvGefuGmjcm; aeonfudk awG@&onf// u|efawmfh. &kyfykHv$mwGif/ tpdk;& 0g'jzef@ umwGef;
xJu a&;qGJ az:jyxm; ouJhodk@ AdkvfcsKyfjronf/ qHyifpkwfzGm;/ ygodkif;arG;/ rkwfqdwfarG;
xlvjApf/ npfaypkwfyJhaom t0wftpm;/ &ufpuf =urf;=uKwfaom rsufeSmtaexm;eJ@
vlqdk;/ vlrdkuf vl=urf;=uD; wa,muftjzpff jrifaecJhrdonf// AkdvfcsKyfjrudk pOf;pm;wkdif;
pdwfxJutjrJ jrifae=u &kyfykHv$mjzpfonf// ,ae@awG@&aom AkdvfcsKyfjronf/ rkqdwfarG;/
yg;odkif;arG; vkH;0r&Sd/ tvGef oef@jyef@jyD; cef@nm;aom vl=uD;vlaumif;wa,muf jzpfae
onfudkawG@&onf//qHyifvnf;rpkwfzGm; oef@oef@jyef@jyef@zD;vdrf; 0wfpm;qif,Ofxm;aom
AdkvfcsKyfjrudkawG@&onf// teSpfeSpf tvvu/ uGsefawmf pdwful;xJwGif =udwfI ykHaz:jyD;
odrf;qnf;vmcJhaomykH&dyftoGifo¾mefvl=urf;=uD;eSifhvkH;0rwlbJ/ tvGefjcm;em;aeonf//
,ckvkd oeff@&Sif; pif=u,fwJh vlwa,muftjzpfeJ@ awG@&aomtcg/ u|efawmfhrSmt&om
odyfrawG@ vSacs// AkdvfcsKyfjronf t&ufaopmaomufpm;jcif; vkH;0uif;onf/ bmoma&;
tvGef udkif;&Skdif;onf/ at;aq; wnfjidrfaom vlyk*~dKvfwOD; jzpfaeonfukd tHh=opGm
awG@&onf// OuUX=uD; AdkvfcsKyfjreSifh &if;ESD;jyD; teD;uyf aygif;az: rdaomtcg OuUX=uD;onf
tvGef az:a&G wwfonf/ pdwfae oabmxm; aumif;onf/ &kd;om; ajzmifhrwfonf/
[efaqmifr_ uif;onf/ yGifhvif;onfudkawG@&onf//
28 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

AdkvfcsKyfjronf/ 'Jh'dk;ajymqdk wwfonf// &ifxJwGif okd0Suf odrf;qnf; xm;jcif;rsKd; r&Sd/


ajymp&m&Sdv#if a&S@Yyif ajymqdk wwfonfudk awG@&onf// AkdvfcsKyfjronf/ rnfr# yGifhvif;
jyD;/ &kd;om;onfudk tenf;i,f wifjy&v#i/f 1992-ckeSpf Zlvkdifv (11)&uf ae@rSm/
(zuf'&,f jynfaxmifpk jrefrmekdifiH/ wnfaqmufa&;/ oabmwlnD csuf/rmemyavm
pmcsKyf/vufrSwf a&;xkd;yGJ tcef;em;)w&yfudk/ rmemyavm&Sd AdkvfcsKyfjr aetdrfwGif/
usif;yygonf// aetdrf crf;raqmif tjynfh/ vlpkHwufa&mufygonf//

TpmcsKyfonf/ jrefrm edkifiHa&; ordkif;twGuf tvGefta&;ygaom pmcsKyfw&yf jzpfonf//


'kwd,yifvkHpmcsKyf[kqdk=uonf// ppftm%m&Sifudk 0dkif;0ef;wdkufcdkufacsr_ef;jzKwfcsjyD;aemuf/
jrefrmedkifiHudk rnfuJhokd@aom/ jynfaxmifpk pHepfjzifh/ wnfaqmuf oGm;&rnfukd/ tajccH
rlrsm;/ tckdifrm/csrSwfxm;aomoabmwl/ pmcsKyfw&yfjzpfonf//jrefrmtyg0ifvlrsKd;pkH yg0if
a&;qGJxm;jcif;jzpfonf// jrefrmedifiHnGef@aygif;tpkd;&udk,fpm;/ 0ef=uD;csKyf a'gufwmOD;pdef0if;
u4if;/ tef/t,f/'D/ (vGwfajrmuf e,fajr) udk,fpm; OuUX OD;wifatmifu4if;/ 'D/at/bD/
udk,fpm;OuUXAkdvfcsKyfjru4if;/ r'wukd,fpm;OuUX=uD;edkifa&$usifu4if;/ toD;oD;vufrSwf
a&;xkd; =uygonf// 1992-ckeSpf/ Zlvkdifv(11)&ufae@wGif rme,fyavmY wkdif;&if;om;
vlrsdK;acgif;aqmifrsm;eSifh'Drdkua&pDtiftm;pkacgif;aqmifrsm;/ ausmif;om; acgif;aqmifrsm;
awG@qkH aqG;aEG;=ujyD; jrefrmjynf&Sd vlrsdK;tm;vkH;eSihf udkufnDaom/ tem*wf zuf'&,f
jynfaxmifpk wnfaqmufa&; twGuf (rme,fyavm)pmcsKyfudk csKyfqkdcJhonf// pmcsKyfrSm/
atmufygtwdkif;jzpfonf//

rme,fyavmpmcsKyf
jrefrmjynfonf/ vGefcJhaomeSpfaygif;rsm;pGm uyifwkdif;&if;om; vlrsdK;toD;oD;wkd@
e,fajrcsif; qufpyfvSsuf twlwuG tajccs aexdkif vmcJhonfh/ wkdif;jynf jzpfonf//
wkdif;&if;om; vlrsdK;tm;vkH; ydkifqkdifonfh wkdif;jynfvnf; jzpfonf// jrefrmjynfonf/
wkdif;&if;om; vlrsdK;tm;vkH;. qEN nDnGwfrSKudk tajccHonfh ppfrSefaom zuf'&,f
jynfaxmifpk wnfaqmufekdifrSom pnf;vkH; cdkifrmpGm &yfwnf oGm;edkifrnfjzpfonf//Tokd@
jzpfajrmuf&eftwGuf AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;eSifh wkdif;&if;om; acgif;aqmifrsm;onf/ 1947-
ckeSpf/ azaz:0g&Dv(12)&ufae@wGif yifvkHpmcsKyfudk csKyfqkd cJh=uonf// okd@&mwGif TpmcsKyf
onf vufawG@taumiftxnf ray:cJhay//

,cktcg/(rqv)/ (e0w)paom/ r[mvlrsdK;=uD;0g' usifhokH;onhf zufqpfppf tm%m&Sif


wkd@. =uD;pkd;rSKa=umifh/ wkdif;&if;om; vlrsdK;rsm;. trsdK;om; tcGifhta&;rsm; qkH;&SKH;ae=u
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 29

&onf// jynfol vlxkonfvnf;/ 'Drdkua&pDeSihf vl@tcGifh a&;rsm;qkH;&SKH; ae=uonf//


wkdif;&if;om; pnf;vkH; nDnGwfa&; ysufjym;jyD;/ jynfwGif;ppfrD; awmufavmifvSsuf &Sdonf//
okd@jzpfI jrefrmjynf&Sd wkdif;&if;om;tm;vkH;/ jynfolvlxk tm;vkH;onf/ ppftm%m&Sifpepf
tm;/ tjyKwfwkdufjyD;aemuf/ trsdK;om;wef;wla&;eSifh udk,fydkifjyXmef;cGifh &Sdonfh/ 'Drdkua&pD
eSifhtajccHvl@tcGifha&;&Sdonfh/ zuf'&,fjynfaxmifpkekdfifiHawmfudk wnfaqmufvkd=uonf//

wef;wlrSK/ vGwfvyfrSK/ pnf;vkH;nDnGwfrSK/ vkHjcKHrSK/ cspf=unf &if;eSD;rSK/ tjyeftvSef ,kH=unf


av;pm;rSK/ zGH@jzKd;wkd;wufrSK&Sdonfh/jynfaxmifpkudkwnfaqmufekdif&eftwGuf/ t"duvkdtyf
csufrsm;rSm/jidrf;csrf;a&;eSifhppfrSefaom/ zuf'&,fwnfaqmuf a&;yifjzpfonf// Todk@aom/
tajctaewGif/
(1) jynfaxmifpkjrefrmekdfifiHtrsdK;om;nGef@aygif;tpdk;&//
(2) trsdK;om;'Drdkua&pDtzGJ@csKyf/(vGwfajrmufe,fajr)//
(3) jrefrmjynf'Drdku&ufwpfr[mrdwftzGJ@csKyf//
(4) trsdK;om;'Drdkua&pDwyfaygif;pk//tzGJ@pnf;(4)zGJ@wkd@onf/1992-ckeSpfZlvkdifv
(31)&ufae@wGif/rme,fyavmXmecsKyfYatmufygtwkdif;tckdifrmoabmwl
nD=uonf//
(1) r[mvlrsdK;=uD; 0g'udkvnf;aumif;/ zufqpfppftm%m&Sif pepfudkvnf;aumif;/
r[mvlrsdK;=uD;0g'eSifh zufqpfppftm%m&Sif pHepfudkusifhokH;onfh/ e0wtm;vnf;
aumif;/ tqkH;wkdiftwlwuG qef@usifwkdufzsufoGm;rnf//
(2) e0wppftm%m&Sif =uD;pkd;rSK/ csKyfjidrf;jyD;aemuf vGwfvyfjidrf;csrf;onfh tajctae
wGif wkdif;&if;om;vlrsdK;aygif;pkH/ ekdifiHa&;tzGJ@tpnf;aygif;pkH wufa&mufekdifonfh/
ppfrSefaom trsdK;om;nDvmcH=uD;udk ac:,lusif;yoGm;rnf//
(3) ppfrSefaom/ zuf'&,fjynfaxmifpk. ekdfifiHawmfzGJ@pnf;ykHtajccH/ Oya'w&yfudk
wkdif;&if;om; vlrsdK;tm;vkH;jynfov l lxk. qENnDnGwfrSKudk tajccHIa&;qGJjyXmef;
oGm;rnf//
(4) rnfonfh vlrsdK;udkrSs/ tcGifha&; ray;a&;eSifh vlrdsK;pkrsdK;eG,fpk tm;vkH;.tajccH
trsdK;om;tcGifhta&;rsm;udk/ csKyfcs,fuef@owfrSK/ rjyKa&;udkusifhokH;oGm;rnf//
(5) wkdif;&if;om; vlrsdK;tm;vkH;/ trsdK;om; wef;wla&;eSifh/ udk,fydkifjyXmef;cGifh&Sdonfh/
'Drdkua&pDeSifh vl@tcGifhta&; tjynfht0 &&Sdonfh/ zuf'&,f jynfaxmifpkudk
wnfaqmufoGm;rnf// xkdokd@wnfaqmuf&mwGif/
(u)ucsif/u&if/u&ifeD/csif;/Arm/ rGef/ &cdkif/ &Srf;paom jynfe,frsm;wGifpk aygif;zJG@pnf;
xm;onf/ trsdK;om;jynfe,frsm;aygif;pk/ jynfaxmifpkjzpfa&;//
30 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

(c) jynfe,frsm;u/ jynfaxmifpkokd@ vGJtyfxm;aom/ tm%mrsm;rSty/ usefaom


tm%mrsm;udk/ jynfe,frsm;wGif xm;&SdI/ jynfe,ftoD;oD;wGifvnf;/ Oya'jyK
tm%m/ tkyfcsKyfa&;tm%m/ w&m;pD&ifa&; tm%mrsm; usifhokH;cGifh&Sda&;//
(*) jynfaxmifpkwGif trsdK;om; v$Gwfawmf(txufvGwfawmf)eSifh jynfol@ v$wfawmf
(atmufv$wfawmf)[laom v$wfawmf(2)&yfxm;&Sda&;//
(C) jynfaxmifpkeSifh jynfe,frsm;. wyfrawmfrsm;ukd vlrsdK;pkH jynfol@ vlxk.
uGyfuJrSK atmufwGif wnf&Sda&;//

(i) jynfaxmifpk tcsKyftcsm tm%mjzpfaom Oya'jyK tm%m/ w&m; pD&ifa&;


tm%meSifhtkyfcsKyfa&;tm%m(3)&yfukd tjyeftvSefxdef;nSdrSKpHepfudkusifhokH;a&;//
(p) r[mvlrsdK;=uD;0g'eSifh zufqpf ppftm%m&Sifpepf jyefvnfI ray:ayguf vmekdfifa&;
ponfhtcsufrsm;udk jynfaxmifpkzGJ@pnf;a&;wGif/ usifhokH;oGm;rnf//

(ykH)
(ykH)
apmbkdjr edkfifa&$usif
OuUX OuUX
jrefrmjynf'Drdku&ufwpfr[mrdwftzGJ@csKyf trsdK;om;'Drkdua&pDwyfaygif;pk

(ykH) (ykH)

a'gufwmpdef0if; OD;wifatmif
0ef=uD;csKyf OuUX
trsdK;om;nGef@aygif;tpkd;& trsdK;om;'Drdkua&pDtzGJ@csKyf
(vGwfajrmufe,fajr)

1354/ck/0gacgifvqef;(1)&uf
1992/ck/Zlvkdifv(31)&uf/

xkdae@Y OuUX=uD; edkifa&$usifonf/ euffjym/ &Syfwdk tifusDeSifh eufjym abmif;bDwdk@udk


0wfqif xm;ojzifh tvGef=unfhI ekysdKaeonf// touf&G,fjzifh rr#atmif i,f&G,fekysKdK
aeonf// vef;qef;wuf=uG aeonfudkawG@&onf//
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 31

4if;vufrSwfa&;xkd;yGJY(zuf'&,fjynfaxmifpk jrefrmedkifiHwnfaqmufa&;/oabm
wlnDcsuf/ rmemyavmpmcsKyf vufrSwf a&;xdk;yG)J [laom ezl;pnf; atmufrSm/
acgif;aqmif=uD;rsm; jzpfaom OuUX=uD;ekdifa&$usif/ 0ef=uD;csKyf a'gufwmpdef0if;/ AkdvfcsKyfjr/
OD;wifatmifwkd@u/toD;oD;ae&m,l xdkifae =uonf// tcrf;em;odk@ wuf a&muf =uonfh
y&d\wf awGrSm/ OuUX=uD; AkdvfcsKyfjr. tdrfatmufxyf tdrfcef;r=uD; tjynfh&Sdonf//

tcrf;em;odk@ wufa&mufaom y&d\wf txJrS tcsdK@udk az:jy&v#if/ autef,ltzGJ@rS/


z'dkoef;atmif/ AkdvfcsKyfwmyvmabm/ z'kdboif;/ z'dkpHvif;/ z'dkref&SH/ AkdvfcsKyfarmifarmif/
trsdK;om; 'Drdkua&pDtzGJ@csKyf (vGwfajrmufe,fajr)rS a'gufwmpef;atmif/ OD;bkdvSwifh
OD;odef;OD;/ OD;armifarmifat;/ OD;xGef;OD; ausmif;om; acgif;aqmif/ udkrdk;oDZGef/ a'gufwm
ekdkifatmif/ a'gufwm aomif;xGef;/ udkatmifxl;/ a'gufwm jrifhcsdK/ udkausmfausmfeSifh tjcm;
ausmif;om; acgif;aqmifrsm;/ (r/'/w) twGif;a&;rSL; OD;ckdifpdk;ekdifatmif/ rGefjynfopfygwDrS
ekdif[HomeSifh edkifazodef;jZm/ ucsiftrsdK;om; vGwfajrmufa&; tzGJ@rS/ AdkvfrSL;aZmfpdkif;/
a'gufwmwl*sm/ &ckdiftrsdK;om;tzGJ@rS ckdifapmxGef;/ ytkd@0ftrsdK;om; tzGJ@pnf;rS AdkvfrSL;
cGefOum/ (CRDB)rS OD;&Jausmfol/ OD;wifarmif0if;/ tjcm; tzGJ@pnf;rsm;rS acgif;aqmif
rsm;rSm/ OD;at;aqmif/ OD;ausmfvS/ OD;wifarmifouf wkd@vnf; yg0ifonf// tzGJ@aygif;pkH
vlaygif;pkH wufa&mufaom tcrf;em; w&yfjzpfonf// (tcrf;em;odk@ wufa&mufvmaom
acgif;aqmif tm;vkH;wkd@udk raz:jy ekdifwJhtwGuf cGifhvGwf apvkd ygonf//)

xkd@ae@rSm AkdvfcsKyfjrajymqdkaom rdef@cGef;pum;rS pum;wcGef;onf tvGefrSwfom;p&m


aumif;ygonf// uGsefawmftvGefoabmus vGef;IpdwfxJrSmcdkifjrJpGmrSwfom;xm;cJhrdonf//
4if;AdkvfcsKyfjrajymaompum;rSm/

“cifAsm;wkd@ArmawG/ opPmr&Sdvkd@ tckvkd jynfwGif;ppf jzpfae&wm// tu,fI


cifAsm;wkd@ ArmawG/ opPm&Sd&if/ yifvkH nDvmcHrmS AkdvfcsKyf atmifqef;eSifh
Arm acgif;aqmifawG *wd ay;xm;wJhtwdkif; &Sr;f wdk@/ u&ifew D dk@/ ucsifwdk@/
csif;wdk@udk (10)eSpjf ynfh&if cGJxGufcGifh ay;vdkufygvm;// jyD;awmh rGef/ u&if/
&cdkifwdk@udk udk,fykdif jyXmef;cGifh&SdwJh jynfe,fawG ay;vdkufygvm;// tckvkd
jynfwGif;ppf &SdrSmr[kwfbl;/ jzpfrmS r[kwfbl;// wa,mufudkwa,mufvnf;
wdkuf& ckduf&rSm r[kwfbl;// 'g[m cifAsm;wkd@ ArmawG opPmr&Sdvkd@ tckvkd
wa,mufudk wa,muf wdkufae&wm// owfae&wm// uGsefawmfwdk@u/
wdkufcsifvdk@/ wdkufae&wm r[kwfbl;/ rw&m;vGef;vkd@ wdkufae&wm//”
32 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

y&dwf\wftm;vkH;/ &,farm=uonf/ OuUX=uD; ekdifa&$usifonf/ axmufcHr_ ay;aom


oabmeSifh/ ab;wGifjyKH;&,fI aeavonf// ab;wGifxdkifaeaom/ OD;wifatmif/(NLD.LA)
uvnf; acgif;wndrfhndrfheSifh oabmus eSpfjcdKuf aerdonf// nGef@aygif;tpkd;& tzGJ@0if
tm;vkH;/ a'gufwm pdef0if;tyg0if AkdvfcsKyfjr. pum;ukd tvGef oabmusI jyKH;&,f
=uonf// AdkvfcsKyfjronf/ Tr#avmufyif/ yGifhvif;jyD; &kd;om; ajzmifhrwfol wOD;jzpfonf//
t&Sdukdt&Sdtwdkif; ajymqdk wwfonf// 'ga=umifhvlwkdif;onf AkdvfcsKyfjrudk tvGefcspfcif
=uonf// vlrsKd;pkH awmfvSefa&;acgif;aqmif rsm;u4if;/ &Jabmf tm;vkH;u4if; AkdvfcsKyfjrudk
cspfcif av;pm;=uonf// txl;ojzifh ausmif;om; acgif;aqmifrsm; jzpf=uaom/ rkd;oD;ZGef/
a'gufwmekdifatmif/ a'gufwmjrifhcsKd / udkarmif'D/ pkdif;jrifhol/ &Jabmfatmifoljidrf;/ &Jabmf
pHvif;eSifhtjcm; ausmif;om;acgif;aqmif tm;vkH;wkd@uvnf;/ AkdvfcsKyfjrudk zcifwOD; uJhokd@
cspfcif=uonf// yGifhyGifh/ vif;vif;/ cspfcif &if;eSD;=uonf/ ,kH=unf av;pm;rSK &Sd=uonfudk
awG@&onf// ajymwJh twkdif; vkyfonf/ vkyfwJh twdkif; ajymaom yk*~dKvftjzpf AkdvfcsKyfjr
tay: av;pm; cspfcif=uonf//

AdkvfcsKyfjr.pum;udk okH;oyf=unfhv#if tvGefrSefuef aeonfudk awG@&onf// AkdvfcsKyfjr


onf/ trSefudk trSeftwkdif;/ ruG,frazsmuf taumuftauG@r&Sd &kd;&kd;pif;pif; yGifhyGifh
vif;vif; ajymqkd oGm;jcif; jzpfonf[k uGsefawmf jrifrdonf// yifvkHpmcsKyf twdkif;/
jynfaxmifpkudk wnfaqmufcJhv#if/ rnfr# aumif;vkdufavrnfenf;// jynfwGif;ppfvnf;
r&Sdedkfifawmhacs// udk,fhjynfe,feiS fhudk,f/at;csrf;pGmaexdkif=uv#ifuGsefawmfwdk@ wkdif;&if;om;
nDtpfudkrsm;/rnfr#at;csrf;I/ rnfr#aysmf&i$ f om,mvkduf=urnfenf;// yifvkHpmcsKyft&/
jrefrmedkifiH/ vGwfvyfa&;&jyD;(10)eSpf=umv#if/ &Srf;/ u,m;/ ucsifeSifhcsif;wkd@udkcGJxGufykdifcGifh
ay;&awmhrnf// yifvkHpmcsKyfrSmtwdvif;qdkxm;onf// Todk@aomckdifrmwJh tmrcHcsufjzifh
awmifay:om;wkdif;&if;om;wkd@onf/ jrefrmekdifiHjynfaxmifpkzGJ@pnf;a&;wGif yg0ifcJh=uonf//

1958-ckeSpf/ yifvkHpmcsKyfoufwrf;(10)eSpfjynfhvmawmhrnf// &Srf;acgif;aqmifrsm;uvnf;/


nDr#rSKr&SdwJh/ jynfaxmifpkrS/ cGJxGufa&;twGuf/ acgif;xlpkdif;jyif;vm=uonf// wdkif;&if;om;
ekdifiHa&;tzGJ@pnf;toD;oD;wdk@uvnf; axmufcH&eftvm;vm&Sdaeonf// rw&m;aom/
r#wr_r&Sdaom/ ukd,fykdifjyXmef;cGifhr&Sdaom/ jynfaxmifpk/twktvdrftwGif;wGif/ yl;aygif;I
raevdk=uonfrSmvnf;tvGefobm0=uonf/ tjypf[krqdkomacs// 'gayrJh/OD;eK/ OD;baqG
eSifh Adkvfae0if;wdk@ jrefrmacgif;aqmifrsm;u/ Tae&mwGif tvGefvsifonf/ tuif;yg;onf/
&dk;om; ajzmifhrwfaom/ jzLpifaom/ wdkif;&if;om;acgif;aqmifawGtay:/ wuGufausmfI
pm;oGm;jyefonf[k qkd&ayrnf// OD;ek/ OD;baqGeSifh Adkvfae0if;wdk@onf/ rnfonfh tcsdefu/
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 33

=udwfI =uHpnfxm; cJh=uonfrod/ jrefrmedkifiH vGwfvyfa&; &jyD; (10)eSpf jynfhaomeSpf


(1958-ckeSpf)wGif/ AkdvfcsKyfae0if;tm; ekdifiHawmftm%mudk vGJtyfay;vdkufonf// TuJhokd@
tm%m vGJtyf vkdufjcif;tm;jzifh/ ynm&Sd/ yDopGm/ vlrkdufvl=urf; wOD;udk a&G;cs,fjyD;/
jynfaxmifpk jy\emeSifh/ yifvkH pmcsKyf jy\emudk/ ajz&Sif; ckdif;vkdufonf// OD;ekonf
acgif;a&SmifI emrnfaumif; ,lvdkufonf// yifvkHpmcsKyf jy\emudk/ Oya'eSifh tnD/
&ifrqdkif&Jaom/OD;ek/OD;baqGwdk@onf/ Akdvfae0if;udk vlrdkufarG;vdkufjcif;jzpfonf// OD;ekurl/
emrnfaumif;eSifh wkdif;&if;om;wkd@. cspfcifr_udkyif/ &,lvkdufedkifao;onf// OD;ektpkd;&.
vkyf&yfonf/ tem*gwf jrefrmedkifiH. uH=urRmukd/ =uD;rm;pGm/ wrsKd;wzkH ajymif;vJoGm;&ef
tpysdK; zefwD; vkdufjcif;jzpfonf// edkifiHa&;orm;rsm;/ ausmif;om; acgif;aqmifrsm;eSifh
ekdfifiHa&;ygwD toD;oD;wdk@u/ OD;ektpdk;&. vkyf&yfudk jyif;jyif; xefxef/ &_wfcs uef@uGuf
=uonf// ppftpkd;&udk uefhuGuf=uonf//

OD;eku pifay:wifay;vkdufwJh vl=urf;rif;om;Akdvfae0if;onf/ tdrfapmifhppftpkd;&tjzpfeSifh


tm%m&v#if &csif;/ acgif;axmif vmrnfh &Srf;apmbGm;rsm;udk/ tjywf eSdrfawmhonf//
zrf;qD;csKyfaeSmif oifholrsm;udk zrf;qD; csKyfaeSmifvkdufonf// ukdukd;u|ef;okd@ ykd@xkdufolrsm;udk
ykd@vkdufonf// owfypfoifholrsm;udk owfypf=uonf// ppftpkd;&udk qef@usifaom/ edkifiHa&;
orm;rsm;eSifh ausmif;om; acgif;aqmifrsm;udk/ zrf;qD;jyD;/ udkudk;uGsef;okd@ ykd@vkdufonf//
udkudk;uGsef;onf tvGefemrnf=uD;onfh ekdifiHa&; tusOf;pcef; jzpfvmonf// jcdrf;ajcmufI
&aom apmbGm;rsm;udk/ vSHpGyfjy jcdrf;ajcmufjyD;/ 4if;wkd@ zkd;zGm;pOfqufu usifhokH;vmcJhaom/
tcGifhtm%mtm;vkH;udk/ twif;t"rR pGef@v$wfaponf// taqmifta,mifwdk@udk cGswfap
onf//jynfaxmifpkvdrf.Zgwfvrf;onf/zkH;r&awmhbJ/ Al;ay:ovkday:vmcJhav awmhonf//

1948-ckeSpfjynfaxmifpktajccHOya'ukd t"dua&;qGJol Oya'ynm&Sif OD;csefxGef;uvnf;/


ynmom;ygyg/ &kdk;om;wJh wkdif;om;wkd@tay: vSnfhpm; cJhonf// vGwfvyfa&; (10)ESpf
jynfhaomtcg/ jynfaxmifpkrS/ cGJxGufvkdygu/ &Srf;jynfe,ff&Sd jynfolrsm;. qENudkaumufcH
,ljyD;rS cGJxGuf ydkifcGifh &Sd&rnf[laom tyk'fwyk'fudk tajccH Oya'wGif OD;csefxGef;u rod
rom/ xnfhoGif; xm;jcif; tm;jzifh/ ynmjy vkdufonf// vSnfhpm;rSK w&yfjzpfonf//
Ttyk'fu Arm acgif;aqmifwdk@. r&dk;om;rSKukd oufaoxl/ jyvkdufonf[k jrifrdonf//
tb,fa=umifh qdkaomf/ Tae&mwGif/ Oya'oabmt& ajymajym/ qifjcifwkHw&m;jzifh
=unfh=unfh/ yifvkHpmcsKyf/ csKyfqdkpOfwGif/ &Srf;jynfol vlxk. jynfol@qENjzifh/ csKyfqdkcJhjcif;
r[kwfyg// awmifay:om;eSifh &Srf;jynfol. qENudk aumufcH ,ljyD;rS/ yifvkHpmcsKyf/ csKyfcJh
=uonfvnf; r[kwfyg// wdkif;&if;om; jynfolwkd@. jynfol@qENudk/ cH,ljyD;rS aygif;=urnf/
qdkygu/ ,ckuJhokd@ jrefrmeSifhaygif;jyD; vGwfvyfa&;/ ,ljzpfrnfrSm r[kwfyg// &Srf;trsKd;om;/
34 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

acgif;aqmif apmbGm;rsm;/ u,m;trsKd;om; acgif;aqmifrsm;/ ucsifeSifh csif;trsKd;om;


acgif;aqmifrsm;.oabmwlnDcsufjzifhom/vufrw S fa&; xdk;cJhjcif;jzpfonf/ 4if;acgif;aqmif
qENjzifhom/ jrefrmwkd@eSifhyl;aygif;jyD;/ vGwfvyfa&; &,lcJhjcif;r[kwfygavm// cGJxu G af omtcg
vnf; 4if;acgif;aqmifrsm;. oabmqENjzifh cGJxGufykdifcGifhtjynfh&Sdonf[k xifjrifygonf//
xkdpOfuyifvkHpmcsKyfudk qENjyK csKyfqdkxm;olrsm;vnf;/ udk,fwkdif touf&Sifvsuf &Sdao;
onf r[kwfygavm// tb,fa=umifh jynfol@qEN aumufcH ,l&ef vdkao;oenf;/
rjzpfedkifonfht&mudkd/ xnfhoGif;xm;jcif;tm;jzifh/ &kd;om;wJhwkdif;&if;om;tay: wywf&kduf/
vdrfnm xm;onfudk awG@&onf// opPm&Sdaom/ AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;/ rsufuG,fwGif/
xifovkd=uJ/ vdrfnm vkdufjcif;jzpfonf// &Srf;awG/ u,m;awG/ raygif;bJ aecJhygu/ ,ckvkd
vnf;/ jynfaxmifpk jy\emeSifh olwdk@=uKH&rnfr[kwfyg// ArmvlrsdK;wkd@eJ@ryl;aygif;bJ/ rdrdwkd@
bmom rdrdwdk@vGwfvyfa&;ukdawmif;qkd,lygu ,ckavmufqkdv#if tcsKyftjcm/ tm%m
tjynfh0&Sdonfh/ vGwfvyfaom &Srf;orwekdfifiHawmf/ u,m;orwekdifiHawmf/ ucsiforw
edkifiHawmf/ csif;orwedkifiHawmfwkd@udk xlaxmifekdif aejyD;jzpfonf// ,ckrl&Srf;eSifh awmifay:
om;wkd@rSm/ (usm;=uD;a=umufI &Sif=uD;udk;/ &Sif=uD;u/ usm;=uD;xufqdk;)[laom tjzpfrsKd;
eSifh =uKHaecJh&onf// awmifay:om; eSifh &Srf;trsKd;om;wkd@twGuf 0rf;enf;p&m tvGef
aumif;onf// ,l=uHK;r&aom ordkif;ocFef;pmw&yfyifjzpfonf//

xdkae@/ rmemyavmpmcsKyfudk vufrSwfa&;xkd;jyD; jyefvmaom OuUX=uD;edkifa&$usif.


jyKH;&$ifaeaom trlt,mukd/ uGsefawmfonf ,ckwdkifjrifa,mifaerdonf// OuUX=uD;onf/
ayghyg;oGufvufaeonf/ OD;acgif;armh/ &ifaumhI a&S@odk@&G&G=uG=uGuav; a&SmufoGm;onf//
tcgwdkif;xuf/ ajcvSrf;oGufI jrefqefaeonf// OuUX=uD;. rsufeSmwGif ydwdjynfhv#HI
jyKH;yef; qifaeonf// tem*gwf/ aemifvmaemufom;rsm;twGuf OuUX=uD;u pdwfcs
vufcs jzpfoGm;[efwlonf// TuJhokd@ jzpfxkdufygonf// tb,fa=umifhqdkaomf/ (ordkif;0if
pmcsKyfw&yfudk/ rdru
d kd,fwkdif yg0ifvufrw
S f a&;xdk;ay;cJhonf r[kwfygavm/)/ uGsefawmfeSifh
ekdif[Homwkd@u/ OuUX=uD;.ajcvSrf;udk rvkdufekdif/ aemufrS/ at;aq;pGm/ vkdufyga&Smufjyef
vm=uonf// ekdif[Homurl/ rnfuJhokd@cHpm;aeonfrodyg// uGsefawmfeSifh OuUX=uD;=um;
wGif acgif;idkufqdkufcsI a&SmufvSr;f oGm;aeonfudk awG@&onf// tv,ftvwf
a&SmufvSrf; oGm;aeonfudk axmufv#if olonf/ OuUX=uD;avmuf/ pdwfrcsedkif ao;onf
rSm/ aocsmonf// aemufqkH;wGif vdkufygvmaom uGsefawmf uawmh OuUX=uD;vkd/
pdwfvuf/ rayghyg; ekdifao;yg/ ajcvSrf;vnf; roGufedkif ao;yg// pdwfvnf; rcsedkif ao;yg/
&ifxJrSm wckwnf;aom qkudkom/ =udwfI awmif;aerdonf// (¶Ç@ezN.jpu&mWY\ {qwjlPkuE
d,alJ dokjt. qicjewnjxigHj r.dn. pMwjmocj p?Ysuitj huitjhuitj zzR\\)
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 35

tcef;(2)
OuUX=uD;. *k%faus;Zl;udkatmif;arhowd&=ujcif;/
ekdifoef;wif.ekdifiHa&;b0/vuf0JnDnGwfa&;okH;ygwDnDvmcH/1958-rGefwyfOD;
tvif;0ifyJ/G wyfOD;.trSKaqmifopf/1960-ckeSpfa&G;aumufyGJ/ [dw*a0oD
rGefoHCma=ujimcsuf/ jynfe,ft=uHay;tzGJ@eSifh rGefvl=uD;wkd@. toD;oD;qEN/
armfvjrdKifc&dkifrGefausmif;om;or*~zGJ@pnf;/ 1961-aumvdyf
rGeftoif;trSKaqmif/ rif;0if;xdefeSifhpwifqkHqnf;/
aysmufol&Smv#ifawG@/ aool=umv#ifarh/ qdkaompum;onf/ =umbl;=uayvdrRnf//
Tpum;onf/ w&m;oabmeSifh qifjcifjyD;/ a,bl,svGrf;jcKHI ajym=uv#if rSefuefonf
[kqkdedkifygonf// tjcm;aomomrefyk*~dKvf wOD;OD;tm;&nfn$ef;I ajymqdkvmv#ifvnf;/
rSefuefonf// okd@aomf/ OuUX=uD;eSifh ywfoufjyD;/ eSKdif;,SOfcsufw&yftjzpf ajymqdkvmrnf
qdkv#if/ vGJrSm;rnf[k qdkcsifygonf// OuUX=uD; uG,fvGefoGm;onfrSm/ (2)vyif &SdcJhjyD;
jzpfonf// uGsefawmftyg0if rGefjynfolvlxkw&yfvkH;onf/ OuUX=uD;udkarh&ef rqdkxm;eSifh
ykdIyif owd&atmif;arhvmrd=uonf// OuUX=uD;tm; arhaysmuf vdkpdwfvJ r&Sdedkif=uay/
wwfedkifv#if tpOfxm0& tjrJowd&aecsifaom pdwfom &Sdvkd=uonf// vlom;wOD;onf/
rdrd.ufdk,fhtusKd; pD;yGm;rSefor#wdk@ufdkpGef@cg/ rdrd.vlrsdK;eSifh wdkif;jynftwGuf b0tyfeSHjyD;
aqmif&Gufaom olwOD;tm;/ / arhvG,f aysmufvG,f tb,frSmv#if &Sdekdif =urnfenf;//
vG,fvG,fululjzifh/ arhaysmufypfbkd@qdkonfrSmvJ/ rjzpfedkifaumif;ay// xkdodk@aom yk*~dvf.
*k%faus;Zl;udkom OD;xdyfxm;I tpOfxm0& owd&atmif;arh ae=u&rnf r[kwfygvm;//

rSefygonf/ OuUX=uD;onf i,fpOfb0 odwwfp t&G,fuyif/ rdrdtrsdK;udk cspfonf/


trsdkK;udkjrwfedk;onf/trsKd;twGufaqmif&GufcJhonf// trsKd;twGuf b0udk pGef@v$wfcJhonf//
rdrd. udk,fydkif/ aysmf&$ifr_eSifh om,mr_ rSefor#wdk@udk ypfy,fcJhonf// cufxef=urf;wrf;aom
awmfvSefa&; c&D;vrf;udk a&G;cs,f a&SmufvSrf;cJhonf// rGefvlrsKd;wdk@. b0vGwfajrmufa&;
twGuf rdrd.toufeSifh udk,fcE<mudk tyfeSif;cJhonf// aemufqkH; xGufouf&SLxkwfonfh
tcsdefumvtxd/ rGefvlrsKd; vGwaf jrmufa&;twGuf =uHqawG;awmcJhonf/ ajymqdkcJhonf/
rSm=um;cJhonf/ rGefvlrsdK;tay: pdk;&drfrSK=uD;rm;cJhonf// OuUX=uD;onf/ Tr#avmuf
rGefvlrsdK;tay: oHa,mZOf =uD;rm;cJhonf// arwWm=uD;rm;cJhonf// TtwGuf rGet f rsKd;om;
xk w&yfvkH; ua&m/ OuUX=uD;tm; arhvG,f aysmufvG,f &Sdedkif yghrnfvm;// OuUX=uD;
uG,fvGef oGm;onfhtwGuf/ rGefjynfol w&yfvkH;onf/ trdrJhom;/ a&enf; ig;uJhokd@ cHpm;
cJh=uonf// 0rf;enf; a=uuGJ/ idka=uG; ylaqG;cJh=u&onf//
36 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

Todk@ OuUX=uD; uG,fvGefwJhtwGuf cHpm;&rSKa=umifh/ rGefjynfol vlxkwdk@. eSvkH;om;


toD;oD;rSm rD;tkH;cHxm;&ouJhokd@ waiG@aiG@avmifuGsrf;rSK a0'emudk cHpm;ae=u&onf//
&ifuGJvkrwwf ylyifrSKaomurSKjzifh wrf;w ylaqG;idka=uG;cJh&onf// rGefvlxkwdk@.&ifxJY
TuJhokd@cHpm;xkdufygonf// OuUX=uD;. *k%faus;Zl;tm; ae@pOfeSifhtr# atmif;arhwrf;wI
rajyedkifaom t&mjzpfonf// xkd@a=umifh OuUX=uD;. aemufqkH;c&D;udk odef;oef; ruaom
rGefjynfol vlxkuyg0ifjyD; *g&0jyKcJh=uonf// OuUX=uD;tay: rGefvlxku rnfr#avmuf
cspfjrwfedk; =uonfudk oufaojycJh=uonf// rGefjynfolvlxk w&yfvkH;wdk@. toD;odD;aom
eSvkH;om;&ifxJrsm;wGif OuUX=uD;. *k%faus;Zl;udk okdrSD; odrf;qnf;I tpOfxm0&/
atmif;arh owd&ae=urnfrSm {uefjzpfonf// urBBmwnfoI tcsdef&Sdor# OuUX=uD;
ta=umif;udk om;pOfajr;quf/ vufqifhurf; ajymqdk=u/ atmif;arh=u ayvdrfhrnf//

vGefcJhaom 2003-ck/{jyDv(5)&uf ekdifa&$vGif.orD;/ rduvsm.(12)eSpfajrmuf arG;ae@/


qGrf;auGs;r*FvmrSm/ uGsefawmfeSifh edkifoef;wif/ edkifa&$vGifwdk@ okH;OD;qkH=uI OuUX=uD;
ta=umif;tm;/ ajymqdk=uao;onf// =opa=wvD;,m;rSm/ a&muf&Sdae =uonfh
rGefvlrsKd;wdk@onf/ rdrdwdk@.&kd;&m ,Ofaus;r_eSifh udk;uG,fr_ bmomw&m;wdk@udk wwfekdifaom
enf;jzihf/ xdrf;odrf;=uonf// rnfhonfhudpPudkyif aqmif&Gufaqmif&Guf/ jyKvkyf/jyKvkyf
&wemokH;yg;udkrarh=uyg// xkdae@/ rduvsmarG;ae@wGif uifbm&mjrdK@&Sd rGef&[ef;q&mawmf
OD;a0'Om%udk yifhzdwfjyD; qGrf;uyfI tvSL'gejyK=uonf// bkef;=uD;a0,sm0pP udpPrsm;
jyD;ajrmufI bkef;=uD; jyef=uGoGm;aomtcg/ uGsefawmfwdk@usev f lrsm; pm;aomuf =ujyD;/
pk&kH;Ipum;0kdif;zGJ@ ajymqkd=uonf// OuUX=uD;eSifh ywfoufjyD;/ edkfifoef;wif ekdfifa&$vGif
(edkifvs;x0f)eSifh u|efawmfwdk@ okH;OD;om;onf rdrdwdk@. tawG@=uHK tjriftoD;oD;udk
ajymqdkrd=uonf// OuUX=uD; ekdifa&$usifeSifhywfoufjyD;/ ol@tjrifudk,fhtjrif ol@&Skaxmifh
ukd,fh&SkaxmifheSifh toD;oD;wifjy ajymqkd=uonf// OuUXeSifh ywfoufI rdrdr=um;bl;
ao;aom ta=umif;t&m topfrsm;udkvnf; edkifoef;wifeSifh edkifa&$vGifwdk@xHrS
=um;od&onf// OuUX=uD;eSifhtwl eSpfaygif;rsm;pGm/ awmwGif;vufeufudkif awmfvSefa&;rSm
twlwuG yg0ifcJholrsm;jzpfonf// OuUX=uD;. pdwfae oabmxm;eSihf tusifhpm&dwW/
aexkdifrSK tavhtx/ tm;vkH;wdk@udkvnf; twGif; usus odolrsm;jzpfonf//

edkfifa&$vGifonf edkifvSKH&GmZmwdjzpfonf/ 1944-ckeSpf ZEMm0g&DvwGif/ trd/rdaiGpdef/


tz/edkif=umoD;wkd@rS arG;zGm;oef@pif vljzpfvmonf// tzedkif=umoD;onf/ rGefrsdK;cspf
acgif;aqmifwOD;jzpfonf// rGeftrsdK;om; vGwfajrmufa&;twGuf/ 1948-ckeSpfwGif
ekdifatmifxGef;/ ekdifcsrf;rGef/ edkfifzkd;pdefwkd@eSifhtwl awmckdcJhbl;oljzpfonf// rdrdom;rif;a&$vGif
tm;vnf; trsdK;om;pdwf"gwf &Sdvmatmif/ trsdK;om;a&;rSm yg0ifaqmif&Guf vmekdfif
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 37

atmif/ ajrawmifajrSmuf/ tm;ay;cJhonf// a&S@aqmifvrf;jycJhonf// rif;a&$vGifonf


rGefausmif;om;acgif;aqmif rif;armifwifeSifhvnf; w0rf;uGJ nDtpfudk awmfoljzpfonf//
xkdokd@rGefrsdK;cspfyk*~dKvfwkd@.t=um; a&cH/ ajrcH/ aumif;aumif;rSm=uD;jyif;vmoljzpfonf//

1966-ckeSpfwGif(10)wef; atmifjrifjyD;/ 1967-ckeSpfwGif &efukefwuUodkvfokd@ wufa&muf


ynmoif=um;cJhonf/ ‘'\eduaA'’bmom&yfudkt"du,lcJhonf//wuUodkvfrGefpmayeSifh
,Ofaus;rSK aumfrwD. r*~Zif;aumfrwDwGif wufwuf=uG=uG yg0ifvSKyf&Sm;cJholwOD;
jzpfonf// wuUokdvfwGif/ a&;jrdK@e,frSausmif;om; rif;atmifrdk;/ rif;jrifhaqG/ armhueifrS
rdjrifhat;wkd@eSifh qkHqnf; cJh=uonf// wuUokdvfynmudk oif=um;&if;/ trsdK;om;
wm0efudk vnf;/ pGr;f tm;&Sdoavmuf =udK;yrf; aqmif&GufcJhonf// rGefpmay wwfajrmuf
vkdaom wuUokdvfausmif;ol/ om;rsm;/ wkdif;&if;om;ausmif;om;rsm; tyg0if wkd@udk
oif=um; ay;jcif; tm;jzifh rGefpmayjyef@yGm;atmif aqmif&GufcJhonf// aEG&moD ausmif;ydwf
&ufrsm; wGifvnf; rdrdaexkdifaom aus;&GmwGif rGefvli,frsm;eSifhtwl/ pmayvSKyf&Sm;rSKudk
aqmif&GufcJhonf// xkdodk@ trsdK;om;a&;wGif wuUokdvfausmif;om; rif;a&$vGif wufwuf
=uG=uG yg0ifvSKyf&Sm;aerSKudk rk'kHjrdK@ ppfaxmufa&;wkd@u rsufajcrjywf tuJcwf apmifh=unfh
aev#uf&Sdonf/ 'kuQay;&ef tuGufacsmif;aeonf//

Todk@&efwuUokdvfwGif ynmoif=um; vmcJhonfrSm/ (B.A)wef; aemufqHk;eSpf odk@yif


a&mufvmcJhonf// xdkodk@wuUokdvfwGif ynmoif=um;aecJw h Jh (4)eSpftcsdefumvrSmyif
rif;a&$vGifonf/ ppftm%m&Sif. zdedkyfrSK csKyfcs,frSKa=umifh jynfolvlxkwkd@. b0
=uyfwnf; qif;&JcsdK@wJhaeonfh tjzpfudk udk,fawG@rsufjrif ae@pOfae@wkdif;yif jrifawG@
ae&onf// jynfol@vlxkwkd@. b0udkpmemrdjyD; pdwfqif;&J yifyef;=uD;pGm cHpm;ae&onf//
pmoifI rajzmifhedkifatmif jzpfvmonf// ppftm%m&Sif tkyfcsKyfrSK atmufwGif/
zdeSdyfrSKcsKyfcs,frSK/ 'Drdkua&pD qdwfokef;aerSK/ vl@tcGifhqkH;&SKH;aerSK/ rw&m;tedkifusifhrSK wkd@udk
rdrdudk,fwkdif ae@pOf=uKHawG@ ae&onfhtjzpfudk4if;/ ppftm%m&Sif. tedkifusifh rw&m;
zdeSdyfrSKukd rdbjynfol rGefjynfolvlxkwkd@ =uKHawG@ cHpm;ae&onfhtjzpfudk4if; av;av;
eufeuf pOf;pm;okH;oyfvmrdonf//

aemufqkH;wGif rif;a&$vGifonf/ wuUokdvfY at;at;csrf;csrf;/ wudk,faumif; qHqH/


ynmoifae&ef pdwfvkH;0r&Sdawmhay// tm%m&SifwuUodkvfrS ay;tyfaombGJ@xl; *k%fxl;
vufrSwfudkvnf; rrufarmawmhay/ tm%m&Sifwkd@. vufatmufcHu|efvkyfjyD;rS &&Sdrnfh/
&mxl;Xewkd@udkvnf; tvkdr&Sdawmhay// vGwfvyfrSKr&Sdonfh rGefvlrsdK;. tzdeSdyfcH u|efb0
udkvnf; wae@wjcm; xifxif &Sm;&Sm; jrifvmonf// rif;a&$vGifonf odwwfonfh
38 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

t&G,frSpI/ rGeftrsdK;om; vGwfajrmufa&;twGuf rGeftrsdK;om; wOD;jzpfaom rdrdYvnf;


wm0ef&Sdonf[laom todw&m;eSifh cH,lcsufu &ifxJrSmtpOfjrJ udef;atmif; vmcJhol
jzpfonf// rif;a&$vGifonf ppftpdk;&. u|efynma&;udk qufvuf oif=um; vkdpdwf
vkH;vkH; crf;ajcmufvmonf// ppftm%m&Siu f dk rkef;wD;aompdwf/ awmfvSefvkdaom
pdwfwkd@onfom wae@wjcm; rdrd&ifYwkd;yGm; udef;atmif; vmaeonf// aemufqkH;wGif
ppftm%m&Sif jyKwfusa&;/ rGeftrsdK;om; b0 vGwfajrmufa&; twGuf awmfvSefaom
rGefausmif;om; wOD;tjzpfudkcH,l&ef jywfjywfom;om;qkH;jzwfvkdufonf// (B.A)
aemufqkH;eSpf jyD;qkH;&ef vydkif;tvkdrSmyif/ edkifyef;om/ ekdif&\/ edkifom&ifwkd@eSifh
nSdKeSKdif;wkdifyifjyD; awmckd&ef pDpOf=uonf//

1971-ckepf atjyDvwGif ekdfifyef;om/ ekdif&\wdk@eSifh rif;a&$vGifwkd@tkyfpkuyxr awmcdk


xGufcJhonf// aemufwv avmuft=umwGif rif;om&if/ rif;azodef;(yi)eSSifh
edkifqmeftmJwkd@ tkyfpkuvdkufI awmckdxGufcJh=uonf// rGefjynfopfygwD awmwGif;pcef;okd@
a&mufaomtcg/ rdrd.rlv trnfemr rif;a&$vGiftpm;/ rGefemrnf ppfppfjzpfonfh/
emJvs;x0f [laom trnfodk@ ajymif;vJ cH,lvkdufonf// rGefjynfopfygwD A[dkokd@
a&mufjyD;(2)v ausmfausmfavmuf t=umwGif/ jynfcspfvGwfajrmufa&; wyfrawmf/
awmifydkif;/ Akdvf&efedkifpcef;(om,mpcef;)wGif (2)vtajccHppfoifwef;udk oGm;a&muf
oif=um;cJh&onf// &efukefwuUodkvf/ (,lwDpD)tajccHppfoifwef;udk wufa&mufoif=um;
xm;bl;aom edkfifvs;x0ftwGuf/ ,ck ppfoifwef;a=umifh/ ydkrdkI ppft&nfcsif; jynfhk0
vmaponf// ppfoifwef;jyD;qkH;I rGefjynfopfygwD XmecsKyfodk@ jyefa&mufaomtcg/
,m,DacwWr# ppfoifwef; enf;jyq&mtjzpf 0ifa&mufvkyfudkifcJhonf//

edkfifvs;x0fonf/ ygwD&Sd vl=uD;vli,fra&G;/ &Jabmf toD;oD;wkd@eJ@ cifrif&if;eSDpGm qufqH


aexkdifwwfonf// rmefrmeuif;oljzpfonf// rnfonfhwm0efukdrqkd ay;tyf vmv#if/
apoem oef@oef@eSifh av;av;pm;pm; ausausjyGefjyGef xrf;aqmifwwfonf// &kd;om;
ajzmifhrwfol wOD;jzpfonf// &kd;&kd;om;om; usifh=uH aexkdifwwfoljzpfonf// trsm;.
av;pm;jcif;ukd cH&oljzpfonf// 1973-ckeSpfrSm/ rGefjynfopfygwD. tjrJwrf;A[kd
aumfrwD0if wOD;jzpfvmonf// 1975-ckeSpfppfaumfrwD. ppfOD;pD;&kH;tkyfjzpfvmonf//
xkdpOfu ppfaumfrwD. OuUXrSm/ ekdifa&$usifjzpfjyD; ppfaumfrwD. twGif;a&;rSL;rSmemJEGvm†
jzpfonf// edkfifvs;x0fonf/ ygwDrSwm0efay;csuft& txl;ojzifh befaumfjrdK@wGif
oGm;a&muf aexkdif&jyd; xkdif;ekdfifiH&Sd rGefvlrsdL;wkd@. trsdK;om;a&;vkyfief;/ trsdK;om;a&;
vSKyf&Sm;rSKrSmyg0ifulnD aqmif&Gufay;&oljzpfonf// xkd@a=umifh ekdifvs;x0fonf/ xkdif;rGef
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 39

vl=uD;vli,f tm;vkH;wkd@eSifh tvGefcifrif &if;eSD;cJh&onf// xkdif;pum;udkvnf; u|rf;u|rf;


usifusif ajymekdifqdkedkfifcJhonf//

1980-ckeSpfywf0ef;usifwGif/ ygwDwGif;Y/ ‘qkd&S,fe,fcsJ@”tay:tjrifrwlwJh/ t,lq


wdkufyGJw&yf tjyif;xefjzpfay:cJhonf// edkfifvs;x0fonf/ ‘qkd&S,fe,fcJs@’ywfoufjyD;
rdrdYjywfjywfom;om; =unf=unfvifvif tjrifr&Sdao;ojzifh/ rnfonfhbufrS&yfwnf
cJhjcif;r&Sdyg// =um;aecJhonf// 1981-ckeSpf atjyDv(13)&uf/ rGefjynfopfygwD eSpfjcrf;
uJ&G mwGif/ ekdfifvs;x0fonf/ OuUX=uD;ekdifa&$usif tkyfpkwkd@eSifh yl;aygif;yg0ifcJhonf// 1982-
ckeSpfrSmrGefygwDrSeSKwfxGufcJhonf// eSKwfxGufcJh&onfhta=umif;rSm/ ygwDYpnf;&kH; nDnGwfrSK
r&Sdjcif;/ tcsdK@aom ygwDacgif;aqmif vl=ud;wkd@onf/ udk,fusdK;twGuftvGJokH;pm;jyKjcif;/
ygwDrS csrSwfxm;aom pnf;urf;/ Oya'wkd@udk csdK;azgufae=ujcif;/ ygwDrScsxm;aom
qkH;jzwfcsuf udk ajAmifajAmif wif;wif; usL;vGefvkyfudkifaejcif;/ ponfhta=umif;
wkd@a=umifh/ ekdfifvs;x0f onf/ rGejf ynfopfygwDrS ekwfxGufcJhonf// odk@aomfygwDeSifh
tjyD;tydkif tqufjywf oGm;jcif;r&Sdyg// vkdtyfv#if vkdtyfovkd yg0ifaqmif&u G f
ay;avh&Sdonf// txl;ojzifh OuUX=uD;ekdfifa&$usif/ xkdif;edkfifiHtwGif;odk@ c&D;oGm;onfjzpfap/
tpnf;a0;wufa&muf&ef c&D;oGm;&onfjzpfap/ ekdifvs;x0fudk tnDulawmif;avh&Sdonf//
OuUX=uD;ekdifa&$RusifoGm; av&mrSm/ edkfifvs;x0fvkdufyg oGm;&onfursm;onf//
OuUX=uD;eSifhteD;uyf aexkdifol jzpfonf// OuUX=uD;ekdifa&$usif. pdwfaeoabmxm;udk
aumif;rGefpGmodoljzpf onf//

1998-ckeSpfwGif/ =opa=wvD;,m; edkifiHokd@ vma&mufckdvSKHaexdkifcJhonf// =opa=wvD,m;


edkfifiHodk@ a&mufaom tcgvnf; ekdfifvs;x0fonf/ rGeftrsdK;om;ta&;udk vspfvSsL&SKI
raeay// rddrdwwfedkfifor# =opa=wvD;,m; rGeftzGJ@(AMA)wGif wufwuf =uG=uG yg0if
aqmif&Gufonf// rGeftzGJ@. OuUXae&mudk (2)eSpfwdkifwkdif wm0ef,l aqmif&GufcJh jyefonf//
rGefpmayeSifh ,Ofaus;rSKudk jrwfekd;onf// pmayavhvmrSKrSm 0goemxkHonf//
=opa=wvD;,m;a&muf rGefvli,f vl&G,frsm;/ rGefpmay wwfajrmufatmif vkH;vpdkuf
tm;xkwfjyD; oif=um;ay;onf// rGefvli,frsm; rGefpmayeSifh ,Ofaus;rSKwkd@udk cspfcifjrwfedkf;
wwfatmif vkH;vpkduf=udK;yrf;aqmif&GufolwOD;jzpfonf//

edkifoef;wifudkrl/ 1961/62-ckeSpfuyif u|efawmfodu|rf;cJhonf// rk'l;&GmZmwdjzpfonf//


1950-ckeSpf aemufykdif;wGif awmckdcJhonf// rGefjynfol@wyfOD;wGif xifay:aom edkifiHa&;/
ppfa&;acgif;aqmifwOD; jzpfvmonf/ 1957-ckeSpfwGif/ wyfaygif;pkzGJ@pnf;a&; twGuf/
OuUX=uD; edkifa&$usifeSifhtwl/ yJcl;&kd;rokd@ oGm;a&muf aexkdifcJholjzpfonf// 1958-ckeSpf
40 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

rGefjynfol@wyfOD;eSifhtwl tvif;0ifcJhonf// rGefjynfol@wyfOD; tvif;0ifonfhtay:


rauseyf=uaom/ rGefvli,facgif;aqmifrsm;wGif ekdifoef;wifvnf; wOD;tyg0ifjzpfcJhonf//
awmwGif; tvHeDuGefjrLepfpcef;odk@ oGm;a&mufaexkdifcJhbl;onfudk ta=umif;jyKI/ tvHeD
oef;wif[lI rGefvlrsdK;tokdif;0kdif;rSm xif&Sm;vmoljzpfonf// ekdifoef;wifeSifh OuUX=uD;
ekdifa&$usifwkd@onf tvGefcifrif &ifeSD;=uaom q&mwynfhrsm;jzpfonf// OuUX=uD;
ta=umif;udk twGif;ususodoljzpfonf//

1963-ckeSpf AdkvfcsKyfae0if;OD;aqmifaom/ awmfvSefa&;aumifpDrS zdwfac:aom jynfwGif;


jidrf;csrf;aq;GaEG;yGJtwGuf/ r'nw/wyfaygif;pkudk,fpm;tjzpf4if;/ rGefjynfopfygwD ukdk,fpm;
tjzpfeSifh4if;/ekdifa&$usifonf jidrf;csrf;a&; aqG;aEG;&ef/ &efukefjrdK@okd@ a&muf&Sd vmonf//
ekdifa&$usiftm;/ u|efawmfwkd@ armfvjrdKif 'D*&D aumvdyf ausmif;om; wpkwdk@u txl;
pdwf0ifpm; cJhygonf// rGefjynfopfygwD OuUX=uD; ekidf fa&$usif ta=umif;udk/ odcsif=uaom
u|efawmfwkd@ aumvdyf rGefausmif;om; wpkonf/ OuUX=uD;.Zmwd/ rdbrsdK;&kd;/ trsdK;om;
ekdifiHa&; vSKyf&Sm;rSK eSifh ywfoufjyD; rdrdwkd@ vufvSrf;rSDorSs/ vdkufvH&SmazG/ ar;jref;jyD;
pkaqmifcJh ygonf// xkdpOfu/ rGefjynfol@wyfOD; c&kdifacgif;aqmif ekdifoef;wifxH csOf;uyfjyD;/
ekdifa&$usif. ta=umif;pkHwkd@ukd u|efawmfwkd@ ausmif;om;rsm;ar;jref;,lcJhonf//edkfifoef;wif
onf/ OuUX=uD;edkfifa&$usifeSifh vufyGef;woD; tvGef&if;eSD;pGm/ awmwGif;Y twlaevmcJhbl;
olwOD;jzpfonf// ekdifoef;wif ajymjyI/ OuUX=uD;ekdifa&$usif ta=umif;pkHukd twGif;usus
tao;pdyf odcJh&onf// xkda=umifh ekdifoef;wifeSifh pmzwfy&d\wfrsm;udk/ rdwfquf ay;&ef
vkdrnf[k xifygonf//

edkifoef;wifonf/ 1928-ckeSpf 'kwd, 0gqkd vqkwf(9)&uf aom=umae@wGif/ oauUmf&GmY


arG;zGm;oef@pif vljzpfcJhonf// rdbeSpfyg;rSm/ ekdifcspfp&meSifh rdpdeftkyfwkd@ jzpfonf// rdbeSpfyg;
wkd@onf/ rGefvlrsdK;jzpfjyD;/ trsdK;ukdtvGefcspfjrwfekd;olrsm;jzpfonf//bmom/ omoemtay:/
tvGef=unfndk/ o'Ngw&m;xufoefolrsm;jzpfonf// zcifekdifcspfp&m/ rdcifrdpdeftkyfwkd@onf/
om;udkvnf;rsdK;cspfpdwf/bmom/ omoemudk =unfndkjrwfekd;aompdwf&Sdvmatmif/ i,fpOf
uyif/ avhusifhoif=um;ay;cJhonf// edkifoef;wifonf/ rdom;pkY 'kwd,t=uD;qkH;om;jzpfjyD;
armifeSr(5)a,muf&Sdonf// nDi,feSri,frsm;tay: tvGefcspfcif =uifemwwfoljzpfonf//
nDi,f/ eSpfri,frsm;tay: arwWm *&k%m=uD;rm;onf// tpOftjrJ rdrdu tepfemcHwwf
onf// nDi,feSri,fwkd@udk OD;pm;ay;wwfonf//

edkifoef;wifonf/ i,fpOfuyif/ Om%fynm xl;cGsefaom ausmif;om; vli,f wOD;jzpfcJh


onf//oauUm&Gm tpkd;&txufwef;ausmif;wGif/ tv,fwef;(7)wef;txd/ynmoif=um;
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 41

cJhbl;onf// ekdifoef;wifwa,mufonf/ ynmudk oif=um; vkdaomfvnf;/ tajcae


trsdK;rsdK;a=umifh touf&G,f (13)eSpfavmufrSm ausmif;rS xGufvkduf&onf// rdbeSpfyg; u
touf&G,f a&mufvmaom/ rdrdwkd@.om;ukd/ omoemtarGeSpf&apvkdI/ armifoef;wif
tm;/udk&if0wfapcsifcJhonf//yxrwGif/uanSmf&Gmq&mbkef;=uD;ausmif;wGif/ w0gqkdcJhonf//
'kwd,eSpfwGif/ rk'l;&Gmokd@ ajymif;a&G@I/ rk'l;q&mawmf/ xHyg;Y/ avmuD/avmukwW&m/
ynm&yfrsm;udk avhvmql;yl;cJhonf// rk'l;q&mawmfbk&m;xHwGif/ (2)eSpfwdwdtqkdtqkH;r
=o0g'cH,lcJhonf//xkdaemuf/usdKuRa&mjrdK@e,f/usKH;reif;&Gmokd@ajymif;a&G@I/ q&mawmfbk&m;
Odom&xHwGif/ ynmqnf;yl;&if;(4)0gqdkcJhjyefonf// touf&G,ftm;jzifh/ &[ef;b0okd@
ul;ajymif;&eftcsdefa&mufvmonf//usKH;reif;pmcsq&mawmf OK;om&q&mawmfbk&m;=uD;
tm;OyZÇm,fq&mtjzpf trSL;xm;I/ &[ef;abmifokd@ 0ifcJhonf// edkifoef;wifonf/
&[ef;b0wGif/ ygVdtvwfwef;pmar;yGJudk atmifjrifcJhonf// rGefpmudku|rf;usifvdrRmpGma&;
om;ekdfifcJhonf// udk&if/ &[ef; b0uyif/ aqmif;yg;rsm;udk rGefbmomjzifha&;om;I/
ekdifa&$usif OD;pD;xkwfa0aom/ weoFm&Dowif;pmwkdufokd@rSefrSef ykd@cJhonf// xkdpOfu
ekdifcsrf;rGef(emJpEN)/ q&m[kw
d kd@OD;pD;jyD;/&mrnwkdif;owif;pmudkxkwfa0aeonf// &mrnwkdif;
owif;pmwGif/ rGefbmomjzifh/ aqmif;yg;rsm;udk a&;om;olaygrsm;aomfvnf;/ weoFm&D
owif;pmwGif/ rGefbmomjzihf/ aqmif;yg;rsm; a&;om;ol enf;yg;aeonfudk awG@&onf//

ekdifa&$usifonf rGefpmudk wwfajrmufaomfvnf; u|rf;u|rf;usifusifr&SdvS// olwyg;udk


tm;udk; ae&ao;onf// edkifoef;wifonf/ rGeftrdsK;om;ta&;eSifh ywfoufaom/
aqmif;yg;rsm;udk rGefbmomjzifh/ a&;om;jyD;/ ekdifa&$usifxH rSefrSefay;ydk@ ulnDcJhonf//
Todk@jzihf edkifoef;wif wOD;onf/ trsdK;om;ta&;wGif yg0ifywfoufvmonf/ Armjynf
vGwfvyfa&; t=udKacwf/ rGeftrsdK;om;wkd@. trsdK;om; vSKyf&Sm;rSKa=umifh edkifoef;wifwOD;
onf/ edkifiHa&;tjrif edk;=um;vmonf// &[ef;omra%b0jzifh rdrdtaeeJ@ rGeftrsdK;om;
vGwfajrmufa&; trsdK;om;edkifiHa&; vSKyf&Sm;rSKrSm udk,fwkdifudk,fus ryg0ifedkifaomfvnf;/
wwfekdifonfhbufrS wufwuf =uG=uG tm;ay;cJhonf// &[ef; omra%b0rSmyif
trsdK;om; ta&;udk pwifpdwf0ifpm;cJhonf// trsdK;om;ta&;wGif yg0ifvSKyf&Sm;&efvnf;
pdwfqEN jyif;jyif;ysys jzpfay:vmonf// aemufqkH;wGif &[ef;b0jzifh qufvuf aeoGm;&ef
qENr&Sdjzpfvmonf// &[ef;b0jzifh/ (1)eSpf (3)&uf&aomtcg/ ekdifoef;wifonf/
jrifhjrwfaom&[ef;b0ukdpGef@vGwfjyD;/ vlb0odk@ul;ajymif;cJhonf//

1948-ckeSpf rGefvlrsdK;wkd@awmckdpOfwGif rdrdryg0ifedkfifcJhaomfvnf;/ wae@ae@wGif awmckd&ef


pdwfqENjyif;jyif;ysys&SdcJhonf// rGeftrsdK;om; vGwfajrmufa&;twGuf/ vufeufudkif
awmfvSefa&;wGif yg0if&efrlvu/ &nf&G,fcsuf &SdcJhonfhtwkdif;/ &[ef;b0rS xGufjyD;
aemufydkif;wGif awmwGif;&Sd vufeufudkif rGeftzGJ@pnf;eSifh wdwfwqdwf tqufoG,frSK
42 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

,lcJhw,f// r=umrSDyif/ awmwGif;&Sd edkfiaf iGodef;eSifh tqufoG,f &jyD; awmckdcJhonf//


aumhu&dwfwGif/ppfoifwef;wufcJhonf// xkdpOfu/ppfoifwef;q&mrSm/ Adkvfausmfjzpfonf//

Akdvfausmfonf/ t*FvdyfwyfxGuf/ ppfom;a[mif; wOD;jzpfojzihf/ oifwef;wGif trdef@ay;


&mwGif/ t*Fvdyf wyfwGif/ okH;aeus tokH;teSKef; twkdif; ay;ae&onf// xkda=umifh/
rGefpmayudk u|rf;usifaom/ edifpHaiG/ ekdifoef;wifwkd@u/ wyfwGif tokH;jyKaom/ t*Fvdyf
tokH;teSKef;rsm;udk wckrusef/ rGefbmomokd@ bmom jyefajymif;vJ ay;cJhonf// xkdpOfu
rGefwkd@wGif wyf&if;(1)eSifh wyf&if;(2)udkom zGJ@pnf;ekdifcJhonf// ppfOD;pD;csKyfrSm edkifaiGode;f
jzpfonf//wyf&if;(2).wyf&if;rSL;rSm ekdifyef;omjzpfonf// ekdifoef;wifonf/ wyf&if;(2)wGif
wyf=uyf=uD;wOD;jzpfvmonf// oHr&m&Gm.ta&S@bufjcrf;wGif wyfpcef;csI aecJh=uonf//

ekdifaiGodrf;eSifh ocif&JvSdKifwkd@ OD;pD;zGifhvSpf oif=um;aom/ ekdifiHa&;oifwef;udk ekdifoef;wif


wufa&mufcJhonf// tawG;tac: tvGefxufjrufol wpfOD;jzpfonf// ekdifiHa&;oifwef;u/
ykd@csvkdufaom/ ekdifiHa&; tawG;tac:opf wkd@onf/ ekdifoef;wiftm;/ ydkrkdI ta&mif
awmufajymif xufjruf apcJhjyefonf// vufeufaumif;jzifh wyfqif ay;xm;aom/
ol&Jaumif;wpfOD;eSifh tvm;wl vmonf// rGefvufeufudkif awmfvSefa&; twGuf/ tvGef
xufjrufaom/ ygwDau'gaumif;wa,muf jzpfvmonf// ekdifaiGodef;eSifhocif&JvSdKifwkd@u
tvGefoabmuscJhonf// xkda=umifh/ tvHjzL uGefjrLepfygwD/ tvHeD uGefjrLepf ygwDeSifh
&JabmfjzLygwDwkd@. oHk;ygwD nDnGwfa&; nDvmcHodk@ avhvmolwOD;tjzpf/ ekdifoef;wifudk
apv$wfcJhonf// okH;ygwD nDvmcHrStawG@t=uKHonf/ ekdifoef;wiftm; ykdrdkI ekdifiHa&;tjrif
us,fapcJhjyefonf/ emrnf=uD;ekdifiHa&;orm;=uD;rsm; jzpf=uaom/ocifpkd;/ ocifoef;xGef;
wkd@eSifhvnf;/ &if;eSD; odu|rf;cJh&onf// tawG;tac: t,ltqrsm;vnf; zvS,fcJh&onf//
tpkd;&.xkd;ppfa=umifh/ okH;ygwDnDvmcHudk wydkif;wp&yfvkduf&onf// tpkd;&.xkd;ppfa=umifh
edkifoef;wif wOD;onf/ rdrdXmcsKyf&Sd&m rGefa'ookd@ tvG,fwul rjyefekdifbJ jzpfoGm;onf//
tvHeD uGefjrLepfygwDrS &Jabmfrsm;eSifh vkdufoGm;jyD;/ jrpf0u|ef;ay: bufwGif aomifwif
aecJhjyefonf// tvHeD u|efjrLepfpcef;/ Akdvfuav;wGif/ (8)vrSs =umcJhonf// xkdaemuf
195&-ckeSpfwGif/ rGefjynfol@wyfOD;.apv$wfrSKt&/ ekdifoef;wifonf/ ekdifa&$usif/ ekdifxGef;cif
wkd@eSifhtwl/ wyfaygif;pk zGJ@pnf;a&; twGuf Armjynf uGefjrLepfygwD. A*dk;&dk;r/ a&miffeD
pcef;odk@ oGm;cJhjyefonf// 1958-ckeSpfrGefjynfol@wyfOD;onf/ wkdufyGJenf;AsL[majymif;vJI/
Oya'abmifokd@0if&ef/ qkdif;jyif; aeonfhtcsdefwGif/ ekdifoef;wiftm;/ ygwDrS vSrf;ac:ojzifh/
A*kd;&kd;rrS jyefcJhonf// rGefjynfol@wyfOD;.wkdufyJG enf;AsL[m ajymif;vJjyD;/ Oya'abmifodk@
0ifa&mufa&;udk/ edkifoef;wif wOD;onf/ odyfoabm rusvSacs// Armrsm; =uD;pkd;aom/
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 43

t&if;&Sif ygvDref tay:/ edkifoef;wifonf vkH;0 t,kHt=unf r&Sday// 'gayrJh ygwDrS


acgif;aqmifrsm;. oabm wlnDrSKt&/ qkH;jzwfcsufudkrl rdrd taejzifh/ jyif;jyif; xefxef
ruef@uGufvkday/ trsm;qENt& qkH;jzwfcsufudk vufcHcJh &onf// 1958-ckeSpfZlvkdifvwGif/
rGefjynfol@wyfOD;eSifh twl/ Oya'abmifodk@ 0ifcJhonf// 1962-ckeSpfwGif ausmif;q&mr/
rdat;wifeSifh tdrfaxmifusonf// Oya'abmifokd@ 0ifa&mufjyD;aemuf/ rGefjynfol@wyfO;D udk
jyefvnf zGJ@pnf;&mwGif/ edkifoef;wifonf c&kdifaumfrwDwOD; jzpfvmonf// 1962-ckeSpf
awmfvSefa&; aumifpDrS tm%modrf;jyD;aemuf/ ekdifiHa&;ygwDtm;vkH;udkzsufodrf;apcJhonf//
rGefjynfol@wyfOD; ygwDonfvnf;/ zsufodrf; vkduf&onf// ekdifoef;wifonf/ rk'l;&GmwGif/
aexkdifvkyfudkfif pm;aomuf&if; aus;&Gm zG@HjzdK;a&;vkyfief; rGefvli,frsm; todynm jrSifhwif
a&;vkyfief;wkd@wGifyg0ifvkyfudkifcJhonf//1963-ckeSpf/ rGefjynfol@wyfOD;acgif;aqmifrsm;zrf;qD;
xdef;odrf; cH&aomtcg/ ekdifoef;wifeSihf tzrf;rcH&aom/ rGefjynfol@wyfOD; acgif;aqmifrsm;
jzpfonfh/ ekdifbdk;pdef(urm0uf)/ edkifatmif&Sdefwkd@onf/ wdwfwqdwf tpnf;a0;w&yfudk/
armfvjrdKifjrdK@/(okcum&D)rGefbkef;=uD;ausmif;wGif jyKvkyfcJhonf// 4if;tpnf;a0;rS/ rGefjynfol@
wyfOD; acgif;aqmifrsm;r&SdonfhtcsdefwGif/ rGeftrsdK;om;a&;&m udpPrsm;udk aqmif&Gufekdif&ef
&nf&G,fI/ rGefjynfol@wyfOD;/ ,m,D xdef;odrf;a&; aumfrwD w&yfudk vsSdK@0SufpGm zGJ@pnf;
cJhonf// ekdifbkd;pdefu OuUXtjzpf aqmif&GufjyD;/ ekdifoef;wifonf/ twGif;a&;rSL;. wm0ef
udk,lcJhonf// edkifatmif&Sdefu trSKaqmiftjzpf yg0ifcJhonf//

jrefrmhqkd&S,fvpfvrf;pOfygwD/ acwfwavSsmufwGif/ ppftm%m&Siftpkd;&. trsKd ;rsKd ;aom/


jcdrf;ajcmufrSKudk cHcJh&onf// rw&m; edSyfpufrSK trsdK;rsdK;udk cHcJh&onf/ ppftm%m&Sifwkd@.
zdeSdyf csKyfcs,frSK/ rw&m; tekdifusifhrSKwkd@udk rcHekdifvGef; ojzifh/ awmckd&ef pdwfqkH;jzwfvkduf
onf//1975-ckeSpfwGif/OuUXedkifa&$usif OD;aqmifaom/ awmwGif;vufeufudkifawmfvSefa&;
ygwDjzpfonfh/ rGefjynfopfygwDukd tqufoG,fjyKjyD;/ awmckd vmcJhonf// xkdpOf rGefjynfopf
ygwD. XmecsKyfonf e*g;armufpcef; wGif&Sdonf// ygwD. pnf;&kH;a&;Xme wGif wm0ef,l
cJhonf// awmwGif;aepOf umvwGif/ xkdif;ausmif;om;rsm;/ awmcdkaom/ umveSihf=uKHcJh
onf// 4if;tjyifOD;ek. jynfcspfygwDawmckdonfeSifhvnf; =uKHchJonf//

19&9-ckeSpfwGif/ rGefjynfopf. ygwDwGif;/ ekdifiHa&;t,ltq tawG;tac: wkdufyJGw&yf/


jyif;xefpGm jzpfay:vmonf// qkdAD,uf qkd&S,fvpfekdifiHu ta&S@awmif tm&S edkifiHi,frsm;
tay:/ =oZmvGrf;rdk; csKyfudkifvmonfhudpPeSihfywfoufI tjrift,ltq uGJjym;vmonf//
ygwD.tiftm;pk w&yfu/ Todk@ vGrf;rdk;rSKonf/ qkd&S,fe,fcsJ@[k jrifonf// tjcm;ygwD
.tiftm;pkw&yfu/ qkdAD,uf ekdifiH. vGrf;rdk;vmrSKudk/ taumif;jrifonf// ta&S@awmif
44 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

tm&SY qkdAD,ufekdifiH.=oZm =uD;rm;vmrSKonf/ ekdifiHi,frsm;trsdK;om; b0vGwfajrmuf


rSKtwGuf=uD;rm;aomtaxmuftuljzpfonf[kjrifonf//

rGefjynfopfygwDwGif; t,ltqwkdufyGJ jyif;xefrSKa=umifh/ ygwDY tif;tm;pkeSpf&yf oD;jcm;


jzpfay:vmonf// ekdifoef;wifonf/ OuUXedkifa&$usifeSifhtwl qkdAD,uf e,fcsJ@pepfudk/
tjyif;txef qef@usif/ uef@uGuf tjypfwif &SKwfcsolrsm;jzpfonf// 1980-ckeSpfygwD
eSpfjcrf; uGJ&mwGif/ ekdifoef;wifonf/ OuUXedifa&$usifbufwGif &yfwnfcJhonf// 1987-ckeSpf
ygwDtiftm;pkeSpf&yf jyefvnf aygif;pnf;jyD;aomtcg/ ekdifoef;wifonf/ bk&m;okH;ql
bufokd@ ajymif;a&$@I tajccswm0ef,lvmonf// rGefjynfopfygwD jyefvnfaygif;pnf;
nDnGwfjyD;aemuf ac:,lusif;yaom/ 1993-ckeSpfygwDnDvmcHwGif/ ekdifoef;wifonf/ ygwD
A[kdaumfrwDtjzpfjyefvnf ta&G;cH&jyefonf// 1995-ckeSpfrGefjynfopfygwDeiS hf/ e0wwkd@
oabmwlaom/ typfcwf&yfpJa&;/ oabmwlnDcsufudk vkH;0vufrcH/ oabm
rwlcJhay//2001-ckeSpfrSm/ygwDrStjyD;tydkif eSKwfxGufvkdufonf// xkdaemuf =opa=wvD;,m;
edkifiHokd@ a&muf&Sdae=uaom/ om;oRD;jzpf=uonfh/ rif;wifpkd;/ rdEG,feDpkd;eSifh rif;0if;xGwfwkd@.
zdwfac:csufjzifh/ 2002-ckeSpfwGif =opa=wvD;,m;ekdifiHodk@ tjyD;tykdif ajymif;a&$@aexkdif
vkdufonf// ,cktcg/(4/1 Northbourne Flats, Canberra, ACT 2612) wGifZeD;onf
rdat;wif/ om;=uD;rif;wifpkd;eSifhtwl/ at;csrf;pGmaexkdif vsSuf&Sdonf//

ekdifoef;wifonf/ OuUX=uD;ekdifa&$usifeSifh tvGef&if;eSD;olrsm;jzpf=uonf// OuUX=uD;eSifh


vufyGef;wwD; eD;eD;uyfuyf eSpfaygif;ajrmufrsm;pGmtwlwl aexkdif vmcJholjzpfonf//
OuUX=uD;edkifa&$usif. pdwfaeoabmxm; tusifhpm&dwW/ aerSKxkdifrSK ajymrSKqkdrSKtjyif/
OuUX=uD;.edkifiHa&;t,lq/ ekdifiHa&;tjrif/ekdifiHa&;cH,lcsufwkd@udkyg twGif;ususod&Sdol
jzpfonf// tcsdK@aomOuUX=uD;. twGif;a&;udk,fa&;udk,fwmudpPwkd@udkyg odoljzpfonf//
u|efawmfonfvnf;/ OuUX=uD;eSihftwl/ eSpfaygif;rsm;pGm twlaexkdifvmcJhol jzpfI
OuUX=uD;ekdifa&$usif. yifudk,fpdwfaeoabmxm;/ taetxdkif/ tpm;taomuf/
tajymtqdk/ tusifhpm&dwWwkd@udkyg/ txkduftavSsmuf od&Sdxm;cJhygonf// 'gayrJ/h
ekdifoef;wifuJhokd@ twGif;usus u|efawmfrodcJhyg//

Todk@ OuUX=uD;ekdifa&$usifeSifhtwl eSpfaygif;rsm;pGm/ eD;eD;uyfuyf/ cifcifrifrif/ &if;&if;eSD;eSD;


twlaevmol edkifoef;wif. ajymqkdcsufrsm;eSifh u|efawmfudk,fwkdif teD;uyfavhvm/
=uKHawG@& orsSwdk@udk aygif;pyfjyD; okH;oyfvkdufvSsif/ OuUX=uD;rSm olwyg;eSifhrwl/
xl;jcm;aom/ *k%f&nfrsm;pGm&Sdonf[ku|eaf wmfjrifonf// OuUX=uD;onf/ udk,fhtm;
udk,fudk;wwfonf/ pnf;urf;&Sdonf/ oef@jyef@onf/ 0wfpm;qif,ifr_aooyfonf/
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 45

csifhcsifhcsdefcsdef ek_dif;qI jyKvkyf wwfonf// tusifhpm&dwW tvGefaumif;rGefonf// taexkdif


aooyf/ yd&donf// tpm;aomufrSm avmfvDr_r&Sd oifhwifhav#mufywfpGm csifhcsdefI
pm;okH;wwfonf//
tcddsefudktvGefav;pm;onf// =uD;oli,folra&G;/ rnfoltm;rqkd av;av;pm;pm; qufqH
wwfonf// txl;ojzifhygwD&Sd &Jabmfwyfom;i,fwkd@tay: av;av;pm;pm;qufqHonf//
pum;udkat;aq;/nSifompGmajymqkdwwfonf// us,favmifus,favmifajymqdkjcif;r&Sday//
OuUX=uD;. pnf;urf;&Sdjcif;/ aphpyfaocsmjcif;eSifh ywfoufI tenf;i,fa&;&v#if
aomufa& cyfaomuf&mrSmyifpnf;urf;xm;onf// aomufa&udkAkH;aAgvatm/ rcyfbJ/
rdrdaomufukefoavmufudkom/ aocsmpGm/ *&kpkduf/ cyf,ljyD;/ cyfoavmuf/ ukefpifatmif
aomufonfudk awG@&onf// tykdtv#Hcyf,ljyD;/ w0ufwysufaomufcg/ tusefudk/
ta[mwdueftjzpf/ oGefjypfonfudk rawG@jrif&onf// vufokwfpuULudkvnf;/ okH;oifh
oavmufudkom/ jzwf,ljyD; okH;pGJwwfonfudkawG@&onf// wcgw&HpuUL/ tcsdK@ae&mrSm/
puULtuef@wckvkH;udkrokH;bJ/ tuef@. xuf0ufudkyif/ aoaocsmcsm ykdif;jzwf,ljyD;
ok;H pGJonfudkawG@&onf// rvkdtyfbJ tydktv#H jzwf,lokH;pGJjcif;rsdK; rjyKonfudk awG@&
onf// ol@ae&meSifhol/ ukefoifhoavmufudkom wdwdusus jzwf,lokH;pGJonfh oabmyif
jzpfonf// rukefoifhaomae&mwGif rukefapaomoabmjzpfonf//

rnfhonfhudpPudkrqdk/ =uD;onf/i,fonfr[l/ pOf;pOf;pm;pm; pnf;urf;&Sd&Sd/ csifhcsifhcsdefcsdef


aqmif&Gufvkyfwwfaom OuUX=uD;ukd uGsefawmfonf tvGef av;pm;=unfnKdrdonf//
0wfpm;qif,ifr_wGifvnf; aphpyfaocsmonf// aoaooyfoyf/ csyfcsyf,yf,yf/ oef@oef@
jyef@jyef@0wfpm; qif,ifwwfonf// xdkifaomae&mwGifvnf; tvGefaooyf yd,donf//
'l;axmif aygifum; xkdifavh xkdifxr&SdcJhay// tjrJwrf;xkdifv#if/ vkHcsnfudkaooyfpGm/
aoaocsmcsm zkH;zdjyD; xkdifwwfonf// OuUX=uD;onf/ acgif;aqmif aumif;wOD;Y&Sdtyf/
&Sdoifhaom t&nfcsif;eSifh jynfhpkHonf[k u|efawmfjrifonf// pnf;urf;&Sdr_/ aphpyfocsmr_/
oef@&Sif;r_wdk@udk tjrJwrf; owdxm;I aqmif&Gufwwfaom OuUX=uD;.tavhtxonf
twk,lp&m/ enf;,lp&m/ tvGefaumif;onf//

TuJhokd@ olwyg;xuf xl;xl;jcm;jcm; vuQ%m&Sdonfh OuUX=uD;. twÎKy`wWd


ta=umif;t&mudk u|efawmftm; txl;pdwf0ifpm;apcJhonf// OuUX=uD;. trsKd;om;a&;
OD;wnfcsuf/ trsdK;om;a&; vkyfaqmifcsufrsm;eSifh rdrdvlrsdK; twGuf rnfhokd@rnfykH
udk,fusKd;pGef@ tepfemcHcJhykH/ aqmif&GufcJhykHwdk@udk aemifvmaemufom; rGefjynfolrsm;
aocsm usepGmod&Sdygu tvGeftusdK;rsm;rnf[k u|efawmfpdwfxJwGif jzpfay: vmrdonf//
rGefjynfol vlxkwkd@taejzifhvnf; rdrv d lrsdK;wkd@. acgif;aqmif/ OuUX=uD;. ta=umif;&m
rsm;udk avhvmod&Sd&ef tvGefvkdtyfonf[k u|efawmfjrifrdonf//
46 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

TuJhokd@aomtjrif/ cH,lcsufjzifh OuUX=uD; ekdifa&$usifta=umif;ukd wwfodorSs pkaqmif;


a&;om;&ef u|efawmf.&iffwGif jyif;ysaom pdwfqENjzpfay:I vmonf// ekdifoef;wif
uvnf; rdrdwdk@od&SdorSs ta=umif;&m tcsuftvufwkd@udk jyefvnfajymjy ay;rnf[k
qkdvmonf// u|efawmfonfvnf; aumvdyfausmif;om;b0wGif OuUX=uD; ekdifa&$usifeSifh
ywfoufI/ pkaqmif;cJhbl;onfh tcsufvufrsm; udk jyefvnf pOf;pm;&orSs jyefvnf
pOfpm;I &ekdifao;onf[kjrifonf// xkdokd@ jyefvnf pOf;pm;jyD; ay:vm aom
tcsuftvufeSifh/ ekdifoef;wifwkd@ ukd,fwkdfif =uKHHawG@cJh&aom OuUX=uD;eSifh ywfoufonfh
tcsuftvuf rsm;udk pkaygif;jyD; pmtkyfa&;om;vSsif aumif;rnf[k u|efawmf
pOf;pm;vmrdonf// 4if;tjyif 1963-ckeSpf jidrf;a&; aqG;aEG;yGJtwGuf/ awmwGif;rS
&efukefjrdK@odk@ a&muf&Sd vmaom OuUX=uD; ta=umif;udk uGsefawmfwkd@ armfvjrdKif
'D*&Daumvdyf ausmif;om;wpk pwifpdwf0ifpm;cJhykHeSihf xkdpOfu OuUX=uD;. ekdifiHa&;
vSKyf&Sm;rSK ta=umif;t&mrsm;udk pdwf0ifpm;pGm pkaqmif; rSwfom;cJhykH wkd@udkvnf;
jyefvnf owd&vmrdonf// T ta=umif;&mtm;vkH;wkd@udk tajccHjyKjyD; OuUX=uD; b0
jzpfpOfta=umif;udk a&;om;&vSsif aumif;rnf[k u|efawmf. &ifxJwGif t=uHpnf
jzpfay:Ivmonf//

xkdae@ ekdifa&$vGiftdrfrStjyef/ rdrdaexkdifaom uifbm&mjrdK@(Canberra)/ uma&mif


(Currong Appartments) wkdfufcef;odk@ a&mufaomtcg/ u|efawmfonf OuUX=uD;
ekdifa&$usifta=umif;udk/ tjyefjyef tvSefvSef pOf;pm; aerdawmhonf// wcsdefwkH;u
OuUX=uD;tay: u|efawmfwkd@ aumvdyfausmif;om;wpk/ pdwf0ifpm;cJhykH OuUX=uD;
eSifhywfoufjyD; OuUX=uD;. udk,fa&; &mZ0if ta=umif;t&mwdk@udk vkdufvH&mazG
pkaqmif;cJhykH/ odu|rf;olrsm; toD;oD;xHrS ar;jref;cJh=uykHwkd@udk wae@vkH;wa,mufwnf;/
jyefvnf pOf;pm; aerdonf// TuJhodk@ wa,mufwnf; av;av;eufeuf pOf;pm;
jyD;aemuf OuUX=uD;. arG;&mZmwd i,f&G,fpOfb0 ausmif;ynm oif=um;ykHrSpjyD;
OuUX=uD;. trsdK;om; ekdifiHa&;vSKyf&Sm;rSK vufeufudkif awmfvSefa&; b0ta=umif;&m
tm;vkH;wkd@udkyg wwfedkfiforSs=udK;pm;a&;om;&ef pdwfvkH;vkH; qkH;jzwfvkdufonf//

OuUX=uD; ekdifa&$usiftay: uGsefawmfpwif pdwf0ifpm;vmcJh&onfh tcsdefumveSifh


ta=umif;&if;wkd@udk tajccHI a&;om;wifjy&vSsif/ 1958-ckeSpf/ rGefjynfol@wyfOD;ygwD
vufeufeSifh 'Drdkua&pD vSJvS,fvdkufonfhtcsdefrS pwifa&;om;&rnf [kxifygonf//
1958-ckeSpf/ rGefjynfolhwyfOD;/ tvif;0ifvkdufjyD;aemuf/ rGefjynfopfygwDudk pwifzGJ@pnf;
wnfaxmifcsdefrSpI OuUX=uD; edkifa&$usi. f emrnfonf/ rGefjynfolawG=um;rSm pwif
xifay: ausmf=um;vmonf// 4if;tcsdefrSpI OuUX=uD;udk/ emrnftm;jzifh uGsefawmf
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 47

oduGsrf;vmcJhygonf// uGsefawmfwkd@ ausmif;om;vli,frsm;=um;wGif/ rGefjynfol@wyfOD;


tvif;0ifvkdufonfhtay: odyfauseyfrSKr&SdvSacs// okd@aomf =unfvifjywfom;aom
ekdifiHa&;tjrifw&yf xkdpOfu uGsefawmfY r&SdcJhao;a=umif; &kd;om;pGm0efcH&rnfjzpfonf//
ausmif;om; vli,fwOD;rSsomjzpfaom uGsefawmfonf rGefjynfol@wyfOD;. ekdifiHa&;tjrif
tay: rnfokd@rSSs wdwdusus/ a0zefajymqkdjcif; rjyKedkifcJhacs// odk@aomf vufeufcsvdkufwJh
twGuf/ rGefjynfol@wyfOD;tay:rauseyfjzpfrdjyD;/ vuffeufudkif awmfvSefaom/ rGefjynfopf
ygwDtay: tm;ay; vkdpdwfonfom xkdpOfu xufoefcJhonf//

rGefjynfol@wyfOD; vufeufeSifh 'Drdkua&pDvJvS,fa&; tcrf;em;udk/ uGsefawmfudk,fwkdif


oGm;a&muf avhvmcJhygonf// xkdpOfu uGsefawmfonf(7)wef; ausmif;om;rsSom
&Sdao;onf// armfvjrdKifjrdK@/ tpdk;& trSwf(1)ausmif;wGif ynmqnf;yl; aeaomumv
jzpfonf// uGsefawmfheSifhtwl wwef;wnf; ynmoif=um; aeolwOD;rSm/ uavmhaomh&GmrS
Anm;atmifjzpfonf// (aemifrGefjynfopfygwD A[kdaumfrwDwOD; jzpfvmoljzpfonf//)
ekdifaiGodef;. eSrti,fqkH;/ rdar=unfonfvnf; armfvjrdKiftrSwf(1)wGif rlvwef;jy
q&mr 0ifa&muf vkyfudkifaeonfudk awG@&onf//

armfvjrdKifjrdK@ rkdif'guGif;Y usif;yaom rGefjynfol@wyfOD;. vufeufeSifh 'Drdkua&pD


vJvS,fa&; tcrf;em;wGif rGefjynfol@wyfOD;ygwD0ifaygif; (1111)a,muf &Sdonf[k ausjim
cJhonf// vufeufcswJhtcrf;em;pv#if rGefjynfol@wyfO;D tm;vkH;.udk,fpm;/ rGefjynfol@
wyfOD;. vufeufudkif wyfzGJ@wyf&if;rS/ wyf&if;rSL;jzpfolAdkvfpHa&$u umbGef aoeyf
wvufudk/ a&S@awmifwkdif; wkdif;rSL;AdkvfcsKyfoef;azxHodk@/ ay;tyf&onf// xkd@aemuf/
rGefjynfol@wyfOD;. obmywdjzpfol ekdfifatmifxGef;u rdrdwkd@ tb,fa=umifh/ vufeufeSifh
'Drdkua&pD vJvS,f&onfh ta=umif;&if;eSifh/ rdrdwkd@. tem*gwf edkifiHa&;vrf;pOfudkyg/
rGefbmomjzifh rdef@cGef;ajym=um;cJhonf// 4if;tcrf;em;tjyD;wGif um;tpD;aygif; (20)
ausmfjzifh rGefjynfol@ wyfOD;wyfzJ@G 0if rsm;wkd@onf armfvjrdKifjrdK@ rdkif'guGif;rS yi&Gmodk@
jyefoGm;=uonf// tjyefvrf;c&D; wavSsmufwGif/ (rGejf ynfe,f-csucf si;f ay;) (rGefjynfe,f-
csufcsif;ay;)[k a=uG;a=umf atmftpf awmif;qkdoGm;=uonf//

xkdae@jrifcJh&wJh jrifuGif;udk ,ae@wdkif uGsefawmfonf rarhedkifyg// 4if;ae@usif;yaom


tcrf;em;onf// *k%f,l0ifh=uGm;onfh ppfatmifedkifolwdk@. atmifyGJcH usif;yaom
tcrf;em; w&yf r[kwfrlbJ/ ppf&SHK;olu 'l;axmuf vufajrSmuf t&SKH;ay;jyD;/ usif;yaom
ppf&SKH;ol.tnHhcHyGJjzpfaeonf// vGefcJhaom 1958-ckeSpfu Ttjzpfwkdf@onf/ tcsdeftcg
umvtm;jzihf =umanmif; cJhygjyD;jzpfonf// u|efawmfonfyif touf&G,ftm;jzifh
tkdrif;&ifha,mf vmjyD; jzpfonf// todw&m;onf vnf;/ &ifhusufvmjyD;jzpfonf//
48 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

okkd@aomf/ xkdae@jrif&aom jrifuGif;udk pOf;pm;rdygvSsif/ cHjyif;aompdwf/ emusnf;aompdwf/


tnHhrcHcsifaom pdwfawG url/ wjym;wcsyfrS ravsSmhoGm;ao;onfudk awG@&onf//
xkdae@Y cHpm;cJh&aom a0'em cHpm;csuftwdkif; ,ae@wkdifyifpHpm; ae&qJjzpfonf// Tae@
tjzpfysufudk pOf;pm;rdwdkif; ppf&SKH;ol. b0rnfonfhtcgrSrjzpfygh&apeJ@vkd@&ifxJrSm =udwfI
qkawmif;aerdonf//

1958-ckeSpf Oya'abmifokd@ 0ifvmjyD;aemuydkif;wGif/ rGefjynfol@wyfOD;onf t&Sdef[kef


jyif;jyif; vsifvsifjrefjref ajcvufoGufoGufjzihf ekdifiHa&;vkyfaqmifrSK rsm;udkwckjyD;wck/
taumifxnfaz: aqmif&Guf vmonfudkawG@&onf// 1958-ckeSpf=o*kwfv(18)&ufwGif
rGefwdkif;&if;om; tpnf;t&kH;rS yk*~dKvfrsm;eSihf awG@qkHaqG;aEG;jyD;nDnGwfrSKwnfaqmuf
&ef=udK;yrf;vmonf// 1958-ckeSpf =o*kwfv(20)&ufae@wGif ekdifatmifxGef; ekdifxGef;odef;/
ekdifcsrf;rGef/ edkifaiGodrf; wkd@onf ekdifiHawmf 0ef=uD;csKyfOD;ektm; oGm;a&mufawG@qkHI/
ekdifiHa&;eSifhtrsdK;om;a&;udpP&yfrsm;udk aqG;aEG; ajymqkd cJh=uonf//

1958-ckeSpf=o*kwfv(31)&ufae@wGif/ rGefjynfo@l wyfOD;eSihf rGefwkdif;&if;om;tpnf;t&kH;


wdk@onf/ eSpfOD;eSpfzuftajccH oabmwlnDcsuf wpf&yf&jyD;/ rGejf ynfol@nDnGwfa&;
wyfaygif;pkudk zGJ@pnf;ekdifcJhonf//
rGefjynfol@nDnGwfa&;wyfaygif;pk.&nf&G,fcsufrsm;//
(1) e,fcJs@qef@usifa&;//
(2) rGeftrsdK;om;vGwfajrmufa&;//
(3) rGGefjynfe,f&&Sda&;//
(4) xm0pOfjidrf;csrf;a&;/wkd@jzpfonf//

Tokd@rGefjhynfol@wyfOD;rSekdifiHa&;vkyfief;rsm;udk tm;oGefcGefpkduf =udK;yrf;aqmif&Gufaeonfh


tcsdefrSmyif/ zqyvtpdk;&twGif;wGif uGJjyJrSKrsm;jzpfay:vmonf// wnfjrJzqyvtkyfpkeSihf
oef@&Sif;zqyvtkyfpkwdk@onf/ ygvDrefwGif tm;jydKifrSKw&yf jzpfay:vmonf// OD;AaqG/
OD;ausmfjidrf; OD;aqmifaom/ wnfjrJzqyvtkyfpkonf/ OD;ektpkd;&tm;/ t,kH=unfr&Sd
tqdkudk ygvDrefYwifoGif;cJhonf// okd@aomfrJcJaG omtcg/ OD;AaqGwkd@tkyfpk&SKH;edyfhoGm;jyD;/
oef@&Sif;zqyv OD;ekwkd@tkyfpkrS rJtedkif&oGm;onf// xkdokd@ OD;ektpdk;& tedkif&vkdufjcif;onf/
yrnwtrwfrsm;eSihf &ckdiftrwfrsm;. axmufcHrJudk&&Sdojzifh/ OD;ek. oef@&Sif;zqyv
tkyfpkonf/ tm%mYwnfjrJekdifcJhonf// okd@aomf&kSH;edyfhoGm;aom wnfjrJzqyvtkyfpk.
taeSmuf,Suf jyKrSKa=umifh oef@&Sif;OD;ektpkd;&onf/ ygvDrefwGif rnfonfh Oya'jyK
vkyfief;udkrS rvkyfekdifjzpfaeonf// aemufqkH;wGif OD;ekonf rvGJra&SmifombJ/ ppfwyfodk@
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 49

,m,D tm%mv$Jtyfay;&ef jzpfvm&onf// 1958-ckeSpfatmufwkdbmv(28)ae@rSm/


OD;ektpdk;&onf/ AdkfvfcsKyfae0if; OD;aqmifaom/ tdrfapmifhtpkd;& tzGJ@wzGJ@udk zGJ@pnf;jyD;
,m,Dtm;jzifh/ tm%mvGJtyfay;cJhonf// 4if;tdrfapmifhtpkd;&onf/ (6)vtwGif;wGif
rSswaom a&G;aumufyGJudk usif;yay;rnf jzpfa=umif;ausjimcJhonf//

1958/ckeSpfekd0bFmv(21/22)&ufrsm;wGif/ rGefjynfol@wyfOD;. au'gaygif;pkH nDvmcH wpf&yf


udk armfvjrdKifjrLeDpy,fcef;r wGifusif;ycJhonf// 4if;nDvmcHrS/ rGefjynfol@wyfOD;. zGJ@pnf;ykH
tajccHOya'opfeSifh ygwDwnfaqmufa&;rlrsm;ukd a&;qGJtwnfjyKcJhonf// atmufyg
trSKaqmifopfudkvnf; a&G;aumufwifajrmufedkifcJhonf//

rGejf ynfo@l wyfO;D tvkyt


f rSKaqmifopf
OuUX ekdifatmifxGef;
'kOuUX q&medkifbdk;pdef(urm0uf)
taxGaxGtwGif;a&;rSL; ekdifxGef;odef;
wGJbuftaxGaxGtwGif;a&;rSL; ekdifodrf;armif(aygif)

A[kdtvkyt
f rSKaqmifaumfrwD0ifrsm;/
Ekdifbkd;aumif/(uavmhaomh)
Ekdifom[ef(taygif)
EkdifaiGodrf;/
edkifqdwfekd@
ekdifcsrf;rGef
edkifatmifwifh
ekdifausmif(Akdvfausmif)
t&HA[kdtvkytf rSKaqmifaumfrwD0ifrsm;
edkifpH&$ef/
edkifuGefAvm
ekdifpdefausmf(aumhbdef;)wkd@jzpfonf/

,cif rGefjynfol@wyfOD;. twGif;a&;rSL; ekdifcsrf;rGefae&mwGif/ taxGaxGtwGif;a&;rSL;opf


jzpfvmol/ edkifxGef;odef;tm; yk*~dLvft& pmzwfy&d\wfrsm; tu|rf;0if odjrifjyD;om
jzpfrnf// odk@aomf ekdifxGef;odef;.ekdifiHa&; vkyfaqmifcsufrsm;udk wdwdusus/ odol
enf;onf[k xifonf/ xkda=umifh edkifxGef;odef;. ekdifiHa&;vkyfaqmifcsufrsm;udk Tae&mY
az:jyIrdwfqufay;vdkygonf//
50 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

edkifxGef;odef;tm; vlcspfvlcif aygrsm;onf// pdwfaeoabmxm; tvGefel;nHh odrfarG@ol


wOD;jzpfonf// pdwfaumif; eSvkH;aumif;&Sdonf/ az:a&Gwwfonf// rdrdxuf touf=uD;
olrsm;udk &kdaoav;pm;pGm qufqHovkd/ vli,frsm;tm;vnf; av;av;pm;pm; qufqH
wwfonf// ekdifxGef;odef;onf/ armfvjrdifjrdK@e,f/ uwdk;&GmwGif/ 1917-ckeSpf/ edk0bFvmv
(30)&ufae@Y edkifatmifa'G;/ rda&$eSpfwkd@rS arG;zGm;oef@pif vljzpfvmonf// uwkd;aus;&Gm
jrefrmpmoifausmif;wGif (6)wef;atmifjrifonftxd oif=um;jyD; armfvjrdKifjrdK@ t*Fvdyf/
jrefrmtpkd;&txuf wef;ausmif;wGif ynmqufvufoif=um;onf// xdktxufwef;
ausmif;om;b0uyif/ edkifxGef;odef;onf/ ausmif;om; ta&;cif;eSifh ausmif;om;
or*~vkyfief;wkd@rSm wufwuf=uG=uG yg0ifcJhonf/ 1935-36-ckeSpfwGif txufwef;
ausmif;/ ausmif;om;or*~. twGif;a&;rSL;. wm0efudk,lcJhonf// 1938-ckeSpf wGif
(10)wef;pmar;yGJudk/ ocsFmeSifh tydkocsFmbmom&yf rsm;wGif *k%fxl;jzifh atmifjrif
cJhonf// &efukefwuUodkvfrS csD;jrSifhaom/ (Collegiate Scholarship)qkudk qGwf,ledkifcJh
onf// paumvm&Spfqktjzifh wvv#if(35)usyf axmufyHhaiGudk (5)eSpfwkdifwkdif ynm
oifqk tjzpf &&SdcJhonf// wuUokdvf ausmif;om;b0uyif/ trsdK;om;edkifiHa&; vSKyf&Sm;rSK
wGif wufwuf=uG=uG yg0ifvmcJhonf//

1939-ckeSpf =o*kwfv(6)&ufae@wGif zGJ@pnf;aom &mrnwkdif;vkH;qkdif&m rGeftzGJ@csKyf


pmayeSifh ,Ofaus;rSKtzGJ@wGif yg0ifvSKyf&Sm;cJhonf/ a'gufwmpdefxGef;atmif/ rGefazodef;wkd@
OD;aqmifzJ@G pnf;aom/ &efukefjrdK@ rGefvli,ftoif;wGif vnf;yg0ifcJhonf// 1940-ckeSpfwGif
Oypmwef;udk atmifjrifcJhonf// 1945-ckeSpfrwfvwGif ody`HbJG@udkatmifjrifcJhonf// 'kwd,
urBmppf jyD;qkH;jyD;aemuf/ jyefvnf vSKyf&Sm;vmaom &mrn wkdif;vkH;qkdif&mtzGGJ@csKyf.
twGif;a&;rSL;wm0efudk ,m,Dxrf;aqmifcJhonf// xkdaemuftzGJ@csKyf./ wm0efay;csuft&/
rGefaus;&Gmrsm;wGif pmayoif=um;edkifa&;twGuf/ =uD;=uyfuGyfuJaom rGefynmtkyftjzpf
1947-ckeSpfrS 1949-ckeSpftxd aqmif&GufcJhonf// xkdodk@aqmif&GufaepOf/ tar&duefekdifiH/
rDcsD*ef wuUokdvfwGif "gwkaA' bmom&yf oif=um;&ef ynmawmfoiftjzpf a&G;cs,f
cH&onf/ odk@aomf rGeftrsdK;om;pdwf tm;oefaom ekdifxGef;odef;onf/ ynma&;xuf
trsdK;om;a&;udk OD;pm;ay;cJhonf// 1949-ckeSpf/ rGef-u&if vSKyf&Sm;rSKwGif yg0ifcJhjyD; awmckd
cJhonf// ekdifiHjcm;okd@ oGm;a&mufynmoif=um;jcif;udk pGef@vGwfcJhonf//

1949-ckeSpfrSpI rGefvufeufudkifawmfvSefa&;tzGJ@pnf;. edkifiHjcm;qufoG,fa&; wm0efudk


xrf;aqmifcJhonf// 1950-ckeSpfwGif edkifiHjcm;qufoG,fa&;twGuf AefaumufjrdK@wGif/
zGifhvSpfxm;aom rGef-u&if udk,fpm;vS,f&kH;wGif wm0efcHtjzpf aqmif&Guf cJhonf//
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 51

1952-ckeSpf az:0g&Dv(19)&ufae@wGif zGJ@pnf;aom/ (rGeftrsdK;om;nDnGwfa&;wyfaygif;pk).


taxGaxG twGif;a&;rSL;. wm0efudk xrf;aqmifcJhonf// 1952-ckeSpf 'DZbFmv (12)&uf
ae@wGif/ rd[Hom. nDr/ rdcifaxG;eSifh jr0wDjrdK@wGif vufxuf cJhonf// rGeftrsdK;om;
nDnGwfa&; wyfaygif;pkrS wqifh rGefjynfol@ wyfOD;ygwD toGifodk@ jyefvnf; zGJ@pnf;&mwGif/
ekdifxGef;odef;onf/ rGefjynfol@ wyfOD;ygwD. 'kOuUX wm0efudk xrf;aqmifcJhonf// 1958-
ckeSpf Oya'abmifodk@ 0ifvmonftxd/ rGefjynfol@wyfOD;. 'k-OuUX wm0efudk xrf;aqmif
cJhonf// wzef Oya'abmif twGif;Y yxr t=udrf usif;yaom rGefjynfol@wyfOD;/ au'g
aygif;pkH nDvmcHrS ekdifxGef;odef;tm; wnD wnGwfwnf;/ taxGaxG twGif;a&;rSL; tjzpf/
a&G;cs,f wifajrSmufcJhonf// TonfrSm rGefjynfol@wyfO;D taxGaxG twGif;a&;rSL;opf
jzpfvmol/ ekdifxGef;odef;. ekdifiHa&; vkyfaqmifcsuf tusOf;r# jzpfonf//

Oya'abmifoGif;okd@ a&mufvmaom rGefjynfol@wyfOD;onf/ vlrsdK;pkH cspf=unfa&; twGuf/


jynfol@ &JabmfygwD (yDpDyD)/ tvkyform;ygwD(qkd&S,feD)/ jynfol@ trsdK;om; nDnGwfa&;
wyfaygif;pk (yrnw)/ jynfol@ wkd;wufa&;ygwD/ paom ekdifiHa&;ygwDrsm;eSifhawG@qkHaqG;aEG;
jyD;/ emvnfrSK wnfaqmuf ekdifcJhonf// vlrsdK;pk tzGJ@pnf;rsm; jzpfaom/ u&iftrsdK;om;
tpnf;t&kH;/ &ckdif/ ucsif/ csif;/ &Srf;/ ytkd@0f paom vlrsdK;pk tzGJ@pnf;rsm;eSifhvnf; awG@qkH
aqG;aEG;jyD;/ ekdifiHa&; tjrifrsm;udk nSdeSdKif;ekdifcJhonf//

1960-ckeSpf azaz:0g&Dv(6)&ufwGif/ AkdvfcsKyfae0if; OD;aqmifaom/ tdrfapmifh tpkd;&onf/


ygvDreftaxGaxGa&G; aumufyJu G dk usif;yay;ygrnf[kausjimcJhonf//rGefjynfol@wyfOD;onf
a&G;aumufyGJ0if&ef jyifqifvm&onf// rGefjynfol@wyfOD;rS/ a&G;aumufyJeG Sihfywfoufaom/
vkyfief;(3)&yfudkcsrSwfcJhonf//
(1) rGeo f ;D jcm;rJqENe,fr&ao;cif/rGeftrsdK;om;rsm;onf/
oD;jcm;uif;vGwfaomrGet f rsdK;om;trwftjzpf 0ifa&mufta&G;cH&ef//
(2) xkdokd@ta&G;cH&mwGif/a&G;aumufyGJa=uG;a=umfoHtjzpf/
(rGefjynfe,fvkdcsifvsSif/rGeftrwfavmif;udkrJqEN ay;=uyg)//
(3) a&G;aumufyJw G GifrGeftrsdK;om;tcsif;csif;xdyfwkdufrjzpf&efeSifhr[mrdwfygwDrsm;
eSihfvnf;xdyfwkdfufrjzpf&efnSdeSdKif;&efwkd@jzpfonf//

a&G;aumufyGJwGif/tjcm;rGeftzGJ@pnf;jzpfaom/rGefwkdif;&if;om;tpnf;&kH;rSvnf;a&G; aumufyGJ
Yyg0if,SOfjydKif&ef qdkif;jyif;aeonf// xkdtajcaewGif a&G;aumufyGJwGifyg0ifaom rGeftzGJ@pnf;
rsm; wzGJ@eSifhwzGJ@ yÉdyuQ rjzpfyGm;&ef/ tvGef ta&;=uD;vmonf// txl;ojzifh/ rGefa'o&Sd
trwfrJqENe,f wae&mwnf;rSm/ rGeftzGJ@pnf;eSpfzGJ@ jydKifwl xdyfwkduf ,SOjf ydKifrSKrjzpfyGm;&ef/
tvGefta&;=uD;onf// okd@r[kwfygrl/ rGefjynfol@ qENrJrsm;/ uGJjym;jyD;/ atmifyGJ&oifh
52 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

oavmuf r&&SdekdifbJ jzpfoGm;ekdifonf// rGeftcsif;csif; pnf;vkH;nDnGwfrSK jydKuGJekdifonf//


tjcm;tzGJ@pnf;rS trwfrsm;tekdfif&oGm;ekdifonf//

Ttcsufwdk@udk xnfhoGif;pOf;pm;I rGefjynfol@wyfOD;eSifh rGefwkdif;&if;om;tpnf;&kH;wkd@


oabmwl zGJ@pnf;xm;aom/ rGefjynfol@nDnGwfa&; wyfaygif;pkonf/ nSdeSdKif;wdkifyifI/
rGeftrsdK;om; trwfavmif;pm&if;udk jyKpk=uonf// TudpPonfxifoavmufrvG,fvSay//
rGefjynfolvlxk xlxyfrsm;jym;pGm aexkdifaom ae&mrsm;wGif rGeftrwfavmif;rsm;/
wyftyfaocsm atmifyJG ekdifjyD;/ rGefjynfvlxk enf;yg;aomae&m a'orsm;wGif/ rGef
trwfavmif;rsm; atmifyJcG Hekdif&ef tvGefcJ,SOf;onf// rGeftrwfavmif;rsm; atmifyGJ
cHedkifaom ae&mrsm;udk/ vufcsdL;&nfwGufI &ekdifonf// atmifyGJcHedkifaom ae&ma'oonf/
odyfrrsm;vSay// atmifyJcG Hekdifaom a'orsm;wGifom/ rGeftrwfavmif;rsm;/ ololigig/
yg0ifta&G;cHvdk=uonf//

rGefjynfol@nDnGwfa&; wyfaygif;pktwGif;Y t=udwfte,f aqG;aEG;=u&onf// tcsdef,l


aqG;aEG; wkdifyifnSKdeSdKif;=u&onf// aemufqkH;wGif/ rGefjynfol@wyfOD;rS tav#mhay;I
rGefjynfol@wyfOD;eSifh rGefwkdfif;om; tpnf;&kH=um;wGif/ yÉdyuQrjzpfyGm;atmif/ a&Smifwdrf;
ekdifcJhonf// eSpfOD;eSpfzuf a=ua=uvnfvnf/ av;av;eufeuf aqG;aEG;wkdifyif qkH;jzwfjyD;
atmufygtwdkif; trwfavmif;eSihf 0ifa&muf ,SOfjydKifrnfhpm&if;udk oabmwlnDpGm
xkwfjyef ekdkifcJhonf//

armfvjrdKife,fwGif edkifcsrf;rGe/f usdKuQrDjrdK@e,fwGif ekdifatmifxGef;/ acsmif;qkHjrdK@e,fwGif


ekdifxGef;odef;/usdKuRa&mjrdK@e,fwGif ekdifqdwfedk@/ zgtHawmiffydkif;wGif ekdifaiGodrf;/ rk'kHjrKd@e,fwGif
q&mekdifzkd;pdef/taygife,fwGif ekdifodrf;armifwkd@ toD;oD;yg0if,SOfjydkifcJhonf// a&;jrdK@e,fudkrl/
wkdif;&if;om;tpnf;&kH;rS/ rGefzkd;csdKyg0if,SOfjydKifcJhonf// usdKuQrDawmifydkif; vlrsdK;pkvGwfawmf
trwftwGuf/ wkdif;&if;om;tpnf;&kH;rS edkifaatmifvSaiGuyg0if,SOfjydKifcJhon/f/ 1960-ckeSpf
a&G;aumufyJG0ifa&muf ,SOfjydKifta&G;cHaomrGeftrwfrsm;wGif/ rk'kHjrdK@e,frS q&mekdifzdk;pdef/
usdKuQrDjrdK@e,frS ekdfifatmifxGef;/ a&;jrdK@e,frS rGefzkd;csdKeSifh usdKuQrDc&kdif/ vlrsdK;pkvGwfawmf
trwftjzpf/ ekdifatmifvSaiGwkd@ toD;oD;ta&G;cHcJh&onf// zg;tHawmifydkif;wGif/ 0ifa&muf
,SOfjydKifaomekdifaiGodrf;onf/ &SKH;edrfhoGm;onf// edkifaiGodrf;.jydKifbuf/ wnfjrJzqyvtrwf/
ekdifbnGef@onf/ tekdif&oGm;onf// wnfjrJzqyvtrwf ekdifbnGef@ ekdfifoGm;jcif;rSm
rJrsm;udk vdrfvnf/ ckd;azguf,lIekdifonf[k rGefjynfol@wyfOD;rSekdifaiGodrf;upGyfpGJajymqkdonf//
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 53

Tae&mY ekdifiHa&;ocFef;pm ,lp&maumif;aom tjzpfysufudk tenf;i,f a&;om;wifjy


vkdygonf// rGefvlrsdK;rsm; ocFef;pm,lp&m tvGefaumif;aom ekdfifaiGodrf;eSifh ekdifbnGef@
(ekdifa&$usif.nD)wkd@ eSpfOD;ta=umif;udk tenf;i,f/ a&;om;wifjycsifygonf// 1960-ckeSpf/
a&G;aumufyGJwGif/ zm;tHawmifydkif; rJqENe,fwGif(wnfjrJz/q/yv)tzGJ@0iftjzpf/ edkfifbnGef@
ua&G;aumufyGJ 0ifcJhovkd/wzufwGif/ rGefjynfol@wyfOD;rS ekdifaiGodef;onfvnf;/ 4if;zg;tH
awmifydkif;udkyif/ a&G;cs,fIa&G;aumufyJ0G ifcJhonf// ekdifaiGodef;onf/ rdrd. ZmwdcsufauGs/
&yf&Gmjzpfaom/ xkH;tkdif rGef&Gm=uD;udk/ tm;xm;I/ 4if;rJqENe,fudk a&G;cs,fum/ yg0if
,SOfjydKifcJhjcif;jzpfonf//

zqyv trwfavmif; ekdifbnGef@eSifh xdyfwdkuf,SOfjydKif ta&G;cHonf// xkda&G;aumufyGJwGif/


(wnfjrJ)zqyvtrwftjzpf0ifa&muf,SOfjydKifaom/ ekdifbnGef@ekdifjyD;/ rGefjynfol@wyfOD;
trwftjzpf/ 0ifa&muf,SOfjydKifaom/ ekdifaiGodrf;onf/ &SKH;edrfhoGm;onf// txufY qdkcJhonfh
twkdif;/ Tokd@ ekdfifbnGef@ekdifoGm;jcif;onf/ wnfjrJzqyvtzJG@u rJrsm;udk vdrfvnf
ckd;,lojzifh ekdifoGm;onf[k/ ekdifaiGodrf;wkd@bufrS pGyfpGJ ajymqkdonf// edkfifaiGodrf; pGyfpJaG jymqkd
ouJhokd@ jzpfedkifaom/ ta=umif;rsm;pGm&Sdonf// rnfokd@yif&Sdap/ 4if;yk*~dKvfeSpfOD;wdk@onf
wcsdefu/ rGeftrsdK;om;ta&;wGif twlwl yg0ifcJh =uolrsm; jzpfonfudk awG@&onf//
rGefvlrsKd;a&;&mtzGJ@csKyfwGif twlwlyg0if v_yf&Sm;cJholrsm; jzpfygonf// aoG;aomuf
&Jabmfrsm;jzpf=uonf// oD;jcm; rGefjynfe,f awmif;qkda&;wGif4if;/ awmwGif;vufeufudkif
awmfvSefa&;wdk@wGif4if;/ twlwuG yg0ifcJh=u olrsm;jzpfonf// twdwfudk jyefajymif;
=unfhvSsif/ atmufygtwkdif;/ 4if;yk8~dKvfeSpfOD;wkd@. trsdK;om;ekdifiHa&; vSKyf&Sm;rSKordkif;
a=umif;udkawG@&ayrnf//

1947-ckeSpf/ rk'kHjrdK@e,f/ zg;atmufaus;&GmwGif/ usif;yaom/ rGefvlrsdK;a&;&mtzGJ@csKyf.


nDvmcHrS/ ekdifvSarmiftm; OuUXtjzpf4if;/ edkifaiGodef;tm; twGif;a&;rSL;jzpf4if;/ ekdifbvGif
(edkifa&$usif)tm; jyef=um;a&;Xme wm0efcHtjzpf4if;/ ekdifbnGef@tm; vli,fa&;&m XmerSL;
tjzpf4if;/ toD;oD; a&G;aumufwifajrmufcJh=uonf// 4if;tjyifekdifbnGef@tm;/ rGefpHoleSifh
wGJbufIvnf;/ rGefvlrsdkK;a&;&mtzGJ@. umuG,fa&;Xmeukd OD;pD;aqmif&Guf&ef wm0ef
ay;cJhonf// rGefvli,frsm;tm;/ rdsK;cspfpdwfxuf oefvmatmif pnf;vkH;odrf;oGif;&aom
wm0efudk,l&onf// pnf;&kH;odrf;oGif;I&aomvli,frsm;udk/ ekdifbnGef@uyif/ =uD;=uyfI/
ppfoifwef;ay;&onf// edkifbnGef@onf/ ppfoifwef;rSL;tjzpf aqmif&GufcJholjzpfonf//
xkd@a=umifh ekdifaiGodef;eSifh edkifbnGef@wkd@onf/ rGeftrsKd;om;twGuf/ twlwuG/ oufpGef@
=udK;yrf; aqmif&GufcJholrsm; jzpfonfudk awG@&onf// 1948-ckeSpf armfvjrdKifudk odrf;ydkuf
pOfuvnf;/ t"duae&m tcef;rStwlwl/ yg0ifcJholrsm;jzpf=uonf// armfvjrdKifjrdK@rS qkwfcGm
54 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

jyD;/ awmwGif;Y vufeufudkfifawmfvSefa&; orm;b0tjzpf twlwuG aevmcJh


=uolrsm;jzpf=uonf//

,ckrl/ ekdifiHa&; tm%mtwGuf/ &efolozG,f wOD;udkwOD; oabmxm;vm&onf// zg;tH


awmifydkif;rJqENe,fajr/ wae&mwnf;udkyif/ eSpfO;D om; xdyfwkduf ,SOfjydKif vm&onf/
T,SOfjydKifyGJwGif/edkifaiGodrf;&_H;edkrhfoGm;jyD;/ ekdifbnGef@onf trwfjzpfvmonf// 4if;tjyif
edkifbnGef@onf u&ifjynfe,faumifpDtzGJ@0if/ 0ef=uD;wOD;vnf;jzpfvmonf// a&G;aumufyJG
a=umifh/ wcsdefu aoG;aomuf&Jabmf&Jbuf tcsif;csif; &efolozG,fjzpfoGm;apcJhonf//
rGeftcsif;csif; oabmqEN uGJcJh&onf// ygvDref'Drdkua&pDu zefwD;vkdufonfh tusdK;w&m;
yifjzpfonf// rGefvlrsdK;wdk@twGuf tvGefowdoHa0*&p&m aumif;aom tcsufw&yf
jzpfonf [kajymcsifonf//

1960-ckeSpfa&G;aumufyGJwGif/OD;ekacgif;aqmifaom/ jynfaxmifpk(yxp)oef@&Sif;/ z/q/y/v/


tzGJ@rS/ rJtjywfowf ekdifojzifh/ tpkd;&zGJ@ekdifcJhonf// oef@&Sif; rGeftrsdK;om;tzJG@csKyfrS/
rGefjynfe,f&&Sda&;udk awmif;qkdcJh=uonf// 1960-ckeSpf rwfv(19)&ufae@wGif oef@&Sif;
rGeftrsdK;om;tzGJ@csKyf OuUX rGefazoef;eSifh twGif;a&;rSL; rGefaiGpdk;wkd@onf/ owif;pm
uGefz&ifh wckudkjyKvkyu f sif;ycJhonf/ rGefazoef;onf/ tvGefemrnf=uD;rm;aom/ 0wfvkH
awmf&a&S@aewpfOD;jzpfonf// armfvjrdKifjrdK@xm;0,fpk&yf atmufvrR=uD;wGif aexkdifol
jzpfonf// xkdowif;pmuGefz&ifhY rGeaf zoef;u atmufygtwdkif;ajym=um;cJhonf//

“armfvjrdKifjrdK@Y usif;ywJh rGeaf &;&mnDvmcHrSm/ oef@&iS f;zqyv OuUX=uD;


OD;eku rGefjynfe,fudk trsm;pku vkdvm;ygu aqmif&Guf ay;rnfvkd@ twdtvif;
uwday;cJhw,f// xkduwdt&/ OD;ekacgif;aqmifwJh oef@&Sif;tpkd;&u rGefjynfe,fudk
aqmif&Gufay;r,fvkd@vJ/ u|eaf wmf arSsmv f ifh,kH=unfw,f// ,ckuJhokd@ rGefjynfe,f
ukd awmif;qkd&wmvJ/ rGef,Ofaus;rSKeSihf rGefpmayrsm; aysmufuG,f oGm;rSmudk
pkd;&drI
f awmif;qkd&jcif;jzpfw,f//”

oef@&Sif; rGeftrsdK;om;tzGJ@csKyf OuUX rGefazoef; &Sif;vif;wifjyoGm;onfhtjyif atmufyg


twkdif;vnf;xyfrH&Sif;vif; wifjyoGm;onf//

“rGefjynfe,fay;wJh ae&mrSm/ t&nfcsif;jynfhpkHjyD;/ tqifajy acsmarG@


ap&ef/ yxrOD;pGm/ rGeaf &;&m aumifpDwpf&yfudk zGJ@pnf;xlaxmif
oifhw,fvkd@ jrifw,f// rGefjynfe,f udpPa&;&meSifh ywfouf&if/ oef@&Sif;
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 55

rGet
f rsKd ;om;tzGJ@csKyfudk OD;pm;ay;wkdifyifbdk@ tpkd;&opfxHawmif;qkdr,f//
rGeftrsdK;om;rsm;/ trsdK;rsdK;uGJjym;ae=uwm rSefaomfvnf;/ rGefvlxk
taeeJ@/ rGejf ynfe,f&&Sda&;oabmrSmwpfckwnf; jzpfw,f//1”

oef@&Sif;rGeftzJG@ OuUX rGefazoef;u txufygtwdkfif; &Sif;vif;wifjyjyD; aemufwGif


owif;axmuf rsm;u atmufyg ar;cGef;udkar;jref;vmonf//

“rGefjynfe,fay;&ifrnfonfha'otus,ft0ef;txd&Sd&rnfvJ”

rGefazoef;uatmufygtwkdif;ajz=um;oGm;onf//

“rGefjynfe,fudk owfrSwf&if/ usdKuQrDc&kdif/ u&ifjynfe,f a'otcsdK@/


ppfawmif;rS a&;txdtus,f t0ef;&Sd&r,f//”

rGefjynfe,feJ@ywfoufI rGeaf zoef;onfwdwdusus&Sif;vif;wifjyoGm;onf//

1960-ckeSpf{jyDv(5)&ufae@wGif usif;yaom/ wwd,jynfol@v$wfawmf/ yxr nDvmcHY/


ekdifiHawmf0ef=uD;csKyf OD;ekurdef@cGef;ajym=um;&mwGif/ jynfe,fay;a&;udpPeSihf ywfoufI
yxptpkd;&onf oufqkdif&mwkdif;&if;om; jynfol vlxk.qENrSefudkod&SdatmifjyKvkyfrnf//
xkdokd@jyKvkyf&mwGifjyKykH/ jyKenf;eSifhywfoufI oufqkdif&macgif;aqmifrsm;eSifh wkdifyifjyD;rS
jyKvkyfrnfjzpfa=umif;ajym=um;oGm;onf//

1960-ckeSpf{jyDv(29)&ufae@wGif/ 0ef=uD;csKyfOD;ekonf/ rGefjynfe,feSifh &ckdifjynfe,f/


taumifxnfaz:a&;eSihf ywfoufI ekdifiHawmftpkd;&tm; t=uHay;ekdif&ef t=uHay;tzGJ@
wckukdzJ@G pnf;ay;cJhonf// 4if;tzG@JwGif ekdifiHawmforwa[mif; a'gufwmOD;bOD;u
acgif;aqmifjyD; tzJG@0ifrsm;rSm/ a'gufwmodrf;armif/ OD;wif/ OD;cspfaomif;eSifh OD;tkH;azwkd@
tygt0iftm;vkH;pkpkaygif;(5)OD;yg&Sdonf//

1960-ckeSpfarv(14)&ufupItpkd;&twdkifyifcHt=uHay;tzGJ@onf/ rGefacgif;aqmifrsm;eSihf
awG@qkHI 4if;wkd@. toD;oD; oabmxm;udk ar;jref;=uonf// rGefbdk;csdKtm; ar;jref;&m/
rGefbdk;csdKu atmufygtwdkif;ajym =um;vmonf//

1
1960/rwfv(20)&ufxkwf/&efukefowif;pm/
56 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

“'Drdkua&pD tcGifhta&; qkH;&SKH;rSKrsm;xJrSm/ tepfem qkH;aom/ qkH;&SKH;rSK[m/ vlrsdK;


wdrfaum yaysmufrSKyif jzpfw,f// rGefvlrsKd ;rsm;[m/ ykord f 32/jrdK@/ [Hom0wD/
32/jrdK@/ rkwWr/ 32jrdK@/ [lI&SdcJh&mrS/ ,cktcg/ pum;a&m/ pmygwrd af um yaysmufrJh
tajcaeokd@ a&mufaejyD jzpfw,f// rkwrbuf W Yom rGefpm/ rGefpum; usef&Sdawmh
&m/ ,cktwkdif; qufvufxm;&Sdr,fqdkvsSif/ ysLvlrsdK;/yaysmufouJhokd@rGev f lrsdK;yg/
yaysmufoGm;edkifr,f// vufeufudkif rGeftzJG@pnf; tvif;0ifa&muf vmcJhjcif;rSm/
0ef=uD;csKyfOD;ek&J@ rGefjynfe,f ay;r,fqkdwJh uwdudk ,kH=unfvkd@ 0ifvm=ujcif;
jzpfw,f// ,cktcg/ ekdifatmifxGef;/ ekdifzkd;pdef/ ekdifatmifvSaiGeJ@ u|eaf wmf/ tp&Sd
wJhyk*~dKvfwkd@vnf;/ a&G;aumufyGJrSmtekdif&&SdjyD;jzpfw,f// tJ'DtrwfawG/u|efawmf
tygt0if/ a&G;aumufyGJ 0ifpOfu/ rGefjynfe,f a=uG;a=umfoHeJ@ 0ifa&muf,SOfjydKif
cJh=uw,f// rGefjynfe,f taumifxnf az:a&;eJ@ ywfoufjyD; rJqENxyf ,lbkd@
rvkdbl;vkd@ jrifw,f// u|eaf wmf taeeJ@ rJqEN ,lwmufdk oabm rwlekdifbl;//
rGeftrsdK;om;wkd@[m/ ekdifiHawmftpkd;&tm;/ ,kH=unf udk;pm;=uw,f/ u&if/ucsif/
tp&SdwJh vlrsdK;pkawGudk jynfe,f ay;ouJhokd@ rGejf ynfe,fudkvJ ay;apcsifw,f//”

tpkd;& twkdifyifcH t=uHay;tzGJ@u/ rGefukefonf=uD; ekdifboGiftm; ar;jref; &mwGif/


ekdifboGifu atmufygtwdkif; ajym=um;oGm;onf//

“yJcl;c&kdif/ oxkHc&kdif/usdKuQrcD &kdif/ xm;0,fc&kdif/ jrdwfc&kdifwkd@udk rGefjynfe,ftjzpf


jyKvkyfay;bkd@ awmif;qkdw,f// rGejf ynfe,fudk rGefvlxku eSpfepS fumum vkdcsif&if
ay;r,fqkdwJh 0ef=uD;csKyf&J@ uwdpum;udk rGet f rsKd ;om;wkd@u eSpfoufvkd@/
,kH=unfvkd@ a&G;aumufyGJrmS / rJay;cJh=uw,f// rGefjynfe,f vkdcsifvkd@ rJay;cJh=u
w,fqkdwm xif&Sm;aejyD;rdk@ aemufxyf rJqENawmif;&ef rvkdawmhbl;[kjrifw,f//
a&G;aumufyJG uJhokd@rJqENaumufcyH JG jyKvkyfr,fqkd&if/vlenf;pkeJ@vlrsm;pk/ vlenf;pk
tcsif;csif;wkd@udk &efwkdufay;&m/ usa&mufoGm;ekdifw,f//”

ekdifiHawmftpkd;& t=uHay;tzGJ@onf/ 1960-ckeSpf arv(16)&ufae@wGif/ rGefvl=uD;rsm;jzpf


onfh/ ekdifbdk;aus;/ rdapm&SifeSihf ekdifjrwfxGef;eSihf awG@qkHjyD; ar;jref;cJhonf// ta&;ykdifa[mif;
ekdifbkd;aus;ua tmufygtwdkif; ajym=um;oGm;onf//
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 57

“rGefjynfe,ftjzpf yxrtqifhtaeeJ@ yJcl;c&kdif/ oxkHc&kdif/ usdKuQrcD &kdifwkd@udk


owfrSwfay;oifhw,f// rGefjynfe,f az:xkwf&mrSm/ vlxkrJqEN ,lbkd@ rvkdbl;//
u|efawmfhtaeeJ@vkH;0oabmrwlb;l //”

ekdifjrwfxGef;rSvnf; atmufygtwkdif;ajym=um;oGm;w,f//

“rGefjynfe,fay;a&;eJ@ ywfoufjyD; 0ef=uD;csKyf OD;ek ajym=um;oGm;wJh pum;[m/


jynfaxmifpk pnf;vkH; nDnGwfrSKudk a&S@&SkjyD; ajym=um;w,fvkd@ ,kH=unfw,f//
yxrOD;qkH;taeeJ@ oxkHc&kdif/ usdKuQrcD &kdifudk rGejf ynfe,ftjzpf owfrw S f
ay;oifhw,f// tjcm;aom/ yJcl;/ xm;0,f/ jrdwfpwJh c&kdifrsm;eJ@ ywfoufjyD;/
oufqkdif&m a'o&Sdvlxktm; pkHprf;ar;jref;jyD; aqmif&Gufay;apvkdw,f//
vlxkrJqEN aumuf,lyGJ jyKvkyfwmudk oabmrwlbl;/ vlxkrJqEN aumufcHyGJ
jyKvkyf&if/ vlrsdK;rkef;wD;rSK jzpfymG ;vmekdifw,f//”

rdapm&Sit
f m;vnf; t=uHay;tzGJrS ar;jref;pkHprf;cJhonf// rdapm&Sifonf/ rd[Hom.nDr
jzpfonf// armfvjrdKif rGefpm=unfhwkdufeSihfjywkdurf LS ;jzpfonf// rdapm&Sifuvnf; atmufyg
twkdif;ajym=um;oGm;w,f//

“rGeflvlxk&J@qENudk tpkd;&u od&SdjyD;jzpfvkd@ rGefjynfe,fay;&efom &Sdawmhw,f//


rGefjynfe,f zGGJ@pnf;&mrSm/ oxkHc&dkif/ usdKuQrDc&kdifwkd@udk tajccHzGJ@pnf;ay;&r,f//”

edkifiHawmftpkd;& t=uHay;tzGJ@onf/ 1960-ckeSpf arv (16/17)ae@ &ufrsm;wGif/


ausmufpm0efa[mif; ekdifvlaz0if;eSSifh taxGaxGuefx&kdufwm/ ekdifrGefaxmfwkd@eSpfOD;udk
awG@qkHar;jref;cJhonf// ekdifvlaz0if;uatmufygtwkdif;ajym=um;cJhonf//

“jyD;cJw
h Jh taxGaxG a&G;aumufyGJrmS / jynfe,f&,la&; a=uG;a=umfoHeJ@
0ifa&muf ta&G;cH=uwJh trwfawG rsm;jym;&kHrubl;/ tJ'Da=uG;a=umfoHeJ@
wufvmwJh trwfawGvnf; &SdaejyD; jzpfw,f// rGefjynfol vlxk qEN
,la&;qkdwm rvkdtyfawmhbl;// rGefjynfolvlxk&J@qENudk xyf,ljcif;[m/
t"du&k%f;rsm;udk zefwD; ovkd jzpfoGm;ekdifw,f// ta&S@eJ@taemuf*smr%D/
awmifeJ@ajrmuf udk&D,m; wkd@uJhokd@ rjzpfapvkdbl;// ,cifu/ u&if/ u,m;/
ucsif/ pwJh vlrsdK;pkwkd@udk jynfe,fay;ovkd rGefjynfe,fudkvnf;
ay;&efom&Sdw,f// rGejf ynfe,fudk tajccHtm;jzifh/ oxkHeJ@ usdKuQrcD &dkifwkd@eJ@
pwifzGJ@pnf;ay;jyD;/ yJcl;xnfhekdif&if yJcl;xnfh ay; apvkdw,f//”
58 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

t=uHay;tzGJ@u yJcl;e,fwGif oef;acgifpm&if;aumuf,l&mY/ rGefrsm;rawG@&onfh udpPeSihf


ywfoufI/ ekdifvlaz0if;tm; xyfrHar;jref;jyefonf// ekdifvlaz0if;u atmufygtwdkif;
ajym=um;oGm;w,f//

“tJ'v D kdjzpf&wm[m/ pm&if;aumuf,l=uwJh pma&;awGrSm/ c|wf,Gif;csufawG


&Sdw,f// ajzolu/ Ak'<bmomvkd@ ajym,kHeJ/ pma&;u ArmvlrsdK;vkd@ oef;acgif
pm&if;rSm xnfhvkduf=uw,f// tJ'Dvkdvkyfc=Jh u[efww l ,f// rGepf mayrwwf&if
jrefrmpm vkdufpm;bkd@cufcJr,f// rGefpmay zG@HjzdK;wkd;wufbdk@twGuf/ rGefjynfe,f
xlaxmifay;oifhw,f//”

txufygtwdkif; ekdifvlaz0if;onf/ rdrd.tjrifudk jywfjywfom;om;/ &J&J0Hh0HhwifjycJhonf/


Tae&mwGif/ ausmufpm0efa[mif; edkifvlaz0if;eSifh/ pmzwfy&d\wfrsm;udk/ rdwfquf
ay;csifonf// ekdifvlaz0if;onf/ rGefrsdK;cspfyk*~dKvfwOD;jzpf onf/1920-ckeSpf yxrOD;qkH;
&efukefwuUokdvfoydwfwdkfufyGJrSm yg0ifcJhonfh ausmif;om;acgif;aqmifwOD;vnf;jzpfonf//
edkifvlaz0if;ta=umif;udk/ u|efawmfwdk@reG fvlrsdK;rsm;odoifhodxkdufonf[k,lqonf//

q&m=uD;edkifvlaz0if;udk rGeftrsdK;om;=uD;tz edkif&H0if;/ rGeftrsdK;orD;=uD; trda':rdrdwkd@rS


1900-jynfheSpf ZGefv (20)&ufae@wGif/ armfvjrdKifjrdK@Y zGm;jrifcJhonf// rif;vlaz0if;onf/
1917-ckeSpfwGif armfvjrdKifjrdK@ txufwef;ausmif;rS/ 10/wef;atmifjrifcJhjyD;/
&efukefwuUodkvfwGif qufvufynmoif=um;cJhonf// 1920-jynfheSpf/ yxrwuUokdvf
ausmif;om; oydwfarSmuf&mwGif/ ausmif;om;wOD;tjzpfygcJhonf// rif;vlaz0if;onf
xkdpOftcgu/ bD-at/txufwef;ausmif;om;r#om&Sdao;onf//

yxroydwfarSmuf ausmif;om;rsm;rSm/ (11)OD;r#omjzpfjyD;/ aemufxyfjznfhpGuf(15)OD;


pkkpkaygif; (26)OD; jzpfvmcJhonf// rlv(11)OD;wGif/ aemufxyf (15)OD; jznfhpGuf&m/
rif;vlaz0if;yg0ifcJhonf// rif;vlaz0if;onf/ (bD-at) bGJ@udk/ 1924-ckeSpfwGif &&SdcJhonf//
1925-ckeSpfZGefvrSpI &efukefwuUodkvf/ ta&S@wkdif; bmom&yfrsm;qkdif&m uxdutjzpf
xrf;aqmifcJhonf// umvuwWm;wuUokdvfY/(trf-at)bGJ@udk tvGwf0ifa&mufajzqkd&m/
xl;c|efpGmatmifjrifcJhonf// yxryif&&SdcJhI/ a&$wHqdyfqkeSifhaiG/200d/ csD;jrSifhjcif;udkcHcJh&onf//
q&m=uD; ekdfifvlaz0if;onf/ 1936-ckeSpfrS/ 1957-ckeSpftxd/ jrefrmedkfifiHa&S;a[mif;
okawoe n$ef=um;a&;0ef (ausmufpm0ef)tjzpfvnf; aqmif&GufcJhonf// q&m=uD;
ekdifvlaz0if;onf// usrf;aygif;ajrmufrsm;pGmudk jrefrmbmom/ t*Fvdyfbmom wkd@jzifh
a&;om;jyKpkcJhonf//
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 59

edkifiHawmftpdk;&t=uHay;tzGJ@rS/ekdfifvlaz0if;tm;ar;jref;jyD;aemuf/taxGaxGuefx&dkufwm/
edkfifrGefaxmftm; qufvufar;jref;jyefonf// edkfifrGefaxmfonf atmufygtwkdif;ajym=um;cJh
onf//

“oxkHc&kdifeJ@ usdKuQrDc&kdifwkd@udk yxrtaeeJ@ rGefjynfe,f owfrw


S fay;oihfw,f//
jzpfekdif&if/ yJcl;udkvnf; xnfhoGif;pOf;pm;ay;apvkdw,f//”

xkdodk@ ekdfifiHawmftpkd;& t=uHay;tzGJ@rS/ rGeftrsdK;om;acgif;aqmifrsm;eSifh vl=uD;rsm;udk


csOf;uyfjyD; qENar;jref;pkHprf;aepOfrSmyif/ 1960-ckeSpfZlvkdifv(1)ae@wGif/ rGefwkdfif;vkH;qkdif&m
[dw*a0oD rGefoHCmhtzGJ@csKyf. eSpfywfvnf tpnf;ta0;udk &efukefjrdK@ykZGefawmif/
a&=unfjymom'fausmif;Yusif;ycJhonf// 4if;tpnf;ta0;rSatmufygawmif;qkdcsufrsm;udk
awmif;qkdcJhonf/
(1) rGefjynfe,faz:xkwf&mwGif/ vlxkqENaumufcHyGJ vkH;0rjyKvkyf&ef//
(2) rGefudk wvkdif;[k ac:a0: a&;om; aeaom olwkd@tm;/ w&m;pGJekdifaom/
Oya' wpf&yf tjrefqkH; jyXmef;ay;&ef//
(3) rGefeSifh ArmvlrsdK; t"du&k%f; jzpfapekdifaom/ &efukefjrdK@ jynfvrf;&Sd
tif*sDeD,m ausmif; taqmuftOD;wGif a&;qGJ xm;aom/ [oFm&kyfeSifh
a'gif;&kyfwkd@udk zsufodrf;ay;&ef//
(4) rGefjynfe,feSifh ywfoufjyD;/ &efukefjrdK@ ay:&Sd rGefacgif;aqmifrsm;eSihf
t=uHay;tzGJ@wkd@ aqG;aEG;&mwGif/ rGefacgif;aqmifrsm;. wifjycsufudk
TtzGJ@rS av;av;eufeuf axmufcH&ef//

4if;tpnf;ta0; tjyD;wGif/ qkH;jzwfcsufrsm;udk tpkd;&tzGJ@odk@ wifoGif; arwWm&yf cHonfh/


ausjimcsuf wpfapmifudkxkwfjyefcJhonf// [dw*a0oDrGefoHCmtzGJ@csKyfonf/ rGef&[ef;ysdK
rsm; pkaygif; zGJ@pnf; xm;aom tzGJ@pnf; jzpfonf// OuUXrSm t&SiftdENu(tHcJ) jzpfjyD;/
twGif;a&;rSL;rSm t&Sifygvdw(urm0uf)wdk@jzpf=uonf//

armfvjrdK@&Sd rGeftzJG@pnf;aygif;pkHuvnf;/ rGefjynfe,feSifh ywfoufI oabmxm;w&yf


pkaygif;xkwfekdif&ef tpnf;ta0;wpf&yfudk ac:,lcJhonf// 4if;tpnf; ta0;udk 1960-ckeSpf
Zlvkdifv(16)&ufae@wGif/ rGefjynfol@wyfOD;XmecsKyf&Sd&m/xm;0,fpk/ yef;bJwef;&yfwGifusif;y
cJhonf/ nSdeSKdif; aqG;aEG; yGJodk@/ rGefwkdif;&if;om; tpnf;t&kH;/ rGefoef@&Sif;tzGJ@/ jynfaxmifpk
rGeftzJG@/&mrnwkdif;vkH;qkdif&mrGeftzGJ@/ wnfjrJzqyveSihfrGefjynfol@wyfOD;wkd@rSukd,fpm;vS,f
rsm; wufa&muf=uonf// 4if;nSdeSKdif;tpnf;ta0;rS/ tzGJ@aygif;pkH vufrSwf a&;xkd;
xm;aom/oabmxm;ausjimcsufwpfapmifxkwfjyefcJhonf//
60 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

edkifiHawmf tpkd;& t=uHay; tzGJ@0ifrsm; jzpfonfh/ OD;wif/ OD;cspfaomif;eSifh OD;tkH;azwkd@


acgif;aqmifaom tzJG@onf/ rGefacgif;aqmifrsm;eSifh awG@pkH ar;jref;&eftwGuf armfvjrdKifjrdK@
odk@/ 1960-ckeSpf Zlvkdifv(20)&ufae@wGif a&mufvmonf/ 4if;tzGJ@rS/ rGejf ynfol@ wyfOD;.
OuUXekdifatmifxGef;tm; ar;jref;&m/ ekdifatmifxGef;rS atmufygtwdkif; ajym=um;cJhonf//

“rGefjynfe,ftaumifxnf az:wJhae&mrSm/ vlxkqENrJaumufcH,lbkd@roifhygbl;//


rGefvlxktaeeJ@ (10)eSpf(10)rdk;/ jynfe,fvkdvm;a=umif;udk vufeufudfkif
awmfvSefa&; enf;eJ@ jycJhjyD; jzpfw,f// u&ifjynfe,f txJ yg0ifaewJ/h rGeaf us;&Gm
(58)&Gmudkvnf; rGefjynfe,fowfrw S f&mwGifxnfhoGif; ay;oifhygw,f//rGefjynfol@
wyfOD;ygwDtaeeJ@ awmwGif; a&mufaevkd@ [kdwkH;u/ u&ifjynfe,f ay;pOf rGef&Gm
(58)&Gm xnfhoGi;f jcif;udk ruef@uGuf ekdifcJhbl;// ,ckvkd rGejf ynfol@ wyfOD;ygwD
taeeJ@ vufeufudkfif vrf;pOfudk pGef@v$wfwmvnf;/ rGefjynfe,fukd ay;r,fqkdw/Jh
ekdifiHawmf 0ef=uD;csKyf OD;ek&J@uwdpum;udk ,kH=unfvkd@ jzpfw,f//”

1960-ckeSpf =o*kwfv(15)&ufae@rSm [dw*a0oDrGefoHCmtzGJ@csKyfrS/ OuUXt&SiftdENueSifh


twGif;a&;rSL;t&Sifygvdwwkd@onf/ owif;pm&Sif;vif;yGJwpf&yfjyKvkyfcJhonf/ 4if;&Sif;vif;yGJ
wGiftwGif;a&;rSL;t&Sifygvduu/ atmufygtwdkif; ajym=um;cJhw,f/

“rGefjynfe,f taumifxnf az:a&;twGuf/ ekdifiHawmftpdk;&eJ@ tpkd;& t=uHay;


tzGJ@wkd@u/ vlxkqEN aumufcHyGJ jyKvkyfvkdw,fvkd@ =um;od&w,f// TuJhokd@
vlxk&J@ qENudk ,lr,fqkd&if/ vlrsdK;a&; jy\em/ yÉdyuQrsm;udk zefwD;ay;ovkd
jzpfoGm; ekdifw,f// wkdif;jynf&J@ jidrf0yf ydjym;a&;udkvnf; xdcdkuf vmekdifw,f//
tjcm;jynfe,fay;cJhpOfu/ vlxkqEN aumufcHyGJudk wpf=udrw f pfcgrSvnf; rjyKvkyf
cJh=ubl;// ,ckrSvlxk qENaumufcyH GJ jyKvkyfr,fqdkwm/ tpOfvmudk qef@usif&m
usa&mufw,f// 1960-ckeSpf =o*kwfvwGif usif;yrJh ygvrD efY rGejf ynfe,f Oya'
=urf;wpf&yfudk tjrefqkH; wifoGif;ay;bkd@ [dw*a0oDreG foHCm tzJG@csKyfrS tav;
teufawmif;qkdw,f//”

1960-ckeSpf =o*kwfvwGifyif/ &efukefwuUodkvf rGefausmif;olausmif;om;toif;rSvnf;


rGefjynfe,fudk tjrefqkH;taumifxnf az:aqmif&Gufay;&ef awmif;qkdonfhausjimcsuf
wpfapmifudkxkwfjyefcJhonf//
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 61

1960-ckeSpf =o*kwfv(22)&ufae@wGif usif;yjyKvkyfaom wwd,t=udrfv$wfawmf/


'kwd,ae@ ygvDreftpnf;ta0;wGif/ ekdifiHawmf0ef=uD;csKyfOD;ekrS rGefjynfe,f/ &ckdifjynfe,f
udpPudkatmufygtwdkif;xyfavmif;ajym=um;oGm;onf//

“rGefjynfe,feSifh &ckdifjynfe,fudpPeSifh ywfoufjyD; txifvGJrSKawG r&Sd&atmif/


tpdk;&oabmxm;udk atmufyg twdkif;&Sif;vif;wifjyyg&ap//
(1) oufqkdif&ma'o&Sd vlxku jynfe,fvkdcsifw,fvkd@qkd&if/ rGefjynfe,feSifh
&ckdifjynfe,fudkay;ygr,f//
(2) oufqkdif&ma'o&Sd vlxk&J@qENudk taumif;qkH;b,fenf;eJ@ ,l&r,f qkdwm
oufqkdif&m yk*~dKvfrsm;eSifh wkdifyifjyD; tpkd;& twdkifyifcHtzGJ@u tpkd;&udk
t=uHay;&rnf// twdkifyifcHtzGJ@ay;wJh t=uH&vSsif/ oufqkdif&ma'o&Sd vlxk&J@
qENudk tpkd;& ,lay;r,f// 'Dae&mrSm/ xyfjyD; &Sif;jyyg&ap/ tpkd;& twkdifyifcH
tzGJ@u/ rGefeSifh&cdkif jynfe,fay;oifh ray;oifh udpPtwGuf/ tpdk;&udk t=uHay;&ef
r[kwf/ oufqkdif&ma'o&Sd vlxk&J@qENudk taumif;qkH; b,fenf;eJ@ ,l&rnf
qkdwmudk t=uHay;&efomjzpfw,f// 'Dt=uHudk apmedkiforSsapmay;&ef tpkd;&u
wkdufwGef;ay;r,f//
(3) rGefeSifh&ckdif jynfe,fudpPeSifh ywfoufjyD;/ twkdifyifcHtzGJ@eJ@ oGm;a&muf
aqG;aEG;=uwJh/ jynfaxmifpktzGJ@ (yxp)0if r[kwfwJh yk*~dKvfawG[m/ oufqdkif&m
a'o&Sd vlxkqENudk taumif;qkH; b,fenf;eJ@ ,lekdifr,f qkdwmudkvnf;
ajymedkfifw,f// rGefeSifh &cdkifjynfe,fay;oifh ray;oifhqkdwmudk vnf; vGwfvGwf
vyfvyf ajymqkdekdifw,f//
(4) okd@&mwGif/ jynfaxmifpktzJG@(yxp)0if jzpf=uwJh oufqdkif&ma'o&Sd
trsdK;om;rsm;rlum; twdkifyifcHtzGJ@ eSihf aqG;aEG;aomtcg/ oufqkdif&m a'o&Sd
vlxkqENudk taumif;qkH;b,fenf;eJ@ ,loifhw,fqkdwJh tcsufudkom aqG;aEG;jyD;/
rGefeSifh &ckdifjynfe,fay;oifh/ ray;oifhqkdwJh udpPudk twkdifyifcHtzGJ@eJ@ raqG;aEG;
atmifwm; jrpfay;&r,f//
(5) jynfaxmifpktzGJ@0ifrsm;jzpf=uwJh oufqkdif&m a'o&Sd trsdK;om;awG[m/
rGefeSifh &ckdifjynfe,f,loifh r,loifh udpPudk/ oufqkdif&m a'o&SdvlxkeJ@
vGwfvGwf vyfvyfaqG;aEG;ekdifw,f// vGwfvGwfvyfvyfa[majymedkifw,f//
(6) tu,fI oufqkdif&m a'o&Sdvlxku/ jynfe,fvkdcsifw,fvkd@ qkH;jzwfwJh
twGuf/ rGefeSihf&ckdifjynfe,f ay;&efudpP v$wfawmfxJ aqG;aEG;&if jynfaxmifpk
tzGJ@0ifrsm;jzpf=uwJh oufqkdif&ma'o&Sd trwfawG[m rdrd=udKufovkd vGwfvGwf
vyfvyfaqG;aEG;ekdifw,f// rJay;&efudpP ay:vmvSsif vnf;/ rdrdwkd@&J@rJudk vGwfvGwf
vyfvyfrJay;ekdifw,f//
62 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

(7) tu,fIoufqkdif&m a'o&Sd vlxku jynfe,f vkdcsifw,fvkd@ qkH;jzwfwJh


twGuf rGefeSifh &ckdifjynfe,fay;&efudpP v$wfawmfxJrSm ay:vm&if/ jynfaxmifpk
tzGJ@&J@ oufqkdif&ma'orS trwfawGuvGJjyD; tjcm;trwfawG tm;vkH;[m
rGefeJ@&ckdifjynfe,fay;a&; udpPudk axmufcH=u&r,f//”

txufyg 0ef=uD;csKyf OD;ek.rl(7)&ufcsufeSifh ywfoufI/ 1960-=o*kwfv(29)&ufrSm


qufvufusif;yaom/ ygvDref tpnf;ta0;wGif/ usdKuQrDtrwf/ edkfifatmifxGef;u
atmufygtwkdif; a0zefaqG;aEG;oGm;onf//

“edkifiHawmf 0ef=uD;csKyf&J@ rdef@cGef;udk qef;ppfvkdufvsSif tajz(5)ck awG@&ygw,f//


u|efawmf jriffwJhtjrif uawm/h
(1)rGefwkdif;&if;om;rsm;[m/jynfe,f&xdkufw,f//
(2)rGefwdkif;&if;om;rsm;[mjynfe,f vkdcsifwJh qENwu,f&SdvsSifjynfe,fay;rnf//
(3) rGefwkdif;&if;om;rsm;&J@ wu,fhqENod&Sdatmif 'Drdkua&pDenf;eSifh at;at;
csrf;csrf;/ cspfcspfcifcif aysmfaysmf&$if&$if tusdK;pD;yGm; jzpfxGef;aprnfhenf;eSifhjyKvkyf
ay; rnf//
(4) onfvkdaqmif&Guf&mrSm/ oufqdkif&macgi;f aqmifrsm;eSifh wkdifyifaqG;aEG;rnf//
(5) rGefwdkif;&if;om;rsm;&J@ qENudk od&SdjyD;wJhaemuf od&Sd&wJhtcsuf qENtwkdif;
tapmqkH; aqmif&Gufay;rnf/ qkdwJh tcsuf(5)csufbJ qef;ppfvkd@ &ygw,f//
rGefvlrsdK;wkd@rS &oifh&xkdufwJh t*Fg&yfrsm;eSifh jynfhpkHw,f// rGefvlxkuvnf;
rGefjynfe,fudk vdkcsif =ua=umif;udk/ (10)eSpf(10)rdk; vufeufudkif awmfvSefa&;eJ@
vnf;jycJhjyD; jzpfw,f// a&G;aumufyGJrSm/ rGefjynfe,f&,la&; a=uG;a=umfoHeJ@
0ifa&muf ,SOfjydKifcw Jh Jh/ rGefukd,fpm;vS,f trwfrsm;vnf; ekdifcJh=uw,f// 'grdk@
rGefjynfe,fudkom tjrefqkH; taumifxnf az:ay;&ef awmif;qkdw,f//

rGefjynfe,fukd taumifxnf az:wJhae&mrSm vlenf;pkawGjzpfwJh &Srf;/u&if/


ucsif/csif;/u,m;/ trsdK;om;awGudk jynfe,f az:ay;pOftcgu/ rJykH;axmifwJh
pepfr&SdcJhygbl;// wcg/ csif;0daoowkdif;/ yvuf0c&kdifudk csif;0daoowkdif;odk@
oGwfoGif;wJhtcgrSm/ rJykHaxmifcJhovm;// ucsifjynfe,fokd@ jrpf=uD;em; c&kdifudk
oGwfoGif;wJhtcgrSm/ rJykH;axmifcJhovm;// rJykH;raxmifcJhbl;// tJonfjrpf=uD;em;
c&kdifrSm qkdvSsifArmawG trsm;=uD; &Sdygw,f// 'gwifvm;qkdawmh r[kwfao;ygbl;/
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 63

u&ifjynfe,fxJhudk/ rGefaus;&Gmaygif;(58)&Gm oGwfoGif;pOfuvnf; rJykH;axmifwm


r&SdcJhygbl;// u|efawmfcyf&Sif;&Sif; tpD&ifcH&rnfqkdvSsif rJykH; axmifwJhpHepfudkawmh/
rvkyfygeJ@vkd@ ekdifiHawmf0ef=uD;csKyfudk t=uHay;vkdygw,f// jynfaxmifpk jrefrmekdifiH
rSm/ vlrsdK;pktrsdK;rsdK; a&mjyGrf;onfh ekdifiHjzpfw,f// vlrsdK;pkH toD;oD; a&mjyGrf;
aeonfh ekdifiHrSm/jynfaxmifpkpHepfeSifhjynfaxmifpktkyfcsKyfykHpepfeSifh tkyfcsKyfoGm;
jcif;utrSefuefqkH;yifjzpfw,f//”

ponfjzifhusdKuQrDtrwf/rGefjynfol@wyfOD;.OuUXekdifatmifxGef;onfygvDrefYtus,fw0ifh
aqG;aEG;wifjyoGm;onf//

1960-ckeSpf 'DZifbmv(9)&ufae@wGif/ qufvufusif;yaom jynfol@v$wfawmf


tpnf;ta0;Y rk'kHtrwf ekdifbkd;pdefuvnf; rGefjynfe,f az:xkwfa&; udpP&yfrsm;udk
us,fus,fjyef@jyef@ wifjy aqG;aEG;oGm;onf// trwfedkfifbkd;pdefonf/ urm0uf&Gkm
Zmwdjzpfonf// 1268-0gacgifvqkwf(10)&uf/ t*Fgae@rSm arG;zGm;onf// rdbrsm;rSm/
trd˜rduUkaeSmif/ tz˜emJzkdwkd@jzpfonf// acwfynm(10)weff; atmifjrifjyD;/ urm0uftpkd;&
tv,fwef;ausmif;wGif ausmif;q&mtjzpf 0ifa&mufvkyfudkifcJhonf// rdaX;,OfeSifh
tdrfaxmif usonf// om;oRD;(8)a,mufxGef;um;cJhonf// txufwef;jyq&mr rdtkH;&DeSifh
rdat;=unfwkd@. zcifjzpfonf// 1946-ckeSpfrSm zGJ@pnf;aom wkdif;&if;om; tpnf;&kH;.
tvkyftrSKaqmif wm0efudk ,lcJholjzpfonf// 1310-ckeSpfrSm ,kd;',m;edkifiH&Sd rGefvlrsdK;
wkd@tm;/ pnf;&kH;&ef twGuf/ rGefzkd;csdK/ edkfifatmifxGef;/ ekdifpef;vSKdifwdk@eSifhtwl ,kd;',m;edkifiH
odk@ oGm;a&mufcJhonf// 1948-ckeSpfrSm awmcdkcJhonf// 1958-ckeSpf rGefjynfol@wyfOD;eSifh
twltvif;0if cJhonf// vufeufudkifawmfvSefa&; umvwav#mufvkH;wGif/ rGefjynfol@
wyfOD;. obmywd tzGJ@0ifwOD;tjzpff xrf;aqmifcJhonf//

1961-ckeSpf Zefe0g&Dv(3)&ufae@wGif/ ekdifiHawmftpkd;&t=uHay;tzJG@u ekdifiHawmf


0ef=uD;csKyfxHodk@ tzGJ@.tpD&ifcHpmukd wifoGif;cJhonf// 4if;tpD&ifcHpmwGif atmufyg
tcsufvufrsm; yg0ifcJhonf//

“rGefpum;wwfaom rGev f lrsdK;ppfppfwkd@eSifh rdrw


d kd@udk,fudk rdrw
d kd@ rGeaf oG;ygonf[k
,kH=unfaom vlwpfpkwkd@onf/ rGefjynfe,fzGJ@pnf; wnfaxmif&ef vkdvm;vSsuf
&SdonfrSm ,kHrSm;oHo,&Sd&ef rvkda=umif;/ jynfe,fvkdvm;olwdk@u/ jynfe,f
vkdvm;onfhta=umif;&if;rSm/ rGepf mayeSifh,Ofaus;rSKudk xde;f odrf;apmifha&Smuf
vkdaoma=umifhjzpfonf[k ,kH=unfrSK&SdaeonfudkawG@&Sd&a=umif;/ 4if;,kH=unfrSK
rSmvnf; obm0usonf[k t=uHay;tzGJ@u,lqyga=umif; wifjyxm;onf//”
64 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

oxkHc&kdifeSifh usdKuQrDc&dkif twGif;Y aexkdif=uaom/ vlxk. qENtppftrSefudk od&Sdatmif/


rnfonfh enf;vrf;jzifh pkHprf;&rnf qkdonfhjy\emeSifh ywfoufI t=uHay;tzJG@ OuUX.
ar;jref;csufeSifh rGefxdyfoD; acgif;aqmif wpfOD;jzpfol/ a&;jrdK@e,f trwf rGefbkd;csdK. ajz=um;
csufwkd@udk avhvmekdif&ef atmufygtwdkif;az:jyvkduf&onf//

OuUX// //u|efawmfwkd@u/ rGefjynfe,f ay;oifh/ ray;oifh qkdwJh jy\emudk


ar;aewm r[kwfbl;// vlxk&J@qENudk b,fvkd ,l&ifaumif;rvJv@dk
t=uHawmif; aewmyg//
rGefbdfk;csdK// //rSefygw,f/a&G;aumufyJtG m;jzifhxif&Sm;aeygw,f//qEN,lyGJvkyfwm
acwfrrSDygbl;// wm0eftvGef=uD;ygw,f/yËdyuQvJjzpfekdifygw,f//
OuUX// //vlxkqEN,lrSjzpfr,fqkd&ifaum/b,fvkdenf;eJ@,l&rvJ//
rGefbdk;csdK/ // 'g[m vkH;0r,loifhygbl;// u&if/ ucsif/ u,m;/ tp&SdweJh ,fawG
ay;wkH;u/ olwkd@&J@ oabmwl nDcsuf r,lbJ/ ay;vkduf ygw,f//
'Djy\em ray:cJhbl;// tck rGefwkd@=urS rJqEN,lbkd@ r,lbdk@ jy\em
ay:vmwm[m tpkdk;& tay:rSm/ rGefvlxku ,kHrSm; oHo,
jzpfvdrfh r,fvkd@ tpD&ifcH vkdygw,f// u|efawmf taeeJ@/ tpkd;&udk
,kH=unf tm;udk;ygw,f// &Srf;/ u&if/ ucsif/ u,m; rsm;enf;wl/
rGefrsm;udkvJ jynfe,f ay;oifhw,fqkdwm/ xyfrHtpD&ifcHvkdygw,f//

rGefjynfol@wyfOD;onf/ enf;AsL[majymif;vJjyD; Oya'abmifodk@ a&mufvmjyD;aemuf/


ekdifiHa&;udk ajcvSrf; us,fus,fjzifh =udK;yrf; vSKyf&Sm; vmonfudk awG@jrifekdifonf//
rGefjynfol@wyfOD;. edkifiHa&; v_yf&Sm; pnf;&kH;r_a=umifh rGefwrsKd;om;vkH;onf ,cifuxuf
edkifiHa&; edk;=um;vmonf[k qkdekdifonf/tjrdK@jrdK@t&yf&yfwdk@wGif rGefjynfol@wyfOD; tzGJ@pnf;
toD;oD; ay:xGef;vmonf/ rGefjynfol@wyfOD; qdkfif;bkwfawG@ jrifvm&onf// yJcl;wGif
rGefjynfol@ wyfOD; (yJcl;)udk zGJ@pnf;ekdifcJhonf// xkdtwl/ &efukefwGifvnf;/ a'o tvkduf
A[ef;/ ykZGefawmif/awmifOuUvm/ ajrmufOuUvm/omauw/ r&rf;ukef;/ vSKdif/ urm&Gwf/
ordkif;/ tkwfusif;/ caemif/ tif;pdefwdk@wGif rGefjynfol@wyfOD; ygwDcJrG sm; toD;oD; zGJ@pnf;
xlaxmifekdifcJhonf//

ekdifxGef;odef;/ ekdifaiGodef;/ ekdifodrf;armifwkd@ =uD;rSL;aom ekdifiHa&;oifwef;rsm;a=umifhvnf;/


rGeftrsdk;om;wkd@t=um;wGif/ ekdifiHa&;tjrif/jrifhrm;/edK;=um;vmonf// 4if;rGefjynfol@wyfOD;.
ekdifiHa&;pnf&kH;a&;/vSKyfaqmfrSKonf/aumvdyf/ wuUokdvftxd/ t&Sdeft0g/ oufa&mufvm
onf// txufwef;ausmif;om;rsm;/aumvdyfausmif;om;rsm;/ wuUodkvfausmif;om;rsm;
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 65

t=um;wGif/ trdsK;udkcspfaompdwf"gwfonf ydkrdk&Sifoef/ zG@HjzdK;vmonf// rGefjynfol@wyfOD;.


a&S@aqmifrSKjzifh/ rGefjynfe,f&&Sda&;wnf;[laom/ trsdK;om;edkifiHa&;wkdufyJG tvHatmuf
wGif/ rGefvlxk/ vlwef;pm;tvGm toD;oD;wkd@onf/ pkpnf; nDnGwfvmcJh=uonf//

1960/61-ckeSppf moifeSpfrSm/ uGsefawmfonf/ armfvjrdKiftrSwf(1)rSmyif ynmqufvuf


oif=um;aeonf// txufwef; aemufqkH;eSpfjzpfygonf// 4if;eSpfvnfykdif;avmufwGif/
&efukefwuUokdvf rGeftoif;rS/ udkpkd;rif;(t*FsifeD,mausmif;om;/ uavmhaomh/Zmwd)eSifh
udktkef;jrdKif(armfvjrdKifaumvdyf/ uanSmfZmwd)wkd@eSpOf D;onf/ trSwf(1)tpkd;&txufwef;
ausmif;rSm&Sd=uaom rGefausmif;om;rsm;eSifh vma&mufawG@qkHonf// rGefausmif;om;
or*~tzGJ@/ zJG@pnf;&ef tpnf;a0; ac:xm;onfhta=umif; u|efawmftm;ajymjyonf//
tm;vkH;tpnf;a0; wufa&muf=u&ef wkdufwGef;onf// xkdeSpfY/ armfvjrdKiftrSwf(1)wGif
pmoifaeolrsm;rSm/ uGsefawmf rSwfrdoavmuf a&;om;&vSsif/ rif;usef&pf(zg;atmuf/
aemiftqkdawmfjzpfvmol)/ rif;cspfvkH;(aumhbdef;/ aemifa'gufwmcspfvkH;)/ rif;Anm;atmif
(uavmhaomh)wkd@vnf;&Sdae=uonfudkowdxm;rdonf//

u|efawmfonftpnf;a0;usif;yrnfae&mokd@tcsdefrSDoGm;a&mufcJhonf// xkdtpnf;a0;wGif/
&efukefwuUokdvf/ rGeftoif;acgif;aqmif/ armfvjrdKifaumvdyfrGefausmif;om;acgif;aqmif/
eSifh txufwef;ausmif;om;tcsdK@ yl;aygif;jyD; armfvjrdKifc&dkif rGefausmif;om; or*~tzGJ@
w&yfudk zGJ@pnf;cJh=uonf// ta=umif;rSm/ &efukefwGifusif;yrnfh/ ArmjynfvkH;qkdif&m
ausmif;om; or*~(Auo) tpnf;a0;=uD;odk@ wufa&mufedkif&efjzpfonf// xdkzJ@G pnf;
vkdufaom/ armfvjrdKifc&kdif rGefausmif;om;or*~wGif/ OuUXtjzpf/ rif;pdk;rif;/ 'kkOuUXtjzpf
rif;tkef;jrdfKif/ twGif;a&;rSL;tjzpf/rif;armif=unf(uanSmf)/ wGJbuf twGif;a&;rSL;tjzpf
rif;bZH/ tzGJ@0if trSKaqmiftjzpfrif;azodef;eSifh tjcm;ausmif;om;rsm; yg0ifzGJ@pnf;
cJh=uonf// xkdeSpfwGifusif;yrnfh/ Auo/tpnf;a0;okd@ wuf&eftwGuf/ rif;pkd;rif;eSifh
rif;armif=unf/ wkd@eSpfOD;tm; a&G;cs,fapv$wfcJhonf//

1960/61-ckeSpf pmoifeSpfrSm uGsefawmfonf/ txufwef;pmar;yGJrmS / &lyaA'*k%fxl;jzifh


atmifjrifcJhonf// 1961/62-ckeSpf pmoifeSpfwGif/ armfvjrdKifaumvdyfrSm qufvuf
ynmoif=um;onf// xkdpOfu/ rif;bkd;tdef (uavmhaomh)/ rif;tkef;jrdKif (uanSmf)
rif;aiGxGef;(&GmvGwf)/rif;aomif;cdkif(uGmef&kduf)/ rif;vSatmif=uD;(&GmvGwf/)/ rif;Om%fxGef;
(&GmvGwf)/ rif;ausmfvSKdif(ekdifvkH)/ rif;armifav;/ rif;vSausmf/ rif;0if;xdef/ rif;xGef;vSKdif
(urm0uf)/ rdtkef;&D/ rdpdef&D/ rdcifxm;a&$/ rd,Ofwif/ rdcifoef;(rk'l;)/ rdwifapmOD;/
rdtdef=unf (uavmhaomh) rdjrifhjrifhoef;(a&;/rGefcifarmif.orD;) wkd@eSifh qkHqnf;cJhonf//
66 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

1961/62-ckeSpfpmoifeSpfrSm aumvdyfrGeftoif;udk zGJ@pnf;&mwGif/ rif;ausmf0if;(rk'kH)u


OuUXeSifhedkfifbdk;tdef(uavmhaomh)u'k-OuUX jzpfvm=uonf// twGif;a&;rSL;rSm/ rif;pkd;jrifh
(a&;jrdK@) jzpfvmonf// rif;0if;xdefeSifh uGsefawmfwdk@u trSKaqmifrsm; jzpfvm=uonf//
'k-OuUX jzpfvmonf/ ekdifbkd;tdefonf uavmhaomh Zmwdjzpfonf// rGefjynfol@wyfOD;
tzGJ@0ifa[mif;jzpfonf// rGefjynfol@wyfOD;eSifhtwl tvif;0ifvmol jzpfonf// xkdeSpf
aumvdyf ausmif;om;or*~ zGJ@pnf;&mwGif rGefausmif;om; udk,fpm;vS,fwOD; yg0if&ef
vdktyfvmonf// rGefausmif;om; udk,fpm;vS,fa[mif; rif;cifjrifh (zg;atmuf)onf/
aumvdyfausmif;om;or*~wGifryg0ifvkdojzifh/ qufvufwm0ef,l&ef rGefausmif;om;wOD;
vkdtyfvmonf// aumvdyf ausmif;om;or*~wiG f wm0ef,l&ef uGsefawmhtm; a&G;cs,f
=uonf// xkda=umifh uGsefawmfonf/ rGefausmif;om; udk,fpm;vS,ftjzpf/ aumvdyf
ausmif;om; or*~ trSKaqmif wOD;jzpfvmonf// xkdpOfu/ rGeftoif;.zGJ@pnf;ykH
pnf;rsOf;wGif/ ausmif;om;or*~trSKaqmifwGif yg0ifaom rGefausmif;om;wOD;onf/
rGeftoif;.trSKaqmif rjzpf&[k yg&Sdygonf// xkda=umifh u|efawmf/ aumvdyf
rGeftoif;. trSKaqmifwOD;tjzpfrS eSSKwfxGuf ay;cJh&onf// rdcifrGeftoif;udk oHa,mZOf
&SdvsSufeSKwfxGufcJh&onf//

1961-ckeSpf aumvdyf ausmif;om;b0upjyD;/ rGefjynfopfygwD OuUX=uD; ekdifa&$usiftm;


pdwf0ifpm;vmcJh&onfh ta=umif;&mrsm;ay:vmonf// aumvdyfausmif;om; rif;0if;xdef
(rif;wifedkif)eSihfu|efawmfonf/ taygif;toif;jzpfvmonf// rif;0if;xdefonf/ usKHu'gwf
Zmwdjzpfonf// rGeftrsdK;om;udk tvGefcspfjrwfekd;oljzpfonf// tvGefpmzwf 0goem
ygolwOD; jzpfonf// pmayjzifhom/ tcsdeu f kefwwfonf// txl;ojzihfrif;0if;xdefudk
pm=unfhwkdufrSm awG@&onfursm;onf// pmzwf0goemcsif;wlaom u|efawmfwkd@ eSpfOD;
aygif;rd =uonf// 4if;tjyif u|efawmfwkd@eSpOf D;om;onf/ ekdifiHa&;Y pdwf0ifpm;=ujcif;
wlnD=uonf// Todk@jzifh rif;0if;xdeef Sifh u|efawmfonf ausmif;om; taz:jzpfvm=u
onf// rif;0if;xdefonf/ ekdifiHa&; tawG;tac: t,ltq tvGef xufjrufolwOD;
jzpfonf// ArmvlrsdK;onf/ wkdif;&if;om; vlrsdK;wkd@. e,fajra'o tm;vkH;ukd twif;t"rR/
wdkufckduf odrf;ykduftkyfcsKyf xm;onf[k rif;0if;xdefujrifjyD; Armtpdk;&udk udkvkdeDtpkd;&[k
oluqkdonf// tkyfcsKyfol Armtpkd;&udk tvGefrkef;ol/ rauseyfol jzpfonf// tpdk;&.
ynma&; pHepfonfvnf;/ u|efynma&; pHepf[k jrifoljzpfonf// 1757-ckeSpfrSpI/
rGefvlrsdK;wkd@. &mrna'oudk twif;t"rR wkdufckdufodrf;ydkufjyD;/ rGefvlrsdK;udk u|efjyK
tkyfcsKyfcJhonf[k rif;0ifxdefjrifjyD; tpdk;&tay: tvGefrauseyfol jzpfonf// onfhtjyif
&Srf;vlrsdK;/ u,m;vlrsdK;/ ucsifvlrsdK;/ csif;vlrsdK;wkd@/ 1947-ckeSpfrSm yifvkH pmcsKyfjzifh
vdrfnmjyD;/ usnfqHwvkH;rSrukef/ ppfrwkduf&bJ/ ukdvkdeDjyKcJhonf[k rif;0if;xdefu
pGyfpJGajymqkdonf// ol.ekdifiHtjrifudk &J&J0Hh0Hhwifjy wwfonf//
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 67

&Srf;/ u,m;vlrsdK;wkd@onf/ t*FvdyfudkvkdeDb0rS/ tvsiftjref vGwfvkdI/ ArmtrsdK;om;


acgif;aqmifrsm;eSifh yl;aygif;jyD; vGwfvyfa&; twl awmif;qkd cJh=uonf// Tonfudk/
tcGifhaumif; w&yfjzifh acsmif;aeaom/ Armacgif;aqmifrsm;u/ yifvkHpmcsKyfjzifh vSnfhpm;jyD;
&Srf;/ u,m;tyg0if awmifay:om; wkd@udk tvG,fwulyif/ ukdvkdeDjyK edkifcJhonf[k
rif;0if;xdefu jywfjywf om;om; ajymqkdonf// &Srf;/ u,m;vlrsdK; awmifay:om;wkd@.
tcuftcJ t=uyftwnf;udk Arm acgif;aqmifwkd@u tcGifhaumif;,l cJhonf[k udk0if;xdef
upGyfpGJ ajymqdkonf// rGefvlrsdK;udkrl/ t*FvdyfeSifh 'wfcsfwdk@. tulnDjzifh wkdufckdfuf odrf;ydkuf
jyD;/ u|efjyKcJhonf[k rif;0if;xdefu ajymqkdonf// udk0if;xdef. awG;ac: ,lqcsuf wkd@udk
u|efawmftvGefyif oabmuscJhonf// ArmudkvdkeDeSifh ywfoufjyD; u|efawmfeSifhrif;0if;xdef
wkd@ onf tawG;tac: t,ltq wlnD=uonf//

Armya'o&mZfeSifh ywfoufI u|efawmfwkd@eSpfa,muf. tjrifu&Sif;onf// rGefvlrsdK;wkd@.


&mrna'o wckvkH;udk rw&m; odrf;ydkufjyD;/ ukdvdkeD jyKcJhonf// rGefvlrsdK;udk vlrsdK;
jyKwfatmif/ owfjzwf cJhonf// t&ufpufqkH; e,fcsJ@ usL;ausmfol ya'o&mZfvkd@
u|efawmfwdk@ eSpfOD;pvkH;u jrifonf// ,ae@ Arm tpkd;&onf/ e,fcsJ@ Arm ya'o&mZf.
tarGudk qufcHaom/ ArmudkvkdeD tpdk;&[k jrifonf// tawG;tac: t,ltq wlnDrSK
a=umifh/ uGsefawmfeSifh rif;0if;xdefonf/ edkifiHa&; aqG;aEG;az: jzpfvm=uonf// rGefvlrsdK;
wkd@udk/ rw&m; tedkifusifh u|efjyK tkyfcsKyfaeonfh Armtpdk;&udk u|efawmfwkd@eSpfOD;u
rkef;wD;onf// cHjyif;aompdwf jzpfay:aeonf// rGefvlrsdK;wkd@. b0 vGwfvyfajrmufa&;
twGuf vufeufudkif awmfvSefa&;udk pdwf0ifpm;=uonf// txl;ojzifh awmwGif;
vufeufudkif tzGJ@pnf;rsm;tay: pdwf0ifpm;jyD;/ tm;ay;vdk=uonf//

rGefjynfol@wyfOD;. vufeufudkif vrf;pOf pGef@vGwfonfhtay:/ u|efawmfwkd@ eSpfOD;pvkH;u


eSpfjcdKufoabmuscJhjcif; r&SdcJhay// &efoludkvufeufcs tnHhcHonf[kjrifonf// awmwGif;
vufeufudkif tiftm;pkudkom pdwf0ifpm;jyD;/ tm;ay;vkd =uonf// rGefjynfopfygwDeSifh
ygwDacgif;aqmifrsm; tay: u|efawmfwkd@ eSpfOD;onf txl;pdwf0ifpm; avhvmcJh=u onf//
xkdtcsdeftcg umvwGif/ wuUodkvf aumvdyf/ rGefausmif;om;rsm; txJrS tcsdK@aom
ausmif;om; acgif;aqmifwkd@onf/ Armrsm;=uD;pkd;aom t&if;&Sif ygvDref 'Drdkua&pDtay:
,kH=unfrSK vkH;0 r&Sd=uay// rGeftrsKd;om; vufeufudkif awmfvSefa&;onf r&Sdrjzpf
vkdtyfonf[k jrif=uonf// u|efawmfwkd@ eSpfOD;onfvnf; Ttjrifudk axmufcH oabm
wlonf// TtajccH/ tjrifwlnDrSKa=umifh/ rif;0if;xdefeSifh u|efawmfwkd@ eSpfOD;onf ykdrdkeD;pyf
cifrif&if;eSD; aomausmif;om; oli,fcsif; jzpfvmonf//
68 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

xkdeSpfYyif armfvjrdKif aumvdyf ausmif;om;or*~rS =uD;rSL; usif;yaom/ armfvjrdKif


aumvdyftm;/ 'D*&Daumvdyftqifhokd@ wkd;jrSihfay;&ef pDwef;vSnfhvnfqENjyyGJw&yfudk
usif;yekdifcJhonf//tvGefpnf;um;aom qENjyyGJw&yfjzpfonf// xkdjrdK@wGif; pDwef; vSnfhvnf
onfh qENjyyGJwGif/ aumvdyfausmif;om;rsm;tjyif/ txufwef;ausmif; toD;oD;rS
ausmif;ol§om;rsm;vnf; yg0if cJh=uonf// ausmif;om;xk aygif;pkH yg0if cJh=uonf//
udk=unfjrifh/ udkxGef;vSKdif(urm0uf)eSifh u|efawmfwkd@ua&S@wef;rS aejyD; armfvjrdKifjrdK@wGif;
aps;=uD; w0dkufwGif vSnfhvnfqENjycJh=uonf// jrdK@ay:&Sdrdbjynfolvlxk w&yfvkH;uvnf;
qENjyyGJ udk tm;ay; axmufcH=uonf// ygvDreftwGif;Yvnf; rk'kHtrwfekdifbkd;pdefu/
armfvjrdKif aumvdyftm;/ 'D*&Daumvdyf tqifh wkd;jrSifhay;&efawmif;qkdcJhonf//
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 69

tcef;(3)
wyfOD;.=udK;yrf;rSK/rGefvlxkpkpnf;nDnGwfvm/rGefjynfe,ftvkyfnDnGwfa&;aumf
rwD/ jynfe,fay;a&;OD;ek.rlopf(5)&yf/ 0ef=uD;jzpfvmaomekdifatmifxGef;/
1961-ckeSpfjynfe,faygif;pkHnDvmcH/ wyfOD;tvif;0ifvmjcif;tay:
ekdfifcsrf;.av#mufvJcS suf/ usm;pmau|;cH&aomedkfifcsrf;//
Oya'abmifodk@ a&mufoGm;aom rGefjynfol@wyfOD;onf/ edkifiHa&;v_yf&Sm;pnf;&kH;r_udk
oGufoGufvufvuf vkyfaqmifvmonf// rGefvlrSKtzGJ@pnf;toD;oD;eSifh vlwef;pm;
tv$mtoD;oD;wdk@tm; csOf;uyfpnf;&kH;onf// rSefuefxufrsufaom edkifiHa&;tawG;ac:
wkd@jzifh a&S@aqmif vrf;jy ekdifojzifh rGefjynfol@wyfOD;. OD;aqmifrSKudk rGefjynfol@vlxk
w&yfvkH;wkd@u tjynfht0 ,kH=unf vufcHvmonfudkawG@&onf// rGefwrsKd;om;vkH;onf
edkifiHa&;tjrif edk;=um;vmonf[k qkd&ayrnf// xkdodk@aom rGefjynfol@wyfOD;. tm;aumif;
aom/ ekdifiHa&;pnf;&kH;a&;/ vSKyfaqmfrSKonf/ aumvdyf/ wuUokdvftxd/ t&Sdeft0g=oZm
oufa&muf vmonf// wuUokdvf aumvdyfausmif;om;rsm;eSifh txufwef; ausmif;om;
rsm;wkd@wGifvnf; trdsK;udk cspfaom pdwf"gwo f nf ydkrdkedk;=um; &Sifoef/ zG@HjzdK;vmonf//
rGefjynfol@wyfOD;. edkifiHa&; t&Sdef[kefa=umifh/ rif;cifarmif/ rif;wifaz/ rif;armifjrifh/
rif;armifwif/ rif;aiGodef;(Zelref)/ rif;atmifAv/ rif;cspfvSdKif/ rdtkH;&D/ rif;0if;a,mf/
rif;xGef;az/ rif;wifekdif(c) rif;0if;xdef/ rdcifxm;a&$eSifh u|efawmftyg0if rGefausmif;om;
acgif;aqmif =uD;i,fwdk@rSm xufrsufaom edkifiHa&;tjrif/ ekdifiHa&;todw&m;rsm;
&SifoefzG@HjzdK; vmonf[k uGsefawmfqkdcsifygonf//

1961-ckeSpfwGif/ rGefjynfol@wyfOD;. ekdifiHa&;xkd;azgufpnf;&kH;rSKonf/ tvGeft&Sdef[kef&/


tm;aumif;vmonf// rGefjynfol@wyfOD;.=udK;yrf;rSK/ vSKyfaqmfpnf;&kH;rSKjzifh/ rGeftoif;
tyif;rsm;eSifh rGeftzGJ@pnf;aygif;pkHwkd@onftrsdK;om; ekdifiHa&;twGuf nDnGwfvm=uonf//
rGeftoif;tyif; tzGJ@pnf;aygif;pkHrsm;rS udk,fpmvS,frsm;onf/ rGefjynfe,ftjrefqkH;/
taumifxnfaz:a&;udk xda&mufpGm aqmif&Gufedkifa&;twGuf/ 1961- ek0d bFmv(19)
&ufae@rSpI ykZGefawmif&Sd/ rGef"gwk edkifarmifarmifausmif;wGif tpnf;a0;w&yfudk usif;y
cJhonf// &[ef; oHCmtyg0if rGeftrsdK;om;rsm;pkHnDpGm wufa&muf=uonf// 4if;nSdkeSkdif;
tpnf;a0;rS/ rGefjynfe,f tvkyfnDnGwfa&; aumfrwD(A[kd) jzpfajrmufa&;aumfrwDudk
zGJ@pnf;ekdifcJhonf//
70 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

rGejf ynfe,f tvkyfnDnGwfa&; aumfrwD(A[kd) jzpfajrmufa&;aumfrwD//

em,u/ b'NEWuUKENom&([dw*a[oD)
emJygvdw([dw*a[oD)
OuUX rGef"gwk
twGif;a&;rSL; ekdifaiGodrf;
wGJzuftwGif;a&;rSL;rsm; rif;wifaz/ rif;cifarmif

tzGJ@0ifrsm;
ekdifboGif aiGxdrf;
rGefzkd;csdK
ekdifoef;armif
ekdifvSwif
edkifbdk;[ef
ekdifausmfat;/(urm0uf) (jyef=um;a&;)

4if;zGJ@pnf;vkdfufaom/rGefjynfe,ftvkyfnDnGwfa&;aumfrwD(A[kd)jzpfajrmufa&;aumfrwD
wGifOuUjzpfvmol/q&m=uD;rGef"gwkudkpmzwfolrsm;eSifhtenf;i,frdwfqufay;csifygonf//

q&m=uD;onf/rGefvlrsdK;udktvGefcspfjrwfekdf;oljzpfonf// rGefzkd;csdK/ rGefoef;/ rGefxGef;&ifponfh/


rGefwkdif;&if;om; acgif;aqmifrsm;uJhokd@ q&m=uD;onf/ rdrdtrnfta&S@Y rGef[kxnfhI
rGef"gwk[k xifxif&Sm;&Sm;okH;ekSef;cJhonf// Todk@rdrd.trnfemrta&S@Y (rGef)xnfhoGif;
xm;rSKudk axmuf&Skjcif;tm;jzifh/ q&m=uD;. rGefrsdK;cspf pdwf"gwfudk cef@rSef;,lekdifonf//
q&m=uD;.rdbrsm;rSm/ rGefvlrsdK; trSKxrf;aumif;bGJ@&/ wkdufol=uD; ekdifa&$csdK/ trdrSm
rdnSmjzpfonf// 4if;rdbeSpfyg;rS oxkHjrdk@teD;/ ZifroG,frGefaus;&Gmuav;wGif/ 1890-
ckeSpfrSm/ arG;zGm;cJhonf[kod&onf// yxrOD;qkH;/ oxkHjrdK@&Sif Ak'<aCmoausmif;wGif
ynmoif=um;jyD;/ aemuf/ armfvjrdKiftxuf wef;ausmif;okd@ a&$ajymif; ynmoif=um;
cJhonf// armfvjrdKiftxufwef;ausmif;wGif/ (10)wef;atmifjrifcJhonf// xkdaemuf
&efukefwuUodkvfrSm(2)eSpfaejyD; umvuwWm;wuUokdvfrSm qufvuf ynmoif=um;cJh
onf// touf(22)eSpf rSm/bDtufpD(B.Sc)bGJ@xl;udk qGwfcl;&&SdcJhonf// q&m=uD;zcif/
wkdufol=uD;ekdfifa&$csdKonf/ pmay0goem&SifwOD;jzpfjyD;/ rGefpma[mif;/ aya[mif;rsm;udk
tjrwfwekd; pkaqmif;olwOD;jzpfonf// q&m=uD;rGef"gwkonfvnf; zcifrsdK;&kd;vkdufIpmay
0goem&SifwOD;jzpfvmonf// pma&;om;jcif;Y0goemxkHvmonf/ txufwef;ausmif;om;
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 71

b0uyifpma&;om;cJhonf//touf(30)wGif/at/wD/tifef/ bGJ@&ol/ wkdufol=uD;wOD;&JhorD;/


a':wifhqkdoleSifhtdrfaxmifuscJhonf//om;oDR;eSpfa,mufxGef;um;cJhonf// a':tkef;=uG,feSifh
OD;tkef;wifOD;wkd@jzpfonf// q&m=uD;YnDtpfudkaarmifeSr/(6)a,muf&Sdonf// aq;rif;=uD;
a[mif;/ a'gufwmodef;armif/ ukvor*~/ urBmhpm;eyf&duQmeJ@ v,f,mpkdufysdK;a&;tzGJ@
a'oqkdif&mn$ef=um;a&;rSL;a[mif; OD;oufpw k kd@onf q&m=uD;. nDtudkrsm;jzpfonf//
q&m=uD;onf/bGJ@&jyD;aemufbD/tkd/pD/ukr`%DrSmtvkyf0ifvkyfonf// touf(60)rSmyifpif
,lonf//

q&m=uD;onf i,fpOftcgu/ vBuf&nf/ umzDaomufokH;aomfvnf;/ touf(50)


aemufykdif;wGif vkH;0raomufawmhacs// tjrJusdKcsufaom aq;jyKwf&nfudkom aomufavh
&Sdonf[kod&onf// q&m=uD;onf rGefvlrsdL;jzpfonfhtnD/ rGef&kd;&m aq;rsm;udk
eSpfjcdKufonf// rJZmvD&GufeSifh avmufao&Gufudk tajcmufjyK/ trSKef@axmif;jyD;/ a&jzifh
usdKaomufonf// TuJhokd@/ jyKwf&nfudk aomufokH;jcif;tm;jzifh/ avvnfonf/
0rf;rSefonf/ raumif;aom/ ykd;rGm;rsm;. tEW&m,fudkumuG,fonf/ tpma=uonf[k
q&m=uD;u &Sif;jywwfonf// aumufnSif;aygif;eSifh aumufnSif;eSifh ywfoufaom
tpm;pmrsm;udk q&m=uD;u a&Smif&Sm;onf// rGefvlrsdK;wkd@,lq=uouJhokd@ aumufnSif;
pm;vSsif avylxonf/ avxkd;avatmifh jzpfwwfonf[k q&m=uD;u ajymjywwfonf//
EGm;ekd@ukdrl/q&m=uD; tvGefeSpfoufonf// tjrJwrf;vnf; aomufokH;onf[k od&onf//
aemufrGef/u&ifrsm; =udKufwwfonfh/ xef;vsufudkvnf; q&m=uD;onf tvGef=udKuf
eSpfoufonf// t&ufaopm uif;onf// q&m=uD;onf/ &efukefjrdK@trSwf(25)wuUodkvf
&dyfomvrf;aetdrfwGifaexkdifvSsuf&Sdonf//q&m=uD;onfusef;rma&;tvGefaumif;onf//

ekdifaiGodrf;/ ekdifcifarmif/ ekdifwifaz/ ekdifausmfat;wkd@onf/ rGefwkd@eSifh tvGeftu|rf;0if


olrsm;jzpfI txl;jyKjyD; rdwfquf&ef vkdrnfr[kwf[kxifygonf// edkfifcifarmifonf/
zJ@uwm;&Gmom;jzpfonf// tif*sifeD,mbJG@jzifh ausmif;jyD;xm;oljzpfonf// ekdifwifazonf/
bD;vlu|ef; &GmvGwf&GmrSjzpfonf//(B.A) bGJ@twGuf &efukefwuUodkvfwGif ynmoif=um;
v#uf&Sdonf// ekdifausmfat;onf/ urm0ufZmwdjzpfonf// edkifausmfat;onf/ &efukefjrdK@Y
ynmoif =uD;jyif;vmoljzpfjyD;/ trsdK;om;owif;pmwkdufwGif/ owif;axmuftjzpf
vkyfudkif aeoljzpfonf//
1961-ckeSpf/Zefe0g&D(8)&ufae@wGif/ &efukefjrdK@/ Adkvfwaxmif&yfuGuf/ edaygtrsdK;om;
txufwef;ausmif;Y rGefjynfe,f az:xkwfa&;tvkyf nDnGwfa&; aumfrwD (A[kd)
jzpfajrmufa&; rGeftrsdK;om; nDvmcHw&yfudk atmifjrifpGm usif;yekdifcJhonf//
4if;nDvmcHukd/ q&m=uD;rGef"gwku obmywdtjzpf aqmif&GufI/ tcef;em;rSL;tjzpf/
72 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

&efukefwuUokdvfrGeftoif;rS/rif;wifazuaqmif&Gufygonf//obmywd/q&m=uD;rGef"gwk
uatmufygtwkdif;rdef@cGef;ajym=um;oGm;konf//

“rGeftrsdK;om;rsm;wkd@rSm/ vlrsdK;wpfrsdK;Y &Sdtyfaom t*FgvuQ%meJ@ nDnGwf


jynfpkH aew,f// pum;/ pmay/ aemufcHorfdkif;wkd@eJ@ jynfpkHw,f// rGefjynfe,f
awmif;aejcif;rSm/ rrd dwkd@&mZ0ifordkif;t&/ bkd;bGm; ydkifqkdifcw
Jh Jhe,fajrudk
jyefvdkcsifwJhoabmyifjzpfw,f// rGeftrsdK;om;rsm;&J@ jynfe,fawmifqkda&;udk
twwfekdifqkH; ygvDref'Drdkua&pD enf;t&/ vkyfaqmifoGm;rSm jzpfr,f//
rGefjynfe,f&&Sda&;twGuf/ rGefjynfe,fudk vkdvm;wJhol rGeftrsdK;kom;wkdif;
pkpnf; nDnGwf&r,f// jynfaxmifpkom;wkdif;axmufcH vmatmif/ pnf;&kH;
vkyaf qmifoGm;&r,f//”

nDvmcHwGif/ rGefjynfe,faz:xkwfa&; &Sif;wrf;udkvnf;/ wifjyaqG;aEG;cJh=uonf//


xkdaemufatmufygtqdkrsm;udkwnD wnGwfwnf;twnfjyKcJh=uonf//
(1) usdKuQrDc&kdif/ oxkHc&kdifeSihf rGefvlrdsK;rsm;aexkdifaom/ qufpyf&ma'orsm;udk
rGefjynfe,ftjzpf owfrSwfa&; Oya'=urf;udk 1961-ckeSpfazaz:0g&DvygvDrefwGif/
wifoGif; twnfjyK owfrSwfay;yg&ef TnDvmcHrS/ awmif;qkdonf//
(2) rGeftrsdK;om;ae@/rGeftrsdK;om;tvHeSihf rGeftrsdK;om;oDcsif;rsm;udk az:xkwfekdifa&;
twGuf/ ykdrdkus,fjyef@aom/ rGeftrsdK;om;rsm;yg0ifonfh/ aumfrwDw&yf zGJ@pn;f I
az:xkwfay;&ef/ TnDvmcHrS A[kdaumfrwDokd@ wm0efv$Jtyfonf//
(3) (u)/ rSefuefaom trsdK;om;a&;0g' (vlrsdK;=uD;0g'qef@usifjyD;/ vlrsdK;pkHaoG;pnf;
nDnGwfa&;wnfaqmuf&ef) xlaxmifoGm;&ef// (c)jynfaxmifpktm; ckdifrm
awmifhwif;a&; twGuf/ vlrsdK;pkqkdif&m jy\emrsm;udk pDppf &Sif;vif;&ef//
(*)/4if;jy\emrsm; ajyvnfoGm;ap&eftwGuf/ ekdifiHawmftpkd;&u =uD;rSL;jyD;
vlrsdK;aygif;pkHyg0if aom/ yifvkHuGefz&ifhuJhokd@aom/ tvm;wluGefz&ifhrsKd ;
usif;yay;&eftqkdudk TnDvmcHrSawmif;qkdygonf//
(4) (u)jynfwGif;jidrf;csrf;a&; wnfaqmuf&ef/ (c)ygvDref'Drdkua&pDxdef;odrf;&ef/
(*)trsdK;om;nDnGwfa&; wnfaqmuf&eftwGuf/ wlnDaom tzGJ@pnf;rsm;eSihf
jynfolvlxk w&yfvkH;wkd@ yl;aygif;um/ trsdK;om; nDnGwfa&;udk r&rae
wnfaqmuf oGm;&efTnDvmcH=uD;utrsm;oabmwltwnfjyKonf//2

2
rGefjynfe,faz:xkwfa&;tvkyfnDnGwfa&;aumfrwD/ HDR: Political Papers CII.
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 73

nDvmcHokd@ udk,fpm;vS,faygif;pkH wufa&mufvm=uonf// oHCmawmfrsm;/ jynfol@


vGwfawmftrwf rGefzkd;csdK/ ekdifatmifxGef;/ yrnw/ obmywdtzGJ@0if/ Adkvfzdk;uGef/
Adkvfvlat;ponfh/ekdifiHa&;acgif;aqmifrsm;vnf;wufa&muf=uonf// Tjzpfay:wkd;wufrSK
tm;vkH;wkd@onf rGefjynfol@wyfOD;. =udK;yrf;rSK/ tarSsmf=uD;rm;rSK/ pdwf&SnfoD;cHpGm/
pnf;&kH;rSKwdk@a=umifh taumifxnf ay:vmonfqkdvSsif rSm;rnfr[kwf[k xifygonf//
tvif;0ifvmaom rGefjynfol@wyfOD;=uD;rm;aom atmifjrifrSKw&yf[k qkd&ayrnf//
4if;aumfrwDwGif/ rGeftrsdK;om; tzGJ@aygif;pkH yg0ifvmonfudk awG@&onf// wuUokdvf
rGeftoif;rS/ rGefausmif;om; acgif;aqmifrsm;jzpfaom/ rif;wifaz/ rif;atmifAveSihf
rGefvli,facgif;aqmif/rif;ausmfat;(urm0uf)wkd@vnf;wuf=uGpGm/yg0ifvSKyf&Sm;vmonf//

xkdtcsdefumvY jzpfay:aeaom ekdifiHa&;tajcaeudk okH;oyf=unfhv#if/ ygvDref'Drkdua&pD


enf;jzifh rGefjynfe,fudk taumifxnf az:&,ledkifonf[k rGefjynfol xlxkwkd@u,kH=unf
ae=uonfudk awG@&onf// vGwfvyfaom rGefjynfe,ftwGuf vufeufudkif awmfvSef
aeaom/ OuUX=uD;ekdifa&$usif. awmwGif;vufeufudkiftzGJ@/ rGefjynfopfygwD tay:/
rGefjynfolvlxk. pdwf0ifpm;rSK/tm;ay;rSK tvGeftm;enf; aeonfudk awG@&onf//
rGefjynfopfygwDtay: ,kH=unfrKS tm;enf;onf[kqkdv#if ykdrdkrSefuefayrnf// txl;ojzifh
OuUX=uD;ekdifa&$usif. OD;aqmifrSKtay: ,kH=unfrSK tvGeftm;enf;aeonfudk awG@jrifekdif
onf// rGefjynfolvlxkonf/ Oya'abmifodk@ 0ifa&mufvmaom jynfol@wyfOD;.
OD;aqmifrSKudk ,kH=unfvufcHvmonf// rGefjynfol@wyfOD; acgif;aqmifwkd@. OD;aqmifrSKjzifh/
udk,fydkifjyXmef;cGifh tcGifha&;tjynfh0&Sdaom rGefjynfe,fw&yfudk r=umcif taumifxnf
az:ekdifrnf[ktjynfht0,kH=unfae=uonf//

OuUX=uD;ekdifa&$usiftaejzifh t&if;&SifygvDref'Drdkua&pDtay: vkH;0t,kH=unfr&Sday//


t&if;&Sif ygvDrefenf;jzifh/ udk,fydkifjyXmef;cGifh tjynfh0&Sdonfh rGefjynfe,fw&yfudk
taumifxnfaz: &,lekdifrnf[kvnf; OuUX=uD;taeeSifh vkH;vkH;r,kH=unfay// 1960-ckeSpf
a&G;aumufyGJY wnfjrJ zqyvtzGJ@rS &SKH;edyfhjyD;/ oef;&Sif; zqyvtzGJ@rS tedkif&oGm;onfh
tay: ppfwyf&SdppfAkdvfcsKyfwkd@u vkH;0auseyfrSKr&Sdonfudk OuUX=uD;rS/ wGufqodxm;
onf// tekdif&wufvmaom/ OD;ektpdk;&tay: auseyfrSKvkH;0r&Sdaom ppfwyfrS/
ppfAkdvfcsKyfwkd@onf/ wae@ae@wGift&yfom;OD;ektpkd;&xH rStm%mudk odrf;,lekdifrnf[k
OuUXu=udKwifjyD;jrifxm;onf//

1961-ckeSpfazaz:0g&Dv(3)&ufae@wGi/f 0ef=uD;csKyfeSifh ekdifiHa&;tzGJ@toD;oD;rS udk,fpm;vS,f


acgif;aqmifrsm;eSifh awG@pkHaqG;aEG;yJGw&yfudk0ef=uD;csKyf tdrf0if;{nfhcHr¾yfY usif;ycJhonf//
74 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

4if;aqG;aEG;yGJwGif/ rGef/ &ckdif/ yxp/yrnw/ zqyv/ paomekdifiHa&; udk,fpm;vS,frsm;pkHnD


wufa&muf=uonf// xkdtaqG;aEG;yGJY 0ef=uD;csKyfOD;ekonf atmufygtwkdif; ajym
=um;oGm;onf//
“rGefjynfe,f/ &ckdifjynfe,f ay;&ef u|eaf wmh. uwdudk rzsufyg// ,ae@ay:ayguf
aewJh jy\emrSm/ t=uH ay;tzGJ@u jynfe,frsm; &,la&;eSihf ywfoufjyD;
rJykH;axmifjyD; qEN &,loifhonf qkdwJhtcsuf tay:rSm/ uGJvGJcsufrsm; &Sdaew,f//
TuGJvGJcsufrsm;udk nSdeSKdif;&ef twGuf/ u|efawmftm; tcsdef tenf;i,fay;ap
vkdw,f// jynfol@v$wfawmf usif;ypOfrSmyif/ oufqkdif&m acgif;aqmifrsm;eSifh
u|efawmf aqG;aeG;OD;rnf jzpfygw,f// onfhtjyif 0ef=uD;rsm;tzJG@/ yxptzGJ@/
zGJ@pnf;tkyfcsKyfykH tajccHOya' jyifqifa&; aumfrwD ponfhyk*~dKvfwkd@eSifh wdkifyifjyD;/
TudpPudk rwfvtwGif;jyD;pD;atmifaqmif&Gufay;ygr,f//”

1961-ckeSpfrwfv/ (13)&ufae@wGif usif;yaom/ jynfol@v$wfawmf tpnf;ta0;Y


0ef=uD;csKyfonf jynfe,fay;a&; qkdif&m tqdkjyKcsufopf w&yfudkwifoGif;cJhonf// OD;ek.
tqdkjhyKcsufopfwGif tcsuf(5)csufyg0ifonf// teSpfcsKyfoabmrSm rJykH;axmifpepfudk
rusifhokH;awmhbJ/rGefjynfe,fudktqifhokH;qifhjzifh taumifxnfaz:oGm;&efpDpOfxm;onf//
yxrtqifhwGif rGefa&;&m0ef=uD;cef@&ef/ 'kwd,tqifhwGif rGefjynfe,fjyifqifa&;aumfrwD
zGJ@&efeSihf wwd,tqifhwGif rGefjynfe,fzGJ@pnf;&ef tpDtpOfrsm;yg0ifonf// 0ef=uD;csKyf.
jynfe,fay;a&;qkdif&m tqkdjyKcsufopfeSifh ywfoufI 1961-ckeSpf rwfv (16)&ufae@wGif
usif;yaom/ jynfol@v$wfawmf tpnf;ta0;wGif/ a&;rJqENe,ftrwfrGefbdk;csdKeSifh usdKuQrD
trwfekdifatmifxGef;wkd@ua0zefaqG;aEG; oGm;onf//

edkifiHawmf0ef=uD;csKyf. rGefa&;&m0ef=uD;wpfOD; cef@xm;ay;a&;rludk rGefjynfol@wyfOD;eSifh


rGefjynfe,f az:xkwfa&; aumfrwDwkd@uvnf; ,m,Dtm;jzifh oabmwlvufcH=uonf//
1961-ckeSpf {jyDv(18)ae@&ufwGif armfvjrdKifjrdK@ rGefjynfol@wyfOD; ygwD&kH;wnf&mXmeY
usif;yaom rGefjynfe,f az:xkwfa&; aumfrwD tpnf;ta0;rS rGefa&;&m0ef=uD;wOD;
a&G;cs,fa&;twGuf/ aqG;aEG;=uonf// tcsdK@u ekdifatmifxGef;udk tqkdjyK=uonf// tcsdK@u
rGefzdk;csdKudk tqkdjyK=uonf// tacstwif aqGG;aEG;=uonf// rdrdwkd@.tqdkdukd tcdkiftrm/
oufaoxl ta=umif;jyI/ aqG;aEG;=uonf// rGefzkd;csdKudk/ rGefwkdif;&if;om;tiftm;pkrS/
ekdifatmifvSaiGwdk@u tqkdjyK=uonf// rGeftrsdK;om;wkd@twGuf/ rGefzdk;csKd.tepfemcHcrJh KS /
=udK;yrf;cJhrSK rGefzdk;csdK. ekdifiHa&;tawG@=uKH/ Om%fynm =uD;rm;rSKwkd@udk tajcjyKI/
rGefzdk;csdKonfom/ 0ef=uD; jzpfxkdufonf[k wifjyvm=uonf// edkifatmifxGef;tm;
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 75

axmufcHaom tiftm;pkzufrSvnf;/ ekdifatmifxGef;. trsdK;om;ekdifiHa&;pGrf;aqmifrSK/


awmY(10)eSpf (10)rdk; tepfemcHcJhrSK/ wkd@udktajcjyKI edkifatmifxGef;onfom 0ef=uD;
jzpfxkdufonf[k/ tckdiftrm tqdkjyKvmonf// wzufeSifhwzuf tjyefvSef tajcwif
aqG;aEG;=uonf// aqG;aEG;nSdKeSdKif;,lI r&edkifonfhtajcaeokd@ a&mufvmonf//
aemufqkH;wGif trsm;rJqENaumufcHI qkH;jzwf,l&onf// edkifatmifxGef;tm; axmufcHol
rsm;u rJtom&oGm;onf// trsm;qENkudk av;pm; vufcHaomtm;jzifh rGefzkd;csdKonf
edkifatmifxGef;udk 0ef=uD;ae&may;vkdufonf// ekdifzdk;csdKonf/ rGefwkdif;&if;om; tpnf;&kH;udk
pwifwnfaxmifcJholjzpfonf// vGwfvyfa&; t=udKacwfeSifh vGwfvyfa&;&p/ acwf
wav#muf rGefjynfe,ftwGuf awmif;qkdwkdufyGJ 0ifcJhpOfwGif/ edkifatmifxGef;/ ekdifzdk;pdef/
ekdifcsrf;rGefwkd@udk edkifiHa&;t&/ OD;aqmifrSK ay;cJholjzpfonf// 1949-ckeSpw f kdif;&if;om;
tzGJ@pnf;. acgif;aqmifrsm;jzpfaom/ ekdifatmifxGef;/ edkifzdk;pdef/ twGif;a&;rSL; edkfifcsrf;rGefwkd@
toD;oD;awmckdpOf/ rGefzdk;csdKonf/ tif;pdef axmifxJ a&mufaeonf// (au/te/f'D/tkd)u&if
trsdK;om;tzGJ@pnf;rS tif;pdefjrdK@udkodrf;pOf/ rGefzdk;csdKeSifh ekdifvSarmifwkd@eSpfOD;u tm;ay;onf
[ktpdk;&rS pGyfpGJjyD; xdef;odrf;xm; vkdufjcif;jzpfonf// rGefwkdif;&if;om;acgif;aqmifrsm;
awmckdpOf rGefzdk;csdKryg0ifedkifcJhay// xkdtwl rGeftrsdK;om;a&;&mtzGJ@csKyf acgif;aqmifrsm;
jzpfaom/ekdifomeSif;/ ekdifxGef;odef;/ edkifaiGodef;/ edkifodrf;armifwdk@ awmckdpOf/ tzGJ@.OuUX
ekdifvSarmif onfvnf; ryg0ifekdifcJhacs//

OD;ektpdk;&tzGJ@0if/ rGefa&;&m0ef=uD;tjzpf/ ygvDreftrwf/ ekdifatmifxGef;tm; a&G;cs,f


vkdufonf// edkifatmifxGef; onf/1961-ckeSpf {jyDv/(27)&ufae@wGif/ ekdifiHawmforRw=uD;
a&S@arSmufY rGefa&;&m0ef=uD;tjzpf usrf;opPmusdefqkdcJhonf// rGefa&;&m 0ef=uD;
ekdfifatmifxGef;onf/ 0ef=uD;&mxl;udk usrf;usdef vufcH,ljyD;aemuf 0ef=uD;&kH;cef;Y 1961-
ckeSpf arv (3)&ufae@rS pIf&kH;xkdifonf// Todk@ ekdifatmifxGef;wOD; tpkd;&0ef=uD; wOD;
jzpfoGm;onfhtay: awmwGif;vufeufudkif tzGJ@pnf;jzpfaom rGefjynfopfygwD taeeSifh
rnfodk@r#wkef@jyefrSKr&SdcJhay// axmufcHrSKvnf;rjy/ &SKwfcsrSKvnf; vkH;0rjyKcJhacs// wcsdefu
rdrd.awmfvSefa&; &Jabmf/ &Jbufjzpfaom/ edkifatmifxGef;0ef=uD;jzpfoGm;onfhtay:/ OuUX
ekdifa&$usifonf/ vkH;0pdwf0ifpm;rSKr&SdcJhacs//

1961-ckeSpf/ ZGev
f (8)ae@rS/ ZGefv(16)ae@txd/ &Srf;jynfe,f awmif=uD;jrdK@wGif/ jynfe,f
aygif;pkH nDvmcH(awmif=uD; uGefz&if;)w&yfudkusif;ycJhonf// xkdnDvmcHokd@/ &Srf;/u,m;/
ucsif/ u&if/ csif;/ &ckdif/ rGefponfh wkdif;&if;om; udk,fpm;vS,faygif;pkH wufa&muf
=uonf// nDvmcHodk@ wufa&mufaom rGeftzGJ@wGif/ rGefjynfol@wyfOD;ygwD/ rGefwkdif;&if;om;
tpnf;t&kH;/ oef@&Sif;rGef/ rGefwkd;wufa&;ygwD/ rGefjynfe,faz:xkwfa&; aumfrwDrS
76 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

udk,fpm;vS,frsm; yg0if=uonf// rGefjynfe,faz:xkwfa&; tvkyfnDnGwfa&;aumfrwD


udk,fpm;vS,frsm;tjzpfwufa&mufolrsm;rSm/ ekdifvSarmif/ ekdifbapm/ ekdifxGef;odef;/
ekdifaiGodef;/ ekdifodrf;armif/ ekdifatmifcspfpH/ ekdifatmifcspf(xkH;tkdif)/ edkifqefeD/ edkifjrwfom'Gef;/
ekdifpef;jrdKif/ rif;wifazwkd@jzpfonf//

4if;nDvmcHwGif/ ucsifjynfe,f udk,fpm;vS,f OD;Zefxmqifu atmufyg tqdkw&yfudk


wifoGif;oGm;onf//

“jynfaxmifpk jrefrmedkifiHawmf jynfe,f &oifh&xkdufaom t&nftcsif;eSifh


jynfpkHonfh/ rGef/ &cdkfif/ csif;vlrsdK;rsm; qENjyif;pGmjzifh vkdvm;awmif;qkd
vsuf&Sdaom jynfe,frsm;udktjrefqkH; taumiftxnf az:ay;yg&ef
jynfaxmifpk ekdifiHawmf tpdk;&tm; TnDvmcH=uD;u wkdufwGef;a=umif;//
ekdifiHawmftpkd;& onf/ tcsderf qGJbJ/ tajccHOya' yk'fr(199)eSifh 200(u)yg
jyXmef;csufrsm;t& rGefjynfe,f/ &ckdifjynfe,f/ csif;jynfe,frsm;udk tjrefqkH;
taumiftxnfaz: ay;&efwkdufwGef;onf//”

&Srf;jynfe,fudk,fpm;vS,Of D;ausmfpdeu
f vnf;/ ODZefxmqif.tqdkudk atmufygtwkdif;
axmufcHaqG;aEG;oGm;onf//

“rGefjynfe,fudk u|eaf wmfwkd@ az:xkwfay;oifhw,fqkdwm txl;ajymaep&m


vkdr,fvkd@ rxifyg/ bmjzpfvJ qkdawmh/ u|efawmfwkd@ jrefrm&mZ0ifudk
jyef=unfhvSsif/ yXrOD;qkH; u|efawmfwkd@&J@ wkdif;jynfr/S t,Ofaus;qkH; ,Ofaus;rSKudk
az:xkwfwm rGev f lrsdK;rsm; jzpfygw,f// u|efawmfwdk@ onfae@ Armpmayudk
oif=um;aewmonf/ Armpmay[m/ b,fuaygufzGm; vmovJ qkd&if/
u|efawmfwkd@/ 'DrGef,Ofaus;rSKu aygufzGm;vmw,f// rGef[m &mZ0if tpOftvm
eSifh wxD;weef; wkdif;jynf=uD;awG txift&Sm;&SdcJhw,f qkdwm/ u|efawmfwkd@
ok0Àblrw d kdif;qkdwm/ a&S;wke;f urGejf ynfe,f=uD;ygbJqkdwm/ txift&Sm;&Sdyg
w,f// tJ'Dawmh/ rGefpmu/ tukefvkH;,Ofaus;rSK jyef@yGm; vmw,fqkdwm
axmuf&SkKjcif;tm;jzifh/ u|efawmfwkd@ rGefvlrsdK;rsm;[m jynfe,f&oifhw,f//
'Dae@jynfe,f&oifhw,fqkdwmbmrS txl;ajymae p&m rvkdygbl;/”

[lI/OD;ausmfpdefu/ rGejf ynfe,fay;oifha=umif; axmufcHajym=um;cJhonf//3


3
1958/1962/jrefrmhekdifiHa&;/pm/321/
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 77

1958-ckeSpf/ Oya'abmifokd@ 0ifcJhonfh/ rGefjynfol@ wyfOD;ygwD. enf;AsL[m ajymif;vJrSK


tay:/ uGsefawmfeSifh rif;0if;xdefwkd@u apm'u wufwwfonf// tcGifha&;&v#if&ovkd/
tcGifh=uKHvSsif/ =uKHovkd/ rGefjynfol@wyfOD; acgif;aqmifrsm;udk ar;jrefjyD;/ rGefjynfol@ wyfOD;.
enf;AsL[m ajymif;vJrSKtjrifudk &Sif;vif; ckdif;wwfonf// wcgwGif/ u|efawmfwdk@eSpfOD;onf/
rGefjynfol@wyfOD;. A[kdaumfrwD0if wOD;jzpfaom ekdifcsrf;rGefESifh awG@qkH=uonf//
ekdifcsrf;rGeftm;rGefjynfol@wyfOD; enf;AsL[m ajymif;vJrSKeSifh ywfoufjyD; ar;jref;bl;ygonf//
u|efawmfwkd@eSpfOD; ar;jref;wJhtay: edkifcsrf;rGefu pdwf&Snfvuf&Snf&Sif;jyonf// edkifcsrf;rGe. f
jyefvnf ajz=um;csufudk tao;pdyfrwifjycif/ edkifcsrf;rGefeSifh pmzwfolrsm;tm; tenf;i,f
rdwfquf ay;vkdygonf//

ekdifcsrf;rGefonf/ urm0uf&Gm Zmwd jzpfonf//1270-ckeSpf/ uxdkef(wefaqmifrkef; vqef;


(3)&uf/t*Fgae@Y/ trd/rduUkxm/ tz/emHuHifwkd@rS arG;zGm;vljzpfvmonf// emJcsrf;rGefonf/
yxrtdrfaxmifrS ZeDonf/ uG,fvGeo f Gm;jyD;aemuf/ omoemabmifodk@ 0ifa&mufI
&[ef;0wfcJhonf// &[ef;b0eSifhaysmfarG@cJoljzpfonf// pmayy&d,gwWdudkvkdufpm;cJhonf//
w&m;bm0emY aysmfarG@oljzpfonf// odk@aomf/ vGwfvyfa&; t=udKacwf/ rGet f trsdK;om;
ta&; vSKyf&Sm;rSK t&Sdeft[kefonf/ edkfifcsrf;.rdsK;cspfpdwfudk edk;qGouJhokd@jzpfapcJo
h nf//
&[ef;b0wGifyif trsdK;om;a&; aqmif&Gufvkdpdwf jzpfay:vmonf// rEWav;jrdK@okd@ wufI
ynmql;yl;cJhonf// aemufydkif;wGif &efukefjrdK@odk@ jyefqif;vmjyD; rGefrsdK;cspf q&mawmf/
emJukoveSifhqkHrdonf// q&mawmfeSifhtwl/ &efukefjrdK@ a&wm&Snf&Sd rGefausmif; (jZyfa=wH)
wGifaexkdifcJhonf//

1946-ckeSpfrSm pwifzGJ@pnf;aom rGefwkdif;&if;om;tpnf;&kH;wGif &[ef;b0tjzpfeJ@yif


yg0ifcJhonf// xkdzJ@G pnf;aom rGefwkdfif;&if;om;tpnf;&kH;wGif/ q&mawmf/ emJukov u
em,ujzpfjyD;/ rGefzkd;csdK;uOuUXjzpfcg/ rGefoef;rSm twGif;a&;rSL;jzpfcJhonf// edkfifcsrf;rGefonf/
tzGJ@.trSKaqmifwOD;tjzpf a&G;cs,fjcif;cHcJh&onf// &[ef;b0jzifh/ tzGJ@pnf;.0g'jzef@csDa&;
wm0efudk,lcJhonf// rGefjrefrmeSpfbmomjzifh (3)ywfw=udrf xkwfa0onfh/ wdkif;&if;om;
tpnf;t&kH;.tmabmfjzpfaom/ &mrnowif;pmudk wm0efcH=uD;=uyfIq&m[kdeSifh twl
xkwfa0cJholjzpfonf// 1947-ckeSpf zqyvwkdif;jynfjynfjyK vGwfawmfa&G;aumufyJG tay:
rGefwkdfif;&if;om;tzGJ@pnf;twGif;wGifoabmxm;uGJvJ=G ujyD;/ rGefoef;onf/ rGefwdkif;&if;om;
tpnf;&kH;. twGif;a&;rSL;ae&mrS eSKwfxGufcJhonf// xkdtcsdefrSpI ekdfifcsrf;rGefonf/
rGefwdkif;&if;om; tpnf;&kH;.twGif;a&;rSL;jzpfvmonf// xdkaemuf &[ef;b0udk pGef@vGwf
cJhonf// rGefvlrsdK;udk tvGefcspfjrwfekd;I/ rGefvlrsdK;wkd@. tusdK;udk ydkrdkxda&mufpGm
xrf;aqmifekdifa&;twGuf rdrdtvGefjrwfekd; wefzkd;xm;aom/ jrifhjrwfonfh &[ef;b0udk
pGef@vGwfcJhonf// trsdK;om;ekdifiHa&;wGif udk,fzd&ifzdae@nrtm; yg0if aqmif&GufcJhonf//
78 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

rGefbkd;csdK/ ekdifatmifxGef;/ ekdifbkd;pdefwkd@eSifhtwl/ wkdif;&if;om; tpnf;t&kH;ukd OD;aqmif


cJhonf// rGeftrsdK;om;ae@udkyxrOD;qkH;/ acgif;aqmifusif;yaom rGefacgif;aqmif(7)OD;wGif/
edkfifcsrf;rGefvnf; wOD;yg0ifcJhonf// xkdpOfu edkifcsrf;rGefonf/ tpnf;&kH;. twGif;a&;rSL;
jzpfaeonf// &[ef;b0rS xGufjyD;aemufydkif;wGif yi&GmoltysdK=uD; rdydktf (cCi]yjpuiaj)eSihf
tdrfaxmif us onf//

1949-ckeSpf wGifurm0ufaus;&Gmudk jynfol@&Jabmfwkd@u vma&mufrD;&SKd@ zsufqD;


vkdufonfhaemufykdif;wGif ekdifatmifxGef;/ ekdifbkd;pdef/ q&m[kd/q&mxGef;cif/ q&m&$ef;wkd@eSifh
twlawmckd cJholjzpfonf// 1956-ckeSpfrGefjynfol@wyfOD;ygwDudkyxrOD;pGmzGJ@pnf;&mwGif/
ekdifcsrf;rGefudk taxGaxGtwGif;a&;rSL; tjzpftrsm;rSa&G;aumufwifajrSmufcJh=ujyefonf/
1958-ckeSpf Oya'abmifodk@ 0ifvmaom umvtxd/ rGefjynfol@wyfOD;. twGif;a&;rSL;
wm0efudk/ ,lxm;oljzpfonf// rGefjynfol@wyfOD;. enf;AsL[m ajymif;vJ&mwGif/
t"dutcef;rS yg0ifcJhaom acgif;aqmifwOD;jzpfonf// 1958-ckeSpf rGefjynfol@wyfOD;/
enf;AsL[majymif;vJjyD; Oya'abmifodk@ 0ifa&;twGuf/ zqyvtpkd;&eSihf awG@qkHaqG;aEG;
&mwGif/ OD;aqmifcJholjzpfonf// ekdifcsrf;rGefudk rGefv=l uD;vli,ftm;vkH;u/ cspfcif=uonf//
vlwkdif;vlwdkif;udk cifrifwwfonf// aysmfaysmf&$if&$ifaexkdifwwfonf// tvGefaz:a&G
wwfaom ekdifcsrf;rGefudk/ vkyfaz:/ udkifbuf/ &Jabmfrsm;u/ cspfpekd;jzihf/ ekdifcsrf;[kac:qkd
okH;ekSef;=uonf// 1960-ckeSpfrJa&G;aumufyGJwGif/ armfvjrdKifjrdK@/ rJqENe,frSm/ yxptrwf
avmif; OD;oGifeSifh xdyfwkduf,SOfjyKdifjyD; a&G;aumufyGJ0ifcJhonf// &SKH;edyfhoGm;cJhonf//

rGefjynfol@wyfOD;onf/ vufeufudkfif awmfveS fa&; enf;AsL[mrSonf/ 'Drdkua&pDenf;


ygvDrefwGif; wkdufyGJ enf;AsL[modk@ tb,fa=umifh/ ajymif;vJcJh&ovJvkd@ edkifcsrf;tm;
u|efawmfwkd@eSpfOD;u ar;jref; aomtcg/ u|efawmfwkd@.tar;udk ekdifcsrf;onf/
pdwf&Snfvuf&SnfpGmjzifh/ atmufygtwdkif; &Sif;vif;ajz=um;ygonf//

“1958-ckeSpfrSpjyD; rGefjynfol@wyfOD;[m/ vufeufudkifawmfvSefa&; enf;AsL[mrS


onf/ 'drdkua&pD wdkufyGJ enf;AsL[mtoGGif o¾mefokd@ ajymif;vJvmw,f//
tJ'Dvkd rGefjynfol@wyfOD;ygwD[m/ vufeuf udkifvrf;pOfenf;AsL[mudk tjyD;tydkif
pGef@v$wfjyD; 'Drdkua&pDwdkufyJG toGifo¾mefodk@ vkH;0ul;ajymif; oGm;wJhae&mrSm/
rdrwd kd@r[mAsK[mvrf;pOf(trsdK;om;vGwfajrmufa&;/ udk,fydkifjyXmef;cGifh&jynfe,f
xlaxmifa&;)udk vkH;0rpGef@v$wfygvkd@ twdtvif;ausjimcJhw,f// rGefjynfol@
wyfOD;[m xkdtcsdef umvu/ jzpfay:aewJh edkifiHa&; t&yf&yfwdk@udk aocsmpGm
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 79

qef;ppfokH;oyfjyD;rS/ enf;AsL[majymif;vJ wmjzpfw,f// rGefjynfol@wyfOD;ygwD[m


atmufyg trsKd;om;a&; wm0ef(2)&yftay: aocsm/ usepGm avhvm okH;oyf
cJhygw,f// rGeftrsKd;om;wdk@. b0vGwfajrmufa&;/ r[mAsL[myef;wkdiftwGuf
rGeftrsKd;om;wdk@&J@rvGJra&Smifom/ xrf;aqmif&rJh r[mwm0efrsm;rSm//
(u) awmwGif;vufeufudkifawmfvSefa&; eSifh
(c) 'Drdkua&pD/ ygvDref wGif;wdkufyGJ/ qdkwJh vrf;pOf(2)&yfwdk@&Sdw,f// wkdufyGJ
enf;AsL[m eSpf&yfvkd@ ajymekdifw,f// tJ'eD nf;AsL[m eSp&f yfukd rGev f rl sKd ;wk@d
vGwfajrmufa&;twGuf/ rv$Jra&Smifom wkdufyJG0ifoGm;&rJh/ trsKd;om; r[m
wm0ef(2)&yf jzpfw,fvkd@/ rGejf ynfol@wyfOD;rS cH,lxm;w,f// tJ'DtrsdK;om;
wm0ef(2)ckqkdwJh/ wkdufyGJ(2)&yfudk/ aphaph pyfpyfavhvm okH;oyfcJhw,f//
4if;trsK;d om; r[mwm0ef(2)&yfjzpfwJh/ 'Drdkua&pDwdkufyGJeSifh vufeufudkif
awmfvSeaf &; wdkufyGJ wdk@onf/ jydKifwl/ csdefcGifvsmnDrsSpGm/ tm;aumif;aumif;/
nDnDnGwfnGwfeJ@ v_y&f mS ; awmfvSefoGm;bkd@ vkdtyf w,fvkd@ rGefjynfol@wyfOD;
acgif;aqmifrsm;ujrifcJh =uw,f//

trsKd;om; wm0efcGJa0r_t&/ 1948-rS 1958-ckeSpfumvwGif 'Drkdua&pD


wdkufyGJqdkwJh/ trsKd;om;wm0efudk rGefwdkif;&if;om; tpnf;&kH;rS wm0ef,lxm;jyD;/
vufeufudkif awmfvSefa&;wkdufyGJqkdwJh/ tjcm;trsK;d om;a&; wm0efudkrl
rGejf ynfo@l wyfO;D rS wm0ef,l xm;w,f qkdwJh tcsufudkawG@&r,f// 1957/ 58-
ckeSpf umvrSm/ jzpfay:ajymif;vJvmwJh/ jynfwGi;f ekdifiHa&;tajcaeudk avhvm&if
zqyv tpkd;&rSm tuGJtjyJ jzpfvmwmukdawG@&r,f// OD;eK.zqyvtpkd;&onf/
tm;tifcsdeJ@ vmw,f// pnf;vkH;rSK/ nDnw G fjcif;vnf; r&Sdjzpfvmw,f//
(OD;/Akdvf/ocif) tkyfpktrsdK;rsdK; ay:xGef;aew,f// OD;ek acgif;aqmifrSKudk twkdufcH
jyKwJh OD;baqG/ OD;ausmfjidrf;wkd@ OD;aqmifwJh/ twkdufcHtkyfpkay:xGuf vmw,f//
zqyvtwGif;wGif trsdK;trsdK;tjym;jym;/ jcm;em;ae=uw,ff// OD;eKtpkd;&tay:
jynfol vlxk&J@ axmufcH,kH=unfrSKvnf; wjznf;jznf; usqif;vmw,f//
jynfolvlxktaeeJ@vnf;/ wzufwGif ekdifiHa&;tjrif/ jrifhrm;/ ekd;=um;/ wuf=uG
vmw,f// twdkif;wmwckxd/jynfolvlxk&J@ ekdifiHa&;vSKyf&Sm;rSK[m/ t&Sdeft[kef
tm;aumif;vmw,f// vlrsdK;pkwkd@&J@ ygvDrefwGif;awmif;qkdrSK eSifhygvDrefwGi;f
wdkufyGJvnf;/ t&Sdeft[kef &vmw,f// vlrsdK;pkwkdif;&if;om; tzGJ@rsm;eJ@
tjcm;aom/ twdkufcH/ tzGJ@pnf;jzpfwJh/ y/r/n/wwkd@&J@ aygif;pnf; nDnGwfrSK
vnf;/ tm;aumif;/ vmw,f// wkdif;&if;om; trwfrsm;eJ@ y/r/n/w/ trwfwkd@&J@/
vufwJG nDnGwfjyD;/ ygvDrefwGif;/awmif;qkdrSK/ ekdifiHa&; wkdufyGJonfvnf;
t&Sdeft[kef&/ tm;aumif;vm w,f//
80 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

Ttcsuw f @dk u/kd rGejf ynfo@l wyfO;D u aumif;rGepf mG tuJcwfrdvmw,f//


4if;tjyif 1958-ckeSpf ywf0ef;usifwGif/ t&yf&yf&Sd (rGef/u&if/uGefjrLepfygwD
tygt0if) vufeufudkif awmfvSefa&;vnf; wjznf;jznf; tm;enf; vmwmudk
awGG@&r,f// 1949-ckeSpf ywf0ef;usifumvu awmfvSefa&;tajcaeeSifh vkH;0
rwlbl;/ 'gudk rGefjynfol@wyfOD;rS okH;oyfvmrdw,f// 1949-ckeSpf umvwGif
awmwGif;vufeufudkif tiftm;pkwdk@u tvGeftm;aumif;cJhw,f// OD;eKtpdk;&udk
&efukeftpdk;& (okd@) q,fheSpfrdkiftpdk;&[k ac:qdk&avmufatmif e,fajr
usOf;ajrmif; apekdifcJhw,f// wjynfvkH;udk vufeufudkifawmfvSeftiftm;pkwdk@u
odrf;ydkufedkif vkenf;enf; &SdcJhw,f// rGe/f u&if vufeufudkif awmfvSeaf &;
tiftm;pkwdk@[m armfvjrdkifjrdk@udkyif odrf;ydkufedkifcJhwmudk rSwfrd=u ygvdrfr,f//
okd@ao: rdrw d dk@awmfvSeaf &;tiftm;pktcsif;csif;uGJvJjG yD; wedkifiHvkH;udkrodrf;ydkuf
edik cf Jh=ubl;// 1958-ckeSpfrSm 'Dtajctae tm;vkH;wdk@udk rGejf ynfol@wyfO;D u
aumif;aumif;tuJcwfrdw,f//

1949-ckeSpfaemufydkif; awmfvSeaf &; tiftm;pkwdk@onf wjznf;jznf;tiftm;


enf;vmw,f// 'ga=umifh vufeufudkif awmfvSeaf &;eJ@ atmifyJcG jH yD;/ wedkifiHvkH;udk
odr;f ydkuf,lbkd@/ vuf&Sdtm%m& tpkd;&udk jzKwfcsbdk@qdkwm/ xifoavmuf
rvG,fulawmhbl;// rGejf ynfol@wyfOD; acgif;aqmifrsm;eJ@ wyfzJ@G 0if wyfrSL;wdk@u/
tuJcwfrd=uw,f// wzufrSmvJ/ ygvDrefwGif; wdkufyGJ[m/ ydkrdk tm;aumif;
vmw,f// twdkufcHwdk@&J@/ ygvDrefwGif;/ 'Drdkua&pDwdkufyGJonf t&Sdeft[kef&
tm;aumif;vmw,f/ jynfolwkd@&J@ 'Drdkua&pD todw&m; ekd;=um; pjyKvmw,f//
z/q/y/v/ tpdk;& twGif;wGifvJ/ tuJGtjyJawGjzpfvmw,f// tm;enf; vmw,f/
ygvDrefonf/ vlrsK;dpkvlenf;pk wdk@&J@wkdufyGJ e,fajropf jzpf vmw,f//

1958-ckeSpf[m/ vGwfvyfa&;&jyD;(10)eSpf jynfhwJheSpfjzpfw,f// yifvkHpmcsKyft&/


&Sr;f /u,m;/ucsif/ csif;pwJh/awmifay: a'oudk/ cGJxGufcGifh ay;&rJheSpfjzpfvmw,f//
ygvDrefwGif; wkdufyGJonf/ rvGJra&Smifom/ jyif;xefvmrJh t&dyfta,mifudk
rGejf ynfol@wyfOD; acgif;aqmifwkd@u =udKwifjrifxm;w,f// 'DyGJ=uD;yGJaumif;rSm/
rGefvlrsdK;wkd@twGuf tcGifhaumif;,lwwfbkd@vkdr,fvkd@ vJ/jrif=uw,f// 'Dtcsdef[m
rGefvlrsdK;eSihf wkdif;&if;om;tm;vkH;wkd@&J@/ tcsdefaumif;/ tcgaumif;jzpfw,f//
nDnDnGwfnGwfeJ@ ygvDrefwkdufyJ0G if=u&if jrefrmedkifiHudktusdK;&SdpGm jyKjyifajymif;vJ
vmapekdifw,fvkd@ jrifw,f// tJ't D csuf tm;vkH;wkd@udk rGejf ynfol@wyfO;D u
okH;oyfrdw,f// wcsed fwnf;rSm/ tvGefrSwfom; p&maumif;aom tcsufw&yfudk
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 81

wifjyr,f// tJ'DtcsdefumvrSm/ rGeftrsKd;om;udkudk,fpm;jyKwJh/ ekd;=um;wuf=uG


onfh/ ekdkifiHa&;ygwDw&yf/ ygvDrefrSmr&Sdao;bl;qkdwJhtcsufudkawG@&r,f// ygvDref/
'Drdkua&pDwkdufyJ/G trsdK;om;wm0efudk ,lxm;&wJh/ rGew f dkif;&if;om;tpnf;&kH;uvJ/
'Drdkua&pD wdkufyJu G dk yDyDjyifjyif OD;raqmifedkifwmudk awG@&r,f/ 'Dtcsufudk
rGefjynfol@wyfOD;u aumif;rGefpGm tuJcwfrdw,ff// qkdvkdcsufrmS / trsKd;om;a&;
wm0ef(2)&yf&SdwJh ae&mrSm/ 'Drdkua&pD wdkufyGJ[lwJh/ trsKd;om;a&; wm0efudk
xufxufjrufjruf pGr;f pGrf;wrH xrf;aqmifekdifwJh/ trsKd;om;edkifiHa&; ygwDw&yf/
jynfwGif;rSm/ r&SdbJ/ vpf[if;aewmudk awG@&r,f// 'DtrsKd;om;wm0efudk
xrf;aqmifbkd@/ xufjruf wuf=uGjyD;/ rGew f rsKd ;om;vkH;udk OD;aqmifekdifwJh/
trsKd;om; ekdifiHa&; ygwDw&yf tvGefvdktyf aewmudk awG@&r,f//

ygvDrefwkdufyGJtwGuf/ jynfwGif;rSm/ rGefwdkif;&if;om; tpnf;t&kH;bJ&Sdw,f//


rGefwkdif;&if;om; tpnf;t&kH;vJ/ tvGeftm;enf;aewmudkawG@&r,f/// OuUX}uD;
rGezf dk;csKdeiS fh twGif;a&;rSL; ekdifatmifvSaiG eSpOf D;om&Sdw,fvkd@ qkd&ravmufatmif
tvGef tm;enf;aewmudk awG@&w,f// tzGJ@0ifrsm;rsm; r&dSbl;// pnf;&kH;rSK
tm;enf;w,f// 'Dtcsufwdk@udkawG@&r,f/ ygvDrefwGif;/ 'Drdkua&pDwdkufyGJukd
yDyDjyifjyif rxrf;aqmifedkifbl; qkdwm jrif&r,f// rGeftrsKd;om;xk w&yfvkH;udk
edkifiHa&;t&/ xufxufjrufjruf OD;aqmifr_ ray;edkifcJhbl;// 'ga=umifh/ rGefvlxkrSm/
edkifiHa&; edk;=um;r_/ &Sdoifhoavmuf r&SdcJhwmudk awGG@&w,f// 'Dtcsufwdk@udk
rGejf ynfol@wyfOD; acgif;aqmifwkd@uaumif;rGefpGmokH;oyfrdw,f//

tJ'ga=umifh/ txufygwifjycJw h Jh/ aumufeSkwfcsuf t&yf&yfwdk@udk okH;oyfjyD;/


trsKd;om;wm0ef(2)&yf &Sd&mrSm/ tajctaeeJ@ tcsdeftcgu awmif;qkdvmwJh
tay:/ rGet f rsKd;om;wdk@twGuf taumif;qkH;eJ@/ tusKd;jyKedkifqkH;jzpfwJh/ 'Drdkua&pD
wdkufyGJwm0efudk/ rGejf ynfol@wyfOD;u a&G;cs,fvkdufwm jzpfw,f// &efoludk
ppfa&;t& a=umuf&GH@jyD;/ tjyF;tydkif vufajrmuf t&SkH;ay;jcif;rsKd;awmh
r[kwfygbl;// wqifhjrifhwJh/ trsKd;om;wm0efudk zckH;ajymif;vGJ,ljyD;/ wdkufyGJ
t&Sdefjrifh oGm;bdk@jzpfw,f// vufeufcsw,fvkd@bJ ajymajym/ vufeufeJ@
'Drdkua&pD vJvS,fw,fvkd@qdkqdk/ rGejf ynfo@l wyfO;D &J@ enf;AsL[m ajymif;vJr_[m/
rSefuefw,fvkd@qdk&r,f// rGefjynfolw&yfu =udKqdkaxmufcH=uw,f// a&G;aumuf
yGJrSm/ rGefjynfol@wyfOD; ekdifvmw,f// trwfrsm;&vmw,f// ygvDrefwGif;
wkdufyGJtwGuf/ tiftm;aumif;wJhygwD w&yf jzpfvmw,f//”
82 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

(ekdfifcsrf;. &Sif;vif; wifjycsufudk =unfhvSsif oHwref a&;&mwkdufyGJtay:okH;oyfrSK


xm;jcif;r&SdcJhonfudk pmzwfolrsm; owdxm;rdrnf[k xifygonf// tb,fa=umifh
qdkaomf 4if;um;vwGif ,ae@tajcaeavmuf/ oHorefa&;&mwdkufyJGonf tm;raumif;
ao;yg// rGefvlrsdK;rsm;onfvnf; wdkif;wyg;ekdifiH&yfjcm;wGif/ oGm;a&mufaexdkifol/
tvGefenf;yg;aejcif;/ ponfhta=umif;wkd@a=umifh/ xnfhoGif;I tav;teuf rokH;oyf
cJh=uonf[k ,lq&ayonf//ta&0fcswf)//

ekdifcsrf;rGefonf/ TuJhokd@rdrd. t,ltqudk yGifhyGifhvif;vif; &Sif;vif;wifjy&onfhtwGuf/


auseyftm;&jyD; pdwfvuf ayghyg;oGm;[efwlonf// jyKH;aomrsufeSmjzifh/ u|efawmfwkd@
eSpfOD;tm; ai;=unfhaeonf// rif;wkd@bmrsm; aemufxyfodcsif ao;ovJ/ bmrsm;
ar;OD;rvJqkdaomt=unfhjzifhf/ u|efawmfwkd@eSpfa,mufudk csJvif;(Chalenge)vkyfaeonf//
u|efawmfwkd@ eSpfa,mufuvnf;/ bmrSjyefvnfI/ rar;vkdawmhyg// bmrSsvnf;
rajymvkdawmhyg// 'gayrJh/ ekdifcsrf;ajymonfh tcsuftvuf tm;vkH;udk/ t=uGif;rJh vufrcH
ekdifao;yg// ygvDrefwGif;/ 'Drdkua&pD wkdufyJGtay: u|efawmfwkd@u t,kH=unf uif;rJo h nf//
Armrsm;=uD;pkd;wJh/ t&if;&SifygvDrefudk vkH;0,kH=unfrSKr&Sday// vufeufudkfif awmfvSefa&;
udkom/ u|efawmfwkd@eSpfOD;u pdwf0ifpm;onf// ekdifa&$usifOD;aqmifaom/ awmwGif;
vufeufudkif ygwDjzpfonfh/ rGefjynfopfygwDudkom tm;ay;vkd=uonf// awmwGif;
vufeufudkfif awmfvSefa&;r&SdvSsif/ ygvDrefwGif; 'Drdkua&pDwkdufyJGonfvnf;/ t"dy`g,f
r&Sdedkif/ toufr&Sdekdif/ vkH;0t&m ra&mufekdif[k u|efawmfwdk@u,kH=unfonf// vufeufudkfif
awmfvSefa&;onfom/ ygvDrefwGif; 'Drdkua&pDwkdufyGJtwGuf/ taumif;qkH; taxmuful
jyKaom/ xda&mufonfhwGef;tm; jzpfonf[ku|efawmfwkd@ujrifonf//

xkda=umifh ekdifcsrf;udk bmrSqufI ar;cGef;rxkwfvkdawmhay// ekdifcsrf;ukd tjiif;yGm;vkyfI


ar;cGef;rxkwfvkday// ekdifcsrf;udkvnf; 'kuQay;I xyfrHr&Sif;apcsifvkdawmhay// qdwfqdwfyif
aevkdufonf// odk@aomf ekdifcsrf;onf/ rdrd.&Sif;vif;wifjycsufwkd@udk/ tm;vkH;t=uGif;rJh
rSefuefaeojzifh/ u|efawmfwkd@eSpfOD;bmrSjyefrajym ekdifbJ/ ikdifusaeonf[kxifrSwfykH&onf//
ekdifcsrf;ajymqkdorSsudk t=uGif;rJhvufcHjyD;/ rdrd.&yfwnfcsufudk/ vkH;0vufajrmuft&SKH;ay;
vkdufonfh oabmjzifhjidrfouf aejcif;r[kwfyg/ Ttcsufudk/ekdifcsrf;tm;/ csJvif;vkyfjyD;
jyefajymcsifygao;onf//odk@aomfajymrxGufcJhyg//xkda=umifh/ ekdifcsrf; onfatmifyGJ&vkdufonfh/
ppfol=uD;wOD;tvm;/ 0ifh=uGm;aomrsufeSm/ awmufyaom rsufvkH;tpkHjzifh u|efawmfwkd@
eSpfOD;tm; pdkuf=unfhjyD; xyfrHIqufajymjyefonf//
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 83

“rGefjynfol@wyfOD; enf;AsL[majymif;jyD;/ Oya'abmifokd@ 0ifvkdufonfh aemufydkif;


rSm/ rGejf ynfo@l wyfO;D &J@ qkdif;bkwfawG te,fe,f t&yf&yfrSm awG@vm&w,f/
ekdifiHa&; oifwef; zGifhvSpfjyD;/ ygwD au'gaumif;rsm;pGmudk arG;xkwf ekdifcJhw,f//
rGefjynfolvlxkeSifh ausmif;om; vli,frsm;wkd@rSm/ trsdK;om; ekdifiHa&; todw&m;
ekd;=um;=uw,f// jynfolvlxkeJ@ xdawG@cGifh&wJhtwGuf/ rGefjynfol@ wyfOD;&J@
vrf;pOf&nf&G,fcsufrsm;udk &Sif;vif;wifjycGifh&cJhw,f// rGefjynfolvlxkeJ@ ygwD[m
wom;xnf; jzpfvmonf// rGejf ynfol@wyfOD;ygwDtay:/ ,kH=unfrSK &Sdvmw,f//
axmufcHrSK ay;vm=uw,f//

1960-ckeSpf a&G;aumufyJrG mS / rGejf ynfo@l wyfO;D &J@ trwfavmif;awG atmifyJGcHekdif


cJhw,f// rGefjynfe,f az:xkwfa&; vSKyf&Sm;rSKudk/ t&Sdeft[kef aumif;aumif;eJ@/
nDnD nGwn f Gwf pkaygif; aqmif&Gufekdif cJhw,f// 'gawG[m/ rGejf ynfo@l wyfO;D &J@
rSefuefwJh &yfwnfcsufeJ@ rSefuefwJ@/ ay:vpDa=umifh jzpfw,f qkdwm/ xif&Sm;
aew,f// rGejf ynfol@wyfOD;&J@ trsdK;om; ekdifiHa&;vrf;pOf rSefuefrSKeJ@ rSeuf efwJh
OD;aqmifrSKa=umihf/ rGeftzGJ@pnf; aygif;pkHeJ@ tjcm; r[mrdwf ekdifiHa&; tzGJ@rsm;
rGefjynfol@ wyfOD;eJ@ vufwJG vm=uw,f// rGefjynfe,f az:xkwfa&;/ tvkyf
nDnGwfa&; aumfrwD w&yfudk tm;aumif;aumif;/ nDnD nGwfnGwfeJ@ zGJ@pnf;
vmekdifcJhw,f// tzJG@aygif;pkH/ udk,fpm;vS,faygif;pkH/ ausmif;om;rsm; tygt0if
pkaygif;zGJ@pnf; edkifcJhw,f// 'gawG tm;vkH;tm;/ rGejf ynfol@ wyfOD;&J@ rSeu
f efw/Jh
enf;AsL;[m/ ajymif;vJrKS / rSeu f efwJ@ OD;aqmifrSK&J@ &vg'ftusdK;w&m;awGbJ//”

Edkifcsrf;onf/pum;ajym&if;/ tm;0ZHawG@vmonf[kxif&onf// tm;&yg;& toHus,fus,f


ajymvmonf// pum;tqkH; wGifvnf;/ vufwD;wGwf˜wcsufudk tm;&yg;&wD;vkdufw,f//
'Dwcgawmh/ rGefjynfol@ wyfOD;u/ pm;jyD;a[h/ qkdwJhoabmyif jzpfonf// atmifekdifol.
tjyKtrlrsdK;jzifh vufwD;wGuf˜ vkdufjcif;yifjzpfonf// 'DwcsD/ 'DekdifiHa&; wauG@rSm/ rGefjynfol@
wyfOD;twGuf/ atmifyJGcH&rnfhtvSJ@tajymif;/ rGefjynfol@wyfOD;.acwfbJa[h[k a=uG;a=umf
vkdufonfh oabmeSihf/ ekdifcsrf;onf/ vufwD;wGwf˜ tcsufay; vkdufjcif; jzpfonf//
rif;0if;xdefu/ ekdifcsrf;. tajymtqkd/ tjyKtrludk tvGefoabmusI/ cwfjyKH;jyKH; uav;
jzifh/ ekdifcsrf;udk =unfhI acgif;wndrfhndrfh vkyfaevkdufonf// u|efawmfuyif &kd;&kd;om;om;
pdwfjzifh atmufyg twkdif;/ ekdifcsrf;udk qGI ar;vkdufonf//

“edkifcsrf;u ajymawmh/ rGejf ynfol@wyfOD; trwfavmif;awG/ 1960-ckeSpf


a&G;aumufyJrG mS / atmifjrifrSK&cJ@w,fvkd@qkdw,f// 'gayrJh/ekdifcsrf;usawmh/
&SKH;w,fyguvm;//”
84 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

u|efawmfonfedkifcsrf;. &ifwGif;cHpm;csufudk twGif;od/ odxm;oljzpfojzifh/ edkifcsrf;pdwfudk


qGay;vkdI ar;vkdufjcif;jzpfonf// ekdifcsrf; pdwfxdckduf apvkdaomoabm/ &nf&G,fcsuf vkH;0
rygay// okd@aomfedkifcsrf;onfcHpm;csuf tjynfhjzihfTokd@qkdvmonf//

“'guuGm/ &Si;f aewmbJ/ ighukdusm;pm xkd;au|;vkdufwmbJ// igh[m usm;pm;bkd@


twGuf/ uHqkd;ol armif&SifjzpfoGm;wm// rGejf ynfol@wyfOD;&J@ ay:vDpDvrf;pOfeJ@
bmrSrqkdifbl;// ight&nfcsif;eJ@vnf; bmrS rqkdifbl;// rif;wkd@ pOf;pm;=unfh/
armfvjrdKifjrdK@vkd/ rGev
f lrsdK; OD;a&enf;jyD;/ Arm/w&kwf/ ukvm;vlOD;a&u rsm;awmh/
b,frSm/rGeftrwfekdifekdifyghrvJ// ignHhw,fvkd@rif;wkd@uqkdcsifvkd@vm;// 'gqkd&if a[h˜
igeJ@OD;oGif yk*~dKvft& wpfOD;csif; ,SOfjydKif&Jw,f// b,fzufu ,SOjf ydKif,SOjf ydKif/
,SOfjydKif&Jw,f// OD;oGifudkajymvkduf/ igcsJvif;vkyfw,f//”

rif;0if;xdefwa,mufonf/ tvGefoabmusI toHcD;cD; xGufvmonfhtxd &Drdonf//


u|efawmfurlr&Dekdif/ ekdifcsrf;pdwf xdckdufoGm;onfhtjzpfudk em;vnfoabmaygufrdojzifh/
pdwfyifraumif;jzpfrdonf// udk,fcsif;vnf; pmemrdonf// okd@aomf ratmifhekdifvGef;I
toHxGufavmufatmif &Dvkdufonfh rif;0if;xdefufdkvnf; tjypfrjrifrday// ekdifcsrf;tm;
ydkrdkemusnf;atmif pdwfudkqGay;ovkd jyKrdonfh rdrdtjzpfudkyif tjypfwifaerdonf//
1960-ckeSpf a&G;aumufyGJY armfvjrdKifjrdK@e,f rJqENe,fwGif OD;ektzGJ@rSyxptrwfavmif;
OD;oGifuekdifoGm;jyD;/ rGefjynfol@wyfOD;rStrwfavmif; ekdifcsrf;u&SKH;edyfhoGm;onf// ekdifcsrf;
onf ra=ueyfekdifao;bJ/ rdrd. cHpm;csufudk qufvuf ajymjyefonf//

“ighudk/ oHjzLZ&yfe,fwkd@vkd/ a&;e,fwkd@vkd ae&mrsdK;rSm 0ifa&mufa&G;cHcGifh


ay;ygvm;// rekdif&if ighvnfyif;udkjzwf/ igtjzwfcHekdifw,f// a[h˜ 'gekdifcsrf;uG/
rGefvlxku ekdifcsrf;udk b,fawmhrS rrkef;bl; qkdwmodw,f// tm;vkH;u ekdifcsrf;udk
cspf=uw,f// edkifcsrf;u b,fawmhrS udk,fudsK;twGuf tcGifhta&; r,lcJhbl;//
jynfolvlxk&J@ ypPnf;udkvnf; wjym;wcsyrf S tvGJokH;pm;rjyKcJhbl;// 'gudk
rGefjynfolvlxkawG odw,f// 'grdk@ oHjzLZ&yfjrdK@e,fwkd@vdk/ a&;jrdK@e,fwkd@vkd ae&m
rSm/ ,SOfjydKif&r,fqkd&if/ b,fol@udkrS edkifcsrf;˜ ra=umufbl;// tm;vkH;eJ@ ,SOjf ydKif
&Jw,f// OD;oGifeJ@ tJ'eD ,frSm ,SOjf ydKifcsiw
f ,f// b,folekdif/ od&atmif/ OD;oGifbJ/
edkifrvm;/ edkifcsrf;ubJ/ rJtjywftowfeJ@ ekdifrvm; qkdwm od&atmif/
,SOfjydKifcsifw,fuGm//”
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 85

ekdifcsrf;onf cHjyif;aompdwf/ emusnf;onfhpdwfwkd@a=umifh toHus,fvmonf// rif;0if;xdef


onfvnf;aemufqkH;wGifr&Dedkifawmhay// ekdifcsrf;tm;oem;oGm;[efwlonf// ekdifcsrf;onf
vnf; wu,fyifpdwfxdckdufoGm;ykH&onf// atmufygtwkdif; qufIajymjyefonf//

“vlawGu/ ekdifcsrf;[m t*Fvdyfpm rwwfb;l qkdjyD; txifao;ae=uwm/


txifrao;vkdufygeJ@// ekdfifcsrf;[mt*Fvdyf pmrwwfayrJh/ ekdifiHa&;rSm em;vnf
w,fuG// b,fol[m tcGifha&;orm;vJ/ b,fol[m tcGifha&;orm; r[kwfbl;
qkdwm avhvm=unfh=uyg// ekdifcsrf;wkd@uawmh/ tcGifha&;orm; r[kwfbl;//
udk,fusdK;twGuf b,fawmhrSvnf; tcGifha&;r,lcJhbl;/ qkdwmawG@ &r,f//
trsdK;om; twGuf/ udk,fusdK;pGef@tepfemcHjyD; woufvkH; vkyfaqmif cJhw,f
qkdwm awG@&r,f// 'gudkrGefjynfol awG odw,fuG//”

aemufqkH;wGif u|efawmfuyif/ ekdifcsrf; pdwfa=uat;atmif pum;vSD;vGJ ajymqkdjyD;


pdwfajymif;atmif ajymvkduf &onf//
“edkfifcsrf;udkvlwkdif;cspfcifw,f// vl=uD;vli,futp/ekdifcsrf;udkcspf=uw,f// vlwkdif;
av;pm;w,f// trSefawmh/ ekdifcsrf;[m yskKdwdkif;=udKufwJheSif;qDckdifbJ//”
'DawmhrSyif ekdifcsrf;onf jyKH;&$ifvmonf// 4if;aemuf u|efwmfwkd@ eSpfOD;onf
pdwfraumif;pGm/ ekdifcsrf;udk eSkwfqufjyD; aumvdyfokd@jyefvmcJhonf// u|efawmfwkd@eSpfOD;
tjyefvrf;wGif rif;0if;xdefonf Todk@aumufcsufcsajymqkdvmonf//
“ekdifcsrf;udk ol@&J@vkyfaz: udkifzufawGu t*Fvdyfpmrwwfwm wckxnf;eJ@
tedkif,lcJh[efwlw,f// edkifcsrf;&J@ ajymqkdcsufawGukd =unfh&if/ edkifcsrf;&J@&ifwGif;
cHpm;csufawG ygaew,f/ emJ˜owdxm;rd&J@vm;//”
u|efawmfonf acgif;omjidrfhvkdfufonf bmrSjyefrajymjzpfacs// rif;0if;xdef. tar;a=umifh
u|efawmh.pdwfonf twdwfwae&mqDodk@ a&mufoGm;onf// wcsdefu/ ekdifcsrf;ajymcJhaom
pum;rsm;udk jyefvnfowd&vmrdonf// ekdifcsrf;eSifh u|efawmftwlwuG/ oGm;vm
aexkdifbl; aoma=umifh/ ekdifcsrf;. cHpm;csufeSifh ywfoufjyD; txdkuftav#muf u|efawmf
=um;xm;bl;ygonf// wcgwkH;u/ ekdifcsrf;udk t*Fvdyfpum; rwwfbl;qkdjyD;/ r[mrdwfrsm;
eSihf aqG;aEG;&efoGm;rnfh ukd,fpm;vS,ftzGJ@wckrSm rxnfhbJ csefxm;cJh=uw,f//
t*Fvdyfpum; ajymekdifoludkom a&G;cs,fjyD; udk,fpm;vS,ftjzpf apv$wf oGm;=uonf//
4if;udk,fpm;vS,ftzGJ@onf/ vrf;ckvwfwGif &efol.jcHKckd wkdfufckdufrSKa=umifh tm;vkH;
toufqkH;&SKH; oGm;=uonf// t*Fvdyfpum; rwwfaom edkifcsrf;wpfa,muf/ uHaumif;
cJhonf// rif;0if;xdefeSihf u|efawmfonf/ taqmifa&mufaomtcg toD;oD; udk,fhtcef;
qDokd@ oGm;I tem;,lvkduf=uonf//
86 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

tcef;(4)
wyfOD;trsdK;oRD;rdwifh/armfvjrdKifc&kdifrGefausmif;ol/om;rsm;toif;zGJ@pnf;/
aumhbdef;pnf;&kH;a&;c&D;pOf/ wm0efausaomrsdK;cspfrGefvli,fwOD;/
rif;0if;xdef.trsdK;om;a&;tjrif/ArmudkvdkeDvufopf0g'/

1961-ckeSpftv,fydkif;wGif aumvdyfrGeftoif;rS =uD;rSL;jyD;/ rGefjynfol@wyfOD; a[majymyGJ


w&yfudk jyKvkyfcJhygonf// xkda[majymyGJwGif a[majymaqG;aeG;&ef twGuf rGefjynfol@
wyfOD;rS/ udk,fpm;vS,ftjzpf/ rdwifh(c)rdpdefawmhudk apv$wfvmonf// rdwifh(c)rdpdefawmh
onf/ rGefjynfo@lygwD. vkyfief;pOf vrf;pOf/ygwD. ekdfifiHa&;tjrif oabmxm;/ rGefjynfol@
wyfOD;. rGefjynfe,f vSKyf&Sm;rSKwdkd@udk/ vma&muf a[majymoGm;onf// u|efawmfwkd@
rGefausmif;om;rsm;/ pdwf0ifpm;pGm em;axmifcJhygonf// rGefjynfol@wyfOD;. vufeufeSifh
'Drdkua&pD vJvS,fonfh/ wkdufyGJ enf;y&d,m,f ajymif;vJa&; tay:/ u|efawmfwkd@
ausmif;om;wpk/ ar;cGef;xkwfygonf// rdpdefawmhonf/ edkifcsrf;rGefuJhokd@yif/ rdrdtjrifudk
pdwf0ifpm;pGm ajz=um;oGm;onfudkawG@&onf// 'gayrJhrdwifh. ajz=um;rSKtay:/ tcsdK@aom/
ausmif;om;rsm; auseyfrSK &Sdovkd/ tcsdK@aom/ ausmif;om;rsm;onf/ odyfrauseyf=uacs//

u|efawmfonf/ rGefjynfol@wyfOD;. wkdufyJGenf;y&d,m,f ajymif;vJonfudk rnfokd@rsS


tjypfwifa0zefjcif;rjyKvkdyg// rGefjynfol@wyfOD;. enf;y&d,m,f ajymif;vJrSKtay: a0zef
edkfifonfh/ edkifiHa&;tawG;ac: tjrifvnf; u|efawmfhYr&Sdyg// 'gayrJh vufeufcswJhtay:
vkH;0rauseyfcJhonfrSmtrSefjzpfonf//&efoludkt&SK;H ay;tnHhcHonf[ku|efawmfujrifonf//
awmwGif;vufeufudkfif tzGJ@pnf;tay: oHa,mZOf&SdcJhonf// awmwGif; vufeufudkfif
awmfvSefa&;onf r&Sdrjzpf&Sd oifhonf[k u|efawmfjrifonf// 'gayrJh rGefvlrsdK;wkd@.
vufudkfifawmfvSefa&; tajcae/ awmwGif; tajcaewdk@udk u|efawmfvkH;0 tu|rf;0ifrSK
r&Sdao;yg// xkdpOfu/ wuUodkvf/ aumvdyf ausmif;om;rsm;jzpfonfh rif;armifwif/
rif;armifjrifh/ rif;0if;xdefeSifh u|efawmf wkdk@u/ vufeufudkifawmfvSefa&;tay:
txl;pdwf0ifpm;=uonf// rGefjynfopfygwDudk tm;ay;csif olrsm; jzpfonf//

rdwifhonf/ rGefjynfolwyfOD;/ trsdK;oRD;tzGJ@. OuUXjzpfonf/ trsdK;oRD;Xme/ wm0efcH


jzpfonf/ tvGefa[majymaumif;.// a[majymrSKudk avhvmjcif;tm;jzifh/ rdwifhonf
ekdifiHa&; tawG@t=uKH &ifhusufa=umif; ay:vGifaeonf// rdwifhonf/ yi˜aus;&Gmol
jzpfonf/ ekdifatmifxGef;eSihf w&Gmwnf;jzpfonf// om;oRD;vifwdk@udk pGef@cGmjyD;/ trsdK;om;
twGuf/ ekdifatmifxGef;wkd@eSifhtwl 1949-ckeSpfuawmcdkcJhonf// vufeufudkifawmwGif;
b0rSmusifvnfcJhonf// om;oRD;rsm;udk yifowdr&/ pGef@y,fekdifcJhaom/ olwOD;jzpfonf//
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 87

rdwifhudk pHerlem xm;p&m tvGefaumif;ygonf// tvGefcsdD;=uL;p&m aumif;aom/


rGeftrsdK;oRD; wOD; jzpfygonf// om;oRD;.ta&;udkvnf; rpOf;pm;cJh/ rdrd.vifom;
aemuftdrfaxmif jyKonfudkyif *&krpdkufekdifbJ/ trsdK;om; vGwfajrmufa&;twGuf/
awmwGif; vufeufudkfif awmfvSefa&;orm; wOD;tjzpf rdrd.b0udk jrKyfESHxm;cJhonf//
rGefjynfol@wyfOD;wGif/ rd[Hom/ rdwifhwkd@vkd/ rGeftrsdK;oRD; au'gaumif;rsm;/ rsm;pGm&Sdonfudk
awG@&onf// xkdpOfu/ rd[Hom/ rdpdefawmh/ edkifxGef;odef;/ ekdfifaiGodef; /ekdfifcsrf;rGefwkd@
uJhokd@aom/ rGefjynfol@wyfOD;rS acgif;aqmifrsm;.ekdfifiHa&; xkd;azgufpnf;&kH;rSKa=umifh/
rGefjynfolawG edfifiHa&;edk;=um;vmonf// wuUodkvf/ aumvdyfrGefausmif;om;rsm;wGif/
trsdK;om; ekdifiHa&; tjrif/ ekdk;=um;vmonf[k qkdekdifygonf// xkdtwl/ txufwef;
ausmif;rsm;rS/ txufwef; ausmif;om; rsm;onfvnf;/ trsdK;om; ekdifiHa&; todw&m;
ekd;=um;vm=uonf// rGejf ynfe,f awmif;qkdrSK/ trsdK;om;ekdifiHa&; vSKyf&Sm;rSK t&Sdeft[kef
onf/ vlxkvlwef;pm; tv$mtoD;oD;okd@xH/ jyif;xefpGm &kdufcwfvmonf/

1961-ckeSpfrSm u|efawmfeSifh rif;0if;xdef/ rif;armifav;(uavmhaomh)/ rif;xGef;vSKdif


(urm0uf)wkd@onf/ armfvjrdKif txufwef; ausmif;omm;rsm;jzpfaom/ rif;xGef;az
(xkHtkdif)/ rif;xGef;jrifh(rk'l;)/ rif;wifatmif(aumh'Gwf)/ rif;tD(urm0uf)/ rif;0dwf(eSD;ya'g
ekdifqdwfedk@.arG;pm;om;)/ rif;wifpdk;(Zmojyif)/ rif;xGef;wif(a&;)wkd@eSifh yll;aygif;jyD;/
armfvjrdifc&kdif/ rGefausmif;ol§om;rsm;toif; w&yfudk zGJ@pnf;&ef/ =udK;yrf;vm=uonf//
t"du&nf&G,fcsufrSm/ rGefausmif;om; vli,fwkd@/ trsKd;om;pdwf xufoefvma&;eSifh/
trsKd;om; vufeufudkif awmfvSefa&;wGif yg0ifvmedkifa&; wkd@jzpfonf// xdkpOftcgu
rGefjynfopfygwDY tm;raumif;ao;yg// rGefjynfopfygwD. vufeufudkif awmfvSefa&;ay:/
okH;oyf&mwGif/ wkd;wufr_ &Sdoifhoavmuf/ r&SdcJhonf[k/ edkfifiHa&; orm;a[mif;rsm;wdk@u
a0zef=uonf// OuUXekdfifa&$usif. OD;aqmifrSKtay:/ tm;rvkd tm;r& jzpfvmrd=uonf//
wuUokdvfaumvdyf&Sd rGefausmif;om; acgif;aqmifwkd@uvnf; TtcsufudkjrifcJh=uonf//
xkdumvY OuUX=uD; edkifa&$usifrSmrl awmwGif; jyef@usJaeaom/ rGefvufeufudkif tiftm;pk
i,fwdk@udk pkpnf; nDnGwfvm&ef =udK;yrf; aqmif&Gufae&aom tcsdefjzpfonf// rGefjynfol@
wyfOD; tvif;0ifa&mufoGm;jyD; aemufykdif;wGif/ rGefvufeufudkif awmfvSefa&;onf/
r&Sdoavmuf tm;enf;oGm;onf// OuUX=uD;edkfifa&$usifonf/ edkif"rRae tkyfpki,feSifh
tjcm;"g;jromomtkyfpki,frsm;wkd@udk jyefvnfpnf;&kH; odrf;oGif;ae&aom umvjzpfonf//
rGefvufeufudkif tkyfpki,f tcsif;csif;=um;wGif/ vufeufudkifyÉdyuQyif r=umc% qkdovkd
jzpfay:aewJhtcsdefjzpfonf//
88 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

rGefjynfol@wyfOD;. pnf;&kH;rSKtm;aumif;rSKa=umifh/ rGefjynfolvlxkeSifh ynmwwf


wuUokdvf/ aumvdyf/ txufwef;ausmif;&Sd rGefausmif;om; rGefvli,frsm;wkd@onf//
rGefjynfol@wyfOD;. OD;aqmifrSKudk vufcH,kH=unfvmonf// rGefjynfol@wyfOD;. ygvDref
'Drdkua&pDwdkufyJjG zifh rGefjynfe,fr=umcif ay:vmrnf[k toD;oD; ,kH=unf ae=uonf//
awmwGif; vufeufudkif awmfvSefa&;tay: pdwf0ifpm;ol tvGefenf;onf// rGefjynfopf
ygwDudk tm;ay;jcif;/ 0ifa&muf yl;aygif;jcif;twGuf rnfolr#owdr&=uacs//

'gayrJh tcsdK@aomwuUokdvfeSifh aumvdyfrGefausmifom; acgif;aqmifwdk@onf/ t&if;&Sif


ygvDreftay:/,kH=unfrSKtm;enf;aeao;onfudkawG@&onf// rGeftrsdK;om;vGwfajrmufa&;
twGuf/ vufeufudkif awmfvSefa&;onf/ r&Sdrjzpf vkdtyfonf[kjrif=uonf// awmwGif;
vufeufudkif tzGJ@pnf;jzpfaom rGefjynfopfygwD tay: pdwf0ifpm;=uonf// armfvjrdKif
c&dkif/ rGefausmif;om; vli,ftoif;udk zGJ@pnf;&ef =udK;yrf;aom u|efawmfwkd@ ausmif;om;
vli,fwpk. &nf&G,fcsufrSm/ rGeftrsdK;om;ta&; vSKyf&Sm;rSKwGif/ rGefausmif;om;
vli,frsm; wufwuf=uG=uG yg0ifvmekdifa&;twGuf t"duxm; &nf&G,fjcif;jzpfonf//
tjcm;wzufwGif OuUX=uD; ekdifa&$usif. awmwGif; vufeufudkif awmfvSefa&; tay:Y
vnf;/ pdwf0ifpm;rSK&Sdae=uonf// xdkacwfumvY Armtpkd;&. tkyfcsKyfr_ atmufwGif/
raevkdaom wuUodkvfaumvdyf rGefausmif;om; vli,frsm;eSifh Armtpkd;&. u|efjyK
ynma&;pHepfudk qufvuf roif=um;vkdaom/ rGefausmif;om; vli,ftcsdK@wdk@&Sdonf/
xdkolwdk@onf vufeufudkif awmfvSefa&; e,fajrodk@ oGm;a&muf =u&ef pdwftm;
xufoef ae=uonf//

1961-ckeSpfrSmyif/ armfvjrdkif/ yef;bJwef;&yfuGuf atmufvrf;r=uD;Y wnf&Sdaom/


rGefjynfol@wyfOD;XmecsKyfY rGefausmif;om;rsm; tpnf;yGJw&yfudk ac:,lusif;yygonf//
4if;tpnf;a0;okd@/ armfvjrdKifaumvdyfrS/ rGefausmif;om; acgif;aqmifrsm;eSifh txufwef;
ausmif;toD;oD;rS/rGefausmif;om;acgif;aqmifrsm; wufa&muf=uonf// 4if;tpnf;a0;rSm/
armfvjrdKifc&dkif/ rGefausmif;ol§om;rsm;toif; zGJ@pnf;&efqkH;jzwf=uonf// uGsefawmftm;
toif;. OuUXtjzpf a&G;cs,fwifajrmuf=ujyD;/ twGif;a&;rSL;udk/ rk'l;&GmrSrif;xGef;jrifhtm;
a&G;cs,fwifajrmuf=uonf// tr_aqmifrsm;rSm/ rif;0if;xdef/ rif;xGef;az/ rif;xGef;vSdKif/
rif;wifatmif(aumh'Gwf)/ rif;tD;/ eSDya'grif;0dwf (edkifqdwfedk@. arG;pm;om;)/ rif;wifpkd;
wdk@jzpfvm=uonf// 4if;toif;jzpfajrmufa&;twGu/f rGefjynfol@wyfOD;rS/ A[kdaumfrwD0if/
vli,fa&;&mwm0efcH/ ekdifqdwfedk@ursm;pGm tm;ay; ulnDcJhonf// ekdifqdwfekd@onf/ pdwfae
oabmxm; tvGefel;nHhodrfarG@aom yk*~dKvfwOD;jzpfonf// vl=uD;vli,frsm;tm; az:a&GpGm
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 89

qufqHwwfonf// olwyg;tm;qufqH&mwGif tvGefel;nHhaom ekdifqdwfedk@ukd/ u/Gsefawmf


wkd@ vli,frsm;u =unffndkav;pm;pGm/ cifrif&if;eSD;cJhonf/

armfvjrdkifc&kdif rGefausmif;ol/vli,frsm;toif; zGJ@pnf;jyD;aemuf uGsefawmfwkd@onf/


e,ftoD;oD;okd@ qif;I/ pnf;vkH;a&; vkyfief;vkyf=uonf// aus;&GmtpkH/ e,ftpkH a&muf&Sd
jyD;/ aus;&Gm/ rGefausmif;ol§om;rsm;toif;udk zGJ@pnf;edkifcJh=uonf// armfvjrdKifc&kdif
rGefausmif;ol§om;toif;rS/ ausmif;om;rsm;onf/ &GmvGwf&Gmokd@ oGm;Ivnf;/
rGefausmif;ol§om;rsm;toif;udk zJG@pnf;ekdifcJhonf// &GmvGwf&GmrS rif;at;=uLudk toif;.
acgif;aqmiftjzpf/ a&G;cs,f wifajrSmuf=uonf// aumhbdef;&Gm/ vrdkif;&Gm/ a&;jrdK@
wkd@wGifvnf; rGefausmif;ol§om;toif;udk zGJ@pnf;ekdifcJhonf// Todk@ u|efawmfwdk@ onf/
rGefaus;&Gmrsm;odk@ oGm;a&mufjyD;/ rGeftoif;zGJ@ pnf;&ef=udK;yrf;aom/ c&D;pOfrsm;wGif/
aumhbdef;aus;&Gmodk@ oGm;aomc&D;pOfudk tvGefpdwf0if pm;p&mjzpfrdI ,ckwkdifrSwfrd
aeao;onf//

1961-ckeSpfatmufwkdbmausmif;ydwf&ufwGif armfvjrdKifrGefausmif;ol§ om;rsm;toif;rS/


u|efawmfeSifhtwl rif;0if;xdef/ rif;xGef;az/ rif;wifatmif/ rif;tD/ rif;xGef;jrifh ponfh/
ausmif;om;rsm;onf pka0;jyD;/ aumhbdef;aus;&Gmodk@ oGm;a&mufI/ rGefausmif;ol/om;rsm;
toif;udk zGJ@pnf;&ef =uddK;yrf;=uonf// (Tae&mwGif/ vkdufygoGm;aom ausmif;om;
tm;vkH;udk rrSwfrdI rxnfhrdcJhonf&Sdaomf/ cGifhv$wf&ef awmif;zefygonf/)/ armfvjrdKifjrdK@rS
reufapmapmxjyD;/ usKH'kd;oGm;rnfh oabFmudk/ u|efawmfwkd@wawG vdkufygpD;oGm;&onfudk
trSwf&ao;onf// rdk;&moDukefqkH;p/ aqmif;&moDtul;umv jzpfonf/ reufykdif;
cyfapmapmwGif/ tenf;i,f at;&kHrSvGJI/ ae@cif;ae@vnfydkif;wGif/ vkH;0rat;ao;acs//
tvGefom,m vSyaom/ tcsdefumv[k qkdekdfifygonf// u|efawmfwkd@ vkdufyg pD;oGm;aom/
armfvjrdKif/ usKH'kd;oGm;/ a&$[oFm trnf&Sdaom oabFmonf/ eHeuf(6)em&DwGif/
armfvjrdKifjrdK@ oabFmqdyfurf;rS xGufcGmcJhonf/ usKH'kd;jrpfwavSsmuf/ oabFmonf
a&qefI ckwfarmif; oGm;&onf// odyfjrefjrefqefqef r&SdvSacs// aeS;aeS;rSefrSefjzifh
ckwfarmif;oGm;aeonf// u|efawmfwkd@onfvnf; oabFmjzwfoGm;aom/ urf;eSpfzuf
eSpfcsuf&Sd rGefaus;&Gm rsm;udk4if;/ opfoD;0vH pkdufydsK;xm;aom jcHO,smOfrsm;udk4if;/
ai;arm=unfh&SK&if;/ oabFmeSifh vkdufygvm=uonf// oabFmonf/ jrpfurf;ab;&Sd
aus;&GmtcsdK@wGif xkd;qkdufjyD; c&D;onfrsm;udk wifaqmif vmonfudk awG@&onf//

Zmojyifaus;&Gmta&mufwGif/ oabFmonf c%acwW&yfem;onf// oabFm tqkdufwGif/


urf;ab;Y&yfI ol@xufigt&if;OD;atmif/ tvkt,uf/ wkd;a0S@I/ aps;a&mif;=u aom/
rGefuav;i,frsm;udk awG@&onf// Tuav;oli,frsm;udk awG@jrif&I/ u|efawmfwkd@
90 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

vltkyfonf pdwfrcsrf;ajr@vSay// tzdeSdyfcHb0jzifh; qif;qif;&J&J =uyf=uyf wnf;wnf;eJ@


aexkdifpm;aomuf aexkdif=u&onfh rGefvlrsdK;wdk@.b0udk rsuf0g;xifxifawG@jrifae&onf//
rGefuav;oli,frsm;/ TuJhokd@ 0rf;pma&;twGuf/ tvkt,uf aps;a&mif;ae&onfh
tjzpfudk jrifae&onfhtwGuf u|efawmfwkd@ tvGefpdwfraumif; jzpfrd=uonf//
u|efawmfwkd@ tm;vkH;onf/ [if;oD;[if;&GufawG/opfoD;0vHawG/ xrif;xkyfawG/ [if;awG/
=uufO/ bJOjyKwfawG/ a&aeG;tkd;wkd@udk olxufig tvkt,uf/ atmf[pf a&mif;ae&onfh/
rGefuav; oli,frsm;b0udk/ tvGefpdwfrcsrf; ajr@pGm/ tuJcwf=unfhae=uonf//
tvGefa=uuGJ/ 0rf;enf;bG,f&mjrifuGif;jzpfonf// TjrifuGif;udkjrifrdaom/ udk0if;xdefonf/
rdrdpdwfudk rxdef;ekdfifojzihf/ trSwfwrJh awmufwcsuf acgufvkdufonfhtoHudk
=um;rdonf// u|efawmfu/ tHh=opGm udk0if;xdefudkvSrf;=unfh vkdufrdonf udk0if;xdefonf
u|efawmfudk=unfhjyD; atmufygtwkdif; rSwfcsufcsajymvkduf onf//

“u|efawmfwkd@u/ uHaumif;vdk@ wuUokdvfaumvdyfrSm/ at;at;aq;aq;


ynmoif=um;ekdifayrJh/ 'Duav; oli,fawGuawmh/ u|efawmfwkd@vkd uHraumif;
&Smbl;˜ emJ// uHqkd;ae=uw,f// 'Duav;awGukd =unfhjcif;tm;jzifh/ u|efawmfwkd@
rGefjynfolawG[m/ u|efb0 a&mufaew,fqkdwm xif&Sm;w,f// rGefvlrsdK; wrsdK;
wnf; rubl;// wkdif;&if;om;tm;vkH; u|efb0 usa&mufae=uw,f// rw&m;zdeSdyfh
aoG;pkwftkyfcsKyfwJh pHepfa=umifh/ u|efawmfwkd@ wkdif;&if;om; tm;vkH;/ ,ckvkd/
qif;&JrGJawae&w,f// u|efawmfwkd@wawG/ ausmif;ynm oif=um;jyD;/ rdrd
aumif;pm;a&;udkom/ =unfhr,fqkdvSsif tvGefwudk,f aumif;qefw,fvkd@
qkd&r,f// ukd,hfvlrsdK;qif;&J/ iwfrGwfaewJhtcsdefrSm/ ukd,fuaumif;aumif;ae/
aumif;aumif;pm;jyD;/ ynmoifae&wmudku/ tjypfwckvkd@ u|efawmf jrifrd
w,f˜emJ// u|efawmfhawmh/ ausmif;ynmawmif/ qufroifcsifawmhbl;//
wdkif;&if;om; tm;vkH;udk/ u|efjyKaewJh/ pepfatmufrSmwae@rS/ raecsifawmhbl;//
wkdif;&if;om; tm;vkH;udk u|efjyKtkyfcsKyf aewJh/ vufopf ArmudkvkdeDpHepfudk
jzpfwJh enf;eJ@ awmfvSefcsifaejyD;˜emJ//”

udk0if;xdef. emusnf;aom avoHjzifh/ av;eufwnf=unfpGm ajym=um;onfh/ pum;udk


=um;&aom/ u|efawmfwkd@tm;vkH;onf txl;yifpdwf0ifpm;/ vSKyf&Sm;oGm;=uonf//
u|efawmfwkd@tm;vkH;onf pdwfraumif;pGm uav;oli,frsm;.tjzpfudk ai;=unfhjyD;
tawG;udk,fpDjzifh wdwfqdwf ae=uonf// TrsScHpm;csuf jyif;xefaom/ udk0if;xdefudk/
u|efawmfwkd@u udk,fcsif;pmemrd=uonf// u|efawmfwkd@tm;vkH;onf/ rif;0if;xdefuJhokd@
yg;pyfrS xkwfaz: rajym=uaomfvnf;/ rif;0if;xdefuJhokd@yif/ wxyfwnf; cHpm;rd=uonf//
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 91

tvkt,ufaps;a&mif;ae=uaomuav;oli,f rsm;udk pdwf0ifpm;=u&mrS/ u|efawmfwkd@


vltkyfonf/ Zmojyifaus;&Gmudk vSr;f jyD; pdwf0ifpm;pGm =unfh&Sk tuJcwf aerdjyefonf///
xdkpOfu Zmojyif&GmwGif/ u|efawmfwkd@ vma&muf pnf;&kH;a&; rjyK&ao;ay// aus;&Gm
rGefausmif;ol§ om;toif;vnf; rzGJ@pnf;ekdifcJhao;yg// Tc&D;pOfonf/ aumhbdef;aus;&Gm
udk yXrOD;pm;ay; oGm;a&mufpnf;&kH;jyD;/ rGefausmif;ol§ om;toif; zGJ@pnf;a&; c&D;pOf
jzpfonf//

Todk@ u|efawmfeSifh rif;0if;xdefwkd@ eSpfO;D onf/ Zmojyifaus;&GmeSifh rGeftrsdK;om;wkd@.


b0ta=umif;udk/ qufpyfIpdwf0if pm;pGm/ ajymae =upOfrSmyif/ vli,fwa,mufonf/
vltkyf=uD;udk wkd;acG@I tajy;tv$m; oabmF odk@ wufvmonfukd awG@&onf// xkdvli,f
onf/ a[mif;eGrf;/ aqG;ajr@aeaom t0wftpm;eSifh vufwGifudkifaqmif xm;aom/
ypPnf;rsm;udk avhvmjcif;tm;jzifh/ c&D;onfr[kwfrSe;f odekdifonf// tvGef qif;&JjyD;/
vkdufvH awmif;pm;ae&aom/ vli,fwOD; jzpfa=umif;/ awG@vSsifawG@csif; cef@rSef;od&Sd
ekdifygonf// jrefrmedkifiHwGif qif;&JvGef;ojzifh uav;oli,frsm;onf/ 0rf;pma&;twGuf/
vkdufvH awmif;pm;ae&onfudk/ awG@bl;=uKHbl; ae=urdk@/ txl;tqef;w&yf r[kwf[k
qkdekdifygonf// okd@aomf Tuav; i,fudkjrifrdaom/ u|efawmfonf tvGefxl;jcm;aom
a0'emw&yfudk cHpm;rdonf/ &kyf&nf tvGefoem; urm;jzpfjyD;/ touftm;jzihfvnf;/
(12)eSpfywf0ef;usifYom&Sdekdifonf// rGeftrsdK;om;wOD; jzpfaejyefawmh/ u|efawmhpdwfudk
tvGef xdckdufapcJhonfrSm trSefyifjzpfonf// u|efawmf. teD;tem;wGif &yfaeaom/
udk0if;xdefukd vufwkd@I/ arhaigh jyrdonf// udk0if;xdef onfvnf;/ uav;oli,fudk=unfhjyD;/
u|efawmfuJhokdyif tvm;wlcHpm;aerd[efwlygonf// r=umcifrSyif/ oabFmatmufxyf
wGif/ oDcsif;qkdoHudk u|efawmfwkd@=um;&onf// taotcsm *&kpdkufem;axmif aomtcg/
uav;i,f wOD;u/ oem;p&m *&k%mtoHjzifh/ oDcsif;udk av,lavodr;f ususee/
qGJiifoDqdkaeonfudkod&onf// oloDqkdaom/oDcsif;onf/ (&mrn)rGefoDcsif;jzpfaeonf//
u|efawmfwkd@ tvGefeSpfouf oabmusaom/ rGefoDcsif; jzpfaeojzihf/ u|efawmfeSifh
rif;0if;xdfefonf oabFm atmufxyfodk@ tajy;tv$m qif;oGm;=uonf// usefaom/
udkxGef;az/ udkwifatmifwkd@vnf; oDcsif;oH=um;I ajy;qif; vm=uonf// oDcsif;udk
cHpm;csufygyg/ toHudkqJGiifjyD; oDqkdaeaom uav;i,fudk u|efawmf wkd@tm;vkH;u/
*&k%m oufpGm/ pl;pkduf=unfh&if; nufanmif;aom oDcsif;oHudk pdwf0ifpm;pGm
em;axmifae=uonf//

(r,mxpX]cj /]cj'uipjhoq. kL.eto /]cjmnj lM]hjK;pjrocjpLnj pu&ek.njgkU


ea.njsuitj lC]hjlCnjtuY bHjbN]hja.pLnja.pLnj r,mnjpikL. f>qJ /]cjmut=mauitjzercj
92 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

/]cjhuJpX]cj ruihjercja. tNcj{qIpu& pL/]cj'uipjhoq. yWoelwj kel.hu& pu&d,a.suipj


s"]Yes".j led>wj -gi]pj8Nicj Tcj/.jkajkHj bHjb;icj n.Ypu&qM]icjmnj ea.njsuitj lC]lCnj
tnjmocjp?YkuE -gipjezN.j eb.jq", ek~.jy.nj qkjmH.njer.hMY pu&d,e/.cj'uitj
auitjDtjti/nj pu&d,tnjdMocjp?YkuEzuicj /.jel<.wj Œ(el0.wj p?Y a[k.-gi]pjgNicj
qMicj'uipjhicjhuipj a[k.ltuipjduEkM.)2 qMicjtLhoq. (pwj8#.njdOpY>)2 x,n.Y
qMicj'uipjhoTwj (pwj g#.njdO tNJ 8wj8NO eT.ow>8Wo-8i]pj k k*bmj -pi]hj auiQuJkuJKM.Y)2

(qMicj'uipjTwj egtjqWwj pL,eqNcj pwj8L.Y zcjmH.Y a.suipj k?]ipjbx.sicj)2 pwje8tj8L.Y


pwje8tj8L.Y ef;oKM.Y /]cjd;}d;. d;}.d;.er.hWomipj eb<.er.cj mipjqnj ek~cjpLnjelwj
n.Y awjek.nj qMicj'uipjTwj k.leqNcjepcj e8Ccj pwjsOsuipj /]cj'uipjhoq.wtI)2
awj ek.njx, zcjmH.Y kW.Y blob#i]pjncj qMicj'uipjTwjehcj pwjek~cjsOer.cj kW.Y
b#]ipjauE duEkuE/]cjmnj v.q.px.pu& hu& ek~.mnj eb=.njxir q.qN.mnjpu& eb=.njxir
eb=.njxir q.qN.mnjpu& tuY 8Wosuipj /]cjhoqwtI\

oDcsif;. t"dy`g,fuvnf; tvGefaqG;ajr@p&maumif;ouJhokd@/ uav;oli,f.qGJiifaom/


*&k%mtoHonfvnf; tvGefa=uuGJ/ 0rf;enf;p&m aumif;aejyefonf// toHvnf;
aumif;/ tqkdygydkifekdifvSaom oli,f.oDcsif;oHonf/ ywf0ef;usifwckvkH;udk vGrf;rdk;aeav
onf/ ywf0ef;usif&Sd y&d\wftm;vkH;wdk@ pdwftpOfudk qGJiif,laqmif xm;ouJhokd@
&Sdaeonf// vltm;vkH;onf/ pdwftjidK@cH&olrsm;uJhokd@ jidrfoufpGm tm&kHpl;pkduf
em;axmifae=uonf// vli,fonf/ oDcsif;oDqkd&if;/ vlwOD;pD/ wOD;pDxHodk@ cGufxkd;I
aiGawmif;cH aeonf// oDcsif;tqkH;wGif/ vlwkdif;onf/ rdrdwdk@Yygvmao/ ykdufqHrsm;udk/
toD;oD;xnfh=uonf// tcsdK@aom/ rGeftrsdK;oRD;rsm;. rsufvkH;tdrfrsm;rS/ rsuf&nfyif/
0Jusvmonfudk awG@vkduf&onf// rdrdwdk@.rsufvkH;tdrfrS usvmaom/ rsuf&nfudkyif/
t0wfpjzifh/ wdwfwqdwf okwfjypf ae=uonfudkawG@&onf//

xkdrGeftrsdK;orD;=uD;wdk@. rsufvkH;tdrfrsm;rS ,kdpD;usqif;vmaom rsuf&nfwkd@onf/


t"dy`g,faygif;ajrmufrsm;pGm &Sdekdifonf[k u|efawmfawG;aerdonf// xkdvli,ftay:
om;oRD;csif; pmempdwfjzpfrdI tvGefoem;jyD; usaom rsuf&nfrsm; jzpfedkfifonf//
okd@wnf;r[kwf tvGef nufanmif; om,maom oDcsif;oHa=umifh pdwfaysmhajymif;
el;nHhvmjyD; usvmaom rsuf&nfrsm;vnf; jzpfekdfifonf// odk@wnf;r[kwf xkdoli,f
oDqkdcJhaomoDcsif;. pmom;eSifh t"dy`g,f aphaqmfrSKa=umifh twdwfutvGefqkd;0g;cJhaom/
rdrdwkd@ rGefvlrsdK;. tjzpfoeSpfudk/ jyefvnf owd&/ atmif;arhrdI/ 0rf;enf;a=uuGjJ yD;
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 93

usvmonfh rsuf&nfrsm;vnf; jzpfekdifonf// xkdtrsdK;oRD;rsm;udk rqdkxm;eSifh xkdvli,f.


oDcsif;oHudk =um;rdaom u|efawmfonfyif/ =uufoD; arG;nSif;rsm; xvmrdonf//
&kd;&kd;om; 0efcH&v#if/ u|efawmfonfvnf; xkdoli,f qkdoGm;aom oDcsif;a=umifh tvGef
pdwfev S kH; xdckdufrdoGm;onf// rdrd. eSvkH;om;udk xufaom 'g;oGm;jzifh yg;yg;vGm vSD;jzwf
vkdufovkd cHpm;vdkuf &onf// xkdoDcsif;onf rGefvlrsdK;wkd@. b0 o&kyftrSefudk az:=uL;
xm;onf// rGefvlrsdK;wkd@. b0uH=urRm qdk;cJhykHudk uGufuGuf uGif;uGif; jrifvmatmif zGJ@EJ@G
odD;qkdxm;aom oDcsif;jzpfonf// uH=urRm qkd;vSwJh rGefvlrsdK;wkd@. b0jzpfpOf trSefudk
jyefajymif; owd&rdaponf// em;axmifol. &ifwGif;eSvkH;om;xJrSm/ emusnf;pdwfawG
wzGm;zGm; jzpfay:vmaponf//

xkdvli,f oDqkdaomoDcsif;(2)(3)yk'f jyD;qkH;onfhwkdif/ u|efawmfwkd@ vlpkonf/ pdwf0ifpm;pGm


em;axmif=u ao;onf// oabFmxGuf&ef tcsufay;rSyif/ xkdvli,fonf/ uref;uwef;
jzifh oabFmay:rS ckef;qif; vkdufonf// oabFmay:wGif usef&pfcJhaom/u|efawmfwdk@ vlpkudk/
jyefvnf ai;=unfh&if;/ vufjyaeonf// u|efawmfwkd@uvnf; jyefvnfjyD;/ vufa0S@&rf;jy
onf// xkdvli,fonf/ u|efawmfwkd@ vlpkudk vufa0S@&rf;jyD;/ rdrd &&SdonfhaiGa=u; tcsdK@udk
ckdifjrJpGm/ vufwGif; qkyfudkif&if; Zmojyif aus;&Gmay:okd@ ajy;v$m; wufoGm;onf//
u|efawmfwkd@vnf; obFm tay:xyfodk@ jyefwuf vmonf// oabFm tay:xyfodk@ a&muf
aomtcg/ rif;0if;xdeftm; Tokd@u|efawmfar;rdonf//
“udk0if;xdef cifAsm; 'Duav;&J@ oDcsif;udk em;axmifjyD; b,fvkdcHpm; rdovJ//
u|efawmfawmh/ wrsdK;rsdK;cHpm;rdw,f// 0rf;enf; ovkdvkda=uuGJ ovkdvkdvGrf;qGwf
ovkdvkd &ifxJrSmcHpm; rdw,f//”

udk0if;xdefuatmufygtwkdif;av;av;eufeufajz=um;vmonf//
“u|efawmfvnf; 'Dtwkdif;bJ cHpm;&w,f// oDcsif;&J@ t"dyg`,fu/ av;euf
oavmuf oDqdkwJhcav;oli,f&J@ toHuvnf;qGJiifrSK tjynfh&Sdw,f//em;axmif
ol&J@ pdwfudkqJGiif vSKyf&Sm; apedkifcJhw,f// twdwfu rGefwkd@&J@ ordkif;udk jyefvnf
owd& atmif;arh apw,f/ w=udrfwnf;rSm rGefcav;oli,ff wdk@&J@ b0uH =urRm
udku|efawmfpOf;pm;rdjyD; 0rf;enf;vkd@ rqkH;jzpfrdw,f// u|efawmfwkd@u ausmif;=uD;
rSmat;at; csrf;csrf; pmoif=um;aeekdifayrJh olwdk@rSm toufi,fi,f &G,f&G,feSifh
b0udk&kef;uefvSKyf&Sm;ae&w,f// pOf;pm;=unfh&if odyfh0rf;enf; bkd@aumif;w,f//”

wqufwnf;rSmyif/udk0if;xdefonf/av;eufaom/rSwfcsufwckudkcsvdkufonf//
“'Doli,f[m/ rGefrsdK;cspf vli,fwOD;bJ// ol&J@trsdK;om;twGuf/ rdrdwwfpGrf;aom
ae&mrS/ us&m wm0efukd ausjyGefpGm xrf;aqmif aew,fvkd@ u|efawmfjrifw,f//
94 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

rsdK;cspf oDcsif;udk oDqkdjyD;/ trsdK;om; pdwf"gwfudk/ vkdufvH ekd;aqmf aew,fvkd@


u|efawmf jrifw,f// ol@oDqkdaom/ oDcsi;f a=umifh rGeftrsdK;om;wkd@rSm twdwfukd
atmif;arhowd&jyD;/ rsdK;cspf pdwfekd;=um;/ wuf=uGvmedkifw,f˜emJ// 'Dvli,f oDcsif;
qkdaewmudkawG@awmh/ u|efawmf zwfbl;aom *smr%D vlrsdK;awG&J@ trsdK;om;
jyefvnfaygif;pnf; nDnGwfa&;/ =udK;yrf;csdefudk oGm;owd&rdw,f//”

1871-ckeSpfu *smr%DedkifiH[m/ ,ckvdk tajctae r[kwfbl; jynfe,frsm;jzifh/


tpdyfpdyftr$mr$m uJGjym;jcm;em;ae=ujyD;/wjynfe,feJ@ wjynfe,fvnf; rnDnGwf
=ubl;// tcsdK@ jynfe,frsm;[m y&&Sif; zuf'a&;&Sif (Prussian) vufatmufrSm
&Sdw,f/ tcsdK@ jynfe,frsm;[m/ jyifopf tkyfcsKyfrSKatmuf a&mufae =uw,f/
tcsdK@=uawmh/ awmifydkif;*smr%D jynfe,frsm; (States of South Germany)tjzifh
oD;jcm;zGJ@pnf; &yfwnfaew,f// tcsdK@*smr%Djynf e,frsm;rSm/ =opa=w,m
(Austria)vlrsdK;wkd@. vufatmuf a&mufae&wJh tcsdefaygh//

'Dvkdaevkd@awmh rjzpfbl;/ *smr%DvlrsdK;awGtm;vkH; nDnGwfjyD;pnf;vkH;bkd@vkdw,f/


vGwfvyfa&;twGuf =udK;yrf;bkd@vkdw,fvdk@jrifwJh/ wuUodkvfu ygarmuQwOD;
ay:vmw,f// uGJjym; ae=uwJh *smr%DvlrsdK;awGjyefvnf/ aygif;pnf;nDnGwf
=u&eftwGuf/ tJ'DygarmuQu =udK;yrf;vmawmhw,f// tJ'DwuUodkvfygarmuQu/
*smrefvlrsdK;wkd@&J@ jrifhjrwfwJh vlrsdK;jzpfwJhta=umif;/ *smrefvlrsdK;wkd@&J@ pdwf"gwfudk
jrSifhwifay;rJh trsdK;om;oDcsif;/ pnf;vkH; nDnGwfa&; oDcsif;wdk@udk oDukH; a&;pyfjyD;/
wjrdK@0if/ wjrdK@xGuf/ vkdfufvHoDqdkw,f// *smreftrsdK;om;pdwf"gwfudk ekd;aqmf
w,f// ola&;pyfwJh oDcsif;uvnf; tvGeft"dy`g,faumif;/ oloDqkdwJh oDcsif;u
vnf; tvGefaumif;awmh/ em;axmifrd=uwJh/ *smr%DvlrsdK;awG rsuf&nfus=u
w,f// 0rf;enf;=uw,f// *smrefrsdK;cspf pdwf"gwf jyefvnfx=uG ekd;=um; vm=u
w,f// tvGefjrifhjrwfwJh/ rdrdwkd@*smrefvlrsdK;u/ ,ckvkd olwyg; vufatmufrSm/
u|efwayguf b0tjzpf a&mufae&wJh tjzpfudk jyefvnfpOf;pm; vmrd =uw,f/
*smr%DvlrsdK;awG tcsif;csif;uGJjym;aevkd@ rjzpfbl;/ jyefvnf nDnGwf=ubdk@vkdw,f
qkdjyD;/ owdw&m;&vm=uw,f//

tJ'DvkdtcsdefrSm/ bpfpruf(Bismarck)4vkd/ rsdK;cspf acgif;aqmifwOD; ay:vmw,f//


bpfpruf&J@ xufjrufwJh pnf;&kH;a&; =udK;yrf; aqmif&GufrSK a=umifh/ olwyg;

4
Germany In The Age of Bismarck by W. M. Simon 943.083. sim
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 95

vufatmuf a&mufaewJ@ *smrefjynfe,frsm;[m/ wppvGwfajrmuf vm=u


w,f// ol&J@acgif;aqmifrSKatmufrSm/ uGJjym;jcm;em;ae=uwJh/ *smr%Djynf e,frsm;
jyefvnfaygif;pnf; nDnGwfvm=uw,f// wkdwkdajym&if aemufqkH;rSm/ ,ckvkd
*smr%DekdifiHudk jyefvnfxlaxmif vmekdifcJhw,f// 'Dvli,fudktJ'D*smreDu
wuUokdvfygarmuQeSifh eSKdif;,SOfjyD; u|efawmfjrifrdw,f// tvGefoabmusoGm;jyD;/
rGeftrsdK;om; vGwfajrmufa&;twGuf/ rdrdpGrf;aqmifekdifwJhzufrS/ yg0ifaqmif&Guf
aewJh/ awmfvSefa&; orm;wOD;vkd@ jrifrdw,f// csD;=uL;bkd@ tvGef aumif;w,f//
trsdK;om; twGuf tvGef wm0efauswJh rsdK;cspfvli,f wa,mufygbJ//”

u|efawmfvkH;0 rar#mfvifhaompum;udk rif;0if;xdefxHrS=um;&onf// rif;0if;xdefonf


av;av;eufeufajymqkdaeudkawG@&onf// rif;0if;xdefajymaom/ *smr%DtrsdK;om;wkd@.
trsdK;om;jyefvnfaygif;pnf; nDnGwfa&;/vSKyf&Sm;rSKordkif;udk u|efawmfvnf; zwfbl;onf//
tvGefvnf;eSpfjcdKufoabmuscJhbl;ygonf// *smr%DtrsdK; om;wkd@. pnf;vkH;nDnGwfa&;
=udK;yrf;rSKta=umif;udk usefaomrGefausmif;om;rsm;vnf; =um;bl;=uonf// vkH;0owd
r&=u/ ,ckrif;0if;xdfef eSdKif;,SOfajymjyoGm;onfudk u|efawmfwkd@tm;vkH;/ tvGefoabmus
=uw,f// rif;0if;xdefuyif qufvufI atmufyg twkdif;ajymjyefonf//

“u|efawmfwkd@rGefvlrsdK;[m/ ,Ofaus;rSK/jrihfrm;cJhw,f/ pmay/ tekynm/ bufrSm/


Arm/ xkdif;vlrsdK;wkd@xuf eSpfaygif;rsmpGm/apmcJhw,f// Armpmay/ xkdif;pmaywkd@[m
rGefpmayrS/ oufqif;vmcJhw,f// ArmvlrsdK;qkd&if/ Ak'<bmomudk;uG,frSKudk
rGefvlrsdK;xHrS&cJhw,f// 'gudkrnfolrS jiif;y,fvkdr&bl;// 'Dvkdtpp t&m&m
jrifhrm;cJwh Jh vlrsdK;wrsdK;[m/ bma=umifh/ ,ckvkd/ tjcm;aom vlrsdK;&J@/
vufatmufrSm/ zdeSdyfcHu|efb0tjzpf/ usa&mufae&ovJ// rGefpmay/pum;awG
wjznf;jznf; wdrfaum yaysmufwJh tajcudk a&mufvmw,f// wjznf;jznf;eJ@
vl&mr0ifjzpfvmw,f// rGefpum;ajym&rSm &Sufvm w,f// rGefvlrsdK;vkd@cH,l&rSm/
&Sufa=umufvm=uw,f// 'Dtcsufudk u|efawmfwkd@ ynmwwf vli,fawG/
avhvmokH;oyfbdk@vkdr,fxifw,f//”

udk0if;xdefonf/ cwWc%r# pum;udkrajymbJ u|efawmfwkd@ tm;vkH;udk tuJcwfjyD;


=unfhaeonf// u|efawmfwkd@vnf; bmrS0ifa&muf ajymqkdjcif;rjyKbJ// udk0if;xdef
qufajymrJh pum;udkom pdwf0ifpm;pGm ar#mfvifh ae=uonf// rnfolrS0ifa&muf rajymbJ
jidrfaewJhtwGuf/ udk0if;xdefonf/ rdrdajymvko
d nfhtjrifudk atmufygtwkdif; av;av;
eufeuf qufvufajymjyefonf//
96 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

“r[mArmvlrsdK;&J@ acwfopfudkvkdeD u|efjyKtkyfcsKyfrSK pepfa=umifh jzpfw,fvkd@


u|efawmfjrifw,f// 'gudk b,folrS rjiif;edkifbl;// vufopfudkvkdeDtkyfcsKyfrSK
pepfa=umifh/ rGefvlrsdK;awG/ rGefvlrsdK;tjzpf cH,l&rSmawmif/ &Suf&GH@vm=uw,f//
&Srf;vlrsdK;vnf; &Srf;vlrsdK;vkd@ cH,&l rSm &Sufa=umufvm=uw,f// udk,fhpum;udk
awmif rajymwwfjzpfvm=uw,f// udk,pfh mayudk ukd,frzwfwwfjzpfvmw,f//
rdrdwdk@pmay/ pum;udk txifjrifao; vmw,f// ArmvlrsdK;wkd@ usifhokH;wJh
'DudkvdkeD tkyfcsKyfrSKpepfopf[m/ wkdif;&if;om;vlrsdK;rsm; tm;vkH;udk wjznf;jznf;eJ@
0g;rsdKbkd@ OD;wnf;aew,f// 'Dpepfudk u|efawmfwkd@ awmfvSefypf&r,f// rGef/u&if/
&Srf;/ &ckdif/ ucsif/ csif;/ u,m;ponfh vlrdsK;wkdif;/ vlrsdK;wkdif; udk,fhvlrsdK;udk
cspfwwfwJh pdwf"gwf ay:xGef;apwJh pHepfrsdK;/ ukd,fhvlrsdK;&J@ pmay/ pum;awGudk
jrwfjrwfekd;edk; oif=um;vdkwJh pdwf"gwf &SdvmaprJh tkyfcsKyfrSK pHepfrsdK;udk u|efawmf
wkd@tpm;xkd; xlaxmif&r,f// vlrsdK;wkdif; vlrsdK;wkdif; wef;wl &nfwl wkd;wuf
zG@HjzdK;jyD; wef;wl&nfwl vGwfvyfrSK &SdwJhpHepfrsdK;udk u|efawmf qdkcsifw,f// ppfrSefwJh
zuf'&,f jynfaxmifpkpHepfukd xlaxmif&r,f//”

rif;0if;xdef ajymaeonfrSm tm;vkH;trSefjzpfaeonf// av;av;eufeuf awG;ac:jyD;


ajymaewJhtwGuf/u|efawmfwkd@ tm;vkH;u/ pdwf0ifpm;pGm em;axmif ae=uonf// wOD;
wa,mufrS 0ifazguf rajymao;bJ/ rif;0if;xdef qufajymrnfh pum;udkom/ tm&kHjyK
ae=uonf// rif;0if;xdfef uyif/ qufvufI atmufyg twdkif;ajymjyefonf//

“vufopfArmudkvkdeDtkyfcsKyfrSKpepfa=umifh/ tpkd;&ausmif;awGrSm/ rGefausmif;om;


u/ rGefpmudk roif=um;&bl;/ u&ifausmif;om; vli,fawGu/ u&ifpmayudk
roif=um;&bl;/ &Srf;uav;i,fawGu/ &Srf;pmayudk oif=um;cGifh r&bl;//
'DtkyfcsKyfa&;pHepfu/ bmpHepfvJ// 'g[mudkvdkeDpHepf r[kwfbl;vm;// t*Fvdyf
udkvkdeDtkyfcsKyfrSK atmufrSmawmif/ 'Dvkdwkdif;&if;om;wkd@&J@ tcGifha&;awG rqkH;&SKH;
cJhbl;// 'DudkvdkeDtkyfcsKyfrSK pepfopf&J@ ukd,fpm;vS,f=uD; tpdk;&ua&m bmtpdk;&vJ
udkvkdeDtpkd;& r[kwfbl;vm;// ausmif;rSm Armpm wckudkom/ oif=um; &w,f/
ArmpmwwfajrmufrS 'D*&D&r,f/ 'D*&D&rS tvkyf&r,f t&m&Sdjzpfekdifr,f//
ArmudkvkdeDpepfopfudk taxmufuljyKrJh/ cdkif;aumif;wJh u|efaumif;wa,muf
jzpfvmedkifr,f// 'gArmudkvkdeD vufopf&J@ ynma&;pepf r[kwfbl;vm;//”
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 97

udk0if;xdefonf/ pum;udkc%jzwfxm;jyD;/ u|efawmfwkd@udktuJcwf=unfhonf// tm;vkH;wkd@


updwf0ifpm;pGm em;axmifae=uonfudkawG@&ojzifh tm;wufoGm;ykH&onf// qufvufI
ajymjyefonf//

“jyifyavmuudk=unfhyg// Armpum;udk u|rf;u|rf;usifusif ajymqdkekdfifwJholu/


pD;yGm;a&;t&ukefonfyJpG m; =uD;=uD;rm;rm;jzpfvmw,f// pmyGJrSmxkdifjyD;pDrHcef@cJw
G Jh
pD;yGm;a&; vkyfief;=uD;=uD;udk OD;aqmifvkyf=uw,f// Armpum;udk &nf&nf
vnfvnf/ rajymqkdedkfifwJh/ wkdif;&if;om;vlrsdK;wkd@u/ atmufwef;uswJh pD;yGm;a&;
vkyfief;awGrSmom vkufudkifpm;aomuf ae=u&w,f// v,f,mawGGrSm/ um,
t&if;jyKjyD;/ pdkuf&/ysdK;&w,f// xGufvmwJh ukef=urf;udk/ ukefonfyGJpm;=uD;xHrSm/
tvSJvS,fjyK&w,f// ukef=urf;,l/ ukefacsmay;wJh t*FvdyfudkvdkeDpHepfa[mif;eJ@
bmjcm;ovJ// pmaytekynmvkyfief;rSm jzpfjzpf/ &kyf&Sifobifonf/ tekynm
vkyfief;wkd@rSm jzpfjzpf/ Armpum;/ Armpmwwfolwkd@ twGufomjzpfw,f//
ArmvkdajymekdifrS/ pD;yGm;a&; aumif;rGefpGm ul;oef;a&mif;0,f vmekdifr,f/
ArmvkdwwfrS/ vl&m0ifr,f ponfhrrSefuefwJh tusdK;w&m;udk jzpfay: vmap
w,f// ArmvlrsdK;udk txif=uD;/ udk,fhvlrsdK;udk txifjrifao;vmatmif zefwD;wJh
pepfjzpfw,f// Arm pum;udk txif=uD;jyD; udk,fhbmompum;udk txifjrif
ao;vmatmif/ 'Dpepfu zefwD;xm;w,f// 'grStrsdK;om; pnf;vkH;nDnGwfa&;vkd@
r[mArm udkvdkeDpepfopfu qkd=uw,f//”

udk0if;xdef ajymqkdoGm;wJhtjrifonf/ tvGefrSefuefaeaom tjrifjzpfonf// ,ae@Arm


vlrsdK;wdk@ =uD;pkd; tkyfcsKyfaewJhpepfudk ArmudkvkdeDvufopf tkyfcsKyfrSKpepfvkd@ ajymqkd&Jol
jrif&JoltvGefenf;w,f// ArmvlrsdK;wkd@.ndkjiifrSKudkcH&rnfudk pdk;&drfa=umuf&GH@jyD; ra0zef&J
=ubl;// udk0if;xdef&J&J&ifh&ifhajymqkdoGm;wJhtjrifudk axmufcHaomtaejzifh u|efawmfvnf;
atmufygtwkdif;0ifajymvkdufonf//

“udk0if;xdefajymwmrSefw,f// ArmudkvdkeDvufopftkyfcsKyfrSKpepfbJ// wjznf;jznf;


eJ@ wdkif;&if;om; vlrsdK;tm;vkH;udk 0g;rsdKrJhpepfjzpfw,f// aemufqkH;rSm ArmvlrsdK;
wkd@udk txif=uD;jyD; udk,fhvlrsdK;udk txifjrifao;wJh tajcudk qkdufa&muf
oGm;apw,f// 'geJ@ywfoufjyD; t*FvdyfudkvkdeDacwfukd jyefajymif;owd&apw,f//
t*Fvdyf acwfrSm/ t*Fvdyfpm/ t*Fvdyfpum; ajymwwfrS vl&m0ifr,f/
txufwef;v$mtodkif;0kdif;xJ 0ifqef@r,f/ &mxl;aumif;aumif;&r,f// pD;yGm;a&;
aumif;r,f/ qkdwJhtawG;ac:rsdK;0ifvmjyD; ArmvlrsdK;wkd@u t*Fvdyfpm/ t*Fvdyf
pum;udk=udK;pm;yrf;pm; vkdufpm;vm=uw,f// t*FvdyfpmeSifh t*Fvdyfpum;udk
98 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

txif=uD;vmw,f// ArmpmeSifh Armpum;udk txifjrifao;vmw,f// t*Fvdyf


vkd rwwfwJh ArmvlrsdK;wkd@udk txifao; tjrifao; jzpfvm=uw,/f/ ,ae@
wkdif;&if;om;awGrSm tJ'Db0rsdK;a&mufatmif/ ArmudkvkdeD tkyfcsKyfrSK pepfopfu
zefwD;aew,f//

rGefvlrsdK;wkd@&J@ ,ae@tajctaeudk =unfhvSsif/ rGefvlrsdK;awG[m/ pD;yGm;a&;/ pm;0wf


aea&;/ vlrSKa&; twGuf ArmvlrsdK;eSifh &ifabmifwef; ekdifatmif=udK;pm;
vm=u&if; udkf,fhvlrsdK;udk/ arhvm=uw,f// Armvkd u|rf;u|rf;usifusif ajymwwf
atmif =udK;pm;vm&if; rGefpum;ukdawmif/ ajymrwwfjzpfvm =uw,f//
ukd,fhrGefvlrsdK;pum; rGefpmoif=um;&rSef; rodjzpfvm=uw,f// 'gawGtm;vkH;[m
r[mArmudkvkdeD pepfa=umifhbJvkd@ u|efawmfjrifw,f// ausmif;rSm rGefpm
oif=um;cGifhray;bl;// Armpmwckwnf;udk oif=um;apjyefw,f// rGefvlrsdK;uav;
awG Armpmukd tcsdefay; =udK;pm;oif=um; ae&wJhtwGuf/ ukd,fhrGefpmudk
oif=um;bkd@awmif/ tcsdefray;edkfifawmhbl;// rGefpmwwfvkd@ tvkyfr&ekdifbl;/
ArmpmwwfrS tvkyf&r,f/ 'DpepfuzefwD;xm;w,f// ArmpmwwfrS vl&m0ifr,f
rGefpmwwfvkd@awmh/ bmrSt&mra&mufbl;qkdwJh tajcaersdK; qdkufvmatmif/
ArmudkvkdeD pepfopfu zefwD; xm; w,f//”

u|efawmfpum;tqkH;rSm udk0if;xdefonf/ rdrd.tjrifudk qufvufjyD; atmufygtwdkif;


av;av;eufeuf cHpm;csuftjynfheJ@ ajymoGm;jyefonf//

“,ae@ynma&;avmuudk u|efawmfwkd@ aoaocsmavhvm=unfhyg// rw&m;rSK


awGudkawG@&r,f//wkdif;&if;om; uav;i,fwOD;eSifh Armausmif;om;i,fwOD;wdk@
&J@/tajcaeuGmjcm;rSKudk txif&Sm;awG@&rnf// Armausmif;om;eSifh wkdif;&if;om;
uav;wkd@/ Armpmudk twlwl oif=um;=uwJhae&mrSm/ Arm ausmif;om;
vli,fu/ wbrf;om aew,f// Armuav;awGu/ rdrd&J@rdcif bmomrdk@
oif=um;&wm pdwf0ifpm;rSK &Sdw,f/ wwfajrmufrSK vG,fulw,f// wkdif;&if;om;
cav;awG twGufuawmh/ rdrdwkd@rdcifbmom r[kwfwJhtwGuf/ oif=um;&wm
tvGefcufcJ aew,f// pdwf0ifpm;rSK r&Sdbl;// Oyrm ArmuAsm wyk'fudk
Armuav;awGu t&om awG@awG@ &GwfqkdekdifayrJh/ wkdif;&if;om; uav;
awG@tbdk@ t"dy`g,frw Jh Jh/ uAsm wyk'fudk &Gwfqkdae&ovkd jzpfae&w,f//
bmrSt&om rawG@ekdifbl;/ =uufwla&G; tvGwf&Gwfovkd&Gwfae &w,f//”
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 99

tJ'Dawmh b,fvkd tusdK;w&m;udk jzpfay:apovJ qkd&if// Armuav;eSifh


wkdif;&if;om; uav;awG/ twef;xJrSm pmtqifhwef; uGmjcm;vmw,f//
Armuav;awG twef;pmtm;vkH;udk vG,fvG,fulul oif=um;ekdifjyD;/ pmar;yGJudk
tvG,fwul ajzqkdatmifjrifekdif=uw,f// atmifrSwf aumif;w,f// wkdif;&if;om;
uav;awG usawmh twef;pmrSm redkifreif; jzpfvmw,f// twef;pmnHhzsif; vm
w,f// pmar;yGJrSmusqkH;rSKrsm;vmw,f// atmif&ifvnf; trSwfaumif;aumif;
r&jzpfvmw,f// q&m0efvkdif;wkd@udkr&ekdifbl;// 'Dynma&;pHepfudk aoaocsm
okH;oyf=unfh&if/ wkdif;&if;om; ausmif;om;awGtbdk@ teSdrfcHae&w,fqdkwm
xifxif&Sm;&Sm; awG@&r,f// vl@tcGifha&; rnDr#rSKudk jyaew,f//

aemufqkH;rSm wkdif;&if;om;awG pmrwwfol vlOD;&rsm; vmw,f// ArmvlrsdK;rSm


pmwwfwJh vlOD;a&rsm;vmw,f/ tvkyfusawmhvJ/ pmrwwfwJhtwGuf/
wkdif;&if;om; awG[m/ atmufwef;uswJh/ pma&;/ pmcsD/ ulvD tvkyfrsm;udkom
&ekdfif=ujyD;/ ArmvlrsdK;usawmh/ ynmwwfw,fqkdwJh/ t&nfcsif;wckeJ@t&m&Sd/
t&mcHawG jzpfvm=uw,f// &mxl;=uD;=uD;rm;rm; awGudk&=uw,f// tJ'Dawmh/
csKHjyD;ajym&&if/ wkdif;&if;om;awGu/ atmufwef;uswJh pma&;pmcsDulvD/tvkyfudk
vkyf=u/ ArmvlrsdK;awGu/ =uD;=uD;;rmpwm ocifawGjzpf/ oufom ZdrfuswJh
tvkyfudkvkyf/ &kH;um;udk ZdrfcHpD;/ vufatmuf wkdif;&if;om; awGukdcdkif;/
eSdrfjyD;qufqH/ t&m&SdyDyD trdef@ay;// vpmusawmh/ wkdif;&if;om; tvkyform;
wOD; &wJhvpm;xuf/ tq(100)ru&=uw,f// 'g[m wkdif;&if;om; awGudk/
u|efvkyf/ *kwfcGpD;xm;wJhpHepf r[kwfbl;vm;//ArmudkvdkeDvufopfr[kwfvm;//”

udk0if;xdefpum;udkem;axmif&wm/ t&omawG@vGef;vkd@ u|efawmfwdk@ ausmif;om;


wpkonf/ rnfolr#rvSKyf&Sm;bJ/ jidrfjidrfoufouf tm;&kHjyK em;axmifae=uonf//
udk0if;xdef vnf; rdrdajymvkdwJh ta=umif;&mawG rukefao;ojzifh qufvufjyD;
atmufygtwkdif; ajymoGm; jyefonf//

“ArmvlrsdK;eJ@ wkdif;&if;om;awG/ vlaerSKb0tqifhwef;awG/ tvGefuGm[mrSK


jzpfvmw,f// qif;&Jwmu wkdif;&if;om; csrf;omwmuArmawG jzpfvmw,f//
'g[m/ wkdif;&if;om;awGudk/ aoG;pkwfu|efjyKaewJhpHepf r[kwfbl;vm;/ 'g[m
vufopfArm udkvkdeDpepfr[kwfbl;vm;// 'gudku|efawmfwkd@ ynmwwfvli,fawG
wkdufzsufjypf&r,f// Arm ausmif;om;jzpfjzpf/ 'Dtcsufjrifwwf&r,f// rw&m;
wmudk u|efawmfwkd@vli,fawG/ vkH;0vufrcH&bl;/ rSefuefwJhpepfudk xlaxmif
&r,f// tem*gwf wkdif;jynf&J@ =urRm[m/ u|efawmfwkd@ vli,fvufxJrSm &Sdw,f//
100 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

twdkcsKyfajym&if ,ckacwfrSm rdrdwdk@wkdif;&if;om;pmayawG wwfu|rf;jyD;


acwfrSDwJh ekdifiHwum acwfrSDtwwfynmawGudkvnf; oif=um;I &ygw,f//
ArmpmwwfrS r[kwfygbl;// 'gudkArmtpkd;&u rsufaphydwfxm;w,f// Armpm
wwfrS/ Armpum;wwfrS rif;wkd@t&m&Sd t&mcHjzpfr,f// &mxl;aumif;aumif;
&r,fqkdjyD;/ ArmudkvdkeD tkyfcsKyfrSK pepfopfu zefwD;xm;w,f// 'Denf;eJ@
wkdif;&if;om; pmayawG oif=um;cGifhray;bl;/ wdk;wufcGifhray;bl;// wkdif;&if;om;
awG rsufaphyGifhvmrSm udka=umufae=uw,f// wkdif;&if;om;awGudk u|efrvkyf&rSm
a=umufae=uw,f//”

udk0if;xdef. pum;onf tvGefav;eufaom/ tawG;tac: t,ltqrsm;ygaeonf//


u|efawmfwkd@ rpOf;rdwJh awG;ac:rSKawGudkvnf; tusdK;ta=umif; ckdifckdifvkHvkHeJ@/ okH;oyfjyD;
a0zefoGm;onfrSm/tvGefwefbdk;&Sdonf// pdwf0ifpm;bdk@ tvGefaumif;onf// rnfolwOD;r#/
0ifa&mufajymqkdjcif;rjyKbJ/ udk0if;xdefqufvuf ajymqkdvmrnfh ta=umif;&mudkom
ar#mfvifhae=uonf//

“u|efawmfajymqdkwJh tcsufawGudk aoaocsmcsm prf;ppf=unfh&If rSeu f ef


aewmawG@&r,f// ynma&;/ pD;yGm;a&;a=umifh vkH;yrf;&if;/ rGefvlrsdK;wkd@[m/
wjznf;jznf;eJ@ udk,fbmom pum;udkawmif rajymwwfawmhbl;// rGefppfppf
jzpfjyD; rGefpum; rajymwwfolawG/ 'keJ@a'; &Sdvmw,f// u|efawmfwkd@vkd rGefawG
jzpfvmw,f// rGefpum;udkrajymwwfwcGef;/ ajymwwfwcGef;jzpfvmw,f//
tJ'Duwqifh rdrdukd,fudk rGefvlrsdK;vdk@awmif rcH,lcsif=uawmhbl;// rGefvlrsdK;vdk@
ajym&rSm &Sufvmw,f// tJ'grSm;w,f// rGefvlrsdK;wOD;[m/ Armpum; wwf&kHeSihf
udk,fhudk,fudk ArmvlrsdK;vkd@ cH,l=ubkd@ rvkdygbl;// Armpum;udkom ajymjyD;/
udk,fhrGefvlrsdK;pum;udk ajym&rSm &Sufw,f/ qkdwJht,ltq[m rrSefuefbl;//
udk,fhvlrsdK;pum; rwwfwJholom/ &Sufbkd@ aumif;w,fqkdwm jrif&r,f//
ukd,fhvlrsdK;pum;udk rajymbJ/ Armpum;udk ajymwJhvl[m/ Armvdk [efaqmif
aumif;aewJh vlwOD;omjzpfr,f// Armppfawmh rjzpfedkfifbl;// [efaqmif ae&wJh/
rdrd&J@tjzpfudk jrifwwfbkd@/ &Sufwwfbkd@vkdw,f//”

udk0if;xdefpum;tqkH;rSm/ udkxGef;azvnf; rdrd.tjrifudk atmufygtwkdif; 0ifa&muf


ajymqdk oGm;w,f//
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 101

“yifudk,ftm;jzifh/rnfolrqkd udk,fhvlrsdK;udk udk,fcspfwm=uD;bJ// bmjzpfvkd@,ckvkd/


udk,fhvlrsdK;tjzpfudk cH,l&rSm &Sufa=umufjyD;/ Armvlrsdk; jzpfcsifae=uovJ//
bmjzpfvkd@ ukd,fhvlrsdK;udktxifao;jyD;/ ArmvlrsdK;udk txif=uD; ae=uovJ qkdw/Jh
ta=umif;&if;udk odbkd@vkdr,f// w&m;cHtppfudk jriffbkd@vdkw,f// w&m;cHtppf[m/
ukd0if;xdef ajymoGm;ovkd@/ r[mArm vlrsdK;=uD;0g'a=umifh jzpfw,f// Arm
udkvkdeDtkyfcsKyfrSK pepfopfa=umifh jzpfw,fqdkwmb,folrSrjiif;edkifbl;// 'Dpepfudk
u|efawmfwkd@ wkdif;&if;om; jynfolawG tm;vkH; pkpkpnf;pnf; nDnD nGwfnGwfeJ@
wkdufzsufypf=ubkd@vkdr,f//”

u|efawmfvnf; raeedkifawmhbJ/ atmuf.ygtwkdif; yg0ifaqG;aEG; ajymqkdrdvmonf//

“rGefvlrsdK;jzpf&if/ rGefpum;/rGefpmwwfajrmufatmif/ =udK;pm;&r,f// rGefvlrsdK;[m


rGefvlrsdK;bJjzpf&r,f// ArmvlrsdK;wOD;tjzpf [efaqmifjyD; udk,fhudk,fudk
txif=uD;pdwf0ifaewmxuf rGefvlrsdK;wOD;jzpf&wm*k%f,l=uprf;yg// rGefvlrsdK;wkd@
rSm *k%f,lp&m ta=umif;&mawG trsm;=uD; &Sdygw,f//
(1) Ak'<omoemudk yXrOD;pGm udk;uG,f&wJ@vlrsdK;/ Ak'<.qHawmf&SifudkyxrOD;pGm
&&SdwJhvlrsdK;/ a&$wd*kHbk&m;tm; wnfxm;udk;uG,fcw Jh J@vlrsdK;//
(2) pmaytekynmbufrSm/ Arm/ xkdif;vlrsdK;wkd@xufrsm;pGm apmw,f// Armpm/
xkdif;pmaywkd@[m/rGefpmayudktajccHjyD;rS/wDxGifvmaom pmayawGjzpfw,f//
(3) qef/ pyg;udk/ ajruGufaz: pdkufysdK;enf;/ a&oGif; pdkufysdK;enf; pepfwdk@udk/
yxrOD;pGm pwiftokH;jyKcJw h Jh vlrsdK;jzpfw,f// pkdufysdK;a&;enf;pepfopfudk
ta&S@awmif tm&SrSm yXrOD;pGm/ pwiffpkdufysdK;jyD;/ tjcm;vlrsdK;rsm;udk
ynmay; cJw h JhvlrsdK;//
(4) t&nf;=uD;&[ef;rsm;udk okwfoifz,f&Sm;jyD;/ ArmjynfrSm rSefuefaom/
Ak'<omoemtppf ay:xGef;vmatmif/ omoemjyKcJw h Jh &[ef;oljrwf/
&Siftm&[H[m/ rGefvlrsdK; jzpfw,f// t&nf;=uD; &[ef;udk udk;uG,fjyD;
t,lwdrf;ae=uwJh ArmvlrsdK;wkd@udk u,fwifay;wJhvlrsdK;//
(5) *gr%dw&kwfol&Jauif;udk/ 'g;vSH,SOfjydKifxkd;jyD; tekdif,lekdifcJhwJh ol&Jaumif;
ordefA&mH[m/ rGefol&Jaumif;jzpfw,f// rGefol&Jaumif; ordefA&mH u,fwif
ay;vkd@ ArmvlrsdK;awG/ w&kwfwkd@&Jhu|efcH&rJhb0rSvGwfajrmufcJh=uw,f//
(6) &mZ0ifordkif;udk avhvm&if/ rGefvlrsdK;[m/ tvGefopPmckdifjrJwJh vlrsdK;/
opPmpum;udk apmifhxdef;wJhvlrsdK;/ owWdAswWd tvGefaumif;wJhvlrsdK;/ Om%f
ynmxufjrufwJhvlrsdK;// ponfhxl;jcm;wJh *k%fawG&Sdw,f// 'geJ@ywfoufjyD;
rGefol&Jaumif;/ Anm;v*Gef;tdefukd axmufjyD; oufaojy ajymekdifw,f//
102 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

Anm;v*Gef;tdef[mbk&ifrif;acgif. OD;acgif;udk udk,fwkdif ykdif;jzwf ekdifvifhupm;


bk&if&J@ bk&m;pifay:u wifxm;wJh qGrf;wvkyfukd pm;rdwJhtwGuf/ bk&if&J@
*k%faus;Zl;udk odwwfaomtaeeJ@ bk&ifudkrowfawmhbJ jyefvmcJ@w,f//
'gawGudk taxmufxm;jyekdifw,f// rGefvlrsdK;wdk@rSm/ *k%f,lp&m tcsufawG/
trsm;=uD;&Sdw,f// 'gawGudk *k%f,lwwf&r,f// ukd,fhvlrsdK;udk cspfjrwfekd;
wwfvmatmif/ rsdK;cspfpdwf"gwf jyefvnfekd;=um;vmatmif vkyfbkd@vkdw,f//
*smr%Du wuUodkvf ygarmuQvkd yk*~dKvfvlrsdK; u|efawmfwkd@ rGefvlrsdK;xJrSm
ay:vmbkd@ vkdaew,f//”

u|efawmfh.pum;tqkH;rSm/ udk0if;xdefonf/ rdrdajymvdkao;aom t,lqudkrqdkif;rwG


atmufygtwkdfif;qufvufajymqkdoGm;jyefonf//

“rGefvlrsdK;wpfOD;u udk,fhrGefvlrsdK;udk txifao;jyD;/ ArmvlrsdK;udktxif=uD;atmif


zefwD;wJhpepf[m rSefuefygovm;// okd@r[kwf/ rGefvlrsdK;wpfOD;u rGefvlrsdK;udk
txif=uD; wwfatmif/ cspfjrwfekd; wwfatmif/ *k%f,lwwfatmif/ oif=um;
ay;wJhpepfu rSefuefygovm;qkdwm pOf;pm;=unfhyg// todOm%f&SdwJhvlwkdif;
em;vnfekdifw,f// trSefu/ udk,fhvlrsdK;udk cspfatmif/ udk,fhvlrsdK;&J@ pmay/ pum;
w@dkudk cspfjrwfekd;wwfatmif tm;ay;wJh tpkd;&pHepfrsdK;jzpf&r,f// ekdifiHawmf
zGJ@pnf;ykH pHepfrsdK; jzpf&r,f// ,ckvuf&Sd tpdk;&pHepfu udk,fhvlrsdK;&J@ pmay/ pum;
tekynm&yfrsm;udk txifjrifao;apjyD;/ Armpmay/ Armpum; Armtekynmudk
txif=uD; vmatmif oif=um;ay; aew,f// vlrsdK;wrsdK;u tjcm;vlrsdK;wrsdK;udk
0g;rsdKbkd@ =udK;pm;wJh pHepfjzpfaew,f// vufopf udkvkdeDpHepfbJ// 'DpHepf[m
rrSefuefbl;/ wkdif;&if;om;tcsif;csif; nDnGwfapwJh pHepfr[kwfbl;// tcsif;csif;
pdwf0rf;uGJapwJh pHepfjzpfae w,f//

wkdif;jynfuawmh wjynffaxmifvkd@ trnfcHxm;ayrJh/ 'Dwkdfif;jynfxJrSm aexkdif


=uwJh vlrsdK;awGu tcsif;csif; rnDnGwf=ubl;// wpdwfw0rf;xJ rjzpfbl;// wdkuf=u
ckduf=u/ &efyJGawG jzpfae=uw,f// rqkH;ekdifwJh jynfwGif;ppf jzpfae&w,f//
vlwrsdK;wrsdK;u tjcm;vlrsdK;wrsdK;udk 0g;rsdKae&w,f// zdeSdyfae=uw,f// u|efjyK
aew,f// tJ'Dawmh wjynfaxmifvkd@ b,fvkdbJ/ atmfajymaeae/ tpdyfpdyf
trGmrGm uGJaewJh wkdif;jynfbJ jzpfaerSmbJ// jyifytjrifrSmawmh wjynfaxmifpkbJ/
twGif;rSm jy\emaygif;pkH/ yÉdyuQaygif;pkHeJ@ tcsif;csif;wkdfufcdkfufae=uw,f// 'gudk
wjynfaxmifpkvkd@ vkH;0rac:ekdifbl;//”
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 103

udkxGef;azvnf; rdrdajymqkdvkdaomtjrifudk atmufygtwkdif; pdwftm; xufoefpGm xyfrH


yg0if aqG;aEG;oGm;jyefw,f//

“udk0if;xdfef ajymwm u|efawmf vkH;0 axmufcHw,f// 'ga=umifh u|efawmfwkd@


ynmwwfwJh vli,fawG rGefausmif;om; Armausmif;om; u&if ausmif;om;
&Srf;ausmif;om;awG pkaygif;nDnGwfjyD; 'DrrSefuefwJh/ rw&m;wJh pepfqkd;udk
wkdufzsufypfbdk@vkdw,f// rSefuefwJhpepf zuf'&,fpepfudk xlaxmif =u&r,f//
wefwlaom wdkif;&if;om;jynfe,frsm;jzihf zGJ@pnf;&r,f// wdkif;&if;om;awG
jynfe,ft& cGJjym;jcm;em;ygap/ udk,fhtcsif;csif;u/ wpdwfw0rf;xJ&SdwJhb0rsdK;/
nD&if;tpfudk uJhokd@cspfcif=ujyD;/ wrdom;pk pdwf"gwf&SdwJhb0rsdK;udk/ u|efawmf
wkd@u vkdvm;csifw,f// rGefuvnf;ArmvlrsdK;udkcspfcifw,f// ArmvlrsdK;uvnf;
rGefvlrsdK;udkcspfcifw,f// tJ'Dvkdb0rsdK;udkvkdcsifw,f// wef;wl&nfwl&SdwJh b0rsdK;udk
jzpfcsifw,f/// pmay/ pum;awG trsdK;rsdK;uJGjym; =uygap// tcsif;csif; wef;wl/
&nfwl/ =unf=unfjzL/jzL cspfcspfcifcif &if;&if;eSD;eSD;eJ@ aysmfaysmf&$if&$if ae=uwJh
b0rsdK;udk/ u|efawmfwdk@ ausmif;om;vli,fawGu vkdvm;w,f// trnftm;jzifh
wkdif;jynfu wjynfaxmif/ pdwf0rf;u trsdK;rsdK; uGJjym; aewmrsdK; udku|efawmf
wkd@ rvkdvm;bl;// jynfe,ft&uGJygap/ pdwf0rf;u wckxJ&Sdwmudk u|efawmfwkd@u
vkd vm;w,f//

yef;aygif; rsdK;pkH/ yGifhvef; aewJh/ yef;O,smOf vkdaygh yef;aygif; rsdK;pkH ta&mifrsdK;pkH/


yef;awG&SdayrJh/ O,smOfu wckxJaygh/ b,favmuf om,mvkdufrvJ/ tckawmh
ArmvlrsdK;u wudk,faumif;qefqef/ yef;O,smOfwckvkH;rSm/ Armyef;wrsdK;bJ
&Sifoef yGihfvef;apcsifw,f// tjcm;yef;awGudk yGifhvef;cGifhray;bl;// okwfoifypfbkd@
=udK;pm;w,f// yef;wrsdK;wnf;u O,smOfwckvkH;udk v$rf;rdk; cs,fvS,fcsifw,f//
'Dwudk,faumif;qefrSK[m rSefyghovm;// wkdif;&if;om; tm;vkH;u acgif;ikHaejyD;
vufcH &rvm;//”

u|efawmfwkd@ tm;vkH;onf ukdxGef;az ajymoGm;wJh t,lqtjrifudk tvGefoabmus


eSpfjcdKufvGef;ojzifh u|efawmfwkd@ txJu ausmif;om;wOD;/ eSpfOD;u rrSefuefbl;/
vufrcHekdifbl;/ ab;rS 0kdif;ajymjyD; udkxGef;az. pum;udk axmufcHrSK ay;=uonf//
udk0if;xdefuvnf;jyKH;jyD; udkxGef;azudk tm;ay;onf// u|efawmfwkd@ pum;0kdif;onf
pnf;um;vmonf// ukd0if;xdefonfvnf; ydkrdkpdwftm;wuf=uG vmykH&onf// atmufyg
twkdif; qufvuf ajymqkdoGm; jyefonf//
104 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

“ukd,fhvlrsdK;vGwfajrmufa&; twGufwkdufyGJ0if aewJholudk/ tjrifusOf;ajrmif;wJ/h


vlrsdK;vdk@ pGyfpGJ ajym=u jyefw,f// usOf;ajrmif;wJh tjrif &SdwJh vlrsdK;qkdwm/
ukd,fhvlrsdK;udk txif=uD;r,f// tjcm; vlrsdK;udk txif ao;r,f// jyD;awmh/
udk,fhvlrsdK;udk txif=uD;&kHrubl;/ tjcm; vlrsdK;awGudkyg/ udk,fhvlrsdK;udk udk;uG,f
txif=uD; vmatmif vkyfwJhvlrsdK;udk ac:wm// 'grdk@ usOf;ajrmif;wJh tjrif[m
r[mArm 0g'DawGrSmom&Sdw,f// zdeSdcHae&wJh wkdif;&if;om; vlrsdK;awGrmS
usOf;ajrmif;wJh tjrifr&Sdbl;// w&m;aomtjrif/rSefuefwJhtjrifbJ olwkd@rSm&Sdw,f//
zdeSdyfcHae&wJhb0rS/ vGwfajrmufatmif/ &kef;uef vSKyf&Sm;rSK rSeforSs[m/ rSefuef
w,f// w&m;rSsww,fvkd@bJ/ u|efawmf ajymcsifw,f// 'Dvdk vGwfajrmufa&;
twGuf wkdufyGJ0ifaewJh vlrsdK;awGudk usOf;ajrmif;wJhtjrif &Sdolvkd@ b,fvkdvkyf
ajymvkd@&rvJ// trSefrSmjrifhjrwfwJhtjrif&SdolbJjzpf&r,f//

r[mvlrsdK;=uD;0g'Dorm;awGrSmom/ usOf;ajrmif;wJhtjrif&Sd=uw,f// ArmvlrsdK;udk


avhvm =unfh&if usOf;ajrmif;wJh tjrifudk awG@ekdifw,f// ArmvlrsdK;awG[m/
udk,fhvlrsdK;udk txif=uD; r,f// udk,fhvlrsdK;udk olwyg; txif=uD;atmif vkyfcsif
w,f// olwyg;udk;uG,fatmif vkyfcsifw,f// Armordkfif;udk=unfhv#if Ttcsufudk
awG@&r,f// ArmvlrsdK;udk rdk;ay:uusvmwJh/ rkd;usa&$udk,fuJhodk@ tvGeftu|H
csJ@xGif a&;om;=uw,f// wkdif;&if;om;/ rGef/ &ckdif/ &Srf;/ ucsif/ csif;/ u&if/ u,m;
vlrsdK;awGta=umif;udk txifao; tjrifao; a&;om;=uw,f// ordkif;rSm
rGefvlrsdK;/ &ckdifvlrsdK;/ &Srf;vlrsdK;wkd@ taa=umif;udk ckeSdrfjyD; tvGefrw&m; a&;om;
=uw,f// wkdif;&if;om;vlrsdK; awG[m/ ,Ofaus;rSK/ edyfhuswJhvlrsdK;/ Armudk
cpm;&wJhvlrsdK;/ Armudk armfr=unfh&JwJhvlrsdK;/ ArmvlrsdK;omv#if wu,fh
vlpGrf;aumif;/ owWdAswWdeSifh jynfhpkHwJhvlrsdK;/ bkef;wHckd;eSifhjynfhpkHwJhvlrsdK;/ jrifhjrwfwJh
omuD0if rif;rsdK;rif;EG,fqkdjyD; trsdK;rsdK;tvGeftr$ef;wif a&;om;=uw,f//
Armhpmay/ Armhpum;udk/ tjcm;wkdif;&if;om; vlrsdK;awG roifrae&/
vkyfxm;w,f// Armpmrwwf&if tcGifha&;trsdK;rsd; qkH;&SKH; apw,f// wdkif;&if;om;
pmayudk trsdK;rsKd; ydwfyifwm;jrpfw,f// rGefpmay/ &ckdifpmay/ u&ifpmay/
&Srf;pmay/ xGef;um;rSmudk enf;enf;rS rvkdvm;=ubl;// wdkif;&if;om;pmayawG
xGef;um; vmjyD;/ wkdif;&if;om;awG todw&m;wkd;wuf vmrSmudkrvdkvm;
=ubl;// tJ'Dtjrif[m/ r[mvlrsdK;=uD; 0g'tjrifvnf;jzpfw,f// usOf;ajrmif;wJh
tjrifvnf;jzpfw,f// wudk,faumif;qefwJh tjrifvnf;jzpfw,f// tJ'Dtjrif
[m/ r[mArmvlrsdK;=uD; 0g'DawGrSmom&Sdw,f// zdeSdyfcHae&wJh wdkif;&if;om;
vlrsdK;wkd@rSm tJ'DtjrifrsdK;r&Sdbl;//”
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 105

udk0if;xdef.pum;tqkH;rSm u|efawmfwkd@ tm;vkH;u/ 0kdif;0ef;jyD;/ vufckyf/ vuf0g;wD;jyD;


tm;ay; jyefonf/ ab;vlrsm;vnf; u|efawmfwkd@ vltkyf &Sd&mudk0kdfif; =unfh=uonf//
rif;0if;xdefonf rdrd. &ifxJrSm &Sdaeonfh/ cHpm;csufudk/ yGifhyGifh vif;vif; ajymvdkuf&I/
tvGefauseyf tm;&aeykH ay:aeonf// udk0if;xdef ajymqkdoGm;wJhtay: axmufcHonfh
taejzifh u|efawmfuvnf; atmufygtwkdif; ajymqkdvkdufonf//

“'Duae@ac:qdkaewJh jrefrmedkifiHwckvkH;udk ArmvlrsdK;/ wrsdK;wnf;u urBmhOD;rS


tpjyKjyD; pdk;rdk;tkyfcsKyfvmcJhw,f// ArmvlrsdK;wrsdK;wnf;u ydkifqdkifcJhw,fqdkwJh
oabmrsdK;eJ@ tcsdK@Armorkdif; pmtkyfawGrSm a&;om;xm;=ujyefw,f// tjcm;
wkdif;&if;om;/ rGef/ &ckdif/ &Srf;vlrsdK;wkd@ukd rw&m; usL;ausmf0ifa&muf aexkdif
ae=uwJh vlrsdK;awGtjzpf owfrSwf=uw,f// wkdif;&if;om; rGefvlrsdK;/ &ckdifvlrsdK;/
&Srf;vlrsdK;awG udk,fhwkdif;jynf/ udk,fha'orSm at;at;csrf;csrf; tkyfcsKyfrif;vkyf
aewmukd/ wdkif;jynf&J@ ql;anSmifh cvkwfuoif;awG/ wkdif;jynf&J@ &efnSdK;&efpG,f
awGtjzpf owfrSwfjyD; oGm;a&muf wkdufcdkufw,f// rGef/ &ckdif/ &Srf;e,fajrwkd@udk
t"rRe,fcsJ@ odrf;ydkufcJh=uw,f// vufatmufcH vkyfcJh=uw,f// 'DvkdoGm;a&muf
wdkufcdkufwm rSefuefw,fvkd@ ajym=ujyefw,f// &ckdifjynf/ rGefjynfwkd@udk
wdkufckdfufjyD;/ e,fcsJ@edkifcw
Jh Jh/ Armrif;awGudk/ ol&Jaumif;tjzpf tr$ef;wif a&;om;
=uw,f// rw&m;oGm;a&muf wdkufcdkfufodrf;ydkufcJhwJhrGefjynf/ &ckdifjynfwkd@udkvnf;/
rdrdwdk@&J@ bkd;bGm;ydkifqkdifwJh ypPnf;tjzpf owfrSwfxm;vkduf=uw,f// jyD;awmh/
rGefvlrsdK;/ &ckdifvlrsdK;/ &Srf;vlrsdK;wdk@udk ArmvlrsdK; wkd@&J@tEW&m,f/ wdkif;jynf&J@
&efpG,ftjzpf owfrw S fjyD; rsdK;jyKwfatmif owfcJhw,f// 'Dtcsufudk/ rSefeef;
&mZ0ifudk =unfh=unfh/ ukef;abmif &mZ0ifudk =unfh=unfh awG@ekdifygw,f//

txufyg u|efawmfajymaomtjrifudk axmufcHaomtm;jzifh udk0if;xdefonf atmufyg


twkdif;ajym=um;jyefonf//

“ArmvlrsdK;u/ tm%m&xm;awmh/ rdrdwdk@pdwf=udKuf&mZ0ifudk a&;om;=uw,f//


tJ'Dvdk rdrdwkd@pdwf=udKuf jyKjyifajymif;vJjyD; a&;om;xm;wJh ordkif;udk ausmif;om;
awGudk oif=um;apjyefw,f// ausmif;om;/ vli,fawG udktwif; t"rR/
oif=um;apjyD;/ rSm;,Gif;wJhtjrifudk oGwfoGif;=uw,f// wkdif;&if;om;ausmif;om;
awGuvJ/ pmar;yGJ atmifcsifawmh/ tJ'DrrSefuefwJh ordkif;udk =udK;pm;oif=um;
&w,f// wjznf;jznf;eJ@ ArmvlrsdK;udk txif=uD;jyD; udk,fhvlrsdK;udk txifjrifao;
vm=uw,f// udk,fhvlrsdK; tjzpfudk cH,l&rSmudk &Sufa=umuf vmw,f// 'DvkdeJ@/
106 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

rGefvlrsdK;/ &cdkfifvlrsdK;/ &Srf;vlrsdK;/ u&ifvlrsdK;/ u,m;vlrsdK;vdk@ udk,fhukd,fudk


ajym&rSm &Sufvmw,f// vlrsdK;yaysmuf vm=u w,f//”

udk0if;xdefonf/ pum;udk wcsuf&yfwef@vkdufjyD; em;axmifaewJh u|efawmfwkd@ tm;vkH;udk


tuJcyf =unfhvkdufjyefonf// tvGef pdwf0ifpm;jyD;/ tm&kHpkdufem;axmifaeonfh
u|efawmfwkd@ rsufeSmudkawG@&aomtcg tvGefauseyfoGm;onf// ukd0if;xdefajymoGm;wJh
ta=umif;&m/ tcsufvufwkd@[m tvGefrSefuefaeonf// A[kokw jzpfp&mvnf;
tvGefaumif;aeojzifh u|efawmfwkd@tm;vkH;u udk0if;xdefudkqufvufjyD; ajymapcsif
ae=uonf// udk0if;xdefajymr,fh pum;udkomqufjyD; em;axmif vkdae=uonf//
udk0if;xdefonf atmufygtwkdif; qufajym jyefonf//

“tcsdK@Armpma&;q&mawG/ ya'o&mZftawG;ac:wkd@ vuf0,f odrf;ydkufxm;qJ


bJ&Sdw,f// r[mArmvlrsdK;=uD;0g'udk/ 0dkfif;0ef;umuG,f ae=uw,f// zuf'&,f
pHepfudk qef@usifjyD; trsdK;rsd; a&;ae=uw,f// zuf'&,fpHepf xlaxmif&if/
wkdif;&if;om;awG tm;vkH; wkd;wufzGH@jzdK; vmedkifr,f// ArmvlrsdK;eJ@ wef;wl
jzpfvmr,f// 'gudk rvkdvm;=ubl;// tJ'D vkdvGJrSm;wJh t,lqawG Armpma&;
q&mtcsdK@&J@ OD;acgif;xJ 0ifa&mufaew,f// wukd,faumif; qefwJhtawG;tac:eJ@
usOf;ajrmifwJhtjrifeJ@ touf&Sif ae=uw,f// 'grdk@ zuf'&,f pHepfudk raumif;wJh
pHepf wkdif;jynfudk jydKuGJapwJhpHepfvkd@/ 0kdif;0ef;/ vdrfvnffjyD;a&;om; ae=uw,f//
wkdif;jynfjydKuGJbdk@/oD;jcm;cGJxGufbdk@/ b,fwkdif;&if;om;urS rvkdvm;bl;// oD;jcm;
bk&if/ oD;jcm;rif;jzpfcsifwJh/ ya'o&mZfacwfutawG;ac:rsdK;awGvJ/ wkdfif;&if;om;
awGrSm r&Sdawmhbl;// wef;wlyl;aygif;a&;udkajymae=uwmjzpfw,f// wkdif;&if;om;
tm;vkH;wef;wl tcGifha&;&SdwJh zuf'&,f jynfaxmifpkpHepf xlaxmifbkd@wkdufyJ0G if
awmif;qkdaewmjzpfw,f// ,ae@jynfaxmifpkpHepfu ArmvlrsdK;wrsdK;wnf;udkom
aumif;pm;apw,f// tjcm;wkdif;&if;om;awGudk *kwf*GpD;xm;wJh pHepfjzpfw,f//
rw&m;vGef;vkd@/ wef;wlrSK r&SdvGef;vkd@ a&G;cs,f p&mvrf; r&Sdvkd@ cGJxGufa&;udk
awmif;qkdvm&w,f// 'Dtjrifudk ArmvlrsdK;wkd@ &Sif;&Sif;vif;vif; jrifbkd@vkdw,f//”

u|efawmfvnf; udk0if;xdef.t,lqudk axmufcHaomtm;jzifh atmufygtwkdif;ajymvkduf


onf//

“udk0if;xdefajymwmawG tm;vkH;rSefw,f// acwfumv ajymif;vJaejyD;/ ya'o&mZf


acwfu tjrifrsdK;vJ/ rnfolrS r&Sdawmhbl;// udk,fhrif;/ udk,fhbk&ifeJ@ oD;jcm;urBmh=uD;
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 107

xlaxmifvkdwJhtjrifrsdK;vJ/ wkdif;&if;om; vlrsdK;wkd@rSm r&Sd=uawmhbl;// cGJxGufa&;udk


rnfolrS rvkdvm;awmhbl;// wdkif;jynfudktpdyfpdyf trGmrGmuGJapwJh tjrifrsdK;vJ/
b,folrSr&Sdbl;// wef;wlyl;aygif;a&;eJ@ wef;wltcGifha&; twGufawmif;qkd wkdufyGJ0if
ae=uw,fvkd@ u|efawmfjrifw,f// wdkif;&if;om;tm;vkH; ArmvlrsdK;tyg0if wkd@udk
wef;wl nDr#wJh tcGifha&;ay;ekdfifwJh taumif;qkH;pHepf[m/ zuf'&,fpepfvkd@
wdkfif;&if;om;acgif;aqmif awGujrifw,f// tJ'Dvkd wef;wl tcGifha&;twGuf awmif;qkd
aewJh wkdif;&if;om; acgif;aqmifwkd@udk/ cGJxGufa&;orm;vkd@ ArmvlrsdK;wkd@u rw&m;
pGyfpJaG jymqdk ae=uw,f// 'ga=umifh rvkdvm;tyfwJh jynfwGif;ppf jzpfae&w,fvkd@
u|efawmfjrifw,f//”

u|efawmfhpum;tqkH;rSm/udk0if;xdefuatmufygtwkdif;ajymqdkoGm;jyefonf///

“jrefrmedkifiHudk zuf'&,f jynfaxmifpk pHepfeJ@xlaxmifr,fqdk&if/ zuf'&,f


pHepftwGif;&Sd/ wkdif;&if;om;tm; vkH;wef;wl tcGifha&;&Sdvmr,ff// wkdif;&if;om;
vlrdsK;awG vGwfvGwfvyfvyf wkd;wufzG@HjzdK; cGifh&vmr,f// wdkuf=uckduf=uwJ@
jynfwGif;ppfvnf; tqkH;owfoGm;r,f// wkdif;jynf =uD;vnf; at;csrf;om,m
vmr,f// wkdif;&if;om; tcsif;csif; nD&if;tpfudkuJ@okd@ cspfcifvm=ur,f//
wkdif;&if;om; pmayawG wkd;wufzG@HjzdK;vmr,f// wkdif;&if;om;awG ynmA[kokw
awG =uG,f0vmr,f// tzufzufrSm wkd;wuf=uD;yGm;vmr,f// tJ'Daumif;uGuf
rsm;udk rjrif=ubl;// wudk,faumif;qef pdwf"gwfeJ@ usOf;ajrmif;wJh pdwf"gwfudk
tajcHcHjyD;vufopf/ r[mArm udkvdkeDpHepfudk tumtuG,fay; ae=uw,f//
zuf'&,fpHepf[m/ wdkfif;jynfudk tpdyfpdyf trGmrGmuGJapwJh pHepfqdkjyD; rrSefruef
0g'jzef@ a&;om; ae=uw,f// zuf'&,f jynfaxmifpkpHepf aumif;ygw,f qkdjyD;
axmufcH a&;om;wJh Armpma&;q&mqdkvkd@ wpfa,mufrS ray:vmbl;//
ArmudkvkdeDtkyfcsKyfrSKpHepf[m raumif;bl;vkd@/ a&;wJhArm pma&; q&mqdkvJ
wa,mufrSr&Sdbl;//

u|efawmfwkd@tm;vkH;u/ rif;0if;xdef pum;tqkH;wGif/ 0kdif;0ef;jyD;/ vufckyf vuf0g;wD;jyD;/


axmufcHrSKay;=ujyefonf// rSefw,frSefw,fvkd@vnf; ygpyfuajymjyD;axmufcHrSKay;=uonf/
xkdpOfvlwa,mufonf/ oabFmOD;cef;rS/xGufvmjyD;/ u|efawmfwkd@tm;/ q&mawmf
OD;ynm'Dy/ uawG@vkda=umif;ajymonf// ol@udkolvnf; u|efawmfwkd@eSifh rdwfqufonf//
olonf/ aumhbdef;aus;&GmrS/ q&mawmf OD;ynm'DyeSihf twlvkdufygvmaom/ 'um
jzpfonf// q&mawmfonf/ armfvjrdKifwGif udpP&SdI oGm;a&muf aqmif&GufjyD;aemuf/
,ckreuf armfvjrdKifrS aumhbdef;&Gmokd@ jyefvmonf[k od&onf// q&mawmfeSifh/
108 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

'umrsm;onf/ oabFmOD;cef;/ txl;wef;wGif vkdufygpD;vm =uojzifh/ u|efawmfwkd@


vltkyfowdrxm;rdjzpfcJh=uonf// q&mawmfOD;ynm'Dyudk/ u|efawmf emrnftm;jzifh
odu|rf; &if;eSD;aeonfrSm/ =umjyD;jzpfonf// 'gayrJhvludk,fwkdifwcgbl;rSs/ rawG@&ao;acs/
&if;eSD;rSKvnf; r&Sdao;yg// OD;ynm'Dyonf/ rGef&[ef;oHCm todkif;t0kdif;wGif/ tvGef
emrnf=uD;aom/ q&mawmfwyg;jzpfonf// rGe&f [ef;awmfrsm;jzpf=uaom/ edkifodCF/
edkifygvdwwkd@uJhokd@yif/ trsdK;om;ta&;wGif/ tvGefemrnf=uD;rm;aom/ yk*~dKvfyifjzpfonf//
rGeftrsdK;om;xk w&yfvkH;u/ txl;av;pm; =unfndKjcif;udk cH&onfhyk*~dKvf jzpfonf//
ynmwwf tausmftarmf wOD;vnf;jzpfonf// usrf;aygif;ajrmufrsm;pGmudk jyKpka&;om;
cJhaomyk*~dKvfwOD;jzpfonf// 4if;tjyif/ &mrn"rRp&d,tzGJ@. twGif;a&;rSL;wm0efudkvnf;
,lxm;oljzpfonf// acwfopf/ aumhbdef;/ rGefpmoif=um;enf;opfudkwDxGif;a&;om;&mrSm
t"duyk*~dKvfvnf;jzpfonf// xkdq&mawmf OD;ynm'Dyudk/ vludk,fwkdif awG@vkdjrifvkd
aeonfrSm/ =umjyD;jzpfonf// tcGifhr=uKHcJhI r&if;eSD;cJhygacs// ,ckrl awG@qkH &if;eSD;cGifh/
zl;arsSmfcGifh&onfhtwGuf tvGef0rf;ajrmuf0rf;omjzpfrdonf// u|efawmfwkd@ vltkyfonf/
q&mawmf&Sdaom/ oabFmOD; txl;cef;xJokd@ 0ifa&mufoGm;=uonf// q&mawmftm;/
=unfndkzl;arsSmf=uonf// tvGefOy"d&kyfaumif; rGefonf/ udk,fcE<m tawmftoifh
0[ef&Sdonf// usef;rm oefpGrf;aom ukd,fcE<m&Sdonf// tvGef=unfnkdbG,f&m &kyf&nf
vuQ%meSifh jynfpkHonf//
“rif;wkd@armfvjrdKifaumvdyfurGefausmif;om;awGvm;/”
[kq&mawmfonf/rGefbmompum;jzifh/csdKompGm/u|efawmfwkd@vltkyfpkudkar;onf//
“wynf@awmfwkd@u/ aumvdyfausmif;om;vJygw,f// txufwef;ausmif;u
ausmif;om;awGvnf; ygw,f/bk&m;//”
vkd@u|efawmfuyif&kdaopGmajz=um;onf//
“b,fudkoGm;=urvkd@vm;/”
“aumhbdef;&GmbJ/oGm;=urvkd@yg/bk&m;/”
“udpeP J@vm;/odk@r[kwftvnfoufoufvm;/”
“tvnfvmwm r[kwfygbk&m;/ ausmif;om;tzGJ@tpnf; udpPeJ@vm
w,fbk&m;// aumhbdef;aus;&Gm/ rGefausmif;ol§om;toif; zGJ@pnf;bkd@
vma&muf pnf;&kH;jcif; jzpfygw,f bk&m;//”
u|efawmfu vma&mufonfh &nf&G,fcsufudkajymjyonf// q&mawmfu atmufygtwkdif;
ar;jref;vmjyefw,f//
“aumhbdef;&GmrSm/tod&Sdovm;/b,fol@udkodovJ//”
“u|efawmfwkd@ausmif;aebuf/aumvdyfausmif;om;rif;cspfvkH;/rif;tkH;wifwkd@
&Sdygw,fbk&m;/ olwkd@eJ@u|efawmfwdk@/ csdef;xm;jyD;rSvmwmjzpfw,f bk&m;//”
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 109

“'Dvkdqdk/ ausmif;udkvmvnf=utkH;/ ausmif;rSm uxdefcif;&Sdw,f//”[k


q&mawmfuzdwf=um;onf//
“[kwfuJhygbk&m;”vdk@
u|efawmfwkd@tm;vkH;onf/jyefvnfajz=um;onf//
“'geJ@/ tckeifu/tjyifbufrSm/ a[majymaewJhol[m/ b,folvJ/ odyfh
a[majym aumif;wmbJ// tcsuftvufvJ/ tawmfjynfhpkHw,f//”
q&mawmfonf/u|efawmfwkd@vltkyfudk=unfhjyD;ar;vkdufonf//
“u|efawmfygbJ/q&mawmfbk&m;//”
rif;0if;xdefu/rGefvkdryDrojzifhajz=um;onf//
“rif;b,f&GmuZmwdvJ”
“usKHu'gwfaus;&Gmuygbk&m;// rdbeSpfyg;pvkH;[mrGefyg/ ausmif;q&m jzpf=uw,f
bk&m;// u|efawmfusawmh/ rGefpum; aumif;aumif; rajymwwf jzpfaew,f//
u|efawmfhudk,f u|efawmfvnf; tawmf&Sufae rdw,fbk&m;// usKHu'gwf
aus;&GmwckvkH;/ Armjzpf=uukefjyD;// Armpum;vkdbJ ajym=uawmhw,f//
rGefvkdajym=uwm enf;vmjyD;/ rGef&Gmuae/ Arm&Gm jzpfvmawmhr,f// tvGef
0rf;enf;bkd@ aumif;w,f/ bk&m;//”

q&mawmfonf/ rif;0if;xdef.pum;ukd =um;rdaomtcg/ tvGef0rf;enf; oGm;[efwlonf/


atmufygtwkdif;trdef@&Sdvmonf/

“'kd@rGefvlrsdK;&J@b0u tvGef0rf;enf;=ubkd@ odyfaumif;w,f// rGefvlrsdK; rvGwfvyf


ao;orSsawmh/ 'DvkdbJ jzpfaerSmbJ// rGefvlrsdK; awG/ rGefpum; rwwf/ rGefpmrwwf
jzpfvm=ur,f// rGefvlrsdK;awG/ udk,fhuH=urRm udkf,fzefwD;cGifh&bdk@/ ololigig/ =udK;pm;
=ubdk@ vkdw,f// rif;wkd@ckeifu ajymqdkaewmawG tm;vkH;[m/ trSef=uD;bJ//
'Dpepf rrSefuefrSKa=umifh wkdif;&if;om; tcsif;csif; pdwf0rf;uGJae=uw,f// wOD;udk
wOD; rkef;ae=u w,f// wpdwfw0rf;rjzpf=ubl;// tcsif;csif;owfjzwfae=uw,f//
q&mawmfwkd@u/ tcsif;csif;owf=u/ jzwf=uwmudk rjzpfapcsifbl;// nDnD
nGwfnGwf jzpfapcsifw,f// rSsrSsww jzpfapcsifw,f// rGefvlrsdkK;/ u&ifvlrsdkK;/
&Srf;vlrsdK;/ ArmvlrsdkK; tm;vkH;[m/ wef;wl/ nDwljzpfapcsifw,f// udk,fhuH =urRm
udk,fhzefwD;=u/ wa,mufudkwa,muf/ tekdifusifh/ cs,fvS,f wmrsdK;
r&Sdapcsifbl;// rGefvlrsdK;wdk@vufeufudkif awmfvSefa&;p&wmvnf;/ wef;wlwJh
tcGifha&; awG r&vkd@/ udk,fhuH=urRm/ udk,fzefwD;cGifh r&vkd@ xawmfvSef=uwmbJ//
rGefvufeufudkfifawmfvSefa&; pwif/ jzpfay:cJh&wJhta=umif;udkrif;wkd@vJ/ =um;bl;
rSmaygh//”
110 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

“=um;bl;em;0avmufbJ&Sdw,f//aoaocsmcsmta=umif;pkHudk rodygbk&m;//”
rif;0if;xdefuaxmufIajymqkdonf//q&mawmfbk&m;uatmufygtwkdif;&Sif;jyonf//

“rGefawmfvSefa&;tp/ Zmojyifaus;&Gmuvkdk@ qkdxm;w,f// ckeifu 'dk@jzwfausmf


vmwJh/ Zmojyifaus;&Gmu/ pw,fvkd@ ajymprSwf jyK=uw,f// ta=umif;u 'Dvkdyg/
rGefvlrsdK;awG/ oD;jcm;rGefjynfe,f awmif;wmudk/ zqyv tpkd;&u/ ray;bl;// rGef
ArmeJ@ twlwlbJ qkdjyD;ray;bl;// tjcm;wkdif;&if;om;awGukd jynfe,f ay;aomfvJ/
rGefvlrsdK;udk ray;bl;// rGefacgif;aqmifrsm;udkvnf;/ trsdK;rsdK; vkdufvH jcdrf;ajcmufw,f/
zrf;qD;w,f/ owfjzwfw,f/ 'geJ@ &kd;&kd;om;om;enf;eJ@ awmif;,lvkd@r&&if/ &wJhenf;eJ@
'kkd@wkdufyGJ0ifr,fqkdjyD;/ rGefvlrsdK;awG vufeufudk pkaqmif;=uw,f// rGefvlrsdK;wkd@rSm/
u&ifvlrsdK;vdk/ vufeufudkif wyf&if;r&Sdbl;// vufeufcJ,rf; rD;ausmufr&Sdbl;//
tJ'DtcsdefwkH;u vufeufudk 0,f,lvkd@vJ rvG,fbl;// 'geJ@vufeufudk &wJhenf;eJ@
&SmazG pkaqmif;,lbdk@ rGefacgif;aqmifawG t=uHxkwf=uw,f// aus;&GmrSm/ &Sd=uwJ/h
ykvdyfpcef;udkjrifw,f// aus;&Gm&Sd ykvdyfpcef;ukdtwif;0ifpD;jyD;/ ykvdy&f J@ aoeyfrsm;udk
odrf;ykduf,lbkd@/ ekdifvSarmif/ ekdifaiGodrf;/ekdifa&$usifwkd@ut=uH&w,f// 'geJ@ekdifyef;omudk
acgif;aqmifapjyD;/ aoeyfrsm;udk pkaqmifapcJhw,f//(1948-ckeSpf/ Zlvkdif(20)ae@/)
1309-ckeSpf 0gacgifvjynfhrSm/ edkifyef;om/ Adkvfodef; (xkH;tkdif&Gm) wdk@eSpfa,mufeJ@
rGef&Jabmfuav;(30)wkd@[m vufeuf(3)vufeJ@ 'DZmojyifaus;&Gm/&Jpcef;udk twif;
0ifa&mufpD;jyD;/ &Jrsm;xHu/ vufeufcJ,rf; rD;ausmufrsm;udk odrf;,l&&SdcJh=uw,f//
'DvkdeJ@ rGefvlrsdK;wkd@&J@ vufeufudkifawmfvSefa&;udk pwifcJh=uw,f// ekdifyef;om/
Adkvfodef;eSJ@ vufeufrygbJ/ vkdufoGm;wJh rGef&Jabmfuav;(30)wkd@udk tvGefcsD;=uL;bdk@
aumif; w,f// trsdK;om;twGuf/ toufpGef@jyD; vkyf=uwmbJ// tvGefowWd&Sdw,fvkd@
qkd&r,f// tJ'D 1309-ckeSpf0gacgifvjynfhae@/ 1948-Zlvkdif(20)&ufae@udk rGefvlrsdK;wkd@&J@
awmfvSefa&;ae@tjzpf owfrSwfcJh=uw,f// 'Dae@&ufudk eSpfpOfeSpfwkdif; rGeftrsdK;om;
vufeufudkifawmfvSefa&;ae@tjzpf/ usif;y cJh=uw,f//”

q&mawmfonf/ pum;udkt&Snf=uD; ajymqkd&ojzifh/ tenf;i,farmoGm;[ef&Sdonf/ acwW


c%rSs/ pum;rajymbJ wdwfqdwfvSsufaeonf// ta0;rSm usef&pfcJhaom/ Zmojyif&Gmudk
vSrf;=unfhaeonf// q&mawmfonf/ tvGefa0;vHaom/ twdwfutjzpftysufrsm;udk
txift&Sm;/ jyefvnfjrifa,mifae[efwlonf// twdwfwcsdefu jzpfysufcJhonfh rGefvlrsdK;
wkd@.ta=umif;udk jyefajymif;owd&I/ pdwfrcsrf;ajr@rSK jzpfrd[efwlonf// bmrSrajym
ao;bJ/ ta0;wae&mqDudkom pkduf=unfhaeonfudk awG@&onf// xkdtcsdefwGif vkdufyg
vmaom'umonf/ qGrf;pm;csdefa&mufjyD;jzpfa=umif;/ q&mawmftm; avsSmufxm;onf//
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 111

q&mawmfonfvnf;/ oabmwlonfh[ef/ bmrS jyefrajymbJ/ qdwfqdwfaeavonf//


u|efawmfwdk@ vltkyfeSihf 'umonf/ q&mawmftwGuf/ qGrf;rsm;ukd 0,fcsrf;jcif;/
o,faqmif jyifqifjcif;rsm;udk vufnD/wufnD vkyfaqmif=uonf// jyifqifI jyD;jynfhpkH
aomtcg/ q&mawmftm; qGrf;uyf=uonf// q&mawmfonf/ qGrf;udk bkrf;ay;&if;/
wcGef;peSpfcGef;pqkdovkd/ pum;udkajymjyD; u|efawmfwkd@ vlpkudk ar;jref;aeavonf//
q&mawmfonf/ qGrf;toifhwifh bkrf;ay;ygonf// q&mawmf qGrf;bkrf;jyD;Ivnf;/
u|efawmfwkd@ vlpkonf/ q&mawmf. oabFmOD;tcef;rSmyif qufvuf aeavonf/
q&mawmfeSihf tvmypum;ajymqkd&if; c&D;twlwleSifcJhonf// aumhbdef;aus;&Gmokd@
nae(2)em&DavmufwGif a&muf=uonf// aumhbdef;&Gm/ ausmif;'um 'umrrsm;u
oabFmqdyfwGif pka0;a&muf&SdaejyD; q&mawmftm;/ =udKqkd=uonf// u|efawmfwkd@
vltkyfpkudkrl/ csdef;qkdxm;onfh twkdif;/ udkcspfvkH;eSihf udktkH;wifwkd@u vma&muf
=udKqkd=uonf// xkdaemuf u|efawmfwkd@vltkyfudk/ udkcspfvkH;.tpfudk(wkdfif;&if;aq;q&m)
tdrfwGifwnf;ckd=uonf// aemufwae@wGif/ aus;&Gm&Sd ausmif;om;vli,frsm;udk pka0;jyD;/
tpnf;a0;usif;yonf// tpnf;a0;odk@ aumhbed f;aus;&Gm&Sd vli,frsm;wufa&muf vm=u
onf// 4if;wkd@txJrSm/ rif;a&$odef;(edkfifa&$odef;)ygonf[k u|efawmfxifygonf// odk@aomf
twdtus u|efawmfrrSwfrdI tckdiftrmrajym&Jyg//

yxrOD;pGm tpnf;a0; ac:,l&onfhta=umif;&if;udk/ u|efawmfwkd@u &Sif;vif;wifjyonf//


,ae@ tajctaet&/ rGefausmif;ol§om;toif;udk zGJ@pnf;&ef tvGefvkdtyf aea=umif;
wkd@udk yg&Sif;vif;wifjyonf// ausmif;om;tm;vkH;u/oabmwl=uonf// toif;zGJ@pnf;&ef
vnf;/ pdwftm;xufoef=uonf// Tokd@jzifh trsm;qENeSifhtnD/ aumhbdef;aus;&Gm/
rGefausmif;ol§om;toif;udkzGJ@pnf;=uonf// aemufae@wGif u|efawmfwkd@vltkyfpkonf/
q&mawmf OD;ynm'DyrSm=um; xm;onfhtwkdif; q&mawmfausmif;odk@ oGm;=uonf//
q&mawmftm; zl;arSsmf=uonf// uxdef;cif;tvSLrSm yg0ifcJh=uonf// tvGefpnfum;
odkufjrdKufaom uxdefcif;yGJjzpfonf// aumhbdef;&Gmol/ &Gmom;wkd@onf tvGefo'Ngw&m;
=unfjzLolrsm;jzpf=uonf// vma&muf=uaom y&d\wf taygif;wkd@udk/ apwem
tjynfheSifh{nfhcH au|;arG;=uonf// tvGefpdwfapoemjzLpifjyD; az:a&Golrsm;jzpfonf//
u|efawmfwdk@vltkyfpkudk vkdavao;r&Sdatmif/ {nfhcHau|;arG;=uonf//aemufae@ reufwGif/
u|efawmfwkd@vlpkonf/ aumhbdef;aus;&Gmudk/ 0rf;enf;pGm eSKwfquf xGufcGmvmcJh
&avonf// u|efawmfwkd@. pnf;&kH;a&;c&D;onf/ atmifjrifcJhonf[k qdk&ayrnf/
rGeftrsdK;om; v/Gwfajrmufa&; vufeufudkfif awmfvSefa&;twGuf/ aumhbdef;&GmwGif
awmfvSefaomausmif;om;rsdK;aphaumif;rsm;udk ysdK;axmifay;ekdif cJhav onf//
112 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

tcef;(5)
Armausmif;om;or*~uGefz&ifh/ OD;oGif.rGefjynfe,fqef@usifqENjyyGJ/
rGefjynfe,faz:xkwfa&;rGefvlxkqENjyyGJ=uD;/ wkdifwvkH;tdrfydkif&Sif/
rGefpHoltkwf*l/ppfwyfrStm%modrf; rmHaw;(c)rif;atmifxGef;/
ekdifausmfat;eSifhaqG;aeG;cef;/(7)Zlvkdifta&;cif;/ rGefausmif;om;awmckd&ef/
xkH;tkdif&GmaEG&moDoifwef;/jidrf;csrf;a&;urf;vSrf;csuf/
awmwGif;ukd,fpm;vS,feSifhedkifa&$usif&efukefa&muf/
1961-ckeSpf pufwbFmv(30)&ufrS atmufwkdbmv(4)&ufae@txd ArmjynfvkH;qkdif&m
ausmif;om;rsm; or*~ (Auo)uGefz&ifhudk&efuek fjrdK@ t"dywdvrf;r=uD;ay:&Sd ausmif;or*~
taqmuftOD;Y usif;yrnfjzpfonf// xkduGefz&ifhokd@ wufa&muf&ef/ armfvjrdKifaumvdyf
ausmif;om;or*~rS udk,fpm;vS,frsm;udk a&G;cs,f=uonf// aumvdyfausmif;om; or*~
tzGJ@0if rif;azodef;/ udkaZmf0if;/ rif;udkOD;(acsmif;qkH)eSifh armfvjrdKifc&dkif ausmif;om;or*~rS
udkwifat;wkd@onf/nDvmcHokd@ wufa&muf&ef udk,fpm; vS,frsm;tjzpf a&G;cs,fcH&onf//
nDvmcHY/ 'Drkdua&pDa&;/ trsdK;om;ynma&;/ uarmufur ynma&; zsufodrf;a&;/
jynfwGif;ppf tqkH;owfa&;/ jynfwGif; jidrf;csrf;a&; wnfaqmufa&;wkd@udk tus,fw0ifh
aqG;aEG;cJh=uonf// edkifiHwumtajctae/ ausmif;om; or*~wkd@. vSKyf&Sm;rSK udpP&yf
rsm;udk us,fus,f jyef@jyef@ aqG;aEG; cJh=uonf// 4if;nDvmcHwGif/ ausmif;om; acgif;aqmif
udkouf(Auo/ 'kOuUX)/ udkwifxGef; (Auo/ twGif;a&;rSL;)/udkAaqGav;(wuo/ OuUX)
udkvSa&$(wuo/ twGif;a&;rSL;)/ rtrmat;/ ukdpkd;0if; (vlxkOD;vS/ a':trmwkd@.om;)/
&Jabmfom'kd;(&ckdif)ponfh ausmif;om; acgif;aqmifrsm;pGmeSihf awG@qkH &if;eSD; cJh&onf//
xkdnDvmcHtjyD;wGif/ u|efawmfwkd@ausmif;om; tm;vkH;onf/ 0ef=uD;csKyf OD;ektdrfodk@csDwuf
jyD;oGm;a&mufqENjy=uonf//jynfwGif;ppftqkH;owfa&;/jynfwGif;jidrf;csrf;a&; wnfaqmuf
a&;twGuf awmif;qkdcJh=uonf// ynmp&dwfwkd;jrSifhokH;pGJ&ef awmif;qkdcJh=u onf// ppfp&dwf
avsmhcs&ef awmif;qkdcJh=uonf// xkdpOfu wuUokdvf/aumvdyf ausmif;om; rsm;wkd@onf/
edkifiH.ta&;udpPk/ rdbjynfolwkd@.ta&; udpPwkd@udk rdrdwkd@eSifh wkduf&kdufaomf4if;/ okd@r[kwf/
oG,f0dkufIaomf4if;/ oufqdkfif aeonf[k cH,lxm;=uonf// wkdif;jynf. ta&; rdb
jynfol wkd@.ta&; udpPonf ausmif;om; udpPjzpfonf[k cH,lonf//

1962-ckeSpf ZEMm0g&Dv (14)&ufae@wGif/ yxptpdk;& ukefoG,frSK wkd;wufa&;Xme 0ef=uD;


OD;oGifrS =uD;rSL; usif;yaom/ rGefjynfe,f qef@usifa&; yxpvlxk qENjyyGJ w&yfudk/
armfvjrdKifjrdK@ jynfawmfom yef;jcHwGif usif;y&ef pDpOf=uonf//
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 113

4if;qENjyyJGokd@/ armfvjrdKifjrdK@&Sd rdb jynfolrsm;eSifh e,ft&yff&yfrS rdbjynfolrsm; wuf


a&muf=u&ef/ OD;oGifwkd@tzGJ@rS =uD;=uD;us,fus,f pnf;&kH;vSKyfaqmfxm;onf// txl;ojzifh
rGefjynfol vlxkawG aexkdifaom/ usdKuRa&me,f/ rk'kHe,f/ bDvl;u|ef;/ acsmif;qkHe,fwkd@rS
jynfolawGwufa&muf=u&efvnf; pnf;&kH;vSKyfaqmfxm;onf// tcsdK@aome,fa'o wkd@rSm
rGefjynfolvlxkudk vSnfhpm;jyD; pnf;&kH;vSKyfaqmfxm;=uonf// rGefjynfe,fvkdcsif&if/
OD;oGifvlxk qENjyyGJodk@ wufa&muf=u&ef vSnfhpm;jyD;vSKyfaqmf=uonf[k =um;od&onf//
OD;oGif. rGefjynfe,fqef@usifa&; vlxkqENjyyGJudk wkdufzsuf&eftwGuf/ armfvjrdKifc&dkif
rGefausmif;om; vli,ftoif;rS qkH;jzwf=uonf// OD;oGif.vlxk qENjyyGJodk@ jynfol
vlxkrsm; rwuf a&muf&eftwGuf/ te,ft&yfodk@oGm;jyD; vSKyfaqmf=u&ef u|efawmfwkd@
pDpOf=uonf// armfvjrdKifc&dkif rGefausmif;om; vli,ftoif;rS toif;om;rsm;
'wf(pf)qef;um;(3)pD; tjynfhjzifh oGm;=uonf// armfvjrdKifaumvdyf ausmif;om;or*~
OuUX udk=unfjrifh(rdcifrSmxkH;tkdifoljzpfonf)vnf; u|efawmfwkd@eJ@twl vkdufygoGm;onf//
yxrOD;pGm rk'kHjrdK@odk@ oGm;a&muf vSKyfaqmf=uonf// xkdrSwqifh 0ufwJwHcGefwdkifokd@
oGm;=uonf// xkdrSwqifh/(7)acGawmif udk jzwfausmfjyD; usdKuRa&mjrdK@ odk@oGm;I
vSKyfaqmf=uonf// xkdrSwqifh armfvjrdKifjrdK@odk@ oGm;I jrdK@ay:&Sd rdbjynfol vlxkudk
vSKyfaqmf=ujyefonf// OD;oGifqef@usifa&; w&m;vSnfhvnf a[majym=uonf// OD;oGif.
jynfe,fqef@usifa&; vlxkqENjyyGJodk@ rwufa&muf=u&ef edSK;aqmfwkdufwGef;=uonf//

armfvjrdKifjrdK@wGif OD;oGifeSihf yxptzGJ@acgif;aqmifrsm;/ tpnf;a0;usif;y&m/ rdkif'guGif;


ae&modk@yif oGm;a&mufjyD; OD;oGifqef@usifa&;w&m;udk toHcsJ@pufjzifhu|efawmfwkd@
oGm;a&muf a[majym=uonf// armfvjrdKifaumvdyf/ ausmif;om;or*~OuUXudk=unfjrifh
onf/tvGefa[majymaumif;oljzpfonf// OD;oGiftm; trsdK;rsdK; ykwfcwfa0zef a[majym
oGm;onf// xkdodk@OD;oGifwdk@ tpnf;a0; usif;yaeaom ae&mudk oGm;a&mufjyD;/ OD;oGiftm;
wkdufckduf qef@usifjyD; w&m;a[moGm;onfudk OD;oGifrS vkH;0rauseyfjzpf oGm;onf//
rGefausmif;om;rsm;. tjyKtrltay: rauseyfaom OD;oGifonf/ rGefausmif;om;
acgif;aqmifrsm;udk w&m;pGJrnf[k jcdrf;acsmufvmonf// xkdpOfu ukefoG,fa&;Xme 0ef=uD;
OD;oGifonf/ 0ef=uD;csKyf OD;ekjyD;vSsif/ yxptpkd;&wGif/ tm%mt&SdqkH; yk*~dKvfwOD; jzpfonf//

1962-ckeSpfZEMm0g&Dv(14)&ufwGif usif;yaom rGefjynfe,f qef@usifa&; OD;oGif.vlxk


tpnf;a0;yGJokd@/ (rGefjynfe,fay;rnf/ tpnf;a0;wuf=u)[k/ vdrfvnfjyD; ac:aqmif
vmaom/ rGefvlxk tenf;i,fom wufa&mufvm=uonf// xkdae@Y OD;oGifonf/
jynfol@&Jabmf t0wfpm;0wfqifjyD; rdef@cGef;ajym=um;cJhonf// Tae@Y Tt0wfpm;ukd
a&G;cs,fjyD; 0wfaom OD;oGif. pdwfxJY t"dy`g,frsm;pGm&Sdonf// 1948-ckeSpfrGef-u&ifwkd@
armfvjrdKifjrdK@udkodrf;pOfwGifOD;oGifonf/ usdKuRa&mjrdK@. jrdK@ydkifjzpfaeaomtcsdefjzpfonf//
114 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

xkdpOfurGef-u&ifwkd@onf armfvjrdKifjrdK@eSifh tjcm;jrdK@aygif;rsm;pGmwkd@udk odrf;ykdufekdifcJhonf//


odk@aomfusKduRa&mjrdK@wjrdK@udkrl rodrf;ydkufbJ csefxm;cJh=uonf// Tonfudkta=umif;jyKjyD;/
OD;oGifonf rdrdeSifh jynfol@&Jabmfwkd@u owWd&Sd&Sd ckcHwkdufckduf umuG,fcJhonfhtwGuf/ rGef-
u&ifvufxJokd@ usKduRa&mjrdK@ruscJhonf[k tjrJwrf;*k%f,l 0ihf=uGm;ajymqdkcJholjzpfonf//
xdk@a=umifhusduRa&mjrdK@udk umuG,fcJhonfhtcsdefu ol0wfcJhaom/ jynfol@&Jabmft0wfpm;
udkwrifwum 0wfqifcJhjcif;jzpfonf// xkdvlxktpnf;a0;wGif/ OD;oGifonf atmufyg
pum;udk rmefygyg ajymoGm;onf//

(armfvjrdKifjrdK@udk/ wvufrrSrxdeJ@/ xdvSsif rD;yGifhoGm;rnf)

[lI vufwD;qkwf vufarmif; qef@wef;I tm;&yg;& rdef@cGef; ajym=um; cJhonf//


rGefjynfe,fxJokd@ armfvjrdKifjrdK@udk rxnfhoGif;&ef jyif;jyif;xefxef uef@uGufajymqkdonf//
OD;oGif. rdef@cGef;xJwGif/ 1948-ckeSpf rGef-u&ifwdk@ armfvjrdKifjrdK@udk odrf;ydkufjyD;
aomif;usef;cJh=uykH/ qdk;oGr;f cJh=uykHwdk@udk tus,fw0ifhxnfhoGif; a[majym oGm;onf//

xkdokd@ OD;oGifu rGefjynfe,f qef@usifa&; rdef@cGef;udk tm;&yg;& a[majymaeonfhtcsdefrSm/


armfvjrdKifc&kdif rGefausmif;om; vli,frsm;toif;. OuUXrif;azodef;/ armfvjrdKifaumvdyf
ausmif;om; or*~OuUX rif;=unfjrifheSifh aumvdyfrGeftoif; trSKaqmif/ rif;xGef;vSKdif
(urm0uf)wkd@u OD;oGifqef@usifa&;/ pm&Gufpmwrf;awG/ ausjimcsufawGudk ajAmifajAmif
wif;wi;/ vltkyf=um;0ifjyD; jzef@a0cJhonf//

Ttjzpfudkowif;axmuf/ekdifyef;atmif(rif;xGef;az.OD;av;)/ owif;axmufekdifwifat;
(uanSmf/ aemifrGefjynfe,f aumifpD0if)eSifh weoFm&D owif;pm t,f'DwmcsKyfudk
=unfjrvGifwkd@ (3)OD;u/ &ifwrrjzifh/ pkd;&drf=uD;pGm tajcaeudk ab;rSaeI tuJcwf
apmifh=unfh ae=uonf// &kef;&if;qefcwf jzpfedkfifonf[k olwdk@u pdk;&drf ae=uonf// OD;oGif
qef@usifjyyGJodk@ usKduRa&mjrdK@e,frSm rGefjynfolvlxk tenf;i,fvnf; wufa&muf=u
onfudk awG@&onf// 4if;wkd@u/ rGefjynfe,f ay;rnfxifI vlxktpnf;a0;udk wufvm
rda=umif; ajymjy=uonf// xkdodk@OD;oGifrS rGefjynfe,f qef@usifa&; vlxkqENjyyGJ usif;yjyD;
aemuf r=umcifrSmyif/ rGefjynfe,f tjrefqkH; taumifxnfaz: ay;bkd@twGuf vlxk
tpnf;a0;yGJ=uD;w&yfudk usif;y&ef rGefjynfe,ftvkyfnDnGwfa&; aumfrwDrS pDpOf=uonf//
1962-ckeSpf/ azaz:0g&Dv(22)&ufae@wGif/ armfvjrdKifjrdK@/ jrLeDpy,fO,smOfY rGefjynfe,f
tvkyfnDnGwfa&; aumfrwDrS =uD;rSL;jyD; tzGJ@aygif;pkH yg0ifaom/ rGefjynfe,f axmufcHyJG
jynfol vlxkqENjyyGJ w&yfudkusif;y=uonf//
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 115

4if;vlxktpnf;a0qENjyyGJwGif/ yxptrwf/ a':eSif;vSu obmywdtjzpf aqmif&GufjyD;/


yrnw/rS &Jabmfatmifxl;u tcrf;em;rSL;tjzpfaqmif&GufcJhonf// xkdtpnf;a0;wGif/
tpnf;a0;obmywdrS rdef@cGef; ajym=umonf// xkdaemuf rGejf ynfe,f tvkyfnDnGwfa&;
aumfrwDobmywd/ rGef"gwkrSvnf; rdef@cGef;ajym=um;oGm;onf// tjcm;aom wkdif;&if;om;
udk,fpm;vS,frsm;vnf; rdef;cGef; ajym=um; oGm;onf// &ckdifwdkif;&if;om; ukd,fpm;vS,f
yg0ifonf// 4if; vlxkqENjyyGJwGif/ rGefjynf olvlxk/ odef;oef;csDI wufa&mufyg0ifcoJh nf//
bDvl;u|ef;rS edkfifoef;wifwkd@ OD;aqmifaom rGefvlxk=uD;onf/ oabFmrsm;/ armfawmfbkwf
rsmjzifh toD;oD;vm=uonf// armfvjrdKifjrdK@ urf;em;vrf; wavsSmufwGif/ pka0;a&muf
&Sdvmaom/ rGefvlxk. tiftm; tvkH;t&if; onf/ urf;n$wfrSs jynfheSuf aeonf// xkdrS
wqifh jrLeDpy,f O,smOfodk@ nDnmzszs wef;pD oGm;=uonf// wef;pD csDwuf oGm;pOf
(rGefjynfe,f csufcsif;ay;)(rGefjynfe,f csufcsif;ay;)[k wcJeuf a=uG;a=umf oGm;=uonf//
rGefvltkyf=uD;. a=uG;a=umfoH/atmf[pfoHonf/ armfvjrdKifjrdK@ wckvkH;udk wkef[D;oGm;
apcJhonf// xkduJhokd@yif/ usdKuRa&m/ rk'kH/ urm0uf/ uavmhaomh/ uGmefvSm/ oHjzLZ&yf/ yi/
u&kwfyd/ aumh'Gwf/ vrdkif;aus;&Gmwkd@rS rGefjynfolvlxkwkd@onf/ um;eJ@4if;/ &xm;eJ@4if;/
pdwftm;wuf=uGpGmtpnf;a0;yGJodk@wufa&mufvm=uonf// tpnf;a0;odk@ wufa&muf
vm=uaom rGefvlxk=uD;onf/ urf;ajcokd@ vdrfhI vdrfhI wufvmaom 'Da&vSKdif;=uD;yrm
jrLeDpy,f O,smOf=uD; wjznf;jznf; tdItdI 0ifa&muf vm=uonf// tpnf;a0; usif;y
aom uGif;wckvkH;tm;/ jynfhvsSHoGm;aponf//

4if;qENjyyGJ atmifjrifa&; twGuf/ &efukefwuUodkvf rGeftoif;/ armfvjrdKif aumvdyf


rGeftoif;/ armfvjrdKifc&dkif/ rGefausmif;om; vli,ftoif;wdk@u wufwuf=uG=uG yg0if
vSKyf&Sm;cJhonf// vlxkvSKyfaqmfa&;wGifyg0ifvSKyf&Sm;cJhonf//tzJG@pnf;. ausjimpmwrf;rsm;
xkwfa0I rGefvlxkudk vSKyfaqmfcJhonf// Tvlxk qENjyyGJonf tvGefatmifjrifonf[k
qkd&ayrnf// t&yf&yf te,fe,f&Sd rGefjynfol vlxkwkd@onf/ pnf;vkH;nDnGwfrKS udk jyekdfif
cJhonf// vlxkvlwef;pm; tv$mv$mtoD;oD;udk aygif;pnf;edkfifcJhonf// trsdK;om; vSKyf&Sm;rSK
wGif/ nDnD nGwfnGwf pnf;pnf; vkH;vkH;jzifh yl;aygif; yg0ifvm&ef Ttpnf;a0;=uD;rS
vSKyfaqmfedkifcJhonf// trdsK;om; pdwf"gwf wuf=uGapcJhonf// rGefjynfvlxkwkd@. ekdifiHa&;
tjrif/ ekdfifiHa&; todw&m;onf/ 'Da&tvm; t&Sdefjrifhrm;vmonf// rGefjynfolvlxkwkd@.
rSefuefaom trsdK;om; awmif;qkdrSKudk tjcm;aomwkdif;&if;om; jynfolvlxkrsm;uvnf;
yg0ifaxmufcH vm=uonf// rGefjynfe,f/ &ckdifjynfe,fudk rvGJra&Smifom ay;&rnfh
tajcodk@ a&mufvmjyD; jzpfonf/ rGefjynfe,f/ &ckdifjynfrlusrf;udkyif/ ygvDrefwifoGif;
twnfjyK&ef pkdif;jyif;vm=uonf//
116 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

1961/62-ckeSpfpmoifeSpf/ aEG&moDausmif;ydwf&ufonf eD;uyfonfxufeD;uyfvmonf//


aEG&moDausmif;ydwf&uf(2)vwGif/ ausmif;aebuf oli,fcsif;rsm;eSifh rvGJra&Smifom
cGJcGm=uOD;rnfqkdaom todonf/ ausmif;om; toD;oD;Y jzpfay: vm=uonf// oli,fcsif;
rsm;eSifh cGJcGm&jcif;onf/ tvGefpdwfyifyrf;/ eGrf;e,faom/ tvkyfjzpfonf// cGJcGm=u
rnf[laom todonf ausmif;om;wkdif;tm;/ ajcmufvSef@aeonf/ xkda=umifh/ aumvdyf
ausmif;om;rsm;onf/ ausmif;rydwfcif/ taz:taygif;toif;rsm;eSihftwlwl/ a&Smufvnf
=ujcif;jzifh tcsdefudk ukefqkH;apwwfonf// u|efawmfwdk@ aumvdyfrGefausmif;om;wpkonf/
wOD;udkwOD;rcGJcGm=ucif/ uwdk;aumheSyf&Gmodk@oGm; a&mufavhvm&efqkH;jzwf=uonf//

1962-ckeSpf azaz:0g&Dv(25)&ufae@ reuf(6)em&DrSm/ taqmifrSxGufjyD;/ uwkd;aumheSyf


oGm;oabFmudkvkdufyg pD;&efxGufcJh=uonf// rif;0if;xdef/ rif;pkd;jrifh/ rif;tkef;wif/
eSihfu|efawmfonf// aysmfaysmfyg;yg;yif oabFmtm;pD; vmcJh=uonf// uwkd;&Gmodk@ oabFm
qkdufonfeiS hfrif;0if;xdfefonf/ wkdifwvkH;tdrfudk yxrOD;pGmoGm;a&mufavhvm&ef t=uHjyK
onf// u|efawmfwkd@tm;vkH;vnf;oabmwl=uonf// wdkfifwvkH;wnf;jzifh aqmufvkyf
xm;aom/ okH;xyfu|ef;opf tdrf=uD;udkd awG@&onf// taumif;qkH; u|ef;om;rsm;jzifh
aqmufvkyfxm;onf/ tvGefxl;qef;onf/ jrefrmedkifiHwGif/ aqmufvkyf ae=uykHrsdK;/
r[kwfbJ/ taemufekdifiH/ AdokumpHepftwdkif; ajrpdkufwkdifryg/ xl;qef;pGm aqmufvkyf
xm;onfudk awG@&onf// xdktdfrfudk/ yDeefjrdK@rS/ w&kwfvuform;eSifh rGefvuform;
q&m(100)ausmfeSifh(3)eSpfwdkifwkdfif aqmufvkyfcJh=u onf[kod&onf// jrefrmedkifiH tjrdK@jrdK@
t&Gm&GmrS/ uwkd;aumheSyfodk@ bk&m;zl;vma&muf=uaom/ c&D;onfwkd@onf/ xkdwdkifwvkH;
tdrfudk txl;qef;jyKI oGm;a&muf avhvm=uonf// xkdxl;qef;aom/ wkdifwvkH;tdrfudk
ykdifqkdifolonf omrefvlom;xuf/ Om%fynm t&mwGif/ =uD;rm;ol jzpf&rnf[k
u|efawmf. pdwfxJY jzpfay:rdonf// xkdOm%fynm=uD;rm;oludk awG@csiv f Sygbdonf//
odk@aomf xkdyk*~dLvfonf/ u|efawmfvlrjzpfcifuyif/ uG,fvGefoGm;onf[k od&onf/
xkda=umihfxkdyk*~dKvfta=umif;udk ajymjyekdfifoludk/ uwdk;&GmY &SmazGrdonf// uHtm;av#mfpGm/
ajymjyekdifaom/ vlwpfOD; awG@cJhonf// xkdvlajymcsuft&/ wdkifwvkH;tdrfydkif&Sif/
Om%fynm=uD;rm;ol. ta=umif;udkodcJh&onf// xkdwkdifwvkH;tdrfydkfif&Sifonf/ ekdifa&$avS;
jzpfonf// edkifa&$avS;tm;/ ouU&mZf 1229-ckeSpfY uwkd;aumheSyf&GmwGif/ zGm;jrifonf//
edkifa&$avS;. zcifrSm aumheSyf&Gm olaX;=uD; ekdifxGef;ausmf jzpfjyD;rdcifrSm/ rdÁaxmf
jzpfonf// armfvjrdKife,fwGif txl;xif&Sm;aom rGeftrsdK;om;=uD;rsm;jzpf=uonf//
ekdifxGef;ausmfonf aumheSyf&Gm a0,efbkHausmf wkdufausmif;=uD;eSifh pG,fawmfwkduf
wefaqmif;=uD;. 'g,umjzpfonf// 4if;tjyif ekdifxGef;ausmfonf omrefacolwOD;
r[kwfyg// Zif;r,fjrdK@e,f/ vkH;=uD;/ r,fiJhopfawm/ xm;cGifopfawm=uD;rsm;.
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 117

pmc|efawmf&ydkif&Sif/ ‘znm;qvDaqmifrke;f / &mZmrdkif;xD;’ [laombGJ@xl;eSifhwuG a&$om;


yuwdjzpfaom/ "g;/ a&$xD;/ a&$zvm;/ jrdK@pm;/ &Gmpm;wdk@. taqmifta,mifwkd@jzifh/
Zif;r,fjrdK@tpdk;&wkd@. csD;jrSSifh olaumif;jyKjcif; udkcH&oljzpfonf//

ekdifa&$avS;wGif/ nDrrdeiS f;*kefeSifh nDi,f ekdiftkef;cifwkd@tyg0if om;csif;(3)a,muf&Sdonf//


ekdifa&$avS;onf om;=uD;=o&ojzpfonf// rif;a&$avS;onf/ i,fpOfu rdzwkd@ukd;uG,faom/
aumheSyf&Gm/ q&mawmf=uD;.ausmif;wGif/ rGefvlrsdK;bmom&if; jzpfaom rGefpmudk
aumif;rGefpGm oif=um;aponf// xdk@aemuf armfvjrdKifjrdK@/ pdefyufx&pfausmif;wGif
t*Fvdyfpm ay;ynm&yf udkoif=um;apcJhonf// rif;a&$avS; touf(14)eSpft&G,fwGif
armfvjrdKifta&;ydkif ume,fzmavmif. enf;ay;n$efjycsuft&eSifh/ rdbeSpfjzmwdk@.
oabmwlnDrSKjzifh/ bdvyfodk@oGm;a&muf ynmoif=um;&ef pDpOf=uonf// ta&;ydkif
ume,f zmavmifeSifh twl/ vef'efjrdK@odk@ vkdufygoGm;cJhonf// rif;a&$avS;onf vef'efjrdK@
pmoifausmif;rsm;wGif txufwef; pmayrsm; oif=um;jyD;/ (4)eSpf=umaomtcg rdzwkd@u
4if;wkd@. pD;yGm;a&; vkyif ef;wGif OD;pD;aqmif&Guf&ef jyefac:ojzifh uwkd; aumheSy&f Gmodk@
jyefvmcJhonf// 1886-ckeSpfwGif uwkd;&Gmae opfacgif;=uD;ekdifa'G;. orD;t=uD;qkH;jzpfol
rd=uifOeSifh vufxyfxdrf;jrm;cJhonf// rif;a&$avS; touf(20)eSpft&G,fwGif/ Zif;r,fjrdK@
e,f/ rSdKif;vkH;=uD;jrdK@odk@ oGm;a&mufI zcif.udk,fpm; opfawm=uD;rsm;udk OD;pD;tkyfcsKyf
vkyfudkif&avonf// Zif;r,frif;=uD;.om;awmf tdrfa&S@rif;u/ rif;a&$avS;udk/ rkef;yJ
opfawm=uD;udk pmc|efeSifhwuG tyfeSif; ay;oem;awmfrlcJhonf// Trkef;yJopfawmudk
opfukefonf=uD;rsm;/ ukr`%D=uD;rsm;wkd@u/ aiGodef;aygif; ajrmufrsm;pGmay;I awmif;cH
aomfvnf; rif;om;onfray;bJ/ rif;a&$avS;udkom ay;oem;cJhonf// ekdifa&$avS;onf
Zif;r,fe,fwGif opfvkyfief;ukd teSpftwef=um vkyfudkifjyD;aemuf uwkd;&Gm&Sd vkyfief;
rsm;udk jyefvnf OD;pD;vkyfudkfif&ef jyefvmonf// Zif;r,frS jyefvmjyD;aemuf/ TwkdfifwpfvkH;
tdrfudk aqmufvkyfcJhonf[kod&onf//

Ak'<bmomY udkif;&SdKif;aom ekdifa&$avS;onf/ ygVdawmfjrwfydËduwfwkd@udk jrefrmbmom


pum;ajyoufoufjzifh jyefqdk&ef/ vliSm;IaiGtvkH;t&if;eSifh vSL'gef;cJhonf// jyefqkdjyD;
or#pmrlwkd@udk/ ekdifa&$avS;onf/ udk,fusdK;twGuf/ a&mif;csokH;pGJjcif;rjyKbJ/ xkdpOftcgu/
bk&ifcHjzpfaeaom/ rGeftrsdK;om;/ qm/a*s/at/ armif=uD;vufodk@ ykHeSdyfjzef@csD&ef ay;tyf
vkdufonf// ekdifa&$avS;wGif/ om;axmuforD;cHwa,mufr# xGef;um; cJhjcif;r&Sday/ arG;pm;
om;oRD;rsm;om&SdcJhonf// touf(53)eSpfwGif/ Oya'jyK v$wfawmf rif;wkdifyif trwftjzpf/
tpdk;&.cef@tyfjcif;udkcH&onf//
118 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

ekdifa&$avS;onf pdwfxm;ckdifrmonf/x=uGvkH@v0d&d,&Sdonf// owdaumif;./ pOf;pm;Om%f


&Sdonf// uwdopPm rysuf/ yv$m;rSKr&Sd/ ed0gw/ edrmw/ w&m;&Sdonf// jypfwifuJ&h J@jcif;udk
a=umufonf// &yfudpP/ &GmudpP/ ekdifiHudpPrsm;udk OD;pD;aqmuf&Gufwwfoljzpfonf//
ekdifa&$avS;onf/ 1923-ckeSpf/touf(64)eSpft&G,fwGif/ uG,fvGeftedpPa&mufoGm;onf//
Om%fynm=uD;rm;aom/ rGeftrsdK;om;ekdifa&$avS;tm;/ u|efawmfwkd@ rGefausmif;om;wpku
csD;=uL;*k%f,lcJhrdonf// u|efawmfwdk@ rGefausmif;om;wpkonf/ uwkd;aumheSyf&GmrS nae
apmif;rSyif xGufcGmjyD; taqmiffokd@ jyefvmekdifcJh=uonf// aemufw=udrf/ zg;atmuf&Gm&Sd/
ekdifpHoltkwf*lodk@ oGm;a&muf avhvm&efvnf; oabmwl qkH;jzwf =uonf//

1962-ckeSpfrwfv(1)&ufae@wGif/ u|efawmfwdk@rGefausmif;om;wpkjzpfaom/ rif;pkd;jrifh(rk'kH)/


rif;vSausmf/ rif;0if;xdef/ rif;tkH;wif/ rif;oef;xGef;eSifh u|efawmfonf/ rGefpHol.tkwf*lokd@
oGm;a&mufavhvm&ef zg;atmuf&Gmodk@ oGm;=uonf// u|efawmfwkd@ vlpkonf/
armfvjrdKifjrdK@rS/ bwf(p)um;jzihf zg;atmuf&Gmokd@ xGufcJ=h uonf// ekdifpHolonf/
rGeftrsdK;om; acgif;aqmifwOD;jzpfonf// ekdifbvGifeSifhvufwJI G / rGefvGwfvyfa&;tzGJ@udk
OD;pD;IzGJ@pnf; cJh=uonf// rGefvGwfvyfa&;tzGJ@. twGif;a&;rSL;wm0efudk,lcJholjzpfonf//
1948-ckeSpfrSm/ armfvjrdKifjrdK@ v,facgifY zqyvtpdk;&. vufatmufcH/ jynfol@
&Jabmfwkd@.vkyf=uH owfjzwfjcif;udkcHoGm;&onf// rGefpHolonf/ uwkd;aumheSyf Zmwd
jzpfonf// odk@aomf4if;. tavmif;udkrl/ zg;atmuf&Gm ocsFKKdif;wGif jrKyfeSHxm;onf//
zg;atmuf&GmwGif oGm;a&muf jrKyfeSHxm;&onfh &nf&G,fcsuftppftrSefudk wdwdusus
rod&yg//odk@aomf zg;atmuf&Gmonf/ rGeaf &;&mtzGJ@csKyf tpnf;a0;=uD; usif;y&m
rGef&Gm=uD;jzpfI oGm;a&muf jrKyfeSHxm;onf[k omreftm;jzifhod&onf// edkifpHoltm;
jrKyfeSHxm;aom ae&mudk aoao csmcsm avhvmaomtcg/ bmrSxl;xl;jcm;jcm; rawG@&yg//
vrf;r=uD;ab;em;&Sd ocsFKKdif; tv,fwGif edkfifpHoltrnf a&;xm;onfh/ edkifpHoltm;
todrSwfjyK pdkufxl; xm;aom/ ausmufwkdifi,f wckudkom awG@&onf//
xdkausmufwkdifonf/ odyfhr=uD;vSyg// aygifvkH;r#om=uD;onf// tjrifhrSm/ vlw&yfpmr#om
&Sdonf// rxifr&Sm;aom rSwfwkdfifwck jzpfae onfudkawG@&onf//

u|efawmfwkd@. &nf&G,fcsufrSm/ rGefpHol.tkwf*ludk avhvmjyD; rnfokd@jyKjyif rGrf;rHrSKrsm;


vkyfekdifonfudk qkH;jzwf&efjzpfonf// ausmufwkdifi,fwckjzifh todtrSwfjyK xm;aom/
rGefpHol jrKyfeSHxm;&mae&mudk awG@aomtcg u|efawmfwkd@ tm;vkH;onf pdwfraumif;
jzpfrd=uonf// Tvkd tvGefxif&Sm;aom rGefrsdK;cspf yk*~dKvfwOD;udk/ tkyf*l aumif;aumif;
cef@cef@nm;nm;jzifh txdrf;rSwf rjyKedkifcJhonfhtjzpfudk awG;rdjyD; u|efawmfonf tvGef
pdwfraumif; jzpfrdonf// TuJhokd@emrnf=uD;aom/ rGeftrsdK;om; acgif;aqmifwpfOD;udk
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 119

omrnavmufjzifh jrKyfeSHxm;onfudk awG@&ojzifh u|efawmfwkd@ auseyfrSK odyfr&SdvSay/


onfhxuf aumif;rGefaom xnf0gcef@nm;onfh/ ausmufwkdif wwkdif jzpfapcsif=uonf//

xkdae@ u|efawmfwkd@onf tvGefaemufusrS taqmifodk@ jyefa&muf vm=uonf// xkdpOfu


u|efawmfonf/ aumvdyf ausmif;0if;ab;&Sd/ eEN0ef prf;acsmif;teD;/ yk*~vduykdif eEN0ef
taqmifYaexkdifaeonf//eEN0efaqmifwGif/rif;cspfvkH;(aumhbdef;)/ rif;tkef;wif(aumhbdef;)
eSifh rif;vSausmf(aygif/xef;yifa=umif)wkd@vnf; aexdkifonf// taqmifa&mufjyD; xrif;[if;
pm;=ujyD;/ tem;,ltdyfpuf =uonf//

aemufae@ 1962-ckeSpf rwfv(2)&uf reuf(8)em&DwGif/ AdkvfcsKyfae0if; OD;aqmifaom/


awmfvSefa&; aumifpDrS/ ekdifiHawmf. tm%mudk odr;f ydkuf vkdufonfhowif; xkwfjyef
ausjimonf// tdyfrSKHpkHr$m;jzihf/ u|efawmfwkd@ ausmif;om; wokdufonf/ xIowif;udk/
em;axmif&onf// ppfawmfvSefa&;aumifpDonf atmufyg a=ujimcsufwapmifudkvnf;
wkdif;jynfokd@ xkwfjyefcJhonf//

“wkdif;jynf.,kd,Gif;vmaom/ tajctaeudk xdef;odrf;aomtm;jzihf/ ppfwyfrS rvGJra&Smif


om edkifiH.tm%mudk odrf;vkduf&a=umif;/ wkdif;oljynfom;rsm;taejzifh/ ae@pOfae@wdkif;
uJhokd@at;at;csrf;csrf; aexkdifvkyfudkifoGm;=u&ef wdkufwGef;yga=umif;/ t&mxrf;rsm;onf
vnf;/ rdrdwdk@wm0ef 0wW&m;rsm;udk rysurf uGuf qufvufaqmif&Guf=uapvkda=umif;/
txl;ojzifh/ ynma&;qkdif&m wm0efcrH sm;eSifh/ ausmif;ol/ ausmif;om;rsm;onf/ rdrw d kd@
ppfaq; ajzqdkqJ/ udpPrsm;udk rysufruGuf qufvuf aqmif&GufoGm;&ef/ wkdufwGef;
yga=umif;//”

1962-ckeSpf rwfv(2)&ufae@/ Adkvfae0if; OD;aqmifaom ppfwyfrS ppfAdkvfcsKyfwpkwdk@onf/


edkifiHawmftm%mudk odrf;ykdufjyD;wjydKifeuf/ vGwfawmfudk zsufodrf;vkdufonf// ekdifiHawmf
tpkd;&wzGJ@vkH;/ wekdifiHvkH;&Sd ekdifiHa&;orm;rsm;eSifh ausmif;om; acgif;aqmifrsm;udkvkdufvH
zrf;qD;csKyfaeSmif vkduf=uonf// edkifatmifxGef;onf/ OD;ekeSifhtwl/ 1962-ckeSpf rwfv (2)
&ufae@Yyif zrf;qD;xdrf;odrf; cHvkduf&onf// rGefjynfol@wyfOD; ygwDtyg0if/ wedkfifiHvkH;&Sd/
edkifiHa&;ygwDtzGJ@pnf; toD;oD;wkd@onfvnf;/ zsufoDrf;cHvkduf&onf// OuUX=uD;ekdifa&$usif
=udKwifwGufq xm;onfhtwkdif;/ rGefjynfo@l wyfOD;onf/ avSavSmf&if;/ t&Sdeft[kef
aumif;pOf/ avSmfwufusdK;onfh tjzpfokd@ qkdufa&muf oGm;onf// y&d,m,f a00kwf
rsm;aom/ t&if;&Sif ygvDref 'Drdkua&pD. aumufuspf pif;vJ/ azgufjyef wwfonfh
toGifo¾mef tppftrSefudk u|efawmfwkd@ rsufjrifudk,fawG@ jrifawG@&onf// &kwfw&uf
tvpfwkdufcdkufjcif;udk/ rGefjynfol@wyfO;D rSyk*~dKvfrsm;eSifhtidkufcHvkduf&onf//
120 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

wuUodkvf aumvdyf ausmif;tm;vkH;udk csufcsif; ydwfvkdufonf// u|efawmfonf/


urm0uf&mG udk jyefjyD; tem;,l ae&onf// aumvdyfrS ausmif;om; oli,fcsif;rsm;udk
cGJcGmcJh&ojzifh/ tvGefpdwfrcsrf;ajr@ jzpfcJh&onf// aumvdyfudk tuef@towfr&Sd ydwfyif
vkdufojzifh/ u|efawmftbdk@ jyifp&mjzpfaeonf// pmzwf&if; tcsdefudk ukefqkH;apcJhonf//
wcgw&H todrdfwfaqGtdrfudk oGm;a&muf vnfywf&if; tcsdefudk ukefqkH;apcJhonf//
wae@wGif/ &Gmtv,fydkfif;&Sd rdwfaqG wa,mufxH oGm;a&muf vnfywfjyD;aemuf
tdrfodk@tjyef/ rarSsmfvifhbJ/ 0rf;qGJq&mr/ rat;=uLeSifh vrf;Y qkHrdonf// u|efawmfeSifh
tvGefcifrifol jzpfonfhtwGuf rma=umif; oma=umif; pum;pjrnf ajymqkd&if;/
rat;=uL. armifav;/ vlowfrSKjzifh axmifusaeaom/ rif;atmifxGef;ac: (udkaw;)
ta=umif;udk ajymqkdrdoGm;=uonf// ukdaw;onf u|efawmfxuf touftenf;i,f
=uD;oljzpfonf// urm0uf ausmif;wGif i,fpOfu twlwl aevmcJholrsm;jzpfonf//
rat;=uLonfol@. armifav; ta=umif;ukd 0rf;omtm;& atmufygtwkdif; ajymvm
onf//
rat;=uL/ /eifhwdk@udkaw;wa,mufvGwfawmhr,f//
aemuf(2)(3)eSpfavmufqkd&if vGwfekdifawmhr,f//
u|efawmf/ /b,fvkd ta=umif;a=umifh vGwfapm&ovJ/tr//
rat;=uL/ /OD;ektpdk;&&J@/ omoem(2500)jynfheSpf/ vGwfjidrf;csrf;omcGifh/ ay;wJh
txJrSm ygoGm;vkd@ teSpf(20) woufwu|ef;uae/ axmif'g%f
(10)eSpftxd/ avsSmhayghcGifh &oGm;w,f// tckqkd&if aecJw
h Jh/ axmifouf
udk eSKwfvkduf&if/ trsm;qkH; (3)eSpfavmufbJ ae&awmhr,f// 'gxuf
apmjyD; vGwf&ifvnf;/ vGwfekdifw,f//
u|efawmf/ /odyf0rf;omp&m aumif;vkdufwm tr&,f// trwdk@ axmif0ifpm
oGm;awG@wJhtcg/ u|efawmf tvGef owd&wJhta=umif; ajymay;
ygaemf// udkaw;udk u|efawmf odyfawG@csifvkdufwm// udkaw;eSifh rawG@
&wm/ vGefcJhwJh 1954-ckeSpfuqkdawmh/ tckqkd&if/ (8)eSpf eD;yg; &SdaejyD;//

[ku|efawmfujyefajymvkdufrdonf/xkdaemufu|efawmfonf//

rat;=uLeSifh eSKwfqufjyD;/ vrf;cJcG Jhonf/ vrf;wavsSmuf wGif/ u|efawmhf.tawG;wGif


udkaw;(ac:)udkatmifxGef; ta=umif;u vGrf;rdk;vmcJhonf// udkaw;onf ausmif;q&mr
a':oef;&if/ 0rfqGJq&mra':at;=uLwkd@ armifav;jzpfonf/ u|efawmfeSihftouftm;jzifh
(3)(4)eSpf =uD;ol jzpfonf// urm0uf tv,fwef;ausmif;wGif twlwuG ausmif;aecJo h l
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 121

jzpfonf// u|efawmfeSifh tvGefcif rif&if;eSD; =uoljzpfonf/ pdwfaumif; eSvkH;aumif;


&Sdoljzpfonf// twef;xJYpmawmfaomausmif;om;wOD;jzpfonf// &dk;om; ajzmifhrwfonf//
rGefvlrsdK;eSifh rGef"avhxkH;pHudk tvGefcspfjrwfekd;oljzpfonf// r[kwfrcH wwfaomoljzpfonf//
rw&m;rSKrSeforSsudk tenf;i,frSsoD;rcHwwfoljzpfonf//

1954-ckeSpfwGif/ rmHaw;(7)wef;atmifjrifjyD;/ a,muFsm; olemjyKoifwef; avsSmufI


atmifjrifcJhonf// &efukefolemjyK oifwef;udk oGm;a&mufwufcJhonf// xkdokd@ olemjyK
oifwef; wufaepOf/ rar#mfvifhbJ vlowfrSK jzpfcJhjcif;jzpfonf// vlowfrSKjzpf&onfh
udpPrSm Tokd@jzpfonf/ xkdolemjyK oifwef;wufaeaom ausmif;om;rsm;rS tnmom;
Armausmif;om; wa,mufonf/ rmHaw; (ac:) rif;atmifxGef;tm; awG@v#if
(wvkdif;av;) (wvkdif;av;) vkd@ac:ajymjyD; aemufajymifwwfonf// xkdArm ausmif;om;
av;rSm rnfokd@aom &nf&G,fcsufjzifhac:onfukd rlrod&ayrJh/ rmHaw;(ac:) rif;atmifxGef;
taejzifh/ Todk@rdrdtm; ac:onfudktenf;i,fr#rcHcsifay// rdrdvlrsdK;udk apmfum;onf[k
cH,lonf// aemufqkH;wGif rmHaw;(ac:)rif;atmifxGef;onf/ rdrdtm; Tokd@ac:onfudk
rcHedkif&yf ekdifjzpfrdonf// rdrdvlrsKd;onf wvkdif;vlrsdK;r[kwf/ rGev
f lrsdK;omjzpfonf/ rdrdtm;
wvdkif; ac:jyD; eSdrfhcsonfudkrcHcsifay// Todk@rdrdtm; aemufwcg/wvkdif; rac:&eftwGuf
xkdArm ausmif;om;tm; olaeaom tcef;xd rmHaw; (ac:) rif;atmifxGef;eJ@
rGefausmif;om;wpk vkdufoGm;jyD; rmHaw; (ac:) rif;atmifxGef;u aatmufygtwdkif;
awmif;awmif;yefyef &Sif;vif;ajymqkdonf//

“ighudkrif;u‘wvkdif;’‘wvdkif;’vkd@ac:wm igr=udKufbl;// ighwkd@ vlrsdK;[m‘wvkdif;’


vlrsdK;r[kwfbl;// igwkd@[m jrifhjrwfwJh rGefvlrsdK; jzpfw,f// rif;wkd@Arm &mZ0if
uom 'kd@rGefvlrsdK;udk eSdrfwJhoabmeJ@‘wvkdif;’vkd@ a&;om;jyD; ac:aewm// igwkd@
rGefvlrsdK;awG vkH;0 r=udKufbl;// eSdKif;,SOfjyD;ajym&r,fqkd&if/ rif;wkd@ArmvlrsdK; udk
‘t&nf;=uD;rsdK;’vkd@ eSdrfjyD; ac:qdk ovkdygbJ// rif;wkd@vJ =udKufrSm r[kwfbl;//
aemufwcg/ igwkd@ rGefausmif;om;udk/ ‘wvkdif;’vkd@ rac:zkd@ igawmif;yefw,f//
igwkd@rGefvlrsdK;[m/ rif;wkd@ArmvlrsdK;xuf/ apmjyD;pmay xGef;um;cJhwJhvlrsdK;// rif;wdk@
Arm pmay[m/ rGGefpmayrSwqifh aygufzGm;vmwm// rGefvlrsdK;[m apmjyD;
Ak'<bmom w&m;udk udk;uG,fcw Jh Jh vlrsdK;/ ,Ofaus;wJh vlrsdK;// rGefvlrsdK;wkd@&J@
oxkHjynf=uD;rSm/ Ak'<omoem pnfyif zG@HjzKd;aewJhtcsdefrSm/ ArmvllrsdK;wkd@yk*HrSm/
t&nf;=uD;&[ef;udk udk;uG,faejyD; ‘yef;OD;qGwf’qdkwJh p&kdufuxGef;um; aeqJ
bJ&Sdao;w,f// ArmvlrsdK;awG t&nf;=uD;&[ef;udk;uG,f qnf;uyf/ ae&wJhb0rS
Ak'<w&m;ppf w&m;rSefudk udk;uG,f qnf;uyf wwfwJh b0a&mufatmif/
omoemjyKcJw h Jh/ &Sift&[H[m rGef&[ef;oHCm wyg;jzpfw,f// *gr%dw&kwf
122 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

ol&Jaumif;udk ,SOfjydKifxkd;owf tedkif,ljyD; rif;wkd@ArmvlrsdK;udk olwyg;aus;u|ef


jzpf&r,fhb0rS u,fwifay;cJhwmvJ/ rGefol&Jaumif; ordefA&mHjzpfw,f//
'D*k%faus;Zl;awGudk rif;wkd@ArmvlrsdK;awG odwwfbdk@ aumif;w,f// rGefvlrsdK;&J@
*k%faus;Zl;udk ArmvlrsdK;awG[m/ b,fawmhrSvJ rodwwfbl;// aus;Zl;uef;
=uw,f// Arm&mZ0ifu vGJvJrG Sm;rSm; a&;om; xm;wmudk oif=um;jyD; rif;wkd@
Arm vli,f[m/ 'dk@rGefvlrsdK;wkd@tay:rSm/ rSm;,Gif;wJh tjrifawG udef;atmif;
ae=uwm/ rif;wkd@udk igwdk@tjypfrwifcsifbl;/ tjypfvJ rjrifcsifbl;// yk*Htif;0
acwf/ rSefeef;&mZ0ifwkd@rSm rGefvlrsdK;udk rGefvdk@bJokH;eSKef; cJhw,f/ ukef;abmifacwf
ordkif;/ OD;atmifaZ,swkd@acwfus awmhrSbJ/ 'dk@rGefvlrsdK;udk eSdrfwJh oabmeJ@
‘wvkdif;’vkd@ ac:qkdokH;eSKef;vm=uw,f// t"dy`g,fu ‘vl&kdif;rdp>maumif’qkdjyD;
rGefvlrsdK;udk eSdrfjyD;ac:vm=uwm// 'kd@rGefvlrsdK;u rif;wkd@ArmvlrsdK;xuf ,Ofaus;rSK
jrifhrm;w,f/ bmomw&m; udkif;&Skdif;w,f// 'kd@vlrsdK;[m vl&kdif;r[kwfbl;//
‘vl&kdif;rdp>maumif’ac:p&m&Sd&if/ rif;wkd@ ArmvlrsdK;udkbJ 'dk@uac:&rSm Arm
ya'o&mZf ordkif;q&m awG&J@ rSKdif;wkdufrSKudk rif;wkd@vli,fawG cHae&wm// igwkd@
oabmaygufygw,f// 'ga=umifh ordkif;trSefudkrod em;rvnfwJh rif;wkd@ Arm
vli,fawGtay: igwdk@u cGifhv$wf oD;cHcJhw,f//

rif;wkd@ em;vnfatmif &Sif;&Sif;ajym&if/ igwdk@rGefvlrsdK;[m/ xD;eJ@eef;eJ@/ usiSef;eJ@


aevmcJw h JhvlrsdK;/ Armtif;0e,f txd 'kd@rGefvlrsdK;awG/ ykdifpdk;cJhbl;w,f/ 1752-
ckeSpfrSm/ tif;0e,f[m/ 'kd@rGefvlrsdK;&J@ ajczsm;atmuf a&mufcJhbl;w,f// rif;wkd@
Armtif;0e,f[m 'dk@rGefvlrsdK;&J@ vufatmufcHe,f jzpfcJhbl;w,f// 'dk@rGefbk&if/
Anm'vrif;[m tvGefpdwfxm;jrifhjrwfw,f// bmomw&m;udkif;&SdKif;w,f//
owW0gwkd@tay:/ arwWmw&m; =uD;rm;w,f// ArmawGudk wa,mufrS rowf
apcJhbl;// OD;atmifaZ,svkd ,kwfrm&kdif;pdkif;wJh pdwfxm;r&SdcJhbl;/ ArmawG tm;vkH;
udk 'dk@rGev
f lrsdK;awGu rsdK;jyKwfatmif rowfcJhbl;// tu,fI OD;atmifaZ,svkd
&ufpuf,kwfrm &kdif;pdkif;wJhpdwf 'kd@rGefvlrsdK;awGrSm &SdcJh&ifrif;wkd@ ArmawGudkrsKd;jyKwf
atmif owfedkifcJhygw,f// 'Duae@qkd&if/ rif;wkd@ ArmvlrsdK; qkdwm/ 'DurBmrSm
awmif r&Sdawmhbl;// 'gayrJhrGefvlrsdK;[m/ bmomw&m; udkif;&kdif;wJhvlrsdK;/
,Ofaus;wJhvlrsdK;/ owW0gawGtay:/ arwWm w&m;=uD;rm;wJh vlrsdK;jzpfvkd@
rif;wkd@ArmawGudk rowfbJxm;cJhw,f// oem;cJhw,f// 'gayrJh/ 1757-ckeSpfrSm/
igwkd@rGefvlrsdK;wkd@&J@ [Hom0wDekdifiHawmffudk rif;wkd@ArmvlrsdK; rkqdk;OD;atmifaZ,su
vma&mufwkdufcdkuf zsufqD;vkdk@ ysufqD;cJhw,f// igwkd@rGefvlrsKd;udkvJ/ rsKKd;jyKwf
atmifowfcJhw,f// cav;i,fawG/ udk,f0efaqmifrdefcav;awGeSifh rGef&[ef;
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 123

oHCmtyg0if/ rGefvlrsdK;tm;vkH;udk wa,mufrusef vdkufvHzrf;qD; owfcJhw,f//


usLyifckwfusLikwf rusefqkdjyD; 'dk@rGef vlrsdK;udkowfcJhw,f// OD;atmifaZ,s[m
arwWmw&m; acgif;yg;w,f &ufpuf=urf;=uKwfw,f// 'ga=umifh igwkd@rGefvlrsdK;
wkd@&J@ b0[m/ 'Dtajc 'Db0a&mufae&wm/ vlenf;pk jzpfae&wm// Arm&J@
vufatmufcHjzpfae&wm// igwkd@rGefvlrsdK;awG b,fawmhrS tcJra=ubl;// igwkd@
rGefwkdif;jynfudk rw&m; usL;ausmf odrf;ydkufxm;wJh ArmawGudk 'kd@rGefe,fajru
wae@ae@rSm armif;xkwf =urSmaocsmw,f// tckawmh tm;redkifvkd@om oD;cH
ae=uwm// 'DavmufbJ igajymcsifw,f// aemufwcg igwkd@ rGefausmif;om; awGudk
‘wvdkif;’vkd@ rac:bkd@ igawmif;yefygw,f// 'Davmuf ajym&if rif;em;vnfr,f
xifw,f/ uJ˜igoGm;awmhr,f//”

txufygtwdkif; rmHaw;(ac:) rif;atmifxGef;u xkdtnmom; Armausmif;om;udk


rdrdpdwfxJrSm &SdwJhtwkdif; yGifhyGifhvif;vif; raxmufrnSmajymvkdufw,f// rif;atmifxGef;
taeeJ@ tJ'Dvkd w&Snfwac:=uD; ajymcsvdkuf&wJhtwGuf &ifxJrS cHpm;csuf tenf;i,f
ayghoGm;w,f// rdrdajymoGm;wJhtxJrSmrdrdcHpm;csufeJ@twl cufxefrma=umwJh pum;vkH;
awGvJ ygoGm;w,f// rajymoifhwJhpum;awG ajymoifhwJhpum;awGa&mygoGm;w,f// tJ'D
pum;vkH; awG[m tvkdvkd yg;pyfzsm;u rpOf;pm;bJ ol[mol ay:xGufvmwmudk
rif;atmifxGef;taeeJ@ tHh=ovdk@ rqkH;jzpfaerdw,f// rlvu &kd;&kd;eJ@ at;at; aq;aq;
ajymbkd@ &nf&G,fxm;ayrJh ajym&if;ajym&if;eJ@ cHpm;csufjyif;xefvmw,f// cHpm;csufeJ@twl
pum;vkH;av;awGvJ rma=um cufxefvmw,fvkd@/ rif;atmifxGef; odvdkfufw,f//
xkdtnmom;Arm ausmif;om; taeeJ@ em;vnfoabmaygufonf raygufonfudk
pOf;pm;raeawmhbJ rdrdteSpfeSpftvvu jrdKodyfxm;cJw h Jh &ifwGif;cHpm;csuftwdkif;
zGifh[ajymcswmjzpfw,f// e*kducHpm;csuf &SdaewJhtwGuf pum;ajymwJhtcg tenf;i,f
rmefygygajymqkdrdwmuvGJ&if rif;atmifxGef;ajymoGm;wJh ta=umif;&m tm;vkH;wkd@[m
trSef=uD;jzpfw,f// 'gayrJh xkdtnmom; Armausmif;om;tbdk@rSm tenf;i,f
cHjyif;aumif;jzpfoGm;[ef&Sdw,f// rmHatmifxGef;&J@ ajympum; awGudk vkH;0em,l[efr&Sdbl;//
rdrdtcef;rSausmckdif;xGufoGm;onfh rif;atmifxGef;eJ@ rGeaf usmif;om; wpkwkd@udkd/ aemufrS
rsufeSm&GJ@jyjyD; vsmxkwfjyao;w,f// wvkdif;vkd@ac:awmh bmjzpf&rvJ qdkwJo h abm
yrmrcef@wJh[ef jycJhw,f// 'gayrJh aemufausm vSnfhxGufoGm;wJh rif;atmifxGef;wkd@
rGefausmif;om;wpk uawmh 'Dausmif;om;&J@ yrmrcwJh tjyKrludk rodvkduf=ubl;//

aemufae@rsm;wGif/ xkdArmausmif;om;onf/ rmHaw;udkawG@wkdif;awG@wdkif;/ aemufaeus


twkdif; ‘wvkdif;’[lI aemufajymifajymqkd aejyefonf// xrif;pm;cef;Y4if;/ pmoifcef;Y
4if;/ tm;upm;uGif;Y4if;/ rmHaw; (ac:) rif;atmifxGef;udk awG@v#if/ ac:aeustwkdif;
124 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

‘wvkdif;’ [kyif aac:qkdjyefonf// rmHaw;onf qufvufI oD;rcHekdifawmhay//


rdrdtm;Tokd@rac:&ef t=udrf=udrf awmif;yef ajymqkdv#uf/ rdrdtm; xyfrHac:aejyefonf//
wae@wGif rif;atmifxGef;onf xrif;pm;aqmifodk@ apmapma&mufjyD;acgif;ikH@I xrif;pm;
aeonf// xkdokd@ xrif;pm;aeaom rmHaw;(ac:) rif;atmifxGef;tm; awG@v#Sif xkdArm
ausmif;om;u wvkdif;[k aemufajymif ac:qkdoGm;jyefonf// rifatmifxGef;. OD;acgif;udk
vnf; ykwfoGm;jyefonf// TwcgwGif rmHaw;onf qufvufI oD;rcH edkifawmhay//
xkdausmif;om; vGefoGm;jyD;aemuf/ rmHaw;(ac:)rif;atmifxGef;onf rdrdtem;wGif&Sdaom
acgif;avmif;acguf oHacsmif; aumufudk aumufudkifjyD; xkdArmausmif;om; &Sd&mokd@
wtm; ajy;v$m;oGm;onf// bmr#rajymrqkdbJ/ acgif;ikH@I xrif;pm;&ef [efjyifaeaom
xkdArmausmif;om;.OD;acgif;udk/ aemufrSaejyD; oHacsmif;aumufc|efjzihf wtm;vGJ&kduf
csvkdufonf// xdkArmausmif;om;. OD;acgif;wGif oHacsmif;aumuftc|efu euf&Sdif;pGm
pl;0ifjyD;/ pkdufaxmifaeonf// tnmom;ausmif;om;onf/ xkdae&mYyif yGJcsif;jyD; aoqkH;
oGm;onf// rmHaw;tm;/ w&m;&kH;awmfrS jypfrSKxif&Sm;awG@&Sdojzifh/ jypfrSK axmif'g%f
woufwu|ef; csrSwfvdkufonf// rmHaw;onf/ rdrdrGeftrsdK;om;tm; apmfum;onfudk
rcHedkifIrcHcsif aompdwfjzifhjyKcJhrdaom rdrd.jypfrSKjzihf axmifuscJhonf// rdbwkd@onf
rmHaw;twGuf a=uuGJ0rf;enf;vkd@ rqkH;jzpfcJh&onf// rmHaw;twGuf urm0ufausmif;rS
rGefausmif;ol§om;rsm; tm;vkH;wkd@u 0rf;enf;a=uuGJcJh=uonf// rmHaw;twGuf/
qkawmif; arwWmykd@=uonf// ,ckqkd rmHaw;axmifxJhodk@ a&mufaeonfrSm/ (6)eSpf
ausmfjyD;jzpfonf// rmHaw;. tpfrajymjycsuft& rmHaw;onf r=umcifrSm axmifrS
xGufajrmufvmawmhrnfjzpfonf// rmHaw;twGuf tvGef0rf;ajrmufoGm;onf//
(Tae&mYaoqkH;oGm;aom xkdausmif;om;tm;/ vGefpGmoem;rdonf// xdkausmif;om;
aooGm;onfhtwGuf/ u|efawmfvkH;0 pdwfraumif;jzpfrdonf// tvGef0rf;enf;rdonf//
xkdaoqkH;oGm;aom ausmif;om;.*k%f/ rdbaqGrsdK;wkd@.*k%fudk xdcdkufapvkdaomapoem/
u|efawmfY vkH;0r&Sda=umif; odapvkdygonf// Ttjzpfudk a&;om;jcif;tm;jzifh/
xkdausmif;om;. *k%fudkxdckdufapekdifygonf[k jrifcJhv#if/ TtwGuf u|efawmf
awmif;yefygonf// trSefudk trSeftwdkif; jynfolvlxk od&Sdatmif a&;om;jcif;om
jzpfonf// trSefudkod&SdjyD; oifc%f;pm,ledkfif&efjzpfonf// u|efawmftm;cGifhv$wf=u&ef/
aoqkH;oGm;aom ausmif;om;eSifh udkaw;wdk@tm; tel;tnGwfawmif;yefygonf//)5

rmHaw;(c)rif;atmifxGef;onfaxmifrSvGwfvmaomae@wGifxDxkd;cJhonf/xkdvufrSwfjzifhodef;qkaygufjyD;
olaX;jzpfoGm;onf/ aemufydkif;wGif=unfhyg/
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 125

urm0uf&GmwGifu|efawmftem;,lae&if;/ {jyDv/o=uFeftcsdefumvodk@ a&mufvmonf//


tzGm;u/ Oyk'foDwif; apmihfwnf&ef wkdufwGef;ojzihf tzGm;eSifhvkdufoGm;cg/ ajcaoFh
eSpfaumif bkef;=uD;ausmif;wGif/ Oyk'foDwif; apmifhwnfaeonf// wae@wGif rarSsmfvifhbJ/
udk0if;a,mfeSifh/ udkausmfat;wkd@eSpOf D;onf/ u|efawmfOyk'foDv apmifhwnf aeaom
bkef;=uD;ausmif;odk@ a&mufvm=uonf// udk0if;a,mfeSihf udkausmfat;wkd@udk u|efawmfu/
ac:ajymeSKwfqufjyD;/ Z&yftay: wufxkdif&ef zdwfac:vkdufonf/ udkausmfat;udk
pmzwfolrsm; odjyD;jzpfonf[k xifygonf// udkausmfat;onf/ urm0uf&Gm Zmwd
jzpfonf// &efukefjrdK@Y =uD;jyif;vmol wOD;jzpfonf// trsdK;om; owif;pmwkdufY
owif;axmufwOD;tjzpf 0ifa&mufvkyf udkifaeonf// rGefjynfe,f az:xkwfa&;/
tvkyfnDnGwfa&; A[kdaumfrwDwGif jyef=um;a&;wm0efudk,lcJholjzpfonf//

u|efawmfonf/ udkausmfat;tm;/ oma=umif;rma=umif; pum;rsm;udk ajym=um;&if;/


vmonfhudpPudkar;jref;onf// u|efawmftm;wkdifyifaqG;aEG;&ef ta&;=uD;onfhudpP&Sdojzifh/
vma=umif; udkausmfat;u jyefajymonf// vloluif;&Sif;aom ae&mwckckodk@ oGm;I
aqG;aEG;vkda=umif;ajymygonf// u|efawmfwkd@(3)OD;onf/ vloluif;&Sif;wdwfqdwfaom/
urm0ufacsmif;ab; wae&mokd@ oGm;jyD;aqG;aEG;=uonf// udkausmfat;uyifpwifI
rdrdvmonfh udpPudk&Sif;vif;wifjy vmonf//

“u|efawmfvmwJh udpu P dk rajymcif/ tcktm%modrf;jyD; wufvmwJh


awmfvSeaf &;aumifp/D ta=umif;udktenf;i,f &Sif;jycsifw,f// tm%modr;f jyD;
wufvmwJh/ awmfvSefa&;aumifpD[m/ ppftm%m&Sif jzpfw,f/ r[mArm
vlrsdK;=uD;0g'&J@ udk,fpm;vS,f=uD;tppfjzpfw,f// awmfvSeaf &; aumifpDrSm/
b,folbJygyg/ rGeb f Jjzpfjzpf/ u&ifbJjzpfjzpf/ &Srf;bJjzpfjzpf/ ArmbJjzpfjzpf/
tm;vkH;[m r[mArmvlrsdKl;=uD;0g'udk udk,fpm; jyKwm=ubJ// ppfwyftusKd ;eSihf
ArmvlrsdK;tusdK;udk aqmif&GufrSmjzpfw,f// ekdifiHawmfudk tm%m&SifyyD D tkycf sKyf
oGm;rSmjzpfw,f// 'DawmfvSeaf &;aumifpD ppftpkd;&vufatmufrSm/ rnfonfh
vl@tcGifha&;/ 'Drdkua&pDtcGifha&;rSvJ/ &SdawmhrSmr[kwfbl;// tmvkH;qdwfoke;f
oGm;jyD; jzpfw,f// zuf'&,frludk qef@usifwJh a=uG;a=umfoHjzifh/ tm%modrf;jyD;
wufvmwJh ppftm%m&Sif tkyfpkjzpfw,f// r[mArmvlrsdK; tusdK;udk
umuG,fbkd@eSifh/ r[mArmvlrsdK;=uD;0g'udk tcdkiftrm/ tumuG,f jyKbkd@ twGuf/
tm%m odr;f vkdufwmjzpfw,f// 'g'ifrubl;vlrsdK;pkwkd@. ukd,fykdif jyXmef;cGifheSihf
udk,f@uH=urRm udk,fzefwD;cGifh/ tcGifha&;wkd@udk/ tjyD;tydkif/ eif;ajc/ zsufqD;rJ/h
tm%m&Sif ppftpkd;&jzpfw,f// aemifqkdvSsif vlrsdkK;pkacgif;aqmifrsm;udk/ enf;rsdK;pkH
jzifh/ zdeSdkyfcsKyfcs,f vmawmhr,f// vlrsdK;pkawG/ bmqkd/bmrS vkyfykdifcGifh &SdawmhrSm
126 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

r[kwfbl;// rnfonfhekdifiHa&; vkyfaqmifcGifhtcGifha&;vJ &SdawmhrSm r[kwfbl;//


rnfonfhtrsdkK;om; tcGifha&;rsm;twGufvnf; arSsmfvifhcsuf&SdrSm r[kwfawmh
bl;// rGefvlrsdK;wkd@&J@/ trsdK;om;vGwfajrmufa&; vSKyf&Sm;rSKvJ/ csKyfjidr;f oGm;awmhrSm
jzpfw,f// 'ga=umifh/ 'Dppftpkd;&vufatmufrSm/ touf&iS f&jcif;[m/ &SifvSsufeJ@
aoaewJhvlwOD;eJ@omwlaer,f// bmtusKd ;rS&SdawmhrSm r[kwfbl;// t"dy`g,frJh
wJh/ b0wckvkdygbJ// &Sif;&Sif;ajym&&if/ 'DekdifiHrSm vkH;0raexkdufbl;// u|efawmfu
awmh vkH;0raebl;// qkH;jzwfjyD;jyDf/ ukdazodef;eSifhukd0ifa,mfwkd@udkvJ/ 'Dppftpkd;&
vufatmufrSm/ raeapcsifbl;// tu,fI aer,fqkd&if/ wae@ae@rSm zrf;qD;
csKyfaeSmifcH&rSm aocsmw,f// u|efawmfajym&Jw,f//”

udkausmfat;onf rdrd.tjrif tabmxm;udk/ yGifhyGif;vif;vif;yif wifjyvmonf//


tm%modrf;aom/ awmfvSefa&; aumifpDtay:/ rdrd.tjrifeSifh/ a&S@jzpfvmrnfh/ edkifiHa&;
tajcae/ tvm;tvmrsm;udkyg&Sif;jyonf// tm;&yg;&ajymjyD;aemuf// udkausmfat;onf/
u|efawmfeSifhudk0if;a,mfwkd@eSpfOD;udk tuJcwfaomoabmjzifh/ acwW/c%/ pum;ukd&yfxm;
vkdufonf// ukdausmfat;.tjrif/ oabmxm;onf/ tvGefrSefuefojzifhu|efawmfonf/
bmrSSs0ifrajymao;bJ/ apmifhem;axmifaerdonf// ukd0if;a,mfvnf; Ttwdkif;jrifrnf[k
xifygonf// u|efawmfwkd@eSpfOD;rSm bmrSjyefvnfI rajymao;bJ/ udkausmfat; qufajymrJh
pum;udk/ pdwf0ifpm;pGm/ apmifhem;axmifae=uonf// ukdausmfat;uyif qufvufI
atmufygpum;&yfudkajymqdkoGm;jyefonf//

“u|efawmfhtaeeJ@/ 'Dppftpkd;&vufatmufrSm/ vkH;0raevkdbl;// 'Dppftm%m&Sif


jyKwfusa&;twGuf/ awmfvSefbkd@ pdwfqkH;jzwfxm;jyD;jzpfw,f// udkazodef;eSifh
udk0if;a,mfwkd@&J@tjrif/ oabmxm;ukd/ u|efawmfodcsifw,f// ,ckvmwJhudpPu
'gaqG;aEG;bkd@vmwmbJ//”

u|efawmfeSifhudk0if;a,mfonf/ &kwfw&ufbmjyefajym&rnfudkrodbJ/ ai;a=umifaerdonf//


tb,fa=umifhqkdaomf/ ukdausmfat; wifjyvmaomudpPonf tvGefav;eufaom
ta=umif;&mudpPjzpfaeonf// TudpPtwGu/f vma&muf aqG;aEG;rnf[k u|efawmf
taejzifh/ vkH;0rarsSmfvifhxm;cJhay// rarsSmfvifhaom/ ta=umif;&mudk &kwfw&uf =um;&I
rnfodk@ jyefvnf/ aqG;aEG;wifjy&rnfudk/ pOf;pm;ae&jcif;jzpfonf// ,ckukdausmfat;
wifjyaqG;aEG;vmaom udpPonf/ tvGefvnf; tEW&m,f=uD;rm;aom udpP&yfjzpfaeonf//
awmfvSefa&;aumifpD wufvmuwnf;uyif/ OD;ektpdk;&wzGJ@vkH; (rGef0ef=uD; ekdifatmifxGef;
tyg0if)/ ekdifiHa&;orm;rsm;eSifh/ ausmif;om; acgif;aqmifrsm;pGmudk zrf;qD;csKyfaeSmif
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 127

xm;vkdufonf// tcsdK@edkifiHa&;orm;rsm;eSifh ausmif;om;acgif;aqmifrsm;udk/ udk;udk;u|ef;okd@/


ydk@xm;cJhonf// tvGef&ufpuf =urf;=uKwfaom/ ppfaumifpDjzpfonf// tm%m&SifyDo
a=umif;/ vufpGrf;jyonf// ayghayghwefwef oabmxm;jyD; jyefvnfaqG;aEG;I rjzpfekdif// 'grkd@
u|efawmfonf bmrS jyefrajymekdifbJ/ acwWc%rSs tcsdef,l pOf;pm;aerdonf// &J&ifh
jywfom;pGm/ aqG;aEGwifjyvmaom/ ukdausmfat;udkvnf;/ tHh=opGm ai;pkduf=unfhaerd
onf// udkausmfat;onf/ ppftm%m&Sifudk tvGefpufqkwf/ &GHrkef;oljzpfonf//
rGeftrsdK;om;udk cspfjrwfekd;onf// r[mArm0g'udk/ tvGefrkef;wD;ol wOD; jzpfonf//
aemufqkH;wGGif u|efawmfonfatmufygtwkdif;aqG;aEG;wifjyonf//

“ukdausmfat; jrifovkd/ ppfawmfvSefa&; aumifpDtay: u|efawmfvnf;


jrifw,f// rnfonfh/ 'Drdkua&pDtcGifha&;/ vl@tcGifha&;vJ&SdrSmr[kwfawmhbl;//
r[mArmvlrsdK;=uD;0g'udkvnf;/ tumuG,fjyKr,f// ppfwyf&J@ tusdK;pD;yGm;udkvJ/
tumuG,fjyKr,f// zuf'&,fpepfudk acszsufr,f// 'DtwGuftm%modrf;
wufvmwmbJvkd@u|efawmffvJjrifw,f// 'Dtm%m&Sifppftpdkd;&udk jyKwfusatmif
tm%mrwnfjrJ atmif/jzKwfcsbdk@twGuf/ vlwkdif;rSm/wm0ef&Sdw,f// u|efawmf
wkd@rSmvJ/ wm0ef&Sdw,f// 'gudku|efawmf rjiif;bl;//”

u|efawmf.tjrifudk wifjyvkdufonf// ukd0if;a,mfonf/ bmrS0ifajym qkdjcif;rjyKay//


jidrfoufpGm aeavonf// udk0if;a,mfeSifh udkausmfat;wkd@eSpfOD;onf// u|efawmftm;
vmrawG@cifuyif/ awG@qkHxm;=ujyD;/ wkdifyifxm; =ujyD;jzpfrnf[k xifygonf// xkda=umifh
udk0if;a,mfonf/ odxm;aom/ ta=umif;&m udpPw&yfukd xyfrH rajymqkdbJ jidrfouf
ae[ef&Sdonf// u|efawmfuyifudkausmfat;tm;atmufygtwdkif;ar;rdonf//

“ppftm%m&Sifudk/ b,fvkdawmfvSefjzKwfcs=urvJ/ qkw d Jhtay:rSmbJ/ u|efawmf


wkd@ pOf;pm;&rSm jzpfw,f// udkausmfat;taeeJ@/ awmfvSerf ,f qkdwm/ b,fvkd
t=uHpnf&SdovJ// awmckdrvdk@vm;/ ekdifa&$usifwkd@ rGefjynfopfygwDeJ@ yl;aygi;f jyD;
vufeufudkifawmfvSefa&;twGuf pdwful; xm;ovm;//”

u|efawmfonf/&kd;&dk;pif;pif;yifar;rdonf// ydkrdk&Sif;vif;pGmodvkdIar;jcif;jzpf./ udkausmfat;


onf/ rdrd.tpDtpOfudk jywfjywfom;om;yif wifjyajymqdkvmonf//

“u|efawmf t=uHpnfuawmh/ rGefjynfopfygwDrS ekdifa&$usifwkd@eJ@ yl;aygif;bkd@


r[kwfbl;// u|eaf wmfrmS / oD;jcm; tpDpOf&Sdw,f// xkdif;ekdifiHrSm&SdwJh/ rGev
f li,f
rsm;eJ@ u|efawmf tqufoG,f&Sdw,f// olwkd@&J@tulnDeJ@/ ppfoifwef;rsm;
128 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

zGifhvSpfbdk@ u|efawmhrSm/ t=uHpnf&Sdw,f// t*Fvdyfe,fcsJ@udk/ 'kd@Armtpnf;&kH;u/


awmfvSef ykeu f efbkd@ twGuf/ ynmwwf vli,f/ &Jabmf okH;usdyfudk pnf;&kH;
odr;f oGif;jyD; *syefekdifiHrSm/ wdwfwqdwf oGm;a&muf ppfynm oif=um;=uovkd/
u|efawmfrSmvnf;/ tJ'v D kd/ ppfoifwef; ay;bkd@ t=uHpnf&Sdw,f// ynmwwf
rGev f li,frsm;udk pnf;&kH;jyD;/ ,kd;',m;rSm ppfoifwef;ay;bkd@ pdwful;xm;w,f//
'gu|efawmfh&J@tjrifudkajymjywmyg/// 'geJ@ywfoufjyD; tao;pdyu f dkawmh/ aemufrS/
aqG;aEG;ao;wmaygh// 'Dtay:udk0if;a,mfwkd@/ udkazodef;wkd@&J@oabmxm;tjrifudk
u|efawmfodcsifw,f//”

,ckrSyif/ udkausmfat;. tpDtpOf twdtusudk od&awmhw,f// xl;qef;aom/ t=uHpnf


udk/ udkausmfat;xHrSxyfrH =um;&jyefojzifh/ rnfokd@jyefvnf; aqG;aeG;&rnfudkyif rodjzpf
oGm;onf// udk0if;a,mfvnf; rnfokd@rS rajymao;bJ/ jidrfouf aeonf//

“rGev
f li,frsm;udk pnf;&kH;jyD;/ ,kd;',m; rGev f li,fwkd@&J@ tulnDeJ@ ,dk;',m;ekdifiHrSm
ppfoifwef;ay;r,f// tJ'v D kd/ ppfoifwef;pHepfwus avhusifhxm;aom/ rGev f li,frsm;eJ@/
awmfveS af &;wyf/ wzJG@udkzGJ@pnf;r,f// 'DrsdK;cspfrGefvli,fwyfzGJ@eJ@/ tm%m&Sif ppfaumifpDudk
awmfvSebf kd@ygbJ// 'gu|efawmf&J@t=urf;zsif;/ tpDpOfudkwifjywmyg//”

ukdausmfat; ajymqkdcsuft&/ rGefjynfopfygwDeSihf ekdifa&$usifwkd@udk yl;aygif;&efr[kwfbJ/


oD;jcm; vGwfvyfpGm/ awmfvSef oGm;&ef oabm&Sdonf[k u|efawmfem;vnf vkdufonf//
ol@.tpDpOft=uHpnftay:rSm u|efawmfeSifhukd0if;a,mfwkd@. oabmxm;tjrifudk odvkdI
udkausmfat;uar;vmonf// TuJhokd@ rGefvli,frsm;ukd pnf;&kH;odrf;oGif;jyD;/ ,kd;',m;rSm
ppfoifwef; ay;rnfh tpDpOfudk/ u|efawmfonf tvGef oabmus eSpfoufrdonf// vufcH
ekdifonf// okd@aomf/ jzpfekdifrjzpfekdif qkdonfudkrl/ tav;xm; pOf;pm;&rnfh udpP&yfjzpfvm
onf// u|efawmfeSihf udk0if;a,mfwkd@vnf; xkdtpDpOfudk tvGef pdwf0ifpm; =ua=umif;
jyefvnf wifjyygonf// ,dk;',m;rSmrnfol@ tulnDudk &edkifovJ/ ,kd;',m;&Sd/ rnfonfh
rGefvli,frsm;eSifh tqufoG,f &SdygovJvkd@ u|efawmfwkd@u ar;jref;ygonf// olodaom/
oleSifhtqufoG,f&Sdaom/ ,dk;',m; rGeflvli,frsm;. trnfrsm;tcsdK@udk ajymjy ygonf//
ekdifb&mZkuf (,kd;',m;rGefvli,facgif;aqmif). trnfygonf[k u|efawmf xifygonf//
xdkpOfu/ udkausmfat;ajymjyaom/ xkdif;rGefvli,f trnfrsm;udkrl/ twdtus/ u|efawmf
rrSwfrdedKifawmhyg// wdwdususra&;edkifonfudkcGifhv$wfapvkdygonf// u|efawmfwdk@ (3)OD;/
ta=utvnf aqG;aEG;=ujyD;aemuf/ u|efawmfeSifh udk0if;a,mfonf/ udkausmfat;
ajymqkdonfh/ ,dk;',m;&Sd rGefvli,frsm;. tulnDeSihf ppfoifwef;ay;rnfh tpDpOfudk tvGef
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 129

oabmusa=umif; ajymjyonf// udkausmfat; tpDpOfwGif yg0if&ef/ u|efawmfwkd@eSpfOD;rSm/


tjynfh0qEN&Sda=umif;wifjyygonf// avmavmq,fwGif ukdausmfat;taejzifh/yxrOD;pGm/
,kd;',m;&Sd rGefrsm;eSihf tqufoG,f ,ljyD;/ pDpOfrSKrsm;udk =udKwifvkyfxm;&ef vkdtyfao;
a=umif;/ u|efawmfeSifh udk0if;a,mfwkd@u/ avmavmq,fwGif/ udkausmfat;eSifh twl
wygwnf; rvkdufekdif ao;a=umif; wifjyonf// tu,fI udkausmfat; taejzifh/
xkdif;ekdifiH&Sd/ rGefvli,frsm;eSifh tqufoG,f,ljyD;/ aqG;aEG;wkdifyif xm;onfhtwdkif;/ tpDpOf/
jzpfajrmuf atmifjrifygu/ rGefausmif;om;vli,frsm;udk vSsKd@0Sufpnf;&kH;ay;&ef wm0efudk/
u|efawmfeSihf udk0if;a,mfwkd@u ,lay;rnfhta=umif; oabmwl=uonf// u|efawmfwkd@
(3)a,muf/ aqG;aEG;wkdifyifIoabmwll=ujyD;aemufvltkyfpkcJ=G uonf//

1962-63/ckeSpf pmoifeSpf pwifaomtcg/ ydwfxm;aom/ wuUodkvf aumvdyf


txufwef;ausmif;rsm;udk/ jyefvnf zGihfjyefonf// ausmif;zGifhvSsifwuUodkvfaumvdyf/
txufwef; ausmif;wkd@wGif/ ausmif;om;rsm;jzifh pnfum; okdufjrdKuf vmjyefonf//
ausmif;om;rsm; jyefpkqnf;=ujyefonf// xkdpOfu armfvjrdKifaumvdyfwGif/ ausmif;om;/
oltm;vkH;pkpkaygif; (300)ausmfr#om&Sdonf// ausmif;om;opfrsm;jzifhvnf; armfvjrdKif
aumvdyfwGif ykdrdkpnfum; vmonf// wedkifiHvkH;&Sd/ ausmif;om; acgif;aqmifrsm;url/
ppftpkd;&udkvkH;0*&krpdkufbJ/ qufvufI toif;tyif;tzGJ@pnf; vkyfief;rsm;udk qufvuf
aqmif&GufaeqJ&Sd=uonf// ausmif;om;or*~ponfh/ ausmif;om;toif;tzGJ@pnf;rsm;udk
tcgwdkif;uuJhokd@yif pnf;&kH;zGifhvSpf=uonf//

rGeftrsKd;om;ekdifiHa&;acgif;aqmifrsm;eSifh uGsefawmfwdk@ rGefausmif;om;acgif;aqmifrsm;onf/


=udwfIwrsKd;/ ajymifajymif wif;wif;wzkHeSifh enf;rsKd;pkHjzifh/ edkifiHa&;eSifh/trsKd;om;a&;wdk@udk/
vufxdyfxkd; vkyfaqmif ae=uygao;onf// ekdifxGef;odef;/ ekdifodrf;armif/ ekdifaiGodrf;/
ekdfifcsrf;rGef/ ekdifqdwfekd@/ edkifuGefAvm/ edkifausmif/edkifoef;wifeSifhtjcm;aom/ rGefjynfol@wyfOD;
acgif;aqmifrsm;wkd@onf/ ppfAkdvfcsKyfrsm;tm%modrf;jyD;aemuf/ jzpfay:ajymif;vJvmaom/
ekdifiHa&;tajctaeudk tuJcyfapmifh=unfhaeqJjzpfonf// ppftm%m&Sifwkd@. vufatmuf
wGif/ trsKd;om;ekdifiHa&;ukd rnfuJhokd@/ qufvufI aqmif&Guf &rnfudk/ csifhcsdefpOf;pm;
ae=uaomumvjzpfonf// rGefjynfol@wyfOD;.OuUXekdifatmifxGef;onf/ zrf;qD;xdrf;
odrf;cHae&onf//

wuUodkvf aumvdyfrsm;rS rGefausmif;om;rsm;uvnf;/ ekdifiHa&; tajcaeudk/ rsufajc


rjywftuJ cyfapmifh=unfhvSsuf&Sdonf// &efukefwuUodkvfrS rGefausmif;om;acgif;aqmif/
rif;wifaz(&GmvGwf)/ rif;pkd;rif; (uavmhaomh/ tif*sifeD,m ausmif;om;)/ rif;armifjrifh
(uanSmf)eSifh rif;armifwif(uavmhaomh)wkd@onf/ armfvjrdKifaumvdyfrSm &Sd=uonfh
130 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

rGefausmif;om; acgif;aqmifrsm;eSifh qufoG,fvm=uonf// jzpfay:vmaomekdifiHa&;


tajcaewkd@udk tuJcwfjyD;rnfuJhokd@ qufvkyf&rnffudk wdk;wkd;wdwfwdwf wkdifyif=ujrJ
jzpfonf// 1962-63/ ckeSpf pmoifeSpfwGif/ armfvjrdKifaumvdyfokd@ rGefausmif;om;
topftjzpf udkxGef;az/ rif;om&if/ rif;oef;xGef; (oxkHekdifxGef;pdef.om;jzpfonf/
ekdifxGef;pdeo
f nf ume,f xGef;pdeftjzpfom/ awmckdpOfuvlodrsm;onf)/ wkd@a&mufvm
=uonf// u|efawmfwkd@aumvdyfrGefausmif;om;rsm;toif;twGuf tm;opfjzpfvmonf//

1962-63/ckeSpftwGuf armfvjrdKifaumvdyf rGefausmif;ol§om;rsm; toif;udk jyefvnf


zGJ@pnf;=uonf// armfvjrdKifaumvdyf rGefausmif;olom;rsm;toif;trSKaqmiftzGJ@ rSm
atmufygtwkdif;jzpfonf//

(1962-1963)armfvjrdKifaumvdyfrGeftoif;
em,u
emJxGe;f a&$ (rGefpmayXmerSL;)
rdat;oef@ ('k-rGepf mayXmerSL;)
trSKaqmiftzGJ@
rif;tke;f jrdKif OuUX
rdwifapmOD; 'k-OuUX
rif;azodef; twGif;a&;rSL;
rif;xGef;az wGJbuftwGif;a&;rSL;
rd,Ofwif wGJbuftwGif;a&;rSL;
rdcifxm;a&$ b¾ma&;rSL;
rif;vSausmf tzGJ@0if
rif;oef;xGef; tzGJ@0if
rif;om&if tzGJ@0if
rif;0if;xdef tzGJ@0if
rif;xGef;vSKdif tzGJ@0if
rif;pdefoef; tzGJ@0if
rif;armifav; tzGJ@0if
rif;oef;&Sdef tzGJ@0if
rdoef;pdef tzGJ@0if
rdjrifhjrifhoef; tzGJ@0if
rdat;oef; tzGJ@0if
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 131

OuUXjzpfvmol rif;tkef;jrdKifrSm/ uanSmf&Gm ZmwdjzpfjyD;/ 'k-OuUXjzpfol rdwifapmOD;rSm


rk'kHjrdK@Zmwdjzpfonf// u|efawmfu twGif;a&;rSL;jzpfvmonf// wGJbuftwGif;a&;rSL;
rif;xGef;azrSm xkH;tkdif&GmZmwdjzpfjyD;/ wGJbuf twGif;a&;rSL;/ rd,OfwifrmS oHjzLZ&yf
Zmwdjzpfonf// rdcifxm;a&G$/(xkH;tkdif/rGefocif =uL.orD;)onfb¾ma&;rSL;jzpfvmonf//
trSKaqmifrsm;rSm/ rif;0if;xdef(c) rif;wifekdif/ rif;oef;xGef; (oxkHekdifxGef;pdef.om;)/
rif;vSausmf (aygif/ xefyifa=umif)/ rif;om&if (uGmef&kduf/awmfuem)eSifh rdjrifhjrifhoef;
(a&;-rGefcifarmif/zqyvtrwf.orD;)/ rdat;oef; (&GmvGwf&Gm olaX; ekdifawmifausmf.
ajr)eSifh rif;xGef;vSdKif(bDvl;uGsef;)wkd@ jzpf=uonf// 1962-63ckeSpfpmoifeSpfrSm u|efawmf
onf/ eEN0eftaqmifYaexkdifonf//4if;yk*~vduykdif eEN0eftaqmifYrif;cspfvkH;/ rif;tkH;wif/
rif;xGef;az/ rif;vSausmf paom rGefausmif;om;rsm; twlwuG aexkdif =uonf//
tjcm;aom Armausmif;om;rsm;pGm vnf;aexkdif =uonf//

ekdifiHawmf. tm%mudk rw&m; odrf;ydkuf,ljyD; wufvmaom/ AdkvfcsKyfae0if; OD;aqmif


onfh/ awmfvSefa&;aumifpDonf/ wedkifiHvkH;&SdekdifiHa&; tzGJ@pnf;rsm;udk zsufodrf;cJhonf//
4if;tjyif ausmif;om; tzGJ@tpnf;rsm; zGJ@pnf;jcif;udkvnf; ydwfyif wm;jrpf vdkufonf//
okd@aomf ausmif;om; acgif;aqmifrsm;onf ajAmifajAmifyif/ ppftm%m&Sif. trdef@udk
zDqefI/ toif;tyif;rsm;udk zGifhvSpfjrJpnf;&kH;zGJ@pnf;=uonf// awmfvSefa&; aumifpDonf/
wuUodkvf/ aumvdyf/ txufwef;ausmif;rsm;udkvnf; tvGefwif;=uyfaom pnf;urf;
rsm;jzifh csKyfcs,fvmonf// wuUodkfvftkyfcsKyfa&; aumifpDwGifvnf;/ ausmif;om;or*~
udk,fpm;vS,frsm;udk yg0ifcGifhrjyKawmhacs// ausmif;aqmifrsm;udkvnf; pnf;urf;rsdK;pkHjzifh
csKyfcs,fuef@owfvmonf//

Tokd@/ &efukefwuUodkvf taqmifpnf;urf; wif;=uyfvmjcif;/ wuUodkvftkyfcsKyfa&;


aumfrwDwGifausmif;om;rsm;or*~ udk,fpm;vS,frsm;udkjzKwfcsvkdufjcif;/ paomudpPudk
rauseyf=uI/ &efukefwuUodkvfausmif;om;rsm;onf at;csrf;pGm/ &efukefwuUodkvf0if;Y
qENjy=uonf// 1962-ckeSpfZlkvdkifv(7)&ufae@wGif/ &efukefwuUodkvfausmif;0if;=uD;tm;
AdkfvfpdefvGif OD;aqmifaom ppfwyfwwyfrS vma&muf 0kdif;xm;=uonf// xkdae@naeydkif;
avmufwGif/ rnfokd@aomowday;csufray;bJ/ wuUodkvf0if;twGif;&Sd ausmif;om;rsm;udk
armif;jyef pufaoeyfrsm;jzihf ypfcwf=uonf// tjypfrJhausmif;om;(100)ausmfwkd@onf
aoqkH;oGm;& onf// aemufwae@eHeufapmapmykdif; wGifvnf;/ ordkif;0if taqmuftOD;
jzpfaom/ &efukefwuUodkvf ausmif;om;or*~ taqmuftOD;=uD;udk/ AkH;azgufcGJjyD; zsufpD;
vkduf=ujyefonf// 4if;taqmuftOD;twGif;&Sd ausmif;om;rsm; aoqkH;=ujyefonf//
ppftpkd;&onf ausmif;om;rsm;xyfrHqlylvmrnfudk pkd;&drfIwuUodkvf/ aumvdyfrsm;udk
xyfrHydwfvkdufjyefonf// u|efawmfonf/ bDvl;u|ef;odk@ oGm;a&mufI ckdvSKHaevkdufonf//
132 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

aumvdyfausmif; jyefvnfzGifhrSyif armfvjrdKifjrdK@odk@ jyefwuf vmonf// xkdeSpfwGif


uGsefawmfeSifh rif;xGef;az/ rif;0if;xdefeSifh rif;om&if/ rif;vSausmfeSifhrif;oef;xGef;wkfd@onf/
armfvjrdKif aumvdyf/ rGeftoif;wGif/ tjrJwrf; pkpkpnf;pnf;eSifh nDnDnGwfnGwf
wuf=uGpGm yg0if aqmif&Gufolrsm;jzpf=uonf// xkdtcsdefumvwGif/ &efukefwuUodkvf&Sd/
rGefausmif;om; acgif;aqmifrsm;eSifh armfvjrdKifaumvdyf&Sd rGefausmif;om; acgif;aqmifrsm;
wdk@onf/ tpkd;&. ynma&;pepfudk vkH;0r=udKufeSpf=uay// vlrsKd;pk wkdif;&if;om; rsm;tm;
uGsefjyKrnfhynma&; pHepf[kjrifonf// ynmwwfjyD; ArmuGsefvkyf&rSmudk tvGefrkef;wD;
&GH&Sm=uonf// aumvdyf/ wuUokdvfrS ay;aom/ bGJ@xl;/ *k%fxl;udkvnf;/ pdwfr0ifpm;
*&krpkdufcJhay// vGwfvyfrSK&Sdaom awmfvSefa&;orm;b0udk cH,lvkd=uonf// trsKd;om;
vGwfajrmufa&;twGufrdrdwdk@.b0udkay;vSLcsif=uonf// olwyg;u|efjzpfae&aom rdrdwkd@
rGefvlrsdK;/ b0vGwfajrmufrSKtwGuf =udK;yrf; aqmif&Gufvdkcsif=uonf//

rGefwrsdK;om;vkH;/ uGsefb0 a&mufaeonfhtcsdefrSm/ rGefom;oDR;rsm;jzpf=uaom/ rdrdwdk@u/


wuUokdvf/ aumvdyfrSm/ at;csrf;pGm ynmoif=um;jyD; tacsmiform;wOD;uJhokd@ raevkd
csif=uay// wuUodkvf/ aumvdyf y&0krfwGif raysmfydkufekfif=uacs/ awmfvSefa&; e,fajr
okd@om/ OD;wnfoGm;vkd=uonf// txl;ojzifh 'Drdkua&pDqdwfokef;aom ppftpdk;&
vufatmufwGif vkH;0 raevkdawmhay// vGwv f yfaom awmfvSefa&; e,fajrokd@om/
oGm;a&mufvkdpdwf jyif;jyif;ysys&Sd=uonf// awmwGif; vufeufudkif awmfvSefa&;tay:/
rGefausmif;om;rsm; ydkrdkpdwf0ifpm;vmonf// OuUXekdfifa&$usif. rGefjynfopfygwDtay:
txl;pdwf0ifpm; vm=uonf// uGsefawmfeSifh rif;xGef;az/ rif;0if;xdef/ rif;om&if/
&efukefwuUokdvfrS/ rif;armifjrifh/ rif;armifwifwkd@onf/ tcsif;csif;/ wkdifyif=ujyD;/
vufeufudkif awmfvSefa&;twGuf rGefjynfopfygwDeifh v#dK@0SufqufoG,f&ef =uHpnf
vm=uonf// OuUX=uD; ekdifa&$usiftm; ydkrdkpdwf0ifpm;vmjyD; OuUX=uD;. b0ta=umif;/
edkifiHa&;ta=umif;wkd@udk avhvm&ef pdwftm;xufoefvm=uonf// wcsdefwnf;rSm
xdkif;edkifiHokd@oGm;a&mufjyD; pnf;&kH;a&;qif;aeaom udkausmfat;udkvnf; u|efawmfwdk@u
ar#mfvifhaerd=uonf// udkausmfat; jyefvmygu/ 4if;xHrS owif;aumif;udk =um;&
vdrfhrnf[k ar#mfvifhae=uonf// odk@aomf ukdausmfat;xHrS owif;r=um;&onfrSm
tvGef=umcJhjyD; jzpfonf///

1962-ckeSpf aumvdyfrGeftoif;trSKaqmifzGJ@udkzJ@G pnf;jyD;aemufwGif aus;&Gmodk@qif;I


&HykaiGaumufcH=uonf// eSpfpOfeSpfwkdif; jyKvkyfae=u tvkyfjzpfonf// aumvdyf rGeftoif;
&HykHaiG&Smonfhenf;udk tenf;i,faz:jya&;om;rSv#if pmzwfolrsm;em;vnfrnf[kxifyg
onf// ywf'a&mifu'f (Patron Card) awGudk taocsm ykHeSdyfxm;jyD;/ aus;&Gm&SdrGefvl=uD;
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 133

vlaumif;rsm; xHokd@ oGm;a&muf csOf;uyfjyD; tvSLcH=uonf// 4if;tjyif xkdrGefvl=uD;


vlaumif;xHrSvnf; =o0g' cH,l=uonf// t=uHOm%f awmif;cH=uonf// rGefvl=uD;
vlaumif;wkd@uvnf;/tvSLaiGudkvnf; &uf&ufa&ma&m xnfh=uonfhtjyif vkdtyfaom
t=uHOm%faumif; rsm;udkvnf; ay;=uonf// xkdt=uHOm%fwkd@onf/ aumvdyfrGeftoif;
twGuf vrf;n$ef jzpfcJhonf// rk'kH/ urm0uf/ uavmhaomh/ edkifvkH/ xkH;tdkif/ aumhbdef;/
bDvl;u|ef;rS &GmtcsdK@aom aus;&Gmrsm;okd@ vlpkcJI G toD;oD;qif;cg/ &HykaiG&SmcJh=uonf//
xkdodk@ rGefaus;&Gm toD;oD; okd@oGm;&if;/ pnf;&kH;a&;vnf; qif;cJhjyefonf// aus;&Gm&Sd
rGefausmif;om; vli,frsm;eSifh xdawG@cGifh/ &if;eSD;cGifhudk &&dScJhonf// aus;&Gm&Sdvl=uD;rsm;eSifh
vnf; &if;eSD;cGifh&cJh=uonf//

1963-ckeSpf rwfvodk@ a&mufvmonf// pmoifeSpfqkH;I aEG&moD ausmif;ydwf&ef


tcsdefa&muf vmjyefjyD; jzpfonf// xkdokd@ wuUodkvf/ aumvdyfausmif;=uD; ydwfcgeD;wGif/
aumvdyf rGeftoif;eSihf &efukefwuUodkvf rGeftoif;wkd@rS ausmif;om; acgif;aqmif
rsm;onf/ awG@qkH=ujyD; aEG&moDpmoif=um;a&; tpDpOfrsm;udk a&;qGJ=uonf// eSpfpOf
eSpfwkdif; aEG&moD &uf&Snf ausmif;ydwf&ufwGif/ wuUodkvf/ aumvdyfrS rGefausmif;ol
§om;rsm; pkaygif;pnf;jyD; rGefaus;&Gmwkd@Y oGm;a&muf pmoif=um; ay;avh&Sdonf//
aus;&Gm&Sd rGefnDi,f/ nDri,frsm;tm; pmoif=um;ay;jyD; olwkd@av;awG&J@ ynma&;udk
ajrawmifajrSmuf tm;ay; cJh=uonf//

Tae&mwGif/ xkdpOfu wuUodkvfrGeftoif;eSifh aumvdyfrGeftoif;wkd@ zGifhvSpfoif=um;


aom/ aeG&moD oifwef;ausmif;ta=umif;udk tenf;i,fa&;om; wifjyrSomvSsif pmzwf
olrsm; oabmaygufrnf[k xifygonf// aeG&moD ausmif;ydwf&uf tawmwGif;wGif/
wuUodkvf/ aumvdyfrS rGefausmif;ol§om;rsm;u/ rGefaus;&Gmrsm;okd@qif;jyD;/ rGefnDi,f/
eSri,frsm; twGuf/ wwftm;oI/ t*Fvdyfpm/ ocsFm bmom&yfrsm;udk oif=um;
ay;onfh oifwef;jzpfonf// aEG&moD&moDausmif;(2)v ydwfcgeD;vSsif/ pm&if;jyKpk&onf//
wuUokdvf/ aumvdyf&Sd/ rGefausmif;ol§om;rsm;rS rnfol/rnf0gonf/ rnfonfhaus;&GmwGif
wm0ef,ljyD;/ oGm;a&muf oif=um;ay;ekdifonf// rnfonhf bmom&yfrsm;udk pdwftm;
xufoefI/ oif=um;ay;ekdkfifonf ponfwkd@udk yxr/ pm&if;jyKpk ,l&onf// xkdokd@jyKpkI
&vmaom/ ausmif;ol§om;pm&if; tay:=unfhjyD;/ rnfolonf/ rnfonfh/ aus;&Gmodk@
oGm;&ef/ owfrSwfjyD;/ wm0efcJaG 0ay;onf// rdrdwkd@wwfpGrf;xm;aom/ ynm&yfudk
nDi,frsm;tm; wqifhjzef@jzL;ay;aom/ tpDpOfjzpfonf//

wuUokdvf/ aumvdyf ausmif;ol §om;rsm;uvnf;/ rdrdwdk@.aEG&moD/ ausmif;ydwf&uf


tm;vyfaom tcsdefudk/ taysmftyg; twGuf tokH;rjyKbJ/ tusdK;&Sd&SdtokH;csjcif;jzpfonf//
134 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

TaEG&moD pmoif=um;onfhtpD;pOfudk aus;&Gm&Sd rGefjynfol/ vlxkrsm;uvnf; vSdKufvSJ


pGm=udKqkdonf/ rdrdwkd@ aus;&Gmudk a&mufvmaom/ wuUokdvf/ aumvdyfausmif;ol/
om;rsm;udk vkdavao; r&Sdatmif/ 0kdif;0ef;ulnD yydk;rSKay;onf// cifrif&if;eSD;/ az:a&GpGm/
qufqH=uonf// Tausmif;ol§om;rsm;twGuf/ pm;aomufa&; wm0efudk,l=uonf//
wae@wtdrf tvSnfhus wm0ef,ljyD; taumif;qkH; tpm;pmrsm;udk tyifyef;cH
csufau|;onf// apwem xufoefpGm {nfcH=uonf// aus;&Gm&Sd rGefjynfolvlxkwkd@.
ae@pOf/ aexkdifvkyfudkifpm;aomufonfhb0udk teD;uyfavhvmcGifh&onf//aus;&GmrGefvl=uD;
vlaumif;wkd@.ekdifiHa&;tjrif/ edkifiHa&; cH,lcsuf/ olwdk@.trsdK;om;a&; tawG@=uKHwdk@udk
avhvmcGifh&onf// rGefvlrsdK;tay: cspfjrwfekd;wwfaom olwkd@.pdwf"gwfwkd@udkvnf;
udk,fwkdif/ udk,fus eD;eD;uyfuyf avhvmcGifh&onf// tjyeftvSeftm;jzifh eSpfOD;eSpfzufudk
tusdK;jzpfxGef;apaomtpDpOfjzpfonf// Todk@aus;&Gm&Sd rGefjynfolvlxkwkd@. ae@pOf
vkyfudkif pm;aomuf ae&onfh/ qif;&Jyifyrf;wJh b0tppftrSefudk xdawG@em;vnfcGifh
&ojzifh/ rGefausmif;om;rsm;tbdk@ wefzkd;rjzwfekdifaom tawG@=uHK w&yfjzpfonf//
wuUokdvf/ aumvdyfynm&yfrsm;ukd oif=um;I jynfhpkHjyD;aemufwGif/ rGefjynfolvlxkwdk@.
tusdK;twGuf jyefvnf tusdK;jyKvkdaom pdwfudkjzpfay:aponf// ynmwwfjyD; b0
rar@oGm;&ef vkdtyfaom tawG@=uHK w&yfjzpfonf// TaEG&moD oifwef;wkd@udk
ausmif;om;wOD; taejzifh/ ukd,fwkdif ukd,fus yg0ifcJhaom u|efawmfonf/ rnfonhftcgrS
rarhedkifaom tawG@=uKHaumif; w&yfjzpfcJhonf//

u|efawmfonf/ udkxGef;az/ udkaiGodrf;(ZeLref)/ ekdifyef;atmif/ rdpdef/ rdcifxm;a&$wkd@.


aus;&Gm/ xkH;tkdifudk a&G;cs,fI pmoif=um;oGm;avh&Sdonf// xdk@a=umifhxkH;tkdif&Gmonf/
u|efawmf. aus;&GmuJhodk@ jzpfvmonf// 4if;aus;&Gm vl=uD;vli,frsm;eSifh cifrif&if;eSD;
cJhonf// naeapmif;csdef oHvGifjrpfY a&;qif;csdK;&onfrSm tvGeft&om awG@vSonf/
TuJhokd@ aEG&moDrSm pmvma&mufoif=um;ay;aom/ wuUokdvfaumvdyfwkd@rS ausmif;ol/
om;rsm;udk wae@wtdrf tvSnfhus/ xrif;au|;arG;{nfhcH=uonf// Tenf;jzifhaus;&Gm&Sd
jynfolrsm;eSifhvnf; &if;eSD;cGifh&cJh=uonf// u|efawmfwkd@tzGJ@wGif/ &efukefwuUokdvfrS/
u&kd Jjrifh(uwkd;)/ rif;ausmfZif(tvkduf)/ &efukefynma&; wuUodkvfrS/ udkaiGodrf;(Zelref)/
armfvjrdKifaumvdyfrS udkxGef;az/ rdcifxm;a&$eSifh u|efawmf yg0if=uonf// aeG&moD
ausmif;oifwef;umvrSm u|efawmfonf udkaiGodrf;. tpfr˜ rdjr0if;tdrfY4if;/
udkxGef;az.nDr rdpdefwkd@.tdrfY4if;/ aexdkifavh&Sdonf//
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 135

Tokd@ zGifhvSpfaom/ aEG&moDausmif;ydwf&uf oifwef;rsm;wGif/ rif;aiGodef;/ rif;xGef;az/


rif;ausmfZif/ rif;&Jjrifh(uwkd;)/ rif;xGef;az/ ekdifbxGef;(xkH;tkdif/ aumvdyf ausmif;om;
a[mif;/)/ udktkef;armif(xkH;tkdif)/rif;tkef;aiG(xkH;tkdif)eSifh uGsefawmf wkd@onf/ aEG&moD
oifwef;wGif twlwuG/ qkH=ujrJyifjzpfonf// udkxGef;az/ rdpdefwkd@tm; u|efawmf
tvGef&if;eSD;cJhonf// udkxGef;az.rdcif/ bciffeSifh rdpdef.rdbwdk@onfvnf; u|efawmf.
rdbrsm;vkdjzpfvm=uonf//olwkd@tdrfrsm; onfvnf;/ u|efawmfhtwGuf/ aexkdifpm;aomuf
tdrfjzpfvmonf// u|efawmfwkd@onf/ armifeSr&if;jcmuJhokd@cifrif &if;eSD;olrsm; jzpfvm
=uonf// udkxGef;az. rdb/ rdpdef.rdbwkd@onf/ rGefrsdK;cspfpdwf tvGefxufoefolrsm;
jzpfonf// rdrdwkd@.om;oDR; vkyfaqmifaeonfhtrsdK;om;a&;wGif rnfokd@rSSs 0ifa&mufpGyfzuf
ajymqkdwm;jrpfjcif; r&SdcJhay// tm;yifay;=uonf// txl;ojzifh udkxGef;az.rdcif
(owif;axmufedifyef;atmif.eSr)onf/ trsdkK;udktvGefcspf.// udkxGef;az. trsdK;om;a&;
aqmif&Gufcsufudk/ rnfonfhtcgrSs wm;jrpfjcif; vkH;0r&SdcJhonfhtjyif/ udkxGef;az.
trsdK;om;a&; aqmif&Gufcsufudk *k%f,lIrqkH;jzpfaeonf// om;udkrnfonfhtcgrS/
&mxl;Xme/ aumif;aumif;&atmif/ pm=udK;pm;yg[lI rwkdufwGef;cJhacs// om;tm; tvdkus
vkyfaqmifcGifhay;xm;onf//

xkH;tkdifaus;&Gm&Sd rGeftrsdK;om;wkd@onf tvGefcspfp&maumif;=uonf// rGefrsdK;cspf pdwf"gwf


tvGefxufoefolrsm;jzpfonf// cifrif&if;eSD;&ef tvGefaumif;onf// u|efawmfonf
xkH;tkdif&Gmudk eSpfoufcJhonf// eSpfpOfvkdvdk xkH;tkdifaus;&Gmudk a&G;jyD; wm0ef,lcJhonf//
xkda=umifh udkaiGodef;/ udkxGef;azeSifh uGsefawmfwdk@onf/ nDtpfudkuJhokd@ wOD;udkwOD;
cifrifcJh=uonf// udkaiGodef;.tdrfonf uGsefawmh.aexkdif pm;aomuftdrf jzpfvmonf//
ukdaiGodef;. rdcifonf u|efawmf. rdcifwOD;vkdcifrifvmonf// udkaiGodef;.tpfr/
a':jr0if;onfvnf; u|efawmfh. tpfrwOD;jzpfvmonf// q&mrrdjr0if;onf pum;ajym
qkd&mwGif tvGef,Ofaus; odrf;arG@olwOD;jzpfonf// u|efawmftm; armifav;&if;jcm
wa,mufuJhodk@ =unfh&SK apmifha&Smufonf// rdbarwWmw&m; tvGefiwfrGwfaeonfh
u|efawmftbdk@ rdjr0if;onf rdcifwOD;vnf; qkdedkifonf// xkH;tkdifaus;&GmwGif aexkdif&onfh
tcsdefumvrsm;onf/ u|efawmftbdk@ tvGef=unfe;lbG,f&m/ csrf;ajr@bG,f&maumif;aom
tcsdefumvjzpfcJhrdonf//

1963-64/ckeSpf pmoifeSpfwGif/armfvjrdKifaumvdyfudk 'D*&Daumvdyftjzpfodk@ wkd;jrSifhvkduf


onf// uGsefawmfonf (I.Sc)atmifjrifjyD;I armfvjrdkif 'D*&DD aumvdyfYyif (B.Sc)
part(A)udk qufvuf ynmoif=um;onf// 1963-64/ckeSpf pmoifeSpf rGeftoif;
tr_aqmifrsm; jyefvnfa&G;aumuf wifajrSmufaomtcg/ armfvjrdKif 'D*&D aumvdyf
136 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

rGeftoif;wGif/ rif;0if;a,mfu OuUXjzpfvmonf// (rif;0if;a,mfonf/ tifwm (I.A)


atmifjrifjyD; tvkyfxGuf vkyfonf// armfvjrdKif aumvdyfudk/ 'D*&Daumvdyf tjzpfokd@
wkd;jrSifhvkdufaomtcg/ 'D*&D&&eftwGuf/1963-64/pmoifeSpfrSmaumvdyfqufwuf onf)
uGsefawmfu'k/ OuUXjzpfjyD;/ rif;xGef;azrSm twGif;a&;rSL;jzpfvmonf//

1963-ckeSpf/ ausmif;om; nDnGwfa&;wyfO;D nDvmcHrS/ uGsefawmftm;/ ausmif;om;


nDnGwfa&;wyfOD;. OuUXtjzpf a&G;aumuf wifajrSmuf=uonf// ausmif;om;nDnGwfa&;
wyfOD;onf/ armfvjrdKif aumvdyfwGif/ tiftm;t=uD;rm;qkH;aom ausmif;om;tzGJ@pnf;
jzpfjyD; eSpfpOfeSpfwkdif; ausmif;om;or*~ a&G;aumufyGJwGif tedkif&aom/ ausmif;om;
tzGJ@pnf; jzpfonf/ u|efawmfonf/ eEN0efaqmifrS oHvGif aqmifokd@ajymif;a&$@jyD;
oGma&mufaexdkifonf// oHvGifaqmifwGif/ uGsefawmfeSifhtwl rGefausmif;om;rsm;jzpfaom/
rif;oef;xGe;f (oxkH)/ rif;pkd;jrifh(rk'kH)/ rif;xGef;az/ rif;wifekdif(c) rif;0if;xdefwkd@ aexkdif=u
onf//4if;tjyif tjcm;ausmif;om; acgif;aqmifrsm;jzpfaom armifodef;nGef@ (aumhu&dwf)
armifatmifoef;(aumhu&dwf) wkd@onfvnf;/ oHvGifaqmifwGif/ twlwl ae=uolrsm;jzpf
onf// oHvGifqmif. taqmifrSL;rSm/ ordkif;XmerS/ uxdu a'gufwm cifarmifnGef@jzpfjyD;
taqmif.o[m,toiff; OuUXrSm uGsefawmfjzpfonf//

rif;om&iff/ rif;0if;a,mf/ (urm0uf)/rif;armifwkd;(zg;atmuf)wkd@onf/ ae@ausmif;om;rsm;


jzpf=uonf// 1963-ckeSpfwGif/ armfvjrdKif 'D*&DaumvdyfrSm/ taqmifopfrsm;udk pwif
aqmufvkyfqJ jzpfItaqmif tm;vkH; rjyD;jywfao;yg/ arm&aqmifeSifh oHvGifaqmifwdk@
(2)aqmifom/ aumif;rGefpGm jyD;pD;ao;onf// weoFm&Daqmifukdrl/ aqmufvkyfqJyif&Sd
onf// arm&aqmifwGif/ u&ifausmif;om; acgif;aqmifrsm;jzpfaom/ apmatmifbGifh/
apma&$,m[JeSifh udk=unfjrifh (ausmif;om;or*~OuUX/ xkH;tkdifrsdK;eG,f)/ ae=uonf//
rdef;uav; ausmif;olrsm;twGufa&$jrdKifaqmifudk rl 1960-ckeSpfuyif aqmufvkyfxm;jyD;
jzpfonf// a&$jrdKifaqmifwGif/ rdwifapmOD;(rk'kHjrdK@)/ rdcifxm;a&$(xkH;tkdifocif=uL.oRD;)/
rdat;oef;(&GmvGwf)/rdjrifhjrifhoef;(a&;)eSifhrd,Ofwif(oHjzLZ&yf)ponfhrGeftrsKD;oRD;ausmif;
olacgif;aqmifrsm; aexdkif=uonf// xkdtcsdefumvonf/ armfvjrdKif 'D*&DaumvdyfwGif
ausmif;oll§ om; tm;vkH;aygif;rS(300) ausmfr#om&Sdao;onf// wOD;udkwOD; rsufrSef;wef;/
oduGsrf;cifrif=uonf//

1963-64/ ckpmoifeSpfwGif aumvdyf ausmif;tkyf=uD; OD;wkd;atmif (pma&;q&mrif;uko)


yifpif,l em;vkdufojzifh/ xkdeSpf ausmif;tkyfopfrSm/ a'gufwmarmif'D jzpfvmonf//
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 137

OD;wkdf;atmifonf/ rGefvlrsdkK; Zmwdjzpfonf// uwkd;aumheSyfZmwd[k xifonf// xkdpmoif


eSpfwGif/q&medkifxGef;a&$eSifh a'gufwmrif;wifrGef/ rdav;=unf/ (OuUX=uD;ekdifvSarmif.orD;)/
rdoef;jr(yx0D)/ rdat;oef@wkd@onf/vnf; armfvjrdKif aumvdyfrSmyif tvkyfwm0ef
usonf//

a'gufwm rif;wifrGefrSm/ "gwkaA'XmerS/ uxduwOD;jzpfonf// a'gufwm rif;wifrGefonf


pmoif=um;&mwGif tvGefawmfonf// pdwfaeoabmxm;vnf; tvGefaumif;ol
jzpfonf// rmefrmeuif;I &kd;&dk;om;om; aexkdifwwfoljzpfonf// ausmif;om;wkdif;/
q&mrif;wifrGeftm;/ cspfcifav;pm;=uonf// uGsefawmfonfvnf;/ q&mrif;wifrGef.
"gwkaA' ausmif;om; wOD;jzpfonf// q&mrif;wifrGefonf/ "gwkaA' nDr#jcif;rsm;
(Equations)udkoifykef;ay:Y a&;csae&if;yif/ aw;oDcsif;toGm;uav;udkyg/ nnf;qkd
aewwfonf// ausmif;om;rsm; tvGefoabmus/ eSpfjcdKuf=uonf// pdwfat;csrf;pGm
pmoifwwfonfh oabmudkjyonf// "gwkaA'nDr#jcif; (Equations)rsm;udk &Sif;vif;
jy&mwGif/ tvGef&Sif;vif;I oabmaygufvG,fonf// 4if;tjyif/ "gwkaA' rSwfpkpmtkyf
rsm;udk a&;om;&mwGifvnf;/ tvGefawmfaom q&mwOD;jzpfonf// q&ma&;om;/
xkwfa&mif;aom rSwfpk(Notes)pmtkyfrsm;udk/ ausmif;om;rsm; tvGefeSpfjcdKuf=uonf//
q&monf urm0uf&Gm Zmwdjzpfonf// i,fpOfuyif ynmxl;c|efoljzpfonf// &kd;&kd;
om;om; 0wfpm;qif,ifaexkdifjyD; ynmudk txl;OD;pm;ay; =udK;pm;cJholjzpfonf// i,fpOf
uyif taysmftyg;udk a&Smifonf// bmomw&m;udktvGef&kdaoukdif;&SdKif;oljzpfonf//
wuUokdvf ausmif;om;b0wGif/ rdrd.ynm xl;cGsefr_jzifh rGeftrsKd;om;. *k%f&nfudk
jrSifhwif ay;edkifcJholjzpfonf// rGefvlrsdK;udk tvGefcspfjrwfedkf;I/ trsdK;om;a&;twGuf/
wufwuf=uG=uG =udK;yrf; yg0ifaqmif&GufcJholjzpfonf// &efukefwuUodkvf rGeftoif;udk/
xufjrufpGm OD;aqmifjyD;/ acwfeSifhtnD/ qef;opf apcJhaom/ rGefausmif;om; acgif;aqmif
wOD;jzpfonf// xdk@a=umifh q&mtm; uGsefawmfwdk@ rGefausmif;om;rsmutxl;yif cspfcif
av;pm;=uonf//

1963-eSpfpmoifeSpfwGif/ armfvjrdKif 'D*&DaumvdyfY/ ,cifrGefpmayXmerS edkifxGef;a&G/


q&mrrddat;oef@eSifhyx0DXme/ uxdu/ q&mrrdoef;jr(&GmvGwfZmwd)wdk@vnf; toD;oD;
&Sd=uonf/ awmfvSefa&;aumifpD/ AdkvfcsKyfae0if;ppftpkd;&rS rGefpmayXmeeSifh rGefpmay
oif=um;jcif;udk ydwfyifvkdufonfhtwGuf/ rGefq&mekdifxGef;a&$eSihf rdat;oef@wkd@onf/
a&S@wkdif;bmom &yfXme (ygVdXme)odk@ ajymif;a&$@I wm0ef,lvm&onfukdawG@&onf//
4if;eSpw
f Gif/ a':=unfcifxl;vnf; ausmif;jyefwufonfudkawG@&onf/ a':=unfcifxl;onf/
,cif Oypm(I.A)wef;udk atmifjrifcJhonfrSm =umjyD;jzpfaomfvnf; bGJ@r&cJhyg// ,ckeSpf/
138 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

armfvjrdKifaumvdyfudk 'D*&Daumvdyfwkd;jrSifhvkdufaomtcg 'D*&DbJ@G twGuf aumvdyf


qufwufjcif;jzpfonf/ a':=unfcifxl;onf touf&G,ftm;jzifh(45)eSpfcef@&Sdrnf[kxif&
onf// ausmif;ol/om;xJwGif/ touf=uD;qkH;jzpfonf// touf&G,feSifh rvkdufatmif
tvGefacsmaarmwifhw,fjyD;/ =uufoa& tvGef&SdvSonfh trsKd;orD;wOD;jzpfygonf//
trdrGefjzpfjyD; zcifonf/*sL;vlrdsK;jzpfonf[kod&onf// rGefrsKd;cspf pdwfxufoefoljzpfonf/
armfvjrdKifjrdK@rGeftrsKd;om;ae@tcrf;tem;udk eSppf OfeSpfwdkif;OD;pD;OD;aqmif/=uD;rSL;usif;yaom/
olrsm;xJrSwOD;jzpfonf// AdkvfcsKyfae0if;OD;aqmifaom/ awmfvSefa&;aumifpDrS wkdif;jynf.
tm%mudk odrf;ydkufvkdufonfh/ 1962-ckeSpfrSpI rGeftrsdK;om;ae@ usif;ya&;udk trsdK;rsdK;
wm;jrpfydwfyifvmonf/ jcdrf;ajcmuf taeSmuf,SufjyKvmonf xkdokd@aom tajctaeY
yif/ rGeftrdsK;om;ae@ tcrf;tem;udk pnf;um; odkufjrdKufpGm/ eSpfpOf eSpfwkdif; ra=umufr&GH@
OD;aqmif usif;y&Jaom olrsm;wGif/ rd=unfcifxl;onfvnf; wpfOD;tygt0ifjzpfonf//
xkdtwl/ eSpfpOfeSpfwkdif;rysufruGuf rGeftrsdK;om;ae@ tcrf;tem;udk &J&J0Hh0Hh/ rwGef@rqkwf/
ra=umufr&GH/ usif;y&Jolrsm;wGif/ rGefwkdif;&if;om; tpnf;t&kH;rS twGif;a&;rSL;
ekdifatmifvSaiGwpfOD;udkrl/ txl;yif*k%fjyKrSwfwrf;wif&ayrnf// ekdifatmifvSaiGonf/
awmfvSefa&; aumifpD.jcdrf;ajcmufrSK/ taeSmuft,Suf trsdK;rsdK;udk*&krpdkufbJ/ eSpfpOf
eSpfwkdif; rysufruGuf qufvufxdef;odrf;I rGeftrsdK;om; tcrf;tem;udk rjzpfrae usif;y
&JcJholwpfOD;jzpfonf// xkdokd@usif;y&Jolrsm;wGif/ ekdifyef;atmif(xkH;tkdif)wpfOD;onf vnf;
wpfa,muftygt0ifjzpfonf//

1963-64/ckeSpfwGif/rif;xGef;az/ rif;0if;xdfef/ rif;oef;xGef;/ rif;armifwifeSifh u|efawmfwkd@u


vufeufudkif awmfvSefa&;twGuf txl;vSsdK@0Sufjyifqif vm=uonf// ,cifu zGJ@pnf;
xm;aom aus;&GmtoD;oD;&Sd/ rGefausmif;om; vli,ftoif;rS ausmif;om; acgif;aqmif
rsm;eSifh qufoG,fjyD; pnf;&kH;a&; vkyfief;rsm;ukd vkyfvm=uonf// awmaus;&Gm&Sd
rGefausmif;om;acgif;aqmifrsm;udk awmcdka&;twGuf/ =udKwifpnf;&kH;rSK/ jyifqifr_rsm;
jyKvkyfxm;&ef/ v#dK@0SufI ta=umif;=um;xm;onf// wzufuvnf; awmwGif;eSifh
tqufoG,f,l&ef/ =udK;pm;=uonf// wcsdefwnf;rSm udkausmfat;udkvnf; u|efawmfwkd@
jyefvnf tquftoG,f&&ef =udK;pm;pkHprf;onf// udkausmfat;/ udk0if;a,mfeSifh
u|efawmfwkd@ okH;OD;aqG;aEG;cJhonfh/ awmfvSefa&;tpDpOfudk armfvjrdKifaumvdyfrS/ pdwfcs
&aom/ rGefausmif;om;acgif;aqmiftcsdK@udktoday;/ ajymqkdxm;cJhonf//

1962-ckESpf awmfvSefa&;aumifpD wufpuyif/ udkausmfat; wa,muf/ aysmufoGm;jyD;/


,ae@txd ay:rvmcJhay// rnfonfh tquftoG,frS/ r&wJhta=umif;udkvnf;/
rGefausmif;om; acgif;aqmiftcsdK@wkd@u odxm;=uonf/ ukdausmfat; ta=umif;ukd/
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 139

u|efawmfeSifh udk0if;a,mftjyif/ udkxGef;az/ udk0if;xdef/ ukdoef;xGef;/ &efukefwuUokdvfrS


rif;armifwifwkd@ tm;vkH;yif/ od&Sdxm;olrsm;jzpfonf// Todk@aumvdyfrSrGefausmif;om;/
u|efawmfwkd@wpk/ vufeufudkfif awmfvSefa&;udk pOf;pm;vmav/ awmwGif;&Sd rGefjynfopf
ygwDta=umif;udk ykdrfdkodcsifpdwf jzpfay:vmavjzpfonf// xkd@xuf rGefjynfopfygwD/
OuUX=uD; edkifa&$usif. ta=umif;udkvnf; ydkrdk odcsifpdwf jzpfay: vmonf// OuUX=uD;
ekdifa&$usif. ukd,fa&;&mZ0if/ rsdK;&kd;Zmwd/ ynma&;eSifh trsdK;om;a&;aqmif&GufrSK ponf
wkd@udk ydkrdkodvmcsif=uonf// Tokd@jzifh OuUX=uD;tay: ydkrdkpdwf0ifpm;vmjyD; OuUX=uD;
ta=umif;udk/ wwfedkifor# avhvmcJh=uygonf// xkdokd@ rGefjynfopfygwD OuUX=uD;
ekdifa&$usiftay: pdwf0ifpm;jyD;/ OuUX. ta=umif;udk pkaqmif;avhvm&ef pdwfqEN
jzpfaeqJrSmyif/ OuUX=uD;ukd ykdrdkpdwf0ifpm;aponfh ta=umif;&mrsm;u jzpfay:vmonf//

1963-ckeSpfZGefv(11)&ufae@wGif/ AdkvfcsKyfae0if;OD;aqmifaom/ awmfvSefa&;aumifpDonf


awmwGif;vufeufudkif tiftm;pkrsm;eSifh awG@qkHaqG;aEG;vkda=umif;/ jidrf;csrf;a&;aqG;aEG;yJG/
urf;vSrf;csufw&yfudkxkwfjyefausjimvkdufygonf// wkdif;jynf&Sdjynfolvlxkt&yfvkH;tm;
tvGeftHh=oapcJhonf// rnfol wOD;wa,mufrSs/ rarSsmfvifhxm;aom t&myifjzpfaeav
onf// Towif;udk =um;&aom uGsefawmfonf tvGef tHh=ordygonf// AkHrqifh/
qdkif;rqifhaom/ awmfvSefa&;aumifpD. jidrf;csrf;a&;urf;vSrf;csufudk=um;rdolwkdif;/ tHh=o
=uvdrRnf[k uGsefawmf xifonf// jynfwGif;ppfudk vlwdkif; &G@Hrkef;onf/ tqkH;owfapvkd
=uonf// jiddrf;csrf;a&;udk awmif;w ae=uaom umvjzpfonf// jynfol vlxkt=udKuf/
[efjyvkyfaqmifjyD; jynfol.axmufcHr_ &atmifvkyfaqmif aeovm;qkdwm/ pOf;pm;p&m
jzpfaeonf// 4if;a=u+imcsuftay:/ awmwGif; tiftm;pkrsm;taeeSifh rnfuJhokd@ wkef@jyef
=urnfenf;// wqufwnf;wGif/ rGefjynfopfygwD taejzifh/ rnfuJhokd@jyefvnf wkef@jyef
vmrnfudkvnf; uGsefawmf txl;yif pdwf0ifpm; vmrdonf// OuUX=uD; ekdifa&$usif
udk,fwkdifyif vma&mufrnfvm;/ okd@r[kwf udk,fpm;vS,fr#om apv$wfvmrvm; ponfh
ar;cGef;rsm;udkyif uGsefawmfhudk,f uGsefawmfjyefI ar;aerdonf// OuUX=uD; udk,fwdkif
jidrf;csrf;a&; aqG;aEG;yGJ twGuf vmekdifygu/ rsm;pGm aumif;rnf[kvnf; xifrdonf//
rGefjynfolvlxkeSifh rGefausmif;ol§om;rsm;u/ OuUX=uD;tm; vludk,fwkdif awG@vkdjrifvkd
ae=uonf// owif;pum;eSifh emrnftjzpfom odaecJhaom OuUX=uD;ekdifbvGif(c)
ekdifa&$usiftm; TwcgwGif/ vludk,fwkdifawG@&awmhrnf[k uGsefawmfonf pdwful;,Of
rdonf// OuUX=uD;. &kyf&nfeSifh ykHyef;o‰mefudkyif/ pddwful;xJYcef@rSef;IykH az:=unfhrdonf//

1963-ckeSpfZGefv(11)&ufae@ awmfvSefa&;aumifpDrS jidrf;csrf;a&; aqG;aEG;yGJurf;vSSrf;csuf


udk a=u+imonfhae@ naeydkif;wGif/ uGSsefawmfaeaom/ oHvGifaqmif atmufxyf/ tceff;
eHygwf(13)qDokd@ ausmif;om;rsm; pka0; a&mufvm=uonf// uGsefawmf tcef;onf/
140 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

ausmif;om;rsm;/ edkifiHa&;aqG;aEG;&ef pka0;&mpk&yfjzpfonf// 4if;ausmif;om;rsm;xJwGif/


rif;0if;xdfef/ rif;xGef;azeSifh rif;oef;xGGef;vnf; ygvmonf// (rif;oef;xGef;ukd pmzwf
y&d\wfeiS hf tenf;rdwfqufay;vkdygonf// rif;oef;xGef;onf oxkHekdifxGef;pdef.om;
jzpfonf// ekdifxGef;pdefonf/ 1948-ckeSpfoxkHjrdKe,f rGefvlrsKd;a&;&mtzGJ@ OuUXjzpfonf//
ume,fxGef;pdef tjzpfvnf; emrnf=uD;oljzpfonf// 1948-ckeSpf/ Zlvkdifv(29)&ufrSm
oxkHjrdK@udk rGef-u&ifwkd@ odrf;ydkufjyD;aemuf/ yl;wGJtkyfcsKyfa&; aumfrwDzJ@G &mwGif/
ekdifxGef;pdefonf t"dutkyfcsLyfa&; wm0efcHwOD; jzpfvmonf// 1949-ckeSpf{jyDvavmuf
wGif/ tpdk;&wyf. xkd;ppfr_a=umifh/ rGef/u&ifwdk@onfarmfvjrdKif/ oxkHrSqkwfcGmcJh&onf//
4if;aemufrGefvlrsKd;a&;&mtzGJ@(rv&)onff/ aumhu&dwfwGif/ txl;tpnf;a0;ac:,lI
tr_aqmifopfudk jyefvnf a&G;cs,f=u&mwGif/ ekdifxGef;pdef/ ekdifxGef;odef;wkd@ onf/
(rv&)A[kd tvkyftr_aqmifrsm; jzpfvmonf// (rv&) OuUXrSm ekdifomeSif; (OuUX=uD;
edkfifvSarmif.nD) jzpfjyD;/ twGif;a&;rSL;rSm/ ekdifaiGodef; jzpfvmonf// xkdtcsdefwGif/
OuUX=uD;ekdifvSarmifeSifh ekdifa&$usifwkd@rSm/ tzrf;cHae&ojzifh tr__aqmifY ryg0ifekdifcJhacs//
ekdifxGef;pdefonf/ ekdkfifodef;armifeSifh aqGrsdK;awmfpyfolwOD;jzpffonf// OuUX=uD;ekdifa&G$usif/
ekdifxGef;odef;wkd@eSifhtvGe&f if;eSD; cifrifoljzpfonf// (rv&)acwfwav#mufvkH;wGif/ twl
wuG/ trsKd;om;a&;wGif yg0ifv_yf&Sm;cJhaom/ vkyfaz:udkifzufrsm; jzpf=uonf// ekdfifxGef;pdef
onf rdr. d awmfvSefa&;tawG@=uKHudkom;jzpfoltm;/ r=umc%jyefvnf/ ajymjywwf
onf// rif;oef;xGef;onf/ ekdifa&$usif ta=umif;udk4if;/ ekdifxGef;odef; ta=umif; udk4if;/
ekdifodrf;armif ta=umif;udk4if;/ zcif.ajym=um; xm;r_a=umifh/ txkduftav#muf odxm;
oljzpfonf// wcgwGif/ rif;oef;xGef;eSifhekdifxGef;odef;qkH=uonf/ rif;oef;xGef;u/ rdrdonf
ekdifxGef;pdef.om;jzpfa=umif; rdwfqufaomtcg/ edkifxGef;odef; onf/ 0rf;om tm;&pGmyiff/
rif;oef;xGef;udk av;av;pm;pm;jzifh jyefvnffeSKwfqufonfudk uGsefawmfawG@bl;ygonf//

xdkn uGsefawmhftcef;wGif pka0;a&muf&Sdvmaom ausmif;om;rsm;onf/ awmffvSefa&;


aumifpD. jidrf;csrf;a&;a=u+imcsuftay: trsKd;rsdK;a0zefajymqdk=uonf// taumif;bufrS
jrifol &SdouJhokd@ raumif;bufrS jrifolvnf;&Sdonf// rGefausmif;om;tjyif/ tjcm;aom
Armausmif;om; acgif;aqmiffrsm;vnf;a&mufvm=uonf// rdrdwdk@.tjrifudk/ pdwftm;
xufoefpGmaqG;aEG;wiffjy=uonf// uGsefawmfwkd@wawGonf/ awmwGif; vufeufudkif
tiftm;pkrsm;tm; jidrf;csrf;a&; aqG;aEG;r__twGufvm a&mufapvkd=uonf// rGefjynfopf
ygwDrS udk,fpmvS,frsm; vmoifhonf[kjrif=uonf// rif;wifekdif(c)rif;0if;xdefonf/
ekdifiHa&;tjrif tvGefxufjrufaom oljzpffonf// yGifhvif;pGm ajymqkdwwfonf/ pdwf
tvGefaumif;onf// wGef@wdkjcif;r&Sday// oli,fcsif;rsm;tay: tepfem cHwwfonf//
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 141

4if;n rif;0if;xdefajymaompum;udk ,ckxufwdkifuGsefawmfjyefajymif;Iowd&ao;onf//

“awmfvSefa&;aumiffpD ppftpkd;&[m/ jynfolvlxkukd vSnfhpm;wmbJ jzpf&r,f//


apwem &dk;&dk;eSifh jidrf;csrf;a&; ac:wm rjzpfekdifbl;vkd@ uGsefawmf xifwmbJ//
ppftpkd;&qkdwm b,fawmhrS jynfwGif;jidrf;csrf;a&;udk rvdkvm;bl;// tjrJwrf;
jynfwGif;ppf jzpfaeatmif/ zefwD;aewJholawGyg// jynfwGif;ppf tjrJwrf;&SdaerS/
olwkd@ ppfwyfudk jynfolawGu tm;udk;aer,f// txif=uD; aer,f// tJ'Dvkdtjrif
ppfAkdvfcsKyfwkd@rSm&Sdw,f// jynfwGif;ppfomr&Sd&if/ b,folrSppfwyfudk tm;rudk;
awmhbl;/ jynfolawGa&m// tpkd;&uyg/ ppfwyfudk *&krpdkufawmhbl;// 'Dtcsufudk
ArmppfwyfrS ppfAdkvfcsKyfrsm;u od=uw,f// 'ga=umihf jynfwGif;ppfudk tqkH;owf
jyD;/ jynfwGif; jidrf;csrf;a&;udk tvdk&SdwJh/ OD;ektpkd;&udk/ jzKwfcsjyD; tm%modrf;
vkdufwmbJ r[kwfvm;// jynfwGif; ppf&SdaerS/ ppfwyfu ppfAkdvfcsKyfawG
tpm;acsmifr,f// *k%f&Sdr,f// t&yfom; tpkd;&tay:rS =oZmanmif;r,f// qkdwJh
tjrifrsdK;/ ppfAkdvfcsKyfwkd@rSm &Sdw,f// 'grdk@olwdk@taeeSifh b,fawmhrS jynfwGif;ppf
tqkH;owfatmif vkyfrSmr[kwfbl;// aemufwcsufu jynfwGif;ppf&SdaerS
ekdifiHawmf.b‰maiGukd/ ppfAkdvfcsKyfawG pdwf=udKuf okH;pGJekdifr,f r[kwfvm;// emJ˜
taeeSifh b,fvkdjriffovJ//”

rif;0if;xdefonf/ uGsefkyftm;(emJ)vdkd@bJ ac:qdkI ajymavh&Sdonf// yGifhvif;orm;jzpfonf//


cHpm;csuftwkdif;/ rdrdtjrifudk yGifhvif;pGm xkwfajymqkdk wwfonf// uGsefawmfvnf;
&kwfw&uffrkd@ bmjyefajym&rSef; rodjzpfoGm;onf// uGsefawmfrS jyefI rajym=um;ekdifrSDyif/
rif;0if;xdefuyiff/ qufIajymjyefonf//

“uGsefawmftvGeftHh=ordw,f˜emJ// wu,fapwem/ &dk;&Jhvm;qkdwm pOf;pm;


p&mygbJ// apwem&kd;=uv#if odyfaumif;rSmbJ/ jynfolawGuawmh wu,fhudk
jidrf;csrf;a&; vkdvm;ae =uw,f// jynfwGif;ppfudk &G@Hrkef;ae=uw,f// nDtpfudk
tcsif;csif; owfae=uwJh jynfwGif;ppfukd tjrefqkH;/ tqkH;owfapcsifae=uw,f//
jynfwGif;ppfa=umifh jidrf;jidrf;csrf;csrf; rae&bl;// at;at;csrf;csrf; rvkyfudkif
rpm;aomufekdif=ubl;// wkdif;jynf. b‰maiG trsm;pkudkvnf; ppffp&dwftwGuf
tokH;jyKae&w,f// ynma&;qkdif&m tokH;p&dwfawG/ usef;rma&; qkdif&m
tokH;p&dwfawG/ wajz;ajz;eJ@ enf;enf;vmw,f// ynma&; tqifhtwef;
edyfhusvmw,f// jynfolawG usef;rma&; csdK@ wJhvmw,f// wkdif;jynfvJ wajz;ajz;
142 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

rGJvmw,f// jynfwGif;ppf a=umifh rdbjynfolawG qif;&J=uyfwnf;vm=uw,f//


rdbjynfolawG qif;&J =uyfwnf;wJhtwGuf ausmif;om;rsm;vJ pmoifcef;rSm
pdwfat;csrf;pGm pmoifaevkd@ vkH;0rjzpfekdifbl;// rdbjynfolawG/ rat;csrf;awmh/
ausmif;om;rsm;vnf;/ b,ffrSmv#if/ pdwfat; csrf;edkifyg@rvJ//”

riff;0if;xdef ajymaom t&m tm;vkHk;wkd@onf/ trSefw&m;rsm;om jzpfonf// wkdif;jynfwGif


wu,f jzpf&Sdaeaom yuwd jzpf&yfrsm; jzpfonf// jynfwGif; ppf. 'g%fudk jynfolrsm;/
tvl;tvJ cHpm; ae&onf// at;csrf;pGm vkyfudkif pm;aomufI r&=uacs// pD;yGm;a&;
usqiff;vmonf// wdkif;jynfrJGvmonf// 4if;.tusdK;qufukd/ ausmif;om; vli,frsm;
uvnf; tvl;vJJcHpm; ae&onf// jynfwGif;ppff. w&m;cHtppfrSefonf/ ppftpkd;&om
jzpfonf[k ausmif;om;rsm;ujrif=uonf// 4if;tjyif/ ppftpkd;&tay: oHo,0ifp&m
ta=umif;&mrsm;uvnf; &Sdao;onf// 1962-ckeSpf/ Zklvkdifv(7)&ufae@ ausmif;om;
ta&;cif;onf/ ,ae@txd ausmif;om;wdk@.&ifxJrSm/ cHpm;ae&qJyifjzpfonf// &kd;om;pGm
qENjyaom &efukefwuUodkvf ausmif;om;(100)ausmfudk oem;nSmwmr_ uif;rJhpGm/
ypfowfcJhaom/ ppftpdk;&jzpfonf// ordkif;0if wuUokdvfausmif;om;or*~ taqmuftOD;
=uD;ukdvnf; AkH;azgufcJGI zsufqD;ypfcJhonfh ppftpdk;&jzpfonf// Ttcsuf wkd@udk
ausmif;om;wdk@rarhekdfif// xdka=umifh ,ckuJhokd@ jidrf;csrf;a&;twGuf &kwfw&uf urf;vSrf;
vkdufonfhftay:/ ausmif;om;rsm;taejzifh oHo,pdwf 0ifvm=uonfrSmvnf; tvGef
obm0usonf// ,ckuJhodk@AkHrqifh/ qkdif;rqifhbJ/ &kkwfw&uf/ awmfvSefa&;aumifpDrS
jidrf;csrf;a&; urf;vSrf;csuf a=u+imvkduo f nfhtay:/ tcsdK@aomedkifiHa&;orm;onfvnf;
tvGeftHh=oae=uonf// tdrfrufrsm;vm;[kyif xifrSwfae=uonf// 4iff;nwGif/
noef;acgifausmfrS ausmif;om;rsm;onf// rdrdwkd@.tcef;ae&modk@jyeftdyf=uonf//

aemufwae@ xkwfa0aom owif;pmrsm;wGif/ jidrf;csrf;aqG;aEG;yGJ urf;vSrf;csuftay:


trsKd;rsKd; a0zef a&;om;=uonf// jrefrmedkifiH&Sd wkdif;&if;om; jynfol/ tm;vkH;u
Tjidrf;csrf;a&; urf;vSrf;csufudk/ 0rf;ajrmuf0rf;ompGm =udKqdkaxmufcH=uonf// wekdifiHvkH;
&Sd ausmif;om;xkonfvnf;/ rdbjynfolrsm;eSifhtwl aysmf&$ifjrL;xl;ae=uonf// vlwkdif;
vlwdkif; jynfwGif;ppfudktqkH;owfapvkd=uonf// wekdifiHvkH;&Sd wkdif;&if;om;jynfolvlxkeSifh/
&[ef;&Sifvl/ausmif;ol§om;tyg0if/ tm;vkH;0rf;ajrmuf0rf;omjzpfae=uonf/ jynfwGif;
ppftqkH;owfjyD;/ jynfwGif;jidrf;csrf;a&;&&Sdawmhrnf[k 0rf;om;tm;&ar#mfvifhvm=uonf//
aemufae@&ufrsm;wGif/ jynfwGif;jidrf;csrf;a&; aqG;aEG;yGJta=umif;rsm;udkom/ wjynfvkH;&Sd
jynfolvlxkrsm;u ajymqkd=uonf//owif;pmrsm;uvnf; trsdK;rsdK;tzkHzkHa&;om;=uonf//
wwkdif;jynfvkH;&Sdjynfolvlxkrsm;onf/ jynfwGif;ppf tqkH;owfa&;/ jynfwGif; jidrf;csrf;a&;
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 143

wnfaqmufvmekdifrnfudk arSsmfvifhjyD;aysmf&$ifae=uonf// jynfwGif;jidrf;csrf;a&; aqG;aEG;yGJ/


atmifjrifa&;twGuf tzufzufrS 0dkif;0ef;ulnD/ aqmif&Guf ay;=uonf// jynfwGif;
jidrf;csrf;a&; aqG;aeG;yGJtwGuf/ awmfvSefa&;aumifpDrS/ ausjimvkdufjyF; (2)v/(3)v
twGif;rSmyif/ jynfol vlxkrsm;/ ekdifiHa&;orm;rsm;/ ausmif;om;rsm;yl;aygif;jyD;/ (jynfwGif;
jidrf;csrf;a&; jynfol@ aumfrwD)rsm;udk/ ekdifiHw0Srf;vkH;Y zGJ@pnf;I/ jidrf;csrf;a&;aqG;aEG;yJGudk
=udKqkdcJh=uonf// (armfvjrdKifjrdK@e,f/ jynfwGif;jidrf;csrf;a&;jynfol@aumfrwD)udk zGJ@pnf;&ef
armfvjrdKif/ yrnw&kH;rSm tpnf;a0;w&yffudk ac:,lusif;yonf// 4if;tpnf;a0;okd@/
armfvjrdKifaumvdyf/ ausmif;om;rsm;or*~/ udk,fpm;vS,ftjzpf uGGsefawmf wufa&mufcJh
onf// armfvjrdKif/ jidrf;csrf;a&;jynfol@aumfrwDw&yfudk zGJ@pnf;cJh=uonf// 4if;jirf;csrf;a&;
aumfrwDwGif/ rGefjynfol@wyfOD;rS ekdifxGef;odef;/ y/r/n/w/rS/ edkifatmifxl; (1961-
ckeSpfrGefjynfe,f az:xkwfa&; tvkyfnDnGwfa&; aumfrwDrS=uD;rSL; usif;yaom/ armfvjrdKif
rGefjynfolvlxkqENjyyGJwGif/ atmifjrifpGm/ tcrf;em;rSL;tjzpf aqmif&GufcJhaomol)eSifh
aumvdyfausmif;om;or*~udk,fpm;vS,ftjzpf/ uGsefawmfyg0ifvm=uonf//

r=umcifrSmyifawmwGif; vufeufudkif awmfvSefa&;tiftm;pkrsm;toD;oD; &efukefjrdK@odk@


a&mufvm=uonf// 1963-ckeSpf Zlvkdifv(12)&ufwGif/ Armjynf uGefjrLepfygwDrS/
ta0;a&muf A[kdaumfrwD0if wOD; jzpfaom AdkvfykeSifhtzGJ@onf4if;/ Zlvkdifv(23)&ufwGif
ta0;a&muf A[kdaumfrwD0ifjzpfaom AkdvfxGef;jidrf;eSifhtzGJ@onf4if;/ wyfrawmf av,mOf
jzifh/ &efukefokd@a&mufvm=uonf// r=umcifrSmyif/ uGefjrLepfygwD/ ta0;a&muf A[kd
aumfrwDwOD; jzpfaomOD;atmif=uD; (armfvjrdKife,fom;/ rGefvrl sdK; wOD;jzpfonf) vnf;/
w&kwfjynf/ yDuif;jrdK@rS wqifh/ &efukefjrdK@okd@ toD;oD; a&mufvm =uonf// yJcl;&kd;r&Sd
Armjynf uGefjrLepfygwD XmecsKyffuvnf;/ =o*kwfv(28)&ufae@wGif/ &JabmfaX;/
acgif;aqmifaom/ ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwD. y%mrudkd,fpm;vS,ftzGJ@wzGJ@udk &efukefjrdK@okd@
apv$wfcJhjyefonf// 4if;tjyif/ tvHeDausmf0if;/ tvHeDraiGpHwdk@ OD;pD;aom tvHeD
uGefjrLepfygwDrS y%mrudk,fpm;vS,ftzGJ@onfvnf; &efukefjrdK@okd@a&muffvm=ujyef onf//
aemufr=umcifrSmyif/tvHeDuGefjrLepfygwD taxGaxGtwGif;a&;rSL;csKyf/ocifpkd;/ OD;pD;aom/
tvHeDuGefjrLepfygwD. tm%mtjrifhqkH; udk,fpm;vS,ftzGJ@onf &efukefjrdK@okd@a&mufvm
=uonf// Tukd,fpm;vS,ftzGJ@wkd@. ta=umif;udk/ owif;pmtoD;oD;rS a0a0qmqmyif
a&;om;az:jy=uonf// a=u;rkHowif;pmrSm rsufeSmzkH;tjynfh/ ocifpkd;"gwfykHjzifh a0a0
qmqm az:jyxm;onfudk zwf&_&onf// 4if;a=u;rkHowif;pmudk ,ckkwkdif uGsefawmf
jrifa,mif aerdao;onf// ocifpkd;onf/ "gwyf kHtrsm;qkH; t&dkufcH&jyD;/ trsm;qkH;
owif;pmrsm;wGif az:jycH&aom yk*~dKvfjzpfonf[k rSwfwrf;wif=uonf//
144 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

ocifpkd;onf/ rGefvlrsKd;wODd;jzpfonf// armfvjrdKif/ ausmufwef;om;jzpfonf// jrefrmpm


xuf/ t*Fvdyfpmudk ydkrdkuGsrf;usifpGm a&;om;ekdifonf// uGefjrLepftawG;tac: t,lqrsm;
udk/ a&S@aqmifvrf;n$efol/ q&mwqltjzpf jrefrmekdifiHa&; avmurS owfrSwfjcif; cH&jyD;
txl;av;pm;jcif; cH&oljzpfonf// udk,fydkifjyXmef;cGifh tm%m&Sdonfh jynfe,frsm;jzifh
zGJ@pnf; xlaxmifaom jynffaxmifpk/ ppfppfpHepfudk tjynfht0 vufcHoljzpffonf//
wkdif;&if;om;wkd@.b0vkHjcKHHr_twGuf/ wkdif;&if;om;wkdif;Y trsK;dom;vufeufudkifwyfzJG@rsm;
zGJ@pnf;oifha=umif;udkvnf; axmufcHwifjyoljzpfonf// TuJhokd@tvGefemrnf=uD; aom/
yk*~dKvfrsm;udk vlukd,fwkdifrawG@&ayrJh/ owif;pmrSm/ ygvmaom "gwfykHudk =unf@I jynfol
vlxk=uD;onf tvGefydwd jzpfae=uonf// r=umcifrSmyif/ edkifiHa&;acgif;aqmifrsm;/
nDnGwf=uawmhrnf// jynfwGif;ppf tqkH;owf=uawmhrnf// jynfwGif; jidrf;csrf;a&;
&awmhrnf[k &kd;om;pGmar#mfvifh=uonf// ESpf&Snfvrsm; eHrnftm;jzifhom &if;eSD;cJh&jyD;
vludk,fwdkif wcgr#/ rawG@bl;ao;aom/ awmwGif;vufeufudkifawmfvSefa&;orm;rsm;.
"gwfykHudk/ awG@&aomtcg/ jynfolrsm;rSm/ tvGef0rf;omtm;&/ &Sdae=uonf// xkdyk*~dKvf
rsm;.udk,fa&; &mZ0iftusOf;rsm;udkvnf; owif;pmtcsdK@u/ tr$ef;wifa&;om; az:jy
=uojzifh/ 4if;yk*~dKvfrsm;tm; ydkrdkIyiff pdwf0ifpm;apcJhonf//

rGefjynfopfygwD OuUX=uD;edkfifa&$usifudkvnf;/ u|efawmfwkd@ rGefausmif;om;rsm;u awG@vkd


jrifvkdae=uonf// oHvGifaqmif&Sdausmif;om;rsm;onf/ pmzwfcef;wGif4if;/ xrif;pm;cef;
rSm4if;/ jynfwGif;jidrf;csrf;a&;aqG;aEG;yGJta=umif;ukdyif/ pdwf0if pm;pGmajymqdk aewwf=u
onf// rif;0if;xdef/ rif;oef;xGef;eSifh uGSsefawmfwkd@u rGefjynfopfygwDrS vma&mufrnfh
jidrf;csrf;a&; ukd,fpm;vS,ftzGJ@tm; pdwfapmpGm ar#mfvifhae=uonf// OuUX=uD;ekdfifa&$usif
onff emrnftm;jzifh rGefjynfolrsm;eSifh jrefrmjynfolrsm;u oduGsrf; &if;eSD;cJhaomfvnf;
vltm;jzifh awG@jrifbl;ol tvGefenf;aeonfudk awG@&onf// xkda=umifhOuUX=uD;tm;/
awG@vkdjrifvkdae=uaom/ rGefjynfolrsm;eSifhtwl/ edkifiHw0SSrf;vkH;&Sd jynfolrsm;u ar#mfvifh
apmifhpm; ae=uonf//

xkdokd@ar#mfvifhae=uaomtcsdefrSmyif/ rGefjynfopfygwDOuUX=uD;ekdifa&$usif/ autif,lyDygwD


OuUX=uD;ref;bZHeSifh/ u&ifeDtrsLd;om; wkd;wufa&;ygwD (autifyDyD) twGif;a&;rSL;csKyf
apmarmf&,fwdk@tzGJ@tm;/ o,faqmifvmaomav,mOfysHonfvnf;/ &efukefavqdyfokd@
qdkufa&muf vm=uonf// OuUX=uD; ekdifa&$usifonf/ trsdK;om; 'Drdkua&pD nDnGwfa&;
wyfaygif;pkH (r/'/n/w)ukd,fpm;vS,ftzGJ@jzifh vma&mufaqG;aEG;jcif;jzpfonf// (r'nw)
tzGJ@udk 1959-ckeSpfwGif zGJ@pnf;cJhonf// yg0ifaomtzGJ@0ifrsm;rSm/ rGefjynfopfygwD/
(autif,lyD)/ (autifyDyD)/ (csif;OD;pD;tzGJ@)eSifh ArmjynfuGsefjrLepfygwDwdk@jzpf=uonf//
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 145

(OuUX=uD;ekdifa&$usifonf/aemufydkif;wGif/ekdifxif/ekdifoufxGef;wkd@eSifhaygif;I/ rGefjynfopfygwD
udk,fpm;vS,ftjzpfoD;jcm; aqG;aEG;onf// pum;csyf)// OuUX=uD;wkd@tzGJ@ a&mufvmonfh
owif;udk =um;&aom uGsefawmfonf/ 0rf;omIrqkH;jzpfrdonf// OuUX=uD;wkd@.owif;udk
tjynf@pkH az:jyxm;aom a=u;rkHowif;pmukd ajy;v$m; =unfhrdonf// pm=unf@rsufrSef/
wyfqifaom OuUX=uD; ekdifa&$usifrSm/ tjzLa&mif/ [ma0,H &SyfvufwkdeSifh rD;ckd;a&mif
tenf;i,foef;aom/ tjzLa&mif/ umuD/ abmif;bD&Snf 0wfqifxm;onfudkawG@&onf//
tvGefekysKdopfvGifjyD; jzwfvwfwuf=uGaom [efyef&SdaeonfudkwG@&onf// OuUX=uD;onf
wifhw,f/ cef@nm;aom/ Oy"d&kyf&Sdonf[k u|efawmfjrifonf// autif,lyDrS OuUX=uD;
ref;bZHonfvnf; taemufwkdif;0wfpkH ukwftifusDeSifh tvGef=unfhIy%m&vSonf//
OuUX=uD; ref;bZHonf/ tvGefemrnf =uD;rm;aom/ vuf0Jqefonfh u&iftrsdK;om;
acgif;aqmif/ ekdfifiHa&;orm; wOD;jzpfonf// jrefrmekdifiHa&; avmuwGif/ tvGefxifay:
ausmf=um;aom awmfvSefa&;orm; wOD;jzpfonf// u&ifeD wkd;wufa&; ygwDrS/
twGif;a&;rSL;cskKyf apmarmf&,fonfvnf; tvGef cef@nm;aom yk*~dKvfjzpfonf/ tvGef
emrnf=uD;rm;aom awmfvSefa&;orm; wOD;jzpfygonf/ Twdkif;&if;om; trsKd;om;
acgif;aqmif=uD;(3)OD;. "gwfykHudk =unfhI uGsefawmfonf twdkif;rod 0rf;omrdonf//
Tyk*~dKvfrsm;eSifhawG@csif/ jrifcsifvkdpdwf jzpfvmonf/ vludk,fwkdif oGm;a&muf awG@vkdonf//
oduGsrf; cifrifvkdonf// Tyk*~dKvfwkd@. ekdifiHa&; tawGG;tac:udkvnf; =um;vkdonf//
Tyk*~dKvfrsm;. awmwGif; tawG@=uKHrsm;udk olwkd@ udk,fwdkif ajymjyonfudkvnf;/
=um;emvkdonf// rnfr#t&om&Sd vkdufrnfenf;[k pdwful;,Ofrdonf// pdwful;,Of
tdrfrufr_rsdK;onf/ wcgw&H taumifxnf ay:jzpfvmwwfonfhoabm/ avmuwGif
rsm;pGm=uKHawG@bl;ygonf// u|efawmf. pdwful;,Of tdrfrufonfvnf; aemifwGif jynfhpkH
vdrfrnf[k ar#mfvifhaerdonf//
146 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

tcef;(6)
OuUX=uD;ta=umif;pkaqmif;/i,fcspfu|rf;aqGrd=unfcifxl;/
rGefpm=unfhwdkufrSL;rif;pdk;odef;/rsdK;cspfrGefoRD;ysdKwOD;/ratmifjrifaomjidrf;csrf;a&;
aqG;aEG;yGJ/ rif;armifwif.ay;pm/ rif;0if;xdef.jidrf;csrf;a&;tjrif/
edKifa&$usif. awmwGif;taexm;/
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az:jyxm;onfudk zwf&_&jyD;aemuf /OuUX=uD;.t=umif;tm;/ aumvdyfausmif;om;rsm;
onf tvGefpdwf0ifpm;pGm ajymqkdvm=uonf// txl;ojzifh rGefausmif;ol ausmif;om;
rsm;onf OuUX=uD;ta=umif;udk/ rsdK;&kd;Zmwd/ Zpfjrpfutpodvkdvm=uonf// wa,mufudk
wa,muf ar;jref;pkHprf;=uonf// uGsefawmfonfvnf; OuUX=uD;. i,f&G,fpOfb0
ta=umif;eSifh trsKd;om; ekdifiHa&; v_yf&Sm;cJhr_wkd@ukdyg txl;pdwf0ifpm;vmrdonf// OuUX=uD;
ekdifa&$usif.ta=umif;udk aocsmusepGmajymjyekdifol/ oduGsrf; olrsm;udk uGsefawmfonf/
pOf;pm;vmrdonf//

xdkeSpfwGif rGefvlrsK;da&;&mtzGJ@ (rv&)OuUX=uD;a[mif; ekdifvSarmifonf/ rdrd.oRD;jzpfol


rdav;=unftdrfwGif aexkdifvsuf&Sdonf// ekdifvSarmif.ZeD;(urm0ufol)onf/ uG,fvGef
oGm;onfrSm/ eSpftawmf=umanmif; oGm;jyD;jzpfonf// edkifvSarmifrSm om;oRD;(3)a,muf
xGef;um;cJhonf//4if;wkd@rSm oRD;=uD;'efpD(q&m0efr)/ om;rif;udkxl;eSifh oRD;i,f rdav;=unf
wkd@jzpfonf// rdav;=unfonf/ armfvjrdKif aumvdyfwGif usLwmwOD;jzpfonf// vkyfudkif
aomXeudkrl/ uGsefawmf rrSSwfrdyg// aumvdyfvrf;r=uD; ab;eSpfzufwGifq&m/ q&mrrsm;
aexkdif&eftwGuf tdrfrsm;wnfaqmuf xm;=uonf// rdav;=unfonf/ usLwmwOD;
jzpfonfhtav#muf/ aumvdyfausmif;0iff;&Sd/ q&m/ q&mrrsm; aexkdif&eftwGGuf
aqmufvkyfxm;aom/ tpkd;&tdrf wvkH;wGif/ aexkdifygonf// 4if;tpkd;& tdrfrsm;wGif/
a'gufwm rif;wifrGef/ ekdifxGef;a&Gwkd@onfvnf; toD;oD; aexkdif=uonf// OuUX=uD;
ekdifvSarmifonf/ touf&G,ftm;jzifh (65)eSpfywf0ef;usif&Sdrnf[k xif&onf//
00jzdK;jzdK;jzifh tvGefcef@nm;aom yk*~dKvfwOD;jzpfonf// ae@pOf yufvuf ukvm;xkdifwGif
xkdifjyD; pmzwfaewwfonfufdk tjrJwrf;vkdkvkdawG@&onf// Tvkd yk*~dKvfudk ar;jref;ygu
OuUX=uD; ekdifa&$usif. ta=umif;pkHudk aumif;aumif;odefkifonf[k u|efawmfh.pdwfwGif
jzpfay:rdonf// odk@aomf OuUX=uD;edkfifvSarmifonf/ *k%ftm;jzifh4if;/ touf&G,ftm;jzifh
4if;/ tvGef=uD;rm;ol jzpfonf// tvGef &kdaoav;;pm; xkdufaom yk*~dKvfwOD; jzpfonf//
Tvkd yk*~dKvf=uD; wOD;tm; bmrSr[kwfaom ta=umif;&m udpPrsm;udk ar;jref;jyD;
taeSmuf,SufrjyKxdkuf[kwzufwGifpdwfjzpfay:rdonf//OuUX=uD;edkifa&$usif. ta=umif;udk
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 147

ajymjyekdifaomyk*~dKvfrsm;wGif/ ekdifxGefodef;/ ekdifoef;wifeSifh ekdifbnGef@wkd@ &Sdonf/


xdkyk*~dKvfwdk@onf uGsefawmfeSifh oduGsrf;olrsm;jzpfonf// ekdifxGef;odef;onf armfvjrdKiffjrdK@
xm;0,fpk&yf/ txufvrR=uD;wGif aexkdifonf// ekdifxGef;odef; eSifhtwl/ rd[Homonf
vnf; aexkdifonf// ekdifbnGef@onf/ ekdifa&$usif. nDt&if;jzpfjyD;/ armfvjrdKifjrdK@/
r&rf;ukef;&yf/ atmufvrR=uD;wGif aexkdifonf// 4if;ykk*~dKvfrsmxHokd@ uGsefawmfonf
csOf;uyfI OuUX=uD;ekdifa&$usif. ta=umif;udk ar;jref;pkHprf;,l&onf//

OuUX=uD; edkifa&$usif. ta=umif;udk twGif;usus pkkHprf;avhvmaomtcg/ omrefvl


wa,muf r[kwfa=umif;od&onf// i,f&G,fpOfuyif trsKd;cspfpdwfxufoefjyD;/ tvGef
xufjrufaom vlwa,mufjzpfonfudkawG@&onf// aumvdyf/ wuUodkvfausmif;om;
b0uyif/ trsKd;om;ekdifiHa&;avmuxJokd@ 0ifa&mufvmolwOD;jzpfonf// rGefvli,ftzGJ@
toif;tyif;rsm;wGif4if;/ArmjynfuGefjrKepfygwDtzJG@pnf;wGif4if;/ wuf=uGpGmyg0ifcJhonffudk
awG@&onf// *syef qef@usif a&;rSmwuf=uGpGmyg0ifcJh onfukdawG@&onf// xkdokd@OuUX=uD;
ta=umif;udk ar;jref;pkHprf;cJh&mwGif tcsdK@aom ta=umif;&mwkd@onf/ OuUX=uD;. ukd,fa&;
udk,fwm cspfa&;/ =udKufa&;udpPrsm;vnf;ygvmonfudk 0efcHygonf//

vlb0ukdavhvmokH;oyfvSsif rnfolrqdk/ vlwdkif;Ytaumif;tqkd; 'GefwGJI yg&Sdwwfonfh


oabmw&m;udk em;vnf&ayrnf// OuUX=uD;onf ekdifiHa&;orm;wOD;[k qkdaomfvnf;/
ykxkZOfvlom;wOD;omjzpfygonf// ykxkZOf vlom;wOD;obm0twkdif; a&SmifvJGIr&aom
cspfa&; =udKufa&; tdrfaxmifa&; udpP&yfrsm;onftenf;eSifh trsm;qkdouJhokd@ OuUX=uD;.
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vnf; a&;om;&onf// Tokd@ OuUX=uD; ta=umif;udk pkHprf;ar;jref&mwGif/ rarsSmfvifhbJ/
OuUX=uD;ekdfifa&$usifonf/ ausmif;om;t&G,f/ i,fpOftcgu/ rdapm&Sif/ (rd[Hom.fnDr
ekdifxGef;odef;ZeD;.tpfr)eSifh4if;/ rd=unfcifxl;eSifh4if;/ wOD;eSifhwOD;/ ywfouf qufeG,f
cJh=ubl;onfh ta=umif;&mudkvnf; odcJh&onf//

wae@wGif rif;xGef;az/rif;0if;xdefeSifhu|efawmfwkd@onf/oHvGifaqmifrSpmoifcef;okd@toGm;/
aumvdyft0if0 ausmif;a&S@wGif/ rarsSmfvifhbJ/ rd=unfcifxl; (rdat;=unf)udk yufyif;
qkHrdonf/ omreftcgwdkif;eSKwfqufae=utwkdif;/ rd=unfcifxl;udk u|efawmfwkd@(3)OD;u
eSkwfquf pum;ajym=um;jyD;/ rdrdwkd@oGm;vkdaom/ tcef;qDodk@toD;oD;vrf;cGJI oGm;=u
onf// okd@aomf tcgwkdif;ae@eSifhrwl/ 'Dae@onf/ pmoifcef;odk@ a&mufonfhwkdfif/ u|efawmfhY
xl;jcm;aom/ cHpm;rSKwck jzpfusefaecJhonf// edkifoef;wifajymjycJhonfh/ OuUX=uD; edkfifa&$usif
148 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

eSifh rd=unfcifxl;wk@d. twdwfu ta=umif;t&monf/ u|efawmfhtm; vGrf;rdk;ae./


ekdifa&$usifeSifh rd=unfcifxl;wdk@. twdwfrSm/ wOD;eSifhwOD; qufeG,fywfoufcJhbl;aom/
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OuUX=uD;ekdifa&$usifeSifh a':=unfcifxl;wdk@onf tvGefcspfcif=ujyD; wOD;tay:wOD;/ tvGef
oHa,mZOf =uD;rm;cJh=uolrsm;jzpfonf// i,f&G,folwkd@.bm0/ wOD;udkwOD; arwWmr#I
cspf=udKufcJh=uonf[k od&onf// bk&m;oGm; ausmif;wuftwlwl/ eSpfOD;om;/ tjrJruGm/
tpOfwwGJwJG &SdcJh=uonf// olwdk@eSpfOD;. b0onf/ tppt&m&m/ om,mcsrf;ajr@
vSygbdonf// olwkd@eSpfOD;onf armfwjyKH;jyH;eJ@ trkef;qkdwJhpum;/ r=um;vkd olrsm;
jzpfonf// aruvnf; armifudkrcGJekdif/ armifuvnf; arudkrcJGekdif/ &moufyef&nfpl;I
twllwlaevkkd=uaom cspfolrsm; jzpfcJh=uonf// edkifbvGifeSifh rd=unfcifxl;wkd@onf/
TuJhokd@ wOD;tay:wOD; oHa,mZOf=uD;rm;jyD;/ aotwl/ &SifruGm/ twlwuG
tpOfxm0& vufwGJaevkd=uaomfvnf;/ tajctae ta=umif;a=umif;a=umihf/ eSpfOD;om;
vrf;cGJcJh&onf// tb,fa=umifh olwdk@eSpfOD;onf zl;pmrqkH/ uHr=uKHbJ/ vrf;cGJcJh &onfudk
uGsefawmfftm; tvGefpdwf0ifpm; apcJhonf// ekdifoef;wiftm; u|efawmfar;bl; ygonf//
odk@aomf ekdifoef;wifonfyif tjzpfrSefudk rod&a=umif; ajymygonf// ollwdk@eSpfOD;.
ta=umif;onf/ ya[Vdqefaom ykp>mwyk'f tjzpf/ jzpfusef&pfcJhonf//

rGeftrsdK;om;rsm;xJwGif OuUX=uD; ekdifa&$usifudk vludk,fwkdif awG@jrifbl;ol tvGefenf;yg;


onfudk od&onf// emrnftm;jzifhom odxm;=uonf/ xkd@a=umifh owif;pm toD;oD;rS
ygvmaom trdsK;om;'Drdkua&pD nDnGwfa&;wyfaygif;pk ukd,fpm;vS,frsm; jzpfaom/
rGefjynfopfygwDrS OuUX=uD;ekdifbvGif/ autif,lygwDrS OuU=uD;ref;bZHeSifh u&ifeD
wkd;wufa&;ygwDrS taxGaxGtwGif;rSL;csKyf apmarm&,fwdk@ (3)OD;.f "gwfykHudk/ armfvjrdKif
'D*&DaumvdyfrS/ rGefausmif;ol/ om;rsm;u tvGefpdwf0ifpm;pGm =unfh&_=uonf//
tjriftrsKd;rsKd;jzifh ajymqkd=uonf// OuUX=uD;ekdifbvGif ta=umif;udk/ rGefausmif;ol/
om;rsm;u ydkrdkodvkd =uonf// jidrf;csrf;a&; udk,fpm;vS,ftzJG@udk jyifyvlrsm;/ vGwfvyfpGm/
oGm;a&muf awG@qkHcGifh ray;acs// oD;oef@ae&mcsxm;jyD;/ vkHjcKHa&;wyfjzifh apmifha&Smuf
xm;onf[k od&onf/ 4if;yk*~dKvfrsm;taejzifhvnf;/ vGwfvyfpGmoGm;vmcGifh rjyK[k
od&onf// 4if;yk*~dKvfrsm;eSifh/ oGm;a&mufawG@qkHcGifh&&ef/ vkH;0 rjzpfekdifacs// xkd@a=umifh
OuUX=uD;. ukd,fa&;&mZ0if/ ZpfjrpfZmwdudkom/ uGsefawmfwkd@armfvjrdKif 'D*&DaumfvdyfrS/
rGefausmif;om;rsm;u pdwf0ifpm;pGm avhvmpl;prf;=uonf/ wOD;udkwOD; ar;jref; ajymqkd
vm=uonf// u|efawmfeSifh rif;0if;xdefwkd@ ausmif;om;wpkurl/ OuUX=uD;eSifhywfoufjyD;/
OuUX.yk*~dKvfa&;&m ta=umif;tao;pdyfudk wwfekdiforsS &SmazGpkaqmif;cJhonf// OuUX=uD;
eSifh eD;pyfonfh yk*~dKvfrsm;xHrSvnf;/ csnf;uyfjyD; ar;jref; pkaqmif;cJhonf//
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 149

OuUX=uD;ekdifa&$usifeSifheD;pyfcJhbl;olrsm;rS4if;/ OuUX=uD;.rdcif/ bcif/ armifeSrta=umif;udk


oduGsrf;ol/ yk*~dKvftoD;oD;xHrS4if;/ ar;jref;&,l=uonf// armfvjrdKifjrdK@/ atmufvrf;r=uD;/
r&rf;ukef;&yfae/ ekdfifa&$usif. nDt&if;jzpfol/ ekdifbnGef@tm; uGsefawmfaumif;rGefpGm
&if;eSD;onf// edkifbnGef@udkvnf; u|efawmfwkd@ csnf;uyfjyD;/ &ekdiforSs/ OuUX=uD;. ukd,fa&;
&mZ0ifudk ar;jref;pkaqmif; rSwfom;cJh&onf// edkfifbnGef@. ekdifiHa&;vSKyf&Sm;rSK ta=umif;udk
tenf;i,f a&;om; wifjy&rnfqkdvSsif/ ekdifbnGe@f onf/ 1948-ckeSpf rGef-u&if
aarmfvjrdKifjrdK@udk odrf;ydkufpOfut"dutcef;rS yg0ifcJh=uonfh yk*~dKvfrsm;xJhrS wOD;
jzpfcJhygonf// rGefppfom;rsm;tm;/ pkaqmifa&;wm0ef/ ppfa&;avhusihfa&; wm0efrsm;udk
,laqmifcJholjzpfonf// rGefwyf. 'k/wyf&if;rSL; wm0efrsm;udkvnf; ,laqmifcJholjzpfonf/
armfvjrdKifrS qkwfcGm&jyD;/ awmcdkaomtcg/ edkifbnGef@onf/ awmwGif;okd@ a&mufcJhonf//
ekdfifaiGodef;/ ekdifyefomwkd@eSifhtwl/ vufeufudkfifawmfvSefa&;rSmtwlyg0ifolwOD;jzpfonf/
okd@aomf/ tajcae ta=umif;a=umif;a=umihf/ zqyv/OD;ekacwfwGif/ tvif;okd@0ifcJhol jzpf
onf// jynfwGif; ekdifiHa&;ZgwfckHwGif yg0ifvSKyf&Sm;cJhonf//

zqyveSpfjcrf;uGJaomtcg/ ekdfifbnGef@ onf/ wnfjrJzqyvbufwGif yg0ifcJhonf// 1960-


ckeSpf/zqyveSpfjcrf;uGJtjyD;/ Akdvfae0if;. tdrfapmifhtpkd;&rS =uD;rSL;usif;y ay;aom/
a&G;aumufyGJwGif/ zm;tHawmifydkif; rJqENe,fwGif (wnfjrJz/q/yv)tzGJ@0iftjzpf/
a&G;aumufyGJ0ifcJholjzpfonf// a&G;aumufyJG tekdif&cJhonf// u&ifjynf e,faumifpD0if
0ef=uD;wOD;jzpfvmonf/ ekdifbnGef@tm; yk*~dKvft& uGsefawmfcifrifonf// &kyf&nfcef@nm;
aom vlwOD;jzpfonf/ pdwfaeoabmxm; aumif;rGefjyD;/ az:a&GpGm/ qufqHwwfol
jzpfonf// 4if;tjyif rGefvlrsKd;udk tvGefcspfjrwfekd; oljzpfonf// ekdifbnGef@xHrSvnf;
4if;.tpfudk OuUX=uD;ekdifa&$susif ta=umif;udk&orSs pkaqmif; cJh&onf// 4if;tjyif
OuUX=uD;ekdifa&$usifeSihf eD;eD;uyfuyfaecJhbl;jyD; tvGef&if;eSD;ol wOD;jzpfaom ekdifoef;wif
udkvnf;csOf;uyfcJhonf// ekdifoef;wifonf uGsefawmf tvGef&if;eSD;aom todtu|rf;wOD;
jzpfonf// ekdifoef;wifudkrl trsm;u tvHeDuGefjrLepfygwD tEG,f0iftjzpf owfrSwf
ajymqkd=uonf// ekdifoef;wifonf/ yGifhyGifhvif;vif; ajymqkdwwfaom yk*~dKvfjzpfonf//
rdrdtawG;tac: t,lqudk &J&J0Hh0hH ajymqkdwwfonf// rdrd.edkifiHa&; ,kH=unfcsuftwGuf/
b0udk jrKyfeSH xm;oljzpfonf// ygwDwGif us&mwm0efudk ausjyGefpGm xrf;aqmifwwfolwOD;
jzpfonf// 4if;yk*~dKvfwdk@xHrS/ OuUX=uD;edkifbvGif. ta=umif;udk &or#pkaqmif;,lonf//
txl;ojzifh ekdifoef;wifeSifh uGsefawmfonf/ tvGef&if;eSD;olrsm;jzpfojzifh/ 4if;xHrSyif/
OuUXekkdifbvGif. ta=umif;ukd trsm;qkH;od&SdcJh&onf// Todk@yif/ OuUX=uD; ekdifbvGif.
ta=umif;t&mwkd@udk uGsefawmfwkd@ aumvdyf ausmif;om;wpk pkaqmif;&&SdcJhonf//
rGefvlrsdK;a&;&mtzGJ@csKyf OuUX=uD; ekdifvSarmifxHudkrl uGsefawmfwdk@ oGm;a&muf ar;jref;jcif;
rjyKrdyg//OuUX=uD;ekdifvSarmif.touft&G,fudk4if;/ *k%fudk4if;/ usef;rma&; tajcaeudk4if;/
150 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

axmufxm;nSmwmjyD;/ oGm;a&muf ar;jref;jcif; rjyKcJhacs// ekdifbvGiftm; vlyk*~dKvft&


cifrif&if;eSD;olrsm;xHrS ekdifbvGif ta=umif;udk ar;jref; pkHprf;onfhtjyif pm=unfhwdkuf
toD;oD;okd@oGm;I edkfifbvGifeSifh ywfoufonfh/ pmtkyf pmapmifrSeforSSsudk/ rif;xGef;az/
rif;0if;xdefeSifh u|efawmfwkd@u vkdufvH &SmazGzwf&SkjyD;/ edkifbvGifta=umif;tm; pkaqmif;
cJhonf// txl;ojzifh/ armfvjrdKifrGefjywkdufeSifh pm=unfhwdkuf okd@ oGm;a&mufjyD; avhvm
cJhonf// xkdpOfu pm=unfhwkdufrSL;rSm udkpkd;odef;jzpfonf// udkpkd;odef;onf zg;atmuf
&GmZmwdjzpfonf// xkH;tkdifoleSifh tdrfaxmifuscJhonf// xkdxkH;tkdif&GmolrSm/ rGef,Ofaus;rSK
,drf;tzGJ@0ifwOD;jzpfonf// rGef,Ofaus;rSKjyyGJwGif yg0ifucJhpOfu/ udkpkd;odef;eSifhodu|rf;0ifjyD;
wOD;udk wOD;cspfcJh=ujcif;jzpfonf// 4if; trsdK;oRD;onf// udkaiGodef;(Zelref)/ udkxGef;azeSifh
rdpdefwkd@. tdrfeD;csif;jzpfonf// xkdtrsdK;oRD;onf tvGefacsmarm vSyolwOD; jzpfonf//
udkaiGodef;eSifh udkdpdk;odef;wdk@onf ausmif;aebuf oli,fcsif;rsm;jzpfjyD; tvGefcifrif&if;eSD;
olrsm; jzpf=uonf// udkpkd;odef;onf/ xkdtvGefacsmarm vSyaom xkH;tkdifoludk&ekdifco Jh nfrmS
udkaiGodef;. wGef;tm;ay;rSKa=umifh jzpfonf [kajymprSwfjyK=uonf//

udkpdk;odef;onfwuUodkvfbGJ@&jyD; rGefpm=unfhwkdufrSL;tjzpf 0ifa&mufvkyfudkfifcJhjcif;jzpfonf//


a':apm&Sif (rd[Hom.nDr)onf/ toufjynfhojzifh rGefpm=unfhwdkufrSL;rSS tem;,loGm;
ojzihf udkpkd;odef;u tpm;xkd; ae&m,lonf[k xifygonf// udkpkd;ode;f onf tom;ndkol
wOD;jzpfonf// tvGefpdwfaeoabmxm; elnHhodrfarG@oljzpfonf// pum;ajymqkd&mwGif
tvGef ,Ofaus;olwOD;jzpfonf// udkxGef;az/u|efawmfwkd@eSifh tvGefcifrif&if;eSD;oljzpfojzifh/
rGefpm=unfhwkdufrS pmtkyfrsm;udk pdwf=udKuf vSefavSm&SmazGzwf&SkedkifcJhonf// xkdodk@ vlyk*~dKvf
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pkaqmif;&orsS tcsufvufrsm;udkwpp pkaqmif;jyD;/ a&;om;vmcJh&onf//

u|efawmfonf/ tjrJwrf;vkdvkdyif armfvjrdKifjrdK@ rGefjywkdufeSifhpm=unfhwkdufodk@ oGm;a&muf


jyD; ekdifa&$usifeSifhywfoufaom/ ta=umif;t&m/ pm&Gufpmwrf;rsm;udk/ vSefavSm&SmazG
zwf&SkKcJhonf// wcgw&Hu|efawmfwpfODwnf; oGm;a&mufjyD;zwf&SkK onf/wcgw&H/ udk0if;xdef/
udkxGef;az/ udkoef;xGef;wkd@vnf; vkdufygjyD; vkdtyfaom pm&Gufpmwef;rsm;udk 0kdif;0ef;
pkaqmif; ay;=uonf// rGefpm=unfhwkdufrSL;udkp;kd odef;eSifhudkarmifcsdKwkd@uvnf; 0kdif;0ef;ulnD
&SmazGay;onf// wae@wGif/ u|efawmf wpfa,mufwnf; waeukef vSefavSmzwf&SkKjyD;/
vkdtyfonfh ta=umif;t&mrsm;udk a&;om;pkaqmif;jyD;pD;I/ aumvdyfodk@ bwf(pf)um;jzifh
jyefvmcJhonf// u|efawmfpD;vmaom um;ay:wGif tjcm;ausmif;ol wpfpkvnf; vkdufyg
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 151

vmonfudk awG@&onf// xkdtrsdK;orD;i,frsm;onf/ aps;=uD;rS vkdufygpD;eif;vmonf[k


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tvGefvSy acsmarmolrsm;jzpf=uonf// tvGefvnf;,Ofaus; odrfarG@=uonf// u|efawmf
onf/ olwkd@tm;=unfhI/ pdwfxJrSmcsrf;ajr@aerdonf// tjypfuif;pifaom olwkd@b0/
olwkd@.tvStyudk ai;armaerdonf//pmt=umif;/ ayt=umif;/ ajym=um;&if;/ &D&D armfarmf
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tvGefpdwf=unfel;aerdonf// wOD;udkwOD;jrefrmvkdyif ajymqkd=uonf// 'gayrJh 4if;wkd@txJrS/
ausmif;oltrsdK;orD;wOD;onf u|efawmftm;tvGef pdwf0ifpm;apcJhonf// &kyf&nfacsmarm/
vSyjyD; tvGefcspfp&maumif;oavmuf/ trl,monf/ ,Ofaus;odrfarG@onf// 0wfpm;
qif,ifr_onfvnf; tvGefyd,daooyfonf// xdk@xuf olr. ekkwfzsm;rS xGufvmaom
pum;u uGsefawmf tm;ydkrdkIyif tHh=oapcJhonf// Armpum;r[kwfbJ/ rGefpum; ppfppf
jzpfaeonfudkawG@&onf// u|efawmhem;udkyif r,kH=unfekdifatmif jzpfoGm;onf// Armvkd
ajym=um;aeaom ausmif;olrsm;udk olrurlrGefpum;ppfppfjzifhjyefvnfajz=um;ajymqdk
onfrmS / u|efawmf. pdwfeSvkH;udk tvGef=unfel; eSpfjcdKufapcJhrdonf// tjcm;aom
trsdK;orD; ausmif;olrsm;u Armvkdajym =um;=uayrJh/ olrwOD;wnf;url Armpum;udk
vkH;0 rajym=um;acs// rGefbmompum;jzifhom jyefvnfajym=um;onfukd awG@&onf//
xkdtjzpf onf/ u|efawmf.pdwfudk tvGef=unfel;apcJhonf// Armvkdrajym=um;bJ rdrd.
rGefpum;udk *k%f,l 0ifh=uGm;pGm ajym=um;aomxkdolrtm;vnf;tvGefcsD;=uL;rdonf//
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aprdonf// trsdK;.*k%f trsdK;. ,Ofaus;rSK/ trsdK;.pum;udk xdef;odrf; apmifha&Smufaom
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onf/ armfvjrdKif xm;0,fpk&yf tv,fvrf;odk@ a&mufaomtcg/ xkdtrsdK;oRD;wpkwkd@
qif;oGm;=uonf//

u|efawmfonfum;udk qufvufvkdufygpD;vm&if; xdkrGefausmif;oludk pOf;pm;vmrdonf//


rGefpum;udk jrwfjrwf ekd;ekd;jzifh ajym=um;aom xkdausmif;ol.Zmwdukd odcsifvmonf//
tjcm;ausmif;olrsm;onfvnf; rGGefrsdK;eG,fyif jzpf&rnf[k ajymedkifonf// rGefpum;ukd rajym
Iom jzpf&rnf//rGefpum;udk tm;vkH;uemvnf=u[ef&Sdonf// xkdausmif;olu rGefbmom
pum;jzifh jyefvnfajym=um;onfukd em;vnfonfudkaxmuf&SKv#if rGefaausmif;olrsm;
jzpfonfrSmaocsmonf// okd@aomfrGefpum;udk rajym=um;I omjzpfekdifonf// aumvdyfodk@
a&mufaomtcg um;rS u|efawmfqif;vkdufonf// taqmifa&mufaomtcg/ awG@cJh &onfh
rGefausmif;oluav; ta=umif;udk/ udkoef;xGef;/ udkxGef;azeSifh udk0if;xdefwdk@tm; ajymjy
rdonf// udkoef;xGef;u u|efawmftm; rdefcav;ausmif;ol. ykHyef;o¾mefudkar;jref;onf//
152 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

u|efawmfuvnf; xkdawG@cJhaom/ rGefausmif;ol. ykHo¾mefudk rSwfrd oavmuf ajymjy


onf// xdkaemufudkoef;xGef;onfjyKH;ITodk@ajymvdkufonf//

“tJ'DrGefausmif;ol[m/ wjcm;ol r[kwfbl;// ekdifpHjrifh&J@ orD;jzpfw,f// OuUX=uD;


ekdifvSarmif&J@wlrt&if; jzpfw,f// armfvjrdKif xm;0,fpkt&yfrSm aew,f// ekdfifxGef;odef;/
rd[Homwkd@aewJhwkdufeSihfeD;eD;av;bJ// olwkd@tdrfudk u|efawmffa&mufbl;w,f// olwkd@tdrf
rSm tm;vkH;u/ rGefeSifh t*Fvdyfbmompum;bJ ajym=uw,f// Armvkd olwdk@ tcsif;csif;
rajym=ubl;// odyfhcspfp&maumif;wJhtavhusifhbJ// wwfekdiforSsrdrd&J@ bmompum;udk
ajymqkdw,f// Armvkdvnf; aumif;aumif;rGefrGefajymekdifw,f// vkdtyfwJhvleSifhrS Armvkd
ajymw,f// 'gayrJh udk,fhtcsif;csif; pum;ajymwJhtcg/ Armvkdrajymbl;// rGefvkdbJ
ajym=uw,f/”

ekdifpHjrifhonf rGefrsdK;cspf acgif;aqmifwpfOD; jzpfygonf// rGefvlrsdK;a&;&mtzGJ@csKyf OuUX=uD;


ekdifvSarmif.nDreSifh ta=umif;ygcJholjzpfonf// rdrdvlrsdK;. pum;pmay/ ,Ofaus;rSK/
okcrwkd@udk xdrf;odrf;apmifha&Smufaom xkdekdifpHjrifh rGefrdom;pkrsm;udk u|efawmf tvGef
csD;=uL;rdonf// xdkrdom;pkuJhokd@ rdrdvlrsdK;. pmaypum;udk *k%f,lpGm ajymqkd=u&ef
rGeftrsdK;om;/ trsdK;oRD;wkdif;rSm wm0ef&Sdonf[k u|efawmfjrifrdonf//

1963-ckeSpf/ pufwbFmvrSm/ uGsefawmfeSifhrif;xGef;azonf/ armfvjrdKifaps;=uD;rSjyefvmjyD;


uGsefawmhftcef;wGif/ xkdifIrSwfpkrsm;udk a&;om;aepOf/ rif;0if;xdef a&mufvmonf//
jynfwGif;jidrf;csrf;a&; jynfol@aumfrwDrS =uD;rSL;jyD;/(5)c&kdif jidrf;csrf;a&; c&D;&Snfrdkif(100)
csDwufyJGpDpOfae=uonfhta=umif;udk vma&mufajymjyonf// 4if;rdkif(100)c&D;&SnfcskDwufyJG
udk/ jrpf0uGsef;ay:(5)c&kdifrSjrdK@/ &Gmvlrsm;pkaygif;jyD;/ &efukefjrdK@txd vrf;a&Smuf csDwuf
vmrnfh ta=umif;ajymjyonf// jynfwGif;/ jidrf;csrf;a&; &&dSa&;twGuf/ jynfolrsm;.
jyif;ysaomqENudk az:xkwf&eftwGuf Tokd@rkdif(100)qENjycsDwufyGJ usif;ycJhjcif;jzpfonf
[k udk0if;xdefu ajymjyonf//

Armjynf uGefjrLepfygwD y%mr udk,fpm;vS,ftzGJ@ eSifh awmfvSefa&;aumifpDwkd@onf


1963-ckeSpfpufwifbmv(2)&ufae@rS pIpwifaqG;aEG;cJhonf// awmfvSefa&;aumifpD
bufrS AdkvfrSL;=uD;apmjrifh/ AdkvfrSL;=uD;vS[ef/ 'kwd, AdkvfrSL;=uD;aomif;'ef/ ocifwifjreSifh
'kwd,AdkvfrSL;=uD;cspfcifwkd@yg0ifjyD; ArmjynfuGefjrLepf ygwDbufrS&JabmfaX;/ &Jabmf
atmif=uD;/ &JabmfaZ,s/ &Jabmfoufwif/ &Jabmfpkd;armifeSifh &JabmfAdkvfykwkd@yg0if=uonf//
pufwifbmv(8)&ufeSifh (11)&ufrsm;wGif/ qufvuf aqG;aEG;=uonf// Auywkd@u
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 153

wjynfvkH; typftcwf&yfpJ&ef awmif;qkdonf// awmfvSefa&; aumifpDu vufrcH


jiif;y,fcJhonf// jidrf;csrf;a&; aqG;aEG;aeonfhtzGJ@rsm;&Sd&m a'owGifom/ typftcwf
&yfxm;ekdifrnf[kjyefvnf aqG;aEG;cJhonf// pufwifbmv(13)&uf/ pufwifbmv
(23)&uf/ qufvufaqG;aEG;=uonf// ta=umif;rxl;cJhay// atmufwkdbmv (3)&ufrSm
qufvufaqG;aEG;jyefonf// Todk@t=udrf=udrf aqG;aEG;aomfvnf; wzufeSifh wzuf
oabmwlnDrSK r&cJh=uacs// wzufeSifhwzuftrsdK;rsdK;tjyeftvSefpGyfpJ=G uonf//

1963-ckeSpfatmufwkdbmv(4)&ufae@wGif/ rGefjynfopfygwD/ autif(ef),lygwD/ u&ifeD


trsdK;om;wkd;wufa&;ygwD/ AuyygwDwkd@ yg0ifzGJ@pnf;xm;aom/ trsdK;om;'Drdkua&pD
wyfaygif;pk(r'nw)eSifh awmfvSefa&;aumifpDwkd@ aqG;aEG;=uonf//6 r'nwA[kd udk,fpm;
vS,ftzGJ@bufrS autif(ef)ygwDOuUXref;bZH/ rGejf ynfopfygwD OuUXekdifa&$usif/ u&ifeD
trsdK;om;wkd;wufa&;ygwD twGif;a&;rSL;csKyf apmarm&,fwkd@ yg0ifonfhwyfaygif;pk
ukdf,fpm;vS,ftzGJ@onf/ awmfvSefa&;aumifpDrS AkdvfcsKyf=uD;ae0if;OD;aqmifaom udk,fpm;
vS,ftzGJ@eSifh aqG;aEG;=uonf// eSpfOD;eSpfzuf pdwf&Snfvuf&Snf aqG;aEG;aomfvnf;
oabmwlnDrSK r&&SdcJh=uacs/// r'nwwyfaygif;pkonf/ ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwD. avoH
twkdif;yif awmif;qkdonf[k awmfvSefa&;aumifpDrS pGyfpGJajymqkdonf// jidrf;csrf;a&;
aqG;aEG;rSKonf wkd;wufrSKr&SdbJ/ wjznf;jznf;/ qkwf,kwf vmonf// xkdokd@r'nweSifh
aqG;aEG;rSK tajctae rwdk;wufbJ wef@aeonfhtwGuf/ rGefjynfopfygwD OuUX=uD;
ekdifa&$usifonf/ rGefjynfopfygwDtaejzifh/ awmfvSefa&;aumifpDeSifh oD;jcm;aqG;aEG;&ef
pDpOfaeonf[k od&onf// odk@aomfrGefjynfopfygwDeSifh awmfvSefa&;aumifpDwkd@ vG,fvG,f
ululeSifh aqG;aEG;yGJ rjzpfedkfifao;bJ/ wef@aejyefonf// rGefjynfopfygwDrS udk,fpm;vS,f
rjynfpkHao;I apmifhae&onf[kod&onf// xdktcsdefwGifrGefjynfopfygwDrS udk,fpm;vS,f
tjzpf yg0ifaqG;aEG;&eftwGuf/ edkfifxifudkvSrf;ac:xm;onf[kod&onf//

xkdodk@edkfifiHa&;aqG;aEG;yGJtajctae&SKwfaxG;aewJhtcsdefrSm/uGsefawmfqDodk@awme,ft&yf&yf
rSpmawGa&mufvm=uonf// awmrSa&mufvmaom pmrsm;udk/ udk0if;a,mf/ udkoef;xGef;/
udkxGef;azeSifh rif;0if;xdeftm;jyonf// bDvl;uGsef;rS/ riff;at;=uLqDrS pmwapmifeSifha&;jrdK@rS
rif;xGef;wifqDrS pmwapmif a&mufvmonfhta=umif; ajymjyonf// rif;at;=uLu 4if;.
pmxJwGif/ &GmvGwf&GmY rGefvli,ftzGJ@udk zGJ@pnf;xm;I jyD;pD;onfhta=umif; yg&dSonf//
bmqufvkyf&rnfudk nGSef=um;yg&efvnf; a&;om;xm;onf// a&;jrdK@rS rif;xGef;wif.
pmxJrSmvnf;/ a&;jrdK@wGif rGefvli,ftzGJ@pnf;udk aumif;rGefpGm zGJ@pnf;xm;jyD;onfhta=umif;
yg&Sdonf// qufvufvkyfaqmif&rnfh vkyfief;rsm;udk nGSef=um;yg&ef a&;om;xm;onf//

6
/wyfrawmfeSifhtrsdK;om;ekdifiHa&;OD;aqmifrSKtcef;u¾/pm/176
154 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

a&;jrdK@e,f/ vrdkif;aus;&GmrS rif;tD;xHrSvnf; owif;&onffhta=umif;eSifh rif;tD;wdk@vnf;


rGefvli,ftzGJ@udk zGJ@pnf;xm;jyD; jzpfa=umif;udkyg ajymjyonff// uGsefawmfwdk@onf/ pmrsm;udk
zwf&_jyD; tvGeftm;& auseyfrdygonf// jynfwGif; jidrf;csrf;a&; aqG;aEG;yGJonf/ wae@wjcm;
tajcae qkwf,kwfvmonf// rnfokd@aomtajc qdkfufa&muf jzpfay:vmrnfudk rnfolrS
rodacs// xkdokd@ra&&m rao;csmaom jynfwGif; jidrf;csrf;a&; aqG;aEG;yGJudk uGsefawmfwkd@
aumvdyfrGefausmif;om;rsm;u pdwf0ifpm;pGm apmifh=unfhvsuf&Sdonf//

jynfwGif;jidrf;csrf;a&; aeG;aEG;r_ ratmifjrifcJhv#if/ rGeftrsdK;om;vufeufudkif awmfvSefa&;


wGif rGefausmif;om;vli,frsm; wenf;wzkHyg0ifvkyfaqmif&ef vkdtyfonf[k u|efawmfwkd@
ujrifonf// vufeufudkfifawmfvSefa&;twGuf =udKwifjyifqifaomoabmjzifh/ 1961-ckeSpf
ywf0ef;usifu zG@Jpnf;xm;cJhoaom te,fe,ft&yf&yf&Sd rGefausmif;om;vli,ftzGJ@pnf;
wkd@. acgif;aqmifrsm;udk u|efawmfwkd@ =udK;pm;qufoG,fcJhonf// trsdK;om; vufeufudkif
awmfvSefa&;twGuf/ tqifoiffh=udKwif jyifqifrSKrsm;jyKvkyfxm;=u&ef uGsefawmfwkd@
armfvjrdKifc&kdif/ rGefausmif;om;vli,ftoif;rS vSsKd@0SufpGmta=umif;=um;xm;cJhonf//
Tokd@ u|efawmfwdk@ vSsdK@0SufqufoG,fjyD; ta=umif;=um;xm;onfhtay:/ te,fe,frS
ausmif;om;acgif;aqmifrsm;u/pmjyefa&;om;vm=ujcif;jzpfonf//

udkausmfat;tm; u|efawmfwkd@ txl;owd&vmrdonf// udkausmfat;aemufqkH; a&muf&Sd


aeonfh ajctaeudkvnf; u|efawmfwkd@ txl;pdwf0ifpm; vmrdonf// udkausmfat;onf/
awmfvSeaf &; aumifpDrS tm%modrf;wufvmaom/ 1962-ckeSpfyif ppftm%m&Sif
awmfvSefa&;aumifpDtm;/ awmfvSefyek fuef&ef pwifpnf; &kH;vSKyfaqmfcJh oljzpfonf//
ppftm%m&Sif AdkvfcsKyfae0if; OD;aqmifaom awmfvSefa&;aumifpDudk/ tvGef&GH@rkef;ol
jzpfonf// u|efawmfwkd@ rGefausmif;om; vli,frsm;udk vma&mufwkdifyifjyD;/ ppftm%m&Sif
jzKwfcsa&;twGuf/ enf;vrf; &Smaeoljzpfonf// ,dk;',m;bufokd@ xGufoGm; uwnf;u
udkausmfat;eSifh tqufjywfoGm;onf// edkifausmfat;onf/ rnfonfhae&mokd@ a&mufI/
rnfokd@aom tajcae&Sdonfukd u|efawmfwkd@ tvGefodvkdae=uonf// tqufoG,fjywf
aeojzifh/ vkH;0rod&acs// ekdifausmfat;udk &SmazGjyD; tquftoG,f,l&efvnf; oabmwl
=uonf// rGeftrsdK;om;vGwfajrmufrSK awmfvSefa&; wGif xkdif;ekdifiHa&muf/ rGeftrsKd ;om;rsm;
. yl;aygif;aqmif&GufrSKonf/ txl;yif ta&;=uD; onfudkfvnf; u|efawmfwkd@jrif=uonf//

aumvdyftaqmifae ausmif;ol§ausmif;om;rsm;onf/ aeomaom naeapmif;rsm;Y


aumvdyf t0ifvrf;r=uD; wav#mufwGif pk&kH;jyD;tysif;ajy vrf;a&SmufxGufavh&Sd=uonf//
wae@wGif rif;xGef;az/ rif0if;xdefeSifh u|efawmfwkd@onf/ oHvGifaqmifwGif twlae=uaom
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 155

rif;pkd;jrifh/ rif;oef;xGe;f wkd@udkac:I vrf;av#muf xGuf=uonf// u|efawmfwkd@onf/


txl;ojzifh ekdifwifatmif.=uufjcHokd@ vrf;a&Smuf xGufoGm;avh&Sdonf// edkifwifatmif
onf/ rGef0ef=uD; edkifatmifxGef;.om;jzpfonf// 1962-ckeSpfrSpjyD;/ ekdifwifatmifeSifh
rGefjynfol@wyfOD;rS ekdifarmifwkd@onf/ pkaygif;=uufarG;jrLa&;jcHwckudk/ xlaxmif=uonf//
4if;wkd@.=uufjcHonf/ armfvjrdKifaumvdyf vrf;r=uD;. ta&S@em;wGGif&Sdonf// naeapmif;
ausmif;om;rsm;onf/ vrf;a&SmufxGuf&if;/ ekdifwifatmifwkd@.=uufjcHwGif=uufO 0,f,l
avh&Sd=uonf// xkdpOfu/ =uufO(5)vkH;v#if wusyfaps;jzpfonf[k rSwfrdonf// uGsefawmfwkd@
rGefausmif;om;wpk onfvnf; ekdifwifatmif/ ekdifarmifwkd@. pkaygif;arG;jrLa&; =uufjcHodk@
tjrJwrf;vkdvdk vrf;a&SmufxGuf&if;/ a&mufavh&Sdonf// =uufjcHokd@a&mufvmolrsm;tm;/
ekdifwifatmifu/ 4if;.=uufjcH pDrHcsufrsm;udk &Sif;jyavh&Sdonf// =uuf.trsdK;pm;/ =uuf.
OaomOe_ef;eSifh tpm;pmauGs;e_ef;wkd@udkyg &Sif;jyavh&Sdonf// 4if;=uufjcHrSm/ rGefjynfol@
wyfOD;rS ygwD0ifa[mif;rsm;eSifh pkaygif;xlaxmifxm;onf[k od&onf// qkdif;bkwfjzifh
crf;crf;em;em; xlaxmifxm;onfudk awG@&onf// pkaygif;=uufjcH.trnf twdusudkrl
uGsefawmfrrSwfrdI ra&;jyekdfif awmhyg// 4if;=uufjcHYyif ekdifwifatmif.rdom;pk/ ekdfifarmif.
rdom;pkwdk@ aexkdif=uonf//

u|efawmfwkd@wpk oGm;a&mufvnfywfaom xkdae@wGif/ ekdfifwifatmif. ZeD;rd&ifpdefeSifh


om;oRD;i,frsm;udkvnf;awG@&onf// ekdifwifatmif.oRD;=uD;eSifhom; rif;atmif0if;wkd@onf
tvGefi,f&G,folrsm;yif &Sdao;onf// ajy;v$m;aqmhupm;aom t&G,frsm;jzpfonf//
uGsefawmfeSifh Toli,fwdk@onf/ aemifumvwckY/ awmwGif;euf&_dif;aomwae&mwGif
twlwuGae=u&vdrRnf[k xkdtcsdefu u|efawmf vkH;0r&dyfpm;rdacs// twdwferdwfvnf;
rjrifcJhacs// olwkd@onfvnf; vkH;0&dyfpm;rnf r[kwfyg// avmurSm/ rar#mfvifhygvSsuf
jzpfwwfonf// =uD;rm;pGm/ar#mfvifhxm;ygvsuf rjzpfwwfonfh oabmwkd@onf/ r&nfwGuf
ekdifatmif =uKHawG@cJh&bl;ygonf// ekdifwifatmifudk yiaus;&Gmol=uD;tjzpf/ yi&Gmol/
&Gmom;rsm;rS a&G;aumuf wifajrSmuf=ujyD;onfh aemufydkif;wGif ekdfifwifatmifonf/
yi&Gmodk@ jyefvnfajymif;a&$@oGm;=uonf// usef&SdaomOD;armifwkD@u =uufjcHudkqufvuf
xdef;odrf;oGm;onf[o k d&onf//

uGsefawmfwkd@wpk ekdifwifatmifwdk@. pkaygif;=uufarG;jrLa&;jcHrS tjyefwGif/ rdcifxm;a&$eSifh


rd,Ofwif/ wkd@.tkyfpkeSifh vrf;rwGGif qkkHrdonf// rdcifxm;a&$ eSifhrd,Ofwif wkd@onf/
rGeftoif;.wuf=uGaom tr_aqmifrsm; jzpf=uonf// rGeftoif;. &HykHaiG &SmxGuf
rnfhudpPudk wkdifyif&eftwGuf/ olwkd@taqmifudk aemufwae@vmrnfh ta=umif;ajymjy
xm;onf// oHvGifaqmifudk a&mufv#ifa&mufcsif;yif/ uGsefawmfwdk@onf/ ausmif;om;
156 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

o[m,tcef;wGif owif;pmoGm;a&mufzwf&_=uonf// a&'D,dkrSvmaom owif;rsm;


udkvnf; em;axmif=uonf// awmfvSefa&; aumifpDonf/ Armjynf uGefjrLepfygwDrS/
&JabmfaX; OD;aqmifaomtzGJ@eSifh4if;/ u&ifawmfvSefa&;aumifpDrS/ aumfuZmapm[Hom
wmarG; OD;aqmifaom tzGJ@eSifh4if;/ jidrf;csrf;a&; aqG;aEG;r_rsm; jyKvkyfae=uaom owif;udk
=um;od&onf// OuUX=uD; ekdifa&$usifwkd@. trddsK;om;'Drkdua&pD nDnGwfa&; wyfaygif;pk
(r'nw)eSifhvnf; qufvuf aqG;aEG;onfhta=umif;od&onf// uGsefawmfwkd@ ausmif;om;
wpkonf/ o[m,tcef;Yyif/ rdrdwkd@tjrifrsm;udk trsdK;rsdK;ajymqkd=ujyD;aemuf/ n(9)em&D
ausmfavmufrS/ rdrdtcef;aqmifokd@ toD;oD;jyefoGm;=uonf//

uGsefawmfonf rdrdaexdkifaomtcef;odk@ jyefvmonf// owif;pm wapmifudkvnf;


u|efawmfheSifhtwl tcef;okd@,laqmifvmonf// owif;pmrSmygvmaom OuUX=uD;
ekdfifa&$usif/ OuUX=uD; ref;bZHwdk@. "gwfykHudk twef=umatmifyif pl;pkduf=unfhaerdonf//
uGsefawmf. pdwfonf twdwfqDokd@ trSwfrxif&mufoGm;onf// 1948-ckkeSpf rGefeSifhu&if
yl;aygif;jyD; aarmfvjrdKifjrdK@tm; odrf;ykdufvkdufonfh twdwfordkif; ta=umif;udk jyefajymif;
owdd&rdonf// tif;pdefjrdK@udk u&iftrsdK;om;rsm; odrf;ydkufonfh ta=umif;udkyg pOf;pm;rd
onf// Tta=umiff;&mwdk@onf/ OuUX=uD;ekdifa&$usif/ OuUX=uD; ref;bZHwdk@ (2)OD;ESifh
wkduf&kdufywfouf qufeG,faeI owd&jcif;jzpfonf// armfvjrdKifjrdK@udk odrf;ydkufpOfwGif/
OuUX=uD;ekdifbvGifonf/ rGefvlrsdK;a&;&mtzGJ@csKyf. wm0eft&SdqkH; yk*~dKvfrsm;rSwOD;
jzpfouhJokd@/ OuUX=uD; ref;bZHonfvnf;/ tif;pdefjrdK@udk odrf;ydkufpOfu (/au/tif/'D/tkd/)
acgif;aqmiftjzpf t"duyg0ifcJhol wOD;jzpfcJhonf//

u|efawmfwkd@ aumvdyfausmif;om; wpkonf/ vdkftyfaeao;aom OuUX=uD; ekdifa&$usif


ta=umif;udk =udK;pm; vkdufvHpkHprf;pkaqmif;&if; wzufwGifpkaqmif;&&Sd vmaom
tcsuftvufwkd@udk aoaocsmcsm rSwfwrf;wifxm;=uonf// TrSwfwrf;a&;om;jcif;udk
u|efawmfuyif ae@pOfvkdvkd =udK;pm;vkyfcJhonf// txl;ojzihf ausmif;om;rsm; &Sif;vif;
onfhtcsdefrSm/ u|efawmfa&;om;&onf// u|efawmfhrSm ausmif;pmuvnf; wzufY
&Sdao;onf// ausmif;ocFef;pmodk@ rysufruGuf rSefreS f wufekdifatmifvnf; =udK;pm;
&ao;onf// aumvdyfausmif; 0ef;usif;wGif wcgw&H/ ausmif;okd@ wufvmaom
rd=unfcifxl;udk yufyif;wkd;rdwwfonf// xkdtcg u|efawmf. pdwfonf/ OuUX=uD;
ekdifbvGifeSifh rd=unfcifxl;wkd@. twdwfu tjzpftysufudk wef;Iowd&rdonf//
rd=unfcifxl;udkawG@wkdif; OuUXekdifbvGiftm; owd&cJhonf// xkdolwkd@eSpfOD;. arwWm
Zgwfvrf;udk u|efawmfpkHprf; avhvmaomfvnf; ta=umif;pkH twdusudk rodcJh&yg//
txl;ojzifh xkdolwkd@eSpfO;D onf tb,fa=umifh vrf;cGJ cJh&oenf; [laom tajzudkrl
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 157

u|efawmfwdwd ususrod&yg// wdwdususajymjy edkfifoludk rawG@cJhyg// Tta=umif;&m


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av;pm;pGmjzifh

(rif;armifwif)
7/10/63

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OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 161

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162 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

xkdaemuf/ ppftm%m&Sifudk jzKwfcsbkd@ enf;vrf;onf/ tjcm;aomenf;vrf; r&Sdedkif/


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atmufygtwkdif; u|efawmfwdk@onf wcJeufjydKifwl a=uG;a=umf =uonf//

qM.pLnj8t,pu&kW,v.mnj
qM.pLnj8t,pu&kW,v.mnj
qM.pLnj8t,pu&kW,v.mnj
awmfvSefa&;orm;/'dk@rGefausmif;om;
awmfvSefa&;orm;/'dk@rGefausmif;om;
awmfveS af &;orm;/'d@k reG af usmif;om;

urm0uf aps;a&mif;yGJrSjyefvmjyD; armfvjrdKifaumvdyfukd a&mufuwnf;uyif/ uGsefawmf


onf/ edkifbvGifeSifh ywfoufaom owif;tpersm;udk jyefvnf pkaqmif; &jyefonf//
ekdifbvGifeSifh ywfoufjyD;/ pkaqmif;&&SdorsS tcsufvufwkd@udk qufvufI rSwfom;&/
a&;om;&jyefonf// 1963-ckeSpf/ ZGef/ Zlvkdif/ =o*kwf/ pufwbFm/ atmufwkdbmvrsm;wGif
=udK;pm;yrf;pm;I u|efawmfwkd@ pkaqmif;vmonfh ekdifa&$usif. yk*~dKvfta=umif;t&m
wkd@onf/ wjznf;jznf; jynfhpkHvmonf// xkdokd@ pkaqmif;&vmcJhaom tcsuftvufrsm;udk
pkaygif;a&;om;xm;aom pmrlt=urf;wckyif jyD;qkH;oGm;onf// OuUX=uD;. rdb arG;zGm;&m
Zmwd/ armifeSr/ i,fpOfb0 ynmoif=um;rSK/ trsdK;om;ekdifiHa&; vSKyf&Sm;rSK/ vufeufudkfif
awmfvSefa&;orm;b0 ponfhtcsufvufpkH/ ta=umif;t&mpkHwkd@ jynfhjynfhpkHpkHyg&Sdonf//
Tokd@ t=urf;tm;jzifh a&;om;xm;aom/ ekdifa&$usif.udk,fa&; &mZ0ifta=umif;
tjynfhpkHudk tacsmudkifonfhtqifhodk@ a&;om;oGm;&efom &Sdawmhonff// u|efawmfonf/
=udK;pm; yrf;pm;I atmufygtwdkif; tacsmudkif a&;csvkdufavonf//
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 163

OuUX=uD;ekdifbvGifonf/ 1913-ck/rwfv(1)ae@ (aumZmouU&mZf/ 1274- wykd@wJG vqkyf


(9)&uf paeae@wGif uwkdaumheSyf/ zufuwm;&GmY arG;zGm;onf// rdbrsm;rSm/ ekdifa&$azgif/
rda&$rdjzpfon/f/ zcifonftaygifjrdK@rSjzpfjyD;/ trdrSm zufuwm;&Gmol jzpfonf//
armifeSr(10)OD;&SdjyD;t=uD;qkH;/ =o&oom; jzpfonf// armifeSrrsm;rSm/ ekdifatmifapm/
edkifatmifcspfpH (rGefjynfol@wyfOD;/ awmckdcJhol)/ rdjrZif/ ekdifaomif;at; (*syefawmfvSefa&;
umvwGif/ usqkH;)/ ekdifbnGef@(u&ifjynfe,f/ 0ef=uD;a[mif;)/ rdaxG;av;/ ekdifpkd;odef;/
edkifcspf&Sdef/ rdat;wifwdk@jzpf=uonf// rdbrsm;onf/ tv,fvwf vlwef;pm; tpdk;&
tr_xrf;rsm;jzpfonf// pD;yGm;a&; aumif;rGefonf// ekdifa&$azgifeSifh rda&$rd wdk@onff//
tar#mftjrif =uD;rm;olrsm;jzpfonf/ om;oRD;rsm;udk tvGefcspfjrwfekd;=uolrsm;jzpfonf//
om;oRD;rsm;udk acwfrSDynm wwfjzpfapcsio f nf// xl;cGsefatmifjrifaom om;oRD;rsm;
jzpfapcsifonf// olwdk@udk,fwkdif om;oRd;rsm;udk =udK;pm;/=uyfrwfI ynmoif=um;ay;onf//
om;oRD; a&S@aumif;pm;a&;udk ar#mfudk;I tvkyfudk=uDK;pm; vkyfudkif=ujyD; aiGudkpkaqmif;
onf// aiGtukefuscHjyD; om;oRD;rsm;/ txufwef;ynm wwfajrmufatmif/ acwfrSD
emrnf=uD;aomausmif;rsm;wGif xm;onf//

edkifa&$azgifeSifhrda&$rdwkd@onf rGefrsKd;cspfyk*~dKvfrsm;jzpf=uonf// rdrdwkd@.om;oRD;rsm;udkvnf;


rGef,Ofaus;r_/ tekynmudk cspfjrwfedk;wwfatmif oif=um;ay;onf// rGefrsK;dcspfpdwf"gwf
xufoef vmatmif/ rGefvlrsdK;wkd@ordkif;udk om;oRD;rsm;tm; ajymjywwfonf// rel[mrif;
ta=umif;/ r*'l;ta=umif;/ &mZ"d&mZfta=umif;/ Anm;v*Gef;tdef/Anm;"&mHta=umif;/
rdapmykta=umif;/ Anm;"vta=umif;ponfh rGef&mZ0ifordkif;rsm;udk om;oRD;rsm;tm;/
i,fpOf uwnf;uyif/ tuGsrf;0if&if;eSD;vmatmif ajymjyavh&Sdonf// rGefykHjyifwkd@udk
tjrJwrf; ajymjyjyD; om;oRD;rsm;udk vdrfrm ,Ofaus; aponf// rGefvlrsKd;wdk@. rvGwfvyf
aom b0eSifh tzdeSdyfcH ae&aom b0udk om;oRD;rsm;tm; tjrJwrf; owd&apcJhonf//
om;/oRD;wkd@rSm =uD;vmv#if/ trsdK;om;wm0ef&Sdonfqkdonfh todw&m;udk i,f&G,fpOf
uyif oGwfoGif;xm;cJhonf// ekdifa&$azgifeSifh rda&$rdwdk@onf rdb0wW&m; ausjyGef olrsm;
jzpfonf// ekdifa&$azgif/rda&$rdwkd@.om;oRD;rsm;onf/ aemifwGif/ vlawmfvlaumif;rsm;
jzpf=uonfudk awG@&onf/ rsdK;cspfpdwfxufoefolrsm;jzpfjyD;/ rGefvlrsKd;twGuf pGrf;pGrf;wrH
aqmif&Gufolrsm;jzpfvmonfudkawG@&onf//

rdom;pkrSm om;t=uD;jzpfol rif;bvGifonf i,fi,fuyif ynmxl;cGsefoljzpfonf/


at;aq;oljzpfonf/ pmudktvGef =udK;pm;oljzpfonf// i,fpOfuyif oef@oef@ jyef@jyef@
aexkdifwwfonf// ,Ofaus;odrfarG@aomoljzpfonf// tpfudk=uD;jzpfonfhtnD/ nDi,f
eSri,frsm; tay: cspfpdwfydkwwfonf// tjrJwrf;nDi,f/ nDri,fwdk@udk OD;pm;ay;onf//
oD;cHonf// nDi,feSr i,ftwGuf tepfemcHwwfonf// i,f&G,fpOfuyif rsdK;cspfpdwf
164 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

xufoefoljzpfonf// touf(5)eSpft&G,fuyif/ jynfjrdK@odk@ oGm;a&mufaexkdifjyD; ynm


oif=um;cJhonf// jynfjrdK@wGifwef;jrifhausmif;txd ynmoif=um;cJhonf// 4if;aemuf/
aumvdyf Oypmwef;udk &efukefwuUokdvfrSm qufvuf ynmoif=um;cJhonf// wuUodkfvf
aumvdyf ausmif;om;b0uyif edkfifbvGGifonf/ wuUodkvf&Sd toif;rsm;wGif yg0ifvSKyf&Sm;
cJhonf// Oypmwef;udk atmifjrifjyD;aemuf ta=umif; trsdK;rsdK;aa=umifh ausmif;rS
xGufvkduf&onf// ekdifbvGifonf ausmif;rSxGufjyD;/ 0ef=uD;rsm;&kH;wGif vufedSyfpma&;tjzpf
0ifa&mufvkyfukdifonf// xkdaemuf 'kwd, urBmppf rjzpfcif/ t*Fvdyfa&wyfwGifyg0if
tr_xrf;cJhonf//'k-t&mcHAkdvftqifhxd wdk;jrSifhjcif; cHcJh&onf// 'kwd, urBmppftwGif;wGif
t*Fvdyfa&wyf/ ppfrSKxrf;b0rS tjyD;tydkif xGufcJh onf//

tpfukd=uD;edkfifbvGifuJhokd@yif/ nDi,frsm;jzpfaom/ ekdifatmifcspfpHeSifh ekdifaomif;at;/


ekdifbnGef@ wkd@onfvnff;/ rsdK;cspfpdwf xufoefaom vli,frsm; jzpfonf// edkifbvGif
tygt0if nDtpfudkrsm;onf/ 'kwd,urBmppfwGif zqyvtzGJ@pnf;eSifh qufoG,frdI
*syefqef@usifa&; wGifyg0ifcJhonf// zufqpf*syef qef@usifa&;twGuf/ ajratmuf
v_yf&Sm;r_rsm;udk vSsKd@0SufpGm vkyfaqmifcJhonf// ekdifbvGif.nDi,f ekdifaomif;at;ukd
avhvmv#if 1941- ckESpfwGif yXrOD;qkH;aom rGefvli,f tzGJ@pnf;w&yfudk zGJ@pnf;&ef/
rGefazodef;eSifhtwll =uKD;pmpnf;&kH; v_y&f Sm;cJholwOD;jzpfonf// 'kwd,urBmppf=uD; pwif
jzpfvmaoma=umifh/ rGefvli,ftzGJ@pnf;udk zGJ@pnf;ekdifcJhjcif; r&Sd[kod&onf// okd@aomf
ekdifaomif;at;onf/ tjcm;aom rGeftzGJ@pnf;rsm;wGif wuf=uGpGmyg0ifv_yf&Sm;cJhonf//
uGefjrLepftawG;ac:udk eSpfjcdKufoljzpfonf// uGefjrLepfpHepfudk av;av;eufeufavhvm
vkdufpm;oljzpfonf// *syefacwftwGif; zGJ@pnf;aom/ tm&Svli,ftpnf;&kH;wGif wufwuf
=uG=uGyg0ifcJhonf// e,fcsJ@ qef@usifa&;wGif wuf=uGpGm yg0ifv_yf&Sm;cJholjzpfonf/
aemufydkif;wGif/ zufqpf qef@usifa&;twGuf/ vSsdK@0SufpGm/ pnf;&kH;v_yfaqmfcJhol wOD;jzpf
onf// zufqpf*syefudk jyefvnfawmfvSefaomtcgwGif/ &G@H&GH@cGsefcGsef yg0ifawmfvSefcJhaom/
rGefvli,fawmfvSefa&;orm;wOD;jzpfonf// zufqpf*syefwdk@tqkwfwGif/ *syefuifaywkdif.
zrf;qD;jcif;udkcH&onf// *syef uifaywkdif. nSif;yef; eSdyfpufr_udk/ =uHh=uHhckdifcH&if; touf
taocHoGm;onf// tvGefowWdajymifajrmufaom/ rGefrsdK;cspf vli,fwOD;jzpfonf//

OuUXekdifbvGifwkd@. armifeSrrsm;udk avhvm=unfhv#if tm;vkH;vdkvdkyif rGefrsdK;cspfpdwf


xufoef=uolrsm; jzpf=uonfudk awG@&onf/ wenf;r[kwf/ wenf; rdrdwkd@wwfpGrf;aom
ae&mrSm rGefvlrsdK;wdk@.tusdK;udk o,fykd;olrsm;jzpf=uonfudk awG@&onf// EdkifbvGifonf
wuUodkvfaumvdyfausmif;rS/ xGufvmonfhaemufydkif;wGif/ tpkd;&0efxrf;tvkyfudk
vkyfudkifcJhonf// wzufwGifrl/ trsdK;udkcspfaompdwfa=umifh/ wwfekdiforsS trsdK;om;ta&;
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 165

wGif yg0ifvSKyf&Sm;cJhonf// aemufydkfif;wGif/ edkifbvGif.trsdK;om; ekdifiHa&; vSKyf&Sm;rSK onf/


rGeftrsdK;om;wkd@. ekdifiHa&;vSKyf&Sm;rSK a&pD;a=umif;eSihftwl/ wom;wnf;/ wxyfwnf;
jzpfoGm;onfudk awG@&onf// rGeftrsdK;om;wkd@. trsdK;om;vSKyf&Sm;rSK ykdrdktiftm;aumif;
t&Sdeft[kef&vm ouJhokd@ edkifbvGif. ekdifiHa&; vSKyf&Sm;rSKonfvnf;/ ydkrdkay:vGifxif&Sm;
vmonf// trsdK;om;ekdifiHa&;wGif ydkrdkI wufwuf =uG=uG yg0if vSKyf&Sm;vmonfudk
avhvm awG@&Sd&onf//

1939-ckeSpf/EdkfifbvGif touft&G,f tm;jzifh24eSpf t&G,f&SdvmaomtcsdefwGif rGefvlrsdK;


wkd@. trsdK;om;edkifiHa&; vSKyf&Sm;rSKonfvnf;/ tvGeft&Sdeft[kef& vmonfudk awG@&
onf// xkdtcsdefumvwGif rGeftrsdK;om; acgif;aqmifwkd@. trsdK;om;ekdifiHa&; vSKyf&Sm;rSKeSihf
ywfoufjyD; atmufygtwkdif; tpdk;&rSwfwrf;rsm;wGif a&;om;xm;onfudkawG@&onf//

“rGefvlrsKd ;onf/ vlrsdK;pkjynfe,faz:xkwf&mY vkdtyfaom t*Fg&yfrsm;jzpf=uaom/


1/ vlrsdK;wpfrsdK;.aemufcH&mZ0if
2/ bmompum;/pmay/,Ofaus;rSK
3/ e,fajr
4/ pD;yGm;a&;tajccH/
ponfh t*Fg&yfrsm; rGefvlrsdK;wkd@wGif jynfhpkHpGm &Sdojzifh/ jynfe,f ay;xdkufonf[k
rGeaf cgi;f aqmifrsm;u cH,x l m;=uonf// trsdK;om; ekdifiHa&;tjrif/ ekd;=um;vmonf//
jrefrm ekdifiHvGwfvyfa&; =udK;yrf;rSKwGif/ rGeftrsdK;om;wkd@onf wufwuf =uG=uG a&S@wef;rS
yg0ifcJh=uonf//”

jrefrmekdifiH vGwfvyfa&; =udK;yrf;rSK umvwav#mufwGif a&S@cef;rSaejyD; rGeftrsdK;om;wkd@


yg0ifvmcJhjcif;eSifh ywfoufI atmufygtwkdif; tpkd;&rSwfwrf;rsm;u rSwfwrf; wifxm;
onfudk vnf;awG@onf//

“pifppf*sDpDbDatacwfrSpI jrefrmhekdifiHa&; =udK;yrf;rSK wpfavSsmufvkH;wGif rGef/Arm/


&cdkifpaom/ wkdif;&if;om;tm;vkH;. ta&;Y rGet f rsKd ;om;wkd@onf OD;pD;acgif;aqmif jyKcJh
7
=uonf//

jrefrmhedkifiHa&;vSKyf&Sm;rSK t&Sdeft[kef jrifhrm;vmonfeSifhtrSs rGeftrsdK;om;wkd@. trsdK;om;


vSKyf&Sm;rSKonfvnf;/ wjznf;jznf;jrifhrm;vmcJhonf// wkd@Armtpnf;t&kH;0ifocifrsm;.

7
1958-1962/jrefrmekdifiHa&;/pmrsufeSm/259/
166 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

“Armpmonfwkd@pm/ Armpum;onf/wkd@pum;/ Armjynfonfwkd@jynf”ponfh a=uG;a=umfoH


rsm;onf/ rGefwkd@.trdsK;om; pdwf"gwfedk;=um;ap&ef zefwD;cJo h nf// rGet
f rsdK;om;wkd@onf/
wjznf;jznf;eSihf pkpnf;nDnGwfvm=ujyD; rdrwd kd@trsKd ;bmom/ omoem/ pmay/ ,Ofaus;rSK
xGef;um;a&;twGuf/ toif;tzGJ@rsm;zGJ@pnf; aqmif&Guf&ef vkdftyfa=umif; em;vnf
oabmaygufcJh=uonf//

rGeftrsdK;om;wkd@. ekdifiHa&;edk;=um;rSKeSifhywfoufjyD; txufygtwkdif;tpkd;& rSwfwrf;rsm;wGif


a&;om;xm;onf udkawG@jrifekdifonf//

rGeftrsdK;om; acgif;aqmifrsm;/ rGef&[ef;oHCmrsm;eSihf rGefrsdK;cspfpdwf &Sdolrsm;wkd@onf/


edifiHa&;tod/ edkifiHa&;tjrif/ edk;=um;vmonf// trsdK;om;a&; pdwf"gwfedkf;=um; wuf=uG
vmjyD;/ tcsif;csif; pkpnf;nDnGwf vm=uonf// xkda=umifh rGef&[ef;oHCmeSifh rsdK;cspf
yk*~dKvfrsm; vufwGJjyD;/ trsdK;bmom/ omoemudk xdef;odrf;aqmif&Gufedifa&; twGuf/
trsdK;om; tzGJ@pnf;w&yfudk zGJ@pnf;xlaxmif&ef =udK;yrf;vm=uonf// rGefoHCm/
&[ef;awmfrsm;/ ynmwwfrGeftrsdK;om;rsm;/ rGefrsdK;cspfrsm;pkaygif;nDnmjyD;/ 1939-ckeSpf
=o*kwfv (6)&ufae@wGif/ a&$wd*kHbk&m; awmifbuf apmif;wef;&Sd armfvjrdKifZ&yfY
(&mrnwkdif;vkH;qkdif&mrGeftoif;=uD;)udkpwifzGJ@pnf;cJ=huonf//

&mrnwkdif;vkH;qkdif&mrGeftoif;=uD;tvkyftrSKaqmiftzGJ@/

OuUX OD;usef(yJcl;)
'k/OuUX OD;baomf(yJcl;)
'k/OuUX OD;bodef;(a&;)
tusdK;aqmiftwGif;a&;rSL; OD;a'G;(yJcl;)
aiGxdef; ekdfifcspfaomif;
trSKaqmifvl=uD;rsm;
ODarmifuav;
rGefzkd;csdK
paomyk*~dKvfrsm;yg0ifvm=uonf//

toif;. &nf&G,fcsufrsm;rSm/ rGefvlrsdK;/ rGefpum;/ rGefpmay/rGef,Ofaus;rSK/ rGefbmom


omoemwkd@udk rwdrfaum/ryaysmufapbJ wkd;wuf=uD;yGm;vma&;twGuf aqmif&Guf&ef
jzpfonf//
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 167

pum;/pmayaysmufvSsif vlrsdK;aysmufrnf// Oyrmtm;jzifh/ jrefrmekdifiHwGif/ a&S;uysLvlrsdK;


&SdcJhaomfvnf;ysLpmay/ pum; aysmufoGm;ojzifh/ ysLvlrsdK;vnf; aysmufoGm;cJo h nf//
xkda=umifhaatmufyg a=uG;a=umfoHudk tzJG@.t"dua=uG;a=umfoHtjzifh tpOfudkifqJGI/
a=uG;a=umfcJh=uonf//

rGevf lrsdK;onf-wkd@vlrsdK;
rGefpum;onf-wdk@pum;/
rGefpmonf-wkd@pm/
wkd@vlrsdK;ukd-wkd@cspf=u/
wkd@pum;udk-wdk@ajym=u/
wkd@pmudk-wkd@oif=u//

[kwpdkfufrwfrwfudkfifqGJa=uG;a=umfcJh=uonf//

Ttoif;. xl;jcm;csufwckrSm Ttoif;=uD;. zGJ@pnf;tkyfcsKyfykH Oya'yk'fr(17)wGif/


Ttoif;trnfjzifh rnfolrSs ekdifiHa&; rvkyf&[k jyXmef;xm;onfudk awG@&onf//
xkdacwfumvwGif/ tpdk;&0efxrf;wOD;onf/ rnfonfhedkifiHa&;ygwDwGif ryg0if& [laom/
tpkd;&.n$ef=um;csuf&SdcJhonf// xdkn$ef=um;csuft& xdkacwf&Sd 0efxrf;rsm;onf/ edkifiHa&;
ygwDwGifryg0if vdk=ubJ/ oD;jcm;uif;vGwfpGm aevkd=uonf// pmaytoif;/ ,Ofaus;rSK
toif;/ tekynmtoif;/ tm;upm;toif;wkd@avmufom/ tpddk;&trSKxrf; 0efxrf;rsm;
yg0if=uonfudkawG@&onf// &mrntzGJ@csKyfudk OD;aqmifpnf;&kH; vSKyfaqmfzGJ@pnf; =uolrsm;
onf/ txl;ojzifh/ ynmwwfolrsm;jzpfjyD;/ tpdk;&.t&m&Sd/ twGif;0efeSifh 0efxrf;rsm;om
jzpfcJh=uonf// txufygtpkd;&.n$ef=um;csuf tusdK;qufa=umifh/ &mrntzGJ@csKyf=uD;.
zGJpnf;ykH tajccHOya'yk'fr(17)jzpf&onf[k,lqedkfifonf//

ekdfifbvGifonf Ttoif;=uD;. tzGJ@0ifwOD;jzpfvmonf// Ttoif;=uD;rS rGef/jrefrm/


t*Fvdyf(3)bmomjzifhxkwfa0aom/rGefblvufwif (Mon Bulletin)owif;pmudk tjrJwrf;
zwf&Skoljzpfonf// 4if;tjyifaqmif;yg;rsm; a&;om;jyD; Towif;pmodk@ay;ydk@jyD; rdrd.
rGeftrsdK;om;ta&;tjrif t,ltqwkd@udk tcgtm;avSsmfpGm xkwfaz:cJhonf[kod&onf//
edkifbvGifuJhokd@yif nDi,fjzpfaom rGefaomif;at;wkd@ vli,ftkyfpkonfvnf; trsdK;om;
pdwf"gwf trsdK;om; ekdifiHa&;tjrif ekd;=um;vmonf// trsdK;om;ta&;wGif wufwuf=uG=uG
yg0ifaqmif&Gufvm=uonf// 1941-ckeSpfwGif/ rGefazodef;/ rGefaomif;at; (ekdifbvGif.nD)
eSifh wuUodkvf&Sd rGefausmif;om;rsm; pkpnf;jyD;/ rGefvli,ftzGJ@ zGJ@pnf;&ef/ pkdif;jyif;
vm=uonf// rGeftrsdK;om;ta&;wGif/ rGefvli,frsm;vnf; wuf=uGpGm yg0ifvSKyf&Sm;
168 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

vmekdif&ef &nf&G,fonf/trsdK;om;ta&;udk/ &mrnwkdif;vkH;qkdif&mrGeftzGJ@csKyfu OD;aqmifI


aqmif&GufouJhokd@ wzufwvrf;wGifvnf; rGefvli,frsm;onf/ rdrdwkd@eSifhqkdif&m
tcef;u¾rSm/ trsdK;om;ta&;udk yg0ifaqmif&Gufvkd=uonf// &mrnwkdif;vkH; qkdif&m
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nDnGwfpGm=udK;yrf;vm=uonf//

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zufqpfqef@usifa&; trsdK;om;vGwfajrmufa&; vSKyf&Sm;rSKwkd@wGif/ rGefvli,fwkd@onf/
wufwuf=uG=uG yg0ifvSKyf&Sm;cJh=uonf// tcsdK@aom rGefvli,frsm;onf tm&Svli,f
tpnf;t&kH;okd@ 0if=ujyD;/ e,fcsJ@qef@usifa&;/ zufqpf*syef qef@usifa&;wGif &GH@&GH@cGsefcGsef
yg0ifvSKyf&Sm;cJhonf//

ekdfifbvGifonf 'kwd,urBmppf twGif;wGif/ zqyvtzGJ@csKyfeSifh qufoG,frdjyD;/ zufqpf


*syef awmfvSefa&;rSm wuf=uGpGm yg0ifcJhonf// edkfifbvGifeSifh nDtpfudkarmifeSr rsm;onf/
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yg0ifvm=uonf// txl;ojzifh ekdifbvGifeSihf nDi,frsm;jzpfaom/ ekdifbnGef@/ rGefaomif;at;
wkd@onf/ zufqpf*syef awmfvSefa&;wGif wufwuf=uG=uG/ yg0ifvSKyf&Sm; cJh=uonf//
rGefaomif;at;(ekdifbvGif.nD)onf/ qufqpf*syefwkd@tm; oufpGef@=udK;yrf; &GH@&GH@c|efc|ef
awmfvSef&if; zufqpf*syefwkd@. zrf;qD;cH&jyD;/ nSif;qJowfjzwfjcif;udk cHvkduf &onf//
rGefvlrsdK;wkd@. trsdK;om; vGwfajrmufa&; vSKyf&Sm;rSKtwGuf/ rsm;pGmtusdK;jyKekdfifaom
rdrd.nDi,f rGefaomif;at; aoqkH;&onfhtwGuf ekdfifbvGifonf tvGefpdwf rcsrf;ajr@
jzpfrdonf// tpGrf;tp&dSaom nDi,f rGefaomif;at;udk/ ekdifbvGifonf tvGef tm;ukd;
cJhonf// edkfifaomif;at;qkH;&SKH;rSKonf/ rGefwrsdK;om;vkH;.qkH;&SKH;rSKjzpfonf//

'kwd, urBmppf=uD; jyD;qkH;jyD;aemuf/ rGeftrsdK;om;wkd@. trsdK;om;a&; vSKyf&Sm;rSK ydkrdk


oGufvuf vmonf/ acwfynmwwfvli,frsm; yg0ifvmonf// vll=uD;ae&mrsm;wGif/
vli,frsm; tpm;xkd;ae&m,l vmonfudkawG@&onf// 'kwd, urBmppfjyD; aemufykdif;wGif
&mrnwkdif; vkH;qkdif&m rGet
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OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 169

aumvdyfrS ynmwwfausmif;om;rGefvli,frsm;yg0ifvm=uonf// wuUodkvfausmif;om;


jzpfaom rif;xGef;odef;(ekdifxGef;odef;)/rif;aiGodef;(ekdifaiGodef;)wkd@ ygvmonfudkawG@&onf//
topfjyefvnfzGJ@pnf;aom/ &mrnwkdif;vkH;qkdif&mrGeftoif;=uD; tvkyftrSKaqmifrSm
atmufygtwkdif;jzpfonf//

&mrnwkdif;vkH;qkdif&mrGeftoif;=uD;tvkyftrSKaqmif
OuUX ekdifbodef;/
twGif;a&;rSL; ekdifxGef;odef;/
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aiGxdef; edkifcspfaomif;/
,m,DtrSKaqmifrsm;
rGefbkd;csdK/
rGefxGef;&if/
rGefoef;wkd@jzpfvm=u onf//

'kwd,urBmppfjyD;aemuf zGJ@pnf;aom &mrntoif;wGif acwfvli,frsm; yg0ifvm


aomfvnf; toif;. &nf&G,fcsufrsm; rSmvkH;0rajymif;vJbJ/ rlv&nf&G,fcsufrsm; twkdif;
yifjzpfonf// tzGJ@csKyf. zGJ@pnf;ykH tajccHOya'onfvnf; rajymif;vJbJ/ rlvtwkdif;yif
jzpfonf// yk'fr(17)onf rlvtwkdif; wnf&Sdonf// ekdifiHa&;rvkyf&[laom zGJ@pnf;ykH
tajccHOya' yk'fr(17)tm; acwftawG;ac: &Sdolrsm;eSifh acwfynmwwf vli,ftawmf
rsm;rsm;u/ rausrvnf jzpfvm=uonf// xkdtxJwGif rGefzkd;csdK/ rGefoef;/ rGefxGef;&ifponfh
acwftjrif&Sdolrsm;onf xdyfqkH;uyg0ifonf// xkdyk*~dKvfwkd@onf trsdK;om;ekdifiHa&;rSm ydkrdk
wufwuf=uG=uG yg0ifvSKyf&Sm;vkd=uonf// &mrnwkdif;vkH;qkdif&m rGeftoif;=uD;. bmom/
pmay/ ,Ofaus;rSKrSsom/ OD;wnf aqmuf&GufaerSKtay:/ rwif;wdrf/ ra&muf&Jekdif jzpfvm
=uonf//toif;=uD;. vkyfief;pOfwGif/ trsdK;om;ekdifiHa&; vSKyf&Sm;rSKygxnfhoGif; aqmif&Guf
apvkd=uonf//

xkdacwfu rGeftrsdK;om; ekdifiHa&;qkdonfrSm/ rGeftrsdK;om;wkd@. &oifh&xkdufaom/ ekdifiHa&;


tcGifha&;rsm;yifjzpfonf// &Srf;/ u&if/ucsif/csif;vlrsdK;wkd@ &&Sd=uonfhtrsdK;om; ekdifiHa&;
tcGifha&;rsdK;udk awmif;qkd wkdufyGJ0if&efjzpfonf// Todk@aomtrsdK;om; tcGifha&;awmif;
qkdrSKonfyif ekdfifiHa&;jzpfonf// ekdfifiHa&;awmif;qkdcsuf jzpfonf[k &mrntoif;=uD;.
toif;ol/ toifom;wkd@u em;vnfxm;=uonf// trsdK;om;edkfifiHa&;rSm 0ifr&SKyfcsif=u/
a0;a0;aecsif =uonf// tpdk;&. n$ef=um;csuf jzpfaom/ rnfonfh tpdk;&0efxrf;rS/
170 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

ekdfifiHa&;ygwD w&yf&yfwGif rygap&[laom n$e=f um;csufeSifh ndSKpGef;ekdfifonf[k jrif=u


onf// &mrn wkdif;vkH; qkdif&m toif;=uD;wGif trSKaqmifrsm;tjzpf yg0if ae&m,l
xm;olrsm;onf/ tpkd;& 0efxrf;eSifh t&m&Sdrsm; jzpfaeonf// trsdK;om;edkifiHa&;
tcGifha&;rsm;udk wkdufyJ0G if awmif;qkdvSsif/ tpdk;&. jidKjiifrSK cH&rnfudk/ pdk;&drf a=umihfus
[efwlonf// xkdyk*~dKvfwkd@u/ trsdK;om; ekdfifiaH &; vkyfief;pOfrsm;udk toif;=uD; &nf&G,fcsuf
wGif rxnfhoGif;vkd=uay// odk@aomf/ wzufwGif/ ppf=uD;jyD;aemuf/ &mrntzJG@=uD;wGif
tm;opftifopf/ tjrifopf &Sd=uonfh acwfynmwwf vli,frsm;eSihf acwftjrif&Sdaom
olrsm;onf/ tiftm;pk w&yf tjzpf/ ay:ay:vGifvGif xifxif&Sm;&Sm; ay:xGufvmonf//
TwGif a&S@a[mif;tjrif&SdoleSifh acwfopftjrif&Sdolwkd@. 0da&m"d pwifjzpfvmonf[k
qdkedkfifonf//

trsdK;om;edkfifiHa&;Yyg0ifoifh roifhqdkwJhtay: edkifbvGif. cH,lcsufoabmxm; rnfokd@


&Sdonfudk u|efawmfwwfedkiforSs &SmazGavhvmygonf// odk@aomf/ edifbvGif. oabmxm;
twdusudk az:jyxm;aom/ pmapmifpmwef;rsm;udk rawG@&ay// 'gayrJhaemufydkif;wGif
ekdifbvGifonf/ rdrdudk,fwkdifO;D aqmifjyD;/ edkfifiHa&;toif;tzGJ@udk oD;jcm;zGJpnf; xlaxmif
vmonfudk=unfh&Skjcif;tm;jzifh/ edkifbvGifonfvnf;/ &mrnwkdif;vkH;qkdif&mtoif;=uD;.
tajccHzGJ@pnf;ykH yk'rf (17)tay: auseyfvSonf r[kwfa=umif; okH;oyfI&ekdifonf//

&mrntoif;.zGJ@pnf;ykHOya'rS/ ekdifiHa&;rvkyf&[laom zGJ@pnf;ykHtajccH Oya'yk'fr(17)udk/


rauseyfolrsm; wae@wjcm; rsm;jym;vmonf// TtajcaerS aemufqkH;wGif trsdK;om;
ekdifiHa&;udk ay:ay:vGifvGif xifxif&Sm;&Sm; vkyfaqmif vkdolrsm;onf/ tiftm;pkopf
w&yftjzpf ay:xGufvmjyD; xGufayguf &Smvm=uonf// rGeftrsdK;om;a&;twGuf ekdifiHa&;
tzGJ@pnf; w&yftjrefqkH;zGJ@pnf;&ef vkdtyfvmjyD;[kjrif=uonf// rGefedkifiHa&;tzGJ@pnf;w&yf
zGJ@pnf;jyD;/ zqyvtzGJ@csKyfESifh yl;aygif;vkd=uonf// jrefrmhvGwfvyfa&;twGuf zqyv
tzGJ@csKyfeSifh vufwGJwkdufrSom jrefrmhvGwfvyfa&;&vsSif rGeftrsdK;om;twGuf tcGifha&;
&edkifrnf// yk*~dKvfwOD;csif;/ zqyvwGif 0ifa&muf yl;aygif;vkyfudkfifonfxuf tzGJ@pnf;w&yf
zGJ@pnf;jyD; zqyvekdfifiHa&; vSKyf&Sm;rSKwGif yg0ifaqmif&Gufygu rGefvlrsdK;twGuf ykdrdkI
tusdK;&Sdrnf[k rGefbdk;csdKwdk@vlpku jrifvm=uonf// xkda=umifh 1945-ckeSpf ekd0ifbmv
(9)&ufae@wGif/ rGefbkd;csdK OD;aqmifjyD;/ edkifiHa&;udk pdwfyg0ifpm;=uaom rGeftrsdK;om;
tcsdK@wkd@u rGefwkdif;&if;om; tpnf;t&kH;udk A[ef;a&wm&Snf rGefausmif;Y zGJ@pnf;
8
wnfaxmif =uonf//

8
1958-1962/jrefrmedkifiHa&;/pm/260/
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 171

rGew
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OuUX rGefbkd;csdK
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b¾ma&;rSL; edkfifvSausmf(rGeform;awmf=uD;)
pm&if;ppfrSL; edkiftkH;az(rduvkH)
0g'jzef@csDa&;rSL; rGefxGef;&if;/ekdfifcsrf;rGef(&[ef;b0)

trSKaqmifrsm;
edkifarmif=uD;
edkifpHnGef@
edkifa&$=udKif
edkifbcspf(armfvjrdKif)
edkifboGif(aumheSyf)
rGefcspfaz
edkifausmf0if;
edkifxGef;atmif

wkd@jzpf=uonf// tzJG@pnf;. &nf&G,fcsufrSm/ rGefwrsKd ;omvkH;eSifh ywfoufaom/ ekdifiHa&;/


omoema&;/aea&; xkdifa&;/ jyKjyifa&; udprP sm;/ jy\emt&yf&yfwkd@udk wyfOD;rSaeI/
aqmif&Guf oGm;&efjzpfonf// rGefwkdif;&if;om;tpnf;t&kH;onf zqyvtzGJ@csKyfeSifh
qufoGk,fjyD;/ ekdifiHa&;vSKyf&Sm;rSKwGif yg0ifvmonf// rGefbdk;csdKeSifh rGefoef;wkd@onf/ zqyv
trSKaqmifrsm;jzpfvmonf//

xkdodk@ rGefzdk;csdKeSifhrGefoef;wkd@eSpfOD;/ zqyvtzGJ@pnf;wGif yg0ifonfhudpPonf/ &mrn wdkif;vkH;


qkdif&m toif;=uD;Y tvGefyif *,uf&kdufoGm;onf// toif;wGif tjyif;xef tajctwif
aqG;aEG;&rnfh ta&;=uD;aom ta=umif;&mw&yf jzpfvmonf// 1946-ckeSpfrwfv/
aoG;aq;uef rGefausmif;wkduf ausmif;opfwGif usif;yaom &mrn wkdif;vkH;qkdif&mrGeftzGJ@
nDvmcHrS/ rGefzkd;csdKeSifhrGefoef;udpPudk tajctwifaqG;aEG;=uonf// TtzJG@csKyfnDvmcHodk@/
oxkHc&kdif/ armfvjrdKifjrdK@e,f/ rk'kHjrdK@e,f/ usdKufra&mjrdK@e,f/ acsmif;qkH/a&;/ usdKufcrDjrdK@e,frS
udk,fpm;vS,faygif;(300)ausmf wufa&mufvm=uonf// nDvmcH. obmywdtjzpf/
edkifbodef;aqmif&GufjyD; tcrf;em;rSL;tjzpf ekdfifaiGodrf;uaqmif&Gufonf// toif;.
tajccHOya' yk'fr(17)yg &nf&G,fcsuftwkdif; tzGJ@0ifwOD;onf/ edkifiHa&;rvkyfaqmif&
[laomrludk/ tacstwif av;av;eufeuf aqG;aEG;=uonf// Tyk'fr (17)udk jyifqifoifh/
rjyifqifoifheSihf ywfoufjyD;/ eSpfzufpvkH;rS rdrdwdk@tjrifrsm;udk/ ckdifcdkifvkHvkH wifjyaqG;aEG;
172 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

=uonf// &mrntzGJ@csKyf. trSKaqmiftzGJ@onf/ tpkd;&t&m&Sd/0efxrf;rsm;omjzpf=uonf//


tpkd;&0efxrf;rsm;/ ekdfifiHa&;vkyfoifh/ rvkyfoifhqkdaom tcsufay: tav;teuf aqG;aEG;
=uonf// aemufqkH;wGif/ a&S@rltwkdif; toif;=uD;tm;/ trsdK;bmom/ omoem/ pmay/
,Ofaus;rSK/ okckravmufom vkyaf qmifapvkdonf// ekdifiHa&;eSifh uif;uif;&Sif;&Sif; &Sdapvkd
olrsm;bufrS tm;omoGm;onf// toif;. tajccHOya' yk'fr(17)udk xyfrH twnfjyK
jyefonf/ xkd@a=umifh zqyvtzGJ@wGifyg0ifjyD;/ ekdifiHa&;vkyfvkdonfh/ rGefbkd;csdK/ rGefoef;/
rGefxGef;&ifwkd@udk &mrnwkdif;vkH;qkdif&mrGeftoif;=uD;rS ekwfxGufapcJhonf//

&mrn wkdif;vkH;qdkif&m tzJG@csKyf. nDvmcH/ 'kwd,ae@wGif atmufaz:jyyg/ &mrnwdkif;vkH;


qkdif&mtzGJ@csKyf. trSKaqmifopfudk a&G;aumuf wifajrSmuf=u onf//

&mrn wkdif;vkH;qdkif&m tzJG@csKyf/


tvkyftrSKaqmif/

OuUX edkifbodef;
tusdK;aqmiftwGif;a&;rSL; ekdifaiGodrf;
wGJbuf/tusdK;aqmiftwGif;a&;rSL; ekdifyef;vS

trSKaqmifrsm;
q&mOD;
OD;xGef;rif;/
OD;aiGckdif
OD;jrwfxGef;(or0g,r)
OD;armifuav;
paomyk*~dKvfrsm;yg0ifonf/
pnf;&kH;a&;rSL;rsm;
ekdifvSarmif(aumheSyf) weoFm&Dwkdif;
ekdifbvGif weoFm&Dwkdif;
edkif,s oxkHc&dkif
EdkifxGef;&if oxkHc&dkif
Ekdifb=udK oxkHc&dkif
Ekdifom[ef oxkHc&kdif
EkdifomeSif; armfvjrdKifc&dkif
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 173

rd[Hom armffvjrdKifc&dkif
OD;tkef;az armfvjrdKifc&dkif
EkdifpdefxGef;(zJuwm) armfvjrdKifc&dkif

wkd@tm;a&G;cs,fwm0efay;=uonf//4if;nDvmcHrSmatmufygtqdkrsm;udkqkH;jzwf=uonf//

(1) rGefygVd yxrjyef pmar;yGJwGif/ rGefoHCmawmftwGuf/ rGefbmomjzifhf ar;cGef;xkwf


ay;&ef//
(2) rGefa'o&Sd rlvwef;ausmif;rsm;wGif/ rGefbmomudkwpfbmomtjzpf/ oifcGifhjyK&ef//
(3) rGebf vl ufwiftjyif/ rGerf vl wef;twGuf/ zwfpmrsm; xkwf&ef/ 4if;udpPudk
t&Sif0g,r tm; wm0efv$Jtyf&ef wkd@jzpfonf//

edkfifbvGifonf/ t*Fvdyf a&wyftrSKxrf;b0rS/ 'kwd, urBmppf=uD;twGif;wGif/ tjyD;tydkfif


xGufvkdufjyD;aemuf rGeftrsdK;om; ekdifiHa&;vSKyf&Sm;rSKwGif tjynfht0 yg0ifvSKyf&Sm;vmonf
udk avhvmawG@&Sd&onf// rGeftrsdK;om;wkd@onf ekd;=um;wuf=uGvmjyD;/ rGeftrsdK;om;
ekdifiHa&; vSKyf&Sm;rSKonfvnf; t&Sdeft[kef&vmonf// rGeftrsdK;om; acgif;aqmifrsm;Y
trsdK;om; ekdifiHa&;todw&m; ekd;=um; wuf=uGvmouJhokd@ wzufwGif rGefvli,frsm;
onfvnf;/ trsdK;om; ekdifiHa&;tjrif edk;=um;xufjrufvmonf// trsdK;om;ta&;wGif
ekdf;=um;wuf=uGpGm yg0ifvm=uonf// trsdK;om;ekid fiHa&; vSKyf&Sm;rSKwGif rdrdwdk@vli,frsm;
onfvnf;/ wwwfwtm; wcef;wu¾taejzihf/ ay:ay:vGifvGif yg0ifvSKyf&Sm;&ef vkdtyf
onf[k jrifvm=uonf//

1946-ckeSpfwGif&efukef&Sd ynmwwfrGefvli,frsm;jzpf=uaom/ wuUodkvfausmif;om;/pma&;


pmcsDrsm;pkpnf;jyD;/ rGefvli,ftzGJ@udk&efukefjrdK@wGifzGJ@pnf;=uonf//

rGefvli,ftvkyftrSKaqmiftzGJ@
OuUX rGefpHvSKdif
'kOuUX rGefbvkH
taxGaxGtwGif;a&;rSL; rGefpdefxGef;atmif
trSKaqmifrsm;
rGefpHvS
ekdifaiGodrf;
rGefjrwfxGef;
paomrGefvli,frsm;jzifhrGefvli,ftzGJ@w&yfudkzGJ@cJh=uonf//
174 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

tzGJ@.&nf&G,fcsufrsm;
(1) rGefvli,frsm;Avig;wefzG@HjzdK;&ef//
(2) rGeftrsdK;om;wkd@. pmay/ ,Ofaus;rSK wkd;wufa&;udk wwyfwtm;jzifh/ yg0if
aqmif&Guf&efwkd@jzpfonf//
yxrt=udrfrGefvli,fnDvmcHudkarmfvjrdKifjrdK@wGifusif;yekdifcJhonf//

&mrn wkdif;vkH;qkdif&m rGeftoif;=uD;eSihf vrf;cGJjyD;/ rGefwkdif;&if;om; tpnf;t&kH;onf/


trsdK;om;ekdifiHa&;vSKyf&Sm;rSKwGif/ ykdrdkoGufvufpGm vkyfaqmifvmonf// 1946-ckeSpfukefcgeD;
wGif rGefwdkif;&if;om;tpnf;t&kH;nDvmcHudk usdKuQrDc&kdifyi&GmwGif usif;yonf// nDvmcHokd@
rGeftrsdK;om; trsm;tjym;wufa&mufcJh=uonf// txl;ojzifh/ urm0ufrS rGeftrsdK;om;
acgif;aqmifrsm;eSifh yirSrGeftrsdK;om; acgif;aqmifrsm; wuf=uGpGm yg0ifvm=uonfudk
awG@&onf// 4if;rGefwkdfif;&if;om; tpnf;t&kH;nDvmcHrS atmufygt"du qkH;jzwfcsuf
eSpf&yfudk csrSwfcJh=uonf//
1 omoemouU&mZf 1116- ckepS w f yd@k wGJ vjynfhausmf(1)&ufae@ orv/ 0drv
nDaemifeSpfyg;wkd@[Hom0wDjrdk@udk pwifxlaxmifaomae@udk,ljyD; eSpfpOfwydk@wGJ
vjynfhausmf(1)&ufae@udkrGeftrdsK;om;ae@tjzpfowfrSwf&ef//
2 vmrnfha&G;aumufyJw G Gif/ rGeftrsdK;om;rsm;tm; tjcm;aom&Srf;/ u&ifpaom
wkdif;&if;om;rsm; uJhokd@ oD;jcm;rJpm&if; oD;jcm;rJqENe,f owfrSwfay;&ef//
tu,fIzqyvurjyKvkyfay;vSsif a&G;aumufyGJudk oydwfarSmuf&ef//9

txufygqkH;jzwfcsufrsm;udk taumiftxnfaz:aqmif&Gufekdif&eftwGuf/ rGefwkdif;&if;om;


tpnf;t&kH;. A[kdtvkyftrSKaqmiftzJG@udkvnf;a&G;cs,fcJh=uonf//

A[kdtvkyftrSKaqmiftzGJ@

rGefbdk;csdK OuUX/
edkifatmifxGef;(yi) 'kOuUX/
rGefoef; taxGaxGtwGif;a&;rSL;/
ekdifcsrf;rGef(urm0uf) wGJbuftaxGaxGtwGif;a&;rSSL;/
edkifrGefaxmf(q&m[kd/urm0uf) jyef=um;a&;eSihf0g'jzef@csDa&;rSL;

9
/1958-1962/jrefrmedkifiHa&;/pm/261
HDR: X/9 AP/ 1990.
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 175

pnf;&kH;a&;rSL;rsm;
rGefxGef;&if/(urm0uf)
q&medkifbdk;pdef/(urm0uf)
edkifxGef;cif/(urm0uf)
ekdifatmifvSaiG(urm0uf)

wkd@yg0if=uonf//
yi˜nDvmcHrS qkH;jzwfcsufeSifhtnD rGefbdk;csdKacgif;aqmifaom rGefwkdif;&if;om; tpnf;t&kH;rS
rGefacgif;aqmifrsm;wkd@onf/ rGeftrsdK;om;rsm;twGufoD;jcm;rJpm&if;/oD;jcm;rJqENe,fay;&ef
zqyvtzJG@csKyfokd@wifjy awmif;qkd =uonf//

Tokd@ &mrn wkdif;vkH;qkdif&mtzGJ@cskKyfeSifh/ rGefwkdif;&if;om; tzGJ@csKyfwkd@. trsdK;om; ekdifiHa&;


vSKyf&Sm;rSK tvGeftm;aumif;/ t&Sdef&vmonf// 4if;tjyif edkifbvGifeSifh tcdsK@aom
rGeftrsdK;om;acgif;aqmifwkd@onf/ rdrdwkd@wifjy awmif;qdkaom/ trsdK;om;ekdfifiHa&;awmif;qkd
csufrsm;atmifjrifekdifa&;twGuf/ tjcm;b0wl vlrsdK;pktzGJ@pnf;rsm;udk &SmazGI r[mrdwfzGJ@
pnf;oifha=umif; jrif=uonf// txl;ojzifh edkfifbvGifonf/ u&iftrsdK;om;rsm;eSifh
r[mrdwfzGJ@ pnf;&ef txl;pdwf0ifpm;cJhonf// c&pf,mef; *kd%f;csKyf=uD;/ bD;a&Smh(yf)0uf(pf)
zdwf=um;ojzifh/AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;onf/vSKdif;bJG@jrdK@e,f uy`vD&Gmodk@ 1946-ckepf/ 'DZbFmv
(20)&ufae@wGif oGm;a&mufjyD; (21)&ufae@wGif/ u&ifacgif;aqmifrsm;eSifh awG@qkHaqG;aEG;
=uonf// 4if;awG@qkH aqG;aEG;yGJokd@ u&iftrsdK;om; acgif;aqmifrsm; zdwf=um;csuft&/
rGeftrsdK;om; acgif;aqmifrsm;jzpfaom/ edkifbvGif/ ekdifa&$csdefeSifh rGefpdefxGef;(zJuwm)wkd@onf/
rGeftrsdK;om; ukd,fpm;vS,ftjzpf wufa&mufcJhonf// rGef-u&if cspf=unfa&; udk
wnfaqmufcJhonf//10

Tokd@ rGeftrsdK;om; acgif;aqmifrsm;onf/ tzufzufrS/ jyifqifrSKjyKvkyfjyD;/ trsdK;om;


awmif;qkdcsufrsm;ukd =udK;yrf;vmcJhonf// xkdpOf rGefwkdif;om;tpnf;t&kH;. wifjyawmif;qkd
aom/ rGefvlrsdK;twGufoD;jcm;rJpm&if;/oD;jcm;rJqENe,f awmif;qkdcsufwkd@udk/ aemufqkH;wGif/
zqyvtzJG@csKyfrS y,fcsvkdufonf// rGefeSifhArmonf twlwlbJ [laom/ tjrif0g'&SdcJhonf//
rGefeSifhArmonf cGJjcm;Ir&/ wom;wnf;jzpfonf// vlrsdK;wrsdK;wnf;jzpfonf// rGefvlrsdK;
taejzifh/xl;xl;jcm;jcm;tcGifha&;awmif;p&mrvkd/Armrsm;eSifh wef;wl tcGifha&;&&Sdedkifonf[k
jrifxm;onf// xkda=umifh rGefvlrsdK;wkd@. awmif;qkdcsufudk zqyvtzGJ@csKyfrS y,fcsvkduf
onf//

10
rGeftrsdK;om;wkd@.aemufcHordkif;/pm/62/
176 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

1947-ckeSpf{jyDv(9)&ufwGif usif;yrnfh wkdif;jyKjynfjyK v$wfawmfa&G;aumufyGJwGif rGefwdk@


twGuf/ oD;jcm;rGeftrwf/ oD;jcm;rJqENe,fay;&ef rGefvlrsdK;wkd@ awmif;qkdcsufudk
zqyvtzGJ@csKyfrS z,fcsvkdufonfhtay:/ rGefwkdif;&if;om; acgif;aqmifrsm;onf vkH;0
ra=ueyf=uacs// wqifh wufI rnfodk@ edkfifiHa&;jyefvnf xkd;eSuf&rnfudk t=uHxkwf
vmonf// rdrdwkd@ yinDvmcHwGif qkH;jzwfcsufjzpfaom (rGeftwGufoD;oef@rJpm&if;/
oD;jcm;rJqENe,f)r&vSsif a&G;aumufyGJudk oydwfarSmufrnf[laom/ qkH;jzwfcsufudk
rnfokd@qufvuf aqmif&Guf&rnfudk pOf;pm;&eftvkyftrSKaqmif tpnf;ta0; ac:,l
onf// xdktvkyftrSKaqmif tpnf;ta0;wGif/ rGefxGef;&ifu/ yiqkH;jzwfcsufjzpfaom/
rGefwkd@twGuf (oD;oef@rJpm&if; oD;oef@ rJqENe,f) r&vSsif oydwfarSmuf rnf[laom/
qkH;jzwfcsufudk jyifqifI a&G;aumufyJ0G ifoifhonf[k t=uHjyKvmonf// xkdokd@jyifqifcsuf
t& a&G;aumufyJG 0ifjyD;vSsif/ xkdjyifqifcsufudk tvkyftrSK aqmifaumfrwDrS/ teD;uyfqkH;
aom tpnf;t&kH;. nDvmcHwGif wifoGif;twnfjyKcsuf,l&ef wifjyvmonf// OuUX
rGefzdk;csdKeSifhtrsm;pku/ rGefxGef;&if.tqkdudk tav;teufpOf;pm;=uonf// tvkyftrSKaqmif
tpnf;a0;wGif/ edkfifxGef;&if. tqkdudk tjyeftvSef tav;teuf aqG;aEG;=u jyD;aemuf
vufrcH=ubJ trsm;qENjzifh y,fcsvkdufonf// yiqkH;jzwfcsuftwdkif;/ oydwfarSmuf&ef
qkH;jzwf=uonf// rGefvlrsdK;wkd@eSifh ywfoufjyD; zqyvtzGJ@csKyf. qkH;jzwfcsufudk uef@uGuf
aomtm;jzifh/ rGefbkd;csdKtm;/ zqyvtzJG@csKyf trSKaqmiftjzpfrS ekwfxGuf&ef wkdif;&if;om;
tpnf;t&kH;rS qkH;jzwf vkdufonf//

rGefwkdif;&if;om; tpnf;&kH;onf/ wkdif;jyKjynfjyK v$wfawmf a&G;aumufyJGudk oydwfarSmuf


onf[k xyfrHtwnfjyK ausjimjyD;/ zqyvtzGJ@csKyfrS 1947-ckazaz:0g&v D wGif ekwfxGuf
vkdufonf// a&G;aumufyJu G dk oydwfarSmufonfhudpPa=umifh/ rGefwkdif; &if;om;tpnf;&kH;wGif/
tjrifeSpf&yfjzpfay:vmonf// tiftm;pkeSpfpk uGJvmonf// tiftm;wpku a&G;aumufyGJudk
jywfjywfom;om; oydwfarSmufvkd=uolrsm;eSifh tjcm;tiftm;pkwpkrSm yiqkH;jzwfcsufudk
jyifqifjyD;/ a&G;aumufyJw G Gif yg0ifvdk=uolrsm;jzpfonf// a&G;aumufyJw G Gif yg0ifvkd=u
olrsm;rSm/ rGefxGef;&if/ rGefoef;eSifh jrdK@e,facgif;aqmif rGefcifarmif(a&;)wkd@ tkyfpkjzpfonf//
rGefoef;eSifhtzGJ@onf/ rGefbdk;csdKwdk@tkyfpkeSifh oabmuGJvJjG yD;/ rGefwkdif;&if;om; tpnf;t&kH;rS
ekwfxGufvkduf=uonf// aemufwGif rGefoef;eSifhtzGJ@url/ rGefvlrsdK;wkd@. tusdK;pD;yGm;ukd
tumtuG,f ay;rnfh awmif;qkdcsufrsmudk/ wkdif;jynfjyK v$wfawmfwGifom/ awmif;qkd
wifjy ta&;qkdoGm;&ef qEN&Sdvm=uonf//

wkdif;jyKjynfjyK v$wfawmf a&G;aumufyJG rusif;yrDS/ rGefwkdif;&if;om; tpnf;t&kH;u


a&G;aumufyGJrsm;udk oydwfarSmuf&ef vSK@HaqmfcJh=uonf// rGefwkdif;&if;om; tpnf;t&kH;
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 177

acgif;aqmif rGefbkd;cdsKonf usdKuQrdc&kdiftwGif;okd@ vSnfhvnf oGm;a&mufum xkda'o&Sd


rGeftrsdK;om;wkd@tm;/ wkdif;jyK/jynfjyK v$wfawmf a&G;aumufyGJrsm;udk/ oydwfarSmuf&ef
wkdufwGef; cJhonf// rGefwkdif;&if;om;tpnf;t&kH;rS/ wkdkif;jyKjynfjyKvGwfawmf a&G;aumufyJGukd
oydwfarSmufonfh *,ufonf/ rGeftrsdK;om;wkd@ t=um;wGif &kdufcuf vmonf//
oydwfarSmufonfhtwGuf/ rnfokd@aom/ tusdK;oufa&mufrSK &Sdrnfukd a0zefokH; oyf=u
onf// oydwfarSmufonfudk xda&mufatmif taumiftxnfaz:&ef pOf;pm;=uonf//
rGefwkdif;&if;om;tpnf;&kH; acgif;aqmifrGefzkd;csdK. oabmxm;rSm/ a&G;aumufyJGudk
oydwfarSmuf&kH oufoufomjzpfonf// a&$;aumufyGJwGif/ rGefwkdif;&if;om;tpnf;t&kH;rS
vkH;0ryg&kHom jzpfonf// bmrSaxGaxGxl;xl; vkyfp&mrvkd[kqkdonf// rGefvlrsdK;wkd@twGuf
oD;jcm;rJqENe,f ray;ojzifh/ a&G;aumufyGJudk oydwfarSmufonfudk/ rGefvlxktm;vkH;u
vufcH=uonf// okd@aomf a&G;aumufyGJwGif ryg0if&kHoufoufjzpfaom/ a&G;aumufyGJ
jyifyYaejyD; xdkifoydwf arSmufjcif;onf/ rGeftrsdK;om;wkd@twGuf tusdK;rrsm;edkif[k
,kH=unfolrsm;&Sdvmonf//

rGefvlrsdK;wdk@twGuf oD;jcm;rJqENe,f/ oD;jcm;rJpm&if; awmif;qkdonfudk ekdifbvGifonf


vkH;0axmufcHoabmwlcJhonf// rGefwkdif;&if;tpnf;t&kH;. awmif;qkdcsuftay:/ zq/yv/
tzGJ@csKyfrS y,fcscJhonfudkvnf; vkH;0rauseyfacs// okd@aomf rGefzkd;csdK oabmxm;uJhokd@/
wkdif;jyKjynfjyKv$wfawmf a&G;aumufyJGudk xkdifoydwfarSmuf&kHoufouf/ rloabmxm;tm;/
odyfhoabmrusvSacs// &mrnwkdif;vkH;qkdif&mtzGJ@csKyf. weoFm&Dwkdif; pnf;&kH;a&;rSL;
rsm;jzpfol edkifvSarmifeSifh ekdfifbvGifwkd@url/ xkdifoydwfarSmuf uef@uGufjcif;oufoufonf/
rnfokd@rSstusdK;r&Sdedkif/ zqyvtzGJ@.rludkuef@uGufaomtaejzifh/ zqyveSifh,SOfjydKifjyD;
a&G;aumufyJGwGif yg0ifoifhonf[kjrifonf//edkifvSarmifeSifhedkfifbvGifonf/ weoFm&Dwkdif;wGif
pnf;&kH;a&;qif;&if;/ wkdkif;jyKjynfjyK vGwfawmf a&G;aumufyGJtay: rGefvlxk. oabmqENudk
ar;jref;qkH;prf; cJhonf// rGejf ynfolvlxk. oabmxm;rSm atmufygtwkdif;jzpfonf//

“wkdkif;jyKjynfjyK vGwfawmfonf/ jrefrmjynf. tem*wfudk qkH;jzwfrnfh vGwfvyfaom


jynfaxmifpk jrefrmedkfifiHawmf zGJ@pnf;tkyfcsKyfykH tajccH Oya'a&;qGJ twnfjyKrnfh
vGwfawmfjzpfojzifh/ rGet f rsKd ;om;rsm;onf/ 4if;wkdkif;jyKjynfjyKvGwfawmf a&G;aumufyGJ
wGif rGeftrsdK;om; udk,fpm;vS,ftaejzifh &Sd&efvkdtyfonf// okd@aomfzqyvtzGJ@csKyfu
rGet
f rsKd ;om; trwftaejzifh 0ifa&mufekdif&ef rGefwkdfi;f &if;om;tpnf;t&kH;u awmif;qkd
csufudky,fcsojzifh/ 4if;v$wfawmfwGif rGeu f dk,fpm;vS,frsm; yg0ifedkif&ef taumif;qkH;
enf;vrf;rsm;/ a&G;aumufyGJwGif zqyveSihf ,SOjf ydKifta&G;cH&efom&Sda=umif; oabm
ayguf em;vnf qENwlnD=uonf//”
178 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

1947-ckeSpfwdkif;jynfjyKvGwfawmf a&G;aumufyGJ rwkdifrSDtxd/ edkifbvGifonf oxkHc&dkif


aygifjrdK@e,f/jrdK@e,f/z/q/yv/ OuUXtjzpfwm0ef,laqmif&GufcJhonf// okd@aomfrGeftrsKd;om;
wdk@twGuf oD;jcm;rJpm&if; oD;jcm;rJqENe,f ray;ojzifh/ uef@uGufaom tm;jzifh
a&G;aumufyGJ rwdkifrSDuav;wGif/ zqyvrS tjyD;tydkifekwfxGufcJhonf//11

1947-ckeSpfatjyDv(9)&ufae@wGif usif;yrnfh/ wkdif;jyKjynfjyKvGwfawmf a&G;aumufyGJwiG /f


zqyvtzGJ@csKyfrS wifoGif;aom trwfrsm;eSifhtjydKif wkdif;jyKjynfjyK v$wfawmf
a&G;aumufyGJwGif yk*~vdu rGeftrwfrsm; yg0if,SOfjydKif&ef qkH;jzwf=uonf// rGeftrsdK;om;
tcsif;csif;=um;wGif/ pdwf0rf; ruGJavatmif a&G;aumufyGJudk oydwfarSmufaom
rGefwkdif;&if;om; tpnf;t&kH;rS acgif;aqmifrsm;eSifh edkifbvGifwkd@ wkdifyifnSdeSdKif;jyD;rS/
a&G;aumufyGJ 0ifcJh=uonf[kod&onf//

1947-ckeSpf{jyDv(9)&ufwGif wkdif;jynfjyK vGwfawmf a&G;aumufyJuG dk usif;ycJ@onf//


xkdusif;yaomwkdif;jynfjyKvGwf awmfa&G;aumufyGJwGif/ atmufyg rGeftrsdK;om; trwf
avmif;rsm; yg0if,SOfjydKifcJh=uonf//

oxkHta&S@ydkfif;rJqENe,f
rGefOD;,s(aygif)
ekdifbvGif(aygif)
usdKuQrDc&kdif
ekdfifvSarmif/
edkifomeSif;/(edkifvSarmif.nD)
rGefpdefxGef;(uanSmf)
rGefaiGcdkif

ponfhyk*~dKvfwkd@jzpfonf/ txufygyk*~dKvfwkd@onf/ rGeftrsdK;om; trwfavmif; taejzifh/


zqyvrS wifoGif;aom trwfavmif;rsm;eSifh wkdif;jyKjynfjyK v$wfawmf a&G;aumufyGJwGif
,SOfjydKifcJhonf// zqyvtzJG@csKyftzGJ@0if/ jynfol@&JabmfygwDeSifh qdk&S,fvpfygwDwdk@u/
rJqEN&Sif rGefjynfolrsm;udk/ enf;rsKd;pkHjzifh/ jcdrf;acsmuf cJ@onf// rJray;ekdfifatmif enf;rsdK;pkHjzifh
rGefvlxkudk taeSmuf,SufjyK [ef@wm;cJ@=uonf// vkdufvH aeSmuf,Suf zsufqD;onf//
xkda=umifh a&G;aumufyJw G Gif rGeftrsKd;om; trwfrsm; wOD;wa,mufr# tedkifr&&Sdcb Jh J/

11
Mon Nationalism and Civil War In Burma.P.104
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 179

qkH;&SKH;cJh=uonf// vGwfvyfpGm/ pnf;&kH;jyD;/ vGwfvGwf vyfvyfrJay; edkfifcJhygrl/ rGeftrwfrsm;/


txdkfuftavSsmuf tekdif&efkdifonf[k edkifbvGiu f qkdonf// rGefwkdif;&if;om; tpnf;t&kH;rS
ekwfxGufvkdufaom/ rGefxGef;&ifeSifhjrdK@e,facgif;aqmif rGefcifarmif(a&;)wdk@onf wkdif;jyK
jynfjyKv$wfawmf a&G;aumufyGJwGif yg0if,SOfjyKdifonf// rGefxGef;&ifonf zqyvtrwf
jzpfvmonf// wkdif;jynfjyKv$wfawmfwGif/ vGwfawmf 'k-OuUXjzpfvmonf// rGefcifarmif
onf/ a&;jrdK@e,f trwfjzpfvmonf// a&G;aumufyJjG yD;aemuf/ rGefoef;/ rGefxGef;&ifwkd@
acgif;aqmifjyD;/ rGeftrsdK;om;tzGJ@csKyfac: tzGJ@wpfzJ@G udk zGJ@pnf;=uonf// aemifwGif
jynfaxmifpkrGeftzGJ@[kemrnfwGifvmonf//

jynfaxmifpkrGeftzGJ@
rGefoef; OuUX
rGefoef;armif/ twGif;a&;rSL;
trSKaqmifrsm;
rGefxGef;&if/
rGefa':eSif;
wkd@jzpfonf//

jynfaxmifpkrGeftzJ@G onf/ zqyvtzGJ@twGif; yg0ifcJh=uonf// rGefoef;onf/ zqyv


y%mrnDvmcHwGif/ A[kdOD;pD;tzGJ@ 0ifwpfOD;tjzpfvnf;aumif;/ tajccHOya'rl pDppfa&;
(111)OD; aumfrwD0iftjzpf4if;/ yg0ifaqmif&GufcJhonf//

a&G;aumufyGJwGif &SKH;edkyhfoGm;aom ekdifbvGifonf/ zqyvwkd@. npfnrf;rSKudk udkf,fawG@


=uKH/ cHpm;vkduf&onf// Armwkd@.=uD;pdk;r_/ tekdifusifhr_wdk@udk rcHedkifI edkfifbvGifonf/
(zdv#if=uGrnf/ xdv#ifcsrnf/ 'kd@rcHbl;a[)h qkdaom pdwf"gwfjzifh trsK;dom;ekdifiHa&;
v_yf&Sm;r_wGif ykdrdkwuf=uGpGm yg0if aqmif&Gufvmonf// trsKd;om; bmom,Ofaus;r_udk
om/ tm&kHjyK aqmif&Gufaeaom/ &mrn wkdif;vkH;qkdif&m rGeftzGJ@csKyfrS/ vrf;cJGxGufjyD;/
trsKd;om;edkifiHa&;udk/ ykdrdkvGwfvyf wuf=uGpGm/ aqmif&Gufekdifa&;twGuf/ rGefvGwfvyfa&;
tzGJ@udk OD;aqmifzGJ@pnf;cJhonf//

rGefvGwfvyfa&;tzGJ@tvkyt f rSKaqmif/
edkifbvGif OuUX
edkfifpHol/ twGif;a&;rSL;
ekdifb=udk/ trSKaqmif
ekfifxGef;&if(aygif)/ trSKaqmif
180 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

wkd@yg0ifvm=uonf// tzGJ@.&nf&G,fcsufrSm/ rGefvlrsKd;wdk@. udk,fydkifjyXmef;cGifh[laom


ekdifiHa&;tm%mudk &,lekdifa&;twGuf ekdifiHa&;enf;jzifh t&SdefjrSifhIwkdufyGJ 0ifoGm;&efjzpf
onf// rGeftrsKd;om;wkd@.ekdifiHa&; todw&m;jrifhrm;a&;udk a&S@S&_I/ weoFm&D owif;pmudk/
edkifbvGifu t,f'DwmcsKyftjzpffjzifh wm0ef,l/=uD;=uyfxkwfa0cJhonf//

wdkif;jyKjynfjyKvSGwfawmf a&G;aumufyJaG emufydkif;wGif/ rGefwkd@onf/ ekdifiHa&; awmif;qkdcsuf


rsm;udk csrSwfjyD;t&Sdefwkd;jrSifh wkdufyGJ0if awmif;qkdvmonfudk awG@&onf// rGefwkdif;&if;om;
tpnf;t&kH;rS yk*~dKvfrsm;jzpfaom/ ekdifatmifxGef;/q&mrGefbkd;pdef/ ekdifcsrf;rGef/rGefq&m[kdeSifh/
rGefvGwfvyfa&;tzGJ@rS yk*~dKvfrsm;jzpfaom/ edkfifvSarmif/ ekdfifbvGif/ ekdifpHol tyg0ifwkd@onf/
ylaygif;jyD; trsdK;om;awmif; qkdcsuf(7)csufudk a&;qGJ=uonf// 1947/12ckeSpftwGif;
armfvjrdKifjrdK@/ usdKufokwfbk&m;&ifjyifY rGeftrsdK;om;nDvmcHw&yfudk ac:,lusif;ycJhonf//
rGeftzJG@aygif;pkHrS ukd,fpm;vS,frsm; tpnf;ta0;odk@ wufa&mufvm=uonf// T
tpnf;ta0;=uD;rS trsdK;om;awmif;qkdcsuf(7)csufudk wnDwnGwfwnf twnfjyK
qkH;jzwfcJhj=uonf// rGeftrsdK; om;wkd@onftrsdK;om; ekdifiHa&;udkt&SdefjrSifhaom oabmjzihf/
trsKd;om;awmif;qdkcsuf(7)csufudk bk&ifcHtr_aqmiftzGJ@tpdk;&eSifh zqyvtzGJ@csKyfxHokd@
wifjy awmif;qkdvkdufonf// 4if;(7)csufrSmatmufygtwdkif;jzpfonf//

rGeftrsdK;om;wdk@.awmif;qdkcsuf(7)csuf//

1/ tpkd;&yxrjyefpmar;yGJrsm;wGif/rGefoHCmawmfrsm;twGufykp>mrsm;udk rGefbmom
jzifh / ar;jref;&efeSifh rGefygVdyxrjyefaumfrwDwckzGJ@ay;yg&ef//
2/ rGefe,frsm;&Sd/rlvwef;ausmif;rsm;wGif/rGefpmudkoif=um;cGi@f ay;&efeSifh rGeyf nma&;
twGuf/ &HykHaiGoD;oef@udk tkyfcsKyfpDrHekdifonf@ rGefynma&; bkwftzGJ@wck zGJ@pnf;
ay;yg&ef//
3/ rGerf sm;aexkdif=uaom/ c&kdif/jrdK@e,fa'orsm;&Sd/ tpkd;&Xme toD;oD;wkd@wGi/f
rGeftrsdL;om; tpkd;&trSKxrf; t&mxrf;rsm; cef@tyfae&mcsxm;ay;yg&ef//
4/ f rsKd ;om;wkd@twGuf/ oD;oef@rJpm&if;jyKvkyfI/ v$wfawmfwGif tcsdK;us
rGet
vlO;D a& t&oD;oef@ rGefe,fudk,fpm;vS,ftrwfrsm;ay;yg&ef//
5/ tm%meSifhjynf@pkHaom/ rGefa&;&maumifpDw&yfudk zGJ@pnf;ay;yg&ef//
6/ tjcm;wkdif;&if;om;enf;wl/ A[kdtpkd;&. vufatmufcH rGet f rsdK;om;
ppfwyfrsm;/ zGJ@pnf;ay;yg&ef//

12
1982-1962/jrefrmhekdifiHa&;/pm/262/
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 181

7/ rdrdwkd@uH=urRmudk rdrdwkd@zefwD;a&;twGuf/ =uddK;yrf;=uaom/ rGefvlrsdK;pktm;/


tjcm;vlrsKd ;pkenf;wlvGwfvyfpGm ajymqkda&;om;pnf;&kH;/ qENjyekdifcGifhrsm; ay;
yg&ef//

(txuyfyg awmif;qkdcsuf(7)csufonfreG fwkd@.aemufco H rkdif;pmtkyfrSmaz:jyxm;onf@


twkdif;ul;,laz:jyxm;jcif;jzpfonf/)
rGeftrsdK;om;wkd@. aemufcHordkif;pmtkyfwGifyg&Sdaom/ awmif;qkdcsufrsm;onf/ tpkd;&
rSwfwrf;Yyg&Sdaom/ awmif;qkdcsufrsm;eSifh tenf;i,f uGJjym;jcm;em; aeonfudk
avhvmawG@&Sd&onf// pmzwfolrsm;avhvmod&Sdedkif&ef/ tpkd;&rSwfwrf;rsm;Y yg&Sdonfh
atmufygrGeftrsdK;om;wkd@awmif;qkdtcsuf(7)csufudkvnf;wifjyvkduf&ygonf//

rGeftrsdK;om;wdk@.awmif;qdkcsuf(7)csuf//

(1) rGepf mayy&d,wWb d ufqidk &f m rGeyf Xrjyefpmar;yGJw&yfusif;yay;&ef//


(2) vuf&Sdwkdif;jynfjyKv$wfawmfwGif rGet f rsKd ;om;trwf(15)ae&may;&ef//
(3) rGefjynfe,fynmpkHprf;a&;tzGJ@. tpD&ifcpH mt&/ rGepf moifausmif;rsm;
zGifhvSpf&ef/tpdk;&u/bwf*suf&HykHaiGw&yfzGifhvSpfaxmufyHh&ef//
(4) rGejf ynfe,f w&m;&kH;Y/ rGet f &m&Sdrsm;/ odk@r[kwf/ rGepf meSifhpum;
wwfolrsm;udkom cef@xm;&ef//
(5) (u)rGefudpPt00udk aqmif&Gufekdfif&ef/ tenf;qkH;udk,fpm;vS,f(5)OD; yg0if
aomtzGJ@wzGJ@zGJ@pnf;ay;&ef// (c)vGwfvyfaomArmjynfodk@ tkycf sKyfa&;
tm%mrsm;v$Jajymif;jyD;onfhtcg/ wkdif;jynfjyKv$wfawmfwGif/ rGeftrwf
(15)ae&may;&ef//
(6) rGefe,fy,fqkdif&mudpPrsm;/ oD;jcm;ay;&ef//
(7) umuG,fa&;tiftm;pkrsmtwGuf/ rGepf pfwyfrsm; oD;jcm;zGJ@pnf;ay;&ef//
wkd@jzpfonf//13

zqyv/ tzGJ@csKyfonf/ rGeftrsdK;om;rsm; wifjyawmif;qkdvmaom/ tcsuf(7)csufeSifh


ywfoufI awG@qkHaqG;aEG;&ef rGeftrsdK;om;/ acgif;aqmifudk,fpm;vS,frsm;udk zdwfac:
cJhonf// rGeftrsdK;om; udk,fpm;vS,frsm;tjzpf/ ekdifvSarmif/ ekdifbvGifeSifh/ rGefpHolwkd@onf/
awmif;qkdcsufeSifhywfoufjyD;aqG;aEG;&ef/ z/q/y/v/tzGJ@csKyf acgif;aqmifrsm;tm;oGm;
a&muf awG@qkHcJhonf// aqG;aEG;rnfh udk,fpm;vS,f pm&if;wGif rlvu yg0ifcJhaom/

13
1958-1962/jrefrmedkifiHa&;/pm/262/
182 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

rGefwdkif;&if;om; tpnf;t&kH; 'k-OuUX/ ekdfifatmifxGef;onf/ edkfifbdk;csdK.n$ef=um;csuft&/


rGefudk,fpm;vS,ftzGJ@rS eSKwfxGufvkdufojzifh/ zqyvacgif;aqmifrsm;ESifh aqG;aEG;&mwGif
ryg0ifcJhacs//

txufyg rGeftrsdK;om;wkd@.awmif;qkdcsuf(7)csufteufrS/ trSwf/(1)(3)eSifh (4)wkd@udkom/


zqyvtzGJ@csKyfrS vkdufavsmekdfifcJhonf// usefaom rGefvlrsdK;wkd@. awmif;qkdcsufrsm;udk
y,fcsvkdufonf// 4if;awmif;qkdcsuf(7)csufudk a&;qGJ&mwGif4if;/ z/q/y/v/tzGJ@csKyf
acgif;aqmifrsm;eSifh awG@qkHjyD; wifjyaqG;aEG;&mwGif4if;/ edkfifbvGifonf t"dutcef;rS
yg0ifcJhonfudk awG@&onf//

1947-ckeSpfarv(1)&ufwGif usif;yaomzqyv/ y%mrnDvmcHrS rGeftrsdK;om;ta&;


udpPeSifh ywfoufI/ rGef/Arm cGJjcm;jcif;udk rvkdvm;bJ/ rGefeSihfArmtwlwlyifjzpfonf[k
oabmxm;cJhonf// rGefvlrsdK;udkjynfe,fray;bJ/ u&ifvlrsdK;udk jynfe,fay;&ef zqyvY
oabmxm; csrSwfvmonf// Tokd@aomrl0g'udk zqyvacgif;aqmifwkd@ csrSwf&onfh
ta=umif;u tvGef&Sif;vif;ygonf// rGefvlrsdK;wkd@. &efudka=umufI jzpfonf[k
rGeftrsdK;om; acgif;aqmifwkd@ujrifonf// ta=umif;rSm rGefonf ckdifrmaom aemufcH
ordkif;&Sdjcif;/ jrefrmekdifiH atmufydkif;udk rGefvlrsdK;wkd@uom eSpfaygif;rsm;pGm tkyfpkd;cJhjcif;/
rGefvlrsdK;wkd@rSm/ ckdfifrmaom pmay/ pum;/ ,Ofaus;rSK&Sdjcif;/ rGefvlrsdK;onf tpOftvmt&
ArmeSifh &ifabmifwef;ekdfifaom vlrsdK;jzpfjcif;wkd@a=umifh jynfe,fay;vsSif/ ArmvlrsdK;twGuf
aemifwae@wGif tEW&m,f&Sd vmekdfifonfudk zqyv/ Armacgif;aqmifrsm;u pdk;&drfI
jzpfonf[kajymqdk=uonf//

zqyvacgif;aqmifwkd@onf/ rGefvlrsdK;udk jynfe,fray;bJ/ ArmvlrsdK;eSifh twllwl[k


owfrSwfcg 0g;rsdKypf&ef =uHaqmifvmonf// u&ifvlrsdK;udk jynfe,fay;jcif;onf/ rGefvlrsdK;
avmuf tEW&m,fr&Sdedkfif[k zqyvArmacgif;aqmifrsm;u oabmxm;=uonf// xkdtjyif/
rGefvlrsdK;udkjynfe,fray;bJ/ u&ifvlrsdK;udk jynfe,fay;jcif;tm;jzifh rGefeSifhu&ifwkd@.
cspf=unf nDnGwfa&;udkvnf; tvkdtavsSmuf wkdufzsufacsrSKef; jyD;om;jzpfoGm;ekdfifonfudk
Armacgif;aqmifrsm;u jrifonf// rGefacgif;aqmifeSifhu&if acgif;aqmifrsm; oabmwl
xm;aom rGef/u&if&mrnekdfifiH xlaxmifa&; tm;xkwfrSKudkvnf; wenf;wvrf;tm;jzifh/
acsrSKef;vkdufjcif; jzpfoGm;aponf// wcsufckwf/ eSpfcsufjywf [laomtjrifjzpfonf// rGef-
u&if nDnGwfjcif;onf/ ArmvlrsdK;twGuf =uD;rm;aom tE@W&m,fjzpfvmekdifonf[k
Armacgif;aqmifrsm;u jrifxm;=uonf//
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 183

u&ifvlrsdK;udkjynfe,fay;&wJh tjcm;aomta=umif;csufw&yfrSm tu,fI u&ifvlrsdK;pk


udkyg jynfe,fray;cJhvSsif/ u&iftrsdK;om;wkd@. ppftiftm;eSifh &ifqkdif&bG,f&Sdonfukd Arm
acgif;aqmifrsm;u =udKwif xGufqrd=uonf// 4if;tjyif zdeSdyfcHb0wl rGefeSifhu&if
vlrsdK;wkd@aygif;pnf; nDnGwfrSKonf/ tiftm; =uD;xGm;vmedkifonf// xkdtcg rGefvlrsdK;wkd@
ydkifqdkifcJhonfh atmufArmjynfwckvkH; ordkif;taxmufxm;t&/ o&ufjrdK@txdudk/
oD;jcm;vGwfvyfaom edkifiHtjzpf wkdufyJG0if awmif;qkdvmekdifp&m ta=umif;&Sdekdifonf//
jrefrmjynfonf eSpfykdif;jzpfvmekdifonf// txufArmjynfeSif@ Armjynf atmufykdif;(rGef-
u&if&mrnedkifiH)[lI eSpfjynfaxmif/ eSpfekdifiHjzpfvmekdifonf// xkdokd@jzpfrl ArmvlrsdK;wkd@
tbkd@ rawG@0Hhonfh tvGef=uD;rm;aom tEW&m,frsm;eSifh &ifqkdif&bG,f &Sdvmonf//
TtEW&m,fwkd@udk zqyv Armacgif;aqmifrsm;u xGufqrd=u[efwlonf// TtEW&m,f
wkd@udk wGufqjyD;/ zqyv Armacgif;aqmifrsm;onf/ rGefvlrsdK;udk jynfe,fray;bJ/ 0g;rsdK
ypf&ef oabmxm; csrSwfvmonf// u&ifvlrsdL;udk jynfe,fay;jyD; pnf;&kH;odrf;oGif;,l&ef
=udK;pm;vmonf// rGef-u&if cspf=unf/ nDnGwfa&;udk wkdufzsuf acsrSKef;&ef/ ekdifiHa&;
&nfrSef;csuf=uD;wcktjzpf owfrSwfjyD; =udK;yrf; vkyfaqmifvm=uonf//

Todk@ rSm;rSm;,Gif;,Gif;rl0g'udk csrSwfjyD; vkyfaqmifvmonfh vkyfaqmifcsufrsm;onf/


zqyv Armacgif;aqmifwkd@. edlifiHa&;tjrif usOf;ajrmif;rSK/ wkdif;&if;om; vlrsdK;rsm;tay:
oabmxm; rrSefuefrSK/ oabmxm;rjynfh0rSK/ wef;wl nDr#onfhtjrifr&SdrSK ponfh
nHhzsif;aom t&nfcsif;wkd@udk az:jyaeonf// zqyvArmacgif;aqmifwkd@rSm r[mArm
vlrsdK;=uD;0g'udk eSpfeSpfjcdKufjcdKuf &if0,fyku
d f xm;=uonf[k rGeftrsdK;om;acgif;aqmifwkd@u
pGyfpJaG jymqkdonf// Tokd@ zqyvArmacgif;aqmifwkd@. rSm;,Gif;aom oabmxm;
tjrifa=umifh/ jrefrmedkifiH. uH=urRmonf aemifwGif qkd;0g;vmrnf[k rGefacgif;aqmifwkd@u
av;av;eufeuf owday; ajym=um; cJhonf//

TrSm;,Gif;aom/ tjrifoabmw&m;udktajccHI zqyv/ y%mrnDvmcHrS/ zqyv


tzGJ@csKyf. vlenf;pktjzpf owfrSwfa&;rl oabmxm;w&yfudk xkwfjyefcJhonf// vlrsm;pk.
q,fykHwykH &Sdaom/ wkdif;&if;om;udkom/ vlenf;pktjzpf owfrSwfjyD;/ tajccHOya'qkdif&m
tcGifha&;rsm; ay;oifhonf[k qkdxm;onf// wdkif;jynfvlOD;a&(10)ykH(1)r&Sdaom rGefvlrsdK;
onf/ vlenf;pk qdkif&m tcGifha&;rsm; vufvGwf qkH;&SKH;cJhonf// 4if;rlonf vlrsdK;pkwpk
owfrSwf&mwGif/ vlOD;a& tenf;trsm;tay:Yom/ vkH;vkH;vsm;vsm;rSDI owfrSwf
onfudkawG@&onf// rGev f lrsdK;ukd (usLyifckwf/ usLikwfr# rusefapeJ@)/ "Cut down the kyu
[reed], let not the stump remain" a=uG;a=umfjyD;/ OD;atmifaZ,s tif;0Armwdk@ u
owfjzwfcJhI/ rGefvlrsdK;onf// tpwkH;eD;yg;jzpfcJhonf// Todk@vlrsdK;wkH;atmif/ (Genocide)
184 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

vkyfcHxm; &jcif;a=umifh vlOD;a&t& enf;yg;aeonf// rGev f lrsdK;udk ,ckwzef/zqyv/ Arm


acgif;aqmifrsm;u/ xyfrHeSdyfpufnSif; yef;vmjyefonf// zqyvacgif;aqmifrsm;onf/
rGefvlrsdK;wkd@ vlrsdK;jyKef;wD;jyD; vlOD;a&enf;&onfh ta=umif;&if;trSefukd tenf;i,frSs
xnfhoGif;/ pOf;pm;jcif;/ udk,fcsif;pmw&m;xm;jcif; r&SdonfrSm xifxif&Sm;&Sm; awG@jrif
ekdfifonf// ordkif;rSm Arm vlrsdK;wkd@ usL;vGefcJhaom trSm;rsm;udk jyefvnfukpm;bkd@ vkH;0
rpOf;pm;bJ/ tjrwfxkwfbdk@yif xyfrH=udK;pm;vmjyefonf// vlenf;pkrGefvlrsdK;udk vlrsm;pk
ArmuvlOD;a&jzifh tedkfif,l edSyfhpufjcif; jzpfonf[k rGefacgif;aqmifwkd@u ajymonf//
“a&epfaeaom oludk/ 0g;ulxkd;/ eSpfowf”qkdonfhoabm jzpfaeonf// rGefvlrsdK;wkd@rSm
&Sdonfh/ vlrdsK;pkwpk.ckdifrmaom aemufcHordkif;/ pmay/pum;/ ,Ofaus;rSK/e,fajr ydkfifqkdifrSK
ordkif;/ pD;yGm;a&;ckdifrmrSK/ponfh/ vlrsdK;pkw&yfudk todrSwfjyK&mwGif tvGefta&;yg
t&ma&muf aom pHxm;&rnfhtcsufvufwkd@udk vkH;vkH;xnfhoGif;pOf;pm;jcif; rjyKcJhonfudk
xif&Sm;pGm awG@&onf// aemufwcsufrSm Armjynfatmufydkif;onf rGefvlrsdK;wdk@. bkd;zGm;
ydkifqdkifaom e,fajrtppfjzpfonf[laom tcsufudk vkH;vkH;arhaysmufypfvkduf=uonf//
e,fcsJ@vk,uf wkdufckdfuf odrf;ydkufxm;cJhonfh rGefe,fajr/ &ckdife,fajrwkd@udk rdrdwkd@.
bkd;bGm;ydkiftarGteSpf tjzpfoabmxm;jyD; rdrdwdk@ pdwf=udKuf pDrHcef@cJeG dkfifonf[k txif
a&muf oGm;=uonf//

Zqyv Armacgif;aqmifrsm;onf/ ,cifu rdrdwkd@ya'o&mZf Armbk&ifrsm;u/ ppfwkduf


atmifekdfifcJhonfudk4if;/ vGrf;rdk;ekdifcJhonfudk4if;/ tajccHxm;jyD;/ usefvlrsdK;rsm;udk rdrdwkd@.
vufatmufcH wkdif;&if;om;tjzpf txifao;pGmjrifae=uonf// Ttjrifoabmxm;jzifh/
tjrJwrf;vlenf;pkvlrsdK;pkwkd@udk tedkfifusifh=uonfudk awG@ekdifonf// usefvlrsdK;rsmudk/ rdrdwkd@
vufatmufcHxm;jyD;/ rdrdwdk@pDrHcef@cJo G uJhokd@/ ae&rnf[laom/ ya'o&mZftjrif/
ya'o&mZft,ltq/ teSHtoufonf/ zqyvArmacgif;aqmifrsm;rSm/ pGJuyfayusH
aeonfudkawG@&onf// ,ae@acwfonf ya'o&mZf acwfr[kwfawmhacs// acwfajymif;vJ
vmjyD; jzpfonf// acwfopfeSifhtnD vlrsdK;tcsif;csif;/ =uD;onf/ i,fonfr[l/ wef;wl
&Sd&rnf[laomtjrif/ zqyvArmacgif;aqmif awGrSm/ r&Sdao;onfudkvnf; awG@jrifekdfif
onf// =uD;onf/ i,fonfr[l/ enf;onf/ rsm;onfr[l/ vlrsdK;wkdif;wef;wla&;w&m;
usifhokH;aom/ zuf'&,f jynfaxmifpkppfppf. tajccH oaabmudkvnf;zqyv/ Arm
acgif;aqmiftrsm;pkwkd@rSm/ em;vnfoabmayguf xm;=u[ef rwlacs// z,f'&,f [laom/
pum;vkH;onf/ zqyv/ Armacgif;aqmifrsm;tbkd@ tu|rf;r0ifao;/ tvGefpdrf; aeao;
onfudkawG@&onf// ArmvlrsdK;udkvlrsdK;=uD;tjzpf owfrSwfcg/ tm%mrSeforSs vuf0g;
tkyfxm;jyD;/ usefvlrsdK;pkrsm;udk vlenf;pkqkdif&m tcGifha&;rsm; owfrSwfjyD; ay;onfh
tcsufukd =unfhjcif;tm;jzifh/ wef;wl &nfwl tjrif r&SdonfrSm xif&Sm;onf//
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 185

vlenf;pkqkdfif&mtcGifha&;rlonf/ ArmvlrsdK;rSty usefvlrsdK;rsm;ukd vlenf;pktjzifh owfrSwf


jyD;/ vlrsdK;=uD; jzpfonfhArmvlrsdK;u oem;ojzifhay;rS/ urf;rS&onhf tcGifha&;rsdK; jzpfae
onfudkawG@&onf// ya'o&mZftjrif y,fazsmufjyD;/ Twkdif;jynfonf/ rGef/Arm/&ckdfif/ &Srf;/
u&if/ u,m;/ ucsif/ csif;ponfh wkdif;&if;om; vlrsdK;rsm;wef;wl/&nfwl ykdifqkdifonf
[laom tjrif xm;&Sd &rnf@tpm; zqyvtzGJ@csKyfonf Arm yao&mZf tjrifudk ukdifpJG
xlaxmifvmonf// vlenf;pkqkdif&m tcGifha&; Oya'udkjyXmef;vmonf// tiftm;=uD;aom
vlrsdK;wrsdK;u tm;enf;ao;i,faom vlrsdK;wrsdK;tm; tedkfifusifhjcif;jzpfonf// tay:pnf;
rS aeI jrifaomtjrifjzpfaeonf//

e,fcsJ@t*Fvdyf odr;f ydkufxm;onfh rdrdwkd@bkd;bGm;ydkif e,fajr vGwfajrmufa&;twGuf/


awmfvSef wdkfufyJ0G if=uaom Armacgif;aqmifwkd@onf/ e,fcsJ@t*Fvdyftm; trsdK;rsdK;pGyfpJG
ajymqdk cJ@=uonf// ,ckrlrdrdwkd@u e,fcsJ@t*Fvdyf ae&mudk ,lvkduf=uonf// e,fcsJ@
ya'o&mZfArm bk&ifrsm; rw&m;vk,l wkdufcdkuf/ odrf;ydkufxm;cJhaom/ rGefe,fajr/
&ckdife,fajrwkd@udkrl/ tpOfxm0&vuf0g;tkyfxm;csifae=uonf// rlvykdif&Siftppf jzpfonfh/
rGeftrsdK;om; &ckdif trsdK;om;vufokd@ jyefvnfcGJa0ay;tyf&rnfudkrl qifajcqifvuf
trsdK;rsdK;jyjyD;/ ypfypfcgcg jiif;y,f ae=uonfudk awG@&onf// e,fcsJ@qef@usifa&;[k
a=uG;a=umf atmf[pfaeonfhol wOD;onf/ rdrdudk,fYu/ t=uD;pm;e,fcsJ@orm;=uD;wOD;
jzpfaeonfudk awG@&onf// e,fcsJ@t*Fvdyftm; awmfvSefpOfu twlvufwcJG Jhaom
rGefvlrsdK;/ &ckdifvlrsdK;wdk@udk arhaysmufvdkuf=uonf// rSefuefr#waom/ ekdifiHa&;cH,lcsuf
tjrif Armacgif;aqmifrsm;Y &Sdonf[kqkdedkifygrnfavm [laomar;cGef;udk rGefacgif;aqmif/
&ckdifacgifaqmifwkd@u ar;jref; vmonf//

xdk@a=umifhzqyvtzGJ@csKyf. vlenf;pkqkdif&mrltay:/ rGet f rdsK;om;acgif;aqmif rGefbkd;csdK


onf vkH;0 rauseyf/ vufrcHekdfifacs/ 4if;rltay:jyif;jyif;xefxef a0zefwkdufckdufxm;aom
pmwrf; wapmifudk a&;om;cJhonf// /(zqyvu/ rGefrsm;udk wywf&kdufjyD;) [laom
acgif;pOfjzihf pmwef;a&;om;cJhonf// 4if;pmwrf;Y rGGefbkd;csdKonf atmufygtwkdif; a&;om;
xm;onf/
“rGefvlrsKd ;rsm;u/ rdrw
d kd@vlrsdK;/ bmompum;eSifh ,Ofaus;rSK xkH;"avh raysmufuG,f
&avatmif/ =udK;yrf; aecsdefwGif/ zqyv/ tzGJ@csKyfonf/ vlrsm;pk. q,fykHwpfykH
&Sdaom/ wkdif;&if;om;rsm;udkom/ vlenf;pktjzpf/ owfrSwfjyD;/ tajccHOya' qkdif&m
tcGifha&;rsm; ay;oifhonf[k qkdjcif;rSm/ rGev
f lrsdK; uG,faysmuf oGm;atmif jyKvkyfjcif;
14
omjzpfonf//”

14
1958-1962./jrefrmekdifiHa&;/pm/263
186 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

zqyvtzGJ@csKyf. vlenf;pkqdkfif&m tcGifhta&;rludk4if;/ rGefvlrsdK;udk jynfe,fray;bJ/


u&ifvlrsdK;udkom jynfe,fay;rnfh tpDtpOfudk4if;/ 1947-ckeSpfarv(18)wGif usif;y
aom/ rGefwkdif;&if;om; tpnf;t&kH; trSKaqmifaumfrwD tpnf;a0;u tjyif;txef
uef@uGufcJhonf// tjcm;aomtzGJ@pnf;jzpfaom/ rGefvGwfvyfa&;tzGJ@/ rGefoHCmtzGJ@/
rGefausmif;om;/vli,ftzGJ@ toD;oD;wdk@uvnf; jyif;jyif;xefxefuef@uGufcJh=uonf//

Todk@ zqyvtzGJ@csKyfu u&ifvlrsdK;tm; jynfe,fay;rnf/ rGefvlrsdK;tm;/ jynfe,f


ray;[laomoabmxm; a=umihf/ u&ifvlrsdK;rsm;onf wqifhwufI weoFm&Dwdkif; tm;/
u&ifa'otjzpf zefwD;&ef zqyvtzGJ@csKyfxHodk@ t=uHjyKcJhonf// u&ifvlrsdK; wdk@.
=udK;yrf;rSKtay: rGefvlrsdK;wkd@u rauseyfjzpfvmI trsdK;rsdK;wkef@jyefvmonf// zqyv
tzGJ@csKyf. edkifiHa&;xkd;eSufcsufonf rGef-u&ifvlrsdK;wkd@tay: tvGefxda&muf oGm;onf//

194&-ckeSpf =o*kwfv(6)&ufae@wGif usif;yonfh rGefwkdfif;&if;om; tpnf;t&kH; tvkyf


trSKaqmiftzGJ@ txl;tpnf;a0;uvnf; ausjimcsuf wapmifxkwfjyefI u&ifvlrsdK;wkd@.
=udK;yrf;csufudk uef@uGufcJhonf// ausjimcsufrSm//

“weoFm&Dwkdif;tm; u&ifoD;jcm;e,fy,ftjzpf awmif;qkdjcif;rSm vkH;0ravSsmfuefyg//


,cktcg atmufjrefrmjynf[k ac:qkdonfh &mrna'owGi/f rGeef iS fhu&if twlwuG
a&S;ya0o%Duwnf;u/ oifhjrwfpGm aexkdif=uouJhokd@ ,ckvnf; aexkdifvsSuf
&Sd=uonf// &mZ0ift&'GefwGJI/ aexkdifvmaom/ TvlrsKd ;eSprf sdK;rSu&ifwrsdK;wnf;u/
v$r;f rdk;I e,fy,f xlaxmif&ef awmif;qkdjcif;rSm/ ravsmufywfaom/ udpjP zpfonf//
xkda=umifh/ rGew f kdif;&if;om; tpnf;t&kH;rS Todk@awmif;qkdjcif;udk tjyif;txef
uef@uGufonf// rGef-u&if&mrn e,fy,ftjzpf xlaxmifjcif;udkrl/ rGeftrsdK;om;wkd@
taejzifh/ vkH;0ruef@uGufvkdyg// u&iftrsKd ;om;wpfO;D wnf; u&ifoD;jcm;e,fy,f
jyKvkyfjcif;udkrl/ rGeftrsdK;om;wkd@taejzifhvkH;0 vufrcHekdifyg//”15

rGefwkdif;&if;om; tpnf;t&kH;rS/ txufygtwkdif; jywfjywf om;om; uef@uGufcJhonf/


rGefvlrsdK;tay: xm;&Sdaom zqyv tzGJ@csKyf. rl0g' oabmxm;tay: rGefvlrsdK;wkd@u
rauseyf jzpfvm=uonf// jyefvnfwkef@jyef&ef/ rGefvlrsdK;wkd@onf/ pkpnf;nDnGwfvm
=uonf// rGefvlxk vlwef;pm;aygif;pkH/ tzGJ@aygif;pkHyg0ifaom 'kwd,t=udrf rGeftrsdK;om;
uGefz&ifh w&yfudk ac:,lusif;y&efpnf;&kH;vSKyfaqmfcJh=uonf// 1947-ckeSpfpufwifbmv
(6)&ufwGif/ 'kwd,t=udrfajrmuf/ rGeftrsdK;om;uGefz&ifhudk nDnGwfpGm usif;yekdfifcJhonf//
15
1958-1962./jrefrmekdifiHa&;/pm/266
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 187

T'kwd,t=uDrf rGeftrsdK;om; uGefz&ifhrS ta&;=uD;aom/ atmufaz:jyyg qkH;jzwfcsufrsm;


udkwnDwnGwfwnf;csrSwfqkH;jzwfcJh=uonf//
(1) tjcm;aomvlrsdK;rsm;oD;oef@e,fajrawmif;qdk&mY/rGefe,fy,frsm;udktvsOf;
rxdckdufap&ef//
(2) rGeftzGJ@aygif;pkHu awmif;qdkxm;onfh tcsuf(7)csufudk 1947-ckeSpf
pufwifbmv (25)&ufae@ aemufqkH; xm;I r&&Sdygu/ rGefoD;jcm;e,fy,f/
awmif;oifh/ rawmif;oifhudk/ A[kdOD;pD;tzGJ@uqkH;jzwfzdk@wm0efvJt
$ yf&ef//
(3) rGefeSifhurBm/ rdwfqufa&;twGuf/ bdvyfoGm;oifhroGm;oifhudkA[kdOD;pD;tzGJ@rS
tajctaeudk=unfhjyD; qkH;jzwf&ef//
(4) rGefjrefrmjynftwGuf 'kdrDeD,Hr[kwfbJ vkH;0vGwfvyfa&;udkom &&Sdap&ef
TuGefz&ifhuawmif;qkd&ef//
(5) rGefrsm;twGuf oD;oef@a&G;aumufyJGtay:Y tajcjyKonfhtrwfrsm;&&Sd&ef/
TuJhokd@a&G;aumuf wif ajrSmufvkdufaom/ trwfrsm;xJrS rGefa&;&mtzGJ@
zGJ@pnf;&ef//Tawmif;qkdxm;onfhtcGifhta&;udk r&&Sdygu rGefvlrsdK;rsm;tay:
pnf;=uyfaeonfh rnfonfhtcGefawmfrsdK;rqdk rGefvlrsdK;rsm;u ay;aqmifoifh
ray;aqmifoifh/ jy\emudk qkH;jzwfekdif&ef/ A[kdOD;pD;tzGJ@okd@ TuGefz&ifhrS
vkH;0wm0efv$Jtyfa=umif;//16

ponfhta&;=uD;onfh trsdK;om;qkdif&m qkH;jzwfcsufrsm;udk nDnGwfpGm csrSwfekdfifcJh=uonf//


T 'kwd, t=udrfajrmuf/ rGefuGefz&ifh. qkH;jzwfcsufrsm;rSm/ ,cifrGeftzGJ@aygif;pkHrS/
awmif;qkdxm;onfh tcsuf(7)csufudk ocifek.bk&ifcH trSKaqmif(0ef=uD;)tzGJ@ tpkd;&u/
vkdufavsmap&ef zdtm;ay;onfhoabmyifjzpfonf// rdrdwkd@awmif;qkdxm;onfh tcsufrsm;
udkr&ygu/ wqifhwufI rGefoD;jcm;e,fy,f awmif;qkd&ef/ pdrfac:oHay;vkdufjcif;jzpfonf//
4if;tjyif rdrdwkd@vkdvm; aom/ awmif;qkdcsufrsm;udk rvdkufavsmygu ay;aqmif ae&aom
tcGeftwkwfrsm;udkyif ray;bJ oydwfarSmuf=u&ef/ wkdufyGJ0ifoGm;&ef/ rGefvlrsdK;rsm;u/
jyifqif vm=uonf//

16
/oHawmfqifhowif;pm/7 pufwbFm/1947
udk,fawG@ajym=um;csufrsm;/0156/ ordkif;Xme(okawoe)/&efukefwuUodkvf/
188 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

tcef;(8)
rGefvlrsdK;a&;&mtzGJ@csKyf// usdKufokwfrGefvlxk&Sif;vif;yGJ=uD;// rGefwkdif;&if;om;
tiftm;opf// rGefvli,f.f awmif;qkdcsufrsm;// wkdif;&if;om;A[kdtpnf;a0;rS
qkH;jzwfcsuf// ,kd;',m;cspf=unfa&;c&D;/ rGefeSpfzGJ@nDnGwfrSK/ apmbOD;=uD;.
tiftm;jya&;t=uH// rGefeSifhu&iftajcaerwl// Zmojyifta&; awmfykH//
edkifbvGifwkd@ zrf;qD;cH&// &JcsKyfAdkvfcsKyfxGef;vSatmifeSifh awG@qkHyJG// armfvjrdKif
rGef-u&ifodrf;// zqyvtpdk;&. Om%feDOm%feuf// armfvjrdKifrSrGef-u&if
qkwfcGm// zqyv.jynfe,fray;a&;rl// rGeftrsdK;om;OD;ek// rGefvl=uD;rsm;qEN
uGJjym;// ekdifpHolusqkH;// ekdifbvGifxyfrHzrf;qD;cH&// urm0ufppfoifwef;//
urm0uf&Gmtm;rD;&SdK@//

rGeftrsdK;om;wkd@. awmif;qkdcsuf (7)csufudk (zqyv)u rvkdufavsmojzifh/ 1947-


ckeSpfwGif/ vlwef;pm;toD;oD;yg0ifaom/ rGefvlrsdK;a&;&mtzGJ@csKyfukd zGJ@pnf;=uonf//
ekdifbvGif OD;pD;onfh/ rGefvGwfvyfa&;tzJG@udkyif/ r¾dKifjyKjyD;/ TrGev
f rl sKd ;a&;&mtzGJ@csKyf
(rv&)udk zGJ@pnf;cJhonf[kqkdonf//

rGefvlrsdK;a&;&mtzGJ@csKyf (rv&)
tvkyftrSKaqmiftzGJ@

edkfifvSarmif/ OuUX
rGefocif=uD; 'kOuUX
ekdifbvGif/ taxGaxGtwGif;a&;rSL;
rGefpHol/ wGJbuf/taxGaxGtwGif;a&;rSL;
ekdifaiGodrf;/ wGJbuf/taxGaxGtwGif;a&;rSL;
ekdfifomeSif;/ wGJbuf/taxGaxGtwGif;a&;rSL;
ekdifpdefxGef;(zJuwm) jyef=um;a&;rSL;
ekdfifom[ef/ pm&if;ppf/

trSKaqmifrsm;rSm
edkfifbdkaumif;
edkifomatmif/
ekdfifxGef;0if;(zJuwm)
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 189

rd[Hom
edkfifxGef;wif/

wkdk@yg0ifaom,m,DtrSKaqmiftzGJ@udkzJ@G pnf;cJh=uonf/

rGefvlrsdK;a&;&mtzGJ@csKyf.&nf&G,fcsufrsm;rSm/rGefvlrsdK;onf

(1) ordkif;pOft&/wnfwHhckdifjrJaomvlrsdK;//
(2) oD;jcm;bmom/pmay/pum;/,Ofaus;rSK&Sdjcif;//
(3) pkpnf;aexkdif&ma'o&Sdjcif;//
(4) pD;yGm;a&;t&vnf; jrefrmjynf.t"duaoG;a=umjzpfaom/ v,f,m
pD;yGm;a&;udk a&S;,cifumvrS/ ,ckxufwkdif vkyfudkifvSsuf&Sdjcif;
a=umihf/ pD;yGm;a&;t&/ ckdifrmaom vlrsdK;wrsdK;jzpfonf// xkda=umifh
vlrsdK;wrsdK;jzpfonfh rGeftrsdK;om;wkd@onf/ trsdK;om; udk,fykdif
jyXmef;cGifh/(National Self Determinataion)udk&xkdufonf//
4if;&xkdufaom udk,fykdifjyXmef;cGifhudk'Drdkua&pDenf; t&tjzpfekdfifqkH;
awmif;qkdwkdufyGJ0ifoGm;&efjzpfonf//

rGefvGwfvyfa&;tzGJ@rS/ ekdifbvGift,f'Dwmtjzpfxkwfa0vSsuf&Sdaom/ weoFm&Dowif;pm


ukd/ ekdifbvGifuyif t,f'Dwm qufvuf wm0ef,ljyD;/ (rv&)a=uG;a=umfoHtjzpf
qufvuf xkwfa0oGm;&efoabmwl=uonf//

rGefvlrsdK;a&;&mtzGJ@csKyfrS OD;pD;usif;yaom rGeftrsdK;om; nDvmcHudk 1947-ckeSpfwGif


rk'kHjrdK@e,f zg;atmufaus;&GmwGif (3)&ufwkdifwkdif pnfum;okdufjrdKufpGmusif;ycJhonf//
4if;nDvmcHudkrGefa'o&Sd rGeftrsdK;om; axmifaygif;rsm;pGm wufa&mufcJhonf//
4iff;nDvmcHrSm trsm;oabmwl atmufyg rGefvlrsdK;a&;&mtzGJ@csKyf trSKaqmifopfudk
a&G;aumuf wifajrmuf=u onf//

rGev
f rl sKd ;a&;;&mtzGJ@csKyf
tvkyftrSKaqmiftzGJ@opf

OuUX ekdfifvSarmif
'kOuUX rGefocif=uD;/ekdfifjratmif
taxGaxGtwGif;a&;rSL; ekdifaiGodrf;
190 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

wJbG uftaxGaxGtwGif;a&;rSL; edkfifodrf;armif/


jyef=um;a&; edkfifbvGif
b¾ma&;rSL; ekdifomeSif;
pm&if;ppf ekdifom[ef
pnf;&kH;a&;rSL; ekdifpdefxGef;(zJuwm)
trsdK;orD;XmerSL; rd[Hom
tvkyform;XmerSL; ekdfifpdefxGef;/ekdfifxGef;armif/
v,form;XmerSL; rGefpHol
vli,fXmerSL; rGefq&mwif/

wkd@yg0ifaomtvkyftrSKaqmiftzGJ@opfudka&G;aumufwifajrmuf=uonf//

xkdzg;atmufaus;&GmrGev
f lrsdK;a&;&mnDvmcHrSatmufygwckwnf;aomtqkdudkwifoGif;
qkH;jzwfcJh=uonf//

“rGeftrsdK;om;rsm;u/ rdrdwkd@onf vlrsdK;wrsdK;tjzpf/ wnf&SdaeonfhtavSsmuf/


rdrdwkd@. trsdK;om; ,Ofaus;rSKudk xdef;odrf;&ef tcsuf(7)csufygaom awmif;qkd
csufudk/ zqyvtpkd;&xH/ wifjy awmif;qkdcJhonf// xkdawmif;qkdcsufrsm;udk
zqyv tpkd;&uy,fcscJhojzifh TnDvmcH=uD;u 0rf;enf;a=umif; rSwfwrf;wif
a=umif;// xkd@odk@y,fcsjcif; cH&onfhtwGuf/ rGeftrsK;om;wk
d d@. a&S@qufvkyf&efrSm/
rGeftrsdK;om;wkd@. udk,fykdifjyXmef;cGifh/ (National Self Determinataion)/
tcGifha&;rsm;&Sdaom rGefjynfe,fudk wnfaqmuf&ef 'Drdkua&pDenf;t&/
awmif;qkd wkdufyGJ0if&ef qkH;jzwfa=umif;// tu,fI 'Drkdua&pDenf;t&
awmif;qkdcGifhudk tm%m&tzGJ@pnf;rS ydwfyifvSsif &onfhenf;jzifh enf;vrf;&Sm=uH
vkyfoGm;&ef//”

194&-ckeSpf atmufwkdbmv(3)&ufae@wGif/ rGefvlrsdK;a&;&mtzJG@csKyfrS =uD;rSL;I vlxk


&Sif;vif;yGJudk armfvjrdKifjrdK@/ usdKufokwfbk&m;&ifjyifY/ usif;ycJhygonf// 4if;&Sif;vif;yGJo@kd
rGefvlxkeSifh e,ftoD;oD;rS/udk,fpm;vS,frsm;eSifh rGeftrdsK;om;(100000)cef@ wufa&muf
=uonf// 4if;qENjyyGJ=uD;wGif armfvjrdKifjrdK@ay:eSifhjrdK@e,f toD;oD;rS rGefoHCmawmfrsm;/
tv$mtoD;oD;rS rGeftrsdK;oRD;/trsdK;om; aygif;axmifaygif;rsm;pGmwkd@onf/ owfrSwf
xm;aom armfvjrdKif'kdif;0efuGif; u&ifausmif;wGif pk&kH;a&muf&Sdvm=uonf// eHeuf(7)em&D
tcsdefrSpI/(4)a,mufwwGJpD pepfwuswef;pDI csDwuf qENjy=uonf// pk&yf u&ifausmif;
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 191

rSxGufvmaom a&S@wef;rS yk*~dKvfwkd@onf/ armfvjrdKifaps;=uD;&yfuGufodk@ a&mufonfhwkdif/


pk&yfae&mwGif vltkyf=uD;onf/ rukefekdifao;bJ rsm;jym;pGmpk&kH;vSsuf&Sdaeao;onf// TrsS
rsm;jym;aom rGefvlxk=uD;onf/ trsdK;om;ta&;wGif wuf=uGpGm/ pdwftm;oefpGmjzifhyg0ifcJh
=uonf// pDwef;vSnfhvnf qENjyaom rGefvltkyf=uD;onf/ “rGefjynfe,f csufcsif;ay;”
ykdpwmrsm;udk udkifaqmifxm;=ujyD; atmufyg a=uG;a=umfoHrsm;udk jydKifwl a=uG;a=umf
cJh=uonf/
“rGefjynfe,fcsufcsif;ay;/”
“rGefjynfe,fcsufcsif;ay;/”

[lI wcJeuf tqufrjywf a=uG;a=umfatmf[pf awmif;qkdcJh=uonf// rGefvlxkwkd@.


wcJeufa=uG;a=umfvkdufaom a=uG;a=umfoHonf/ ywf0ef;usifwckvkH;udk wkH[D;oGm;ap
cJhonf// owfrSwfxm;aom aemufqkH;pk&yfjzpfonfh/ oHvGifO,sOfodk@ eHeuf(11)em&DwGif
vlxky&d\wf=uD; pkHnDpka0;a&mufvm=uonf// pka0;a&muf&Sdvmonfh/ axmifaomif;
rsm;pGmaom rGefvlxktm;/ rGefvlrsdK;a&;&mtzGJ@csKyf OuUXekdifvSarmifu/ ordkif;wGifaom
atmufyg rdef@cGef; pum;udk tm;rmefjzifh wufwuf=uG=uG jrGuf=um;oGm;cJhonf//

“rGeftrsdK;om;rsm;onf/ vlrsdK;a&;t*Fg&yfrsm;eSifhjynfhpkHaom/ vlrsdK;wrsdK;jzpfonfh


tavSsmuf rdrw d @dk &J@ udk,fydkif jyXmef;cGifh jzpfonfh/ rGefjynfe,f xlaxmif&ef/
zm;atmuf&GmY usif;ycJhaom/ rGeftrsdK;om;nDvmcHrS wnDwnGwfwnf;
qkH;jzwfcsufcscJhonfudk/ rGefjynfolrsm;od&SdjyD;jzpfw,f//

'DvkdrGefjynfe,fawmif;&ef/ qkH;jzwfcJhonfrmS / tjcm;aom vlrsdK;rsm;. &ykdifcGifhudk


xdckdufapvkdI r[kwfyg// rGeftrsdK;om;wkd@. bkd;bGm;ydkifqkdifcGifhudk/ w&m;ojzifh
jyefvnf awmif;qkdaejcif;rso S m jzpfw,ff// Todk@ rGejf ynfe,f xlaxmifa&;
vkyif ef;udk twwfedkifqkH; 'Drdkua&pDenf;vrf;t& aqmif&GufoGm;rSm jzpfygw,f//
,ae@ rGet f rsKd ;om;wk@d &J@ at;csrf;pGm pnf;urf;ao0yfpGm qENjypDwef; vSnfhvnf
aejcif;uyif oufaocHaejyD;jzpfonf// rGev f lrsdK;wkd@&J@ &oifh&xkdufaom/ ukd,fuH
=urRm/ udk,fzefwD;cGifh(Right of Self Determination)ukd w&m;ojzifh/
'Drdkua&pD enf;vrf;t& awmif;qkdonfukdyif aeSmuf,Suf zsufpD;vmygu/
rGejf ynfe,f&wJhtxd/ &edkifonfhtaumif;qkH; enf;vrf;rsm;udk a&G;cs,fjyD;/
rGefjynfolvlxkeSifhvufwJcG g/ rGefvlrsdK;a&;&mtzGJ@rS qufvuf vkyaf qmifoGm;&ef
oH'Xd mefcsxm;jyD;jzpfw,f// 'dvo dk 'H Xd mefcsrSwf aqmif&Guf&mrSm/ rGeftrsdK;om;
w&yfvkH;/ nDnDnGwfnGwf/ wufwuf=uG=uG yl;aygif;yg0if=ubkd@ tav;teuf
wkdufwGef;vkdygw,f//”
192 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

OuUX=uD;ekdifvSarmif.rdef@cGef;tqkH;wGif/ rGefvlxky&d\wf=uD;u/ wcJeuf vufckyfvuf0g;


wD;I =obmoHay;=uonf// xkdaemuf=uGa&mufvmaom/ vlxky&d\wf=uD;u atmufyg
qkH;csufrsm;udk/ wnDwnGwfwnf;wcJeufqkH;jzwf =uonf//

(1) AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;eSifhwuG/ usqkH;oGm;aom/ 0ef=uD;rsm;udk vkyf=uHowfjzwfaom


vlowform;wkd@udk Ttpnf;ta0;=uD;u/ txl;uJ&h J@&Skwfcsyga=umif;//
(2) rGefwkd@. awmif;qkdcsuf(7)csufudk tpkd;&u auseyfavmufatmif vkdufavsmjcif; r&Sd
onfhtwGuf/ 0rf;enf;a=umif;//
(3) rGefwkd@onf/ ArmedkfifiH&Sdwkdfif;&if;om;/ tcsif;csif;eSifh &if;eSD;nDnGwfpGm/ qufqHvkdvm;
onfhtavSsmuf rGefwkd@.w&m;ojzifh awmif;qkdcsufrsm;udk awmif;qkdaomfvnf;/
tpkd;&u auseyfavmufatmif vkdufavsmjcif; r&SdonfhtwGuf oD;jcm; jynfaxmifpk
taeeSifh awmif;cJhaomf/ ydkrdkc&D;a&mufvdrfhrnf[lI Ttpnf;ta0;=uD;u ,lq
a=umif;//
(4) txufyg qkH;jzwfcsufrsm;eSifh ywfoufI ay:aygufvmaom/ udpPrsm;udk
aqmif&Guf&ef rGefvlrsdK;a&;&m tzGJ@(XmecsKyf) tvkyftrSKaqmiftzJG@odk@ tm%m
v$Jtyfa=umif;//

[lIjzpfonf// TrGefjynfolvlxk. qkH;jzwfcsufrsm;t&/ rGeftrsdK;om;wkd@onf/ rGefoD;jcm;


jynfe,f ay;&ef twdtvif;awmif;qkdvmonf udkavhvmawG@&Sd&onf//17

1947-ckeSpfatmufwkdbmv(11)&ufae@wGif/ rGeftrsdK;om; acgif;aqmifrsm; jzpf=uaom


edkifbvGif/ ekdifpHolwkd@u owif;pmq&mrsm;eSifh awG@qkH&Sif;vif;yGJ w&yfudk armfvjrdKifjrdK@
rGefvlrsdK;a&;&mtzGJ@&kH;XmecsKyfY usif;yonf// xkdowif;pm&Sif;vif;yGJY rdrdwdk@awmif;qkdrnfh
rGefoD;jcm;jynfe,f. tus,ft0ef;udk edkifbvGifeSihf edkfifpHolwdk@u &Sif;vif;wifjycJhonf//
ekdifbvGifeSifhrGefpHolwkd@. &Sif;vif;wifjycsufwkd@rSm atmufygtwkdif;jzpfonf//

“rGeftrsdK;om;wkd@. awmif;qkdcsuf(7)csufteufrS/ zqyvtpkd;&u/ tcsuf(1)


(3)eSifh (4)wkd@udkom ay;jyD;/ uset
f a&;=uD;aom/ tcsufrsm;udkrvkdufavsmojzifh/
rGet f rsKd ;om;rsm; taejzifh/ ,ckvkd wpfqifhwufI awmif;qkdvm&w,f// 1947-
ckepS f atmufwb dk mv(9)&ufae@u/ rGet f rsKd ;om; tpnf;t&k;H XmecsKyfwiG /f
acgif;aqmifrsm; pnf;a0;=ujyD;/ atmufjrefrmedkifiH/ rGefvlrsdK;wkd@. e,fy,frsm;udk/
rGefoD;jcm;jynfaxmifpktjzpf owfrSwfay;bkd@ awmif;qkdrnfjzpfa=umif; qkH;jzwf
17
1958-1962/jrefrmekdifiHa&;/pm/268
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 193

=uw,f// tus,ft0ef; twdtusajym&vSsi/f rGeo f D;jcm; jynfaxmifpkonf/


taemufbufwGif ykodr/f taemufyifv,f urf;&kd;wef;/ ajrmufbufwGif
o&ufjrdK@/ ta&S@bufwGif awmifile,f ajreDukef;jrdK@&Sd rSwfwkdifrsm; txdeSifh
awmifydkif;wGif 0dwkd&d,iltxd yg0ifygw,f//”18

ekdifbvGifeSifh rGefpHolwkd@onf/ ajrykHeSihfwuG taotcsm/ owif;axmufrsm;tm; &Sif;vif;


wifjycJhonf// owif;axmufrsm;. tar;rsm;udkvnf;jyefvnfajz=um;&Sif;vif;cJh=uonf//

“tu,fI ,cktcsdefrSm zqyv twkdifyifcH tpkd;&u/ rGeftrsdK;om;wkd@.


awmif;qkdcsuf(7)csufudk vkdufavsmcJhyg&if/ rGefvlrsdK;rsm;taejzifh auseyf=u
rnfvm;// ToD;jcm; rGejf ynfaxmifpke,f awmif;qkdjcif;udk jyefvnf&kwfodrf;
rnfvm;//”

txufygowif;axmufwOD;.ar;jref;csufudk/ekdifbvGif/ rGepf Holwdk@u atmufygtwkdif;


ajz=um;cJo
h nf//

“,ae@rGefvlxkrSm/ rdrw d kd@&J@rlv awmif;qkdcsuf/ (7)csufudk zqyvtwdkifyifcH


tpkd;&uvkdufavsm apumrl/ tvkdr&Sdawmhbl;// rauseyfawmhbl;// rdrdwkd@&oifh
&xkdufwJh/ rGefoD;jcm;jynfaxmifpke,f&rSomauseyfawmhr,f// rGeftrsdK;om;wkd@&J@
awmif;qkdcsufudk/ ,ckr&&ifvnff;/ vGwfvyfa&;&wJhtcg/ qufvufawmif;qkd
oGm;rSm jzpfygw,f// zqyvtzGJ@udka&m/ tjcm;rnfonfhtzGJ@pnf;udkyg/ twkdufcH
vkyfvkdIr[kwfyg// rdrdwkd@ &oifh&xkdufwJh tcGifha&;udk awmif;qkdjcif;omjzpfw,f//
AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef; r=umc% ajymqkdaewJh/ vlrsdK;pkwkdif; udk,fhuH=urRm
udk,fzefwD;cGifh &Sd&r,fqkdwJh tjrifudk/ rGefvlrsdK;wdk@u tjynfht0 axmufcH =udKqkd
w,f/// ukd,fhuH=urRm udk,fzefwD;cGifhudkom rGev f lrsdK;wkd@ awmif;qkdjcif; jzpfw,f//
rGevf lrsdK;wkd@&J@ qkH;jzwfcsufrsm;udk/ jrefrmekdifiHqkdif&m 0ef=uD;avmh'fpwkd0,fvf
(Lord Listowel)eSifh jrefrmekdifiHbk&ifcH/ jrefrmekdifiH 0ef=uD;cskKyfwkd@xHokd@vnf;/
a=u;eef;&dkufta=umif;=um; jyD;jzpfw,f//”19

ekdfifbvGifeSifhedkfifpHolwkd@utxufygtwdkif;@jywfjywfom;om; ajz=um;oGm;onf//

18
1958-1962/jrefrmekdifiHa&;/pm/268
19
1958-1962./jrefrmekdifiHa&;/pm/268
194 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

ya'o&mZftaiG@toufrukefao;aom r[mvlrsdK;=uD;0g'udkudkifpJGxm;onfh/ zqyv


twkdifyifcHtpdk;&onf/ rGefvlrsdK;wkd@. w&m;rSSswaom awmif;qkdcsuf(7)csufudkf y,fcs
cJhonfhtwGuf ,ckvkdrGefvlrsdK;wkd@u wkd;jrSifhI awmif;qdkvmjcif;jzpfonf// Armya'o&mZf
wkd@ rw&m; tekdif,l odrf;ykdufxm;aom/ rdrdwdk@.bdk;bGm; ydkifqkdifonfh/ e,fajra'o
tm;vkH;udk/ rGefacgif;aqmifwkd@u jyefvnfawmif;qkdvmonf udkawG@&Sd&onf// 1947-ckeSpf
atmufwkdbmv(9)&ufae@u jyKvkyfusif;yaom/ rGefacgif;aqmifrsm; tpnf;a0;
qkH;jzwfcsufrsm;udk/ jrefrmekdifiHqkdif&m/ 0ef=uD;avmh'fpwkd0,fvfeSifh/ jrefrmekdifiH bk&ifcH/
jrefrmekdifiH0ef=uD;cskKyfwkd@xHokd@vnf; xkdae@rSmyif/ a=u;eef;&dkuf ta=umif;=um; vkduf=u
onf//

1947-ckeSpf arv(1)&ufae@Y pwifusif;yaom/ wkdif;jynfjyK v$wfawmftpnf;a0;rS


jrefrmekdifiH zGJ@pnf;tkyfcsKyfykH tajccHOya'udk twnfjyKjyD;/ u&iftrsdK;om;rsm;udkom/
tcGifha&; ay;vkduf=uonf// rGeftrsdK;om;wkd@twGuf tcGifha&;ay;jcif; r&Sdonfhtay:
rGeftrsdK;om; wkd@u rauseyfI ,ckvkd wpfqifhwufawmif;qkdvmonf[k qkdekdifygonf//
zqyv twkdifyifcH tpkd;&. rGefvlrsdK;tay: xm;&Sdaomoabmxm;udk rauseyfI
rGefacgif;aqmifwkd@rSm wif;rmaomtjrif oabmxm;&SdvmjyD;/ ,ckvkd atmufjrefrmekdifiH
wckvkH;udk awmif;qkdvmonf[kvnf; qkdekdio f nf// rGefvlrsdK;wkd@onf oD;jcm;e,f
xlaxmif&ef t"du xm;awmif;qkdvm=uonf//

TuJhokd@ trsdK;om;awmif;qkdcsufudk wpfqifhwufjyD; rGeftrsdK;om;rsm;wkd@ awmif;qkd


vmonf// rGefjynfolvlxk vlwef;pm;toD;oD; pnf;vkH;nDnGwfvmonf// wcsdefwnf;
rSmyif/ rGeftrsdK;om; acgif;aqmifrsm;onf/ b0wltjcm;vlrsdK;pkrsm;eSihfvnf; r[mrdwf
zGJ@ekdKif&ef enf;vrf;&Smvmonf// rdrdwkd@.trsdK;om;ekdifiHa&; tcGifha&;rsm;udk awmif;qkd
&mwGif/ b0wlvlrsdK;pkrsm;. axmufcHrSK vkdtyfa=umif;udk rGeftrsdK;om;acgif;aqmifrsm;u
jrifvm=uonf// xkda=umifh u&iftrsdK;om; acgif;aqmifrsm;eSihf ykdrdkcspf=unf&if;eSD;rSK&Sd&ef
rGeftrsdK;om;acgif;aqmifwdk@u =udK;pm;vm=uonf//

1947-ckeSpf atmufwkdbmv(3)&ufwGif usif;yaom/ armfvjrdKif u&iftrsdK;om;


uGefz&ifhokd@ ekdifvSarmif/ ekdifbvGif/ rd[Hom/ rGefq&mwif/ rGefomvif;/ rGefpdefxGef;wkd@
wufa&mufcJh=uonf// u&iftrsdK;om; acgif;aqmifrsm;eSifh rGeftrsdK;om; acgif;aqmifrsm;
awG@qkH=ujyD; trsdK;om;ta&;udk aqG;aEG;cJh=uonf// rGefu&iftrsdK;om;wkd@. a&S@vkyfief;pOf
twGufnSdeSKdif;wkdifyifcJh=uonf// trsdK;om;a&;wGif rGef-u&if yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufa&; udpP
rsm;udk u&ifacgif;aqmif apmb=uD;eSifh aqG;aEG;cJh=uonf// u&iftrsdK;om; acgif;aqmif
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 195

apmbOD;=uD;u rdrd.t=uHpnfudk rGefacgif;aqmifrsm;tm; xkwfaz:ajymjyonf// 4if;wkd@


u&iftrsdK;om;taejzihf zqyvtpkd;&tm;/ vufeuftiftm;jzifh/ t=uyfudkifjyD;
trsdK;om; tcGifha&;udk ta&;qkdoGm;rnfjzpfa=umif; ajym=um;cJhonf// rGeftrsdK;om;
taejzifhvnf; TuJhokd@yif vufeuftiftm;jyjyD; zqyvtpdk;&xHrS/ rdrd&oifh&xkduf
aomtcGifha&;udk awmif;qkdoifhonf[k apmbOD;=uD;u t=uHjyKcJhonf// rGeftrsdK;om;
acgif;aqmifrsm;jzpf=uaom ekdifvSarmif/ ekdfifbvGifwkd@uvnf;/ rdrdwkd@onfvnf;/ vufeuf
tiftm;jyjyD;/ zqyvtpkd;&tm; t=uyfudkfifta&;qdkoGm;&ef oabmwlcJh=uonf//

xkdokd@rGefu&ifacgif;aqmifrsm; awG@qkHaqG;aEG;jyD;/ wOD;.ta&;udkwOD;u 0kdif;0efulnD=u&ef


oabmwl=uonf// wlnDaom tusdK;udpP&yfrsm;wGif yl;wGJ aqmif&Guf=u&efvnf;
oabmwl =uonf// xkdokd@rGef-u&if eSpfO;D eSpfzuf nDnGwfaeonfhtjzpfudk zqyv
tpkd;&u pdk;&drf=uD;pGm rsufajcrjywf tuJcwf apmifh=unfhaeonf// rGeftrdsK;om;eSifh
u&iftrsdK;om;wkd@onf/ wpfOD;udpu P kd wpfOD;u axmufcHulnD=u&ef/ oabmwlnDrSK
&&Sdxm;=uonf[k owif;pmtoD;oD;wkd@u xkwfaz:a&;om;vm=uonf// rGefvlrsdK;a&;&m
tzGJ@csKyfu/ o&ufjrdK@txd/ atmufjrefrmekdifiHwpfckvkH;udk rGefjynfe,ftjzpf awmif;qkd
rnf[lIvnf; owif;pm toD;oD;rS a&;om;az:jy=uonf//

rGefvlrsdK;a&;&m tzGJ@csKyfonf/ rdrdwkd@OD;aqmif qkH;jzwfawmif;qkdxm;aom/ rGefjynfe,f


az:xkwfa&;twGuf/ vkH;yrf; =udK;pm;vm&awmhonf// rGefvlrsdK;rsm; aexkdifaom/ c&kdif/
jrdK@e,f/ aus;&Gma'orsm;qDodk@ uGif;qif;pnf;&kH;&ef/ wm0efcGJa0 ,l=uonf// rGefjynfe,f
tjrefaz:xkwfa&; atmifjrifa&;twGuf/ ydkrdkjyif;xefaom pnf;&kH;a&;rsm;udk aqmif&Guf
edkfif&ef wm0efcJaG 0=uonf// a&;e,feSifhusdKuQrDe,fudk rGefocif=uD;/ rGefpHol/ edkifbvGifeSifh
a'ocHacgif;aqmifrsmjzpf=uaom ekdifyef;om (0Juavmif)/ ekdif'Gwf(uGmefvSm)/ ekdif&kd;wdk@eSifh
vufwGJjyD; pnf;vkH;a&;qif;usonf// rk'kHe,fudk/ edkifvSarmif/ ekdifomeSif;eSifh a'ocH
acgif;aqmifrsm;jzpf=uaom ekdifausmif(uavmhaomh)/ ekdifbkd;aumif;wkd@eSihf vufwJjG yD;
pnf&kH;a&; vkyfief;ukd aqmif&Guf=uonf//

rGefvlrsdK;a&;&mtzGJ@csKyf. xkd;azgufpnf;&kH;a&; vkyif ef;onf/ txl;yif atmifjrifvmonf//


zqyvtpkd;&onf rsufvkH;jyL;vmonf// Tokd@ pnf;&kH;a&;vkyfief;rsm; wkd;wufatmifjriff
vmonfeSifhtrSs/ zqyvtpkd;&onf/ rGefacgif;aqmifrsm;tm; enf;rsdK;pkHjzifhpwif/ &efjyK
vmonf// jcdrf;ajcmufvmonf// rGefvlrsdK; a&;&mtzGJ@csKyfuvnf; tpkd;&jcdrf;ajcmufrSKudk
wkef@jyef&ef jyifqif vmonf// zqyv tpkd;&uwdk;I vufeufjzifh zdeSdyf vmygu/
vufeufjzifh jyefvnf ckcHedkfif&eftwGuf/ rGefvlrsdK;a&;&mtzGJ@csKyf vufatmufwGif
trsdK;om; umuG,fa&; Xmewckudk v#dK@0Sufwkd;csJ@ zGJ@pnf;xm;vkdufonf//
196 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

TuJhokd@ rGefvlrsdK;a&;&m tzGJ@csKyfrS ajcvSrf;oGufoGufjzifh t&Sdeft[kefwif pnf;&kH;a&;


qif;aeonfhtcsdefwGif wzufY rGefwkdfif;&if;om; tpnf;t&kH; uvnf; tm;tifopfjzifh
pkpnf;nDnGwfpGm zGJ@pnf;vm=uonf// rdrdwkd@wkdufyJG qifcJhonfh/ wkdifjynfjyKv$wfawmf
a&G;aumufyGJtm; oydwfarSmufrSKa=umifh rdrdwdk@twGif; tcsif;csif; oabmuGJjym; jcm;em;
cJh=ujyD;/ txkduftavSsmuf tm;enf; ,drf;,dkifvmcJhonf// tiftm;opfrsm;udk pnf&kH;
odrf;oGif;I topfwzef pnf;vkH;nDnGwf tm;aumif;aom tpnf;t&kH;wck jzpfvm&ef
=udK;pm; vm=uonf//

1947-ckeSpfwGif rk'kHjrdK@e,f urm0uf&GmY rGefwkdif;&if;om; tpnf;t&kH;u rGeftrsdK;om;


nDvmcH w&yfudkac:,l usif;yygonf// 4if;nDvmcHrSvnf; rGefjynfe,faz:xkwf&ef
awmif;qkd a=umif; qkH;jzwf=uonf// tiftm;aumif;aom trSKaqmifopf w&yfudkvnf;
jyefvnf a&G;aumufwifajrmuf=uonf//

rGew
f kdif;&if;om;tpnf;t&kH;
tvkyftrSKaqmifopf

OuUX rGefzkd;csdK
'kOuUX ekdifatmifxGef;(yi)
taxGaxGtwGif;a&;rSL; ekdifcsrf;rGef(urm0uf)

trSKaqmiftzGJ@0ifrsm;
rGefq&m[kd(urm0uf)
q&mrGefzkd;pdef(urm0uf)
ekdifxGef;cif(urm0uf)
ekdifausmfvS
edkifarmif=uD;
edkifpHnGef@
q&mpH&$ef;(urm0uf)
wkd@jzpfonf//

rGefwkdif;&if;om; tpnf;t&kH;onf/ rGefvli,frsm;udk pnf;&kH;a&;twGuf vli,faumfrwD


w&yfukdvnf;zGJ@pnf;cJhonf// 4if;rGefvli,faumfrwDudk ekdifxGef;ciftm; OD;aqmifapcJhonf/
4if;aumfrwDrS=uD;rSL;usif;yaom/ vli,fum,AvvSKyf&Sm;rSKoifwef;w&yfudk/ armfvjrdKif/
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 197

&GmvGwfausmif;wGif zGifhvSpfay;cJhonf// oifwef;jyD;qkH;aomtcg/ armfvjrdKifjrdK@ay:wGif


pDwef;vSnfhvnfI rGefvli,f tiftm; jyyGJw&yfudk jyKvkyfcJhonf//

rGefwkdif;&if;om; tpnf;t&kH;rS &mrnowif;pmudk (3)ywf w=udrfus rGef-jrefrm bmom


(2)&yfjzifh xkwfa0cJhonf// rGefwkdif;&if;om; tpnf;t&kH;. a=uG;a=umfoHjzifh xkwfa0aom
&mrnowif;pmudk taxGaxGtwGif;a&;rSL; ekdifcsrf;rGefeSifh q&m[kd wkd@u =uD;=uyf
wm0efcHI xkwfa0;onf//

Tokd@rGeftrsdK;om;wkd@.trsdK;om;ekdifiHa&;vSKyf&Sm;rSK/tvGeft&Sdef&tm;aumif;aepOfrSmyif/
&efukefjrdK@&Sd rGefvli,ftzGJ@uvnf;/ txl;tpnf;ta0;w&yfudkac:,lco Jh nf/ 1947-ckeSpf
atmufwkdbmv(12)&ufae@wGif/ &efukefbk&m;vrf;&Sd/ uefx&kdufwm/ ekdifrGefaxmf/
aetdrfYusif;y=uonf// tpnf;ta0; obmywdtjzpf/ rGefausmfvu S aqmif&GufjyD;/
20
twGif;a&;rSL;tjzpfrGefatmifcspf(xkH;tkdif)uaqmif&Gufonf//

4if;tpnf;ta0;u oabmwltwnfjyKvkdufonfh/ qkH;jzwfcsufrsm;teuf ta&;ygonfh


qkH;jzwfcsufrsm;rSm/
(1) AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;eSifhtaygif;tyg0ef=uD;rsm;usqkH;onfudk/txl;
0rf;enf;a=uuGJjyD;vSsif/ vlowf0g'udkt=uGif;rJh&SKwfcsa=umif;//
(2) 1948/ckeSpfZefem0g&DvxufaemufrusapbJ/Armjynftm;vkH;0vGwf
vyfa&;ay;&efawmif;qkd a=umif;//
(3) &Srf;/u&if/ucsif/csif;/ vlrsdK;wdk@onfrdrdwkd@uH=urRmudk rdrdwkd@bmom/
zefwD;ekdifaomtcGifha&;rsm;ukd&&Sd=uonfudk0rf;omtm;&yga=umif;//
rGefvlrsdK;wkd@twGuf 4if;tcGifhta&;rsdK;udk r&&Sdojzifh txl;0rf;enf;
rda=umif;//
(4) ArmekdifiHtpkd;&u/ rGefvlxkudk,fpm;vS,frsm;/ awmif;qkdcsuf(7)csuf
teuf/ wcsufrSsjynfhjynfhpkHpkHray;bJ// rajymyavmufonfhtcGifh
ta&;eSifhom/t=uKH;0ifaom/tpdwftydkif;uav;tenf;i,fudkom/
vkdufavsmaoma=umifh/Ttpnf;ta0;uvkH;0rauseyfa=umif;//
(5) rGefvlxktm;vkH;.w&m;ojzifh/ awmif;qkdaomvkdvm;csufrsm;udk
&&Sdatmif/ rGefrsdK;cspf acgif;aqmifrsm;/ pdwftm;ravsSmhbJ/ w&m;
Oya'twGif;Y wnf&Sdaom vrf;a=umif;rsm;jzihf/ &Gyf&Gyfc|Hc|H=udK;yrf;

20
1958-1962/jrefrmedkifiHa&;/pm/269
198 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

aqmif&Guf&mwGif/ rGefvlxk ZmwdaoG;eSihf ulnD tm;ay;&ef/ T


tpnf;ta0;u wkdufwGef;yga=umif;//
(6) ArmekdifiHawmftpkd;&u/ rGefvlxk udk,fpm;vS,frsm;. awmif;qkd
csufrsm;udk tcdsefrSDjyefvnf pOf;pm;oifha=umif;//21
[lIjzpfonf//

rGefvli,fwdk@. qkH;jzwfcsufudk =unfhvsSif/ rGefvlrsdK;wkd@. w&m;rSSswaom/ awmif;qkdcsuf


(7)csufudk/ zqyvtpkd;&u rvkdufavsmonfhtwGuf/ tvGefrauseyfa=umif; ay:vGif
aeonf// rGefvlrsdK;wkd@onf/ rdrwd kd@onfvnf;/ tjcm;wkdif;&if;om; enf;wl/ ukd,fuH=urRm
udkf,fzefwD;cGifhudk &vkda=umif; xif&Sm;onf// rGefjynfe,fudk r&vSsif/ &onfhtxd
Oya'abmif twGif;rSaeI/ w&m;rSswaom enf;vrf;jzif qufvufawmif;qkdoGm;&ef
rGefjynfolvlxkudk eSKd;aqmfxm;onfudk awG@&onf// rGefvli,f tzJG@pnf;onf/ trsdK;om;
ekdifiHa&;awmif;qkdrSKwGif/ wufwuf=uG=uGyg0ifvmonfudk avhvmawG@&Sd&onf//

1947-ckeSpf atmufwkdbmv(16)&ufae@wGif/ usdKuQrDc&kdifvrdkif;&GmY rGefwkdif;&if;om;


tpnf;t&kH;.tpnf; ta0;udkusif;ycJhonf// 4if;tpnf;ta0;rS/ oD;jcm;rGefjynfe,f
awmif;qkd&efeSifh rGef&Jabmftpnf;t&kH; zGJ@pnf;&ef tqkdjyKcJh=uonf// wcsdefwnf;rSmyif/
rGefvGwfvyfa&;tzGJ@csKyf22uvnf; vrdkif;&GmY tpnf;ta0; usif;y=uonf// 4if;
tpnf;ta0;rS/ rGeftrsdK;om;wkd@. bmom/ omoem wkd;wufa&;twGuf/ aqmif&Guf
ay;&ef/ rGeftrsdK;om; wkd@tm; ppfwyfeSifh ykvdyftzGJ@wGif/ trSKxrf;cGifhjyK&ef/ oD;jcm;
rGefjynfe,f/ awmif;qkd&efwkd@eSifhywfoufIaqG;aEG;nSdeSKdif;=uonf//

1947-ckeSpf atmufwkdbmv/(29)&ufae@wGif/ rGefwkdif;&if;om; tpnf;t&kH;u =uD;rSL;I


rGeftrsdK;om;wkd@.tpnf;ta0;wpf&yfudk udsKuQrDc&kdif/ acsmif;qkHjrddK@e,f/ &GmvGwfaus;&Gm
Yusif;ycJhonf//23 4if;tpnf;ta0;wGif/ rGefwkdif;&if;om;tpnf;t&kH;. OuUXrGefbkd;csdKu
rGefvlrsdK;wkd@.=uD;rm;aom ordkif;tpOfvmudk &Sif;vif;wifjycJhonf// wqufwnf;rSmyif/
rGefvlrsdK;wkd@taejzifh/ rdrdwkd@&oifh&xkdufaom tcGifhta&;twGuf/ wkdufyGJ0if=u&ef
vkdtyfa=umif; eSdK;aqmf wkdufwGef; oGm;onf// rdrdwkd@uH=urRm rdrw
d kd@ udk,fwkdif zefwD;cGifh
&Sdaom/ oD;jcm;rGefjynfe,f &&Sda&;twGuf/ rGefwrsdK;om;tm;vkH;pnf;vkH; nDnGwf=u&ef

21
1958-1962/jrefrmedkifiHa&;/pm/270
22
1958-1962/jrefrmedkifiHa&;/pm/271
23
1958-1962/jrefrmedkifiHa&;/pm/271
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 199

wkdufwGef; eSdK;aqmfoGm;onf// 4if;tpnf;ta0;rSmyif/ rGefwkdif;&if;om; tpnf;t&kH;.


taxGaxG twGif;a&;rSL; ekdifcsrf;rGefuvnf;/ atmufyg twkdif;rdef@cGef;ajym=um;oGm;onf/

“ordkif;tpOftvmt&/ rGev f lrsdK;wkd@&J@ ykdifeufe,fy,fonf/ o&ufjrdK@txd


&Scd Jhonfudk rnfolwpfOD; wpfa,mufrsSrjiif;ekdifyg// okd@&mwGif jynfaxmifpk
jrefrmekdifiH. tvHawmfopfrmS / tjcm;wkdif;&if;om;wkd@twGuf oD;oef@ txdrf;
trSwftjzpf/ =u,fwpfvkH;pD &&SdcJh=uaomfvnf; rGet d lrsdK;udk
f rsKd ;om;wkd@rSm/ rdrv
udk,fpm;jyKaom/ =u,fwpfvkH; r&&SdcJhonfrSm/ tvGef0rf;enf; rdw,f// ”

txufygtwdkif; ekdifcsrf;rGefonf/ jywfom;pGm ajym=um;oGm;onf// 4if;tpnf;ta0;rSm/


ekdifxGef;&ifu/ rGeftrsdK;om;wdk@. tcGifha&;rsm;udk awmif;qkd wkdufyJ0G if&eftwGuf/
rGefvli,f tpnf;t&kH;rsm; zJG@pnf;xlaxmif oifha=umif; tqkdjyKwifoGif;oGm;onf//24

1947-ckeSpf atmufwkdbmv (30)&uf ae@wGif/ acsmif;qkHjrdK@e,f/ &GmvGwfaus;&GmY/


rGefwkdif;&if;om; tpnf;t&kH;/ A[kdOD;pD;tzJG@ tpnf;ta0;w&yfudk usif;ycJhonf//
4if;tpnf;ta0;rS/ qkH;jzwfcsuf(15)csufudk qkH;jzwfcJhonf// 4if;wkd@rS ta&;=uD;aom
qkH;jzwfcsufwcsdK@rSm/
(1) jAdwdefeSifh ,dk;',m;ekdfifiHrsm;odk@/ rGefcspf=unfa&; udk,fpm;vS,ftzJG@ apv$wf&ef//
(2) rGefudk,fpm;vS,frsm;tm;/ bk&ifcHeSifhvnf;aumif;/ ocifekeSifhvnf;aumif;/
awG@qkH cGifhjyK&ef//
(3) ekdifiHwGif;vrf;opfrsm;azgufvkyfa&;/ tvkyfvufrJhjy\emajz&Sif;ay;a&;//tdrfwGif;
vufrSKvkyfief;rsm;/ tm;ay;a&;twGuf/ bk&ifcHtm;wkdufwGef;&ef//
(4) A[kdwkdif;&if;om; tpnf;t&kH;u/ oD;jcm; rGefjynfe,f ay;&ef awmif;qkdrSKudk
axmufcH&ef//
ponfhqkH;jzwfcsufrsm;yg0ifonf//

TrGefwkdif;&if;om;tpnf;t&kH;/ A[kdOD;pD;tzGJ@tpnf;ta0;. qkH;jzwfcsuft&/ 1310-ckeSpf


yxr0gqkdvqef;(2)&uf/ (7/6/48)ae@wGif rGefwkdif;&if;om;tzGJ@tpnf;rS rGefzkd;csdK/
ekdifatmifxGef;/ rGefpHvSdKif/ q&mbdk;pdefwdk@onf/ ,kdk;',m;jynf/ befaumufjrdK@okd@
cspf=unfa&;c&D;oGm;cJhonf// cspf=unfa&;c&D;. &nf&G,fcsufrSm/ ,dk;',m;edkifiH&Sd rGefrsdK;eG,f
rsm;eSihfawG@qkHjyD;/ rGeftrsdK;om; vGwfajrmufa&; vSKyf&Sm;rSKtwGuf/ wkdifyifaqG;aEG;&ef
jzpfonf// txl;ojzifh 1757-ckeSpfu ArmOD;atmifaZ,s.&efudk wdrf;a&Smifaomtm;jzifh/

24
1958-1962/jrefrmedkifiHa&;/pm/272
200 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

,kd;',m;edkifiHwGiftajcwnf aexdkif ae=uonfh/ rGefrl;rwfrsdK;EG,f/ rGefppfol=uD;rsdK;EG,f/


rGeft&m&Sd t&mcHrsm;.rsdK;EG,f/ rGefolaX; ol=uG,frsdK;EG,frsm;eSifh wkdif;&if;om; udk,fpm;
vS,ftzGJ@ awGqkHcJhonf// [Hom0wD&Sd rGeftrsdK;om;wkd@. trsdK;om; vGwfajrmufa&;
vSKyf&Sm;rSK wkdufyJ0G ifaerSKwkd@udk &Sif;vif;wifjycJh=uonf//

,dk;',m; ekdifiHwGif &Sdae=uaom/ Anm;pdif/ Anm;avyftrsdK;EG,frsm;onf tvGef


emrnf=uD;aom/ rGefrsdK;EG,frsm; jzpf=uonf// TrGefrsdK;eG,ftm;vkH;wkd@onf/ ,dk;',m;wGif/
tajccsaexkdif &aomfvnf;/ pdwfwkd@onf/ rdrdwkd@.ae&ma'o tppftrSefjzpfaom/
yJcl;[Hom0wD aejynfawmfudkom/ tjrJwrf;owd& vGrf;qGwf ae=uqJyif&Sdonf//
rGefwkdif;&if;om; tpnf;t&kH;rS udk,fpm;vS,ftzGJ@ rGeftrsdK;om; rsm;eSihfawG@qkH&I/
,dk;',m;&Sd rGefrsdK;EG,fwkd@onf twkdif;rod 0rf;om=uonf// rGeftrsdK;om; vGwfajrmufa&;
twGuf/ vkdtyfaom tultnDrsm;udk/ ,dk;',m;&Sd rGefrsdK;EG,frsm;u/ ulnDrnf
jzpfa=umif;vnf; oabmwlnDrSK w&yfudk &&SdcJhonf// wdkif;&if;om; udk,fpm;vS,ftzGJ@
onf/ ,dk;',m;wGif tajcwnf aexkdifae=uaom/ rGeft&yfol t&yfom;rsm;eSihfvnf;
awG@qkHcJhonf// rGeftrsdK;om; vGwfajrmufa&; wkdufyGJtwGuf jyifqifrSKrsm;udk
vkyfaqmifcJhonf// &mrn a'o&Sd rGefrsdK;EG,frsm;eSihf ,dk;',m;ekdifiHwGif a&muf&Sdaeom
&mrn rGefrskKd;eG,fwkd@. yxrpnf;vkH;nDnGwfrSK =udK;yrf;csuf[k qkdekdifygonf// eSpfedkifiH&Sd
rGefrsm; cspf=unfa&; c&D;onf rGeftrsKd ;om; vGwfajrmufrSK/ vufeufudkfifawmf
vSefa&;twGuf y%mrjyifqifrSK c&D;[kvnf; qkdekdifonf//

rGeftrsdK;om;wkd@. trsdK;om;ekdifiHa&; awmif;qkdrSK/ oD;jcm;rGefjynfe,f xlaxmifa&;


vSKyf&Sm;rSKonf t&Sdeft[kef&vmonf// rGeftrsdK;om;wkd@. trsdK;om;pdwf"gwfonfvnf;
edk;=um;wuf=uGvmonff// ,dk;',m;edkifiHodk@a&muf&Sd aeaomrGefrsdK;eG,feSifh &mrna'o&Sd
rGeftrsdK;om;wkd@onf/ aygif;pnf; nDnGwfvm=uonf// TuJhokd@ rGeftrsdK;om;wkd@.
ekdifiHa&; vSKyf&Sm;rSK tiftm;aumif; t&Sdeft[kef &vmonfudk pkd;&drfw=uD;jzifh zqyv
tpdk;&u vnf;rsufajcrjywf apmifh=unfhaeonf// orkdif;tpOftvm =uD;rm;aom
vlrsdK;wrsdK; jzpfonfhtavSsmuf/ rGefvlrsdK;wkd@. trsdK;om;pdwf"gwf/ ekdf;=um;vmrSK/
trsdK;om;aygif;pnf; nDnGwfrSKwkd@udk tvGefpdk;&drfxdef@vef@pGm zqyv tpkd;&u tuJcwf
apmifh=unfhaeonf// ArmvlrsdK;udk zckH;,SOf tHwkekdifaomvlrsdK;onf/ rGefvlrsdK;om jzpfonf
udk zqyv Arm acgif;aqmifrsm;u/ aumif;rGefpGm em;vnfxm;onf// rGefvlrsdK;wkd@
trsdK;om; ekdifiHa&; awmif;qkdvSKyf&Sm;rSKudk jzdKcGJekdif&ef/ zqyv/ Armacgif;aqmifwkd@u
=uHpnftm;xkwf vmonf//
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 201

xkdtcsdefumvudkprf;ppf=unfhvSsif trsdK;om;edkifiHa&;udk wufwuf=uG=uGjzifh aqmif&Guf


aeaom/ rGefekdifiHa&; tzGJ@tpnf;[lI(2)zGJ@&Sdonfudk awG@jrif&ayrnf// rGefvlrsdK;a&;&m
tzGJ@csKyfeSifh/ rSGefwkdif;&if;om;tpnf;t&kH; wkd@jzpf=uonf// xkd(2)zGJ@t=um; rwlnDaom/
ekdifiHa&;tjrif cH,lcsufrsm;&Sdonfudkvnf; avhvmawG@&Sdekdifygonf// okd@aomfwzGJ@eSifhwzGJ@
wlnDrSK&&Sdatmif tjrJwrf; wkdifyif nSdeSdKif;jyD;rS aqmif&Guf=uonfudkvnf; awG@&onf/
Oyrm/ wkdif;jyKjynfjyKa&G;aumufyJt G ay: rGefwkdif;&if;om;tpnf;t&kH;rS/ekdifbkd;csdK/ edkifcsrf;rGef/
ekdifatmifxGef;wkd@eSifh rGefvlrsdK;a&;&mtzGJ@rS ekdifvSarmif/ ekdifbvGif wkd@onf rwlnDaom/
tjrifrsm;&Sd=uonf// rGefwkdif;&if;om;tpnf;t&kH;u a&G;aumufyGJudk uef@uGufcJhonf//
okd@aomf a&G;aumufyGJwGif ryg0ifbJ/uef@uGufjcif;xuf/ ,SOfjydKifjyD;yg0ifta&G;cHjcif;uykdrdkI
rGeftrsdK;om;tusdK;&Sdekdifonf[kjrifaom/rGefvlrsdK;a&;&mtzGJ@rS ekdifvSarmif/ ekdifbvGifwkd@u
a&G;aumufyGJwGifyg0ifcJhonf// TuJhokd@rwlnDaom tjrifrsm;&SdcJhygrl wOD;eSifhwOD; em;vnf
rSK &&Sdatmif/ =udKwifnSdeSdKif; oabmwlnDrSK &jyD;rS aqmif&Guf=uonfudk awG@jrif&onf//

rGeftrsdK;om;tcsif;csif;=um;wGif pnf;vkH;nDnGwfrSK wnfaqmufa&;twGuf tvGefvkdtyf


onf// nDnGwfrSK wnfaqmuf&ef tvGef ta&;=uD;a=umif;udk/ edkfifbvGifonf
aumif;rGefpGm em;vnfxm;onf// xkda=umihf trsdK;om;ta&;udk aqmif&Guf&mwGif
edkifbvGifonf/ rGefwkdif;&if;om; tpnf;t&kH;rS/ trsdK;om;acgif;aqmifrsm;eSifh nSdnSdeSdKif;eSkdKif;/
wkdifwdkifyifyif &SdcJhonf// yl;wGJ aqmif&Gufekdif&ef =udK;pm;cJhonfukd awG@&onf/ 1947-
atjyDv(9) wkdif;jynfjyK v$wfawmf a&G;aumufyJGudk oydwfarSmufaom/ rGefwkdif;&if;om;
acgif;aqmif rGefbkd;csdK/ ekdifcsrf;rGefwkd@eSifh wkdifyifnSdeSdKif;=ujyD;rS rdrdonf a&G;aumufyGJwGif
0ifcJhonf// rGeftrsdK;om;tcsif;csif;/ wOD;udk wOD; txifrvGJr=d u&efvkd tyfonf//
rGeftrsdK;om;tzGJ@pnf;tcsif;csif;vnf; wzGJ@eSifhwzGJ@ nDnGwf=u&efeSifh wlnDaom vkyfief;
rsm;wGif vufwGJaqmif&Guf=u&ef tvGefta&;=uD;onf[k edkfifbvGifujrifonf// TuJhokd@
tjrif&Sdaom ekdifbvGifeSifh rGefvlrsdK;a&;&m tzGJ@csKyf yk*~dKvfrsm;onf/ rGeftrsdK;om;
tusdK;twGuf/ tppt&m&m rGefwkdif;&if;om; tpnf;t&kH;rS yk*~dKvfrsm;eSifh wkdifwkdifyiffyif
aqmif&GufcJhonfudkawG@&onf// TuJhodk@ rGefvlrsdK;a&;&m tzGJ@csKyfeSifh rGefwkdif;&if;om;
tpnf;t&kH;tzGJ@cskKyfwkd@. nDnGwfpmG / wkdufyGJ0ifawmif;qkdaom/ oD;jcm;rGefjynfe,f
xlaxmifa&;onf/ rGefvlxk. axmufcHrSKukd tjynfht0 &&Sdvmonf//

rGeftrsdK;om;wkd@. rGefjynfe,f oD;jcm;awmif;qkdrSK t&Sdeft[kef&vmonf eSifhtrsS/


zqyv tpdk;&onfvnf; rsufvkH;rsufpHjyL;jzpfvmonf// rGefvlrsdK;wkd@ edk;=um;rSKtay:/
wxdef@wvef@jzpfvmonf// zqyvtpkd;&onf enf;rsdK;pkHjzifh/ aeSmuf,SufzsufqD;vm
onf// vufeufudkfif tzGJ@tpnf;jzifh/ jcdrf;ajcmufvmonf// Tjzpfay:vmaom/
tajctaeudk aumif;rGefpGm tuJcwfrdaom/ rGeftrsdK;om; ekdifiHa&; tzG@t
J pnf;rsm;onf/
202 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

tcsif;csif; pkaygif; nDnGwfrSKtwGuf =udK;yrf;vmonf// bkH&efol zqyv tpkd;&udk pkaygif;


&ifqkdifekdif&ef =udKwifjyifqifrSK jyKvkyfvmonf// rGefvlrsdK;a&;&mtzGJ@csKyfeSifh rGefwkdif;&if;om;
tpnf;t&kH;wdk@. trSKaqmiftcsdK@wdk@ awG@qkHaqG;aEG;=ujyD; bkHvkyfief;pOfjzpfvm aom
(rGefjynfe,faz:xkwfa&;)twGuf nSdeSdKif;=uonf// eSpfzGJ@pvkH;rS acgif;aqmifrsm;onf/
rGefjynfe,f&&Sda&;twGuf/ 'Drdkua&pDwkdufyGJvrf;pOf enf;vrf;jzifh jidrf;csrf;pGm aqmif&Guf
vkdaomqEN&Sd=uonf// okd@aomfrdrdwkd@jJidrf;csrf;aom'Drdkua&pD wkdufyJeG nf;vrf;ukd tm%m&
zqyvtzGJ@u taeSmuf,SufjyKrnf/ acsrSKef;ypfrnf[kjrif=uonf// xkda=umifh 'Drdkua&pD
wkdufyGJvrf;pOfydwfqkd@jcif;cH&vSSsif rGefjynfe,fudk rnfokd@az:&rnfudk nSdeSdKif;=uonf//
(vufeufjzifh 'Drdkua&pDwkdufyGJudk ydwfyifwm;jrpfvSsif/ vufeufjzifh xkd;azgufoGm;&rnf// )
[laom oabmw&m;udk vufcH=uonf// “awmfvSefa&;ppfonf rjyD;qkH;ao;aom/
ekdifiHa&; &nfrSef;csuf yef;wkdifudk qufvuf taumifxnfaz: vkyaf qmifoGm;&ef
enf;vrf;wckyif jzpfonf//” “vufeufudkfifawmfvSefa&;onf/ tjyif;xefqkH;aomekdifiHa&;
vkyfaqmifcsufwckjzpfonf”[laom oabmw&m;rsm;udk eSpfzJ@G rS rGefacgif;aqmifwkd@u
oabmwlvufcH=uonf// rGefvlrsdK;a&;&mtzGJ@csKyfeSifh rGefwkdif;&if;om;tpnf;t&kH;wkd@onf/
wzGJ@eSifhwzGJ@ pnf;vkH;nDnGwfrSK&&Sdatmif tjrJwrf;qkdouJhokd@ nSdedSkif;wkdifyifI aqmif&Guf
=uonfudkavhvmod&Sd&onf//

edkfifbvGifonf rdrdb0udk trsdK;om;ta&;wGifom jrKyfeSHvkdufonf// ae@rtm;nrtm;


ekdifatmif/ trsdK;om; ta&;wGif epfjrKyfaecJhonf// rdrd.udk,fydkifaysmf&$ifrSK tcsdefuav;
udkyif xnfhoGif; rpOf;pm;bJ trsdK;om;ta&;udk OD;pm;ay;cJhonf/// trsdK;om;tay:
oHa,mZOf =uD;rm;cJholwOD;jzpfonf// xkda=umifh ekdifbvGi. f trsdK;om;ekdifiHa&; vSKyf&Sm;rSK
onf/ rGefvlrsdK;a&;&m tzJG@csKyf. trsdK;om;ekdifiHa&;vSKyf&Sm;rSKeSifh wom;wnf; jzpfonfudk
avhvmawG@&Sdekdifygonf// rGefvlrsdK;a&;&mtzGJ@csKyf. trsdK;om;edkfifiHa&; vkyfaqmifrSK
rSefor#wdk@rSm/ edkifbvGifonf a&S@wef;Y yg0ifcJhonf[k qkdv#if rrSm;edkifay// tjcm;
rGefvlrsdK;a&;&mtzGJ@csKyf acgif;aqmifrsm;eSifhtwl vufwGJIwyfOD;Y tjrJwrf;yg0ifcJhonfudk
avhvmawG@&Sd&onf//

rGeftrsdK;om;ta&; aqmif&Guf&mwGif tjcm;aom b0wl vlrsdK;pktzGJ@rsm;eSihfvnf;


vufwGJ nDnGwf&ef tvGef ta&;=uD;a=umif;udk/ ekdfifbvGifwOD; aumif;rGefpGm wGufq
rddonf// wrdsK;om;wnf;/ wzGJ@wnf;/oD;oD;jcm;jcm; aqmif&Gufvkyfudkfifonfxuf/ b0wl
trsdK;om;tcsif;csif;/ tzGJ@csif;csif; aygif;pnf;jyD; nDnGwfpGm aqmif&Gufjcif;uydkrdk tusdK;
jzpfxGef; edkifonfudk em;vnf oabmayguf xm;onf// xkda=umifh r[mrdwfzJG@a&;udk
edkifbvGif txl;pdwf0ifpm;cJhonf// txll;ojzifh u&iftrsdK;om; tzGJ@pnf;rsm;eSifh vufwGJ
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 203

aqmif&Guf&ef=udK;yrf;cJhonf// u&iftrsdK;om;tpnf;t&kH;eSihf r[mrdwfzGJ@ekdif&ef =udK;pm;


cJhonf// u&iftrsdK;om;wkd@. trsdK;om;nDvmcHrsm;udk ekdifbvGifwOD;onf rysufruGuf
wufa&muf tm;ay;cJhonf// 1946-ckeSpw f Gif zgyGefwGif usif;yaom/ u&if trsdK;om;
uGefu&ufokd@4if;/ 1947-ckeSpf atmufwkdbmvwGif usif;yaom/ armfvjrdKif u&if
trsdK;om;uGefz&ifokd@4if;/ ekdifbvGifonf/ vkH;vpkdufI wufa&mufcJhonf// u&if
trsdK;om; acgif;aqmif =uD;i,frsm;eSifh &if;eSD; cifrifekdif atmif/=udK;pm;cJhonf//

1947-ckeSpf/ atmufwkdbmv(3)&ufeSifh (4)&ufwGif/ armfvjrdKifY usif;yaom u&if


trsdK;om; txl;uGefz&if nDvmcHokd@ ekdifvSarmif/ ekdifbvGif/ q&mwif/ rd[Hom/
rGefomvif;/ rGefpdefxGef;wkd@ wufa&mufchJjyD;/ rGef-u&if pnf;vkH;nDnGwfa&; twGuf/
rGefacgif;aqmifwkd@=udK;pm;cJhonf// 1947-ckeSpfarmfvjrdKif u&iftrsdK;kom;uGefz&ifrSmyif/
u&iftrsdK;om; acgif;aqmif OuUX=uD;apmbOD;=uD;u u&iftrsdK;om;. a&S@vkyfief;
vrf;pOf oabmxm;udk rGefacgif;aqmifrsm;udk ajymqkdwifjyxm;cJhonf// u&iftrdsK;om;
rsm;taejzifh zqyvtpkd;&udk vufeufukdif/ u&ifwyfrsm;./ tiftm;ukdjyjyD; rdrdwkd@.
trdsK;om;/ edkifiHa&; tcGifha&;rsm; udk t=uyfudkif awmif;,l&ef&Sdonf// rGeftrsdK;om;rsm;
taejzifhvnf; TuJhokd@vkyfoifh a=umif; t=uHjyKcJhonf// OuUX=uD;apmbOD;=uD;.
tjrifwGif TuJhokd@ t=uyfudkifv#if zqyvtpdk;&u tvG,fwulyif/ vkdufav#m
vmrnf[k awG;qxm;[efwlygonf// rGeftrsdK;om; acgif;aqmifrsm; jzpf=uaom
ekdifvSarmif/ ekdifbvGifwkd@onf/ OuUX=uD; apmbOD;=uD;. vrf;pOf oabmxm;rludk/
oaabmus vufcH=ucJhonf// xkdpOfurGef-u&if acgif;aqmifrsm;onf/ &kd;&dk;yif pOf;pm;
awG;ac:cJh=uonf// rGef-u&iftrsdK;omm;wkd@onf rSefuefrSswaom awmif;qkdrSKrsm; udkom
awmif;qkdjcif;jzpfonf// vlrsdK;wrsdK;taejzihf rdrdwkd@Y &&Sdxkdufaom/ rGefjynfe,f/
u&ifjynfe,fudk awmif;qkdjcif;rSsomjzpfonf// tjcm;aom/ &Srf;/ u,m;/ ucsif/ csif;
vlrsdK;pkrsm; &ouJhokd@ rdrdwkd@onfvnf; &&Sdoifhonf[k &kd;om;pGm/ ,kH=unfxm;=uonf//
z/q/y/v/ tpdk;&udk ppftiftm;jyjyD; rdrdwdk@. trsKd;om; edkifiHa&;tcGifha&;rsm;udk
awmif;qkdv#if/ oufwef;ekjyD;/ tm;enf;aeonfh/ z/q/y/v/ tpkd;& taejzifh/ tvG,fwul
yif/ vkdufav#mvmedkifrnf[kxifrSwfxm;=uonf//

TuJhokd@aom u&iftrsdK;om;wkd@. a&S@vkyfief;pOfudk OuUX=uD;apmbOD;=uD; csrSwf


vkyfaqmif&onfrSm ckdifvkHaom ta=umif;&Sdonf// xkdpOfumvwGif/ u&iftrsKd;om;
tpnf;&kH;rS pnf;&kH;odrf;oGif;I&xm;aom ppftiftm;rsm;rSm/ tvGefawmifhwif;onf//
jynfaxmifpk jrefrmedkifiHtpdk;&/ umuG,af &;Xme vufatmuf&Sd/ u&if&kdifz,fwyf
(3)wyf&if;vnf;&Sdonf// jynfxJa&;Xme vufatmuf&Sd/ u&ifppf&Jwyfvnf;/ u&if
trsKd;om;wkd@bufrSm&Sdonf// jAdwdo#bm;rm; &dkifz,fwyfxGufeSifh bDtrfyDwyfxGuf/
204 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

u&iftrsKd;om;rsm;udkvnf;/ OuUXl=uD; apmbOD;=uD. u&iftrsdL;om; tpnf;&kH;rS


odrf;oGif;I &&Sdxm;jyD;jzpfonf// 4if;tjyif 'kwd,urBmppf/ *syefawmfvSefa&;umvwGif
r[mrdwf t*FvdyfbufrS yg0ifwdkufckdufay;aom u&iftrsdK;om;rsm;/ rsm;pGm&Sdonf//
xkdu&iftrsdK;om; vufxJYvnf; v#dK@0Suf odrf;qnf;xm;aom/ vufeufcJ,rf;
rD;ausmufrsm;/ trsm;jym;&Sdaeonf// *syeftqkwfwGif t*Fvdyfrsm;u odrf;qnf;rukefI
u&ifaus;&Gma'owGif pGef@ypf xm;cJhaom/ vufeufcJ,rf; rD;ausmufrsm;udkvnf;/
u&iftrsdK;om; tpnf;t&kH;u/ trsm;tjym;/ pkpnf;&&Sdxm;=uonf// 4if;tiftm;wkd@udk
tajcjyKI u&iftrsKd;om; tpnf;&kH;onf/ u&iftrsdK;om;umuG,fa&;wyfzGJ@ (Karen
National Defence Organisation (KNDO) rsm;ukdyif/ tjrdK@jrdK@te,fe,fwdk@Y
zGJ@pnf;xm;edkifjyD; jzpfonf// u&iftrsdK;om;acgif;aqmifref;bZHonf/ xkdzGJ@pnf;xm;aom
(KNDO).OuUXjzpfvmonf//

u&iftrsdK;om;wkd@. vufeuftiftm;/ ppftiftm;/ ppftawG@=uKHwkd@udk tajcjyKjyD;/


(KNU) OuUX=uD; apmbOD;=uD;onf/ OD;ek/z/q/y/vtpkd;&tm;/ tiftm;jyI u&ifjynfe,f
awmif;,lrnfqdkonfrSm tvGef,kwWd&SdvSygonff// ta=umif;ckdifvkHonf[k qkd&ayrnf//
okd@aomf rGefvlrsKd;wdk@taejzifh/ z/q/y/v tpkd;&tm; jcdrf;acsmuf&ef vufeufqkdI
tyfwacsmif;r#/ r&dSao;yg// ppfoifwef;rsm;udk aumif;rGefpGmwufa&muf oif=um; xm;jyD;
aom rGefvli,fqkdv#ifvnf; r&Sdoavmuf enf;yg;onf// xdkumvY vufeufudk
udkifaqmif wwfaom/ ypfwwfaom rGeftrsdK;om;rsm;ukd vufcsdK;a&wGufvkd@ &edkifonf//
rsm;rsm;jym;jym; r&SdvS// &Sif;&Sif;ajym&v#if/ rGefwdk@rSm u&iftrsdK;om; tpnf;&kH;uJhokd@/
vufeuftiftm; vltiftm;r&Sday//

OuUX=uD;apmbOD;=uD;. t=uHOm%fjzpfaom/ ppftiftm;jyjyD; z/q/yv/tpdk;&udk/ t=uyf


udkifI trsdK;om;tcGifhta&;rsm;udk awmif;qkd,lrnf[laom vrf;pOfudk/ rlt&vufcH
vmcJh=uaom rGefacgif;aqmifrsm;onf/ wu,f vufawG@wGif taumifxnfaz:&ef/
tcufcJrsm;pGmjzifh &ifqkdifawG@&onf// vufeufudk rnfuJhokd@ pkaqmif; &,l=urnfenf;/
rnfuJhokd@ vltiftm; pkaqmif;&rnfenf;/ pkaqmif;I&vmaom vli,frsm;udk rnfodk@
ppfoifwef;ay;&rnfenf;ponfh jyoemaygif;pkHeSifh rGefacgif;aqmifrsm;&ifqkdifae&onf//

rGefvlrsdK;a&;&mtzGJ@csKyf acgif;aqmifrsm;jzpfaomekdifvSarmif/ ekdifbvGif/ ekdifaiGodef;/ efkfifpHol/


ekdifbnGef@(ekdifbvGif.nD)/ edkifyef;omwkd@onf/vufeuftiftm;&&Sda&;/ vltiftm;&&Sda&;/
trsdK;om;wyfrawmfwck wnfaqmufekdi&f ef tvsiftjref aqmif&Gufvm&onf//
rGefvlrsdK;a&;&mtzGJ@rS acgif;aqmif =uD;i,fwkd@onf/ rnfokd@qufvuf aqmif&Guf&rnfudk
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 205

vSsdK@0SufI vsifvsif jrefjref wkdifyifaqG;aEG; qkH;jzwf=u&onf// wufwkwf&kduf aqmif&Guf


&onf// tcsdefr&SdvSawmhacs// u&iftrsKd;om;uJhokd@ vufeuftiftm;rjyekdifcJhv#if/
rGefvlrsKd;wkd@tay: z/q/y/v/tpdk;&./ wzufowftqkH;jzwfudk cH&ekdifonf// u&ifvlrsKd;udk
jynfe,fxlaxmifay;jyD;/ rGefvlrsKd;udk jynfe,fray;bJ csefvyfxm;edkifonf// TtwGuf
rGefacgif;aqmifrsm;u pdk;&drfylyefrdonf// &kwfw&uf csufcsif; pDrHaqmif&Guf &ojzifh/
tvGeftcufcJeSifh &ifqkdifawG@ae&onf// xkdtcsdefumvonf/ vufeufpkaqmif; &,l
ekdifaom enf;vrf;rSm (2)vrf;om &Sdonf[k/ rGefacgif;aqmifrsm;u jrif=uonf//
(1)aiGa=u;jzifh 0,f,l pkaqmif; &,laomenf;// (2)vufeufudk/ ykvdyx f HrS vk,l
pkaqmif;aomenf;jzpfonf// vufeufudk0,f,lpkaqmif; ,l&efvnf; rvG,fulvSacs//
aiGa=u;tvkHtavmuf pkaqmif;&&Sd&ef tcufcJu&Sdao;onf// aiGa=u;&Sdonfxm;OD;awmh
vufeufudk/ 0,f,l&ef rvG,fulvSacs// TuJhokd@aom tajcrsdK;udk/ rGefvlrsKd;a&;&mtzGJ@rS
rGefacgif;aqmifrsm;u &ifqkdifawG@=uKHae&onf// 'ga=umifh aemufqkH;wGif vufeufudk/
jzpfaomenf;jzifh vk,lI pkaqmif;,l&ef/ rGefvlrsKd;a&;&mtzGJ@ acgif;aqmifrsm;u qkH;jzwf
vkduf&onf//

vufeufrsm;udk vk,lI pkaqmif;,lrnfqkdonfrSmvnf; vG,fulvSonhf vkyfief;&yfwck


r[kwfyg//tvGefv#dK@0SufI/=uHpnf/aqmif&Guf&onf// rayguf=um;atmifaqmif&Guf&onf//
rGefacgif;aqmifrsm;u/ rGefvli,frsm;udk v#dK@0Suf nGef=um; aqmif&GufapcJhonf// t"durSm
rGefvlrsK;da&;&mtzGJ@csKyfrS vufeufrsm; pkaqmif;aeonf/ vufeufrsm;udk vk,l&ef pDpOf
aqmif&Gufaeonf qdkwJhtcsufwdk@udk z/q/y/v/tpkd;&tm; vkH;0rod&Sdap&efyifjzpfonf//
vkH;0 rayguf=um;ap&efjzpfonf// TuJhokd@ rGefacgif;aqmifrsm;onf/ wufwkwf&dkufI/
rGeftrsKd;om;umuG,fa&; Xmewckudk zGifhvSpfedkif&ef =udK;pm;=uonf// xkdpOfumvwGif/
u&if trsdK;om; umuG,fa&;wyfrsm; &SdaejyD;jzpfonf// rGeftrsdK;om;umuG,fa&;wyfwGif/
rGefpHolu wm0efcHjzpfonf// ekdifbnGef@eSifh edkifyef;omwdk@u 'kwm0efcHrsm;jzpfonf// rsdK;cspf
rGefvli,frsm;udk vkdufvHpnf;&kH;odrf;oGif;&onf// pnf;&kH;odrf;oGif;I &vmaom
vli,frsm;udk ekdifbnGef@u v#dK@0SufpGm ppfa&;;oifwef;rsm; ay;&onf// aemufykdif;wGif
jynfol@&JabmftzGJ@/ weoFm&Dwkdif; avhusifha&;XmerS/ AdkvfrGefodef;(xkH;tkdif) vma&muf
yl;aygif;ojzifh/ tiftm;ydkrdkaumif;rGefvmonf// 4if;vli,frsm;udktajccHjyD;/ rGeftrsdL;om;
umuG,fa&;wyf (Mon National Defence Organization (MNDO)/udk zJG@pnf;
ekdfifcJhonf// /trnfemrom/ xlaxmifxm;edkifjyD; jzpfaomfvnf;/ rGefumuG,fa&; wyfwGif/
vufeuftiftm;vkH;0r&Sdfao;acs// xkd@a=umifh vufeuf&&Sd&ef tjrefqkH; taumifxnfaz:
aqmif&Guf&onf//
206 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

TuJhokd@ rGefvlrsdK;a&;&mtzGJ@rS trsdK;om;a&; vkyfief;rsm;udk ajcvSrf;oGufoGufeSifh vSsdK@0Suf


vkyfaqmifaeonfhtcsdefrSm rGefwkdif;&if;om;tpnf;&kH;rS rGefacgif;aqmifwdk@onfvnf;/
rdrdwkd@vrf;pOfjzihf trsdK;om;a&;vkyfief;rsm;udk wenf;wvrf; wkd;jrSifhI vkyfaqmifaeonf//
1948-ckeSpf azaz:0g&Dv/ ( )&uf (1309/ckeSpw f ydk@wG@Jvqkwf(1)&uf)ae@wGif/ yxr OD;qkH;
aom/ rGeftrsdK;om;ae@ tcrf;em;udk bDvl;u|ef;/ &GmvGwf&GmwGif rGefwkdif;&if;om;
acgif;aqmif(7)OD;wdk@u OD;pD;Iusif;ycJh=uonf// rGefwkdif;&if;om;tpnf;t&kH; acgif;aqmif
wkd@onf/ 1946-ckeSpf yinDvmcH. qkH;jzwfcsufw&yfjzpfaom/ [Hom0wD aejynfawmf/
wnfaxmifaomae@ wydk@wJG vqkwf(1)&ufae@udk rGeftrsdK;om;ae@tjzpf owfrSwf
usif;y&ef qkH;jzwfcsuf &SdcJhonfhtnD/ rGeftrsdK;om;ae@udkdpwif usif;y=ujcif; jzpfonf//
rGeftrsdK;om;ae@udk yxrOD;qkH; pwifusif;ycJhaom/ rGefwkdif;&if;om; tpnf;t&kH;
acgif;aqmif(7)OD;wdk@rSm atmufygtwdkif;jzpf onf//
(1) q&mawmfemJukov(uGmef,kduf)(usdKufoDrGefausmif;q&mawmf=uD;)
(2) ekdifzdk;csdK/
(3) edkifx0ft;(urm0uf)
(4) emJysKif(urm0uf)
(5) emJqmefrnf(urm0uf)
(6) emJz0fpdif(urm0uf/ekdifzkd;pdef)
(7) emJz0ftHif(ekdfifzdk;atmif/&GmvGwf)25

txufyg rGefwdkif;&if;om; acgif;aqmifyk*~dKvf(7)OD;wkd@ OD;aqmifjyD; &GmvGwf&Gm txuf


&kyf&Sif&kHwGif rGeftrsdK;om;ae@udk pnf;um;odkufjrdKufpGm usif;ycJh=uonf// aemifeSpf
aeSmifeSpfrsm;wGif rGeftrsdK;om;wkd@onf rdrdwkd@.trsdK;om;ae@udk wyfkd@wJGvqkwf(1)&uf
ae@ a&mufwkdif; eSpfpOfrysufruGuf qufvufusif;ycJ@=uonf//

xkdokd@rGef-u&ifvlrsdK;wkd@ trsdK;om;awmif;qkdrSKtwGuf jyifqifrSKonf/ t&Sdeft[kef&/


tm;aumif;vmonfhtcsdefwGif/ zqyvtpdk;&. zdeSyfrSKrsm; rormvkyf=uHrSKrsm; wpp
jzpfay: vmonf// rGef-u&ifacgif;aqmifrsm;tay: trsdK;rsdK; zdeSdyfhrSK jcdrf;ajcmufrSKrsm;udk
jyKvkyfvmonf// rGefvlrsdK;a&;&mtzGJ@csKyfrS acgif;aqmifrsm;onf/ rdrdwkd@ =udKwifjyifqif&ef
vkdtyfonfrsm;udk/ wufwkwf jyifqifaqmif&Guf&ef tcsdefa&mufaejyD; jzpfa=umif;udk
oabmaygufvmonf// &Jpcef;rsm;udkodrf;ykdufjyD; tvsiftjref vufeufcJ,rf; rD;ausmuf
rsm;udkpkaqmif;&ef e*kdutpDpOf&Sd xm;onfhtwkdif;/ jrefjrefaqmif&Guf&efpDpOf=uonf//

25
k?I]pjq*I]pjmxjkuEqvcjrtjTwj\tCYek.njgkUmxjepcj(5w)qN.ow>\
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 207

rGefvlrsdK;a&;&m tzGJ@csKyfonf/ ekdifyef;omeSifh rGefAkdvfodef; wkd@eSpfOD;tm; OD;aqmifapjyD;


rGefvli,fta,muf(30)wkd@eSifhtwl/ 1948/ckeSpf/ Zlvkdifv(20)&uf/ aumZmouU&mZf/
(1310)/ 0gacgifvjynfhae@&ufwGif/ Zmojyifaus;&Gm&Jpcef;udk twif;t"rR 0ifa&muf
odrf;ykdufjyD;/ &JxHrS vufeufrsm; udkodrf;,laponf// (Tae@udktpGJjyKI rGeftrsdK;om;
awmfvSeaf &;ae@[k owfrw S fcJh=uonf) Tae&mwGif ekdifyef;omeSifh rGefAkdvfodef;wkd@eSpfOD;udk
OD;aqmifaponfrSmvnf; ta=umif;&Sdonf/ ekdifyef;omonf Zmojyif&Gmom; r[kwfyg//
oHjzLZ&yfjrdK@teD;rS 0Juavmif&Gmom;jzpfonf// xdk@twl AkdvfrGefodef;onfvnf; Zmojyif
&Gmom;r[kwfyg// xkH;tkdif&Gmom;jzpfonf// &nf&G,fcsufrSm/ trnfrodaom rGefvli,fwpk
wdk@u/ &Jpcef;&Sd/ vufeufcJ,rf; rD;ausmufrsm;udk vk,lodrf;ydkufoGm;onf[k trsm;u
xifrSwfatmifaqmif&Guf&jcif;jzpfonf// rGefvlrsdK;a&;&mtzGJ@/ trnffvkH;0rayguf=um;&ef
&nf&G,fonf// tu,fI trnfayguf=um;ygu zqyvtpkd;&eSifh rGefvlrsdK;a&;&mtzGJ@csKyf
acgif;aqmifwkd@ xdyfwkdufyÉdyuQjzpfoGm;rnf//

xkdpOfu ekdifyef;omwkd@rSm/ vufeuf[lI/ pwif;uef;wvuf/ ajcmufvkH;jyL; wvufeSifh/


*syef&kdifz,fwvufjzifh &Jpcef;udkodr;f ydkuf ,lcJhonf// tvGef owWd&Sdonf[k qkd&ayrnf//
Zmojyif &Jpcef;udk odrf;ykdufekdifjyD;/ atmifyGJcHvkdufaom/ rGefvli,frsm;wkd@onf/ tvGef
tm;rmef wuf=uGvmonf// wqufwnf;wGif/ aumhbdef;/ aumhayguf/ uwkd;/ aumhESyf/
xkH;tkdif&Gmokd@oGm;I/ &Jpcef;&Sd vufeufcJ,rf; rD;ausmufrsm;udk vkdufvHodrf;ykduf
,cl Jh=uonf// jrpfa=umif;wGif oGm;vmaeaom/ tpdk;&oabFmudkyg odrf;ydkufvkduf=uonf//
atmifyGJ& tm;rmef wufaeonhf rGefvli,frsm;yDyD/ ekdifyef;omeSifh AkdvfrSGefodef;wkd@rSm
trSwfrxifbJ/ rGefvlrdsK;a&;&mtzGJ@. tvHudk v$ifhxljyD; atmifyGJcH=uonf// TuJhokd@
vufeuf odrf;,l&mwGif rGefvlrsKd;a&;&mtzGJ@. trnfemr/ wHqdyfwkd@udk/ vkH;0tokH;rjyK&/
owif;rayguf=um;atmif/ v#dK@0SufpGm aqmif&Guf &rnf[laom rlv&nf&G,fcsufudk
arhaysmufoGm;=uonf//

rGefvlrsdK;a&;&mtzGJ@. tvHudk &J&Jwif;wif; xifxifay:ay:v$ifhxljyD; atmifyGJcHvkdufojzifh/


ajz&Sif;IrvG,fulaom aemufqufwGJ jy\em&yfrsm;udk zefwD;vkdufovkd jzpfoGm;onf//
z/q/y/v/tpdk;&onfvnf;/TtvHudkta=umif;jyKjyD;/ rGeftrsdK;om;acgif;aqmifrsm;tay:
xkd;eSuf&ef tcGifhaumif;w&yf&oGm;onf// Tvufeufodrf;,ljcif;udpPonf/ rGefvlrdsK;
a&;&mtzGJ@. vuf&momjzpf&rnf[k tckdifrmpGyfpGJajymqkdvmonf// acgif;aqmifrsm;tm;
ta&;,l&ef jcdrf;ajcmufajymqkdvmonf// ekdifvSarmif/ekdifaiGodrf;ekdifbvGif ekdifpHolwkd@u
'kdifcHajz&Sif;&onf// rGefvlrsdK;a&;&mtzGJ@ acgif;aqmifrsm;taejzifhvnf; TudpPudk rdrdwdk@
vkH;0rod&onfhta=umif;/ vdrfvnf ajz&Sif;&onf// rGefvlrsdK;a&;&mtzGJ@./ n$ef=um;csuf
t& aqmif&Gufjcif;vnf; r[kwfyg// tzGJ@0if vli,fwpkwdk@u ekdifiHa&;uGsHI rqifjcif
208 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

vkyfaqmif rdjcif;om jzpfonf[k oufqkdif&m tm%mydkifrsm;tm; ajz&Sif;&onf//


TrGefvli,frsm;udk tjrefqkH;vufeufcsbdk@ oufqkdif&m tm%mykdifrsm;u awmif;qkd
vmonf// rGefvlrsdK;a&;&m tzGJ@acgif;aqmifrsm;udk wm0efay;jyD; xkdvli,frsm;tm;
vufeufcsatmif/ aqmif&Guf aponf// OuUXekdifvSarmif/ twGif;a&;rSL;ekdifaiGodrf;wkd@u
vkdufvH aqmif&Guf&onf// odk@aomf rGefvli,facgif;aqmif/ ekdifyef;omeSifh AkdvfrGefodef;
wkd@uvufeufrcs/vufeufrtyf[k/jyif;jyif;xefxefjiif;qefaecJhonf// Tokd@edkifyef;omwkd@
jiif;qefae&jcif;rSm/ edkifaiGodef;eSifhrGefacgif;aqmifrsm;.v#dK@0Sufn$ef=um;jcif;a=umifh jiif;qef
aejcif;jzpfonf// rGefvli,frsm;tm; vufeufcsapa&; =udK;yrf;rSKonf/ [efaqmifrSKom
jzpfonf// aemufqkH;wGif rGefvli,frsm; vufeufwkdufckduf,lrSK udpPudk tpkd;&eSifh
rGefacgif;aqmifwkd@ =udK;pm;yrf;pm; aqmif&Guf=uaomfvnf;/ jy\emonf ajyvnf
oGm;jcif;r&Sday//

rGefvlrsdK;a&;&mtzGJ@. acgif;aqmifrsm;eSifh tpkd;&tm%mydkifwkd@ t=um;wGif tajcaeonf/


wjznf;jznf;wif;rmvmonf// aemufqkH;wGifrGefvlrsdK;a&;&mtzGJ@ acgif;aqmifrsm;jzpfaom/
ekdifbvGief Sifh ekdifaiGodr;f udk/ 1948-ckeSifhZlvkdifv/(28)ae@wGif/ tm%mydkfifrsm;uzrf;qD;jyD;
armfvjrdKifaxmifokd@ykd@xm;vkdufonf// aemufwae@Zlvkdifv(29)ae@wGif/ uavmhaomhwGif
wm0ef,laqmif&Gufaeaom/ rGefvlrsKd;a&;&mtzGJ@ acgif;aqmifrsm;jzpfonfh/ ekdifpHol/
rGefbkd;aumif;/ ekdifpdefxGef;(uanSmf)/ AdkvfausmifeSifh&Jabmf(20) ausmfwkd@udkzrf;qD;jyD;/
armfvjrdKif axmifokd@ ydk@xm;vkduf=uonf// rGefvlrsdK;a&;&mtzGJ@eSifh tm%mydkfifwkd@t=um;
wGif jy\emonf ajz&Sif;I rajyvnfbJ/ =uD;rm;oxuf =uD;rm;vmonf// tajcaeonf
wjznf;jznf;wif;rmvmonf//

armfvjrdKif&Sd rGefacgif;aqmifrsm;udk zrf;qD;vkdufonf qkdaomowif;udk/ oxkHc&kdif&Sd rGef-


u&if/ acgif;aqmifrsm;u od&Sdaomtcg/ vufwke@fjyefonfhoabmjzifh/ oxkHjrdK@eSifh
c&kdifwckvkH;udk 1948-ckeSpfZlvkdifv(29)&ufae@rSpIrGef-u&if acgif;aqmifrsm;u/ vkdufvH
odrf;ydkuf=uonf// rGeftrsdK;om;zufrS ekdifodef;aarmifu OD;pnf;aqmif&Gufonf// rGef-u&if
yl;wGJaumfrwDw&yf zGJ@pnf;I tkyfcsKyfonf// rGeftrsdK;om;bufrS ekdifom[ef/ ekdifxGef;pdef
(rif;oef;xGef;.zcif)/ ekdifatmifcsppf H (ekdifbvGif.nD)wkd@u yg0ifI tkyfcsKyfa&;
wm0ef,l=uonf// TuJhokd@ oxkHjrdK@udk rGef-u&ifrsm;u odrf;ydkufvkdufonf [laom
owif;udk tpkd;&uodd&dSaomtcg/ armfvjrdKifjrdK@ukdvnf; TuJhokd@yif rGef-u&ifrsm;
odrf;ykdufvmrnfudk z/q/yv/tpkd;&upkd;&drfvmonf//
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 209

zqyvtpkd;&onf armfvjrdKifudk =udKwifumuG,fr_rsm; uref;uwef; aqmif&Guf&ef


=udK;pm; vmonf// zrf;qD;csKyfaeSmifjyD; axmifoGif; xm;aom/ rGeftrsdK;om; acgif;aqmif
rsm;jzpfonfh ekdifbvGif/ ekdifaiGodrf;/ rGefpHol/ ekdifausmif/ rGefbkd;aumif;/ ekdifpdefxGef;wkd@eSifh4if;/
armfvjrdKifjrdK@&Sd u&ifacgif;aqmifrsm;eSihf4if; awG@qkHaqG;aEG;&ef udk,fpm;vS,f apv$wf
vmonf// &efukefjrdK@SrS&JcsKyf/ AkdvfcsKyfxGef;vSatmifeSifh u&iftrsdK;om;tpnf;&kH;rS u&if
acgif;aqmif apmom'ifwkd@udk tpdk;&uapvGwfvmonf// 1948-ckeSpfZlvkdifv(31)ae@wGif
armfvjrdKifjrdK@AdkvfwJwGif &JcsKyfAkdvfcsKyfxGef;vSatmifonf/ wkdif;rif;=uD; OD;cifaarmif&if/
c&kdif0efOD;bpef;/ c&kdif&J0efaxmufOD;vSarmifwkd@eSifh/ awG@qkHaqG;aEG;=uonf// jy\em
t&yf&yfajyvnfa&;twGuf rnfuJhokd@ aqmif&Gufv#if oifhav#mfrnfudk n_de_dif;wkdifyif
=uonf// TuJhodk@pka0; n_de_dif;wkdifyifaepOfrSmyif/ ppf&Jwyf&if;t&m&Sd u&iftrsdK;om;
apm[if'gqifeSifh u&if&Jabmfwyfom;rsm;u/ 4if;pnf;a0;xkdifae=uaom/ tpdk;&t&m&Sd
tmvkH;wkd@udk n(8)em&DwGif zrf;qD;vkdufonf// AkdvfcsKyfxGef;vSatmif wOD;onfom/
xGufajy;vGwfajrmufoGm;onf// xkdtm%modrf;aom/ u&iftrsKd;om; apm[if'gqifwkd@
tzJG@uyif/ ekdifbvGif/ ekdifaiGGodrf;/ ekdifpHol/ ekdifausmif/ rGefbkd;aumif;/ rGefpdefxGef;wkd@udk
nwGif;csif;yif/ axmifrSxkwfcJhonf//

1948-ckeSpfZlvkdifv(31)nYyif rGef-u&ifacgif;aqmifwdk@ n_deikd f;wdkifyifjyD; armfvjrdKifjrdK@eSifh


usdKuQrDc&kdifwckvkH;udk odrf;,l&efqkH;jzwf=uonf// 1948-ckeSpf=o*kwfv(1)&ufae@ eHeuf
rdk;rvif;rD armfvjrdKifjrdK@udk odrf;ydkuf,lvkdufonf// rk'kHjrdK@udk eHeuf(11)em&DtcsdefwGif
odrf;ykduf,lvkdufonf// usefaomoHjzLZ&yfjrdK@/a&;jrdK@eSifh acsmif;qkHjrdK@rsm;udk odrf;ykduf,l&ef/
toD;oD;wm0efcJaG 0,l=ujyD;/ aqmif&Guf=uonf// txl;ojzifh/ OD;pD;aqmif&GufolrSm
ekdifaiGodr;f jzpfonf// usdKKuRa&mjrdK@rSwyg;tm;vkH;aom jrdK@rsm;udk rGefwdk@uodrf;,lekdifcJhonf//
rGefwyf&if;&kH;udkrl bkdukef;&yf txufvrR=uD;/ a&$wnifwGifzGifhvSpfxm;onf// armfvjrdKifjrdK@
udkodrf;ydkfufjyD;aemuf/ ekdifiHa&;/ppfa&;/ tkyfcsKyfa&;rsm;udkyl;wGJaqmif&Gufekdif&ef/ rGef-u&if
yl;wGJaumfrwDw&yfudk zGJ@pnf; =uonf//

1948-ckeSpf=o*kwfv(2)&ufwGiftpdk;&. ar,kppfoabFmonf armfvjrdKifjrpfwGif;odk@


0ifa&mufqkdufuyfvmonf// &JcsKyfAkdvfcsKyfxGef;vSatmifvnf;oabFmeSifhtwlygvmonf//
AkdvfcsKyfxGef;vSatmif.zdwf=um;csuft&/ edkifvSarmif/ ekdifbvGif/ ekdifaiGodfrf;wkd@(3)OD;onf/
ar,koabFmrSm&Sdaeaom AdkvfcsKyfxGef;vSatmifudk oGm;a&mufawG@qkHcJhonf// rGefjynfe,f
udk tpdk;&rS tjrefqkH;taumifxnfaz:ay;ygu tm;vkH;jidrf;csrf;oGm;rnf[k rGefacgif;aqmif
rsm;u wifjy cJhonf//
210 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

z/q/y/v/ tpdk;&onfvnf; vdrfrm yg;eyfpGm enf;y&d,m,frsm;udk usifhokH;I jy\emudk


udkifwG,f ajz&Sif;&ef tylwjyif; =udK;pm;vmonf// rGef-u&ifwkd@=unfndKav;pm;aom/
au/tif/,l/ OuUX=uD; apmbOD;=uD;eSifh apm0DvDausmf wkd@udk pnf;&kH;I armfvjrdKifokd@
apv$wfcJhjyefonf// 1948-ckeSpf=o*kwfv(8)&ufwGif/ u&iftrsdK;om;tpnf;&kH;rS OuUX=uD;
apmbOD;=uD;eSifh apm0DvDausmfwkd@ armfvjrdKifjrdK@udka&mufvmonf// OuUX=uD;apmbOD;eSifh
rGef-u&ifacgifaqmifwkd@ awG@qkHaqG;aEG;=uonf// xkdaqG;aEG;yGJwGif/ OuUX=uD;apmbOD;=uD;
onf/ rdrd.tjrifudk yGifhyGifhvif;vif; wifjyajymqdkoGm;onf//

“,ae@tcsdefcgonf/ vufeufudkif awmfvSeaf &;pwif&ef tcsed rf usao;a=umif;/


jrdK@&Gmwdk@udkodrf;jyD;/ ,SOfjydKiftpdk;&w&yf zGJ@pnf;&efvnf; roifhav#mfao;a=umif;/
rdrt d aejzifh jrifa=umif;/ z/q/yv/tpdk;&tm;/ vufeuftiftm;jyjyD; rGe-f
u&ifwkd@ vkdvm;aeaom/ trsdK;om; ekdifiHa&; tcGifha&;rsm;udk awmif;,l&efom
jzpfoifha=umif;//”

ponfjzifh tus,fw0ifh apmbOD;=uD;u &Si;f vif;wifjyonf// 4if;apmbOD;=uD;.tjrif


tay: armfvjrdKif&Sdu&ifacgif;aqmifrsm;eSifh rGefacgif;aqmif rsm; jzpf=uaom ekdifvSarmif/
ekdifbvGif/ ekdifaiGodrf;/ekdifpHolwkd@u oabmwlvufcHonf//

OuUX=uD; apmbOD;=uD;eSifh armfvjrdKif&Sd rGef-u&if acgif;aqmifwkd@. aqG;aEG;r_ oabmwl


nDcsuft&/ tpkd;&onf 'k/AkdvfrSL;=uD;aemfvm OD;aqmifaom/ ucsifwyf&if;(2)wyf&if;udk
armffvjrdKifokd@apvGwfcJhonf// 'k/AkdvfrSL;=uD;aemfvmonf/ rGef-u&if acgif;aqmif;rsm;eSifh
nSdke_dif;wkdifyifjyD; armfvjrdKifjrdK@udk(3)ykdif;/ydkif;ItkyfcsKyf=uonf// armfvjrdKif'kdif;0efuGif;ykdif;udk
u&ifwyfrsmukd4if;/ a&$awmif&yfrS armifiH&yfxdudk rGefwyfrsm;u4if;/ rkyGefeSifhqdfyfurf;
&yfuGufrsm;udk tpdk;&. wyfu4if;/ toD;oD; ykdif;jcm;I tkyfcsKyf=u&ef oabmwlcJhonf//
4if;tjyif/ usdKuQrDc&kdif vkHjcKHr_twGuf/ ppf0efxrf;wyf wwyfudkvnf; zGJ@pnf;&ef oabm
wl =uonf// 4if;zGJ@pnf;rnfh/ ppf0efxrf;wyf wyf&if;wGif/ rGefwyfcJw G cGJ/ u&ifwyfcJG wcGJeSifh
tjcm;aom vlrsKd;rsm;yg0ifonfh wyfcGJwcGJ/ pkpkaygif; wyfcJ(G 3)cGJjzifh/ zGJ@pnf;&ef oabmwl
=uonf// okd@aomf z/q/y/v/ tpkd;&onf rlvuyif r&kd;om;aom/ oabmxm; &SdcJhonfh
twkdif;/ wajz;ajz;/ 4if;.Zmwd&kyf ay:vmonf// rGefwyfcGJ/ u&ifwyfcJrG sm;jzifh/ zJG@pnf;rnfh/
ppf0efxrf; wyf&if;udk/ rGefwyfcGJ/ u&ifwyfcGJrsm; rygbJ tjcm;wyfrsm; jzifh zGJ@pnf;
xlaxmifvmonf//
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 211

zqyv tpdk;&onf jynfol@&JabmfeSifh/ z/q/y/v/ tpkd;& vufatmufcH vufeufudkif


wyfrsm;udk v#dK@0Suf/ vufeuf tiftm; ay;urf; axmufyHhjyD;/ rGefeSifh u&ifwyfrsm;udk/
v#dK@0Suf wkdufckduf acsrSKef; aponf// v#dK@0Suf vlowftzGJ@rsm;zGJ@I rGefacgif;aqmif/ u&if
acgif;aqmifrsm;udk vkyf=uH owfjzwfaponf// zqyv/ tpdk;&. tvpf0ifwkdufrSK/ tvpf
acsmif;ajrmif; ypfcwfrSK/ vkyf=uHrSKwkdk@a=umifh/ rGef-u&if vufeufudkfif wyfzGJ@wkd@onf/ rdrdwkd@
vkHjcKHa&; twGuf/ armfvjrdKifrS qkwfcGm cJh&onf// armfvjrdKifjrdK@rS zg;atmuf&Gmodk@4if;/
uavmhaomh/ xkH;tkdif/aumheSyf paom aus;&Gmodk@4if;/ qkwfcGmoGm;&onf//

1948-ckeSpfpufwifbmv/(2)&ufae@wGif usif;yaom wkdif;jynfjyKv$wfawmfqXr nDvmcH


wGif/ 0ef=uD;csKyfocifekonf oD;jcm;jynfe,fudpPeSifh ywfoufI ekdifiHawmftpkd;&.
oabmxm;udk ajym=um;cJhonf//

“jynfaxmifpk jrefrmekdifiH[m/ vlOD;a& enf;wJh ekdifiHwekdifiH jzpfw,f// 'DvkdvlOD;a&;


t& enf;yg;wJh ekdifiHwekdifiH[m/ wpk wa0;wnf; &Sdbdk@ vkdw,f/ pD;yGm;a&; t&
vnf;aumif;/ umuG,fa&;t& vnf;aumif;/ jynfaxmifpkudk tpdwfpdwf
tjr$mjr$m cGJvdk@r&bl;// vuf&Sd &Srf;jynfe,f/ ucsifjynfe,f/ u&ifeDjynfe,f
ponfjzifh cGJjcrf;rSK udkyif/ u|efawmf taejzifh &meSKef;jynfh oabmrwlbl;// 'grdk@
aemufxyf jynfe,fray;bkd@ u|efawmfwkd@ zqyv tpkd;&rSm rlcsxm;w,f//”26

OD;ek. zqyvtpkd;&onf aemufxyf jynfe,fay;&ef tvdkr&Sda=umif;udk twdtvif;


ausjimvkdufonf// ocifek. rdef@cGef;udk =unfhjcif;tm;jzihf/ zqyv Armacgif;aqmifrsm;.
qENrSm jynfe,f ay;a&;udk vkH;0 rvkdvm;a=umif; ay:vGif xif&Sm;aeonf// &Srf;/ u,m;/
ucsifjynfe,frsm;udkay;cJhonfudkyif vkH;0pdwfqEN r&Sdonfudk az:n$ef;aeonf// &Srf;/
u,m;/ ucsif/ csif; ponfwkd@udk vufopf ArmudkvdkeDatmufwGif xm0&xm;vkdonfrSm
ay:vGifaeonf//cGJxGufcGifhudktwdtvif; todtrSwfrjyKa=umif; tvGefxif&Sm;aaeonf//
yifvkHnDvmcHY Arm acgif;aqmifrsm; ajym=um;cJhaom pum;eSifh OD;ekOD;aqmifaom
zqyv acgif;aqmifwkd@. ajym=um;aom pum;rsm;wkdk@onf/ tvGef uGmjcm; aeonfudk
awG@&onf// vGwfvyfa&; &jyD;aemuf zqyv acgif;aqmifwkd@. pum;onf/ AkdvfcsKyf
atmifqef;. tjrifeSihf xifxif &Sm;&Sm; uGJvJ$ aeonfudk tuJcwf rd=uayrnf//
yifvkHnDvmcHeSifh vGwfvyfa&; &csdefonf/ &ufydkif;vydkif;rS#yif tcdsefumv uGmjcm;onf//
Armacgif;aqmif wkd@. edkifiHa&;tjriffajymif;vJrSKu jrefqefvGef vSonf//

26
(1958-1962/jrefrmedkifiHa&;/pm/273)
212 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

Tae&mwGif yifvkHnDvmcHY ajym=um;cJhaom/ AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;.pum;ukd tenf;i,f


axmufjyI a&;om;vkdygonf//

1947-ckeSpf azaz:0g&Dv(9)&ufwGif qufvuf usif;yaom/ yifvkH nDvmcHwGif/


odEMDapmfbGm;u obmywdtjzpf aqmif&GufjyD;/ Armudk,fpm;vS,f AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;u/
atmufygtwkdif; rdef@cGef;ajym=um;cJhjyefw,f/

“jrefrmjynfonf/ ,cktcg/ vGwfvyfa&;&jyD[k qkdekdifa=umif;/ usef&Sdaeao;aom


jy\emrSm/ awmifwef; a'orsm;yif jzpfa=umif;// AD;vyfaqG;aEG;yGJY/ awmifwef;
a'orsm;udk jrefrmjynfreSifh wcsdew
f nf;Y/ vGGwfvyfa&;ray;Irjzpf[k rdrad jymqkd
cJha=umif;// awmifwef; a'oudk/ jAdwdoSswkd@ wkduf&kduf tkycf sKyfjcif;udk jrefrmwkd@u/
reSpfouf// awmifwef;e,fudk awmifwef; vlrsdK;u tkycf sKyfjcif;udkom/ rdrw d kd@
vkdvm;a=umif;// jrefrmrsm;onf/ jAdwdoSswkd@.u|ef/ rjzpfvkda=umif;/ xkdenf;wl/
awmifwef; a'o rsm;vnf; jAdwdosSu|ef rjzpfapvkda=umif;// xkd@jyif awmifwef;
a'orsm;onf/ jrefrmwkd@. u|ef/rjzpfapvkda=umif;//”27

txufygAdkvfcsKyfatmifqef; ajym=um;cJhaom pum;eSifh apwem wkd@onf/ ,ck0ef=uD;csKyf


OD;ek ajym=um;aom pum;wkd@eSifh teSpfom&t&4if;/ apwemt&4if;/ rwlnD wvGJ
wacsmf jzpfaeonfudk awG@&onf// txufyg pum; eSpf&yfudk xkdyk*~dKvf eSpfOD;wkd@u ajymqkd
cJh=uaom/ tcsdefumvudk =unfhvSsif/ atmuffygtwkdif; awG@&ayrnf/ 1947-ckeSpf
azaz:0g&Dv (9)&ufeSifh 1948- ckeSpf pufwbFmv(2)&uf wdkd@jzpfonfudk awG@&ayrnf//
Tpum; eSpf&yfudk ajymqdkcJhonfh/ tcsdeftydkif;jcm;udk =unfhvSsif eSpfumv tm;jzifh
ruGmjcm;vS/ wpfeSpf ausmfausmfrSsom &Sdonf// odk@aomf/ t"dy`g,fonf tvGefuGmjcm;
vSonfudk awG@&ayrnf// Tpum;eSpf&yfudk=unfhjcif;tm;jzifh/ zqyvArmacgif;aqmifrsm;
rSm tprlvuyif/ &dk;om;rSKr&Sdonfh tcsufu ay:vGifxif&Sm;aeonf// [efaqmifrSKeSifh
jynfheSuf aeonfudk tuJjzwfawG@ekdifonf// zqyv tpdk;&. wkdif;&if;om;tay: xm;&Sd
aom/ rl0g'vrf;pOfonf/ Tokd@ajymif;vJ/ azgufjyef vmonfeiS fhtwl/ wzuf wGifvnf;/
rGef-u&if trsdK;om;wkd@. trsdK;om; vSKyf&Sm;rSKudk enf;rsdK;pkHjzifh/ acsrSKef;wkdufckduf&ef
t=uHxkwfvmonf// rGef-u&if trsdK;om;wkd@ pnf;vkH; nDnGwfrSKeSihf trsdK;om;edkifiHa&;
vSKyf&Sm;rSKwkd@udk/ ekdifiHa&;enf;t&/ xkd;eSuf jzdKcGJekdifa&;twGuf =udK;pm;vmonf//rGef-
u&iftrsdK;om;acgif;aqmifrsm;udkvkyf=uHowfjzwf&efvSsdK@0Suf=uHpnfvm=uonf//

27
/AkdvfcsKyfatmifqef;.vGwfvyfa&;=udK;yrf;rSKvpOfrSww
f rf;/pm/141
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 213

1948-ckeSpf atmufwkdbmv(5)&ufae@wGif/ zqyv OD;ektpkd;&onf/ jynfaxmifpk jrefrm


ekdifiHawmftpdk;& a'otvdkuf udk,fykdiftkyfcsKyfcGifh pkHprf;a&; aumfr&SiftzGJ@udk zGJ@pnf;
ay;vkdufonf// aumfr&Sif.vkyfief;rsm;rSmatmufygtwkdif;jzpfonf//
1/ u&if/rGef/&ckdifwdkif;&if;om;wkd@. a'otvkduf udk,fykdiftkyfcsKyfcGifh &vkdaomqENrsm;
udkpkHprf;&ef//
2/ tu,fI xkdqENrsm;onf tajccHOya'. oabmw&m;eSifh tusKH;0ifjyD;jzpfv#if/
xkdqENrsm;udk tjrefqkH; jznfhpGrf;edkifrnfhvkyfief;pOf enf;vrf;rsm;udk a&;qGJwifjy&ef//
3/ tu,fI xkdqENrsm;onf tajccHOya'. oabmw&m;eSifh tusKH;r0ifcJhaomf/
xkdodk@aom tcufcJrsm;udk ausmfvGefedkifrnfh enf;vrf;rsm;udk &SmazGay;&ef//
4/ txuf&SmazGawG@&Sdonfh enf;vrf;rsm;udk/ 'Drdkua&pDpHepft& tjrefqkH; txajrmuf
atmifzefwD;ekdifrnfhenf;vrf;rsm;udka&;qGJwifjy&ef//

Taumfr&Sif. &nf&G,fcsufrsm;rSm/ rGef/ u&if/ &ckdifvlrsdK;pkqkdif&m tcGifha&;rsm;udk ay;&ef


twGuf/ pkHprf;aom aumfr&Sifjzpfonf[k/ tpkd;&u ausjimcJhonf// 'gayrJh rGef-u&if
awmfvSefa&; acgif;aqmifrsm;onf// Taumfr&Siftay: vkH;0t,kH=unf r&Sdacs// rGef-u&if
vufeufudkif awmfvSefa&;udk aeSmufaeS;atmif wrifwum tcsdefqGJaom oabmjzifh
zGJ@pnf;aom aumfr&Sif jzpfonf[k jrif=uonf// trSefrSm Taumfr&Sifonf u&ifvlrsKd;
ta&; udpPudk t"duxm; pkHprf;jcif;jzpfonf// u&ifvlrsdK;. vufeufudkfif awmfvSefa&;udk
tcsdefrSD wm;qD;&eftwGuf/ u&ifjynfe,fudk ay;vkdaom oabmjzpfonf// rnfokd@aom
a'ojzifh/ u&ifvlrsdK;udk jynfe,f ay;oifhonfudk pkHprf;a&;twGuf t"duxm;jcif;jzpfjyD;
rGefeSifh&ckdifvlrsKd;rsm;ukdrl auseyf eSpfodrfhaom oabmjzifhom [efjy pkHprf;jcif;jzpfonf[k/
rGefacgif;aqmif/ &ckdifacgif;aqmifwkd@u jrif=uonf//

u&if trsdK;om;rsm;udk jynfe,f ay;rnf// rGefvlrsdK; udkrl jrefrmeSifh twlwl jzpfonf// rGef
trsdK;om;udkrl jynfe,fay;&ef roifh[laom oabmxm;rsm;uyif/ rGefvlrsdK;udk 0g;rsdKypf&ef
jrefrmvlrsKd;wkd@. pdwfae oabmxm;udk odompGm az:xkwf aejyD;jzpfonf// OD;ekonf
yifv#ifrGefeSifhArm twlwl jzpfonf// rdrdonfvnf; rGefvlrsdK;wOD; jzpfa=umif;udk atmufyg
twdkif; ajymcJhonf//
“rGefeJ@Arm[m/ twlwlbJ jzpfw,f// jynfe,fawmif;p&mrvkdygbl;// u|ekfyfudk,fY
uyif rGev f rl sKd ;wOD; jzpfygw,f// rGejf zpfjzpf/ u&ifjzpfjzpf/ &cdik jf zpfjzpf/ rnforl qk/d
0ef=uD;csKyfjzpfekdifwJh/ tcGifha&;awG&Sd=u w,f// 0ef=uD;csKyfawG/ tpkd;&tzGJ@ 0ef=uD;
awG jzpfatmif/ =udK;pm;=u// jynfe,fawmif;p&mrvkdbl;///” 28

28
1958-1962/jrefrmedkifiHa&;/pm/289
214 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

Todk@ OD;ekonf wkdif;jynfokd@ ajym=um; cJhonf// zqyv tpkd;&. oabmxm;vnf;/ OD;ek


ajymwJh twkdif;yif jzpfonf//

OD;ektpkd;&rS zGJ@pnf; ay;vdkufaom aumfr&Sifonf/ rGefeSifh u&ifyl;wJG awmif;qkdxm;aom


yl;wGJ rGe-f u&if &mrnekid if Hudk ysufjy,f ap&kHru/ rGeef Sifhu&if aoG;pnf; nDnGwfrSKudkyg/
jzdKcGJjcif;jzpfonf// zqyv tpdk;&onf edkifiHa&;/ ppfa&; enf;rsdK;pkHwkd@jzifh rGefu&ifwkd@.
aoG;pnf; nDnGwfrSKudk4if;/ yl;wGJ ekdifiHa&; awmif;qkdrSKudk4if; ysufjym; vmatmif/ =udK;yrf;
vkyfaqmifvmonf// 1947-ckeSpfuyif/ z/q/y/v/ tpkd;&onf vdrRmyg;eyfpGm ekdifiHa&;ppf
jzifhxkd;eSufjyD; rGef-u&if cspf=unfa&;ukd ysufqD;atmif/ pDrHcsufrsm;csrSwf aqmif&Guf
vmcJhonf// Ttcsufudk ekdifiHa&; tm;enf;aom rGef-u&if vli,frsm;u em;rvnf
=ujcif;a=umifh/ ydkrdktajcae qkd;0g;vmonf// rGef-u&ifwkd@. pnf;vkH;nDnGwfjcif;onf
Armrsm;twGuf =uD;rm;aom/ edkifiHa&;tEW&m,f jzpfonfudk/ z/q/y/v/acgif;aqmifrsm;u
aumif;aumif; em;vnf oabmayguf=uonf// rGefvlrsKd;wkd@. bkd;bGm; ydkifqdkifcJhaom
e,fajra'oonf/ txufykdif;wGif Armjynf/ o&ufjrdK@xd jzpfonf// Todk@ ckdifrmaom/
aemufcHorkdif;a=umif;/ jrifhrm;aom/ ,Ofaus;r_/ =uG,f0aom/ pmay/ pum;ponfh
rGefvlrsdK;wkd@. *k%ft*FgeSifh u&ifvlrsKd;wkd@. ppfvufeuftiftm; awmfvSefa&; wyfom;
tiftm;/ us,fjyef@pGm wnf&SdaomvlOD;a& ponfhu&ifvlrdsK;wkd@. *k%ft*Fgwdk@eSifh aygif;pyf
nDnGwfr_onf/ ArmvlrsdK;udk tefwkekdifonf// &ifabmifwef; ,SOfjydKifekdifonf// ckdifrmaom
ordkif; taxmufxm;t&/ Armjynfatmufykdif; o&ufjrdK@txd &mrn rGef-u&ifekdifiH
tjzpf w&m;0if awmif;qkdekdifonf// ArmvlrsdK;.ordkif;udk ajAmif;jyefvSef/ ajymif;vJypf
edkifonf// xdk@a=umifh ArmvlrsdK;udk =uD;rm;pGm tEW&,fjyKvmekdifonfudk Armacgif;aqmif
rsm;u aumif;rGefpGm em;vnf oabmaygufonf// rGef-u&if aygif;pnf; nDnGwfr_onf/
ArmvlrsdK; twGuf/ =uD;rm;aom tEW&m,f jzpfonf// rGef-u&ifwkd@. pnf;vkH;nDnGwfr_/
aygif;pnf; nDnGwfr_udk ysufjym;atmif jyKvkyfekdifv#if ArmvlrsdK; twGuf vkHjcKHonf
tEW&m,fuif;onf [laom vGJrSm;aom t,lqw&yf&SdcJhonf//Tt,lqonf ,ae@wkdif
Armacgif;aqmif tcsKd@wdk@Y &Sdaeao; onfudk 0rf;enf;bG,f&m awG@ae&onf//

4if; a'otvdkuf udk,fykdif tkyfcsKyfcGifh pkHprf;a&; aumfr&SiftzGJ@wGif rGef ukd,fpm;vS,f


rsm;tjzpf wkdif;jyKjynfjyKtrwfrsm;jzpf=uaom rGefxGef;&if/ rGefcifarmif/ rGefwdkif;&if;om;
tpnf;t&kH;rS OuUXrGefbkd;csdK/ jynfaxmifpkrGeftrsdK;om;tzGJ@rS rGefoef;/ rGefa':eSif;eSifh
rGefvlrsdK;a&;&m tzGJ@csKyfrS OuUX ekdifvSarmif wkd@yg0ifonf//
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 215

a'otvkduf ukd,fykdif tkyfcsKyfcGifh pkHprf;a&; aumfr&SifwGif yg0ifaom rGefudk,fpm;


vS,frsm;onf/ aemufydkif;wGif eSpf*kd%f; uGJoGm;onfukd awG@&onf// wpf*dk%f;rSm
rGefbdk;csKdeSifh ekdifvSarmifwkd@ jzpfI tjcm; wpf*kd%f;rSm rGefoef;/ rGefa':eSif;/ rGefxGef;&ifeSifh
rGefcifarmif wkd@jzpfonf// rGefbkd;csdKeSifh/ ekdifvSarmif wkd@onf/ rGef trsdK;om; tusdK;udk
jywfjywfom;om; &yfwnfI awmif;qkdonf// rGefzkd;csdKeSifh ekdifvSarmifonf u&if
trsdK;om; udk,fpm;vS,f apmbOD;=uD;vlpkeSifhyl;aygif;I rGef/u&iftcsKyftcsmtm%mykdif/
jynfe,fjyKvkyf&ef weoFm&D wpfwkdif;vkH;/ a&m0wD wpfwkdif;vkH;eSifh yJcl;wkdif;rS [Hom0wD
c&kdif/ tif;pdefc&dkif/ anmifav;yifc&dkifcGJwkd@udkawmif;qkd=uonf//

xkdpOfurGefeSifhu&ifacgif;aqmifrsm;. yl;wGJausjimcsufeSifh uwdopPmjyKcsufrsm;udk avhvm


v#if atmufygtcsuf vufrsm;udkawG@&onf//

“rGefvlxk trsdK;om; nDvmcHeiS fh u&ifvlxk trsdK;om;nDvmcHrsm;wGif/ wifoGif;


qkH;jzwfcsuft& tcsKyftcsm tm%meSifh/ jynfhpkHaom yl;wGJ &mrn/ rGef-u&if
ekdifiHawmf wnfaqmuf&ef/ eSpfOD;eSpfzuf oabmwla=umif;// 4if;ekdifiHawmfwGif
aexkdif v#uf&Sdaom wkdif;&if;om; rsm;onf/ ppfrSefaom 'Drkdua&pD tcGifhta&;
rsm;udk cHpm;&rnf/f / 4if;&mrn/rGe-f u&if ekdifiHawmfudk weoFm&Dwkdif;/ yJcl;wkdif;eSifh
a&m0wDwkdif;wkd@ yg0ifzGJ@pnf;&rnf//”

[k twdtvif; az:jyxm;onfudkawG@&onf// rGef-u&if acgif;aqmifrsm;u tar#mftjrif


&SdpGm/ oabmwlnDcJh=uonf// txufygoabmwlnDcsufrsm;udkeSpfOD;eSpfzufaom rGef/u&if
acgif;aqmifrsm;u vufrSwfxkd; xm;=uonf// vufrSwfxdk;aom eSpfzufacgif;aqmif=uD;
rsm;rSm atmufygtwdkif;jzpfonf//

ekdfifzkd;csKd(rGefwkdif;&if;om;tpnf;t&kH;)/
ekdifvSarmif (rGefvlrsdK; a&;&mtzGJ@csKyf)eSifh/
apmbOD;=uD;/(au/tif/,l)/
apmom'if(u&iftrsdK;om;tzGJ@csKyf)
a*sxGef;atmif(u&iftrsdK;om;tzGJ@csKyf)eSifh/
woD;yk*~v/apmarmifa'gifh
wkd@u vufrSwf a&;xkd; xm;cJh=uonf//
1948-ckeSpf ekd0bFmv(19)&ufae@pJjG zifh vufrSwf a&;xkd; xm;=uonf//
216 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

Tokd@ rGef-u&iftcsKyftjcm tm%mykdif jynfe,fjyKvkyf&ef awmif;qkd&jcif;rSm rGef-u&if


wkd@onf/ atmufjrefrmedkifiHwGif twl,SOfwJG aexkdifcJh=ujcif;/ weoFm&Dwkdif;&Sd/ tcsKd@aom
u&if&GmwGif/ u&if vlrsKd;rsm;onf rGefpmayukd ,ae@txd avhvmvsuf &Sdjcif;/ twdwf
umvu/ u&if vlrsdK;wkd@onf rGew f yfrawmfwGif yg0if tr_xrf; cJhjcif;/ ,ck tcgwGif
atmufjrefrmekdifiH[k ac:wGifaom/ &mrna'orSm/ orkdif; tpOftvmt& rGefeSifhu&if
vlrsdK;wdk@onf/ twlwuG aexkdifvmcJh=ujcif;ponfhtcsuftay: rGef-u&ifacgif;aqmifwkd@
oabmwl=uonf//

rGefbkd;csdKeSifh ekdifvSarmifwkd@eSpfOD;onf/weoFm&Dwkdif; yJcl;wkdif;eSifh {&m0wDwkdif;wkd@ yg0ifaom


vGwfvyfaom rGefjynfe,f wpfckwnfaxmifay;&efvnf; aumfr&SifxHokd@ oD;jcm;tpD&ifcH
wpfapmif wifoGif; cJh=uonf// rGefvlrsdK;wkd@wGif jynfe,f ay;xkdufonfh t*Fg&yfrsm;eSihf
jynfhpkHa=umif; ordkif; tpOftvmt& &mrna'oudk rGefbk&ifrsm; tkyfcsKyfcJhjcif;/ rGefvlrsdK;
wkd@wGif ArmvlrsdK;wkd@eSifh uJGjym;aom/ bmom pum;/ pmay ,Ofaus;rSKeSihf "avhxkH;pHrsm;
&Sdjcif; wkd@a=umifh jynfe,f ay;oifha=umif; wifjycJh=uonf//

zqyvtzGJ@0iftrwfrsm;jzpf=uaom rGefxGef;&if/ a':eSif;eSifh rGefcifarmifwkd@tzGJ@url/


{&m0wDwkdif;/ yJcl;wkdif;/ weoFm&Dwkdif;rsm;Y rGeftrsdK;om;wkd@ trsm;qkH;aexkdifaom
a'orsm;udk pkaygif;I rGefjynfe,fwpfckzefwD;ay;&efawmif;qkd=uonf//

qma*sat/ armif=uD; (,m,D/ Armjynfbk&ifcHjzpfcJhol)/ ekdifcspfvSKdif (*sDpDbDat/orw


OD;cspfvSKdif)/ ekdifcspfaomif;/ ekdifxGef;ausmfeSifh ekdifbkd;aus;ponf rGefacgif;aqmifrsm;url/
rGefjynfe,f ay;a&;ray;a&;eSifhywfoufjyD; rdrdwkd@taejzifh ,cktcsdefrSm rnfokd@rSs rajym
=um;vkdyg// okd@aomf rGefvlrsdK;wkd@. pmayeSifh ,Ofaus;rSK/ ryaysmufap&ef tpkd;&u/
aqmif&Gufay;zkd@ aumfr&SifxH wifjyawmif;qkd=uonf// Tawmif;qkdcsufeSifh pyfvsOf;I
pkHprf;a&;aumfr&Sifu rGefausmif;rsm; zGifhvSpf&ef/ rGefq&mrsm; cef@xm;&ef rGefpmtkyfrsm;
jyKpkay;&ef tpkd;&tm;t=uHay;wkdufwGef;onf/ TudpPrsm;ukdvG,fulpGm aqmif&Gufekdif
ap&ef vlenf;pkXme0ef=uD;tm; wm0efay;tyfoifhonf[lIvnf; aumfr&Sifu t=uHjyK
onf//

zqyvtpkd;&onf/ rGef-u&ifwkd@ pnf;vkH; nDnGwaf &;udk wdkufzsuf acsrSKef;ekdif&ef =udK;yrf;


aqmif&Guf&if; wzufrSvnf; enf;rsdK;pkHjzifh rGeftrsdK;om;wkd@. trsdK;kom; vSKyf&Sm;rSK udk
taeSmuf,Suf jyKvmonf// rGefacgif;aqmifrsm;udk jcdrf;ajcmuf vmonf// vkyf=uH
owfjzwf vmonf// 1948-ckeSpf 'DZbFmvwGif rGefvGwfvyfa&; tzGJ@.
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 217

twGif;a&;rSL; jzpfaom ekdifpHoludk armfvjrdKifjrdK@. tv,facgifatmufvrf;=uD; a=u;eef;&kH;


a&S@wGif ae@vnf a=umifawmifyif/ tpkd;&. v#dK@0Suf vlowftzGJ@rS ypfowfcJhonf//
aemuf r=umcifrSmyif rGefacgif;aqmif wOD;jzpfol ekdifaiGudkifudk rk'kHjrdK@ rD;&xm; blwm&kHwGif
ypfowfcJhjyefonf/ tpdk;&. r&kd;om;aom vkyf&yfrsm; wjznf;jznf; ay:vm onf//

xkdodk@ zqyv OD;ektpdk;&onf/ rGef-u&ifwkd@ pnf;vkH; nDnGwfa&;udk jzdKcGJ&ef enf;vrf;


rsdK;pkHokH;vmonf// acgif;aqmifrsm;udk vkkyf=uH owfjzwf vmonf// rGef-u&if acgif;aqmif
rsm;onfvnf; zdvSsif=uGrnf/ xdvSsif csrnf[laom oabmxm; cH,lcsufjzifh/ zqyv
tpkd;&. zdedkyfrSKudk wkef@jyef&ef pkdif;jyif; ae=uonf// 'Drdkua&pD vkyf&Sm;rSKudkvufeuf
tiftm;jzifh zqyvtpkd;&rS ydwfyif wm;qD;vSsif vufeuf tiftm;jzifh xkd;azguf
vkyfaqmifoGm;&ef rGef-u&ifacgif;aqmifrsm;u cH,lxm;=uonf/ Ttajctaea=umifh/
tpysdK; aejyD;jzpfaom/ rGefu&ifwkd@. vufeufudkif awmfvSefa&;udk/ tcsdefrSDwm;qD;&ef
&nf&G,faom tm;jzifh z/q/y/v/tpkd;&onf Taumfr&Sifudk zGJ@pnf;cJhjcif;jzpfonf[k rGef-
u&if acgif;aqmifrsm;uoaabmayguf=uonf// yqyvtpkd;&. apwem vkyfaqmif
csufrsm;onf/ &kd;om; ajzmifhrwfrSK r&Sdjcif;a=umifh/ rGef-u&if jy\emonf/ rajyvnf
onfh tjyif ydkrdkIyif &_wfaxG; vmonf// tpdk;&eSifh rGef-u&ifwkd@. tajcaeonf/ wjznf;
jznf; wif;rm vmonf// armfvjrdKif/ oxkHrSm uJhokd@yif jrpf0 uGsef;ay:bufeiS fh txuf
Armjynf bufwGifvnf;/ u&if trdsK;om;rsm;eSifh tpdk;&wkd@./ tajcaerSm wae@ xuf
wae@ wif;rmvmonf//

u&if trsdK;om; umuG,fa&;wyf(KNDO)rsm;u jrpf0 uGsef;ay:&Sd jrdK@rsm;udk wjrdK@jyD;/


wjrdK@odrf;ykduf ,lvkduf=uonf// tdrRJjrdK@/ rtlyif/jrdk@/ a&$usifjrdK@/ ausmuf=uD;jrdk@/ armfvjrdKif
uGsef;jrdk@/ usdKufydjrdK@ ponfhjrdK@rsm;wkd@onf/ u&iftrsKd;om; umuG,fa&;wyf vufxJo@dk
usa&muf oGm;=uonf// 1948-ckeSpfqef;ykdif;wGif/ awmifile,feSifh tjcm;aom e,f
toD;oD;rS KNDOwyfrsm;onf/ wjznf;wjznf;/tif;pdefjrdk@wGif/ pka0;a&muf&Sdvm=uonf//
Ttajcaeudk tuJcwfaeaom/ tpdk;&onf rsufvkH;rsufqHjyL;vmonf/ tiftm;=uD;rm;
vmaom/ u&iftrsdK;om; umuG,fa&;wyfonf wajz;ajz; &efukefjrdK@udkyif jcdrf;ajcmuf
vmekdifaom tajcokd@ qkdufa&muf vmonf// T tajcaewkd@udk jidrf;owf&ef twGuf/
tpkd;&onf/ u&iftrsdK;om; tpnf;&kH;rS apmbOD;=uD;udk tokH;csjyD; =um;0if ajz&Sif;ap
onf// okd@aomf tpdk;&tay:rSm u&if trsdK;om;rsm;u vkH;0 ,kH=unfr_ r&Sdawmhacs//
apmbOD;=uD;. jidrf;csrf;a&; =udK;yrf;csufonfvnf; ratmifjrifcJhacs/ u&iftrsdK;om;
umuG,fa&; wyfzGJ@0ifrsm;udk vufeufcsckdif;jyD; udk,fhaus; udk,hf&GmqDodk@ tjrefqkH;jyef=u
&ef tpkd;&u pDrHaqmif&Gufvmonf// 1949-ckeSpf Zefe0g&D(31)&ufwGif/ u&iftrsdK;om;
218 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

umuG,fa&;wyfzGJ@(KNDO)eSifhrGeftrsdK;om;umuG,fa&;wyfzGJ@(MNDO)wkd@udkzqyvtpdk;&
urw&m;toif;tjzpfa=ujimvkdufonf// TwGif u&iftrsK;dom;wkd@. jy\emudk/
rSefuefaom enf;jzifhudkifwG,fajz;&Sif;&rnfhtpm;/ wzufowf tedkifusifhaomoabmjzifh/
pDrHaqmif&Gufvmonfudk/ u&if trsKd;om;umuG,fa&;wyfrS acgif;aqmifrsm;u vkH;0
vufrcHekdifacs// aemufqkH;Y tif;pdef/ c0JjcHeSifh apmfbGm;=uD;ukef; w0kdufwGif&Sdaom KNDO/
wyfzGJ@0ifrsm;u rcH&yfekdifI aygufuJv G monf// 1949-ckeSpf azaz:0g&Dv(2)&ufwGi/f
tif;pdefjrdK@udk u&iftrsdL;om; umuG,fa&;wyfrsm;u odrf;ydkufvkduf=uonf// wquf
wnf;wGif awmifil/ jzL;/ tkwfwGif;/ xef;wyifjrdK@rsm;udkyg/ u&iftrsdK;om;rsm;wkd@u
odrf;ydkufekdifcJhonf// tjcm;aom jrdK@=uD;rsm;udkvnf;/ u&iftrsdK;om;eSifh tjcm;aom
vufeufudkif tiftm;pkwdk@yl;aygif;jyD;/ wkdufcdkufvmonf// tpkd;&onf rsufjzLqkduf
vmonf// OD;el/z/q/y/v/tpdk;&udk(12)rdkif tpdk;&[kyif ac:qkdvm=uonf// rGefwkdif;&if;om;
tpnf;&kH;/ OuUX rGefzdk;csKdeSifh tzGJ@onf tif;pdefjrdK@udk KNDOwkd@odrf;ydkuf&mwGif yg0ifulnD
aqmif&Gufay;cJhonf// tif;pdefudkf u&ifrsm; odrf;ydkufvkdufonfh udpPa=umifh/ rGef/u&if
acgif;aqmifrsm;udkvnf;tpdk;&u vkdufvH zrf;qD;onf// rGefwkdif;&if;tpnf;t&kH; OuUX
rGefzkd;csdKeSifh rGefvlrdsK;a&;&mtzGJ@ OuUX=uD; ekdifvSarmifwkd@udkrl &efukefjrdK@wGif zrf;qD;csKyfaeSmif
vkdufonf//

1949-ckeSpf azaz:0g&Dv(2)&ufae@ tif;pdefjrdK@udk u&iftrsdK;om; umuG,fa&;wyfrS/


odrf;ydkufvkdufonfh jzpf&yfa=umifh/ &efukefjrdK@wGif&Sdaeaom/ rGefwdkif;&if;om; tpnf;&kH;
OuUX=uD; rGefzdk;csdKeSifh rGefvlrsdK;a&;&m tzGJ@csKyf OuUX=uD; ekdfifvSarmifudk zrf;qD;vkduf
onfhtjyif armfvjrdKifjrdK@wGif&Sd ae=uaom rGefacgif;aqmif ekdifbvGif/ rGefq&mwif/
rGefq&mjyif wkd@ukdvnf; tzrf;cH &onf// u&if acgif;aqmifrsm; jzpf=uaom/ apmbkd;cspf/
apmom'if/ apm,kHvS wkkd@onfvnf; zrf;qD;cH vkduf&onf// tpkd;&onf/ ekdifbvGifeSifh
u&ifacgif;aqmif rsm;udk zrf;qD;jyD; csufcsif;yif/ rEWav; axmifodk@ uref;uwef; ykd@vkduf
=u onf// Todk@ ekdifbvGifeSifh u&if acgif;aqmifrsm;udk rEWav;odk@ csufcsif; ydk@vkduf onfh
oabmrSm/ armfvjrdKifjrdK@wGif T yk*~dKvfrsm; &Sdaejcif;tm;jzifh/ rGef-u&if wyfzGJ@rsm;eSifh
tqufoG,f jyKvmekdifjyD;/ rGef-u&ifrsm; jyefvnf tkH=uGvmapekdifonf// aemufwcsufwGif
armfvjrdkifjrdK@wGif T yk*~dKvfrsm; &Sdaejcif; tm;jzifh/ olwdk@ vGwfajrmufa&; twGuf rGef-
u&ifrsm;u wenf; r[kwf wenf;/ armfvjrdKifjrdK@udk jyefvnfodrf;ydkuf&ef =udK;pm; vmekdif
onf[laom pkd;&drf a=umufusaom tm;jzifh/ ekdifbvGifeSifh u&if acgif;aqmifrsm;wdk@udk
a0;&mokd@ ydk@vkdufaomoabmjzpfonf//
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 219

armfvjrdKifjrdK@&Sd ppf&J wyf&if;(5)rS u&if ppf&J trSKxrf; t&mxrf; wkd@onf vnf;/


armfvjrdKifjrdK@udk pGef@cGm=uonf// tpkd;&. ucsif wyf&if;(2)onfvnf; xkd;ppfqif vm
onf// tpkd;& OD;pD; zGJ@pnf;xm;aom usdKuQrDjrdK@ay:&Sd/ ppf0efxrf; wyfonfvnf;/ pwif
vSKyf&Sm;vmjyD; rGef-u&ifwyfrsm;udk tEW&m,f ay;vmonf// tpkd;&. jynfol@&Jabmf
ppf0efxrf;wyfonfvnf;/ rdrdwkd@ vufvSrf; rDS&mrsm;wGif rGeftrsdK;om;rsm;udk vkyf=uH
owfjzwfvmonf// trsdK;rsdK; 'kuQay; vmonf// rGefaus;&Gm ajrmufrsm;pGm wkd@udkrD;&SKd@
zsufqD;vmonf// Tae&mwGif/ urm0uf aus;&Gmudk jynfol@&Jabmfrsm;/ vma&muf rD;&SKd@
zsufqD;ykH u|efawmf. udk,fawG@ tjzpftysufudk tenf;i,f a&;om;vkdygonf// T
urm0uf&Gm. rD;&SKd@cHcJh &onfhtjzpftysufudk od&Sdjcif; tm;jzifh xkdpOfu rD;&SdK@cHcJh&onfh
tjcm;rGef&Gmrsm;. uH=urRmudkvnf; cef@rSef; ,lekdifrnf[k xifygonf//

1948-ckeSpf aemufykdif; umveSifh 1949-ckeSpfOD; apmykdif; avmufwGif urm0uf&Gm


tv,fwef; ausmif;tkyf ekdifbkd;pdef(rdtkH;&D.bcif)/ edkifcsrf;rGef(rGefwkdif;&if; tpnf;t&kH;.
twGif;a&;rSL;)/ ekdkifbpdef(AdkvfcsKyfbpdef)/ ekdifuGefwm (Akdvf&mZ)/ urm0uf&Gm tv,fwef;
ausmif;rS rlvwef;jy q&m&$ef;(rif;0if;a,mf.bcif)/ q&m[kd/ ekdifatmifvSaiG/ ponfh/
rGefwkdif;&if;om; tzJG@pnf;rS rGeftrsdK;om; acgif;aqmifwkd@onf/ zqyv tpkd;&. zdeSdyfrSKukd/
ckcH&eftwGuf jyifqif vmonf// 'Drdkua&pD enf;t& rGeftrsdK;om;wkd@ trsdK;om; ekdifiHa&;
awmif;qkdrSKudk/ zqyv tpdk;&uvufeufjzifh tekdifusifh ydwfyifvmygu/ vufeufjzihf
jyefvnf xkd;azguf&ef [laomrljzifh/ vufeufudkif awmfvSefa&; twGuf pwif jyifqif
cJh=uonf// rGeftrsdK;om; acgif;aqmifrsm;/ xkdpOfu ppfoifwef;ay;cJhykHwkd@udk u|efawmfrSwfrd
oavmufa&;om; wifjyvkdygonf//

1948-ckeSpfywf0efusifwGif u|efawmfonf touftm;jzifh tvGefi,fygonf// touf(6)


eSpfr#yif&SdOD;rnf// odk@aomf urm0uf&Gm&Sd rGefvli,frsm;wdk@udk ppfoifwef; ykd@cscJhykH ppfoif
wef; avhusifhcJh=uykHukd pOf;pm;rdwdkif; aumif;aumif; rSwfrdao;onf// rsufaphxJrSm
jrifuGif;us,f &kyf&SifobG,f/ jyefvnf trSwf& aeao;onf// xdkpOfu tjzpftysufudk
atmufygtwdkif; u|efawmf xifxif&Sm;&Sm;/ jyefvnf jrifa,mif ae ao; onf//

ae@pOfeHufapmapm(4)em&Dtcsdefa&mufwkdif; urm0uf xm;0,fpk&yf&Sd/ u|efawmfwkd@.


tdrfta&S@ vrf;ray:wGif/ rGefvli,frsm; ppfavhusifh=uonf// rGefvli,frsm;. “b,f/nm”/
“b,f/nm/”qdkaom rGefbmomjzifh atmf[pf=ujyD;/ ppfa&; avhusifh=uonf// rGefvli,f
wkd@. nDnDnmnm qkdoHwkd@udk eHeufwkdif; =um;cJh&onf// tdyfrSKH pkHr$m;jzifh tjrJwrf; vdkvkd
u|efawmf =udK;pm;xI =unfhcJh&onff// rGefvli,fwkd@. ppfavhusifhonfudk/ jrifvkd
=um;vkdIvnf;/ eHeufapmapm tdyfaumif;aomtcsdefwGif/ twif;tm;,lI xcJh&onfh
220 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

tjzpfudk rSwfrd ygao;onf/ “bm-nm/ bm-nm” qkdaom rGefbmomjzihf ppfavhusifh


aeusaomtoH atmfI trdef@ay;oH/ atmfajymoHwdk@udk xifxiff &Sm;&Sm; =um;&onf//
xkdokd@ atmf[pftrdef@ay;oH/ bmnmtoHjyKoH/ ppfcsDoHwkd@onf/ ywf0ef;usifwckvkH;udk/
vGrf;jcHKaeonf// ppfavhusifhoHu t&m&mudk vGrf;rdk; aeonf// vlwkdif; vlwkdif;udk eSKd;x
aponf// rnfolwOD; wa,mufrSs tdyI f r&edkifavmufatmif ppfavhusifhrSKu/ vlwkdif;udk
vSKyfaqmfaeonf// urm0uf&Gm&Sd tm;vkH;aom/ vli,f vl&G,fwkd@tm;/ trsdK;om;pdwf
wuf =uGae=uonf// vlwkdif; vlwkdif; ppfavhusifha&;wGif pdwfyg0ifpm;pGm tm&kH pl;pkduf
ae=uonf//

rGeftrsdK;om;vGwfajrmufa&;twGuf &nfrSef;I urm0uf&GmrS &Gmol&Gmom;wkdif;wdk@onf/


Tppfavhusifha&;wGif wenf;wvrf;tm;jzifhyg0ifvm=uonf// rGeftrsdK;om;wkd@trsdK;om;
ekdifiHa&; vSKyf&Sm;rSKonf/ txdËf txdyfokd@ a&mufaeaom tcsdefjzpfonf// r=umcifrSm
oD;jcm; rGefjynfe,fudk xlaxmif =uawmhrnf// ckdifrm awmifhwif;aom rGeftrsdK;om;
wyfrawmfw&yfonf r&Sdrjzpf vkdtyfaejyD;jzpfonf// Ttoduyif urm0uf&Gm w&GmvkH;
&Sdvl=uD;vli,f tm;vkH;wdk@udk pdwf"gwfwuf=uGekd;=um;apcJhonf// Todk@w&GmvkH;. vSKyf&Sm;
yg0ifrSK/ pnf;&kH; vSKyfaqmfrSKonf/ uav; oli,f wOD;om jzpfao;aom u|efawmftm;
rsdK;cspfpdwf wuf=uG apcJhonf// xdkjrifuGif;udk ,ae@wkdif jyefvnf jrifa,mifaeao;onf//
ar@Ir&ekdifcJhyg// xkdpOfu rGefvli,frsm;udk ppfa&;avhusifh ay;olrsm;rSm ekdifatmifvSaiG/
ekdifxGef;cif/ q&m[kd/ q&m&$ef;wkd@jzpfonf//

rGefvli,frsm; pdwftm; xufoefpGm/ ppfa&; avhusifha&;wGif wufwuf =uG=uG yg0ifvm


=uonf// Tokd@ trsdK;om;twGuf/ ppfavhusifh &onfukdyif/ trsdK;om; wm0efw&yf[k
cH,lvm=uonf// rarmekdif/ ryrf;ekdif/ ae@pOf/ eHeuf apmapmxI/ ppfavhusifh=uonfrSm/
*k%f,lp&mjzpfvmonf// ppfcsDoH rGefoDcsif;udk/ wufwuf =uG=uG/ jydKifwl oDqkd&onfrSm
rGefvli,ftwGuf/ tvGeftm;& eSpfouf ae=uonf// rarmekdif ryef;ekdif jzpfae=uonf//
q&m&$ef; pyfqkd a&;om;aom/ (u0f[GHajy)oDcsif;onfvnf;/ rGefvli,frsmudk/ tm;rmef
wuf=uGaponf// rsdK;cspfpdwfudk edK;=um; x=uGapcJhonf// Todk@ ppfoifwef;ay;jcif;/
avhusifhjcif;/ pnf;&kH; vSKyfaqmfjcif;/ ppfcsDoDcsif;rsm; oDqkd=ujcif;ponfwkd@onf/ w&GmvkH;
&Sdvl=uD; vli,ftm;vkH;wkd@udk/ rsdK;cspfpdwf edkf;=um;wuf=uG apcJhonf// xkdokd@ w&GmvkH;
pdwftm; wuf=uGpGm yg0if vSKyf&Sm;jyD; ppfa&; avhusifhrSKudk ae@pOf=udK;pm; yrf;pm; avhusifh
ae=upOfrSmyif urm0uf&Gmukd/ vkH;0 ajymif;vJypfaom/ tjzpfysufwck rarS#mfvifhbJ/
&kwfw&uf jzpfay:vmonf//
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 221

urm0uf&Gmukd Arm ppfom;rsm;u vma&muf rD;&SKd@=urnf [laom owif; xGufay:vm


onf// w&GmvkH; vSKyfvSKyf &G&G jzpfvm=uonf// tu,fI rD;&SdK@vmygu/ rnfokd@ jyKvkyf
&rnfudk pOf;pm; vm=uonf// wD;wkd; wkdifyif=uonf// tcsdK@u a&G@ajymif; oGm;=uonf//
tcsdK@u rdrdwkd@ pyg;rsm;udk vkHjcH&modk@ ajymif;a&G@I okdavSmif =uonf// u|efawmfwdk@
rdom;pkeSifh q&m&$ef; rdom;pkwkd@onf/ wtdrfxJwGif twlw lae=uolrsm; jzpfonf//
q&m&$efonf/ udk0if;a,mf. zcifjzpfjyD; u|efawmfh. OD;av;awmfol jzpfonf// q&m&$ef;
u bmrS pkd;&drfp&m r&Sda=umif; u|efawmfwkd@ rdom;pk tm;vkH;udk ajymjyD; tm;ay;onf//
u|efawmfwkd@udk/ ajymif;a&$@&ef rvdk[k ajymvmonf// tjcm;aom/ &Gmol/&Gmom;rsm;url/
vSKyfvSKyf&G&G jzpfae=uonf// w&GmvkH; &kwf&if; qefcwfjzpfae=uonf//

'gayrJhrGeftrsdK;om;acgif;aqmifrsm;url/tdajENrysuf/tajcrysuf/ae@pOfae@wkdif;jyKusifhaeus/
ppfavhusifhrSKudkom tjyif;txef vkyfvmonf// zqyv Arm tpkd;&onf &GmudkrD;&SKd@
onfhtxdvuf&J/ Zuf&J vkyfvm ekdifrnfr[kwf[k ,Hk=unf=uonf// rdrdwkd@uvnf; tpdk;&
udk twdtvif; qef@usifI vufeufudkif awmfvSeaf &;udk qifEGJae=uonfvnf; r[kwf
ao;/ vufeufryg 0g;c|efrsm;jzifh omref ppfavhusifh ae=ujcif;om jzpfonf// xkd@twGuf
tpkd;&u &Gmol/ &Gmom;tay:/ &ufpuf ,kwfrmpGm jyKrlrnf r[kwf[k tckdiftrm
xifrSwf ae=uonf// 4if;tjyif rGefvlrsdK;wkd@. jy\emudk rSefrSefuefuef tpkd;&rS udkifwG,f
ajz&Sif; vmrnf[k rGefacgif;aqmifwkd@u ,kH=unf ae=uonf// rGefjynfol vlxk. pnf;vkH;
nDnGwfpGm/ awmif;qkd wkdufyGJ0ifaeonfh/ oD;jcm; rGefjynfe,f xlaxmifa&;udk zqyv
tpdk;&rS vdkufavsmvmv#if/ t&mtm;vkH;wdk@onf/ tcsdefra&G; ajyvnf oGm;edkifygonf//
vufeufudkfif yÉdyuQtqifhokd@ a&mufedkifrnf r[kwf[k/ rGefacgif;aqmifrsm;u xifrSwf
xm;onf// rGefjynfol vlxk.qENudk vSsKpfvSsL&SKjyD; ,kwf,kwf rmrm jyKvmrnf r[kwf[k
vnf;,Hk =unf=uonf//

okd@aomf 1949-ckeSpf/ rwfv(1)&uf t*Fgae@ ¡1310-ckeSpf waygiv f qef;(3)&uf/ t*Fgae@¢


eHeufapmapm(3)em&D avmufwGif/ w&GmvkH; wdwfqdwf jidrfoufae=upOf/ Armppfom;rsm;
&GmteD;odk@ &kwfw&uf a&mufvm=uonf// urm0uf/ &Srf;pk&yfudk pwif rD;&SdK@ avonf//
xdkrSwqifh &Srf;pkeSifh eD;pyf&m &yfuGufwdk@udk qufwkduf rD;&SdK@vmonf// xkdaemuf u|efawmf
aexkdifaom xm;0,fpk&yf&Sd tdrfwdk@udk/ pwif rD;wif&SKd@ypf=uonf/ w&GmvkH;/ tkwftkwf
=uGwf=uGwf/ qlqlnHhnHh/ ajy;v$m;=uonf// ikd,kdoH atmf[pfoHwkd@eSifh w&Gm;vkH; yGwfyGwfql
aeonf// u|efawmfwkd@. rdom;pkonfvnf;/ &orSs ypPnfrsm;udk udkifqJI G toufab;
vGwf&m u|wf&mokd@/ ajy;v$m;cJh&onf// bmypPnf;rS vnf;r,lekdifcJhay// u|efawmf tvGef
jrwfedkf;wef;bdkxm;wJh bcif 0,fay;xm;onfh pufbD uav;udkyif/ u|efawmfonf r,l
ekdifcJhacs// udk,fv$wf xGufajy;cJhonf// tcsdK@olrsm;onf/ Armppfom;u zrf;qD;jyD;/ rdrdtdrf
222 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

ukdyif/ rdrdtm;rD;&SKd@apjyefonf// rdrdtdrfudk rD;r&SKd@vkdaom/ olrsm;udkArmppfom;u


&kdufeSufonf// xkkaxmif;onf// twif;t"rR rdrt d drfudk rdrdtm;rD;&SKd@ aponf/ awmif;zef
oludk &kdufeSufonf// rdrdwkd@.tdrf rD;xawmuf avmifaeonfh tjzpfudk/ cyfvSrf;vSrf;
ta0;rS aejyD; pdwfqif;&JpGm vufykdufI acsmif;=unfh cJh&onf// vufeufrJh jynfol
rsm;jzpfI/ bmrS wkef@jyefI4if;/ ckcHI4if; rvkyfekdif cJh=uacs// T tjzpftysufudk/ ,ae@wkdif
cHpm;ae&wkH;yif jzpfonf// u|efawmfwkd@ rdom;pkonf/ urm0uf acsmif;ab;wGif/ oGm;
a&muf ykH;atmif; ckdae&onf// Arm ppfom; rsm;onf/ xGufajy; ae=uaom vl&G,f
vlvwfeSifh rGefvli,f rSeforSSsudk aoeyfjzifh ypfowfonf// tcsdK@aoeyf xdrSefI aoonf//
tcsdK@uxGufajy;I vGwfajrmuf oGm;onf// tcsdK@tm; zrf;qD; ac:aqmif oGm;onf//
rGefvlxk tm; xkdpOfu Armppfom;wkd@ nSif;yef;eSdyfpufykHrSm tvGef&ufpuf edkfifvGef;onf//
i,f&G,fol u|efawmfh. pdwfudk tvGefwkHvSKyf ajcmufjcm;apcJhonf//

reuf rdk;vif; aomtcg/ w&GmvkH;onf tdrfaumif;aumif; qkdI wvkH;r# rusefawmhbJ/


jymtwdzkH;v$rf;aeaom ajrjyifus,f=uD;udkom0rf;enf;pGm awG@jrif&onf// rdrdwdk@tdrfae&m
udkvufndK;xkd;jyD; ikd,kdae=uonf//rD;avmif&mwGifygoGm;aom/ a&$aiGypPnf;wkd@udk awG@vkd
awG@jim; jymzkH;aeaom ajr=uD;udkvufjzifh ,ufI tvkt,uf &Smae=uonf// TjrifuGif;
wkd@udk jrif&aom u|efawmftm; tvGefpdwfyifyef; qif;&Japonf//

w&GmvkH;&Sdvlwkd@onf/ rD;avmifu|rf;xm;aom/ qHudkcsufjyKwfI pm;aomuf=u&onf/


rD;avmifu|rf; xm;ojzifh/ te@Houfonf/ a[mifae.// pm;I vkH;0 t&omr&Sday//
tcsdK@onf ukef;aumufp&m r&Sdavmufatmif rdrdwkd@ypPn;f rD;avmifu|rf; oGm;ojzifh/
&&m t0wfxnf udkom 0wfqif&onf// aemufae@rsm;wGif urm0uf&Gm&Sd/ rGefvl=uD;
vli,frsm;udk/ &Gmv,f abmfvkH;uGif;wGif pka0;apjyD;/ Armppfom;wdk@u rw&m;&kdufeSuf
ppfaq;onf// zufqpf*syefxufyif =urf;wrf;onf// yg;udk&dkufeSuf ppfaq;onf// Armvkd
rajymwwf rqdkaom/ aus;&Gm&Sd rSGefvl=uD;rsm;udk ykdrdkeSdyfpuf nSif;yef;onf// ar;Irajz/
ar;I em;rvnfojzihf ydkrdk&kdufeSuf=uonf// tcsdK@onf a=umufvGef;I/ csD;ao;wkd@udk
rxdef;edkif/ trsm;a&S@Yyif ,kdxGufukefonf//

Armppfom;rsm; uif;vSnfhpOf/ vrf;wGifawG@ol a,mufsm; rSeforsSudk ac:,lppfaq;jyD;


&kdufeSufonf// &dkufeSufnSif;qJykHwkd@udk/ u|efawmfteD;uyfudk,fawG@jrifcJh&onf// wae@wGif/
u|efawmhftdrfrS xGufjyD; rdrdtdrfokd@jyefaom vlwOD;udk/ uif;vSnfhvmaom Armppfom;eSifh
vrf;wGif yufyif;wkd;rdI/ xkdvltm; Armppfom;u tkwfu|wfwef;tydkif;jzifh/ tcsufaygif;
rsm;pGm/ &kdufeSufonf// tm;&yg;& &kdufeSufonf// xkdvlonf emusifvGef;ojzifh/ EGm;uJhokd@
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 223

atmf[pf&onftxd jzpfonf// Ttjzpfysuf jrifuGif;udk ,ae@txd u|efawmf jyefvnf


jrifa,mif aeao;onf// Arm ppfom;wdk@. vlrqef &ufpuf =urf;=uKwfrSKudk i,fpOfuyif
u|efawmf =uKHawG@ cJh&onf// xkdaemuf/ w&GmvkH; rD;avmif 'kuQonfrsm;onf/ wJuav;
udk,fpD todD;oD;xkd;I aexkdif vmcJh&onf// xkdae@rSpI Arm ppfbD;vl;wkd@. usL;ausmf
apmfum;rSK/ eSdyfpuf nSif;yef;rSKwdk@udk w&GmvkH;&Sd rGefjynfolwkd@cHcJh&onf// b0vGwfajrmufrSK
r&dSaom rGefvlrsdK;wkd@. b0onf/ Todk@ trsdK;rsdK; rw&m;eSdyfpufnSif;yef;jcif;udk cH&ygonf
[laom todw&m;onf/ u|efawmf&ifwGif udef;atmif;vmcJhonf//
224 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

tcef;(9)
rGefacgif;aqmifrsm;awma&muf/ rGef-u&ifyËdyuQ/ rGefzdk;csdKeSifhekdifvSarmif
wkd@.aphpyfa&;/ apmbOD;=uD;usqkH;/ edkifbvGifaxmifrSvGwf/ edkifbvGif.
a=ujimpmwrf;/ rGefpdef'kdif.vkdvm;csuf/ '*kHoHCmtzG@J=uD;.a=ujimcsuf/
pkHprf;a&;aumfr&Sif.oabmxm;/ rGGeftrsdK;om;nDnGwfa&;wyfaygif;pk/
awmfvSefa&;e,fajra&muf ekdifbvGif/ edkifpdef'kdif.acsycsufpmwrf;&Snf/

1949-ckeSpf/ eSpfOD;rS pI zqyv tpkd;&tm; axmufcHaom/ jynfol@ &JabmftzJG@onf/


rGef&Gmrsm;udk w&GmjyD;w&Gm vkdufvH rD;&SdK@zsufqD;vmonf// urm0uf&Gmtjyif tjcm;e,f&Sd
rGef&Gmwkd@udkvnf; rD;&SKd@onf// rGefaus;&Gm&Sd rGefvl&G,f vlvwf vli,frSefor#wkd@udk vkdufvH
zrf;qD; nSif;yef;eSdyfpufonf// rGeftrsdK;om;acgif;aqmifrsm;eSihf rGefvli,fwdk@udk Todk@
vkdufvHzrf;qD;jcif; nSif;yef;eSdyfhpufowfjzwffjcif;a=umifh te,fe,ft&yf&yf&Sd rGeftrsdK;om;
acgif;aqmifwkd@onf/ pkpnf;&orsSaom vltiftm;jzifh/ vGwf&mu|wf&modk@ qkwfcGmoGm;&
onf// rGefvlrsdK;a&;&m tzGJ@csKyfrS/ trsdK;om; acgif;rsm;eSifh &Jabmfrsm;wkd@onf/ =umtif;rS
wqifh/ aumhu&dwfbufodk@ a&G@ajymif;oGm;jyD; u&if trsdK;om; tiftm;eSifh yl;aygif;ae=u
onf// rGefwkdif;&if;om; acgif;aqmifrsm;eSihf rGefvli,f &Jabmfrsm;wkd@onf/ urm0uf&GmrS
yi&Gmodk@ ajymif;a&$@ oGm;a&muf aexkdif=uonf// wzef yi&GmrS wqifh =umtif; bufodk@
ajymif;a&G@ wdrf;a&Smif oGm;&onf// bDvl;u|ef;&Sd rGefvufeufudkfifrsm;onf/ aygifjrdK@e,fodk@
ul;jyD; ekdifpkd;wifh OD;pD;aom rGefvufeufudkifrsm;eSifh yl;aygif;oGm; =uonf//

Zqyv tpkd;&.enf;rdsK;pkH vkdufvHowfjzwf/ zrf;qD;csKyfaeSmifrSKa=umifh vGwf&mwdrf;a&Smif


&if; rGefvlrsdK;a&;&m tzGJ@csKyf(rv&) acgif;aqmifwkd@onf/ aumhu&dwfbufokd@ a&mufoGm;
=uonf// (rv&)tzGJ@csKyf. OuUX ekdifvSarmifeSifh acgif;aqmifwOD;jzpfol ekdifbvGifwdk@rSm
tpkd;&rS zrf;qD;xm;ojzifh axmifxJ a&mufaeonf// tjcm; acgif;aqmif wOD;jzpfol
edkifpHoludk tpkd;&. vufyg;aprsm;u ypfowfvkdufonf// rv&trSKaqmiftzGJ@udk jyefvnf
jyifqif zGJ@pnf;&ef vkdtyfvmonf// xkd@a=umifh rv&trSKaqmiftzGJ@udk atmufygtwdkif;
jyefvnfzGJ@pnf;onf//

rGefvlrsdK;a&;&mtzGJ@csKyf
tvkyftrSKaqmif
OuUX/ ekdifomeSif;/(ekdifvSarmif.nDt&if;)
taxGaxGtwGif;a&;rSL;/ ekdifaiGodrf;/
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 225

trSKaqmifrsm;
ekdifxGef;oddef;/
ekdifomatmif/
rd[Hom/
ekdifom[ef/
ekdifxGef;pde/f
ekdifxGef;wif

wkd@jzpfonf// aumhu&dwfjrdK@udk rGefu&if yl;wGJtkyfcsKyfonf// umuG,fa&; vkHjcHKa&;wkd@udk


rGef-u&if ppfom;rsmuyl;wGJwm0ef,l=uonf//

zqyvtpkd;&. vdkufvH zrf;qD; owfjzwfrSKa=umifh qkwfcGm oGm;&aom/ rGefwdkif;&if;om;


tzGJ@onf/ &&m vufeuf cJ,rf; rD;ausmufwkd@jzifh wyfudk zGJ@pnf;cJhonf// rGefwkdif;&if;om;
tpnf;t&kH;&Sd vufeufudkif tiftm;rsm;udk wkd;csJ@jyD;/ yi&GmeSihf a&;jrdK@ ppfrsufeSmrsm;udk
jzef@xm;onf// oHjzLZ&yfeSifh a&;jrdK@=um; rD;&xm; armfawmfum;vrf;udk jzwfawmuf
tkyfcsKyfonf// tkyfcsKyfa&;rSL;rSm yi&GmwGif wyfpJGxm;aom wyf&if;rSL; ekdifcsrf;rGefjzpfonf//
teif;&Gm/ eSpfu&if&Gm/ vrdkif;&Gm/ armhueif&Gm ponfh a'obufudkrl aumh'Gwf&Gm
edkifxGef;armifu wm0efcHtkyfcsKyfonf//

u&ifvufeufudkfif tzJG@pnf;eSifh Armjynf uGefjrLepf ygwDwkd@onf/ wekdifiHvkH;&Sd zqyv


tpkd;&wyfrsm;tm; tjyif;txef vkdufvH wkdufcdkuf=uonf// xkdokd@ u&iftzGJ@eSifh Armjynf
uGefjrLepfygwDwkd@. tjyif;txef wkdufckdufrSKa=umifh/ zqyv tpdk;&onf/ t=uyftwnf;
rsdK;pkHeSihf =uKHawG@ae&onf// EdkifbvGifeSihftzGJ@ rEWav;axmifokd@ a&mufjyD;/ rnfr#yif r=um
vkdufyg/ rEWav;jrdK@udk u&iftrsdK;om; umuG,fa&; wyfzGJ@eSifh uGefjrLepfwkd@u tjyif;txef
xkd;ppfqif wkdufckduf vmonf// rEWav;jrdK@udk umuG,f&ef twGuf/ tpkd;& wyfzGJ@onf/
tvl;tvJ ckcHwkdufckduf ae&onf// &mZ0wf tusOform;rsm;eSifh ekdifiHa&; tusOf;orm;
rsm;udk rEWav;axmifwGif qufvuf xdef;odrf;xm;&ef pdwfcsIr& jzpfvmjyefonf//
vufeufudkif awmfvSeaf &;/ tiftm;pkwkd@uyif rEWav;jrdK@udk ae@odrf;rvkd nodrf;rvkdeSifh
pkd;&drfae&onfhtajcwGif &Sdaeonf// 'grdk@ tusOf;orm;rsm;udk/ rEWav;axmifY xm;jcif;u
ykdrdktEW&m,f&Sd vmonfudk/ tpdk;&u jrifvmonf// edkifbvGifeSifh tzGJ@wkd@udk/ a&$bkd
axmifokd@ um;jzifhykd@jyefonf// a&$bkdaxmifodk@ a&mufjyD; r=umcifrSmyif a&$bkdjrdK@udk
u&ifwyfeSifh uGefjrLepfygwDwkd@u/ xkd;ppfqif vmjyefonf// ekdifbvGifeSifh tzGJ@wdk@udk/ a&$bkd
axmifY xm;Ivnf;/ pdwfrcs& jzpfvmjyefonf// wcg ekdifbvGifeSifh taygif;ygwkd@udk
226 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

rEWav;axmifokd@ jyefvnf ac:aqmif vm&jyefonf// Todk@yif ekdifbvGifwdk@ ekdifiHa&;


tusOf;orm;rsm;onf/ waxmif0if/ waxmifxGufjzifh ajymif;vJI axmifeef;pHcJh&onf//

1949-ckeSpf tukefwGif zqyv tpkd;&onf/ ppfwyf tvkH;t&if;eSifh rGefa'o teSH@wGif


xkd;ppfqifrKS udk jyKvkyfvmonf// tpkd;&. xkd;ppfudk rGerf sdkK;cspf wyfom;rsm;u &J&J0Hh0Hh ckcH
awmfvSef cJh=uonf// &GH@&GH@c|efc|ef ckcH wkdufckduf cJh=uonf// xkH;tdkif&Gm/ ppfrsufeSmwGif
tpkd;&eSifh rGefrsdK;cspf vli,fwkd@ tjyif;xef wkdufyGJ jzpfyGm;cJhonf// xkdwkdufyJGwGif Zmojyif
ol&Jaumif;[k trnfwGif cJhol Adkvfodef; usqkH; cJh&onf// vlrdsK;twGuf toufay;
vSLoGm;onf// Akdvfodef;onf/ xkH;tdkif&Gmol/ xkH;tdkfif&Gmom;rsm; twGuf tvGef*k%f,l
xkdufaom om;aumif; &wemwOD;jzpfonf//

aumhu&dwfwGif yl;wGJtkyfcsKyf yl;wGJaexkdifae=uaom/ rGefeSifhu&if=um;wGif tqifrajyrSK


awGjzpfvmonf// wzGJ@eSifhwzGJ@tjrifr&Sif;rSKawGjzpfvmonf// 1950-ckeSpfrSm ekdifaiGodrf;eSifh
tzGJ@pD;eif;vmaom um;udk jr0wDrStjyef aumhu&dwfvrf;wGif rormaom u&ifppfom;
wpfpku acsmif;ajrmif; ypfcwfI ekdifaiGodrf;eSifh edkifcsrf;pdefwdk@ 'g%f&m &&SdoGm;onf//
ekdifpdefausmf/ edkifodrf;armifeSifh tjcm;olrsm;rSm/ rxdrcdkufbJ vGwfajrmufoGm;onf// xkdokd@
u&ifppfom;rsm; acsmif;ajrmifypfcwfrSKa=umifh edkfifaiGodef;. vufwGift=uD;us,f 'g%f&m
&oGm;onf// xkdrS&&Sdaom'g%f&monf edkfiaf iGodef;tm;ao&myg 'g%f&mjzpfoGm; apcJhonf//
edkifaiGodef;. vufacsmif;rsm; &moufyef auG@aumufoGm;apcJhonf// u&ifvlrsdK;wkd@tay:
rGefvli,f acgif;aaqmifwkd@u ra=ureyf jzpfvmonf// rGefeSifh u&if=um;wGif vufeufudkif
yÉdyuQ jzpfay: vmapedkfifonfh tajcaeodk@yif a&mufqdkuf vmedkifonf// 4if;udpPeSihf
ywfoufI rGefeSifhu&if vufeufudkif yÉdyuQ rjzpfavatmif tjrifus,faom
rGeftrsdK;om; acgif;aqmifrsm;u =udK;yrf;aqmif&Gufonf// eSpfzufaom acgif;aqmifwdk@u
tylwjyif; ajz&Sif; =u&onf// r/v/&/ OuUX ekdifomeSif; (edkifvSarmif. nDt&if;)
OD;aqmifaom rGeftzGJ@eSifh u&if acgif;aqmifapmwJ OD;aqmifaom u&iftzGGJ@ wkd@onf/
apmwJtdrfY aqG;aEG;=uonf// rGefeSifh u&if=um; jzpfay:aeaom jy\em udpP&yfrsm;udk
aqG;aEG; wkdifyif tajz&Sm=uonf// xkdokd@aqG;aEG; aepOfrSm/ tapmifh u&ifppfom;rsm;u/
vef@jzef@I ypfcwf vkduf&m/ ekdifomeSif;onf aoqkH;oGm;cJh&onf// rawmfwq ypfcwf
rdonf [kqdkonf// rGefu&ifwkd@. cspfcif&if;eSD;r_/ nDnGwfrSKwkd@onf ,dk,Gif;ysufpD;vmonf
udk awG@&onf//

1949-ckeSpfwGif tzrf;cHae&aom rGefwkdif;&if;om; tpnf;t&kH; OuUXrGefbdk;csdKeSifh rv&


OuUX ekdifvSarmifwkd@ eSpfOD;onf/ 1950-ckeSpfwGif axmifrS vGwfvmonf// u&ifeSifh
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 227

uGefjrLepfwkd@. wkdufcdkufrSKa=umifh tzufzufrSm t=uyftwnf; rsdK;pkH=uKHawG@ &ifqkdfif


ae&aom zqyv OD;ektpkd;&onf/ rGefvlrsdK;wkd@. vufeufudkif awmfvSefa&;udk tcsdKenf;
jzifh owfedkifatmif =udK;pm; vmonf// axmifrS vGwfvkdufaom OuUX=uD; rGefbkd;csdK eSifh
OuUX=uD; edkfifvSarmifwkd@udk zqyv tpdk;&u toHk;cs vdkufonf// zqyv tpdk;&.
wm0ef ay;csuft&/ rGefbdk;csdKeSifh edkifvSarmifwkd@onf/ yiaus;&Gmodk@ oGm;a&mufI/
4if;aus;&GmY ppfXmecsKyfjyK tckdiftrm wyfpJx G m;aom/ rGefwkdif;&if;om; tpnf;t&kH;rS
acgif;aqmif ekdifatmifxGef;/ ekdifcsrf;rGef/ q&mpdefwkd@eSifh awG@qkHaqG;aEG;cJhonf// rGefbdk;csdKeSifh
ekdifvSarmifwkd@u tpkd;&. oabmxm;udk wifjyaqG;aEG;cJhonf// tpkd;&. oaabmxm;
rSm/ vufeufcsvSsif/ vGwfjidrf; csrf;om;cGifhay;rnf// 'Drdkua&pD tcGifha&;rsm;udk ay;rnf
jzpfonf// xdkodk@aqG;aEG;csdefrSm/ rGefvlrsdK;a&;&mtzGJ@csKyfrS ekdifaiGodrf;vnf; &Sdaeonf//
edkifaiGodef;onf/ udk,fa&; udk,fwm ta=umif;udpP wcka=umifh rGefwdkif;&if;om; tzGJ@csKyf
pcef;/ wnf&Sd&m yi&GmwGif a&mufaecsdefjzpfonf// xkd@a=umifh ekdifatmifxGef;/ ekdifcsrf;rGef/
q&mpdefeSifh ekdifaiGodrf;wkd@onf vma&muf aqG;aEG;aom OuUX=uD;eSpfOD;wdk@eSifh
aqG;aeGl;nSdeSKdif;=ujyD; atmufygtwdkif; tpdk;&xHokd@ jyefvnfta=umif;=um;cJhonf//
(rGefjynfe,fudkay;ygu/ vufeufcsrnf)
[k OuUX=uD;eSpfOD;rSwqifhzqyvtpdk;&odk@ ta=umif;jyef=um;cJhonf// zqyvtpdk;&onf
vufeufcsv#if/ vGwfjidrfcsrf;om cGifhay;rnf [laom rludkom vufqkyf udkifxm;onf//
rGefjynfe,fay;v#if vufeufudkif vrf;pOfudk pGef@rnf[laom rGeftrsdK;om; acgif;aqmif
wkd@. awmif;qkdcsufudk vkH;0 tav;teufxm; xnfhoGif;pOf;pm;cJhjcif; r&Sdacs//

1950-ckeSpf =o*kwfv(1)&ufae@wGif aumhu&dwf ppfrsufeSmodk@ tpkd;&xkd;ppfqifvmonf/


(4)&ufajrmufaom ae@wGif aumhu&dwfjrdK@udk/ rGef-u&ifwkd@.vufrStpkd;&u odrf;ydkuf&&Sd
oGm;onf// xkdpOf OuUX=uD; apmbOD;=uD;onf zmyGefY&Sdaeonf// tpkd;& vufxJo@kd
aumhu&dwfjrdK@ usoGm;onf qkdaom owif;ukd =um;od&aom apmbOD;=uD;onf/
ouFef;nDaemifwGif/ rGef-u&if/ yl;wGJppfa&;/ tkyfcsKyfa&; zGifhvSpf xm;&Sda&;twGuf zmyGefrS
ouFef;nDaemifokd@ qif;vmonf// xkdodk@ouFef;nDaemifY rGefu&ifacgif;aqmifrsm;eSifh
awG@qkH&ef/ zmyGefrStvmwGif/ vrf;c&D;Y rdk;oD;xefpGm &GmoGef;ojzifh/ xDaumhul;&GmteD;/
prf;a&vsSHI/ apmbOD;=uD;eSifh tzGJ@wkd@onf/ c&D;rqufekdifbJ &yfem;ae&onf// xkdae&mY
apmbOD;=uD;wdk@tzGJ@ckdvSKHaepOf Tta=umif;ukd trsdK;om;opPmazguf u&ifwpfpku tpkd;&
wyfxHokd@owif;ay;/ ta=umif;=um;cJhonf// 4if;owif;ay;aom/ trsdK;om; opPmazguf
u&ifwkd@. vrf;jyrSKjzifh/ AkdkvfpdefvGif/wyf=uyf=uD;armifat;/ OD;pD;aomtpkd;&wyfu vkdufvH
wkdufckduf&m/ 1950-ckeSpf=o*kwfv(12)&ufwGif apmbOD;=uD;eSifhtaygif;tyg/ apmpHau;eSifh
u&ifwyfom;rsm;usqkH;cJh&onf// OuUX=uD;apmbOD;=uD; usqkH;jcif;onf/ wdkif;jynftwGuf
=uD;rm;pGm epfemqkH;&SKH;oGm;onf// jrefrmedkifiH. edkifiHa&;jzpfay:wkd;wufrSKudk rsm;pGm xdckduf
228 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

oGm;apcJhonf// xkd@twl rGef-u&if pnf;vkH; nDnGwfa&; twGufvnf; rsm;pGmtusdK;


qkwf,kwf apcJhonf//

zqyv tpkd;&onf wzufwGi/f ppfa&; xkd;ppfqifvmouJhodk@ wzufwGifvnf; ekdifiHa&;


xkd;ppf qifvmonf/ 1951-ckeSpw f Gif/ zGJ@pnf;ykH tajccHOya' jyifqifcsuf (1951-ckeSpf
tufOya'26)t&/ oHvGifc&kdifudk/ yxrtm;jzifh/ u&ifjynfe,ftjzpf owfrSwfvkduf
onf// rGefvlrsdK;udk jynfe,f ray;bJ vspfvsL&SK xm;cJhonf// OD;ek/z/q/y/v tpkd;&.
u&ifvlrsdK;udk jynfe,f ay;jyD;/ rGefvlrsdK;udk jynfe,fray;a&; oabmxm;onf/ rGef-u&if
pnf;vkH; nDnGwfrSKudk jzdKcGJypf&ef &nf&G,fcsufw&yf tjzpfygcJhonf// rGefvlrsdK;udk eSdrfjyD;
u&iftrdsK;om;rsm;udk ydkrdkxkd;pG tm;ay;ovkdjzpfaponf// rGefvlrsdK;udk jynfe,fray;bJ
xm;onfhtjyif/ u&ifjynfe,fxJokd@ ordkif;tpOfvm =uD;rm;cJhaom/ rGefvlrsdK;wdk@. e,fajr
a'o aus;&Gmrsm;udkyg/ wkd;csJ@I xnfhoGif;ay;&ef =udK;pm; aqmif&Gufvmjyefonf// rGef-
u&ifwkd@. aygif;pnf; nDnGwfr_/ cspf=unf&if;eSD;r_udk/ wrifuGJjym;atmif ekdifiHa&; xkd;ppf/
qifvmjcif; jzpfonf[k rGefacgif;aqmifrsm;u pGyfpGJ ajymqkdonf// u&ifjynfe,f &&SdjyD;
rGefjynfe,f r&&Sdojzifh/ u&if vlrsdK;wkd@u/ rGefvlrsdK;wkd@ tay: txifao; tjrifao;
jzpfvmonf// zqyv tpkd;&. rGef-u&if nDnGwfa&;tm; jzdKcGJa&; ekdifiHa&;xkd;ppfonf
atmifjrifonf[k qkd&ayrnf// rGef-u&if acgif;aqmifrsm;/ ,cif rlvu xm;&SdcJh=uaom
*wdrsm;udk/ u&if trsdK;om;wkd@u arhaysmufvm=uonf// Tae&mwGif/ u&iftrsdK;om;
acgif;aqmif=uD;/ OuUX=uD;apmbOD;. ajym=um;bl;aom/ pum;udkaxmufjyvkdygonf//

“rGefvlrsdK;wkd@rSm cdkifrmaom aemufcHordkif;a=umif;&Sdjcif;/ jrifhrm;aom ,Ofaus;r_


&Sdjcif;/ tvGefckdifrm uspv f pfjyd; =uG,f0wJh/ a&S;usonfhpmay/ teynmwdk@&Sdjcif;
paom tcsufvufwkd@a=umifh/ jynfe,f &p&m&Sdv#if rGefwkd@omv#if &oifh/
&xkdufygw,f// tJ'D tcgus&ifom/ u|eaf wmfwkd@ u&ifvlrsdK;udk rarh=uzkd@/
uGsefawmfajymcsifygw,f//”

txufyg pum;udk OuUX=uD; apmbOD;onf r=umc% qkdovkd rGefacgif;aqmifrsm;eSifh


ekdifbvGiftm; ajymbl; ygonf// TOuUX =uD;apmbOD;. pum;udk udk;um;jyD;/ OuUX=uD;
ekdifa&$usifvnf;/ rSwfrSwf&& r=umc% qdkovkd rGefvlrsdK;wkd@ukd jyefvnfajymjywwfonf//
apmbOD;=uD;. txufpum;udk axmufxm;jcif; tm;jzifh rGefvlrsdK;wkdk@onf/ u&if
trsdK;om;wkd@xuf/ jynfe,f&oifh &xkdufonfrSm xif&Sm;onf// Tpum;onf tajcrJh
ajymjcif;r[kwf/ ta=umif;&mckdifvkHrSKeSihf ,kwWd&SdrSKtay: tajccHajymjcif;jzpfonf// odk@aomf
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 229

zqyv/ Armacgif;aqmifrsm; wkd@onf/ OuUX=uD; apmbOD;=uD; axmufjyaom tcsufudk


ZGwfrsufaphrSdwf ypfy,fjyD;/ rGefvlrsdK;udk jynfe,fray;bJ vSspfvsL&SKxm;cJhonf//

1951-ckeSpfekd0bFmv(28)&ufae@wGif ekdifbvGifonfrEWav;axmifrSvGwfajrmufvmonf//
axmifxJhY (3)eSpfeD;yg; aexkdifcJh&onf// ,ck vGwfvmonf[k qkd&aomfvnf;/ uif;uif;
&Sif;&Sif;tpkd;&u ekdifbvGifudk v$wfvkdufonf r[kwfyg// ajccsKyfjzifh v$wfvkdufjcif;jzpfonf/
&efukefjrdK@ e,fedrdwftwGif;/ weSpf aumif;rGefpGm aexkdif&rnf// tmrcHaiG (3000)usyf
ay;jyD; aumif;rGefpGm aeygrnfqkdaom/ 0efcHcsufjzifh axmifrS vGwfajrmufvmjcif;jzpfonf//
&efukefjrdK@e,f/ e,fedrdwf twGif;wGif aexkdif&onf// rnfonfh e,fajr a'ookd@ rSroGm;
&acs// oGm;vkdaomf/ c&kdif0efxH/ cGifhyefjyD;rS oGm;cGifh&Sdonf// tu,fI azgufzsufcJhv#if
tmrcHolu xkdtmrcHaiG(3000)udk tpkd;&tm; ay;av#mf&ygonf// ekdifbvGifukdtmrcHcsuf
ay;olrSm/ u'kd;&GmrS rGefukefonf ekdifboGifjzpfonf// axmifrS vGwfajrmufvmv#if/
vGwfajrmufvmcsif;/ ekdifbvGifonf wcgwnf;yif/ awmodk@oGm;vkd pdwf&Sdonf//
wae@w&ufrS &efukefjrdK@wGif raevkd/ rdrdwkd@. &Jabmftaygif;oif;rsm;&Sd&m awmodk@om
wcgwnf;wef;IoGm;vkdpdwf&Sdonf//

rdrdaxmifxJY aecJJh&aom (3)eSpf twGif;umvwGif/ jyify avmuY rsm;pGm ajymif;vJ


oGm;onfudk/ ekdifbvGif wa,muf/ aumif;rGefpGm tuJcwf rdonf// rdrd. awmfvSefa&;
&Jabmf&Jbufrsm;udk pkHprf;aomtcg/ tm;vkH;vkdvkdonf/ awmokd@a&mufae=ujyD; jzpfonf//
ekdifaiGodrf;/ ekdifxGef;odef;/ edkfifxGef;pdef/ ekdifatmifxGef;/ ekdifcsrf;rGef/ ekdifqdwfekd@/ Akdvfausmif
wdk@u awmwGif;odk@ a&mufaejyD;jzpfonf// OuUX=uD; ekdifvSarmifeSifh OuUX=uD;ekdifbkd;csdKwkd@rS
wyg;/ tm;vkH;vkdvkd awmokd@ a&mufae =ujyD;jzpfonf// vufeufudkif awmfvSefa&;udk/
twdtvif; pwifaejyD; jzpfonf// edkifbvGifonf rdrd&Jabmfrsm;&Sd&mokd@ oGm;a&muf
yl;aygif;vkdpdwf wzGm;zGm;jzpfaeonf// okd@aomfrdrdudk tmrcHcsufay;xm;aom/ oludkiJhuGuf
&ao;onf// rddrd0efcHxm;onfhtwkdif;raeI azgufzsufcJhv#if/ tmrcHxm;olu rdrdtwGuf
aiGav#mfa=u; ay;&rnfudk pkd;&drf&jyefonf// xkdacwf xdkdcsdefwGif aiG(3000)qkd onfrSm
enf;vSaom aiGr[kwfyg// xkdacwf a&$wusyfom;/ aiG(150-200)usyfaps; eSKef;jzifh
wGufv#if tvGef wefbkd;=uD;onf[k qkd&ayrnf//

xkda=umifhawmokd@ csufcsif;oGm;vkdaom pdwfudk edkifbvGifwpfa,mufonf/ ,m,Dtm;jzifh/


azsmufzsufxm; vkduf&onf// EkdifbvGifonftkwfeDvrf;/ A[ef;&yfuGuf&Sdrdrd. oli,fcsif;
tdrfwtdrfwGifacwW,m,D/ rSDckdaexkdfif&onff// Tokd@ajccsKyfjzifh &efukefjrdK@wGif aepOfrSmyif/
rdrdaxmifxJY aecJh&onfh (3)eSpfumv tawmtwGif;/ jzpfay: ajymif;vJ vmaom/
ekdifiHa&; tajctae/ wkdif;jynf. tajctae/ vkyfaz:udkifzufwkd@. tajctaewkd@udk
230 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

jyefvnf pOf;pm; vmrdonf// yxrOD;pGm/ zqyv tpdk;&. ekdifiHa&; xkd;eSufrSK a=umifh/


rGef/u&if pnf;vkH; nDnGwfrSK jydKuGJpjyKvmonfudk awG@&onf// ekdifaiGodrf;wkd@ vltkyfpkudk
u&if vlwpku acsmif;ajrmif; ypfcwfcJhonf// txifjrifvGJrSm;jyD; u&if ppfom;. ypfowf
jcif;udk edkifomeSif; wa,muf cHvkduf&onf// xkdxuf 0rf;enf;p&m aumif;onfrSm/ u&if
trsdK;om; acgif;aqmif=uD; apmbOD;=uD; wkdufyGJwGif usqkH;oGm;jcif;yif jzpfonf/
apmbOD;=uD; aoqkH;oGm;jcif;onf/ rGef-u&if cspf=unfa&;twGuf/ =uD;rm;aom qkH;&SKH;rSK
wpf&yfjzpfcJhonf// xkd@twl jrefrmekdifiHtwGufvnf; tvGef=uD;rm;aom/ qkH;&SKH;rSK wpf&yf
jzpfonfudk atmufygtwkdif; ekdifbvGifonf0rf;enf;pGmekwfygpyfrS nD;wGm; ajymqkdrdonf//
“The untimely deaths of General Aung San and Saw Ba U Gyi were
the two greatest disasters of modern Burmese History”.29
“acwfopf jrefrm ekdifiHa&; ordkif;rSm/ tcsdefapmjyD;/ AkdvfcsKyf atmifqef;eSifh
apmbOD;=uD;wkd@ acgif;aqmifeSpfOD; aoqkH;oGm;rSK[m /jrefrmhekdifiH twGuf rsm;pGm
epfem qkH;&SKH; apcJhw,f//”

[kekdifbvGifu rSwfcsufcscJhonf// au/tif/,l/ OuUX=uD; apmbOD;=uD; usqkH;uG,fvGefjyD;


aemufykdif;wGif rGef-u&ifwkd@. cspfcif &if;eSD;rSKonf ykdrdkjyD; ododomom/ ysufjym;vmonf
udk ekdifbvGif tuJcwfrdonf//

ekdifbvGifonf rdrdaxmifxJY &Sdaeonfh tcsdefumv tawmtwGif;wGif/ ajymif;vJjzpfay:


vmaom/ jrefrmedkfifiH. ekdifiHa&; tajctaeeSifh rGeftrsdK;om;wkd@. trsdK;om;edkifiHa&;
vSKyf&Sm;rSK jzpf&yfrsm;wkd@udk avhvm okH;oyfjyD;aemuf (TheMon National Question and
Creation of Mon State)pmwef;ukd jyKpka&;om;cJhonf// (qpPvefjynfaxmifpHepf udk
tajccHonf[kqkdxm;onf/)

The Mon National Question And Creation Of A Mon State

A Statement issued by Nai Ba Lwin, President of The Mon Freedom League, Burma.

December, 1951 A.D.

Aspirations Of A Forgotten Race

The Burmese, Shan, Kachin, Chin, Karen and Kayah members of grantedd indigenous
races of the Union of Burma have had or has recently been granted regional autonomy by

29
Mon Nationalism and Civil War In Burma.P.114
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 231

or under the Constitution. The Arakanese and Mon members however, who unlike the
others are bereft of the common rights are working hard in order to induce the
Government to accede to their requests by publishing their aspirations in the public press
recently.

Historical Background
In probably about 600 B. C., the Mon-Khmer sub-family migratred from Monglolia in a
southerly direction. By about 300 B. C. they have already founded the Kingdom of
Haripunjaya in the north with Lamphun as capital and the Kingdom of Dvaravati with
Lopburi as capital in the south in the valley of the Menam River within the area of the
present day Thailand. An octagonal pillar bearing ancient Mon inscriptions, discovered at
Lopburi, can now be seen at the Vajiranana Library in Bangkok. In the area of the present
day Tenasserim Dvision, they founded another Suvannabhumi Kingdom with modern
day Thaton as capital. The Khmers who were the founders of the Cambodian Kingdom
are still the leaders of the Indo-China peninsular.

The Mon in Burma proper colonised Lower Burma and established the Kingdom
of Hamsavati. I 1757 A. D. the last Mon King Binya Dala lost his kingdom to the
Burmese. Since then the Mons have been dominated by other powers for well high 194
years.

Language, Literature And Culture


Mon Language, Literature and Culture can claim to be almost 3000 years old and it is not
surprising that the Mons should have no desire to see their precious heritage decay and
lost. The present Government of Burma is making an attempt to have the Tripitakas
translated into Burmese, but the Tripitakas in Mon has been in existence for hundreds of
years. Historians have recorded that the Burmese obtained their alphabets from the Mons
during the reign of Anawrata.
In this country, although we find that the inhabitants had migrated from the
north, culture and fine arts found and are finding their way northwards from the south.

Resistance To Race Assimilation

History has shown us time and again that races with a strong cultural and
territorial background have always successfully resisted any attempt at assimilation by
other races; and it is worhy of serious consideration.

The Turkish assimilators, by devious and devilish means endeavoured


to assimilate the Balkan races for hundreds of years, but failed miserably: the Tsarist-
Russian Russifiesrs and Prussian Germanizers tried over 120 years to absorb the Poles
but it was in vain. The Czechs too came under the same treatment for 300 years and have
successfully resisted being engulfed. Thus history has proved that any attempt at a
solution of racial problem by force or assimilation always resulted in defeat.

The Mon, who had a strong and unshakable historical background at present has
no autonomous rights of any sort. The various Mon political organizations have been
232 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

working very hard to obtain their rights by democratic means. It is regrettable to record
that the indifference of those in power has misled many Mons to take up unlawful means.
With honest intent and sincere heart, I would earnestly urge those in power to make a
serious attempt to solve this problem through the Regional Autonomy Enquity
Commission at an early date.
Karen Mon Relation
Old Burmese and Mon writings declare that the civilised man is made up of 101 races; of
which 60 were Foreigners, 30 Shans, 7 Burmese and 4 Mons. The 4 Mon clans were Mon
Daung, Mon De, Mon Nya and Mon Du. The last - Mon Du - is really the present day
Karens. The Pali word "Du" read with a Mon tone sounded the word for a "Frog" and
Mon Du was the name given to those who use the Frog Drums.
The Mons and Karens lived in peace in Hamsavati for many centuries. The
Karens too like the Burmese obtained their alphabets from the Mons and such Karen
writings are still in use in some of the Karen Areas.
So we see that it is not possible to leave the Karens out when considering the
Mon problem, nor it is wise to take up the Karen problem and overlook the Mons. The
Government has so far found a solution to the Karen problem, but has not even given out
any hint on the Mon question.
In deference to the various Mons who have served this country throughout her
history, in the field of literature, culture and mutual security, it is to be sincerely hoped
that an amicable solution satisfactory to both the Mons and Burmese wil be found.

Practices In Progressive Nations


In the truly democratic Swiss Commonwealth, in addition to affording full
autonomy to the German, Italian and French members of the country; in 1937, without
considering the numerical strength of a community, the 44, 000 strong Romansch race in
the Canton of Granbuendern was granted full autonomy and Romansch was made the
fourth offficial language of the country.
American Ambassador, Josesph E. Davies in his 'Missin to Moscow says:
"Every unit in the Soviet Union uses its own language in its schools and law
courts, with Russian the second and also compulsory language. Of the 180-odd natinal
units, several had no written language of their own till the Soviet orientalists creatd them.
Central Asia has served as a great school for young Russsian administrators. Even here,
literacy, starting practically from scratch with the revolution, has been brought up to 70.6
per cent."
Any Government in power n this country should follow the practices of true
Statesment and be able to give satisfaction to all the indigenous races within this country.

Let us work till peace is attained:

Nai Ba Lwin
President,
Mon Freedom League, (Camp Rangoon)

Dated December, 1951 A. D.


OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 233

4if;pmwef;onf t*Fvdyfbmomrsm;jzifh/ a&;om;xm;jcif;jzpfonf// tvGefxufjrufaom


tawGG;tac:/ t,lqrsm;yg&Sdonf// 4if;pmwef;ukd zwf&_jcif;tm;jzifh/ ekkdifbvGif. t*Fvdyf
bmom/ ta&;om;wGif rnfr#u|rf;usif ajymifajrmufonfudkfvnf;/ tuJcwf ekdifygonf//
rnfrSsA[kokweSifhjynfhpkHonfudkvnf;awG@jrifekdifonf//

1951-ckeSpf'DZbFmv&ufpJeG Sifh rGefvGwfvyfa&;tzGJ@OuUX taejzifh ekdifbvGifu vufrSwf


a&;xkd;xm;aom/ 4if;pmwef;ukd/ tpkd;&t=uD;uJrsm;/ ekdifiHjcm;oH&kH;oHrSL;rsm; owif;pm
wkduf toD;oD;okd@ ydk@cJhonf// ekdifbvGifonf ajccsKyf yk'frjzifh rdrdae&aomumv
tawmwGif;wGif rGeftrsdK;om;a&;twGuf rdrdwwfedkifor#wkd@udk =udK;pm;aqmif&GufcJhonf//
ekdifbvGifonf/ oli,fcsif;tdrf tjyif wcgw&H udsKufoDrGefausmif;wGifvnf; oGm;a&muf
rSDcdk aexkdifonf// xkdodk@ weSpfwmqkdaom tmrcHumv ukefqkH;&ef apmifhqkdfif;aepOf
tokH;p&dwf eSifh pm;p&dwf &vkd&jim;/ qkdaom&nf&G,fcsufjzifh/ ekdifbvGifonf t*Fvdyfpm
usL&Sif ay;cJhonf// &efukefjrdK@&Sd/ anmifwkef; bkef;=uD;ausmif;pmoifwkdufrSm oGm;a&mufI
usL&Sif ay;onf// ausmif;om;rsm;rSm urm0ufrS OD;Zif; OD;=obmovnf; wOD;tyg0if
jzpfonf// OD;=obo(bDat)onf/ aemifwGif awmif=uD;jrdK@ ygVdwuUokdvf ausmif;tkyf
jzpfvmonf// xkdtcsdefumvu ekdifbvGif. usL&SifrS &&Sdaom tc0ifaiGonf/ trsm;qkH;
wvv#if aiG(25)usyf/ (30)usyfom &&Sdonf// xkdaiGjzifh aexkdif pm;aomuf p&dwftwGuf
tokH;jyK &onf//

ekdifbvGifonfaq;vdyfaomufwwfonff// aq;wHvnf; aomufwwfonf// t&ufaopm


udkrl raomufwwfacs// uGrf;,mvnf; pm;avh pm;xr&dSacs// rdrd&&Sdaom 0ifaiGjzifh
vkHavmufatmif/ acGswmI aexkdifvmcJhonf// pm;0wfae a&;twGuf tekdifekdif&atmif
pkaqmif;&SmazG ae&aom ekdifbvGifonf rdrd0ifaiGjzifh pkaqmif;jyD; tmrcHaiGukd ay;&efrnf
okd@r#rjzpfekdifay// weSpfwm apmifh&rnfqkdaom tcsdefuvnf; ekdifbvGiftwGuf tvGef
=umanmif; vSonf[k xifonf// awmfvSefa&; e,fajrokd@om oGm;vkdpdwf wzGm;zGm;
jzpfay:I aeonf odk@aomf tajctaeu ray;ao;I oGm;vkdaom pdwfqENudk acwWc%
rdsK;odyfhxm;vkduf&onf//

1951-ckeSpf 'DZbFmv(24)&ufae@wGif zqyvtpkd;&rS zGJ@pnf;xm;aom/ a'otvkduf


udk,fydkiftkyfcsKyfcGifh pkHprf;a&;aumfr&Sif. tzGJ@0ifwOD;jzpfol/ rGefpdef'kdifu rGeftrsdK;om;wkd@.
vkdvm;csufrsm;eSifhywfoufI atmufyg tpD&ifcHpm wpfapmifudk aumfr&Sif obmywdxH
wifoGif;cJhonf//
“rGeftrsdK;om;wkd@onf/ jynfaxmifpk tajccHOya' yk'rf (199)t&/ jynfe,fopf
xlaxmifcGifh &&Sdonfh tavsSmuf/ rGefjynfe,f xlaxmifcGihf ay;apvkdonf//
234 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

rGefjynfe,f aumifpDudk usdKuQrDc&kdifeSifh oxkHc&kdif udk,fpm;vS,ftrwf tm;vkH;


jzifhvnf;aumif;/ ekdifiHawmf orRwu a&G;cs,fcef@xm;aom/ trwfr[kwfonfh/
yk*Kd~ vfrsm;jzifh vnf;aumif;/ zGJ@pnf;apvkdonf/ jynfo@l vGwfawmf twGuf/
vlO;D a&eSihf trwfOD;a& tcsKd;tpm;udk u&ifejD ynfe,ftwGuf owfrSwfxm;
ouJhokd@ rGejf ynfe,f twGufvnf; owfrw S f xm;&Sdapvkdonf// vlrsdK;pk
v$wfawmfwGif/ u&ifeDjynfe,ftwGuf trwfokH;OD; owfrSwfay;xm;ouJhokd@
rGefjynfe,ftwGufvnf;/ vkdtyfonfhtrwfOD;a& owfrSwfay;&ef wkdufwGef;
onf// rGefvlrsdK;wkd@ taejzifh rnfonfhtcgrS jynfaxmifpkrS cGJxGuf&ef tvkdqEN
r&Sdyg// tajccHOya'yg jynfe,f aumifpDwkd@u jyKvkyfekdifonfh/ jynfe,f Oya'jyK
pm&if;t& cGifhjyKxm;aom tcGifhtm%mudk rGev f lrsdK; wkd@vufcH&ef tqifoifh
&Sdonf// a&G;aumufyJjG yD;onfhaemuf/ yxrt=udrfusif;yaom rGefjynfe,f ,m,D
aumifpD tpnf;ta0;wGif aumifpDtrwfrsm;xJr/S yk*~dKvfrsm;jzifh aomfvnf;
aumif;/ aumifpDtrwf r[kwfolrsm;jzihf vnf;aumif;/ rGefjynfe,f tpkd;&udk
tjcm;jynfe,frsm; enf;wl zGJ@pnf;ap&ef vkdtyfyg onf// ,ck aemufqkH; usif;y
rnfh ,m,DygvDrefwGif rSGefjynfe,f xlaxmifa&; tufOya' jzpfvmap&ef a'o
tvkdufudk,fydkif tkycf sKyfcGifh pkHprf;a&; aumfr&Siftm; t=uHay; vkdygonf//”30

txufygtwkdif; ekdifpdef'kdifonf &Snfvsm;pGm &Sif;vif; wifjycJhonf// udk,fykdiftkyfcsKyfcGifh


pkHprf;a&; aumfr&Sif tpD&ifcHpm rxGufvmrSDrSmyif/ 1952-ckeSpf Zefe0g&Dv(14)&ufY/
&efukefjrdK@ '*keo H mawmf tzGJ@csKyf=uD;. arwWm&yfcHcsuf a=unmpmwrf; wapmif xGuf
f C
vmonf// &efukefjrdK@ '*kHoHCmawmf tzGJ@csKyf=uD;onf/ jrefrmhedkifiHY tvGeftiftm;
=uD;rm;aom oHCmtzGJ@pnf; jzpfonf// jrefrm jynfolvlxk tvGef=unfndK av;pm;aom
oHCmtzGJ@pnf;wpf&yfjzpfygonf/ 4if;a=unm pmwrf;wGif atmufaz:jyyg ta&;=uD;onfh
oabmxm;tcsufvufrsm;ygvmonf//

“ekdifiHawmftpkd;&onf jynfe,fopfrsm; vkdtyfygu zefwD;ay;ekdifonfh vlxkqEN


t& a&;qGJ xm;onfh jynfaxmifpk tajccHOya'/ yk'fr(199)udk &kdao av;pm;
aom tm;jzifh/ rGev f lxk=uD; wpf&yfvkH;u txl;vkdvm; awmif;wvsuf &Sdonfh
rGefjynfe,fudk/ pDpOfay;&ef '*kefoHCmawmf tzGJ@csKyfrS txl;arwWm &yfcHygonf//
auseyfrKS r&&Sdaom rGeu f Jhokd@ vlrsdK;wpfrsdK;onf tjcm;vlrsdK;wkd@ qGJiifaoG;aqmif
&mokd@ tvG,fwul ygekdifojzihf/ jynfaxmifpk=uD;tzkd@ rnfrsS ab;tEW&m,f
jzpfapekdifonfudk txl;csJ@xGif ajymqkd&ef rvkday// vGefcJhonfh av;eSpfausmfrS
30
(rGefjynfe,fzefwD;a&;jy\em/ File No. 5 RAC. 48(M), Mon Affairs, NAD)
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 235

pI ,ckwkdifatmif jzpfyGm; aeonfh jynfe,f qlylrSK=uD;u/ oufaocH vsuf&Sd


onf rGeflvlxkudpPudk tjcm;vlwkd@ qENt& r[kwfrlbJ/ rGefvlxk qENt&/
jzpfajrmufrS omvSsif jyD;ajrmuf atmifjrifrnf jzpfonf// rGefvlrsdK; wkd@onf/
wpfxD;wpfeef; pkd;rdk; tkycf sKyfaom/ vlrsdK;jzpfI wpfxD;wpfeef; awmif;qkd
ekdifaomfvnf; jynfaxmifpk0if jynfe,fudkom awmif;qkdcJhonf// jynfaxmifpk
jrefrmekdifiHawmf zGJ@pnf;tkyfcsKyfykH tajccHOya' tcef;(10)t& jynfaxmifpkrS
cGJxGufcGifh&Sdaomfvnf; rGefwkd@onf cGJxGuf&ef vkH;0rvkdvm;bJ// Arm/&Srf;/ u&if/
ucsif/ csif;/ u,m; tp&Sdonfwkd@eSifh twlwuG jynfaxmifpk=uD; xJwGif
tpOftjrJ aevkd=uolrsm;jzpfygonf//
xkda=umifh rGejf ynfe,f xlaxmif ay;oifha=umif; tpkd;&tm; tav;teuf
wkdufwGef; vkdufonf//”31

txufyg &efukefjrdK@ '*kHoHCm tzGJ@csKyf=uD;. xkwfjyef a=ujimcsufonf tvGefta&;yg


t&ma&mufaom arwWm&yfcHcsuf jzpfonf// '*kHoHCm tzGJ@csKyfonf jrefrmekdifiHwckvkH;u
tvGeftav;xm;aom/ jrefrmh oHCmtzGJ@pnf; w&yfjzpfonf// xkdkodk@tvGef ta&;yg
t&ma&mufjyD; tiftm; =uD;rm;aom jrefrmhoHCm tzGJ@. arwWm&yfcHcsuf xkwfjyef
ausjimcsufudkyif/ zqyv tpdk;&onf/ tenf;i,frsSyif tav;teuf xm;cJhjcif; r&SdcJhay//
*&krpdkuf vspfvsL&SkcJhonf//

a'otvdkuf udk,fydkif tkyfcsKyfcGifh pkHprf;a&; aumfr&SifxHodk@ rGeftrsdK;om; acgif;aqmifrsm;/


eSifhrGeftzGJ@pnf;rsm;rS awmif;qkdcsuf toD;oD; wifjy=uonf// Tokd@ wifjyvmaom
rGeftrsdK;om;wkd@. awmif;qdkcsufrsm;eSifh ywfoufI pkHprf; a&;aumfr&Sifu 4if;.
oabmxm;udk xkwfjyefausnmcJhonf// 4if;xkwfjyefcsufwGif/

“,ckacwf atmufjrefrmekdifiHY aexkdif=uaom/ vltrsm; wkd@onf/ rGefppfppf/


Armppfppf[k rqdkekdifa=umif;// ArmeSifh rGefa&mpyfI ay:aygufvmaom/ vlrsm;
jzpfa=umif;// Tvlrsm;udk rGeAf rm[lI trsm;u ac:a0: orkwf=ua=umif;//
4if;wkd@onf trsm;tm;jzifh/ rGepf um; rajymwwfa=umif;// rGefpum; ajymwwf
onfh rGev f lrsdK; aexkdifonfh a'oudkom pkaygif;jyD; rGejf ynfe,f xlaxmif
ay;&vSsif/ weoFm&Dwkdif;Y acsmif;qkH jrdK@e,f/ usdKuQrD jrdK@e,f/ usdKufra&m jrdK@e,f/
rk'jHk rdK@e,f/a&;jrdK@rsm;om yg0ifrnf[k aumfr&Sifu oabm&onf[k az:jyxm;

31
'*kefrGefoHCmawmftzJG@csKyf=uD;.arwWm&yfcHcsufa=unmpmwrf;
File No. 5 RAC. 48(M), Mon Affairs, NAD.
236 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

onf// TuJhokd@ ao;i,faom jynfe,fonf/ jynfaxmifpk=uD;tm; rnfonfh


enf;eSifhrSs/ taxmuftyHh tultnD ay;ekdifrnf r[kwfonfhtjyif/ jynfaxmifpk
=uD;/ tiftm; ,kwfavsmh aprnfom jzpfonf[k aumufcsufcs wifjyxm;
onf//”

txufygtajctjrpfr&Sd/ ,kwWdrwefaom/ pkHprf;a&;aumfr&Sif. tpD&ifcHpmtay: rGefvlxk


onf/ vkH;0 rauseyfcJh=uacs// trsdK;rsdK; qENNjy uef@uGufcJh=uonf//

1952-ckeSpf azaz:0g&Dv (19)&ufwGif awmwGif;&Sd jyef@usJ aeaom rGefvufeufudkif


tiftm;pkrsm;wkd@onf/ awmifayguf&Gm ta&S@ydkif;/ edkifxGef;wif. zcif aetdrfY vma&muf
pkpnf;=uonf// (7)a'orS ppfa&;/ ekdifiHa&; acgif;aqmifrsm; pkHpkH nDnD pka0; a&mufvm
=uonf// pka0; a&muf&Sdvmaom/ xkd(7)a'orS ppfa&; ekdifiHa&; acgif;aqmifwdk@onf/
rGefvlrsdK;wkd@. a'o toD;oD;wGif jzpfay: aeaom edkifiHa&;/ ppfa&;udpP t&yf&yfwkd@udk
a=ua=u vnfvnf aqG;aEG;nSdKeSKdif; wkdifyif=uonf// wckwnf;aom nDnGwfrSK &Sdonfh
tzGJ@pnf;w&yfudkzJ@G pnf;&ef oabmwlnDrSK &vmonf// a'otoD;oD;rS ppfa&; ekdifiHa&;
acgif;aqmifwkd@. oabmwlnDrSKjzifh (rGet f rsdK;om; nDnGwfa&; wyfaygif;pk)udk ,m,D
zG@J pnf;xm;=u onf// rGet f rsdK;om;nDnGwfa&; wyfaygif;pk zGJ@pnf;&mwGif/ rGefvufeufudkfif
tiftm;pk (7)a'orS ppfa&;edkifiHa&; acgif;aqmifrsm;u pdwfa&mudk,fyg wufwuf=uG=uG
nDnD nGwfnGwf qENjyK yg0ifvmonf// T wyfaygif;pkonf/ rGefjynfol@wyfOD; zGJ@pnf;a&;
twGuf/ jyifqifrSKrsm; jyKvkyf&ef/ ta&;ygaom a&S@ajy; tzGJ@pnf; w&yf jzpfonf//
rGeftrsdK;om; nDnGwfa&; wyfaygi;f pkudkzGJ@ pnf;pOfyg0ifcJhaom/

(7)a'orS ppfa&; edkifiHa&; acgif;aqmifrsm;rSm/


1/edkifxGef;armif(aumh'Gwfa'o)
2/ekdifatmifxGef;/ edkcsrf;rGef(yia'o)
3/Akdvf&mZ(urm0ufa'o)
4/edkifpdefausmf/Akdvfa&$&if(aumhbdef;a'o)
5/ekdifodrf;armif/Akdvfrif;ekdif(oxkHa'o)
6/Akdvfavm/(a&;awmifydkif;a'o)
7/edkfifarmif/edkifaomif;/(vrdkif;awmifyGefa'o)

wkd@jzpfonf// 4if;tpnf;a0;wGif rGefvlrsdK;a&;&m tzGJ@csKyfrS ekdifaiGodrf;/ ekdifxGef;odef;/


edkifodrf;armif/ rd[Hom rGefwkdif;&if;om; tpnf;t&kH;rS edkifatmifxGef;/ edkifcsrf;rGef/ q&mpdef/
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 237

edkifxGef;cif/ rGefq&m[kd =umtif; qdyf=uD;rS edkifxGef;wif aumh'Gwf&Gm edkifxGef;armif tkyfpkrS


Akdvfwifh acgif;aqmifaom udk,fpm;vS,frsm;/ pkHpkHnDnD wufa&muf yg0if cJh=uonf//
Twyfaygif;pk. A[kd XmcsKyfudk xif;&l;&GmY zGifhvSpf xm;&Sd&ef oabmwl =uonf//
rGefftrsdK;om; nDnGwfa&; wyfaygif;pk. ,m,DOuUXrSm ekdifaiGode;f eSifh twGif;a&;rSL;rSm
ekdifxGef;odef;wkd@ jzpfonf//

ekdifbvGifonf/ xkdokd@ awmwGif;wGif jzpfay: ajymif;vJ vmonfh tajctaeudk =um;od


&aomtcg/ &efukefjrdK@Y qufvuf raevkdawmhay/ awmodk@om oGm;vkd pdwfwzGm;zGm;
jzpfay:aeonf// rdrd.tmrcHaiGudk ay;avSsmfjyD; awmodk@ wcgwnf;oGm;vkdonf// xkda=umifh
,m,Dwyfaygif;pk. OuUXjzpfaom ekdifaiGodr;f xHokd@tmrcHaiGtwGuf ay;ekdifygu/ ay;&ef
pma&;awmif;onf// edkifaiGodef;wkd@uvnf; aiGa=u; tvGefvdktyfaeaom umvjzpfonf//
ekdifbvGif awmif;vmaom tmrcHaiGudk ray;ekdifaom tajctaewGif &Sdaeonf/
awmfvSefa&;pwifp/ aiGa=u;uvnf;vkHavmufr_r&Sd/ vufeufcJ,rf;rD;ausmuf 0,f,l&ef
twGuf/ ykdIyifaiGa=u;u vkdaeao;onf// xkda=umifh ekdifbvGif awmif;vmaom aiGudk
ekdifaiGodef;wkd@u ray;edkifcJhacs/ 0rf;enf;pGm ta=umif;jyef=um; cJhonf// 'gayrJh ekdifbvGifudkrl
awmodk@ tjrefqkH; a&mufatmif aqmif&Guf&ef vkdtyfonf[kvnf; acgif;aqmifrsm;u
jrif=uonf// tmrcHaiGukdrl aemifajyvnfaom wcsdefcsdefwGif/ edkifboGif tm;jyefvnf
ay;qyf&ef t=uHHOm%f&vm=uonf//

xkda=umifhedkifoef;wifudk apv$wfjyD; ekdifbvGifudk awmokd@ac:vm&ef ekdifaiGodrf;u wm0ef


ay;vkdufonf// ekdifoef;wifonf wm0efay;csuft&/ ekdifa&$usifudk ac:aqmif&eftwGuf
&efukefjrdK@odk@ wufa&mufvm onf// ekdifoef;wifonf ekdifbvGifeiS fhawG@jyD;aemuf awmrSS
v$wfvmaom &nf&G,f csufudk ajymjyonf// ekdifbvGifonf twdkfif;rod 0rf;ajrmuf
0rf;omjzpfrdonf// csufcsif;yif awmodk@ vkdufoGm;vkdpdwfjzpfvmonf// okd@aomf rnfokd@
oGm;rnfenf;// rD;&xm;jzifh oGm;ygu edkifbvGifudk rSwfrdaom/ olrsm;eSifh awG@ekdifonf//
&JpHkaxmufrsm; od&Sdygu/ jyefvnf tzrf;cHekdifonf// axmifxJY eSpf&Snfvrsm;aexkdif
&OD;rnf// xkd@a=umifh rD;&xm;jzifh oGm;rnfh tpDpOfudk zsufodrf;&onf// pufavSjzifh
oGm;ygu tEW&m,f uif;onfukd t=uHOm%f &vmonf// ekdifbvGifeSifh/ ekdifoef;wifwkd@
eSpfOD;onf/ a&;jrKd@odk@oGm;rnfh/ pufavSjzifhoGm;&efqkH;jzwf=uonf// pufavS owif;rsm;udk/
pkHprf;aomtcg/ armhueif&Gm OD;pdefwdwf.pdefwdwf qm;wiff pufavSwpD;onf/ r=umcif
a&;jrdK@okd@ jyefoGm;rnfh ta=umif;/ owif;&&Sdonf// xkdacwftcg umvwGif ,ckacwf
avmuf/ ppfaxmufvSrf;a&;rsm; r&Sdao;acs// &JpkHaxmuf enf;enf;yg;yg;om &Sdao;onf/
xkda=umifh ekdifbvGifeSifh ekdifoef;wif wkd@eSpfOD;onf/ tvG,f wulyif udk,fazsmufI
&efukefjrdK@rS pufavSjzifh wdwfwqdwf xGufcGmvmekdifcJh=uonf//
238 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

1952-ckeSpf azaz:0g&Dv (27)&ufae@wGif a'o tvkduf ukd,fykdif tkycf sKyfcGifh pkHprf;a&;


aumfr&Sif. aemufqkH; tpD&ifpmudkxkwfjyefekdifcJhonf// u&ifjynfe,f xlaxmifa&;udkom/
axmufcHcsufay;jyD; rGefvlrsdK;wkd@. tvGefvkdvm;awmif;waom/ rGefjynfe,f xlaxmifa&;
ukdrl/ vkH;0axmufcHxm;jcif; r&Sdonfudk awG@&onf// a'otvkduf ukd,fykdiftkyfcsKyfcGifh
pkHprf;a&; aumfr&Sif. aemufqkH; tpD&ifcHpm xkwfjyefjyD; aemufydkif;wGif/ rGefpdef'kdifu/ 4if;
tpD&ifcHpmeSihf ywfoufI acsycsuf pmwrf;&Snf wapmifudk xkwfjyef cJhonf// 4if;pmwrf;
rSm atmufygtwkdif; jzpfonf//

“rnfonfh vlrsdK;a&; udpu P dkrqkd/ txiftjrif rao;tyf[k xifjrifygonf//


TudpPrsdK;udk ayghayghqq jyKvkyfrdygrl/ tvGef =uD;rm;aom ab;tEW&m,frsm;/
aemif tem*gwfwGif qkdufa&muf ekdifygonf/ txl;ojzifh rGefudpPudk ao;i,f
aom udpP[lI r,lqtyf[k xifygonf// jrefrmekdifiH rjidrfrouf jzpfae&jcif;
ta=umif; trsdK;rsdK;wGif/ rGefwkd@. rauseyfrSKrSm/ ta=umif;wpf&yf yg0ifygonf//
rGejf y\emeSifh u&ifjy\emwkd@onf qufpyf'eG w f GJvsuf &Sdonfudk/ pkHprf;a&;
aumfr&SifrS owdjyKtyf ygonf// tcsKyftjcm tm%mykdife,f awmif;qkdjcif;rSm/
aemifaphpyf ajymqkd&mwGif/ aps;qpfpjrJ jzpfonfhtwkdif;/ tavsmhtwif; jyKvkyf
ekdif&ef twGuf ykdawmif;xm;jcif; jzpfonf// aps;qpfaomtcg/ jynfaxmifpk
twGif;&Sd jynfe,ftqifhodk@ avSsmhcsekdif&ef awmif;qkdxm;jcif;om jzpfojzifh
TtcsufeSifh ywfoufI txifrSm;&ef ta=umif; r&Sdekdifyg// rGefbdk;csdK.
rGefjynfe,f jyifqif awmif;qkdcsuf. qkdvkd&if; oabmrSm/ rGefvlrsdK; &meSKef;
trsm;qkH; aexkdifaom usdKuQrDc&kdifudk A[kdxm;I rGefjynfe,f xlaxmif ay;&ef
jzpfonf// A[kdxm;I qkdaom pum;rSm/ csJ@edkifao;onf [laom/ t"dy`g,f
&Sdygonf// aumfr&Sif obmywdqmbOD; az:jyouJhokd@ acsmif;qkHjrdK@e,f/ usdKuQrD
jrdK@e,f/ usdKuRa&mjrdK@e,f/ rk'kHjrdK@e,f/ a&;jrdK@ e,fwkd@udkom qkdvkdjcif; r[kwfyg//
ok@d jzpfygI rGepf um;ajymaom a'oeSio hf m rGefjynfe,f zefwD;&rnf[k rGefbdk;csKd
OD;pD;aomtzGJ@ udk,fpm;rsm;u/ rqkdvkdonfrSm xif&Sm;onf// xkda'oudk
A[kx d m;I rGejf ynfe,fukd zefw;D ay;&efudkom/ qkdvkdonf[k xifjrifygonf//

rGefvlxk wpf&yfvkH;u tvGef vkdvm; awmif;qkdaeaom rGefjynfe,fudk rzGJ@pnf;


ay;bJ/ rGetf rsdK;om;wkd@tm; vkH;0auseyfatmif tjcm;rnfonfh enf;vrf;eSifhrSs
tpm;xkd; aqmif&Guf ay;ekdfifrnf r[kwfyg// rGev f lrsdK;wkd@ awmif;qdkaeonfh
tcGifha&;rsm;rSm ynma&;eSifh ,Ofaus;rSK wnfwHha&; avmufom r[kwfyg//
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 239

ynma&;eSifh ,Ofaus;rSK wnfwHha&;rSm/ jynfaxmifpk tajccH Oya'yg rlv


tcGifhta&;rsm;eSihftnD cHpm;cGifh &&Sdxm;I txl;awmif;qkd&ef vkdrnf[rk xifyg//
rGefwkd@ awmif;qkdvkdonfh tcGifhta&;rsm;rSm ynma&;eSifh ,Ofaus;rSK wnfwHha&;
tjyif/ ucsifjynfe,f uJhokd@ jynfr=uD;eSifh wm0efcJGa0I jynfaxmifpk tajccH
Oya'wGif az:jyxm;onfh/ jynfe,fOya'jyK pm&if;wGif yg&Sdaom tcGifhta&;rsm;
udkawmif;qkdaejcif;jzpfonf//

rGefjynfe,f xlaxmifrnfh a'oonf/ 0ifaiGeSifh xGufaiG/ rSswrnf r[kwf[k


a'otvkduf udk,fykdif tkyfcsKyfcGifh pkHprf;a&; aumfr&SifrS tpD&ifcH wifjyxm;onfh
tcsuftay:acsyI &Sif;vif; wifjyvkdygonf// rGejf ynfe,f zefwD;ekdifonfha'o
onf/ tvGefajr=oZm aumif;rGefaom/ v,f,majrrsm;eSifh a&mfbmjcHrsm;&Sdonfh
tjyif tvGef tzkd;wefaom opfawm=uD;rsm;eSifh caemufpdrf;/ cJrjzLpaom
owWKwGif;rsm; &Sdojzifh jynfaxmifpkwGif tvGeftzdk;xkdufwefaom jynfe,fwpfck
jzpfvmekdifygonf// ucsif/ &Sr;f /u&ifpaom/ tjcm; jynfe,frsm;udk jynfr=uD; u
apwemarwWmeSifh xlaxmifpumvY tulnD ay;ouJhokd@ rGefjynfe,fudk vnf;
tulnD ay;xkdufygonf//

zqyvrS rGeo f ef;/ rGew


f kdif;&if;om; tzGJ@pnf;rS rGefzkd;csdKeSifh ekdifvSarmifwkd@onf
vGefcJhaom wpfeSpfausmfu awmwGif; rGefvufeufudkif tzGJ@pnf;tm; vufeufcs
&ef oGm;a&muf awG@qkH aqG;aEG;jyD; =udK;yrf;cJhbl;onf// xkdpOfu rGefvufeufudkif
tzGJ@pnf;rS t"du wifjycsufrSm rGefvlrsdKwkd@. epfemcsuf trsdK;rsdK;wkd@udk z,f&Sm;
ay;rnfh rGefjynfe,f zefwD;ay;ygu vufeufudkomv#if r[kwfyg/ toufudk
ygtyfeSif;ay;ekdif ygonf[k jyefvnf wifjycJhonfudk owdxm;rd =uvdrfhrnf[k
xifygonf// 4if;tjyif rGev f lrsdK;wkd@ taejzifh eSp&f n
S fvrsm; tekenf; w&m;0if
aom enf;rsdK;pkH wkd@jzifh rdrdwkd@&oifh &xkdufaom tcGifha&;udk awmif;qkdcJh
aomfvnf; tpkd;&u rGev f lrsdK;wkd@ awmif;qkdcsufrsm;eSifh ywfoufI rnfonfh
vkdufavsmrSKudkrSs rjyKvkyfcJhyg[k rGefatmifxGef;eSifh rGefxGef;armifwkd@u jyefvnf
ajz=um; cJhonfhtwGuf/ oGm;a&muf awG@pkH aqG;aEG;cJhonfh rGefvl=udD;rsm;
vufrSKdifcs/ jyefvmcJh &onfudk owd& =uvdrfrnf[k xifygonf// u&if
vlrsdK;wkd@tm; auseyfap&ef ekdifiHawmftpkd;&u u&ifjynfe,f zefwD;ay;ekdifygvsSif
rGev
f lrsdK;wkd@ auseyf&ef twGufvnf;/ rGejf ynfe,fudk zefwD;ay;xkdufygonf//

rGefjynfe,fudk zefwD; ay;&efrvkd/ pmay/ ,Ofaus;rSK rwdrfaum&ef jyKvkyfay;vSsif


auseyfygonf[k ajymqkd=uaom/ rGefvl=uD tcsdK@wkd@onf/ rGew f kdif;&if;om;
240 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

tzJ@G pnf;rS a0zefxm; ouJhokd@yif/ Tyk*~dKvf wkd@onf/ vufawG@ ekdifiHa&;udk


ravhvmcJhonfh tpkd;& t&m&Sd=uD; wpfOD; eSpOf D;wkd@. xifjrif ,lqcsuf rSsom
jzpfonf// touf=uD;&ifhI acwfrrSDaom/ rGev f l=uD; wpfOD;eSpfOw
D kd@. ,lqcsuf
onf/ ,ckkacwfrGefjynfolvlxktaygif;.,lqcsuf[k rqdkekdifyg//

a'otvkduf ukd,fykdiftkyfcsKyfcGifh pkHprf;a&;aumfr&Sifudk taotcsmavhvmvSsif


rGet f zGJ@pnf; toD;oD;u wifajrSmuf xm;aom udk,fpm;vS,frsm; ryg&Sdjcif;//
jynfol vlxkrS/ 4if;wkd@ pdwf=udKuf udk,fwkdif a&G;cs,fxm;onfh/ rGeu f dk,fpm;vS,f
jynfhjynfhpkHpkHrygcJhonfudkawG@&ayrnf//tpkd;&rSrdrdpdwf=udKuf a&G;cs,fcef@xm;onfh/
udk,fpm;vS,f rsm;jzifhom zGJ@pnf; xm;onfudk avhvm awG@&Sd &ygonf// a'o
tvkduf ukd,fykdif tkyfcsKyfcGifh pkHprf;a&; aumfr&Sif rzGJ@pnf;rD rGefbkd;csdKeSifh ocifek
awG@qkHpOf/ rGefbkd;csdKuaumfr&SifwGi/f zqyveSihf qufoG,x f m;aom rGet f zGJ@rS
vlrsm;udkomvSsif yg0ifcGifhjyKygu rGeu f dpjP yD;ajrmufekdif&efcJ,Of;a=umif; wifjycJ&h m
ocifeu k xkdo@dk rjzpfap&yg/ tjcm;aom rGet f zGJ@pnf;rsm;rS udk,fpm;vS,frsm;udkyg
xnfhoGif; ay;ygrnf[k ajym=um;cJhygonf// okd@aomf/ aumfr&SiftzGJ@ukd avhvm
=unfhvSsif/ rGeftzGJ@toD;oD;rS wifajrSmufxm;aom/ ukd,fpm;vS,frsm; jynfhjynfh
pkHpkH ryg&Sdonfudk awG@&onf// Tokd@ zGJ@pnf;xm;aom ,ck vuf&Sd aumfr&Sif
tzGJ@0ifrsm;u rGefjynfe,fudk tvkdr&Sdyg[k ajymqkdygu/ xkdokd@ ajymqkdjcif;onf/
rGejf ynfol vlxk=uD; w&yfvkH;. qEN tppftrSefudk ukd,fpm;jyKonf[k rqdk
ekdifyg//”32

ponfh tcsufvufrsm;pGmyg&Sdaom/ acsycsuf pmwrf;&Snf wpfapmifukd ekdifpdef'kdif;u


wifoGif; cJhygonf//

a'otvkduf udk,fykdiftkyfcsKyfcGifh pkHprf;a&; aumfr&Sif. aemufqkH;tpD&ifpm xGufvmjyD;


aemuf rGefwkdif;&if;om; tpnf;t&kH; OuUX/rGefbkd;csdKu/ 1952-ckeSpf pufwifbmv(9)&uf
ae@ pGJjzifh/ a=unmcsuf wpfapmifxkwfcJhygonf//

“a'otvkduf ukd,fykdif tkyfcsKyfcGifh pkHprf;a&; aumfr&Sifonf/ rGefjynfe,fudpPudk


taotcsm ravhvm rprf;ppfygbJ/ uwkdufu&kduf pkHprf;jyD; qkH;jzwfcsuf jyKvkyf
cJhonfudk awG@&onf// TuJhokd@ aumfr&SifrS uwkdufu&kduf qkH;jzwfcsuf csrw S f
32
(1958-1962/jrefrmedkifiHa&;/pm/281)
(rGefjynfe,fudpP/wyfrawmfarmfuGef;wkduf/ DR. 1126.)
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 241

jyKvkyf cJhrSKa=umifh/ rGev


f lrsdK;wkd@rSm tvGef epfem cJhygonf// ekdifpdef'dkfif. acsycsuf
pmwrf;wGif &Sif;vif; az:jycJhonfhtwkdif; enf;vrf; usepGm raqmif&u G fcJhaom/
aumfr&Sif. tpD&ifcHpmudk/ rGefvlxk taejzifh vkH;0 vufrcHedkifyg// wkdif;&if;om;
tcsif;csif; auseyfrKS onf/ ekdifiHawmf. vkHjcHKa&;eSifh jidrf;csrf;a&; twGuf txl;
ta&;=uD;aom udpP&yf jzpfygonf// xkda=umifh jynfaxmifpkrS rcGJxGufbJ/
jynfaxmifpk twGif;Yom aernfh/ rGefjynfe,f/ &ckdifjynfe,f tp&Sdonfwkd@udk
zefwD;ay;&ef tpkd;&Y 0efrav;tyf[k u|efkyf xifjrifygonf//”33

ponfjzifh rGefbkd;csdKonf rdrd. tjrifudk apwem &kd;om;pGmjzifh wifjycJhonf/ Todk@


rGefacgif;aqmifrsm;eSifh rGeftzJG@tpnf; toD;oD;wkd@. uef@uGufrSK &SdcJhaomfvnf;/ tpkd;&
onf/ tav;euf rxm;cJhay// a'otvkduf ukd,fykdif tkyfcsKyfcGifh pkHprf;a&; aumfr&Sif.
tpD&ifcHpmudk vufcHcJhonf// rGefjynfe,f zefwD; ay;a&;udk vkH;0 rpOf;pm; awmhacs/
aumfr&SifrS axmufcH t=uHjyKxm;onfh twkdif;om/ ekdifiHawmf tpdk;&onf rGefpmayeSifh
,Ofaus;rSK ryaysmufa&;twGuf/ rGef,Ofaus;rSKnDvmcHrsm;udk armfvjrdKifjrdK@/ &efukefjrdK@eSifh
yJcl;jrdK@rsm;wGif usif;yay;cJhonf// TrSsaqmif&Gufay;jcif;onf/ rGefvlxkwpf&yfvkH;. qENudk
vkH;0rjznfhqnf; ay;ekdifcJhonfudk awG@&onf// rGefjynfolvlxk. qENeSifhqef@usifjyD;/ rGefeSifh
Arm twlwlbJ[k twif;wlckdif;xm;jcif;onf/ rGefvlrsdK;udk0g;rsdK ypf&ef &nf&G,f jcif;om
jzpfonf[k rGeftrsdK;om; acgif;aqmifrsm;u jywfjywf om;om; pGyfpJG ajymqkdcJh=uonf//
jynfol@ vGwfawmfwGifvnf; rGefrsm;twGuf u&ifwkd@enf;wl oD;oef@trwf ae&m&&Sd&ef
awmif;qkdjcif;udk/ tpkd;&u vspfvsL&SK xm;onf[kvnf; rGeftrsdK;om; acgif;aqmifwkd@u
&J&J0Hh0Hh/ tpdk;&tm; pGyfpGJxm;onf//

ekdifbvGifeSifh edkifoef;wifwkd@ eSpfOD;onf pufavSjzifh wdwfwqdwf &efukefjrdK@rS xGufvmjyD;


aemuf xif;&l; wyfaygif;pkA[kdodk@ 1952-ckeSpfedk0bFmv(29)&ufae@wGif a&mufoGm;onf//
xif;&l;&Gmwyfaygif;pkA[kdodk@ a&mufvmaom ekdifbvGiftm; &Jabmf taygif;oif;wkd@u
vSdKufvSJpGm=udKqkd=uonf// rGeftrsKd ;om;vGwfajrmufrSK awmfvSefa&;twGuf wwyfwtm;
jzpfap cJhonf//

33
(1958-1962/jrefrmedkifiHa&;/pm/281)
242 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

tcef;(10)
edkifbvGifrSedkifa&$usif// ulrifwefjy\em/ rGefudkjynfe,fray;// u&ifudk
wkd;csJ@jynfe,fay;// rGefrsdK;cspforwekdifcspfvSKdif.uef@uGufcsuf// awmwGif;
rGefjynfe,ftpkd;&// 1954-ckeSpfarmfvjrdKif rGeftrsdK;om;nDvmcH// awmwGif;
rGefjynfol@wyfOD;zGJ@pnf;// vlrsdK;pkrsm;nDnGwfa&;wyfaygif;pkay:// OD;atmifoef;.
jywfom;aomtjrif// edkifa&$usifwkd@. wyfaygif;pkzGJ@pnf;a&;c&D;//
csif;trsdK;om;wdk@. vGwfvyfa&; qkH;&SKH;aomae@// xdkif;rGefwkd@.xl;qef;aom
‘waygif’// A*kd;&kd;ruoufaownf// crf;em;aomrGefwkd@.[Hom0wD//
uGefjrLepfpcef;// tysdK=uD;rwifh// a0gq&mawmf// edkifa&$usiftwGufarwWmpm//

rGeftrsKd;om; nDnGwfa&; wyfaygif;pk XmecsKyf &Sd&m xif;&l; aus;&Gmudk/ 1952-ckeSpf


ekd0bFmv(29)&ufae@wGif/ edkifbvGifa&mufcJhonf// awmfvSefa&; A[kdpcef;okd@ a&mufrSyif/
rdrdaxmifxJY &SdcJhaom/(3)eSpfwmumv tawmwGif;wGif/ jyifyekdifiHa&;avmuwGifrsm;pGm
ajymif;vJoGm;onfudkykdrdkxdawG@&onf//

XmecsKyfokd@ a&mufvmaom/ ekdifbvGifonf/ rdrd trnffemrudkyif ekdifa&$usif[k ajymif;vJ


ok;H pGJvmonfudkawG@ &onf/ vlopfpdwfopf tm;refopfjzifh vufeufudkif awmfvSefa&;
c&D;opfudk pwifvkdufonfhoabm[k ,lq&onf// trSefwGif ekdifa&$usif[laom trnfukd
tb,fa=umifh ajymif;vJ okH;pGJvm&oenf;/ rnfonfh &nf&G,fcsufjzifh ajymif;vJ oHk;pGJ
vm&oenf; qkdonfhtcsufudkrl rnfolrSs twdtusroday// Ttrnfemrudk tjcm;
olrsm;uyif wrifwum/ ajymif;vJ ac:a0:okH;pGJ&mrS ekdifa&$usif[k trnfwGifvm ovm;
ponfh ar;cGef;udkvnf; rnfolurSs tajztwdtusray; ekdifacs// trnfudk ajymif;vJ
vkdufonfhtay:wGif trdsK;rsdK;t"dy`g,f aumuf,l=uonf// trsdK;rsdK;vnf;a0zef ajymqkd=u
onf/tcsdK@aomrGef&[ef;oHCmrsm;eSifh rGefvli,frsm;url/ ekdifa&$usiftrnfrSm/ Armemrnf
jzpfaeojzifh/ vkH;0r=udKuf reSpfouf=uay// trnfemr ajymif;vJrnfh twllwl rGefemrnf
wckckudk ajymif;vJokH;pGJ&ef aumif;onf[k a0zefajymqkd=u onf//

edkfifbvGif. tjyKtrl taexkdifwkd@onf omoem *kd%f;0if &[ef;oHCm wOD;. tjyKrl/


taetxdkif tusifh=uHeSifh tvGefwlojzifh trsm;uyif ekdifbvGiftm; wrifwum
ekdifa&$usif[k ajymif;vJ ac:a0: okH;pGJvm&mrS twnfjzpfvmjcif;avm qkdonfhtcsufudk
vnf; xnfhoGif;/ pOf;pm;bG,f&m tcsufwcsuf jzpfvm&onf// rnfokd@yif qkdap ekdfifbvGif
onf/ taexkdiftvGefyd&doljzpfonf/ tpm;taomuf/ taetxdkif tajymtqkd wkd@onf/
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 243

tvGef,Ofaus; odrfarG@ol wOD;jzpfonf// 0wfpm; qif,ifrSKwGifvnf; tvGef yd&daooyf


onf//tvGefpnf;urf;&Sdonf//Todk@aomtrltusifha=umifh edkifbvGiftm; tvGefav;pm;
bG,f&maumif;onf// xkd@a=umifh a&$usif Ak'<bmomomoem 8kd%f;udk tpGJjyKjyD;/ ekdifbvGif
trnfemrrSonf/ ekdifa&$usi[f laom trnfemrokd@ ajymif;vJ jzpfay:vm&onf[laom
t,lqudk u|efawmfonfyif vufcHekdifonf/// ,kwWdwefonf[k ,lqonf// edkfifa&$usif
awmokd@ jyefvnfa&muf &Sdvmjcif;onf/ rGefawmfvSefa&;twGuf wtm;jzpfapcJhonf//
acgif;aqmifaumif;wOD;/ vlawmfwa,muf xyfrHwdk;vmjcif; jzpfonf/ rGefawmfvSefa&;
twGuf tiftm;udk ydkrdkawmihfwif;apvmonf//

ekdifbvGif awmokd@ a&mufonfh tcsdefwGif/ rGefacgif;aqmif=um;Y ulrifwef(w&kwfjzL)eSihf


ywfoufI tjrifrwlaom/ tkyfpkeSpfpk jzpfay:aeonf// ulrifwef tiftm;pkeSifh yl;aygif;
vufwGJ vkdaomtzGJ@eSifh ryl;aygif;vkdaom tzGJ@[lI eSpftkyfpk &Sdaeonf/// ekdifaiGodrf;/
ekdifodrf;armif/ ekdifxGef;odef;paom yxrwef; acgif;aqmifrsm;eSifh wkdif;acgif;aqmif jzpf=u
aom/ ekdifoef;wif/ ekdifyef;omwkd@u ulrifwefeSifh yl;aygif;vkdpdwf vkH;0r&Sdacs// ulrifwefeSifh
yl;aygif;jcif;tm;jzihf ppfa&; tultnDeSifh vufeufcJ,rf; tultnD &edkifonf[laom/
arsSmfvifhcsufeSifh ekdifqdwfekd@eSifhtzGJ@wkd@u yl;aygif;vkd=uonf// ekdifbvGifurl/ w&kwfjzLtay:
vkH;0 r,kH=unf/ w&kwfjzLeSifh vkH;0 ryl;aygi;f vkdoljzpfonf// w&kwfjzLqDrS &rnfhtultnD
udkvnf; vkH;0rarsSmfvifholjzpfonf//

ekdifbvGifonf awmodk@ a&mufI r=umcifrSmyif/ z/q/y/v/ tpdk;&onf/ =uD;rm;aom/


ppfqifa&; w&yfukd/ rGefwkd@bufokd@ pwif jyKvkyfvmonf// 1953-ckeSpf Zefe0g&DvwGif
rGefrdsK;cspf awmfvSefa&; wyfrsm;&Sdaom yi&Gmudk jrefrmppfwyfrS tjyif;txef/ vma&muf
xkd;ppfqif wkdufcdkufvmonf// rGefrsdK;cspf wyfrSvnf;/ &&m vufeuf/ &Sdaom vltiftm;/
cJ,rf; rD;ausmufwkd@jzifh/ &GH@&GH@c|efc|ef tjyif;txeff ckcH wkdufckdufonf// vufeuftiftm;
vltiftm; tvGefuGm[rSKa=umifh/ aemufqkH;wGif rGefrsdK;cspfwyfrSrvGJra&Smifom yipcef;rS
qkwfcGmcJh&onf// 0Jcrd&Gmokd@ajymif;a&$@oGm;jyD; 4if;&GmY rGefawmfvSefa&; rsdK;cspfwyfwkd@onf/
tckdiftrmpcef; wnfaqmu fae&m,lonf//

1953-ckeSpfwGif zqyvtpkd;&onf a'otvkduf/udk,fykdiftyk cf sKyfcGifh/pkHprf;a&;aumfr&Sif.


aemufqkH; tpD&ifcH pmudk/ taxmufxm; jyKjyD;/ oHvGifc&kdif wnf&Sd&m u&ifjynfe,fudk
v_dif;bJG@/ bm;tH/ aumhu&dwf/ =umtif; qdyf=uD;/ oHawmifjrdK@e,f wdk@jzifh wkd;csJ@ zGJ@pnf;&ef
vGwfawmfrS wqifh Oya' jyXmef;ay;cJhonf// a'otvkduf ukd,fykdif tkyfcsKyfcGifh pkHprf;a&;
aumfr&Sifu/ =umtifjrdK@e,f/ aumhu&dwfjrdK@e,f vSKdif;bJG@ bm;tHeSifh oHawmifjrdK@wkd@udk
u&ifjynfe,f xJokd@ xnfhoGif;&ef t=uHay;cJhpOfuyif/ rGefacgif;aqmifrsm;u vkH;0oabm
244 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

rwlcJh=uacs// tjyif;txef uef@uGufcJhonf// okd@aomf zqyv tpkd;&onf/ rGefjynfol


vlxk. qENudk vkH;0*&krjyK vspfvsL&SkcJhonf// u&ifjynfe,ftjzpf wkd;csJ@ zGJ@pnf;vkdufaom/
4if;a'orsm;wGif rGefaus;&Gm=uD; tajrmuftjrm; (Oyrm/ xkH;tkdif/ Zmojyif/ aumhbdef;/
uHeD/ c&m;aus;&Gm) yg&Sd aeojzifh/ Oya'=urf;udkf twnfjyK&ef v$wfawmfokd@ wifoGif;pOf/
rGefrsdK;cspfacgif;aqmif wpfOD;jzpfol ekdifcspfv_difu tjyif;txef uef@uGufcJhonf// ekdifcspfv_dif
onf/ *sD/pD/bD/at/ acgif;aqmif=uD; wOD;jzpfonf// ekdifcspfvSKdif. ekdifiHa&;=udK;yrf;aqmif&Guf
csuf rsm;a=umifh jrefrmedKifiH jynfol/ jynfom;wkd@ trsdK;om; ekdifiHa&; edk;=um;x=uG vm
cJhonf// e,fcsJ@ pdwf"gwf wuf=uG cJh=uonf// ekdifcspfvSKdifudk/ *sDpDbDat orw OD;cspfv_dif
[lI 4if; o&zl raqmif;aombk&if( King Without Crown ) [lI4if;/ jrefrmjynfol
vlxkrsm;u *k%fjyK ac:a0: okH;eSKef; cJh=uonf// edkifcspfvSKdif. ukd,fusdK;pGef@ tepfemcHrSK/
ArmwrsdK;om;vkH; vGwfajrmufa&; twGuf/ ae@rtm; nrtm; =udK;yrf;vSKyfaqmf
pnf;&kH;rSK/ ajymifajrmufaom ekdifiHa&; OD;aqmifrSK e,fcsJ@tm; &J0Hhjywfom;pGm ta&;qkd&JrSK/
&ufa&mpGm ay;urf;pGef@=uJrSK wkd@a=umifh/ jrefrmekdifiHjynfolvlxk. tvGef=unfnkd cH&aom
yk*~dKvfwOD; jzpfvmonf// jrefrmjynfol/ jynfom;rsm;onf/ ekdifcspfv_diftm; tvGef=unfnkd
=uojzifh ekdifcspfv_dif oGm;av&mwGif jrefrmh trsdK;orD;rsm;u/ rdrdwkd@ qHyifudkyif jzef@cif;I
edkfifcspfv_diftm; eif;a&SmufapcJh=uonf//

TuJhokd@ wdkif;jynfeSifh vlrsdK;twGuf/ rdrdb0udk jrKyfeSH aqmif&GufcJhonfh/ jrefrmhedkifiH.


vGwfvyfa&; ydokum wpfOD; jzpfaom/ ekdifcspfvSKdif. wifjycsufudkyif vkH;0 *&kpkdufbJ/
u&ifjynfe,f xJokd@ rGefaus;&Gm ajrmufrsm;pGmudk xnfhoGif; ay;cJhonf// rGefvlrsdK;wkd@
tvGef 0rf;enf; bG,f&m cHpm;cJh&onf// zqyv tpkd;&onf/ rGefvlrsdK;tay:/ txifjrif
ao;pGm aqmif&GufcJhonf// atmuf jrefrmekdifiH/ o&ufjrdK@txd rGefbk&ifrsm; tkyfpkd;cJhom
orkdif; taxmuftxm; tckdifrm&SdcJhonfudkyif todrSwfrjyK/ vspfv#L&SKvm=uonf//
rGefvlrsdK;udk/ vuf0g; wjym;pm jynfe,fay; &rnfudkyif/ wGef@qkwf ae=uonf// zqyv
acgif;aqmifrsm;Y tjrif usOf;ajrmif;cJh=uonf// jrefrmvlrsdK;wkd@tm; tudsK;jyKcJhbl;onfh
rGefvlrsdK;wkd@. *k%faus;Zl; rsm;udkyif zqyv tpkd;&onf vkH;0 axmufxm; nSmwmjcif;
r&SdcJhonfudkawG@&onf// atmufyg tckdiftrm &SdcJhaom ordkif; rSwfwrf;udkyif/ zqyv
tpkd;&onf/ vspfvsL&SKcJhonf//

“pifppf/ *sDpDbDatacwfrSpI jrefrmhekdifiHa&;=udK;yrf;rSK wpfavSsmufvkH;wGif rGef/ Arm/


&ckdif paom/ wkdif;&if;om; tm;vkH;. ta&;Y/ rGeftrsdK;om;wkd@onf/ OD;pD;
acgif;aqmif jyKcJh=uonf//”34
34
(1958-1962/jrefrmedkifiHa&;/pm/259)
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 245

Zqyv tpdk;&onf/ rGejf ynfe,fudkrlray;bJxm;onfhtjyif/ u&ifjynfe,fudk/ rGefaus;&Gm


ajrmufrsm;pGm yg0ifapjyD; wkd@csJ@ zGJ@pnf;ay;jcif;onf/ wrifwum rGefeSifh u&ifvlrsdK;wkd@.
nDnGwfa&;udk wkdufzsufjcif; jzpfonf// rGefvlxkeSifhu&if vlxkwkd@udk &efwkduf ay;jcif; jzpf
onf [kvnf;/ rGeftrsdK;om; acgif;aqmifwkd@u tpdk;&tm; pGyfpJcG Jh=uonf// rGefu&ifwkd@
nDnGwfru _ dk4if;/ =uD;rm;aom vufeufudkif awmfvSefa&;ukd4if;/ jzdKcGJ&ef OD;ek/z/q/y/v
tpkd;&u ekdifiHa&;/ ppfa&;jzifh tjyif;txef/ xkd;eSufvmonf// aoG;cJG tkyfcsKyfr_enf pHepfudk
usifhokH;jyD; rGefu&if aoG;pnf;nDnGwfr_udk acszsufypf&ef =udK;pm;aeonfudk aumif;aumif;
tuJcwfrdonf// rGefjynfol vlxk. qENudk vspfvsL&SKjyD;/ rGefjynfe,f ray;onfh zqyv
tpkd;&.vkyfaqmifcsufudkwkH@jyefaomtm;jzifh/1953-ckeSpfrwfv(27)&ufwGifrGeftrsdK;om;
nDnGwfa&; wyfaygif;pk acgif;aqmifrsm;onf/ 0Jcrd pcef;Yyif pnf;a0; =ujyD; rGefjynfe,f
tpkd;&tzGJ@/ zGJ@pnf; xlaxmifa=umif;udk ausjimcJhonf//

rGejf ynfe,ftpk;d &tzGGJ@


OuUX/ ekdfifatmifxGef;/
'k/OuUX ekdifxGef;armif/
ekdifiHjcm;a&;wm0efcH ekdifaiGodrf;/
umuG,fa&;wm0efcH ekdifa&$usif/
jynfxJa&;eSifhw&m;a&;Xmewm0efcH/ ekdfifatmifwifh/
b¾ma&;Xmewm0efcH/ ekdifqdwfedk@/
taxGaxGwm0efcH q&m[kd/
wkd@tm;a&G;cs,fwm0efay;=uonf//

ekdifa&$usiftm; umuG,fa&; Xmeudk ay;tyfjcif;rSm edkifa&$usifonf/ t*Fvdyf a&wyfwGif/


tr_xrf;aqmif xm;cJhbl;aom/ tawG@=uKHudk ta=umif;jyKjyD; a&G;cs,f wm0efay;onf[k
qkdekdif ygonf// xkd@okd@ rGefjynfe,f tpkd;& zGJ@pnf; vkdufjyD;aemufwGif/ u&iftrsdK;om;
aumfol;av; tkyfcsKyfa&;tzGJ@ (au*sDyD)/ (au*sDyD/ u&iftrsdK;om; tpkd;&udk/ 1949-ckeSpf/
ZGefv/ 14/&ufrSmzGJ@pnf;cJhonf)eSifhaqG;aEG;&ef rGefjynfe,ftpkd;&u ekdfifa&$usiftm; a&G;cs,f
wm0efay;cJh jyefonf// ekdifa&$usifonf/ t*Fvdyfvkd ydkfifekdifpGm ajymqkdekdifjcif;/ a&;om;
ekdifjcif;eSifh u&iftrsdK;om; acgif;aqmifrsm;eSifh trsm;qkH;/ xdawG@ &if;eSD;cJhbl;ol jzpfonfudk
ta=umif;jyKI/ a&G;cs,fwm0ef ay;onf[k qkd&ayrnf// 4if;rGefudk,fpm;vS,f tzGJ@wGif/
ekdifodrf;armif/ edkfifxGef;cif wkd@yg0ifcJhonf// u&iftrsdK;om; aumfol;av; tkyfcsKyfa&;tzGJ@
&kH;pdkuf&m/ zgyGefjrdK@okd@ oGm;a&mufjyD;/ u&iftrsdK;om; acgif;aqmifeSifh awG@qkH aqG;aEG;cJh=u
onf// xkdodk@ eSpfzufaom tpkd;&tzGJ@wkd@ awG@qkH aqG;aEG;jyD;aemuf yl;wGJ ausjimcsuf
wapmifudk 1953-ckeSpfZlvdkifv(6)rSm/ xkwfjyefcJhonf//
246 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

zqyv tpkd;&. u&ifjynfe,fudk xlaxmif ay;jyD;/ rGefjynfe,fudk rxlaxmif ay;onfh


tay: jynfwGif;&Sd rGefacgif;aqmifrsm;eSifh rGejf ynfol vlxkwdk@u vkH;0 rauseyf jzpf=uonf//
zqyvtpkd;&tm; txl;yift,kHt=unfr&Sd jzpfvm=uonf// zqyvtpdk;&rS aqmif&Guf
ay;aom/ pmay/ ,Ofaus;rSK rsm;eSifh vkH;0 rauseyf=uacs// tjcm;aom wkdif;&if;om;
nDaemifbGm;rsm; uJhokd@ jynfe,f w&yfudkom tvkd&Sd=uonf// tpkd;&. aqmif&Gufcsuf
tay: &Skwfcs uef@uGuf=uonf// xkda=umifh rGefjynfol vlxk wpf&yfvkH;onf rGefjynfe,f
taumifxnfay:vmonfhtxd/ jidrf;csrf;aomenf;vrf;jzifh/zqyv tpkd;&tm;qufvuf
wkdufyGJ0if oGm;&ef =udK;pm;=ujyefonf//

1954-ckeSpf Zefe0g&Dv(28)&ufwGif armfvjrdKifjrdK@ yef;bJwef;&yf OD;omnif; "rR&kHwGif


rGefacgif;aqmifrsm; jzpf=uaom/ ekdifxGef;0if;/ rGefbdk;csdK/ ekdifvSarmif/ ekdiftkef;armif/ rGefpdef'kdif
wkd@rS =uD;rSL;jyD; rGeftrsdK;om;nDvmcHtpnf;a0; wpf&yfudk ac:,lusif;ycJhonf// 4if;nDvmcH
tpnf;a0;=uD;rS 0ef=uD;csKyfxH wifjy awmif;qkdrnfh atmufyg qkH;jzwfcsufrsm;udk wnD
wnGwfwnf qkH;jzwfcJh=uonf//

(1) usdKuQrD c&dkifeSifh/ oxkHc&dkif rGefacgif;aqmif vl=uD;rsm; tpnf;ta0;rS/


jynfaxmifpk jrefrm ekdifiHawmf zGJ@pnf; tkyfcsKyfykH tajccH Oya' ed'gef;eSifh
yk'rf (13)eSifhtnD/ u&if vlrsdK;rsm;udk ekdifiHa&; cHpm;cGifh ay;onfeSifh wlrsSpGm/
rGev f lrsdK;rsm;udk ay;zdk@ tpkd;&tm; awmif;qkdonf//
(2) tu,fI u&if vlrsdK;rsm;udk ay;onfh ekdifiHa&; cHpm;cGifhrsm;udk rGew f kd@tm;
wlrSspGm ay;vsSif ekdifiHawmftm; ykefuefaeonfh rGefvufeufukdif tzGJ@pnf;rS
tpkvkduf vufeufcsa&;twGuf rGeaf cgif;aqmifvl=uD;rsm; aqmif&Gufay;&ef//
(3) 1951-ckeSpftuf Oya'trSwf(41)udk jyifqifay;jcif;jzifh/ ,cifu/ weoFm&D
wkdif;[k ac:wGifcJhaom a'oudk jynfaxmifpk tzGJ@0if e,fwpfe,ftjzpf yg0if
zGJ@pnf;&rnf// xkdjynfaxmifpk tzGJ@0ifudk aemifwGif jynfaxmifpk tajccH
Oya'yk'rf 92(1)/93/94/95eSifh 96/ t& udk,fykdiftkyfcsKyfcGifh& (&mrnjynfe,f) [k
ac:wGifaprnf//
(4) ,cktcg u&ifjynfe,ftwGi;f xnfhoGif; ay;vkdufonfh rGeaf us;&Gm rsm;rS/
rdrdwkd@. tkd;tdrf/ ajr,m wkd@udk pGef@cGmI armfvjrdKifjrdK@wGif/ vma&muf ckdvSKH
aexkid o f l rGe'f uk oQ nf (20000)cef@ &Sad e&m/ 4if;wkd@. touftkd;tdrf pnf;pdrf
udk ekdifiHawmf tpkd;&u umuG,f apmifha&Smuf ay;yg&ef/ TnDvmcHrS
awmif;qdkonf//
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 247

(5) ,cktcg/ usdKuQrD c&kdifeSifh oxkH c&kdifrsm;wGif touf


tkd;tdrf pnf;pdrf vkHjcKHrSK r&Sdygojzifh/ ekdifiHawmf tpkd;&u tumtuG,f
ay;yg&ef/ T nDvmcHrS awmif;qkdonf//

(6) a'otvkduf udk,fykdif tkyfcsKyfcGifh pkHprf;a&;aumfr&Sif tpD&ifcHpmonf/ rGefeSifh


u&if trsdK;om;wkd@. vkdvm; awmif;qkdcsufrsm;eSihf qe@fusifaeonf//

txufyg awmif;qkdcsufrsm;udk ekdifiHawmf0ef=uD;csKyfxH wifjy awmif;qkd&ef/ ekdifxGef;0if;/


ekdiftkef;armif/ ekdifvSarmif/ rGefpde'f kdifwkd@ yg0ifaom rGefudk,fpm;vS,ftzGJ@wpfzGJ@udk a&G;cs,fI
&efukefjrdK@odk@ apv$wfcJhonf// rGefukd,fpm;vS,ftzGJ@onf/ ekdifiHawmf 0ef=uD;csKyf OD;ekeSifh
azaz:0g&Dv(18)&ufae@wGif wpf=udrf/ azaz:0g&Dv(22)&ufae@wGif wpf=udr/f eSp=f udrf
wkdifwkdif awG@qkHaqG;aEG;cJhonf// Todk@awG@qkHpOf/ rGefukd,fpm;vS,ftzG@Jonf/ rGefnDvmcHrS
qkH;jzwfcsufrsm;ukd 0ef=uD;csKyftm; wifjycJhygonf// 0ef=uD;csKyfOD;eku rGefnDvmcH tqdkjyK
csufrsm;eSifh rGefa&;&m udpP&yfrsm;udk tav;teufxm; pOf;pm;ay;rnf[k *wdjyKcJhonf//
4if;udpPudk tav;teuf aqmif&Guf&ef/ u&ifacgif;aqmifvl=uD; ref;0if;armiftm; wm0ef
vJt $ yfcJhonf// okd@aomf Tawmif;qkdcsufeSifh ywfoufjyD; tpdk;& taejzifh tav;eufxm;
aqmif&GufcJhonfudk rawG@&acs// rGeftrsdK;om;wkd@. rGefjynfe,f xlaxmifa&; =udK;yrf;csuf
udk/ zqyv tpkd;&onf vkdufavsmjcif;r&SdbJ/ aemufxyf jynfe,f ray;a&; oabmxm;
twkdif; tckdiftrm &yfwnfcJhonf//

1954-ckeSpfY jrefrm tpkd;&onf/ jrefrm ekdifiHwGif;okd@ usL;ausmf 0ifa&muf aeaom


(autrfwD)w&kwfjzL wyfrsm;udk jrefrmekdifiHrS tjrefqkH; xGufoGm;atmif/ ukvor*~rS
ta&;,l aqmif&Gufay;yg&ef wkdif=um;cJhonf// (au/trf/wD/)wyfrsm; jrefrmekdifiHrS qkwfcGm
oGm;&rnfh tajcaejzpfay:vmonf// au/trf/wD/acgif;aqmifu/ wkdif0rf;odk@ rxGufcGmrD/
rGef-u&if acgif;aqmifrsm;eSifh awG@qkH aqG;aEG;vkda=umif; zdwfac: cJo h nf// 1954-ckeSpf
rwfv (3)&ufae@wGif jr0wDY awG@qkH=u&ef csdef;qkdxm;=uonf// rGefukd,fpm;vS,f tzGJ@ud/k
ekdifa&$usiftm; acgif;aqmif apjyD; tzGJ@0ifrsm;rSm/ ekdifaiGodrf;/ edkifxGef;cif wkd@ yg0ifonf//
autrfwDrS/ *sife&,facsmif wufa&muf vmonf// *sife&,facsmif uyif 4if;wkd@
autrfwDwyfrsm; r=umcif jrefrmekdifiHrS xGufcGm oGm;&awmhrnfjzpfa=umif; ajymjyonf//
rdrdwkd@ xkdif0rfokd@ jyefa&mufaomtcg/ rGefeSihfu&ifta&; udpPudk/ xkdif0rftpdk;&xHodk@ wifjy
ay;rnf jzpfa=umif;// xkdxdkif0rf tpkd;&rS wqifh tar&duH tpkd;&eSifh nSdeSKdif; wkdifyifjyD;
ukv or*~odk@ rGef-u&ifudpPudk wifjyay;ekdif&ef rdrdwkd@=udK;pm; ay;rnfjzpfa=umif; ajymyg
onf// xkdokd@ rdrdwdk@ taejzifh/ =udK;yrf; ulnDekdif&ef/ rGef-u&ifwkd@eSifh r[mrdwf pmcsKyf/
csKyfxm;&ef vkdtyf onf[k ajymvmonf// edkifa&$usifwkd@ rGefukd,fpm;vS,f tzGJ@u/
248 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

r[mrdwftjzpf vufrSwf xkd;&ef jiif;qef cJhonf// rGefeSifh r[mrdwfzJ@G &ef autrfwDwkd@.


&nf&G,fcsufonf/ taumifxnf ray:bJjzpfoGm;onf//

1954-ckeSpfwGif/ rGeftrsdK;om; vufeufudkif awmfvSefa&; twGuf/ awmfvSefaom


rGeftrsdK;om; wyfrawmf w&yf/ wnfaqmuf&ef/ txl; tylwjyif; vkdtyf vmonf[k
jrif=uonf// rxrOD;qkH; rGeftrsdK;om; awmfvSefa&;udk wm0ef,l vkyfaqmif oGm;ekdifrnfh
aau'grsm;udk arG;jrL&ef twGuf/ awmifayguf pcef;wGif ekdifa&$usif/ ekdifodrf;armif/
ekdifaiGodrf;/ ekdifyef;om/ ekdifoef;wif wkd@yg0ifaom/ aqG;aEG;yJG w&yfudk usif;yonf//
4if;tpnf;ta0;rS/ au'g oifwef;ausmif;rsm; zGifhvSpf&ef qkH;jzwf=uonf// au'goifwef;
ausmif;udk/udsKuRa&meSihf aumhu&dwf jrdK@e,fqkH&m yef;&yfaus;&GmwGif zGGihfvSpf&ef owfrSwf
=uonf//

ekdifcsrf;rGef/ ekdifodrf;armif/ ekdifa&$usief Sifh ulrifwefrS oifwef;jyq&mwkd@u wm0ef,l


oif=um; =urnfjzpfonf// ekdifa&$usifu awmfvSefa&;ppf/ oabmw&m; oifwef;udk ykd@cs
oif=um;ay;jyD;/ ppfa&;AsL[menf;ynmudkrl/ ulrifwefoifwef;rSL;u wm0ef,lydk@cs
ay;rnfjzpfonf// Toifwef;eSifh ywfoufjyD; ekdifa&$usifonf atmufygtwkdif; *k%f,lI
ajymqkdwwfonf//

“rGefvufeufudkif wyfawG/ ol@a'oeJ@ol/ ole,fajreJ@ol jzpfjyD; jyef@=uJ aeonfh


tjzpfrS/ wpfckwnf;aom rGGeftrsdK;om; vufeufudkif tzGJ@tpnf; jzpf&ef
=udK;yrf;wJh tcsdefjzpfw,f// rGefppfom; rsm;[m/ txl;ojzihf/ v,form; b0u
vm=uw,f// tcsdK@u/ &mbmjcpf orm;b0u vm=uw,f// tcsdK@usawmhvJ/
wpfae@vkyf wpfae@pm;wJh tvkyform; b0u vm=uwmrsm; w,f// ynmwwf
enf;w,f/ 'ga=umifh 'kd@oifwef; q&mawG taeeJ@/ olwdk@em;vnf vG,fulatmif/
pum;vkH; vG,fvG,f uav;awGudkokH;jyD; oif=um;ay;&w,f// 'DvkdeJ@ppfom;awG/
olwdk@&J@ zdeSdyfcH ae&wJhb0/ acgif;ykHjzwf cHae&wJhb0/ vlrsdK;t& 0g;rsdK cHae&wJh
b0tajctaewkd@udk em;vnf vm=uw,f// &efoltay: ykdrdk rke;f wD; vmw,f//
&efoltm; wkdufckduf vdkfwJhpdwf/ jyif;xef vm=uw,f// trsdK;om;ta&;udk
Oya'abmiftwGi;f rSm/ at;at;aq;aq; raqmif&u G fekdifvkd@ ,ckvkdrvGJ ra&Smif
om vufeufudkif vm&wJh ta=umif;udk em;vnf vm=uw,f// vufeufudkif
awmfvSefa&;onf/rjyD;jywfao;aom/ ekdifiHa&;&nfrSef;csufudk/ tjyif;xefqkH;aom
enf;vrf;jzifh qufvuf taumifxnfaz: vkyfaqmifjcif;om jzpfw,f/ qkdwJh
oabmw&m;udk em;vnf oabmayguf vm=uw,f//
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 249

'kd@vufeufudkif awmfvSefa&; atmifjrifrSK[m/jynfolvlxk&J@ axmufcHrSKtay:rSm


rlwnfw,f// 'ga=umifh jynfolvlxk&J@ touftkd;tdrf pDpdrfOpPmawG vkHjcHKrSK
twGuf/ wkd@ppfom;awG umuG,f apmifha&Smuf ay;&r,f// jynfol vlxkudk
tm%m tyfeSif; ay;&r,f// rdrdwkd@&J@/ vrf;pOf/ &nf&G,f csufwkd@udk jynfolvlxk
awGem;vnfoabmaygufatmif/&Sif;vif;wifjyay;ekdif&r,f// 'Dvkd&Sif;jyedkifatmif/
ekdifiHa&; vrf;pOf/ ppfa&; vrf;pOf/ pnf;vkH;a&; vrf;pOfeJ@ ywfoufaom pmtkyf
pmwef;rsm;udk avhvm zwf&SK&r,f// 'grS rdru d kd ay;xm;aom wm0efxrf;aqmif
ekdifr,fvkd@/ tJ'Dvkdppfom;awG/ ekdifiHa&;oabmw&m;awG 0ifvmatmif oif=um;
ay;cJhw,f// ppfom;awGvnf; pdwfyg0ifpm;pGm avhvm =uw,f// trdef@ emcHwJh
todpdwfawG 0ifvm=uw,f//”35

txufygtwkdif; ekdifa&$usifonf/ rdrdzGifhvSpfoif=um;cJhaom ppfoifwef;eSifh ywfoufjyD;


*k%f,lpGm &Sif;vif;ajymjywwfonf//

1955-ckeSpf/ eSpfOD;ydkif;wGif rGeftrsdK;om; nDnGwfa&; wyfaygif;pkY yg0ifzGJ@pnf;xm;=uaom/


tzGJ@pnf;wdk@wGif tjrifrwlnDrSKrsm;udk tjrifwlnDrSK &atmif/ =udK;yrf; aqmif&Gufvmonf
udk awG@&onf// Oyrm w&kwfjzL/ ulrifwefeiS fh yl;aygif;a&; ryl;aygif;a&;/ Armjynf
uGefjrLepfygwDeSifh yl;aygif;a&;/ raygif;a&;eSifh vlwef;pm;tjrif/ tvkyform;/ v,form;
tay:cH,lonfhtjrif ponfwkd@wGif uJGjym;jcm;em; ae=uonf// Tokd@uGJjym;jcm;em; ae=u
onfh tjrifrsm;udk nSdeSkdif;I wlnDaom tjriftay: ygwDwpf&yf xlaxmifekdif&ef =udK;yrf;
aqmif&Gufaom umvjzpfonf// TonfeSihf ywfoufI edkifa&$usifonf/ atmufyg
twkdif; a0zefprf;ppf okH;oyfxm;onf//

“1955-ckeSpfrSm rGefvlrsdK;wkd@. vufeufudkifawmfvSefa&;twGuf/ tajymif;tvJ


jzpfay:apcJw h Jh/ tauG@taumufwpfckudk a&mufwJhumvjzpfw,f// tJ't D csed rf mS /
rGev
f lrsdK;wkd@&J@/ r[mrdwftjzpf tpOfvufwJcG w
Jh Jh/ u&iftrsKd ;om; tpnf;t&kH;rSm/
rlvppfa&;/ ekdifiHa&; vrf;pOfrSonf/ wkd;wufaom t,ltqudk cH,lwJh/ 'kwd,
vrf;pOfudk ajymif;vJcH,l usifhokH;vmwJh tcsed u f mv jzpfw,f// wekdifiHvkH;
awmfvSefa&; wjznf;jznf;/ usqif; vmwJh twGuf/ vufeufudkfif awmfvSefa&;
ygwDtoD;oD;wkd@rSmrdrdwkd@.vkyfief;vrf;pOfrsm;udk jyefvnfokH;oyf/ tuJcwfonfh
umv jzpfw,f// rGefacgif;aqmifrsm;rSmvnf;/ rdrdwkd@. vkyfief;/ vrf;pOfrsm;udk
jyefvnf okH;oyf nSdeSkdif; =uw,f//
35
oqmNicjatitj\bl\mukj\1
250 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

tJ'DtcsdefrSm/ Armjynf uGefjrLepfygwD/ tvHeD uGefjrLepfygwD/ jynfol@ &Jabmf


ygwDwkd@eJ@ vufwJjG yD; zqyv tpkd;&tm; awmfvSef wkdufckdufvkdwJh tkyfpkeJ@/
w&kwfjzL ulrifwef/ tar&duef tiftm;pkeJ@ vufwJGvkdwJh tkyfpkqkdjyD; rGef
acgif;aqmifwkd@rSm uGJjym;aew,f// w&kwfjzL/ ulrifwefxHrS tultnD &vkd&jim;
arSsmv
f ifhcsufeJ@/ w&kwfjzL ulrifwefeJ@ yl;aygif;bkd@/ ekdifqdwfedk@ wpfOD;u/ tjyif;xef
qkH; wkdufyJG 0ifcJhw,f//”

txufyg ekdifa&$usif aumufekwf wifjycJhonfh twkdif; rGefacgif;aqmifwdk@rSm tjrifrwl/


uGJjym; ae=uonfrSm trSefyif jzpfonf// Tokd@aom tajctaeudk ausmfv$m; ekdif&ef/
tjrifus,fpGm/ em;vnfrSK&SdpGm pdwf&SnfpGm/ =udK;yrf; aqmif&GufrSKa=umifh/ rGefacgif;aqmif
wkd@t=um;wGif wlnDrSK txkduftavsSmuf &&dSvmcJh=uonf//

1955-ckeSpfwGif/ rGefacgif;aqmifrsm;onf/ nDvmcH wpf&yfukd/ =umtif; qdyf=uD;e,f/


awmifpGef;&GmY ac:,lusif;y ekdifcJhonf// 4if;nDvmcHrS trsm;oabmwl/ rGet f rsKd ;om;
nDnGwfa&;wyfaygif;pkudk zsufodrf;jyD;/ rGejf ynfo@l wyfO;D udk zGJ@pnf; ekdifcJhonf// rGefjynfol@
wyfOD;onf/ rGeftrsdK;om;wkd@. pnf;vkH; nDnGwfpGm zGJ@pnf;vkdufonfh yxr OD;qkH;aom/
vufeufudkifawmfvSefa&;ygwD wpf&yfjzpfonf// rGefvlrsdK;wkd@. trsdK;om; vGwfajrmufa&;
=udK;yrf;rSK/ acwfopforkdif;. pmrsuef Smopf wckudk zGifhvSpf vkdufonf/

rGejf ynfo@l wyfO;D


A[kdtvkyftrSKaqmif
OuUX ekdifatmifxGef;(yi)
taxGaxGtwGif;a&;rSL;/ edkifcsrf;rGef(urm0uf)
trSKaqmiftzGJ@0ifrsm;
ekdifqdwfekd@/
ekdifatmifwifh/
ekdifpdefxGef;/
ekdifzdk;aumif;/(uavmhaomh)
ekdifxGef;odef;/
ekdifaiGodrf;/
ekdifodrf;armif/
ekdifa&$usif/
ekdifzkd;pdef/
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 251

ekdifxGef;cif/
ekdifom[ef
wkd@jzpfvm=uonf//

rGejf ynfo@l wyfO;D .tajccHr0l g'vrf;pOfrmS


1/ &nf&G,fcsuf/
(u) e,fcsJ@ ya'o&mZf pepfudk qef@usiI f vkH;0 vGwfajrmufI tcsKyftcsm tm%m
ydkifaom rGeforwekdifiH xlaxmif&ef//
(c) vlrsdK;pkH aoG;pnf; nDnGwfa&;udk wnfaqmuf&ef//
(*) 'Drdkua&pD tjynfht0&Sd&ef//
(C) xm0pOf jidrf;csr;f a&; &&Sd&ef//

vlrsdK;a&; jy\emonf/ vlwef;pm;jy\memeSihf cGJjcm;Ir&/ wpfckeSifhwpfckacgif;eSihfyef;yrm


wGJvsuf/ ,SOfI wnf&Sdaeaom jy\emjzpfonf[k xkdpOf umvwGif rGefjynfol@wyfOD;.
acgif;aqmifrsm;u cH,lxm;=uonf// jy\emwpfckwnf;udk cGJjcm;ajz&Sif;Ir&/ wpfckaom/
jy\emudk ajz&Sif;&if; tjcm;aom jy\mem wpfckudkvnf; rvGJra&Smifom ,SOfwJI G
ajz&Sif;&rnf[k jrifxm;=uonf/ rGefvlrsdK;a&; jy\emudk udkifwG,f ajz&Sif;&if;/ wpyfquf
wnf;/ rGefvlrsdK;wkd@. v,form;/ tvkyform; jy\emudkvnf; ukdifwG,fajz&Sif; oGm;&
rnf[laom cH,lcsufyifjzpfonf//

1955-ckeSpf aemufydkif;wGif awmwGif;&Sd vufeufudkif tiftm;pkwkd@Y/ tjrifrsm; ajymif;vJ


vmonf// rdrdwzGJ@wnf;/ wygwDwnf;/ oD;jcm; &yfwnffI/ zqyv tpkd;&tm; awmfvSef
aejcif;xuf/ rdrdwkd@ awmwGif; vufeufudkfif tiftm;pkrsm; pkpnf; nDnGwfjyF;/ zqyv
tpdk;&tm;/ yl;aygif; awmfvSefygu ydkrdk xda&mufI/ tusdK;&Sdrnf[k jrifvm=uonf//
wyfaygif;pk zGJ@pnf;&ef=udK;pm; vm=uonf// rGef/u&if/ytkd@/u&ifeD(u,m;)/wkd@ yg0ifaom/
'Drdkuf&ufwpfvlrsdK;pkrsm;nDnGwfa&;wyfaygif;pk(Democratic National United Front)
zGJ@pnf;a&;twGuf/ u&ifacgif;aqmif apm[efwmomar$;wdk@tzGJ@&kH; pkduf&m zgyGefkodk@/
rGefjynfol@wyfODrS udk,fpm;tzGJ@wpfzJ@G apv$wfwufa&mufapcJhonf// xkdukd,fpm;vS,ftzGJ@
wGif/ ekdifxGef;odef;/ ekdifcsrf;rGef/ ekdifqdwfekd@wkd@yg0ifcJhonf//

1956-ckeSpf {jyDv(2)&ufae@wGif 'Drdku&ufwpf vlrsdK;pkrsm; nDnGwfa&; wyfaygif;pk


(rvnw)udk zGJ@pnf; cJh=uonf// (rvnw). &nf&G,fcsufrSm/ vlrsdK;pk tcGifhta&;/
tjynfht0 &&Sda&;twGuf wkdufyJ0G if&mwGif/ pkpnf;aomtm; jzpfap&efeSifh us,fjyef@aom
wyfaygif;pk jzpfvmap&ef zGJ@pnf;cJhjcif;jzpfonf//
252 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

wyfaygif;pkwGif yg0ifcJhonfh tzGJ@pnf;eSifh obmywd0ifrsm;/


(1) (KNUP)u&iftrsdK;om;nDnGwfa&;ygwDraS pm[Homwmar$;/ref;bZH
(2) (KNPP)u&ifew D kd;wufa&;ygwDrSaumfuqm(apmyvkd)/'kdode;f
(3) (PNO)ytkd@0ftrsdK;om;tpnf;t&kH;rSAdkvfcsKyfcsHZkH/OD;vSaz/Akdvfcif
(4) (MPF)rGefjynfol@wyfOD;rS/ekdifatmifxGef;/ekdifa&$usif/
wdk@jzpf=uonf// 'vnw/ wyfaygif;pkwGif/ OuUX/ twGif;a&;rSL;pHepfr&SdbJ/ obmywdtzGJ@
taeeSifhomvkyfaqmifcJhjyD; XmecsKyfvnf;rxm;&SdcJhay// 'vnwonf yXrOD;qkH; ay:ayguf
cJhaom/ vlrsdK;pkwyfaygif;pkwpf&yfjzpfcJhonf//36

TuJhokd@ awmwGif;&Sd rGev f lrsdL;wkd@. vufeufudkfiftiftm;pkonf/ tjcm;aom awmwGif;


vufeufudkif tiftm;pkrsm;eSifh pkpnf; nDnGwfa&;twGuf =udK;yrf; aqmif&Guf ouJhokd@/
jynfwGif;&Sd rGeftrsdK;om; wkd@onfvnf; tjcm;aom ekdifiHa&;ygwD tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;eSifh
nDnGwfrKS wnfaqmufI wkdufyGJ 0ifedkifcJhonf// ekdifzdk;csdK OD;aqmifaom/ rGefwkdif;&if;om;
tpnf;t&kH;onf//tjcm;aom/ ekdifiHa&;ygwD tzGJ@pnf;rsm;eSifh vufwGJI/ rGefjynfe,f&&Sda&;
udk pGrf;pGrf;wrH =udK;yrf;aqmif&GufcJhonf//

1956-ckeSpfwGif rGefwkdif;&if;om;tpnf;t&kH;onf/ yrnw/wyfaygif;pkYyg0ifjyD;/ trsdK;om;


ekdifiHa&;udk t&SdefjrSifh vkyaf qmif vmonf// rGefzkd;csdK. rGefwkdif;&if;om; tpnf;t&kH;onf/
rGefjynfe,f &&Sda&; twGuf =udK;yrf; vkyfaqmif&mwGif/ tjcm; jynfaxmifpkom;/ nDaemif
EG,fzmG ; wdkif;&if;om;rsm;eSifhvnf; yl;aygif; yg0ifvSKyf&Sm;cJhonf//
1957-ckeSpf pufwifbmv28/29/&ufae@rsm;wGif &efukefjrdK@/ jrdK@awmf cef;rY vlrsdK;aygif;pkH
awG@qkH aqG;aEG;yGJw&yf usif;ycJhygonf// 4if;aqG;aEG;yGJwGif rGefukd,fpm;/ ekdifzkd;csdKu
atmufygtwkdif; ajym=um;cJhonf//

“/rGejf ynfe,f &&Sda&; twGuf/ u|efkyfwkd@ rGet f rsKd ;om; awG&J@/ =udKyrf;rSKonf/
,ckwdkif ratmifjrifao;bl;// rGejf ynfol vlxkonf 'Dtay: vkH;0 auseyfrSK
r&SdcJhbl;// rGefvlrsdK;rsm;onf/ ,ae@wkdif rdrd&J@ uH=urRm/ rdrd bmom/ pDrH ydkifcGifh/
tcGifha&; qkH;&SKH; aew,f// rGev f lxk[m/ Armrsm;eSifhtwl/ vGwfvyfa&; twGuf
toufpGef@ =udK;yrf; cJhw,f// vGwfvyfa&; &cJh&if/ Arm nDtpftudkrsm; uJhokd@
tqifhwef;wlaom/ omwl nDrSswJh tcGifha&;rsdK;udk &&Sd vdrrf ,fvkd@ arSsmv f ifhcJh=u
w,f// ,ckawmh arSsmfvifh xm;ouJhokd@/ rGefvlrsdK;rsm; bmrS tcGifha&; r&cJhbl;/
tvGef epfemvsuf &Sdaew,f//
36
jrefrmedkifiH/wkdif;&if;om;vlrdsK;rsm;/trsdK;om;'Drdkua&pDvSKyf&Sm;rSKordkif;/ckdifpkd;edkifatmif/pm/74
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 253

,ae@ rGeaf 'orSm/ 'kuQrsdK;pkH usa&muf ae&jcif;[m/ rGev f lrsdK;wkd@rmS &xdkuf&oifh


aom tcGifha&;rsm;udk tpkd;&u rvkdufavsSm/ vspfvsL &SKaevkd@ jzpfw,f//
qmbOD; =uD;rSL;cJ@wJh/ a'otvkduf ukd,fydkif tkyfcsKyfcGifh pkHprf;a&; aumfr&Sifonf/
rGeef Sifh&ckdif ukd,fykdif tkycf sKyfcGifh &&SdrSKwkd@udk 'Drdkua&pD oabmw&m;rsm;eSifh4if;/
tkyfcsKyfrSKtajccHOya'rsm;eSifh4if;/ qef@usifjyD;/ ydwfyifxm;qD; xm;w,f//”

xkdvlrsdK;aygif;pkH awG@qkH aqG;aEG;yGJwGif/ ArmtrsdK;om; udk,fpm;vS,ftjzpf/ OD;atmifoef;


wa,muf wufa&muf yg0ifonf// OD;atmifoef;onf/ AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;. tpfudk
jzpfonf// OD;atmifoef;yg0if qG;aEG;&mwGif rGefjynfe,f udpPeiS fh ywfoufI xnfhoGif;
ajym=um;cJhonf// OD;atmifoef;. aqG;aEG;csufrSm/ atmufyg twdkif;jzpfonf//

“zqyv acgif;aqmifrsm;eSifh tcsdK@ yk*~dKvfrsm;u/ rGeef iS hf Arm[m/ twlwyl if


jzpfw,fvkd@ ajymae =uw,f// 'gvkH;0 rrSefuefbl;// rGeftrsdK;om;wkd@rSm/ ckdifrmwJh
oD;jcm; ordkif; &mZ0if &Sdw,f// 'gudk rnfolrS jiif;vkd@r&bl;// ,Ofaus;rSKvnf;
oD;jcm;&SdcJhw,f// 'gvnf; rnfolrS jiif;rekdifbl;/ 'gawGudk axmufxm;jyD; Arm
trsdK;om;rsm; taeeJ@ rGet f rsdK;om;wkd@&J@ vkdvm;csuf awmif;qkdcsuf rsm;udk/
udk,fcsif;pm pdwfxm;eJ@ pOf;pm; aqG;aEG; qkH;jzwf ay;oifhw,fvkd@ u|efawmf
xifw,f//”37

AkdvfcsKyfatmifqef;.tpfudk/ OD;atmifoef;. aqG;aEG; wifjycsufonf tvGefrSefuefonf//


wdus jywfom;onf// z/q/y/vtzGJ@csKyfeSifh wuG tcsKd@aom Armacgif;aqmif yk*~dKvfrsm;./
rGefeSifhArm twlwlyifjzpfonf[laom/ tjrifudkjywfom;pGm qef@usifoGm;onf//rGefeSihfArm
twlwlyif jzpfonf [laom tjrifonf/ zqyv Arm acgif;aqmiftcsdK@wdk@. vdrfvnf/
vkyf=uHaom tjrifom jzpfonfukd ay:vGifaponf// zqyv Armacgif;aqmifwkd@. tjrif
onf/ rGefvlrsdK;udk 0g;rsdKypf&ef&nf&G,faom tjrifjzpfonfudk jywfjywfom;om;/ axmufjy
oGm;onf// rGeftrsdK;om;rsm;wGif &mZm0if oD;jcm;/ ,Ofaus;r_ oD;jcm; &SdcJhonfudk rnfolrS
rjiif;ekdifa=umif;/ Arm trsdK;om;rsm; taeeSifh rGef trsKd;om; wkd@. vkdvm;csufrsm;udk
udk,fcsif;pm pdwfxm;eSifh pOf;pm; aqG;aEG; qkH;jzwf ay;oifh onf[k rdrd ,lqa=umif;
OD;atmifoef;u aqG;aEG;wifjycJhonf// OD;atmifoef;uJhokd@ rGefvlrsdK;wkd@. ordkif;a=umif;udk
od&Sdem;vnfjyD;/ rGefvlrsdK;tay: pmempdwf xm;wwfaomolonf/ Armacgif;aqmifxJY
tenf;tusOf;r#om &Sdonfudk awG@&onf//

37
/(1958-62/ jrefrmekdifiHa&;/pm/287)/
vlrsdK;pkHawG@qkHaqG;aEG;yJG//HDR: Political Papers C II (e).
254 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

OD;atmifoef; uJhokd@aom tvGefxifay:aom yk*~dKvfwpfOD;. aqG;aEG; wifjycJhonfhtcsuf


udkyif/ zqyvtpkd;&onf/ vspfvsL &SkcJhonf// rGefvlrsdK;wkd@ &xkduf &oifhaom tcGifha&;
rsm;udk ,kwWdrwef/ rrSefruefaom enf;jzifh jiif;y,fcJhonf// vlrsdK;aygif;pkH aqGG;aEG;yGJrS/
vlrsdK;aygif;pkH tjrJwrf; aumfrwD wpf&yfudk zGJ@pnf;edkifcJhonf// vlrsdK;aygif;pkH tjrJwrf;
aumfrwD. t"du OD;wnf/ aqmuf&Gufrnfh vkyfief;rsm;rSm atmufygtwkdif;jzpf onf//

(1) yifvkHpdwf"gwf jyefvnf xdef;odrf;a&;//


(2) vlrsdK;aygi;f pkH aoG;pnf;nDnGwfa&;//
(3) jynfwGif;ppfudk jidrf;csr;f aom enf;jzifh&yfpJa&;//
wkd@jzpfonf//
txufyg OD;wnfcsuf (3)csuf yg0ifonfh yef=um;v$mukdvnf; xkwfjyef a=unmcJhonf//
vlrsdK;aygif;pkH aqG;aEG;yGJrS yef=um;csufrsm;udk/ zqyv tpdk;&onf pdwf0ifpm;cJhjcif; r&Sdacs//
rdrdcsrSwfxm;aom/ jynfe,fopf ray;a&;/ oabmxm;twdkif; qufvuf &yfwnfcJhonf//
xkdodk@ jynfwGif;&Sd rGeftrsdK;om; ekdifiHa&; ygwDonf/ tjcm; wkdif;&if;om; tzGJ@pnf;rsm;eSifh
pkpnf; nDnGwfjyD; zqyv tpdk;&tm;/ ekdifiHa&;enf;jzifh rGefjynfenf &&Sda&;twGuf
wkdufyGJ0if ouJhokd@/ awmwGif;&Sd rGefvufeufudkfif awmfvSefa&; ygwDonfvnf;/ r[mrdwf
zGGJ@jyD; zqyv tpkd;&tm; t&SdefjrSifh vufeufudkfif wkdufyGJ0ifoGm;&ef =udK;pm;vmonf//

1957-ckeSpf ukefykdif;wGif trsdK;om;'Drkdua&pD nDnGwfa&;wyfOD; (r'nw)zJG@pnf;&ef/


Armjynf uGefjrLepfygwD(Auy)rS/ rGefeSifhu&if trsdK;om; vufeufudkif awmfvSeaf &;
ygwDrsm;udk zdwfac:urf;vSrf;cJhonf// 4if;zdwf=um;csuft&/ rGejf ynfol@wyfOD;rS ekdifa&$usif/
ekdifxGef;cif/ ekdifyef;om/ ekdifoef;wifwkd@tm;/ rGefjynfo@lwyfOD;. udk,fpm;vS,frsm;tjzpf/
a&G;cs,fI/ zJcl;&kd;rokd@apv$wfcJhonf//

ekdifoef;wiftm; ukd,fpm;vS,ftzGJ@rSmxnfhjcif;rSm/ xkdtcsdefwGif jrpf0u|ef;ay:a'o/


tvHeDuGefjrLepfygwD A[kdpcef;wGif/ ekdifoef;wif a&muf aeI jzpfonf// ekdifoef;wifonf/
jynfol@&JabmfygwD/ tvHjzL uGefjrLepfygwDeSifh tvHeD uGefjrLepfygwDwdk@. yl;wGJusif;yaom
(3)ygwD uGefz&if;tm; avhvmjyD;aemuf/ tpdk;&. xkd;ppfa=umifh rGefXmecsKyfodk@ rjyefedkfif
ao;bJ/ tvHeD uGefjrLepfpcef;Y aomifwif aejcif;jzpfonf// Tae&mY ekdifoef;wifwOD;/
tvHeDpcef;wGif aomifwif ae&onfh/ ta=umif;udk tenf;i,fa&;om; &Sif;vif;rSom/
pmzwfolrsm; em;vnf ekdifrnf[k xifonf// tcsdeftm;jzifhf/ 1956-ckeSpfwGif/ tvHeD
uGefjrLepfygwD/ ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwD eSifhjynfol@ &JabmfygwDwkd@onf/ yckuULc&dkif awmifyHk
awmifnmpcef;wGif okH;ygwDnDnGwfa&; nDvmcHw&yfudk ac:,lusif;ycJhygonf//
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 255

vufeufudkifawmfvSefa&; atmifjrifa&;twGuf/ wlnDekdifaom bkHvkyfief;pOfrsm;udk csrSwf


jyD;/ bkH&efol t&if;&Sif vufa0cH zqyv tpkd;&tm; nDnD nGwfnGwf/ vufwGJ wkdufcdkuf
awmfvSefoGm;&ef &nf&G,fcsufjzifh T nDvmcHudk ac:,lcJhjcif; jzpfonf// ekdifaiGodrf;eSifh
ocif&JvSKdif wkd@. t=uHjyKcsuft&/ TnDvmcHodk@ rGefjynfol@ wyfOD;rS avhvmolwpfOD;
taejzifh/ ekdifoef;wifukd apv$wfcJhonf//

ekdifoef;wifonf/ tvHeDrS ajratmuf &Jabmfrsm;eSifh vkdufoGm;onf// &efukefrS wqifh/


yckuULjrdK@okd@ &xm;jzifh oGm;&onf// xkdyckuULjrdK@rS wqifh/ awmvrf;twkdif;/ nDvmcH
usif;yrnfh ae&mjzpfaom/ awmifykH awmifnmokd@ ajcvsifjzifh(3)ae@ (3)n vrf;a&Smuf
oGm;&onf// xkdnDvmcHwGif/ ygwDaygif;pkH udk,fpm;vS,f ajrmufrsm;pGmudk awG@cJh&onf//
tvHeDygwDrS ocifpkd;/ Armjynf uGefjrLepfygwDrS ocifoef;xGef;/ ocifZif/ &JabmfjzLygwDrS/
AkdvftkH;wifponfh/ ygwD acgif;aqmif=uD;rsm;udk edkifoef;wif/ awG@qkH &if;eSD; cJhonf//
4if;tjyif/ okH;ygwD nDvmcHodk@ avhvmolrsm;tjzpf wufa&mufvmaom/ &efukef
wuUokdvfrS tif;0aqmif/ taqmifrSL; jzpfaom/ udk,k/ ausmif;om; acgif;aqmif/
cifarmifodef;/ udkpkd;odef;wkd@udkvnf; awG@qkH &if;eSD;cJhonf// okH;ygwDnDvmcHusif;yaecsdefwGif/
zqyv tpkd;&. tjyif;txef xkd;ppfa=umifh okH;ygwD nDvmcHonfyif/ jyD;ajrmuf
atmifjrifonfhtxd rusif;y ekdifcJhacs// nDvmcHudk wydkif;wpjzifh &yfqkdif; vkduf&onf//
okH;ygwD udk,fpm;vS,frsm;vnf; toD;oD; vlpkcJjG yD; rdrdwkd@ pcef;qDokd@ jyefoGm;=uonf//

ekdifoef;wifonf/ nDvmcH usif;yaom awmifykHawmifnmrS wqifh/ tvHeD&Jaabmfrsm;eSifh


vkdufoGm;jyD;/ jrpf0uGsef;ay: a'o/ Adkvfuav;okd@ a&mufoGm;onf// xkdae&mY (8)vrSs
aomifwif aecJhonf// rGefjynfol@ wyfOD;XmecsKyfodk@ vG,fvG,fjzifh jyefI r&ekdfifjzpfaeonf//
tvHeD uGefjrLepfygwDrS OD;atmifausmfxl;/ udkzdk;rif;/ udkoef;az/ ukdnGef@0if;(bkHb0/
ocifwifjr .nD)wdk@eSifh tvGefcifrif &if;eDS;cJhonf// &Jabmf &Jbuf jzpfvmonf// TuJhokd@
tvHeD uGefjrLepfygwD pcef;rsm;Y tcsdeftwef=um aexkdifjyD;/ tvHeD&Jabmfrsm;eSihf cifrif
&if;eSD;cJhaom ekdfifoef;wiftm;/ tvHeDoef;wif[/k rGeftrsdK;om; tokdif; t0kdif;u trnf
emr/ ay;cJh=uonf// tvHeDygwD. vlrsdK;pkeSifh ywfoufaom cH,lcsuf oabmxm;udk
ekdifoef;wifwOD; tvGefoabmusonfrSm rSefonf// vlrsdK;pktay: xm;&Sdaom tvHeDygwD
. oabmxm;rSm tvGefjywfom;onf// vlrsdK;pkwkd@. udk,fydkif jyXmef;cGifhudk todrSwf
jyKonf// xkda=umifh tvHeD uGefjrLepftay:/ vlrsdK;pkygwDrsm;u txl; pdwf0ifpm; vm=u
onf// tvHeDygwD acgif;aqmif ocifpkd;onf jynfaxmifpk ppfppf wnfaxmifa&;eSifh
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256 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

vufeufudkif rGefawmfvSefa&; orm;rsm;. axmufcH tm;ay;rSKudk/ tvHeDygwDrS txkduf


tavSsmuf &&SdcJhonf//

txufyg wifjycJhonfh tajcaea=umifh ekdifoef;wifonf/ tvHeD pcef;Y aomifwif


aecJhonf// xkdokd@ aomifwifaeaom ekdifoef;wiftm; ekdifa&$usif OD;aqmifaom r'nw
zGJ@pnf;a&; udk,fpm;vS,ftzGJ@wGif tzJG@0ifwOD;tjzpf rGefjynfol@wyfOD;rS xyfrHa&G;cs,f
apv$wfcJhjcif;jzpfonf//

uGefjrLepfygwDeSifh vufwGJjyD;(r'nw)wyfaygif;pk zGJ@pnf;&mwGif ekdifa&$usiftm;/ a&G;cs,fjyD;


apv$wfjcif;rSmta=umif;&Sdonf// ekdifa&$usifonf vGefcJhaomwcsdefwGif/ ArmjynfuGefjrLepf
ygwD. tzGJ@0ifwOD; jzpfcJhbl;onf/ Ttcsufudkodol tvGef enf;yg;onf[k xifonf//
zufqpf/ *syefacwf wavSsmufwGif/ edkdifa&$usifeSifh 4if;nDi,f/ ekdifaomif;at; (*syef
awmfvSefa&;wGif usqkH;oGm;ol)wkd@ eSpfOD;onf/ trmcH uGefjrLepf tzGJ@0ifrsm; jzpfcJh=u
onf// *syef awmfvSefa&;wGif/ wuf=uGpGm yg0if vSKyf&Sm; cJh=uolrsm;jzpfonf// Tonfudk
ta=umif;jyKI/ ekdifa&$usiftm;/ acgif;aqmiftjzpf a&G;cs,fjyD;/ Armjynf uGefjrLepfygwDodk@
apv$wfonf[k qkdekdifygonf// ekdifa&$usifeSifh ekdifxGef;cifwdk@ eSpfOD;onf/ ygwD. wm0ef
ay;csuft&/ Armjynf uGefjrLepf XmecsKyf&Sd&m zJcl;&kd;rokd@oGm;&ef/ yxrOD;pGm udk,fa&mif
azsmufI/ &efukefjrdK@okd@ wufcJhonf// (ekdifyef;omonf csufcsif; ekdifa&$usifwdk@eSifhtwll
wygwnf;/ vkdufoGm;edkfifjcif;r&Sdacs// aemufrS vkdufoGm;jcif; jzpfonf[k od&onf//)/

ekdifa&$usifeSifh ekdifxGef;cifwdk@ eSpfOD;onf/ &efukefjrdK@udk a&mufjyD;/ Armjynf uGefjrLepfygwDrS/


apv$wfvmrnfh qufom;eSifh tqufoG,f ,l&ef apmifhqdkif; ae&onf// ekdifa&$usifeSihf
ekdifxGef;cifonf/ usdKufoDrGefausmif;wGif ckdatmif; aeonf// xkdacwf umvwGif/ ,ckacwf
avmuf/ ppfaxmufvSrf;a&;/ rsm;jym;pGm r&Sdao;yg// xkd@a=umifh ekdifa&$usifeSifh ekdifxGef;cif
eSpfOD;onf/ tcuftcJ r&SdbJ &efukefjrdK@wGif udk,fa&mifazsmufjyD;/ wdwfwcdk;aeekdifcJhonf//
ekdifa&$usifudkrl pmzwfolrsm;u od&SdjyD;jzpfonf// ekdifxGef;cifudkrl/ odoltvGefenf;yg;rnf[k
xifygonf// xkd@a=umifh pmzwfolrsm;eSifh rdwfqufay;&efvkdonf// ekdifxGef;cifonf/
urm0uf&Gmom;jzpfonf// (I.A.tdkfifat)/ txufwef; atmifjrifxm;aom/ aumvdyf
ausmif;om; jzpfonf// awmrckdcifwGif rGefwkdif;&if;om;tpnf;&kH;/ vli,fa&;&mXme.
wm0efcHjzpfonf// 1949-ckeSpfrSm awmckdcJhonf// awmwGif;Y ekdifatmifxGef;. nDreSifh
tdrfaxmifusonf// edkfifatmifoef;eSifh ekdifpkd;(aemifrGefjynfopfygwDtzGJ@0if)/wkd@. zcifjzpf
onf//&kyf&nftvGefoef@jyef@acsmarmoljzpfonf// tvGef,Ofaus;odrfarG@olvnf;jzpfonf//
ekdifa&$usifeSifh nDtudk[k ajymqkdvSsif ,kHekdifbG,f&m&Sdonf//
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 257

edkifa&$usifeSifh ekdifxGef;cifwkd@ eSpfOD;onf usdKufoDrGef ausmif;Y aejyD; uGefjrLepf ygwDrS


vma&muf qufoG,faom ajratmuf qufom;udk apmifhar#mf&if;/ wzufwGif tvHeD
uGefjrLepfpcef;rS jyefvmrnfh ekdifoef;wifudkvnf; apmifhar#mf ae=uonf// tvHeDuGefjrLepf
ygwDrS jyefvmaom ekdfifoef;wifonf/ &efukefjrdK@ usdKufoDrGef ausmif;Y ckdatmif;aeaom/
ekdifa&$usif/ ekdifxGef;cifwdk@eSifhqkHawG@onf// ekdifa&$usifeSifh ekdifxGef;cifwkd@. ajym=um;csuft&
rdrdonfvnf; Armjynf uGefjrLepfpcef;&Sd&m/ yckuULodk@ jyefoGm;&rnfhtjzpfudk edkifoef;wif
od&awmhonf// Tokd@jzifh edkifa&$usif ekdifxGef;cifeSifh ekdifoef;wif(3)OD; wkd@onf Armjynf
uGefjrLepfygwDrS apv$wfvmrnfh ajratmuf udk,fpm;vS,fudk apmifhqkdif;&if; &efukefjrKd@
usdKufoDrGef ausmif;Yyif okH;OD;om; udk,fa&mifazsmufI ckdatmif;ae&onf//odk@aomfxkdodk@
ykef;vSsdK@0SufvsSdL wdwfwcdk;/ cdkatmif;ae&onfhtcsdefrSmyif/ ekdifxGef;cif wOD;onf/ tjyifokd@
xGufI[kd[kd'D'D/avSsmufvnfaewwfonf// txl;ojzifhyef;qdk;wef;tat;qkdifudk c%c%
oGm;aewwfonf// TuJhokd@ c%c%/ oGm;a&mufaejcif; tm;jzifh/ tvGef tEW&m,f&Sd
ekdifonfudk ekdifoef;wif wa,muf tuJcwfrdonf// TuJhokd@ aexkdif oGm;vmaeygrl/
wae@ae@wGif tEW&m,f&Sd vmekdifonf[k ekdifoef;wifuyif/ pOf;pm;rdonf// xkda=umifh
ekdifxGef;cifudk urfbJhbufokd@ ajymif;a&$@aexdkif&efpDpOfcJhonf// ekdifa&$usifudkrl ajrmif;jrvrf;
usm;ausmif;xdyf&Sd armifa&$.tdrfwGifwnf;cdk&efpDpOfcJhonf//

uGefjrLepfygwDrS apvGwf vmaom qufom; udkwif0if;eSifh tqufoG,f &jyD; ekdifa&$usif


ekdifxGef;cifeSifh ekdifoef;wifwdk@/okH;OD;onf/ qufom;eSifhtwl/ &efukefrS pwif c&D;xGuf=u&ef
pDpOf=u&onf// yXrOD;pGmum;jzifh c&D;xGufcJh=uonf//'kdufOD;jrdK@okd@a&mufonftxd/ um;pD;
cJhonf// xkd'kdufOD;rS wqifh/ um;jzifh qufvuf oGm;I r&awmhacs// awmvrf; c&D;udk
a&SmufoGm; &awmhrnfjzpfonf// xkd@a=umifh ekdifa&$usifwkd@ vltkyfpkonf ukef;a=umif;vrf;
c&D;=urf;tm; ajceSpfzufudk/ t&if;wnfjyD;/ vrf;av#muf oGm;&awmhrnfjzpfonf//
abmfvnf&Gmudk/ yXrOD;wnfIvrf;a&SmufoGm;&onf// (3)&uf(3)n/vrf;a&SmufoGm;jyD;rS/
abmfv,f&Gmudk a&mufonf// abmfv,f&GmwGif wnwm tem;,ljyD; aemufwae@reuf
apmapmwGif csif;pk&Gmokd@ OD;wnfI vrf;a&SmufoGm;&jyefonf// aerGef;vGJtcsdefavmufwGif
csif;pk&Gmuav;odk@ a&mufonf// eHeufapmapmrSonf/ ae@vnfae@cif; tcsdefxd r&yfrem;
vrf;av#mufvmcJh&onfhtwGuf ekdifa&$usifwkd@ vltkyfpkonf tvGefyifyrf;vmjyD;jzpfonf//
a&S@odk@qufvufI c&D;rqufcsifawmhay// xkda=umifh csif;pk&GmwGif wnwm tdyfpuf
tem;,l&ef qkH;jzwfvkduf=uonf// csif;pk&GmrS csif;vl=uD;rsm;udk csOf;uyfI tdyfcGifhyefonf//

jrdK@rS txl;{nfhonf a&muf&Sdvmojzifh/ csif;pk &Gmuav;rS csif;trsK;d om;/ &Gmvl=uD;wkd@u/


txl;0rf;ajrmuf 0rf;om&SdvSonf// 4if;naepmudk/ csif;pk&GmrS csif;trsdK;om;rsm;u/
rdrdwkd@. aumif;ekd;&m&m [if;vsmjzifh {nfhonfudk {nfhcH=uonf// csif;vlrsdK;wkd@. cspfp&m
258 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

aumif;aom "avhwpfckrSm/ rdrd aus;&Gmodk@ a&mufvmaom/ rnfonfh vlrsdK;udk rqdk/


ausjyGefpGm {nfhcHau|;arG; wwf=uonf// t,kwftjrwf ra&G; wef;wl au|;arG;{nfhcH wwf
onf// aus;&Gm&Sd/ csif;trsdK;om; vl=uD;rsm;onf rdrdwdk@xH wcgw&H a&mufvmaom/ txl;
{nfhonfudk/ rdrdwdk@ txl;jrwfwekd;xm;aom/ [if;vsmrsdK;jzifh {nfcHau|;arG;avh&Sdonf//
txl; [if;vsm qkdonfrSm/ rdrdwdk@ oD;oef@ arG;jrL xm;aom acG;rsm;rS/ taumif;qkH;
acG;waumifudk a&G;cs,fowfjzwfjyD;/ csufjyKwf auGs;arG;jcif;jzpfonf/ acG;[if;udk csufjyKwf
&mwGif tvGefpepfusonf// yxrOD;pGm/ 0rf;oGm;apekdifaom/ opf&GufwrsdK;udk xkaxmif;jyD;
acG;udk auGs;jcif;tm;jzifh/ 0rf;oGm;aponf// 4if;aemuf 0rf;ekwfxm;jyD;/ tpm;tdrfa[mif;
wGif bmrsSrusefaom acG;tm; aumif;rGefpGm csufjyKwfxm;aom aumufnSif;jzifh/ w0
auGs;onf// xkdokd@pepfwus/jyKjyif/ auGs;arG;xm;jyD;aom/ acG;udk vdrfrmyg;eyfpGm owfjyD;
aumif;rGefpGmcsufjyKwfxm;aom/ txl;[if;udktxl;py,f&S,f {nfhonfrsm;tm; auGs;arG;
jcif;jzpfonf//T[if;vsmrsdK;ukd pm;avhpm;xr&Sdolrsm; twGufrl/ txl;tqef;jzpfaumif;/
jzpfekdifonf//pm;aomuf&ef0efav;wwfonf//

xkdae@edkifa&$usif/ edkifxGef;cifeSifh ekdifoef;wifwkd@tzJG@tm; {nfhcHau|;arG;aom [if;vsmonf/


tvGefaumif;aom [if;vsmrsm;jzpfonf// csif;trsdK;om;rsm;u &SmazGpkaqmif;I&aom/
[if;oD; [if;&GufeSifh trJ[if;vsm rsm;jzpfonf// rnfonfhtom;/ rnfonfh om;aumif
qkdonfudkrl/ edkifa&$usif/ ekdifxGef;cif/ edkifoef;wifwkd@u vkH;0rar;/ oHo,pdwfvnf;
rxm;=u// au|;arG;vmaom/ xrif;[if;rsm;udk jrdefa&/ ,Sufa&pm;okH;=uonf// c&D;yifyrf;
vmaom/ ekdifoef;wifwkd@ tzJG@onf tvGefpm;0if vSonf// csif;trsdK;om;rsm; uvnf;/
pdwfapwem tvGefoef@&Sif; pif=u,f=uonf// tvGef pdwfapwem xufoef =uonf//
rdrdwkd@ {nfhcH au|;arG;aom/ xrif;[if;rsm;jrdefa&/ ,Sufa& pm;okH;=uonfudk jrifawG@&
aomtcg/ tvGef 0rf;ajrmuf/ 0rf;om&Sd=uonf// ekdifa&$usif/ ekdifxGef;cifeSifh ekdifoef;wifwdk@
onfvnf; {nfhcHau|;arG;aom[if;vsmudk csD;=uL;ajymqkd=uonf// jrdef&nf/ ,Suf&nf
pm;okH;ay;=uonf// rdrdwkd@tm; apwemjzifh {nfhcHau|;arG;aom tdrf&Siftm; pdwfcsrf;omrSK
ukdjzpfapcJhonf// tdrf&Sifcsif;vl=uD;wkd@tm; csD;=uL;pum;trsdK;rsdK;ajym=um;Ivnf; tm;ay;
=uonf//

edkfifa&$usif/edkfifxGef;cif/ ekdfifoef;wif wkd@ (3)OD;onf/ a&mrjrdK@a&mufvSsif a&mrom;wkd@ uJhokd@


usifh=uH&rnfqkdaom pum;eSifhtnD/ usifh=uH aexkdifwwfonf[k qkd&rnf// bmrStaxG
txl;/ *Ds;rsm;avhr&Sdacs// awmfvSefa&;orm;yDyD/ jzpffovkd aexkdif pm;aomufwwfonfudk
awG@&onf// awmfvSefa&; orm;qkdonfrSm/ ywf0ef;usif tajcaeeSifh/ pyf[wfatmif
aewwf&onf// ywf0ef;usif jynfolvlxkeSifh wom;wnf;jzpfatmif/ =udK;pm;I aexkdif
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 259

wwf&rnf/ ponfh ekdifiHa&; tqkdtrdef@ tawG; tac:onf ekdifa&$usif/ edkifxGef;cif


edkifoef;wifwkd@. tawG;tac: tbd"rRmyif jzpf&Sdae[ef wlonf// rnfonfh t&mrS/
udfef;ao omwrwfwnf;/ ykHaoowfrw S fjyD; usifhokH;Ir&acs// ywf0ef;usif tajctaeeSifh
tnD/ ajymif;vJ usifhokH;&rnf qkdonfh tcsufudkrl/ ekdifa&$usif/ edkifoef;wifwkd@ vlpkonf/
aumif;rGefpGm/ em;vnf oabmaygufxm;jyD;jzpfonf//

ekdifa&$usif/ ekdfifxGef;cif/ ekdifoef;wifwkd@onf xrif;[if; pm;aomufjyD;I/ csif;vl=uD;rsm;eSifh


pum;pjrD ajymqkd=uonf// &yfa&;&Gma&; ta=umif;/ csif;vlrsdK;wkd@ ta=umif;/ &dk;&m
,Ofaus;rSK/ "avh xkH;pH 0wfpm; qif,ifrSK/ vlaerSK b0 paom ta=umif;&mrsm;udk
pkHvifpGm ar;jref; jymqkd=uonf// csif;vlrsdK;wdk@onf/ &kd;om;aom/ az:a&G wwfaom
jidrf;csrf;pGm aexkdifvkyfudkif pm;aomuf wwfaom/ wkdif;&if;om; vlrsdK;wrsdK; jzpfonf//
jrefrmedkifiH a&S@ajrmufydkif;/ tdENd,e,fpyfwGif tvGef a&S;usaom/ eSpfumv uyifcsif;
vlrsdK;wdk@onf tajccsaexdkifvm=uonf// csif;vlrsdK;onf awmifay:om; vlrsdK;wrsdK;jzpfjyD;
vGwfvyfpGm aexkdif vkyfudkifpm;aomufaom/ vlrsdK;jzpfonf// rdrdwkd@ OD;pD;acgif;aqmif.
vrf;n$efrSK/ a&S@aqmifvrf;jyrSKudk/ waoGrwdrf; vkdufemaqmif&Guf=uonf// wyg;aom/
rnfonfh vlrsdK;wrsdK;urSs/ rdrdwkd@e,fajrudk/ usL;ausmfI vma&mufodrf;ydkuftkyf pkd;cJhjcif;
r&Sd[k/ csif;trsdK;om;rsm;u *k%f,l 0ifh=uGm;pGm ajymqkdwwfonf// rnfonfh Arm e,fcsJ@
ya'o&mZfrsm;vnf;/ rdrdwkfd@ e,fajra'oudkvma&muf/ e,fcsJ@jcif;/ pkd;rdk;jcif; r&SdcJh[kvnf;
*k%f,l ajymwwfonf// edkifa&$usifwkd@u A[kokw tvdk@iSm atmufygtwdkif; ar;=unfh
onf//

“bk&ifhaemif tavmif;bk&m;qkdwJh emrnfrsm;udka&m cifAsm;wkd@ =um;bl;ygovm;//”

edkfifa&$usif/ ekdfifxGef;cif/ edkfifoef;wifwkd@. txufyg ar;cGef;udk =um;aomtcg csif;vl=uD;


wkd@u xl;xl; qef;qef;jzpfjyD; r=um;bl;a=umif; jyefajz=um;=uonf// aus;&Gm&Sd csif;vl=uD;
wkd@u woGifoGif vufcgjy =uonf// woGifoGifacgif;cg jy=uonf// Temrnfrsm;udk/ wcg
bl;rSs r=um;rd a=umif; jyefajzonf// b,fol@ emrnfvJvkd@ jyefar;=uonf// Temrnf udk
rdrdwdk@vkH;vkH; rod=ua=umif; jyefajym=uonf// bk&ifhaemif/ tavmif;bk&m; paom Arm
e,fcsJ@ ya'o&mZfwdk@. trnfemrudkyif csif;vlrsdK;wkd@ rodcJhyg// =um;vnf; r=um;cJhbl;yg//
TArm ya'o&mZfwdk@ &SdcJhbl;onf[kvnf; em;rvnfcJhyg// rnfonfhArm ya'o&mZf.
vGrf;rdk;rSK/ tkyfcsKyfrSK atmufudkrS/ rusa&mufcJhbl;aom vlrsdK;wrsdK; jzpfygonf//
260 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

Armya'o&mZfrsm;udk/ 'l;axmuf cpm;cJh&onfhordkif;onf4if;/b¾mquf vufatmufcH/


b0rsdK;tjzpf aecJh&onfh ordkif;onf4if;/ csif;vlrsdK;wkd@. ykHjyifwGif r&SdcJhay// vGwfvyfaom
e,fajra'ojzpfcJhonf//csif;vlrsdK;wkd@*k%f,l avmufatmif/ csif;vlrsdK;wkd@e,fajra'oonf/
oD;jcm;vGwfvyfaom/ a'ojzpfcJhonf// rGefya'o&mZfeSifh Armya'o&mZfwkd@ tcsif;csif;
wkdufckduf=uonfudkvnf;/ csif;vlrsdK;wkd@ rodcJhacs// &Srf;ya'o&mZfeSifh Arm ya'o&mZfwkd@
tcsif;csif;/e,fajrvk=u wkduf=u/ ckduf=uonfudkvnf;/ csif;vlrsdK;wkd@u rodcJhay// csif;vlrsdK;
wkd@odonfrSm/ rdrdwkd@ csif;e,fajr a'oudk rnfonfh ya'o&mZfrSvnf; vma&muf
usL;ausmf apmfum;jcif; r&SdcwJh Jh ta=umif;yif jzpfonf// udk,fykdif vGwfvyfrSK tjynf@t0
&Sdaom vlrsdK;wrsdK; jzpfonf[k csif;vlrsdK;wkd@u *k%f0ifh=uGm;=uonf//

okd@aomf/ 1885-ckeSpf jrefrmekdifiHudk odrf;ydkfuf tkyfpkd;aom/ t*Fvdyf vlrsdK;wkd@u/ rdrdwkd@


e,fajra'oudk vma&muf omoemjyK&if;/ rdrdwkd@. e,fajra'oudk/ vGrf;rdk; vmonfudkrl
cHcJh&onf[k qkdonf// t*Fvdyf vlrsdK;wkd@. tkyfcsKyfrSKykHpH w&m;Oya' pHepfrsm;/ vGrf;rdk;
vmonfudkrl/ csif;trsdK;om;wkd@u cHcJh&onf[k csif;trsdK;om;rsm;u odxm;=uonf//
Armjynfudk/ t*Fvdyfu vGwfvyfa&; ay;aomtcg/ csif;vGwfajrmufa'oudkyg/ wyg;wnf;
xnfhoGif;ay;vkdufIom/ csif;vlrsdK;wkd@onf/ bkrod/brodbJvsuf/ ArmtkyfcsKyfrSKatmuf
odk@/ usa&mufoGm;onf[k csif;vlrsdK;wkd@u cH,lxm;=uonf// csif;vlrsdK;wdk@udk/ tb,f
a=umifh/ ArmvufatmufcH b0odk@usa&mufoGm;atmif vkyf=uoenf;/ qkdaomar;cGef;udk/
csif;vlrsdK;wkdif;u ar;vm=uonf// igwkd@ csif;vlrsdK;udk tb,fa=umifh udk,fydkfif jyXmef;cGifh
&Sdaom/ jynfe,f ray;ekdif=uovJ qkdaom ar;cGef;udkvnf; csi;f vlrsdK;wkdkif;. yg;pyfzsm;rS
ar;vm=uonf// atmufyg pmyk'fudk avhvmzwf&SKvSsif/ csif;pk&GmrS/ csif;trsdK;om;rsm;.
ajym=um;csufrsm;onf/ wvkH;wyg'rSs/ tydkryga=umif; xif&Sm;pGmawG@& onf//
“In 1899, during the British colonial rule, a missionary couple, Arthur E.
and Laura Carson from the American Baptist Mission (Now American Baptish
Churches) set foot in the Chin Hills of what is now known as the Chin State of
Western Burma. They established a mission center at Haka, the present day
capital of Chin State. The Chin, until conquered a decade earlier by the British,
were never under the rule of outsiders, and had enjoyed autonomy under their
own indigenous administrative system headed by local chiefs. Traditionally
fierce fighters who resisted the British occupation with unsurpassed courage, one
British soldier earned the highest military honour, the Victoria Cross during a
battle with Chin resistant forces.”
(Keeping the Faith, Chin Celebrate Centennial Year of Christianity/ by Salai
Za Uk Ling and Salai Bawi Lian Mang)
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 261

txufyg pmwef;rS a&;om;csuf rsm;onf/ csif;pkrS csif;vl=uD;rsm; ajymqkdcsufrsm;eSifh


wxyfwnf; udkufnDaeonfudk wG@&ayrnf// csi;f pk&GmrS/ csif;trsdK;om;rsm;. ajymqkd
csufonf rSefuef aeonfudk awG@&onf// tykdvkyfI rajyma=umif; xif&Sm;onf/
csif;vlrsdK;wkd@onf/ rnfonfhtcgurS/ Armya'o&mZf vufatmufodk@ ruscJhbl;onfrSm
tvGefxif&Sm;onf// bk&ifhaemif/ tavmif;bk&m;emrnfrsm;udk/ csif;trsdK;om;wkd@u
vkH;0r=um;bl;onfrSmvnf;/ tvGef,kwWdwefonf//

1948-ckeSpf ZEMm0g&Dv(4)&ufonf/ vGwfvyfa&;ae@[k/ ArmvlrsdK;rsm; taejzifh/ *k%f,l


0ifh=uGm;pGm/ ajymqdk=uonf// odk@aomf csif;vlrsKd ;rsm; taejzifh/ Tae@udk vGevf yfa&;
qkH;&SKH;aomae@jzpfonf[k ajymqkdae=uonf// xkdae@ 1948-ckeSpf ZEMm0g&Dv(4)&uf onf/
csif;vlrsdK;wdk@ tbdk@ ArmvlrsKd ;wkd@. vufopf udkvdkeD vufatmufcH b0odk@ bkrodbrod
usa&muf oGm;aom ae@wae@[k csi;f vlrsKd ;wdk@u nSdK;i,f/0rf;enf;pGm ajymqkd=uonf//
‘ArmvlrsdK;wkd@. vGwfvyfa&;ae@onf/ csif;vlrsdK;wkd@. vGwfvyfa&; qkH;&SKH;aomae@’
jzpfaeonfudk xl;qef;thH=obG,f&mtjzpf ekdifoef;wifwkd@u odvkduf&onf//

csif;pk&GmrS/ csif;trsdK;om;rsm;. oef@&Sif; pif=u,faom apoem tjynfhjzifh/ {nfhcHauGs;arG;


vkdufaom/ tvGeft&om aumif;rGefvSonfh/ txl;py,f&S,f [if;vsmudk pm;aomuf
xm;=ujyD;aemuf/ ekdifa&$usif/ekdifoef;wif/ekdifxGef;cifwdk@(3)OD;onf/ txl;yiftm;tifopfjzifh
jynfh0aeonf// ekdifa&$usif/ edkifoef;wifwkd@tzJG@onf aemufwae@ reuftm&kHvif;csdefwGif/
tm;reftjynfhjzifh/ c&D;qufcJh&jyefonf// rdrdwdk@ &Gmuav;ukdpGef@cGm/ xGufoGm;=uaomjrdK@rS
{nfhonfrsm;tm; csif;pk&$mrS/ csif;trsdK;om;wdk@onf/ vufa0S@&rf;jy&if;/ vGrf;aqG;/ usef&pf
cJh=uonf//

csif;pk&Gmuav;rSS (5)em&D ausmfausmf (6)em&DrSs vrf;av#muffvSsif Armjynf uGefjrLepf./


a&miffeD pcef;okd@ a&mufawmhrnf jzpfonf// Edkdifa&$usif/ edkifxGef;cifeSifh edkifoef;wif
wkd@tzGJ@onf/ uGefjrLepfygwDrS apv$wfvmaom/ =udKqkda&;tzGJ@eSifh vrf;c&D; w0ufwGif
qkH=uonf// xkd=udKqkda&;tzGJ@. vrf;jy a&S@aqmifrSKjzifh/ a&S@okd@ c&D; a&SmufvSrf;cJhonf//
rdrdwkd@ OD;wnfoGm; rnfhae&m/ A*kd;&kd;r/ Armjynf uGefjrLepfygwD. a&mifeDpcef; jzpfonf//
&ufquf vrf;a&SmufvmcJh&onfhtwGuf/ ekdifa&$usif/ edkifxGef;cif/ edkifoef;wifwkd@tzGJ@onf
tenf;i,f yifyrf;onfrSvGJI/ wuf=uG vef;qef;ae=uonf// csif;aus;&GmrSm au|;arG;
vkdufaom/ xrif;[if;vsmudk pm;aomufjyD;/ tm;tif jynfhjzKd;vmcJh=uonf// rdrdwkd@
oGm;vkdaom/ a&mifeDpcef;okd@ em&D tenf;i,f twGif;wGif a&mufawmhrnf// rdrdwkd@.
taygif;oif; &Jabmfa[mif;rsm;eSihf awG@&rnfjzpfonf// twdwfa=umif; a&S@a[mif;
aeSmif;jzpfrsm;udk ajymqkd=u&awmhrnf// edkfifoef;wifwkd@(3)OD;awG;jyD; aysmfjrL;ae=uonf//
262 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

eHeufcif;wGif/ vrf;c&D; xGufvm&jcif;onf/ tvGef=unfel; bG,f&m aumif;onf// eSif;aiG@


ygaom eHeufcif;. avajyavnkif;a=umifh vludk vef;qef;apcJhonf// awmawmif/ pdyfhprf;
&_dajrmif toG,foG,feSifh tvGef om,mbG,f aumif;aom yJcl;&kd;ronf/ ekdifa&$usif/
edkifxGef;cif/ ekdifoef;wifwkd@. pddwfudk v_yf&Sm;apcJhonf// awmawmifwckvkH;udk &SKarSsmf=unfh
vSsif/ eHeufcif;. aetvif;a&mifa=umifh/ tvGef om,mbG,faumif;aom &Skcif;rsm;
jzpfaeonf// pdwfudk=unfel;aponf// pdwfcsrf;ajr@rSKudk jzpfaponf// yJcl;&kd;ronf/ &SKjrifol.
pdwfudk vSKyf&Sm; aqmhupm; apcJhonf[k edkfifoef;wifu ajymonf// twdwfa=umif;
tjzpfa[mif; wkd@udkvnf; jyefvnfwrf;w owd&vGrf;qGwf apcJhonf[kvnf; ekdfifoef;wif
u ajymonf// A*kd;&kd;rawmifwef;.tvStyudk pmzGJ@Iyifrukefedkif/ ajymqkdIyif rqkH;ekdfifyg
[kk ekdifoef;wifuqdkonf//

edkifa&$usif/ ekdifxGef;cif/ edkifoef;wifwkd@ vlpkonf/ yJcl;&kd;r awmifwef;. tvStyudk


&SKar#mf cHpm;&if; vrf;a&SmufvmcJh=uonf// awmawmif/ vSSsdKajrmif/ pdrfhprf;wkd@. tvSty/
oef@&Sif; oif;yswJh avat;wkd@u vludk vef;qef;apjyD; rarmryef; c&D;a&SmufvSrf; vmekdif
cJh=uonf// om,mvSyaom A*kd;&kd;r.aphaqmf wkdufwGef;rSKa=umifh ekdifa&$usif/ ekdifxGef;cif/
ekdifoef;wifwkd@onf/ rdrdwkd@.&ifwGif;Y cHpm;rSKtoD;oD;jzpfay:vm=uonf// A*dk;[Hom0wD
aumif;pm;cJhaomacwfudk jyefajymif;owd&vm=uonf// vrf;a&Smuf&if; twdwfaeSmif;u
rGefvlrsdK;wkd@. ta=umif;udk jyefajymif; ajymqkdvm=uonf// olwkd@ ajymqkdvm=uaom
ta=umif;&mwGif [Hom0wDta=umif;/ rGefbk&if &mZm"d&mZf ta=umif;/ rGefol&Jaumif;/
Anm;v*Gef;tdef/ ordefA&rf; ordfefjAZ…mZf/ ynm&Sd rGeftrwf'dew f kd@. ta=umif;/ ponfjzifh
pkHvif atmif yg0ifonf//

TyJcl;&kd;rae&mokd@ a&mufvmaom rGefvlrsdK;wkdif;/ olwdk@vkd uJhokd@yif/ twdwfudkjyefvnf/


vGrf;qGwf owd&rd=urnf[k edkifoef;wifu pdwfxJujzpfrdonf// Edkifoef;wif ajymouJhokd@
jzpfedkifonf// A*kd;[Hom0wD[laom trnfemrudk =um;rdvsSif/ rGefvlrsdK;wkdif;onf/ &ifxJY
trnfraz:jyekdifaom a0'emcHpm;rSK w&yfudk jzpfay:vm&pjrJyifjzpfonf// rGefvlrsdK;wdk@.
udk,hfxD;/ udk,hfeef;/ udk,hf=uiSef;eSifh aevmcJhonfh vGwfvyfrSK b0udk jyefvnf wrf;w
rdonf// rGefol&Jaumif;/ rGefvlpGrf;aumif;awG aygrsm;cJhonfh acwfaumif; tcgor,udk
jyefvnf atmif;arhowd&aponf//*k%fa&mifxGef;ajymifcJhaom rGefvlrdfsK;wkd@. ordkif;ukd4if;/
at;csrf;vSonfhrGefvlrsdK;wkd@.b0udk4if;/ jyefvnf owd&vm=uonf// A*kd;&kd;r.aphaqmf
zefwD;rSKtm;u rGeflvlrsdK;wkd@tay: tvGef=uD;rm;ygbdonf//
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 263

&mrna'orSm &Sdae=uonfh rGefvlrsdK;udk rqkdxm;eSifh/ ,dk;',m;ekdifiHokd@a&muf&Sdae=uonfh/


rGefrsdK;EG,fwkd@onfyif/ A*dk;[Hom0wD rGefvlrsdK;wkd@. aejynfawmf trnfemrudk =um;rdv#if/
raz:jy edkifaom a0'em wrsdK;udk cHpm; vm=uonf[k ajym=uonf// A*dk; [Hom0wD
rGefvlrsdK;wkd@. aejynfawmfudk vGrf;qGwf wrf;w owd& aeqJyif &Sdonf// rGefvlrsdK;wkd@.
aejynfawmf [Hom0wDjynfqDodk@ wae@ae@ jyefvmOD;rnf[kvnf; pdwfxJu ckdifrmpGm
oH"dXmef csxm;=uqJyif jzpfonf//

1757-ckeSpf [Hom0wD ysufokef;I rGefvlrsdK;rsm;onf/ tm,k'D,okd@k xGufajy; wdrf;a&Smif


oGm;&aomfvnf;/ tm,k'D,Y raysmfydkuf=uay// [Hom0wD aejynfawmfudkyif/ jyefvnf
owd& atmifarh =uonf// wae@ w&ufrS arhr&cJh=uay// [Hom0wD aejynfawmf qDokd@
jyefvmedkifa&;udkom tpOftjrJ ar#mfawG; =uHqae=uonf// wae@ae@wGif A*dk;[Hom0wD
aejynfawmfY rGefaqGawmf rsdK;awmfwkd@onf/ jyefvnf qkHqnf; =u&rnf[k vnf;
,kd;',m;a&muf rGev f lrsdK;wkd@u ,kH=unf xm;=uonf// urBmhteS@H e,fjcm; ajrjcm;okd@
a&mufae=uaom rGefvlrsdK;wk@donfvnf; ,dk;',m; rGefuJhokd@ A*kd;[Hom0wD aejynfawmf
tm;/ wae@w&ufrS rarhedkif ae@pOfae@wkdifyif owd& wrf;w vSsufyif &Sdae=uonf//
rGefvlrsdK;wkd@. bk&ifrif; eef;wnf&m A*kd;[Hom0wDrSm wae@ae@wcsdefcsdefwGif rGefaqGawmf/
rsdK;awmfwkd@ jyefvnf qkHqnf;=uOD;rnf[k tjynfht0 ouf0if,kH=unfae=uonf// &mrn
a'o&Sd rGefvlrsdK;wdk@onf4if;/ xkdif;ekdifiHokd@ a&muf&Sdaeaom rGefvlrsdK;wkd@onf4if;/ urBm
t&yf toD;oD;okd@ a&muf&Sd ae=uaom rGefvlrsdK;wdk@onf4if;/ Tokd@aom ,kH=unfcsuf/
tjynfht0 &Sdae=u onf//

xdkuJhokd@ ouf0if ,kH=unfrSK &SdIyif/ xkdif;ekdifiHa&muf rGefrsdK;eG,fwkd@onf eSpfpOf eSpfwkdif;/


rysufruGuf rGefvlrsdK;wdk@. aejynfawmf [Hom0wD A*kd;jrdK@odk@ bk&m;zl;vm=upjrJjzpfonf//
Tae&mY qufpyfaom ta=umif;&mwckudk pmzwfolrsm;tm; a&;om;wifjyvkdygonf//
,kd;',m;edkifiH&Sd rGefvlrsdK;wdk@. ckdifrmaomoH"dXmef/ jynfh0aom,kH=unfrSKwkd@udk cef@rSef;od&Sd
edkif&efjzpfonf//

1961-ckeSpfwGif xkdif;ekdifiHrS bk&m;zl; tvnf a&mufvmaom/ rGefrsdK;eG,frsm;udk/ &efukef


wuUodkvfrS rGefausmif;ol/ om;rsm;u {nfhcHawG@qkHjyD; wOD;udkwOD; rdwfqufyGJ jyKvkyf
=uonf// TrdwfqufyGJwGif &efukef wuUodkvf rGefausmif;ol ausmif;om;toif;rS
ausmif;om; acgif;aqmifwOD;u atmufyg ar;cGef;udk ar;jref;bl;ygonf//

“tpfudk/ armifeSpfr/ taqGrGefwdk@ ,ckvkd eSppf Of eSpw f kdif; rysuf ruGuf om;pOf
ajr;quf qkdouJhokd@/ &efukefjrdK@/ a&$wd*kHbk&m;udk4if;/ A*kd;a&$armfa"mbk&m;udk4if;/
264 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

vma&muf/ =unfnkdzl;arSsmfae=uonfudk/ u|efyfwkd@awG@jrif&ygonf// rnfokd@aom/


,kH=unfcsuf/ cH,lcsuf/ arSsmrf Se;f csufrsm;jzifh/ TuJhodk@ ZGJvkH;v 0d&,
d pdkufjyD; eSppf Of
eSpwf kdfif; rysuf ruGuf qufI qufI A*dk; [Hom0wDqDudk vma&muf vnfywf/
bk&m;zl;arSsmaf e&ygoenf;//ta=umif;&if;ufdku|efyfwkd@tm;odcGifhjyKekdifygrnfvm;//”

txufygtwdkif; &efukef wuUokdvfrS rGefausmif;om; acgif;aqmifwOD;u rGefbmom


pum;jzifh/ &kdaoav;pm;pGm ar;jref;onf// touft&G,ftm;jzifh tenf;i,f=uD;jyD;/ tod
ynmjzifhtvGef=uG,f0[ef&Sdaom/xkdif;rS rGefrsdK;eG,fwOD;onf atmufygtwkdif;/ rGefbmom
pum;jzihf/ av;euf wnf=unfpGm jyefvnf ajz=um;cJhonf// xkdyk*~dKvf ajym=um;aom/
rGefpum;onf tvGef av;eufonf// a&S@rGefokH; pum;vkH;rsm; yg&Sdvmonfudk awG@&onf//
4if;tjyif xkdyk*~dKvf. rGefpum;rsm;wGif/ xkdif;pum;vkH;rsm;vnf;/ wvkH;wav/ a&m,Suf
yg0ifaeonfudkawG@&onf//okd@aomf wuUodkvfrS rGefausmif;ol§om;rsm;wkd@onf/ xkdyk*~dKvf
ajym=um;aom/ pum;. t"dy`g,f tjynfhtpkHudk/ ukHvkHpGm od&Sdem;vnf/ oabmayguf
=uonf// 4if;yk*~dKvf. jyefvnf ajz=um;aom/ rGefbmom pum;udk/ Armpum;jzifh
jyefvnf a&;om;&rnfqkdvSsif atmufygtwkdif;jzpfonf//

“tpfudk armifeSr/ taqGrGefwdk@eSifh ,ckvkd jyefvnf qkHawG@ &onfh twGuf/


u|efyfwkd@twkdif;rod/ 0rf;ajrmuf rdygonf// u|efkyfwkd@ eSpfpOf eSpfwkdif; rysufruGuf/
vkH;v 0d&, d pkdufI/ &efukefjrdK@ a&$'*kHbk&m;udk4if;/ A*kd;jrdK@a&$armfa"mbk&m;udk4if;/
,ckvkd vma&muf zl;arSsmf/ =unfndk =uonfrSm/ u|efkyfwkd@Y/ ckdifrmaom opPm
t"dXmef;eSifh ckdifrmaom ouf0if ,kH=unfrSK/ &Sdygonf// Tokd@ ckdifrmonfh/
,kH=unfcsuf/ ckdifrmonfh/ opPm t"dXmefjzifhom/ vma&muf/ =unfndk zl;ar#mf
=ujcif; jzpfonf//

ta=umif;rJh/ taysmfyg; vkdufI/ tvnftywf oabmjzifh/ vma&muf =ujcif;


r[kwfyg// u|efkyfwkd@.a&S@a&S@aom/ rGefbdk;bGm;bDbifrSpI/ ,ae@om;pOf ajr;quf
txd/ vufqifhurf; oGeo f if qkH;rxm;aom/ (waygif)t& u|efkyfwdk@ vma&muf
=ujcif;jzpfonf// xkdvl=uD;rdbrsm; oGeo f ifqkH;rxm;aom/ (waygif)udk/ u|efkyfwdk@
om;pOf/ajr;jrpfrsm;u/ ,ae@xufwkdif ouf0if,kH=unfvSsuf&Sdonf// xkd(waygi)f /
twkdif; wae@ae@wGif rcsKd @r,Gif; jzpfay:vmrnf[kvnf; u|efkyfwkd@u tjynfht0
tcdkiftrm/ ouf0if ,kH=unfvsSuf&Sd=uonf//”
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 265

[k ajym=um;jyD; pum;ukd acwW c%rSs &yfem; vkdufonf// wdwfqdwfpGm tm&kHpl;pkdufI


em;axmif ae=uonfh y&d\wftm;/ apmif;iJh =unfhvkdufonf// xkdtcg/ wuUokdvfrS
rGefausmif;om;acgif;aqmifuyif atmufygtwkdif; ajym=um;onf//

“tpfudk taqGrGef. pum;udk=um;&I u|efkyfwkd@tm;vkH; txl;yif pdwf0ifpm; rdyg


onf// tpfudktaqGrGe/f ajym=um;aom/ xdk(waygif)ufdk/ u|efkyfwkd@tm; =um;emcGifh
jyKekdifygrl/ =um;emcGifh jyKyg&ef u|efkyf av;pm;pGm arwWm&yfcH wkdufwGef; vkdyg
onf//”

xkdtcg/ xdkif;rGefvl=uD; vlaumif;onf rdrdpum;ukd jyefquf&ef tm;,ljyD; atmuftwdkif;


av;euf wnf=unfpGmajym=um;oGm;onf//

“u|efkyfwkd@ rGefrsm; om;pOfajr;quf/ ouf0if ,kH=unf xm;aom (waygif) onf/


atmufygtwdkif; jzpfygonf//
(urBm t&yf&yfrS rGefrsdK;EG,f rGefaqGrsdK; rGefnDtpfudk armifeSrrsm;wkd@onf/ TA*kd;
[Hom0wD aejynfawmf eef;awmfa[mif;ae&mY wae@ae@wGif jyefvnf qkHqnf;
=urnf// Tae@onf wydkwJ@G v>Kyf(1)&ufae@ yifjzpfonf// te,fe,f tjrdK@jrdK@wkd@rS
rGerf sdK;EG,f aqGawmf rsdK;awmf rGen
f Dtpfukd armifeSrwkd@onf/ A*dk; [Hom0wDY
wcsdefwnf;wGif pka0; a&muf&SdvmjyD; qkHqnf; =urnf// &mZm"d&mZf rif;.
eef;awmf ae&ma[mif;Y tavhus aygufa&muf aeaom t&kdif;yif csKHE, G f
ydwfaygif; wkdk@udk ckwfxGif &Sif;vif; ypf=urnf// csdKifhaom ae&mudkzkd@ rdk@aom
ae&mudk ajrnSdjyD;/ wdwdyy/ nDnm jzef@jzL;atmif ajrxGefndS =urnf/ xkdaemuf
rGef&[ef;oHCm tyg;(3000)tm; yihfbdufI xkdnDnm jzef@jzL;aeaom ajrjyifnD
ay:wGif y&dawmfjrwfudk &Gufzwfo&Zm,f=urnf// eef;awmfopfwnfaqmuf&ef
(4)buf (4)wef/ (4)axmifhf (4)rsufeSmaom t&yfwkd@wGif eef;awmfopf
yeufwkdifrsm;udk pkdufxl =uukefrnf// a&$tkwfjrpf aiGtkwfjrpfrsm; cs=urnf//
xdknDnm jzef@jzL;aom ajrjyif=uD;ay:rSmyif rGe&f [ef;jrwf oHCmtyg;(3000)wk@d
tm; xl;jrwfaom t&omeJ@jynfhpkHonfh qGrf;cJb, G f rsdK;pkHwkd@jzifh au|;arG; vSL'gef;
=urnf// jrifhjrwfaom tvSL'geudk apoem o'Ngw&m; xufoefpGm jyK=urnf//
xkdtvSLtwef;jyK&m ae&mXmeodk@/ [Hom0wD ysufoke;f csde/f Arm OD;atmifaZ,s
owfjzwf uGufjrufjcif;cHcJh&aom rGef&[ef;jrwfoHCm tyg;(3000)wkd@onf/
ewfom;toGif taqmifta,mif tjynfheJ@ aumif;uif c&D;jzifh =uGcsDvm
=urnf//rel[mrif;/ &mZm"d&mZfrif;/ bk&ifr&Sifapmyk/ "rRapwDrif;/ Anm;'vrif;
wkd@onf/ rif;0wfwefqm taqmifta,mif rsm;jzifh =uGjref; vm=urnf//
266 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

trwf'ed /f Anm;v*Ge;f tde/f Anm;"&mH/ paom rGeo f &l Jaumif; taygif;wkd@onf


vnf;/x,f0g cef@nm;pGm pka0; a&muf&Sd vm=urnf// qGrf;udpPt00wkd@ jyD;ajrmuf
aomtcg/ rGe&f [ef; jrwfoHCm tyg; (3000) wdk@onf/ &mZm"d&mZf eSifh
orD;awmf &Sifapmyk tygt0if/ rGefbk&ifrif;jrwf "rRapwD/ rGefol&Jaumif; Anm;
v*Gef;tdef/ Anm"&mH/ ynm&Sd trwf'ed w f kd@tm; &nfpl; trSL;xm;I w&m;
a'oema[m=um;=urnf// arwWmydk@o/ trsaS y;a0=urnf// xkdjyKjyKor# aumif;rSK
ukokdvf tbkd@ygu wkd@udk vlewf/ jA[Rm owW0g taygif;wdk@tm; trSsay;a0=u
rnf// &mZm"d&mZfrif;rS tp=uGa&mufvm=uaomyk*~dKvfxkl; yk*~dKvfjrwftoD;oD;
wkd@onf/ 0rf;ajrmuf 0rf;om om"k tekarm'em cH,l=urnf// Taumif;rSK
tpkpk. tbkd@yguudk &=uI 0rf;ajrmuf 0rf;ompGmjzifh aumif;&m ok*wdbkHokd@
jyefvnf =uGjref; oGm;=urnf//

xkdaemuf ekdifiHtoD;oD;rS pka0; a&muf&Sdvmaom/ rGefjynfol vlxk y&d\wf


taygif;wkd@onf//wHckd;=oZmtvGef=uD;rm;cJhonfh rGefbk&ifrif;jrwfwkd@.ta=umif;
udk4if;/owWdAswWd tvGef ajymifajrmufaom rGefol&Jaumif;wkd@. ta=umif;udk4if;/
awmufajymifvSaom rGeflvlrsdK;wkd@. ordkif;a=umif;udk4if;/ jyefajymif;ajym=urnf//
rGeb
f &k if rif;jrwfrsm;eSihf rGeo
f &l Jaumif;rsm;wkd@. *k%f aus;Zl; wkd@udk atmif;arh
wrf;w owd&=urnf// xdktcsdef [Hom0wDacwf rsdkK;cspf pdwf"gwfrsdK; vlwkdif;
toD;oD;. &ifwGif; eSvkH;om;rSm jyefvnf udef;atmif; edk;=um;x=uGvm=urnf//
pwkwÎA*kd;[Hom0wD rGefekdifiHawmfopf=uD;udk/ pkpnf; nDnmpGm/ wnfaqmuf
=urnf// pwkwÎrGefekdfifiH [HomwD aejynfawmf tkwfjrpf csyGJ/ pnfpnfum;um;
okdufokduf jrdKufjrdKuf usif;y=urnf/ (7)&uf(7)nwdkifwdkif yGJvef;obif/ qif,if/
usif;y=u rnf//

xdk@tjyifrGefvlrsdK;wkd@.e,fajray:YwcsdefuusL;usL;ausmfausmfapmfapmfum;um;/
vma&mufaqmufvkyf xm;cJhbl;aom/ bk&ifhaemif. eef;awmfa[mif; ajrae&m
udk vdkufvH&SmazGjyD;/ wl;az: vSefypf=urnf// a[mif;EGGrf; aqG;ajr@ aejyD;jzpfaom/
opfa[mif; opfaqG;wkd@udk4if;/ tkwfusdK; tkwfyJh wkd@udk4if;/ aumuf,l pkykHjyD;
rD;&SKd@ypf=urnf// rD;avmifIrukef =uGif;usefaom/ opfp/opfe tkwfusdK;/ tkwfyJh
wkd@udk o,faqmif,ljyD; yifv,fork'N&m=uD;xJokd@ v$ifhypf=urnf// bk&ifhaemif.
eef;awmftm; pGJvef;usef&pfjyD;/ oap>ol&J jzpfae=uaom/ olwkd@taygif;tm;
vnf;/ rGef&[ef;jrwf oHCmrsm;u y&dwfawmfrsm; &Gwfzwf o&Zm,fI
p=uFm0Vm tjyifbufokd@ armif;eSif xkwfypf=urnf// xkdae@ xkdtcsdefrS tpjyKjyD;
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 267

rGev
f lrsdK;wkd@onf/ vGwfvyf =urnf// jidrf;csrf; =urnf// wcsdefu rdrdvlrsdK;wkd@.
at;csrf; om,m 0ajymaom b0rsdK;udk jyefvnf&&Sdrnf//)
[laom (waygif)yif jzpfonf// u|efkyfwkd@ ,ae@wdkif ouf0if ,kH=unfaeaom
(waygif) yifjzpfonf//”

xkdif;rGefvl=uD;onf/ waygifudktao;pdyf &Si;f vif;ajym=um;jyD; pum;ukd &yfem;vkdufonf//


em;axmifae=uaom/ y&d\wf taygif;wkd@onf tyfusoH =um;& avmufatmifyif
wdwfqdwf jidrfoufoGm;=uonf// rdrdwkd@. cHpm;rSKudk,fpD/ tawG;udk,fpDjzifh/ acgif;idkufqkduf
csIav;av; eufeuf/ awG;awm pOf;pm;ae=uonf/ =um;&aom(waygif)udk/ tjyefjyef/
tvSefvSef eSvkH;oGif; ae=uonf// Twaygif&Sd t"dyg`,fu rGefvlrsdK;wkd@. eSvkH;om;tm;
tomt,m yGwfcwfoGm;[ef&Sdonf// rnfol wOD;rSs pum; rajymekdifbJ jidrfae=uonf
xkdokd@ wdwfqdwfae=upOf xkd(waygif)udkajym=um;aom yk*~dKvfonfyif atmufygpum;udk
qufvuf ajym=um;jyefonf//

“T(waygif)udk ouf0if ,kH=unfjyD; eSpfpOf eSpfwkdif; rysufruGuf &efukefjrdK@


a&$wd*kH bk&m;udk4if;/ A*kd;jrdK@ a&$armfa"m bk&m;udk4if;/ oGm;a&muf zl;arSsmf/
=unfnKdaom olwkd@tm; tusdK;xl;udk ay;aqmifrnf// rdrdwdk@. vkdtifqEN/ t00
qkawmif;or# jynfh0=urnf//=uHpnfor#atmifjrif=urnf/ [lIvnf; u|efkyfwkd@.
rGefrdb bkd;bGm;rsm;u oGefoifqkH;r xm;ygonf// xkdrGefrdb bkd;bGGm;rsm; oGefoif
qkH;ronfhtwkdif; ouf0if ,kH=unfjyD;/ &efukef a&$wd*kH bk&m;eSifh A*kd; a&$armfa"m
bk&m;okd@ eSpfpOf eSpfwdkif; vma&muf zl;arSsmf olrsm;onf/ vufawG@ 'dX ,ck
rsufarSmufb0Yyif =uG0csr;f om =uonf// rdrdwkd@ qkawmif;rSK rSeo f r#/ jynfh0
atmifjrif =uonfudk/ u|efkyfwkd@ udk,fwkdfif rsufjrif udk,fawG@ =uKHbl; =uygonf//
xkda=umifh u|efkyfwkd@onf u|efkyfwdk@. rGeb f kd;bGm; bDbifrsm;u oGeo f ifqkH;r
xm;aom/ T(waygi)f udk/ ouf0if/ ,kH=unf=uI ,ckvkd eSppf OfeSpfwkdif; rysuf
ruGuf om;pOfajr;quf/ &efukefjrdK@ a&$wd*kHbk&m;tm;4if; A*kd; a&$armffa"mbk&m;
tm;4if; =unfndkzl;arsSm&f ef pk&kH;jyD; vma&muf=ujcif;jzpfygonf//”

[kav;av;eufeuf wnfwnf =unf=unf ajym=um;oGm;onf// xkdyk*~dKvfpum;tqkH;wGif/


em;axmifae=uaom/ rGefvlxk y&d\wf=uD;onf/ jidrfoufae&mrS/ touf0if vSKyf&Sm;
vm=uonf// acgif;axmif vm=uonf// wOD;udk wOD; pum;pjrnf ajymqkdvm=uonf//
wOD;udk wOD;vufwkd@I wD;wdk; ajymqkd=uonf// wOD;udkwOD; ar;aighI ar;jref;=uonf/
xkdyk*~dKvf ajym=um;oGm;aom twdwf (waygif)udk4if;/ waygifeSifh ywfoufaom tawG;
tac: t,lqudk4if; av;av;eufeufajymqdkaqG;aEG;=uonf//
268 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

txufyg(waygif)udk,ae@wkdif/ xkdif;ekdifiH&Sd rGefvlrsdK;/vl=uD;vli,frsm;tjynfht0 t=uGif;rJh


ouf0if,kH=unf=uonfudk awG@&onf// &efukef wuUodkvfrGefausmif;ol§om;rsm;rSwqifh
Twaygifonf/ &mrn a'o&Sd rGefvl=uD;/ vli,frsm; twGif;wGif/ wjznf;jznf; pdyfh0if
jyef@eSH@oGm;onf// txl;yif ouf0if,kH=unf vm=uonfudkvnf; awG@&onf// xkdif;ekdifiHrS
bk&m;zl;tzGJ@tm; {nfhcHonfh/ {nfhcHyGJwGif udk,fwkdif udk,fus yg0ifjyD;/ (waygif)udk =um;cJh
aom &efukef wuUodkvfrS ausmif;om; wOD;u/ rdrd=um;cJhaom (waygif)udk/ wvkH;wyg'
rusef a&;om;jyD;/ armfvjrdKif aumvdyf&Sd/ rGefausmif;om;rsm; xHokd@ ykd@aqmif cJhonf//
armfvjrdKifaumvdyf&Sdausmif;ol/ausmif;om;wkd@uvnf; xkd(waygif)udk tav;teufxm;
zwf=um;=uonf//xkdwaygifrSma&;xm;onfhtwkdif; wae@ae@wGif waoGrwdrf; jzpfvmekdif
onf[kvnf; tcdkiftrm ,Hk=unf vm=uonf// TwaygifeSifh ywfoufI tvGefouf0if
,kH=unfaomxkdwuUodkvfausmif;om;uyif/ atmufygpma=umif;udkvnf;(waygif)pm&Guf
atmufwGifa&;om;xm;onf//

“T(waygif) pmwef;udk av;av; eufeuf oabmxm;I zwf&SK=u&ef u|efkyf


wkdufwGef; vkdygonf// Todk@ av;euf wnf=unfpmG zwf&SKI cdkifrmpGm ouf0if
,kH=unfaom olrsm;onf/ rdrdwkd@ vkdtifqEN/ awmif;wrSKrSefor# jynfh0=uonf//
r,kH=unf ysuf&,f jyKaomolrsm;/ tusdK;pD;yGm; wae@wjcm; ysufjym;qkwf,kwf
vmrnf// T(waygi)f udk ouf0if ,kH=unfjyD; wqifh xyfrHul;,l jzef@jzL;aom
olrsm;onf/ydkrdkIatmifjrifrKS tusdK;w&m;udk cHpm;&onf// xkda=umifh toifonf
vnf;/ ouf0if/ ,kH=unfpGm/ zwf&SkjyD;/ wqifh/ ul;,l jzef@jzL;&ef/ av;eufpGm/
u|efyf wkdufwGef;onf//”

xkdae@rSpITwaygifonfrGefvli,frsm;. toD;oD;aom&ifxJrSm/ wdwfwckd;/ vGrf;rdk;vsuf


&SdcJh=uonf// ckdifrmpGm ouf0if ,kH=unfI odrf;qnf; xm;=uonf// TwaygifY az:jy
xm;onfhtwdkif;/ wae@ae@wGif/ edkifiHtoD;oD;rS rGefnDtpfudk armifeSrrsm;/ rGefrdom;pkrsm;
pka0;a&muf&Sd vmrnfhtcsdefcgudk arSsmfvifhawmif;wae=uonf//

1757-ckeSpf [Hom0wD ysufokef;pOf uwnf;u/ xGufajy; wdrf;a&SmifI xkdif;ekdifiHokd@


a&muf&Sd tajcwnf ae=uonfh rGefrsdK;EG,fwkd@onf/ T(waygif)udk ,ae@wkdif ouf0if
,kH=unfv#uf &Sd=uonfudk awG@&onf// te,fe,f t&yf&yf&Sd rGeaf qGawmf rsdK;awmfwkd@
jyefvnf qHkqnf;=u&rnfh xkdae@xkd&ufudk/ ar#mfvifh awmif;wv#uf &Sdae=uonf// A*dk;
[Hom0wD rGefaejynfawmfudk vGrf;qGwf owd&/ wrf;wvSsuf &Sdae=uonf// weSpfwcg/
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 269

rysufruGuf/ ZGJvkH;v0d&d,&Sd&Sd &efukefjrdK@ A*dkd;jrdK@okd@bk&m;zl;c&D; vm=uonfh tjzpfukduyif/


tckdfiftrm oufaoxljyaeonf//

xkdif;edkfifiHrS bk&m;zl; vm=uaom rGefvlrsdK;wkd@onf/ yxrOD;pGm rGeb f k&if OuUvmyrif;


wnfxm; udk;uG,fcJhaom/ a&$wd*kH apwD=uD;tm; oGm;a&muf zl;arsSmf =uonf// a&$wd*kH
apawmf=uDtm;/ tm;&yg;& wjynhfw0 =unfndK=uI pdwfa=ueyfrSK &Sdavmufaomtcg/
A*dk;jrdK@odk@ qufI c&D;oGm;=ujyefonf// A*kd;jrdK@&Sd rdrdbkd;bGm; vufxufu/ wnfxm;
ukd;uG,fcJhaom apwDykxkd; trsdK;rsdK;wkd@udk vkdufvH zl;ar#mf=uonf// A*dk;jrdK@&Sd a&$armfa"m
bk&m; apwD=uD;tm; =unfndKIrqkH; zl;ar#mfI r0edkif jzpf=uonf// A*kd;jrdK@&Sd/ [Hom0wD
aejynfawmf. txdrf;trSwf a&$[oFm zdkr&kyfxktm; jrifawG@&aomtcg/ 0rf;enf;/
0rf;om jzpfrd=uonf// olwkd@.pdwfukd rxdef;edkif rsuf&nfjzdKifjzdKif usonfhtxd cHpm;
vm&onf// twdwfudk vGrf;qGwf=uonf// 4if;a&$[oFmarmifeSH xyfI&yfwnfaeykHk/
&kyfxkudk 'l;axmufI t=udrf=udrf &Sdcdk;OD;cs=uonf// Tae&monf rdrdwkd@bkd;bGm; bDbif
rsm; aygufzGm;=uD;jyif;&m ajrae&mjzpfonf[k yg;pyfrS wrf;wrf;ww a&&Gwf =uonf//
Tae&mudk a&mufaom xkdif;rGefwkd@onf/ [Hom0wDacwf twdwfumvudk jyefvnf
owd& atmif;arh =uonf// rdrdwdk@. bdk;bGm;bDbifrsm;tm; vGrf;qGwfowd& =uonf/
&kyfxkteD;tem;&Sd ajr=uD;udk t=udrf=udrf erf;&SKH@=uonf// tcsdK@u/ t=udrf=udrf OD;acgif;jzifh
wkduf=uonf// tcsdK@u ajr=uD;udk ukwfjcpf wl;,ljyD; w,kw,/ tjrwfwedk; xkyfydk;I
,laqmif oGm;=uonf// ,dk;',m;&Sd rdrw d kd@. tdrfokd@ a&mufaomtcg tdk;ykvif;rsm;jzifh/
xnfhI/ jrwfjrwfekd;ekdf; &kd&kdaoao av;av;pm;pm; odrf;qnf; xm;=uonf// A*dk;jrdK@onf/
TrSs avmufyif olwkd@. rsdK;cspfpdwfudk edk;=um; x=uGapcJhonf//

xkd@a=umifh (A*kd;[Hom0wD)[laom trnfemrudk =um;vkduf&aom rGefvlrsdK;wkdif;onf


trsdK;rnfraz:jyekdifaoma0'emwrsdK;udk cHpm;vm=uonf[k toD;oD;qkd=uonfrSmtvGef
rSefuef aeonf// emusnf;rSK/ cHjyif;rSK ponfha0'emtrsdK;rsdK;udk jzpfay:aponf// &mrn
a'orSm&Sd=uaomrGefvlrsdK;rsm;eSifhxyfwl ,dk;',m;Y&Sdae=uaom/ rGefrsdK;EG,fwkd@ onfvnf;
A*kd;[Hom0wD [laom/ trnfemrudk =um;vkduf&onfqkdvSsif/ &ifwGif; eSvkH;om;rSm
qwfqwfcg emusnf;aom a0'emudk cHpm;vm=uonf// [Hom0wDacwf &mZ"d&mZfrif;
vufxufu/ rGefvlrsdK;wdk@.b0 wHckd; =uD;xGm;cJhykHudk/ jyefvnf owd& vm=uonf//
ol&Jaumif; Anm;v*Gef;tdef/ ordefA&rf;wkd@. &JpGrf; owWd&Sdr_/ opPm&Sdr_/ wdk@udkjyefowd&
rd=uonf// twkr&Sd e_dif;,SOfI r&aom xkdyk*~dKvfwkd@. owWdAswWdudk4if;/ &J&ifh ajymifajrmuf
aom pGrf;aqmifcsufwkd@udk4if;/ atmif;arhowd&vm=uonf//
270 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

Tae&mY &mZm"d&mZfrif; vufxufwGif/ rGefvlrsdK;wkd@. b0 tajcaeudk tenf;i,f


a&;om; wifjyvkdygonf// rGefvlrsdK;wkd@ bke;f wHckd; aevkd/ vvdk xGef;awmuf cJhonfhacwf[k
qkd&rnf// rnfonfh ab;&ef tEW&m,frsdK;udkrS rGefvlrsdK;wkd@u rrSKcJhacs// rnfolrsSvnf;
vmaa&muf usL;ausmf apmfum;cJhjcif; r&Sday// rGefvlrsdK;udk av;pm;/ cef@nm;=uonf//
Anm;v*Gef;tdef/ ordefA&mH/ ordeftJreG f',m;/ ordefjAZ…mZf/ordeOf ygaumif/ paomtvGef
owWd/AswWdeSifh jynfhpkHaom/ ol&Jaumif;rsm;vnf;/ vGefpGm&Sdonf// ynmtarSsmfeJ@ tvGef
jynfh0aom/ rif;uefpD/ trwf'defwkd@ vkdyk*~dKvfonfvnf; ajrmufrsm;pGm&Sdonf//

xdkyk*~dKvfwdk@udk/ A*kd;[Hom0wD[laom trnfemreSihf wGJbufI/ bk&m;zl;vmaom xkdif;rGef


wdk@u owd&=uonf// 4if;yk*~dKvfrsm;tm; &nfrSef;Ivnf;/ t=udrf=udrf OD;nGwf/ uawmh
=uonf// xkdyk*~dKvfwkd@tm; &nfpl;I qkawmif; arwWm ydk@=uonf// xkdyk*~dKvfrsm; txJrS/
txl;ojzifh &mZm"d&mZfrif;/ bk&ifr˜ &Sifapmyk/ Anm;v*Gef;tdef/ Anm;"&mH wkd@ukd
vGefpGmyifolwkd@owd& wrf;wrd=uonf// Anm;v*Gef;tdef. opPm&SdykH/ owWd ajymifajrmuf
ykH wkd@udk pOf;pm;vmrd=uonf//Anm;v*Gef;tdefonf/ Armbk&if/ bk&ifrif;acgif. OD;acgif;udk
ykdif;jzwf,lekdifygvSsuf/ bk&ifrsm;tay:Y/ =unfnkdwwfaompdwf/ aus;Zl;odwwfaompdwf
wdk@a=umifh/ bk&ifrif;acgif. OD;acgif;udk rjzwfrlbJ/ csrf;omcGifh ay;cJhonf// ordefA&mH.
owWdAswWdudkvnf;/ *k%f,l 0ifh=uGm;pGm olwkd@ owd&=uonf// &wemyl& tif;0wGif/
bk&ifrif;acgif tkyfpkd;pOf tif;0 aejynfawmfudk/ w&kwfwkd@ vma&muf usL;ausmf apmfum;
&efponf// ta=umif;trsdK;rsdK;jyI/ tif;0 aejynfawmfudk rw&m; odrf;ykduf,l&ef =uHpnf
onf// w&kwf ol&Jaumif; *gr%deSifh 'g;vSHa&;jzifh/ xkd;owf ,SOfjydKif&ef ta&;qkdvm onf//
tu,fI w&kwfwkd@u ekdifygu/ tif;0 aejynfawmfonf/ w&kwfwkd@. vufatmufcH
eldifiHjzpf&rnf// tu,fI w&kwfwkd@u &SKH;edrfhygu tomw=unf rdrdwkd@wyfudk &kwfodrf;I
jyefygrnf[k qkdvmonf// ArmvlrsdK;xJrS *gr%deSifh xkd;owf ,SOfjydKif&Jol [lI rnfolr#
ay:rxGufvmay// Arm. tusOf;om;tjzpf usa&mufaeaom/ rGefol&Jaumif; ordefA&mH
onf/ ArmvlrsdK;udk,fpm; w&kwf ol&Jaumif; *gr%deSifh jrif;csif;pD;I ,SOfjydKif xkd;owf
tekdif,lcJhonf// Arm vlrdsK;wkd@. *k%fudk q,fwif ay;cJhonf// w&kwfvlrsdK; wkd@.
vufatmufcH u|efjzpf&rJhb0rS u,fwifay;cJhonf//

ordefA&mHonf/ e,fcsJ@ qef@usifa&;orm; ppfppfjzpfonf// e,fcsJ@orm; w&kwfvlrsdK; wkd@.


usL;ausmf apmfum;vmr_u/dk toufudkrr_/ tHhwk &Joljzpfonf// tif;0om; ArmvlrsdK;udk
wyg;ol. aus;uGsef jzpf&rJhb0rS u,fwif ay;ekdifcJhol jzpfonf// okd@aomf tif;0om;
ArmvllrsdK;wkd@onf/ olwyg; jyKcJhbl;aom *k%faus;Zl;wdk@udk arhvG,f/ aysmufvG,f=uolrsm;
jzpfonf// rGefvlrsdK;wkd@. *k%faus;Zl; udkod&rSef;/ atmif;arh&rSef; em;rvnfcJh=uacs//
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 271

usOf;ajrmif;aomtjrifwckwnf;jzifh rGefvlrsdK;jzpfaom ordefA&mH. &JpGrf;owWd&SdykH tjzpfrSef


udkyif todtrSwfrjyKvkd vSpfvsL&_xm;vkd=uonf// ordefA&mH trnfemrudkyif/ r=um;vkd
rjrifvkd azsmufzsufypf vkd=uonf// ordefA&mH ta=umif;udkyif ajAmif;jyefvSef a&;om;
vkd=uonf// ponfjzifh [Hom0wDeSifhqufpyfjyD; rGefvlrsdK;wkd@ awG;awm pOf;pm;rd=uonf//

A*dk;[Hom0wDt rnfemreSifh ,SOfI bk&ifr˜ &Sifapmykudkvnf; owd&=uonf// bk&ifr˜


&Sifapmykacwf/ rGefvlrsdkK;wkd@. b0jidrf;csrf; om,mrSK/ =uG,f0csrf;omrSK/ wdk@udkyg olwkd@
jyefvnf owd& vm=uonf// xkdif;rGefwdk@onf/ a&$wd*kHukef; ay:wGif wnfxm; udk;uG,f
aom/ &Sifapmyk qkawmif;jynfh apwDawmfudk zl;arsSmfIr0edkif =unfndKI rqkH;edkif&Sd=uonf//
rGefbk&ifr &Sifapmyk.oruf/ "rRapwDrif;udkvnf; rGefvlrsdK;wkd@ owd& wrf;w =uonf//
Trif;vufxufwGif [Hom0wDekdifiH tvGefpnfyif om,m wkd;wuf zGH@jzdK; cJo h nf//
omoem xGe;f vif; awmufycJhonf// wkdif;ol/ jynfom;rsm;/ aysmf&$if csrf;ajr@pGm vkyfudkif
pm;aomuf aexdkif vmcJh=u&onf// ukd,hfxD; udk,fheef; ukd,fhusiSef;eSifh aevmcJh=uonf//
[Hom0wDtrnfemreSifhwJGI [Hom0wDacwfrGefvlrsKd ;wkd@.vGwfvyfrSKb0udk olwkd@wrf;w
owd&=uonf//

[Hom0wDacwfrGefvlrsdK;wkd@.vlaerSKb0udkvnf;olwkd@pOf;pm;rdonf// [Hom0wDacwfwGif
rGefvlrsdK;wkd@onf ,Ofaus; odrfarG@ =uonf// bmomw&m;Y &kdao udkif;&Skdif; =uonf//
tvSL'geeSifh arG@av#mfonf// ukokdvfaumif;rSKY apwem o'Ngw&m; xufoefonf//
ypPnf;OpPmaygrsm;/ =uG,f0=uonf// jidrf;jidrf; csrf;csrf; aewwf=uonf// olwyg;wkdif;ekdifiHudk
usL;ausmf apmfum;vkdpdwf/ oGm;a&muf wkdufcdkuf odr;f ydkuf ,lvkdpdwf r&Sd=u// rdrdwdk@.wkdif;
ekdifiHtwGif;rSmyif/ at;at; csrf;csrf;/ aexkdifvkyfudkif pm;aomufvkd =uolrsm;jzpfonf//
&JpGrf; owWdeSifh jynfh0jyD;/ ynmtarSsmfjrifeSifh jynfhpkH=uolrsm;jzpfonf//

txufygtwkdif; [Hom0wDeSifh ywfoufjyD;/ owd&bG,f&m/ atmifharhbG,f&m/ *k%f,l


bG,f&m/ a=uuGJbG,f&m/ vGrf;qGwfbG,f&m/ woDwoef;=uD;udk rGefvlrsdK;wkd@u jyefvnf
owd& pOf;pm;vmrd=uonf// xdk@tjyif [Hom0wDeSifh ywfoufjyD; rGefvlrsdK;wdk@tbdk@
*k%f,lavmuf onfh tjcm;ta=umif;&m rsm;pGmvnf; &Sdao;onf// tenf;i,f wifjy
a&;om; &v#if atmufyg twkdif;jzpfonf//

&Sifapmyk bk&ifr vufxufeSihf orufawmf/ "rRapwDrif;wkd@ vufxufwGif/ rGefwkd@


aejynfawmf [Hom0wDonf/ tvGefpnfum; om,monf[k/ taemufwkdif; pma&;
q&mrsm;u a&;om;=uonf// vGefcJhaom eSpfaygif; (500)ausmfu A*kd;[Hom0wD
272 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

aejynfawmfokd@ a&mufoGm;aom/ t*Fvdyfukefonf/ Ralph Fitch,u/ A*dk;[Hom0wDjrdK@


. wkd;wuf pnfum;rSKonf/ ol@tm; tvGeftHh=o/ ai;armapcJhonf[k rSwfwrf;wifcJh
onf// A*kd;jrdK@onf tvGefom,m vSyaom jrdK@wjrdK@jzpfjyD; olawG@cJhor#S aomvrf;wkd@wGif
A*kd;jrdK@&Sd vrf;wkd@onf tvStyqkH; jzpfonf[k rSwfwrf;wif a&;om;cJhonf// A*dk;ol/
A*dk;om;wkd@onf/ tvGefat;csrf; om,m=uonf// pD;yGm;a&;/ ul;oef; a&mif;0,fa&;
tvGefzGH@jzKd; wkd;wufojzifh tvGef=uG,f0 csrf;om=uonf// jidrf;csrf;pGm/ aysmf&$if/
csrf;ajr@pGm/ aexkdif=uonf// ppfruf/ ppfcif;uif;rJch Jhonf// tvGefjidrf;csrf;ojzifh Tacwfudk
a&$acwf (Golden-Age)[kyif/ taemufwkdif;om; rsm;udkajymprSwfjyK=uonf//

"rRapwDrif;aemuf/ eef;wufvmaom om;awmf/ Anm;&Hrif; vufxufwGifvnf;/ A*dk;


[Hom0wD rGefwkd@ aejynfawmfonf/ tvGefpnfum;onf// pnf;yGm;a&; aumif;rGefonf//
Anm;&Hrif;onf tvGef =uD;jrwfaom rif;wyg; jzpfonf// Anm;&Hrif;wGif qifOD;a&
taumifaygif; (1)aomif;ausmf &Sdonf// eSppf Of eSpfwkdif;/ qiftaumifa& (5)&mausmf
aygufyGm;onf[k tDwvDukefonf Hieronymo Santo Stefano,u rSwfwrf;wif
a&;om; xm;onf//

atmufaz:jyyg/ tDwvDvlrsdK;/ Varthema, a Bolognese traveller .rSwfwrf;udk


=unfhjcif;tm;jzifh/ vnf;/ "rRapwD. om;awmf/ Anm;&Hrif; vufxuf/ A*kd;[Hom0wD
aejynfawmf. =uD;us,fcrf;em;ykH/ =uG0csrf;omykHwkd@udk cef@rSef;I&edkifygonf//

Varthema, a Bolognese traveller , says of Pegu in 1501-4 in the reign of Bin-ya-


Ran:

"The city is on the mainland, and is near to the sea. On the left hand of this that is
towards the East, there is a very beautiful river by which many ships go and
come. This city is walled and has good houses and Palaces built of stone with
lime. The King is extremely powerful in men, both foot and horse, and has with
him more than a thousand Christians. And he gives to each, for pay, six golden
pardai per month, and his expenses.
Varthema speaks of its abundance and its trade in rubies, which came from
Caplan, distant thirty days' journey.

"When we arrived in this country, the King," he says 'was fifteen days' journey
distant, fighting with another who was called King of Ava."
The King returned, having gained a great victory over his enemy, and Varthema
and his fellow-travellers from India were admitted to an audience.
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 273

"Do not imagine," he says, "that the King of Pegu enjoys as great a reputation as
the King of Calicut, although he is so humane and domestic that an infant might
speak to him, and he wears more rubies on him than the value of a very large
city; and he wears them on all his toes. And on his legs he wears certain great
rings of gold, all full of the most beautiful rubies; also on his arms, and his
fingers are full. His ears hang down half a palm, through the great weight of the
many jewels he wears there, so that seeing the person of the King by a light at
night, he shines so much that he appears to be a sun."

On their being introduced into the presence by the Nestorian Christians settled at
Pegu, the King asked what people the strangers were. The Chritians answered,

"Sir, these are Persians."


Said the King to the interpreter (pointing to the corals they had brought,)

"Ask them if they are willing to sell these things."

The answer was that the articles were at the service of His Highness.

"Then the King began to say that he had been at war with the King of Ava for
two years, and on that account he had no money; but that if we were willing to
barter for so many rubies, he would amply satisfy us. We caused him to told that
we desired nothing further from him than his friendship- that he should take the
commodities and do whatever he pleased. He, hearing this, liberally answered:

"I know that the Persians are very liberal, but I never saw one so liberal as this
man."

And he swore by God and by the devil that he would see which would be the
more liberal, he, or a Persian. And then he desired one of his confidential
servants to bring him a certain little box which was two palm in length, worked
all round in gold, and was full of rubies within and without. And when he had
opened it, there were six separate divisions; all full of different rubies; and he
placed it before us, telling us that we should take what we wished.

My companion answered:

"' O Sir, you show me so much kindness, that by the faith that I bear to Mahomet,
I make you a present of all these things. And know, Sir, that I do not travel about
the world to collect property, but only to see different people and different
customs.”
274 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

The King answered:

"' I cannot conquer you in liberality, but take this which I give you.”

And so he took a good handful of rubies from each of the divisions of the said
casket, and gave them to him. Their value was estimated at 100, 000 dicats.
Wherefore, by this he may be considered to be the most liberal King in the world,
and every year he has an income of about one million in gold and he gives all his
38
income to his soldiers."

txufyg rSwfwrf;udk =unfhjcif;tm;jzifh/ A*dk;[Hom0wD rGefvlrsdK;wkd@. aejynfawmfrSm/


rnfr# csrf;om=uG,f0onfudk od&Sdedkifyg onf// 4if;c&D;onf. rSwfwrf;udk tusOf; bmom
jyefa&;om;&v#if atmufygtwkdif;jzpfonf//

“yJcl;bk&ifrif;jrwfonf/ wHckd;=oZm tvGef=uD;rm;w,f/ ajcvsif wyftiftm;/


jrif;wyftiftm; tvGef =uD;rm;pGm&Sdw,f// (u,fvDuwf) (Calicut) bk&if
rif;jrwfuJhokd@yif/ tvGef=uD;jrwfjyD;/ xifay: ausmf=um;aom rif;wyg; jzpfw,f//
'gayrJ/h yJcl;bk&ifonf/ omrefvlom;wOD;uJhodk@yif &dk;&dk;om;om; aexdkifjyKrlonf//
[dwf[ef r=uD;bl;// =uD;us,f cef;em;rSKr&Sdbl;// omrefcav;i,f wOD;yifv#if/
bk&ifrif;jrwftm; pum;ajymqkd qufqHedkifonf// bk&ifrif;jrwf udk,fay:Y
0wfpm;qif,if xm;onfudk avhvm=unfhjcif; tm;jzifh/ rnfr# =uG,f0csr;f omwJh
vlrsdK;wrdsK; jzpfw,fqkdwm odedifw,f// bk&ifrif;jrwf&J@ udk,fcE<mwckrSm 0wfpm;
qif,ifxm;wJh wefbdk;uyif/ jrdK@=uD;wjrdK@. wefbdk; xufawmif =uD;rm;ae
w,f// a&$aiG ywWjrm;awGudk/ bk&if&J@ ajcjzm;txd 0wfpm;qif,if xm;w,f//
bk&ifrif;jrwf&J@ ajcaxmuf eSpfzufrSm/ tvGefwefbdk; =uD;rm;jyD;/ vSywJh&wem
awGeJ@ pDjc,f xm;onfh/ a&$ajcuGif;=uD;rsm;udk 0wfqif xm;onf// bk&if&J@
ajcaxmufrSmuJhodk@/ bk&if&J@ vufarmif;/ vufjzm;wkd@rSmvJ/ ywWjrm; awGeJ@
jynfheSuf aeatmif 0wfpm;qif,if xm;w,f// bk&ifrif;jrwf&J@ em;eSpfzufrSm/
&wemrsdK;pkH ywWjrm;rsdK;pkHeJ@ pDjc,fxm;wJh vuf0g;jyif w0uf avmuf=uD;rm;wJ/h
em;a'gif;rsm;u wGJavmif; usaew,f// ntcg/ rD;rxGef;bJ/ em;a'gif;.
tvif;a&mifeSifhyif/ bk&ifrif;jrwfudk ta0;u vSrf;jrifekdifw,f/ bk&ifrif;jrwf&J@
udk,fcE<mrS/ jydK;jydK; ysufysuf/ xkd;xGuf ay:vmaom tvif;a&mif wkd@onf/
aerif;. tvif;a&mifuJhokd@yif pl;&S awmufyaew,f//

38
Mandalay and Other Cities of The Past In Burma.P.362
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 275

yJc;l bk&ifrif;jrwf&J@ weSpf0ifaiGonf/ a&$'*Fgjym; woef;&Sdonf/ xkdodk@ &&Sdaom/


0ifaiGtm;vkH;udk bk&ifrif;jrwfu wjym;wcsyrf #yif r,lbJ/ rdrd. ppfom;rsm;udk
a0iSay;w,ff//”

txufyg edkifiHjcm;wOD;. rSwfwrf;udk avhvm zwf&SKv#if/ tb,fa=umifh rGefvlrsdK;wkd@u


[Hom0wDacwfudk jyefvnf vGrf;qGwf owd&=uonfhta=umif;udk odrnf[kxifygonf//
[Hom0wD A*kd;jrdK@odk@ bk&m;zl; a&muf&Sdvmaom xkdif;rGefvlrsdK;wkd@. &ifwGif; eSvkH;om;rS
cHpm;csufrsm;udkvnf; em;vnf oabmayguf =urnf[k xifygonf// yJcl;&kd;r awmifwef;
rSm a&muf&SdjyD; udk,fawG@ cHpm;ae&aom ekdifa&$usif/ ekdifxGef;cif/ ekdifoef;wif wkd@url
xkdif;rGef vlrsdK;wkd@. cHpm;csufudk tjynf0h em;vnf =uonf// xkx,f =uD;rm;jyD; tvGef
&Snfvsm;onfh yJcl;&kd;r awmifwef;=uD;. pGJaqmifrSK tiftm;u wu,fyif =uD;rm;onf//
Tae&modk@ a&mufvm olwkdif;tm; pdwfudk aphaqmf vSKyf&Sm;aponf// vGrf;ovkdvdk/
aqG;ovkdvkd/ 0rf;enf; ovkdvkd/ 0rf;om ovkdvkd trsdK;rsdK;aom a0'em cHpm;csufwdk@udk
jzpfaponf[k rGefacgif;aqmifokH;OD;u 0efcH=uonf//

tpOfxm0& wnfwef@cdkifjrJjcif;/ xkx,f=uD;rm;jcif;/ wnfjidrfjcif;/ tpOfpdrf;vef; pdkajyjcif;/


us,fajymjcif;/ jrifhrm;jcif;/ ponfh A*dk;&kd;r awmifwef;. xll;jcm;onfh/ 0da'o*k%fxl;rsm;
onf/ rGefvlrsdK;wkd@. xl;jcm;aom*k%fudk az:n$ef;aeonf// 4if;A*kd;&kd;rtay: rGefvlrsdK;wkd@u
tjynfh0 ,kH=unfrKS &Sdonf// A*kd;&kd;ronf/ [Hom0wD acwfaumif;pOf umveSifhvnf;
=uKHcJhonf// acwfqdk;pOf umveSifhvnf;qkHcJhonf// rGefwdk@.twdwfordkif;a=umif; tvkH;pkHudk
tprStqkH; wvkH;wyg'rusef/ tm;vkH;odonf// Tawmifwef;=uD;onf/wae@ae@wcsdefcsdef
rSm rGefvlrsdK;wkd@. aemufcH ordkif;a=umif;udk jyefajymif;I ajymjyay;rSm aocsmonf[k
rGefvlrsdK;wkd@u tjynfh0 ,kH=unf=uonf// A*kd; [Hom0wD rif;aejynfawmf. t&Sifocif
tppftrSefonf/ rGefvlrsdK;jzpfa=umif;/ aumif;aumif; oufaocHay;rSmjzpfonf// yJcl;&kd;r
awmifwef;jym=uD; wnfaeoI/ rGefwkd@. ajymifajrmuf vSpGmaom ordkif;a=umif;onf
vnf; tpOfxm0& wnfaerSm jzpfonf// A*kd;&dk;r awmifwef;jym=uD;udk rnfolwOD;
wa,mufurSsvma&mufjzdKzsufaeSmuf,SufI r&ekdifouJhokd@ rGefwkd@. awmufajymifaom
ordkif;a=umif;udkvnf; rnfol wOD;urSs vma&muf ajczsufI &rnf r[kwf[k
rGefvlrsdK;wkd@u qdkonf// TyJcl;&kd;r awmifwef;jym=uD;onf/ tpOfxm0& wnfwef@
cdkifjrJaejyD; rGefvlrsdk;wkd@. ajymifajrmufaom twdwf ordkif;a=umif; trSefudk oufaocH
ay;rSm jzpfonf// TA*kd;&dk;r uyif/ rGefvlrsdK;wkd@. ZmwdaoG;/ Zmwdrmefudk topfwzef
jyefvnf ay:xGef;vmatmif pGrf;aqmif ay;rnf// rnfolu ,kHonfjzpfap/ r,kHonfjzpfap
rGefvlrsdK;wkdif;uawmh/ &dk;r. pGrf;aqmifrSKtay: tjynfh0 ouf0if ,kH=unf =uonf//
A*kd;&kd;rtay: tm;udk; tm;xm;jyK =uonf//
276 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

A*kd;&dk;rudk ta=umif;jyKjyD; twdwfudk pOf;pm;rdojzifh cHpm;&aom a0'emtoD;oD;wkd@onf/


edkifa&$usif/ edkifxGef;cif/ ekdifoef;wifwdk@. ESvkH;om;toD;oD;rSm udef;atmif;I jzpfay:vm
=uonf// rGefvlrsdKK;wkd@tay:/ rnfoluyif/ rnfokd@yif/ jyKrlaomfvnf;/ rGefvlrsdK;wkd@.
*k%foduQmonf/ rnSdK;i,foGm;edkifyg// rGev f lrsKd;wkd@. twdwfordkif;rsm;/ rnfokd@&SdcJhonfudkrl/
TA*dk;&dk;ru todqkH;yif jzpfonf// edkifoef;wifwkd@ (3)OD;onf/ A*dk;&dk;r. tvSty wkd@udk
cHpm;&if;/ pum; wajymajymeJ@ vrf;a&Smuf vmcJhonfrSm/ tawmfyif c&D;wGifcJhonf//
rdrdokd@ oGm;vkdaom/ uGefjrLepfygwD/ a&mifeDpcef;okd@yif a&mufvm=uonf// 'DawmhrSmyif/
ekdifa&$usif/ edkifxGef;/ edkifoef;wifwkd@onf/ twdwf ordkif;u/ jzpfysufcJhor#wdk@udk ,m,D
arhaysmu fxm;&ef =udK;pm; =u&awmhonf// rdrdwkd@ oGm;vkdaom ae&m a'ovnf;
a&mufawmh rnfjzpfonf// Tc&D;pOfonf/ ekdifa&$usiftm; b0opf wckokd@/ ajymif;vJ
apcJhaom c&D;pOf jzpfcJhonfudkrl/ rnfol wOD;wa,mufurSs rod=u// rjrifcJh=uacs//
ekdifa&$usifonffyif/ Tc&D;pOfonf/ rdrdb0ukd wjzpfvJ/ ajymif;vJypfvdrRnfh c&D;
jzpfonfudkvkH;0rod &Sdacs//

ekdifa&$usifwkd@tzJG@ A*dk;&kd;rukd a&mufvmonfh owif;onf/ awmrD;jyef@vGifh ouJhokd@yif/


yJcl;&dk;r/ awmfvSefa&; awmpcef; wckvkH;udk csufcsif;jyef@eSH@ oGm;apcJhonf// uGefjrLepfygwD/
a&mifeDpcef;&Sd/ oufqkdif&m yk*~dKvfrsm;u/ ekdifa&$usifeSifh tzGJ@tm; vSdKufvSJpGm c&D;OD;=udKqdk
=uonf// aexkdif& rnfhae&modk@ ydk@aqmif=uonf// ae&mxkdifcif;ay;=uonf// ae&rnfh
ae&monf/ A[kd&kH; ae&mjzpfonf// Armjynf uGefjrLepfygwDrS/ ocifcspf/ ocifZif/
AkdvfnGef@armif/ &Jabmfjrwkd@eSihftwll wwef;vsm;wnf;wGif aexkdif&onf// tjcm;aom
r[mrdwf rsm;jzpfaom/ u&iftrsdK;om; tpnf;&kH;rS/ OuUX=uD; ref;bZH/ apmrsdK;aoG;/
z'kkdoef;atmifwkd@eSifhvnf; twlwl/ pkaygif; aexkdif&onf//

yXr&ufydkif;rsm;wGif/ ekdifa&$usifeSifh tzGJ@onf/ Armjynf uGefjrLepfygwDrS oufqkdif&m


yk*~dKvfrsm; eSifhawG@qkHjcif;/ rdwfqufjcif; ponfhtrSKwkd@udk jyK&onf// Armjynf vGwfvyfa&;
r&cifu/ekdifa&$usifonf/ ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwD tzGJ@0ifjzpfcJhbl;onfudk trSwf&=urnf[k
xifygonf// xdka=umifh Armjynf uGefjrLepfygwDrS/ tcsdK@aom ekdifiHa&;orm;rsm;onf
ekdfifa&$usiftm; tuGsrf;0if/ &ifeSD;olrsm;jzpfonf// edkfifa&$usifonf uGefjrLepfygwDtwGuf/
vlpdrf;wa,muf vkH;vkH;r[kwfyg// &if;eSD;tu|rf;0ifjyD;ol jzpfonf// tjcm;aom uGefjrLepf
ygwD0ifrsmu ekdifa&$usiftm; txl;av;pm; =uonf// wzef ekdfifoef;wifonfvnf;/
uGefjrLepfygwDeSifh pdrf;aeol wa,mufr[kwfay// tvHeDuGefjrLepfygwD/ ArmjynfuGefjrLepf
ygwDeSifh&JabmfjzLygwDwkd@. okH;ygwDaqG;aEG;yJGokd@avhvmoltjzpf wufa&mufcJhol jzpfojzifh/
ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwDrS tcsdK@aom acgif;aqmifrsm;eSifh odu|rf; &if;ESD;jyD;ol jzpfaeonf//
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 277

xkd@a=umifh edkfifa&$usif/ ekdifxGef;cif/ ekdfifoef;wifwkd@. edkifiHa&; tawG@t=uHKH/ tawG;tac:


t,lqwkd@onf/ tjcm;aom ekdifiHa&;orm;rsm;uyif/ av;pm; apedkifcJhonf// jrifhrm;aom/
ekdifiHa&;tawG@=uKH/ tawG;ac:&SdcJhonfudkjyekdifcJhonf[kqkd&rnf// yJcl;awmfvSefa&;pcef;wGif
ekdifa&$usifeSifhtzJG@onf txl;yifav;pm;jcif;cH&onf// awmwGif; pcef;&Sd vli,fvl&G,frsm;
vnf;/&kyf&nfcef@nm;aomynmwwf rGefawmfvSefa&;orm; udk,fpm;vS,f (3)OD;wdk@tm;/
txl;yif pdwf0ifpm;=uonf// ekdifa&$usifonf touf&G,f tm;jzifh/ xdktcsdefumvwGif/
(45)eSpf ywf0ef;usifwGif &Sdonf/ &kyf&nf acsmarm cef@nm;ol wOD;jzpfonf// ekdifxGef;cif
onf touf&G,f tm;jzifh/ ekdifa&$usifxuf i,f&G,fol jzpfonf// touf(35)eSpf
ywf0ef;usifwGif &Sdrnf[k cef@rSef; &onf// ekdifoef;wif onf/ touftm;jzifh (30)eSpf
&Sdrnf[k cef@rSef; &onf// ekdifxGef;cifeSifh edkifoef;wif wkd@onfvnf;/ &kyf&nf tm;jzihf/
tvGefacsmarmcef@nm;/ wifhw,f olrsm;jzpfonf// TuJhokd@ ynmwwf &kyf&nfacsm
cef@nm;aom/ rGeftrsdK;om; awmfvSefa&; orm;rsm;udk/ txl;pdwf 0ifpm;=u onf//
csdD;=uL;=uonf// =urf;wrf;aom awmwGif;b0udk cH,lekdifIvnf;/ vli,f vl&G,f wkd@uydkrdk/
tm;usrdonf//

a&mifeDpcef;okd@ topfa&muf &Sdvmaom/ r[mrdwf udk,fpm;vS,f tzGJ@wkd@udk rdwfquf


{nfhcHyGJjyKavh&dSonf// tpOfvmtwkdif; ,ckvnf;/ ekdifa&$usifeSifhtzGJ@udk rdwfquf {nfhcH&ef
pDpOf=ujyefonf// ekdifa&$usifeSifh tzGJ@tm;/ {nfhcH auGs;arG;a&;twGuf/ awmfvSefa&;&Jar
rsm;u/ wm0ef,l/ pDrHcsufjyKwf/ auGs;arG; =uonf// awmwGif; pcef;rSm &&Sdonfh/
taumif;qkH; tpm;pmrsm;jzifh/ {nfhcH=ujcif;jzpfonf// wOD;udkwOD;cifrif&if;eSD;&efeSifhwOD;.
ta=umif;udk wOD;u odu|rf;&eftwGuf rdwfqufyGJ vkyf=ujcif; jzpfonf// xkdokd@ rdwfquf
yGJwGif/ trsdK;oRD;tzGJ@rS/ csufjyKwfau|;arG;a&; wm0efudk,lrnf jzpfonf// trsdK;oRD;rsm;onf/
a&mifeDpcef;Yyif/ (100)ausmf&Sdonf// trsdK;orD;tzGJ@. OuUXrSm a':cif=unfjzpfonf//
a':cif=unfonf/ uG,fvG,foGm;aom/ emrnf=uD; ausmif;om; acgif;aqmif udkA[def;.
ZeD;jzpfonf//

edkifa&$usifeSifhtzGJ@udk {nfhcHonfh {nfhcHyGJ. tpDpOfrSm/ yxrOD;pGm wOD;udkwOD; rdwfquf


&onf// edKifa&$usif/ ekdifxGef;cif/ edkifoef;wifwkd@u rdrdwkd@.Zmwd/ arG;zGm;&me,fajreSifh
ynma&;/ ekdifiHa&; vkyfaqmifcsufeSifhwuG udk,fa&;&mZ0iftusOf;csKyfudkyg/ y&d\wftm;
rdwfquf ajym=um;&onf// xkdaemuf =uGa&mufvmaom/ y&d\wfa&m {nfhonfyg/
rdrdwkd@ wwfu|rf;aom tekynm tqkdtwD;/ tutckef wkd@jzifh/ azsmfajz =uonf// txl;
ojzifh rdrdwkd@. &kd;&moDcsif;rsm;udk oDqkdIy&d\wfwkd@tm; jyefvnf azsmfajz ay;&onf//
rGeftrsdK;om;rsm;u rGefoDcsif;jzifh azsmfajz ay;onf// u&ifvlrsdK; wkd@uvnf;/ u&if
oDcsif;jzifh oDqdkazsmfajzay;onf// xkdokd@oDcsif;qkd&ef y&d\wfu awmif;qkdvmaomtcg
278 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

rGefoDcsif;udk/ oDqkdavh r&Sdaom ekdifa&$usifonf/ tcufcJeSifh =uKHH&onf// y&d\wf tvkdudk


rjznfhay;ekdif/ rGefoDcsif;udk vkH;0 rqdkwwfacs// edkfifxGef;cifonf y&d\wf. tvkdus
rGefoDcsif;udk aumif;rGefpGm oDqkdazsmfajz ay;cJhonf// edkifa&$usif/ edkfifxGef;cifwkd@ azsmfajz
jyD;aemuf/ edkifoef;wif tvSnfhodk@ a&mufvmonf// edkifoef;wifonf/ rdrdwwfu|rf;aom/
tekynmjzifh/ oDqkdazsmfajz ay;onf// ekdifoef;wifonf/ tqkdtwD; tvGefaumif;ol
jzpfonf// pifay:wGif trl&mjzifh/ ydkifekdifpGm oDqkday;aom ekdifoef;wiftm;/ y&d\wfwkd@u/
txl;pGJvef; eSpfouf cJh=uonf// rGefoDcsif;rsm;udk cHpm;rSK tjynfheSifh ydkifekdifpGm oDqkday;cJh
onf// =um;&ol y&d\wfrsm;onf/ oDcsif;. t"dy`g,fudk em;rvnfaomfvnf;/
ydkifydkifekdifedkif oDqkdaom/ ekdifoef;wif. oDqkd azsmfajzrSKu y&d\wftm; xl;xl; jcm;jcm;
cHpm;apedkfifcJhonf// olwkd@. eSvkH;om;udk qGJiif,laqmif oGm;ouJhokd@cH pm;cJh=uonf/

edkifoef;wifonf rGefoDcsif;rsm;udk ydkifekdifpGm oDqkdedkifonfhtjyif jrefrm oDcsif;rsm;udkyg/


tvGefaumif;rGefpGm/ oDqkdekdifoljzpfonf// rdrdudk,fwkdif a&;om;pyfqdk xm;aom/ zufqpf
*syefawmfvSefa&; oDcsif;ukd/ oDqkdazsmfajz ay;cJhonf// ekdifoef;wifonf/ cHpm;rSKtjynfhjzifh/
av,lavwdr;f / twuftus rSefrSef pD;0g; ekdifekdif/ toHydkifydkfifjzifh oDqkd vdkufaomtcg/
rD;udka&jzifh jidrf;owfvkduf ouJhokd@/ yGpdyGpd jzpfaeaom/ y&d\wfrsm;onf/ wdwfqdwf
jidrfouf oGm;=uonf// pl;pkdufI tm&kHjyK em;axmif vm=uonf// oDcsif;jyD;qkH;aomtcg/
&Snfvsm;aom =obmoHonf/ wnHnH qlyGwfI ay:xGuf vmonf// toHaumif;
tqdkaumif;aom ekdifoef;wifudk y&d\wfu aomif;aomif;zszs vufckyfvuf0g; wD;I
csD;=uL; axmyemjyK=uonf// xkdnwGify&d\wf. csD;=uL;jcif;/=obmay;jcif; *k%fjyKjcif;udk
ekdifoef;wif wa,muf txl;cHcJh&onf// trsdK;rsdK;aom qkvmwfrsm;udkvnf; vufcH
&&SdcJhonf//

xkdn tqkdtwD; tutckef wkd@jzifh oDqkdazsmfajz ay;=ujyD;aemuf/ 'kwd, tpDtpOft&/


y&d\wfudk xrif;[if;wkd@jzifh/ y&d\wftm; {nfhcHau|;arG; =uonf// xkdokd@ au|;arG;
{nfhcHa&;udk ysdK&G,fol awmfvSefa&;orm; &Jarrsm;u wm0ef,l aqmif&Guf&onf//
xkdawmfvSefa&; &Jarrsm;xJrS/ rwifh(c)r=uD; wa,mufvnf; yg0ifonf// rwifhonf
Armjynf uGefjrLepfygwD/ c&kdifaumfrwD0if/ udkouf.eSr t&if;jcmjzpfonf// c&kdifolemjyK
q&mr wOD;jzpfonf// tom;ndkI tvGefacsmarmol wOD;jzpfonf// touf&G,f tm;jzifh
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282 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

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edkfifoef;wifu vufrw S f a&;xdk;jyD;/ rwifhbufrS todoufaotjzpf/ uGefjrLepfygwD A[kd
aumfrwD &Jabmfjru vufrSwf a&;xkd; cJh=uonf// ekdifa&$usif vufxyfyGJeSifh ywfoufjyD;
edkifoef;wif udk u|efawmf ar;bl;ygonf// edkifoef;wifu atmufygtwkdif; ajym=um;onf//

“vufxyfyGJ uawmh =uD;=uD; us,fus,f r[kwfygbl;// tenf;usOf;ygbJ// pcef;


rSm&SdwJh vl=uD;awG/ wyfaygif;pk udk,fpm;vS,fawGeSifh &Jabmf/&Jarwkd@udk xrif;[if;
aumif;aumif; csufau|;jyD; todoufaoa&S@rSm/ eSpOf D;oabmwl vufrSwfa&;
xkd;=uw,f// 'DavmufygbJ// u|efawmfeiS fh &Jabmfjrwkd@u eSpfzuf um,uH&Sifwkd@
&J@todoufaotjzpf vufrw S f a&;xkd;=u&w,f// u|efawmfu ekdifa&$usifbufrS
todoufao tjzpf vufrSwf xkd;w,f// &Jabmfjruawmh rwifhbufrS tod
oufaotjzpf vufrSwf a&;xkd;w,f// &Sif;&Sif;ajym&&if/ u|efawmfwkd@u
atmifoG,f awGaygh// vufrSwf xkd;=uwJh tcsdefrSm u|efawmfu &Jabmfjrudk
ar;aighjyD; ajym vkdufw,f// cif;Asm;eSifh u|eaf wmfuawmh/ 'Dae&mrSm umryGJpm;
awGbJaygAh sm// r[kwfbl;vm;// tJ'v D kd u|eaf wmfhu &Jabmfjrudk wD;wkd; ajymvkduf
wm/ ab;rSm &yfjyD; =unfhaewJh ocifZifu =um;oGm;w,f// ocifZif39 u
oabmus vGe;f vkd@ [wf[wf ywfywf &Dawmh 'gbJ//”

Tae&mY ekdifa&$usif. tdrfaxmifa&;eSifh ywfoufjyD; tenf;i,f &Sif;vif;wifjy&ef


ta=umif;jzpfvmonf// ekdifa&$usif. tdrfaxmifa&;eSifh ywfoufjyD; rGeftodkif;0kdif;wGif/
trsdK;rsdK; a0zef ajymqkd=uonf// rGeftrsdK;oRD;rsm;xJrS wOD;OD;eSifh vufxyf oifhonf[k
a0zefajymqkd=uonf// rGeftrsdK;om; acgif;aqmif wOD;onf/ rGeftrsdK;oRD;jzifhom oifhavSsmf
avsSmufywfonf// tjcm;trsdK;orD; wOD;OD;eSifh vufxyfrnf qkdygu/ rnfokd@rSs roifhavSsmf
ravSsmufywf[ka0zefajymqkd=uonf//txl;ojzifhArm[laom trsdK;oRD;wOD;udk aumuf,l
vufxyf vkdufjcif;yif ekdifa&$usif. r[mtrSm;[k ajym=uonf// ekdifa&$usiftm; trsdK;rsdK;
a0zef ykyfcwf ajymqdk =uonf// omrmef rGefawmfvSefa&; orm; wOD;qkdvSsif/ cGifhv$wf

39
ocifZifonf/ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwD.'k/OuUXjzpfonf//ocifoef;xGef;usqkH;oGm;jyD;aemufygwDOuUXjzpfvmol
jzpfonf//
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 285

ekdifaumif; ygonf// okd@aomf ekdifa&$usif uJhokd@aom/ tpOfvm =uD;rm;aom/ rGeftrsdK;om;


acgif;aqmif wa,mufudkrl/ rnfokd@rSs cGifhrv$wfekdif=uacs// tjypfwif &SkKwfcs=uwJh 'g%fudk
ekdifa&$usif wOD;onf/ tvl;tvdSrfh/ =udwfrdSwf cHpm;cJh&onf// rdrd. ekdifiHa&; vSKyf&Sm;rSK
ordkif;udk trJpufpGef;/ npfEGrf; apcJhonf// awmfvSefa&; wavSsmufvkH;wGif tdrfaxmifa&;
rSm;,Gif;rSK t&dyf=uD;u edkifa&$usifaemuf/ waumufaumufyg vkdufvmcJhonf//

ekdifa&$usifonf/ tcspfa&;tdrfaxmifa&; uHqdk;ol jzpfygonf// tvGefuHrJo G l[k qkd&ayrnf/


rdrdonf rGeftrsdK;udk cspfI/ rGeftrsdK;twGuf b0ukdyif ykHtyfcJhonf// rGeftrsdK;oRD; wOD;OD;udk/
rdrd.cspfoltjzpf &nfpl;xm;aomfvnf;jzpfrvmcJhay// rGeftrsdK;oRD; wOD;OD;tm; &moufyef
=uifaz:tjzpf a&G;cs,f ,lvkdaomfvnf; ratmifjrifcJhay// tcspfppfyGJrSm tcspf&SkH;orm;
b0jzifh eSpf=udrfeSpfcg wdwd aemufqkwf cJh&bl;onf// txl;ojzifh awmfvSefa&;orm;wkd@rSm/
tcspfuHrGJ =uolrsm; jzpf=uonf// tb,fa=umifh qkdaomf/ awmfvSefa&; orm;wOD;.
b0c&D; vrf;onf/ tvGef=urf;wrf; cufxefonf// ql;anSmifh cvkwfcoif;awGeJ@ jynfheSuf
aeaom c&D;vrf;jzpfonf// om,majzmifhjzL;jcif;r&Sdfyg// awmfvSefa&; orm;qdkwm/ yef;&e@H
oif;wJhnaecif;rSm tysif;ajy vrf;a&SmufxGuf aeolrsm; r[kwfovkd/ yef;cif;aom eSif;qD
arG@&may:rSm tomt,m tdyfpuftem;,laeolvnf;r[kwfyg// cufxef =urf;wrf;aom
ca&mif;awmvrf;udk prf;w0g;0g;eJ@ a&SmufvSrf; oGm;ae&olrsm; jzpfonf// c&D;tqkH;rSm
rnfonfh tajcokd@qkdufjyD;/ rnfodk@jzpfvmrnfudkvnf; rodaom c&D;onf wOD;jzpfonf//
Tokd@aom/ yk*~dKvf wOD;udk b0c&D;az:tjzpf rnfolu =unf=unf jzLjzL vufwJGcsif
=urnfenf;/ awmfvSefa&; orm;wOD; taejzifhvnf; rdrdcspfoludk Tokd@ =urf;wrf;cuf
xefaom c&D;vrf;udk twla&SmufvSrf;bdk@ ac:&uf edkif=urnfvm;// cspfvsufeSifh ZGwfrSdwfI
vufwGJjzKwf xm;cJh &onfrsm;vnf; rsm;pGm&Sdygonf//

rnfokd@aom ta=umif;cH jzpfjzpf/ ekdifa&$usifonf/ rdrd tvGefcspfcif/ jrwfekd; =unfjzLaom/


rGeforD;ysdK eSpfOD;udk rvGJra&Smifom eSpf=udrfeSpfcg wdwd/ tomw=unf vufwGJjzKwf
csefvSyfxm;cJh&onf r[kwfygavm// TudpPeSifh ywfoufI/ um,uH&Sifrsm; jzpf=uaom/
ekdifa&$usif/ rdapm&SifeSifh rd=unfcifxl; wkd@uom/ tcHpm;&qkH;/ todqkH;[k uGsefawmfxif
jrifrdygonf// xkdolwkd@ tm;vkH;onf/ aumif;&m ok*wdbkHokd@ vm;=uygap// jzpfav&m
b0qufwdkif; qufwdkif;Y/ cspfolrsm;tjzpf/ jyefvnf qkHqnf; edkif=uygap[k qkrGefaumif;
awmif;vdkufygonf//
286 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

tydkif;(11)
uGefjrLepfygwDeSifhvlrsdK;pkwyfaygif;pkzJ@G / zqyvtpdk;&eSpfjcrf;uGJ/
rGefwyfOD;rl0g'ajymif;vJ&efajcvSrf;/ edkifa&$usif.owday;pm/
edkifxGef;cif.tjyefc&D;/edkifa&$usif.wm;jrpfpm/ tvif;0ifa&;wyfOD;=udK;yrf;/
wyfOD;. tvif;0iftcrf;em;/ edkifa&$usif. cHpm;csuf/ rGefjynfopfygwDzGJ@pnf;/
tvif;0ifwJhtay:ekdifa&$usif.oabmxm;//

1956-ckeSpfrSpIawmwGif; vufeufudkifawmfvSefae=uonfh/ wdkif;&if;om; tiftm;pkrsm;


onf/ rdrdwdk@twGif;/ pkpnf;nDnGwfrSK wnfaqmuf&ef vkdtyfonf[k jrifvm=ujyD;/
nDnGwfa&; wnfaqmuf&eff =udK;yrf;vm=uonf// xkda=umifh 1956-ckeSpf wGif
('Drdku&ufwpfvlrsdK;pkrsm;nDnGwfa&;wyfOD;) (Democratic National United Front)
wyfaygif;pk w&yfudk zGJ@pnf;edkifcJhonf// Twyfaygif;pkonf/ vlrsdK;pktzJG@pnf;rsm; pkaygif;
zGJ@pnf;onfh yxr OD;qkH;aom wyfaygif;pkjzpfcJhonf// awmfvSefa&; tusdK;twGuf/ wlnD
ekdifaom/ tajccH oabmw&m;rsm;udk tajcjyKI/ wyfaygif;pk zGJ@pnf;&ef =udK;yrf;=ujcif;
yifjzpfonf// tpkd;&. jyif;xefaom xdk;ppf'g%fudk tvl;tvJ cHvm&jyD;/ rdrdwkd@ woD;
wjcm; &yfwnfI/ tpkd;&tm;jyefvnf ckcHawmfvSef&ef/ tm;tif r,SOfom jzpfvmonf//
Todk@rdrdwkd@onf/ woD;wjcm;/ wOD;csif;wzGJ@csif; &yfwnfaeygu/ wae@wjcm; tiftm;
=uD;rm;vmaom/ tpkd;&. wyfrawmfudk rnfokd@rsS awmfvSef ,SOfjydKif&efrjzpf ekdifonfudk
jrifvm =uonf//

xkd@a=umifh ,ckwzef/ Armjynf uGefjrLepfygwDrS OD;aqmifjyD; wyfaygif;pk w&yfudk zGJ@pnf;&ef


=udK;yrf; ae=ujcif; jzpfonf// Armjynf uGefjrLepfygwD OD;aqmifjyD; wyfaygif;pkw&yfudk/
rGefjynfol@wyfOD;tm; zdwfac:ojzifh/ edkifa&$usif OD;aqmifaom/ rGefudk,fpm;vS,ftzGJ@onf/
A*kd;&kd;rodkd@yif a&mufvm =ujcif;jzpfonf// TzGJ@pnf;rnfh wyfaygif;pkonf/ Armjynf
uGefjrLygwDeSifh wkdif;&if;om; vlrsdK;pk tzGJ@pnf;rsm;wkd@ yl;aygif; zGJ@pnf;aom yXrOD;qkH;
wyfaygif;pkjzpfrnf// Armjynf uGefjrLepfygwDeSihf wkdif;&if;om;vlrsdK;pk awmfvSefa&; tiftm;
pkwkd@ vufwJjG yD;/ nDnGwfaom tiftm;jzifh tpkd;&tm; awmfvSefoGm;&ef &nf&G,fI/
wyfaygif;pk zGJpnf;jcif;jzpfonf//

edkifa&$usif/ edkfifxGef;cif/ ekdifoef;wifwkd@onf/ A*kd;&kd;rudka&mufvmjyD;aemuf/ wyfaygif;pk


zGJ@pnf;a&;twGuf/tpnf;a0;xkdifjcif;/ wyfaygif;pkzGJ@pnf;a&;rl/ vkkyfief;pOfrsm;udk aqG;aEG;
qkH;jzwfjcif;/ ponfwkd@udk rtm;rvyfatmif ae@pOfeSifhtrSSs vkyfaqmifcJh&onf// xkdokd@
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 287

okH;ygwD wyfaygif;pk zGJ@pnf;jcif;eSifh ywfoufaom/ rdrd. tawG@t=uKHudk/ ekdifa&$usifonf


atmufygtwkdif; zGifhajymcJh onf//

“1957-ckeSpf/ eSpfv,frSm/ okH;ygwDrS udk,fpm;vS,frsm; aqG;aEG; nSdeSkdif;=ujyD;


wllnDwJh/ ekdifiHa&;eSifhppfa&; tcsdK@wkd@udk csrSwfedkifcJhw,f// wlnDwJh ekdifiHa&;/ ppfa&;
wkd@udk yl;aygif; vkyaf qmif&if;/ rwlnDaom/ ekdifiHa&;eJ@ ppfa&;wkd@udk qufvuf
nSdeSKdif; vkyfaqmifoGm;&ef oabmwl nD=uw,f// okH;ygwDrS udk,fpm;vS,frsm;
yg0ifwJh A[kdaumfrwDwpf&yfudk zG@Jpnf; ekdifcJhw,f// oufqkdif&mygwD tzGJ@pnf;rsm;
udk wGe;f tm; ay;ekdif&ef a=ujimcsufrsm;udk qufvuf xkwfa0 edkfifcJ@w,f//
jynfwGif;ppf &yfpJa&;rl wpf&yfudk csrSwfekdifcJhw,f// 4if;rlrSm (tpkd;&eSifh awmwGif;
vufeufukdif tzGJ@pnf;wkd@ eSpfOD;eSpfzuf awG@qkH aqG;aEG;jyD;/ olrem/ udk,frem/
jynfwGif; ppf&yfpJa&;/ jynfwGi;f jidrf;csrf;a&;)rl jzpfw,f// Trltwkdif; awG@qkH
aqG;aEG;a&;twGuf/ zqyv tpkd;&tm; awmif;qkdcJhw,f// tJ'D awmif;qkdrSK[m/
wekdifiHvkH;&Sd/ &[ef; oHCmrsm;eJ@ jynfolvlxkwkd@udk/ jynfwGi;f jidrf;csrf;a&;twGuf
wkdufyGJ0if awmif;qkd&ef/ vSKyfaqmfay;&m =uoGm;w,f// jynfwGif; jidrf;csr;f a&;
twGuf &[ef;oHCmeJ@ jynfolvlxkwdk@&J@ vSKyfaqmfawmif;qkdrSK[m/ t&Sdeft[kef
jyif;xef vmw,f// tm%m&wJh zqyv twGif;rSm/ tawmfyif *,uf&kduf
oGm;w,f// Armjynf uGefjrLepfygwDeJ@/ rGe/f u&ifygww D @dk &J@ yl;aygif;wkdufyGJ0ifrSK[m
tvGefyif zqyv tpkd;&udk xdyfvef@ apekdifcJhw,f// wyfaygif;pkrSm/ tjcm;aom/
wkdif;&if;om; tzGJ@pnf;rsm;vnf; yg0ifvmrSmukd tvGefpkd;&drf vmw,f//”
[lIekdifa&$usifonfwyfaygif;pkeSifhywfoufaom/rdrd.tjrifudkzGifh[ajymqkdcJhonf//

xkdokd@ ekdifa&$usifwpfOD; A*kd;&kd;rwGif wyfaygif;pk. wm0efudk xrf;aqmifaepOf wpfae@wGif/


atmufArmjynfuGef jrLepfygwD ajratmuf wm0efcH. ajymjycsuft&/ rGefjynfol@wyfOD;
ygwDY ekdifiHa&; vrf;pOf ajymif;vJ&ef tvm;vm&Sdaeonfh ta=umif;ukd ekdifa&$usifwpfOD;
od&onf// zqyv tpkd;&onf/ jynfwGif;ppf t=uyftwnf;rS &kH;xGufekdifatmif vdrRm
yg;eyfpGm awmwGif; vufeufudkfif tiftm;pkrsm;udk csOf;uyf pnf;&kH; odrf;oGif;aeonfh
ta=umif; xkdajratmuf wm0efcHrS wqifh od&onf// &Jabmf csrf;at;. vufeufeSifh
'Drdkua&pD vJvS,fa&;rlt&/ awmwGif; vufeufudkfif tiftm;pkrsm;udk odrf;oGif;aeonfh
ta=umif;ajymjyonfhtjyif/zqyvtpkd;&onf/ rGejf ynfol@wyfOD;ygwDudkvnf;/ ekdifaiGodrf;
rSwqifh/ 0ifa&muf pnf;&kH;odrf;oGif; aeonfhta=umif;ukdyg/ ekdifa&$usif tm;ajymjyonf//
&Jabmfcsrf;at;onfwjcm;vlr[kwfyg// ekdifaiGodrf;. nDr/ rdoef;oef;eSifh tdrfaxmifus
xm;aom edkifaiGodrf;. a,mufz wpfOD;yif jzpfonf// &Jabmfcsrf;at;onf/ Armjynf
288 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

uGefjrLepfygwD. A[kdaumfrwD0if wpfOD;jzpfcJhbl;ygonf// ArmjynfuGejf rLepfygwD. wm0ef


ay;csuft&/ ajratmuf vkyfief;rsm;udk vkyfudkfif&if; &efukefjrdK@wGif/ tpkd;&. zrf;qD;rSKudk
cHvkduf&onf// tif;pdefaxmifwGif xdrf;odrf;cHae&pOf/ “csr;f at; ppfwrf;”pmwrf;udk
a&;om;jyD;zqyvtpkd;&xHodk@wifoGif;cJhonf// 4if;pmwrf;wGifjynfwGif;ppf tqkH;owfa&;
eSifh jynfwGif;jidrf;csrf;a&; wnfaqmufa&;twGuf/ (vufeufeSifh 'Drdkua&pD vJvS,fa&;rl)
wpf&yfygvmonf// &Jabmfcsrf;at;.rljzpfonfh (vufeufeSifh 'Drdkua&pDvJvS,fa&;rl)udk
tpkd;& tvGefoabm uscJhonf// 4if;pmwrf; a&;om; wifoGif;jyD;aemuf tpkd;&onf
&Jabmfcsrf;t;tm; tjypfrS vGwfjidrf;csrf;omcGifhay;cJhonf//

rGefjynfol@wyfOD; edkifiHa&;vrf;pOf ajymif;vJrnfhta=umif;udk odv#ifodcsif;/ ekdifa&$usifonf


tvsiftjref pmwpfapmif a&;om;jyD;/ rGejf ynfol@wyfOD;. taxGaxG twGif;a&;rSL;
ekdifcsrf;rGefxHodk@ay;ykd@ar;jref;cJhonf// ekdifcsrf;rGefonf/ ekdifa&$usif.pmudk&jyD;aemuf r=umcif
rSmyif pmjyefa&; vmygonf// ekdifa&$usif.pmY a&;om; wifjyxm;aom ta=umif;&mwkd@
onf/ r[kwfrrSefa=umif;// zqyv tpkd;&rS rGefjynfol@wyfOD;tm; ekdifaiGodrf;rSwqifh/
csOf;uyfpnf;&kH; odrf;oGif;aeonfrSm rrSefruefa=umif;eSifh rGefjynfol@wyfOD;wGif rnfokd@rSs
vrf;pOf ajymif;vJ&ef ta=umif;r&Sd a=umif; pmjyefcJhygonf//

1958-ckeSpfwGif/ jynfwGif; jidrf;csrf;a&; awmif;qdkrSK t&Sdeft[kef jyif;xefvmonfhtwGuf/


tkyfpkd;ol zqyvtpdk;& twGif;wGifvnf;/ =uD;rm;pGm *,uf &kdufcwfvmonf// zqyv
tpkd;&wGif/ OD;ekOD;aqmifaom tkyfpkrS jynfwGif;jidrf;csrf;a&; wnfaqmufa&;/ jynfwGif;ppf
tqkH;owfa&;twGuf aqmif&Guf&ef pdwf0ifpm;vmonf// OD;AaqG/ OD;ausmfjidrf;tkyfpkwkd@u
jynfwGif; vufeufudkif tiftm;pkwkd@udk ppfa&;jzihfom/ wkdufckduf acsrSKef;vkdcsif=uonf//
jynfwGif;ppf tqkH;owfa&; oabmxm;tay: zqyvwGif eSpfjcrf; ododomom uGJjym;
vmonf// xkda=umifh OD;ekOD;aqmifaom tpkd;&udk jyKwfcsekdifa&;twGuf/ t,kHt=unfr&Sd
tqkdudk/ OD;AaqG/ OD;ausmfjidrf;wkd@u ygvDrefwGif wifoGif;cJhonf// odk@aomf OD;ektpkd;&onf/
yrnwtrwfrsm;eSifh &ckdifvlrsdK;pktrwfrsm;. axmufcHrJjzifh tekdif&oGm;onf// OD;ektpkd;&
onf jynfwGif;jidrf;csrf;a&;/ jynfwGif;ppftqkH;owfa&;twGuf/ awmwGif;tiftm;pkrsm;udk
urf;vSrf;vmonf// &Jabmfcsrf;at;. rlt&/(vufeufeSifh 'DrDkua&pDvJvS,fa&;)twGuf/
oef@&Sif; zqyvOD;ektpdk;&onf a=uG;a=umfvKSyfaqmfcJhonf//

wcsdefwnf;rSmyif yxp OD;ektpkd;&onf/ rGefeSifh&ckdif vlrsdK;wkd@twGuf jynfe,fay;a&;rludk


csrSwfvmonf//tu,fIrGefvlxkeSifh &ckdifvlxkwkd@u jyif;ysaom qEN&SdcJhaomf/ rGefjynfe,f
eSifh &ckdifjynfe,fudkvnf; xlaxmifay;rnf[k0ef=uD;csKyfOD;eku *wdjyKvmonf//
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 289

Todk@aom/jynfwGif;ekdfifiHa&;tajctae ajymif;vJrSKrsm;a=umifh rGefjynfol@wyfOD;ygwDwGif;Y


vnf; edkifiHa&; vrf;pOfrsm; ajymif;vJ&efjzpfay:vmonf[kqkdekdifonf//

1958-ckeSpfZGefvwGif/ rGefjynfol@wyfOD;wGif/ ekdifiHa&;vrf;pOfajymif;vJr_=uD;w&yfjzpfay:&ef


ta=umif;jzpfvmonf// vufeufudkif awmfvSefa&;rSonf/ ygvDrefwGif;/ 'Drdkua&pD wdkufyJG
toGifodk@ ul;ajymif;a&;[laom/ tawG;tac: t,ltqonf/ rGefjynfol@wyfOD;ygwD
twGif;Y tiftm; =uD;rm;pGm jzpfay: vmonf// rGeftrsdK;om;wkd@. vufeufudkfif
awmfvSefa&;(10)eSpf/ (10)rdk;umv/ 1948-rSonf/ 1958-ckeSpfumv tawmtwGif;
wGif/ ekdifiHwumeSifhjynfwGif;ekdifiHa&;tajctaewdk@rSm/ rsm;pGmjzpfay:ajymif;vJvmonfudk/
rGefjynfol@wyfOD; acgif;aqmifrsm;u owdxm;rdonf// awmwGif; vufeufudkif
awmfvSefa&;tay: okH;oyfa0zef qef;ppf vm=uonf// Tvufeufukdif awmfvSefa&;
a=umifh jzpfay:vmaom rGeftrsdK;om;. tusdK;tjrwf/ t&SKH;tekdifudk/ okH;oyfa0zef/
qef;ppf vm=uonf// T(10)eSpfumv tawmwGif;wGif jynfwGif;Y jzpfay:ajymif;vJ
vmaom ekdifiHa&;tajcaeudk qef;ppfa0zefrKS jyKvm=uonf// jynfolvlxk. 'Drdkua&pD/
tjrifwkd;wuf jrifhrm;vmrSK/ 'Drdkua&pD vSKyf&Sm;rSKukdvnf;/ okH;oyf vm=uonf// ygvDref
'Drkdua&pD abmiftwGif;rS ekdifiHa&; wkdufyGJonf/ t&Sdef[kef jyif;xef vmonfudkvnf;
okH;oyfrdvm=uonf// Tokd@aom/ jynfwGif;jynfy ajymif;vJaeaom/ ekdifiHa&;/ ppfa&;
rsm;udk avhvm okH;oyfjyD;/ rGeftrsdK;om;wkd@twGuf/ taumif;qkH; tudsK;jyKedkifaom
enf;vrf;/ ekdifiHa&; vrf;pOf wpf&yfokd@/ ajymif;vJ csrSwf&ef rGefjynfol@wyfOD;&Sd acgif;aqmif
rsm;=um;wGif/ tajctwif aqG;aEG;pjyKvmonfudk awG@&onf//

wzufwGifvnf; vufeufudkfif awmfveS fa&;onf/ wjznf;jznf;/ jyKduGJ/ usqif;vmonfudk


vnf; okH;oyf vmrd=uonf// Armwyfrawmf. xkd;ppfukd awmwGif; vufeufudkfif
tiftm;pkwkd@onf/ tvl;tvJ/ cHvm&onf// awmfvSefa&; e,fajrrsm; vufvGwf qkH;&SKH;
vmonf// usOf;ajrmif;vmonf// jynfoleSifh a0;&mokd@ vGifhpifoGm;=uonf// rrSefuefaom/
rSm;,Gif;onfh/ tcsdK@awmwGif; vufeufudkif awmfvSefa&; tzGJ@pnf;rsm;. vkyf&yfrsm;
a=umifhvnf;/ toD;oD;aom/ awmwGif;/ vufeufudkif tiftm;pktay: jynfolrsm;/
,kH=lunfrSK/ axmufcHrSK/tm;ay;rSK/ avSsmhenf;vmonf// vufeufudkifwkdufyGJtay:/ jynfol
rsm;=unf,kHrSK/ r&Sdjzpfvmonf/ xda&mufaom/ tpkd;&. trsdK;rsdK; 0g'jzef@rSKa=umifhvnf;
jynfolrsm; awGa0vmonf// trsdK;rsdK;eSdfyfpuf nSif;yef; cH&vGef;Ivnf;/ jynfolrsm;onf/
jynfwGif;ppftay:/ atmheSvkH;emvmonf// jynfwGif;ppfudk tqkH;owf apcsifvm=uonf//
jynfwGif;ppf tqkH;owfa&;/ jynfwGif;jidr;f csrf;a&;twGuf/ awmif;qkdvm=uonf// tkH=uGI
ta&;qkdvmonf//
290 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

Todk@ ajymif;vJaeonfh/ jynfwGif;jynfy tajctae t&yf&yfwkd@udk a0zefqef;ppf okH;oyf


jyD;/rGeftrsdK;om;rsm;twGuf taumif;qkH;tusdK;jyKekdifaomenf;vrf;udk a&G;cs,fqkH;jzwf&ef
rGefjynfol@wyf OD;acgif;aqmifrsm;u =udwfI =udK;pm;aeonfh tcsdefjzpfonf// jynfwGif;
tajctaeeSifh ekdifiHwum tajctaewkd@udk avhvmjyD;/ rGefjynfol@wyfOD;wGif/ tjrifopf
tawG;ac:opf ajymif;vJ jzpfay:vmonf[kvnf; qkdekdifonf// awmwGif; vufeufudkif
wkdufyGJrSonf/ jrdK@ay: ygvDref'Drdkua&pD wkdufyJt
G oGifokd@ ul;ajymif;jcif;u/ rGeftrsdK;om;
tusdK;udk ykdrdkI o,fykd; aqmif&Guf vmekdifrnf[k wyfOD;acgif;aqmifwkd@u jrifvm=uonf//
xkd@a=umifh rGefjynfol@ wyfOD;A[kdaumfrwDonf/ vufeufeSifh 'Drdkua&pD vJvS,f&ef
aemufqkH;wGif OD;ek. urf;vSrf;csufudk oabmwl vufcHvmonf// Todk@ rGefjynfol@wyfOD;
wGif tjrifopf tawG;ac:opf/ jzpfay: ajymif;vJ vmonfudk/ ta0;a&muf aeonfh
ekdifa&$usifwOD; tcsdefrSDrodvkduf&ay// rGefjynfol@wyfOD;. twGif;a&;rSL;jzpfol ekdifcsrf;rGef.
jyefpmtay:tjynfh0,kH=unfjyD;/ rGefjynfol@wyfOD;onf/ OD;ektpkd;&eSifh tay;,lvkyfjyD;
vufeufcsvdrfhrnfr[kwf[k edkifa&$usifu,kH=unfpdwfcsaerdonf//

rGefjynfol@wyfOD;eSifh tpkd;&/ aqG;aEG;rSK pvsSifpjcif;yif yJcl;&kd;rwGif a&muf&Sdaeaom/


ekdifa&$usiftm; vlvGwfItckdifrm ac:ckdif;cJhonf//rGefjynfol@wyfOD;. A[kdtvkyftrSKaqmif
wOD;jzpfol ekdifom[eftm; apv$wfcJhjcif; jzpfonf// ekdifom[efonf/ yJcl;jrdK@wGif aejyD;
OuUXekdifa&$usifeSifh tqufoG,f&ekdifatmif trsdK;rsdK;=udK;pm;cJhonf// okd@aomfuGefjrLepfygwD
u wrifzefwD;I wm;jrpfxm;ojzifh/ OuUXekdifa&$usiftm; rawG@ekdfifcJh[kqkdonf// xkdodk@
uGefjrLepfygwDrS wrifwum wm;jrpfxm;ojzifh rdrdonf ekdifa&$usiftm; rdrdrawG@cJh&onfh
ta=umif;udk ekdifom[efonf/ rGefjynfol@wyfOD; tvkyftrSKaqmifaumfrwDodk@ tpD&ifcH
wifjycJhonf//

rGefjynfol@wyfOD;. ekdifiHa&;vrf;pOf ajymif;vJrSKa=umifh/ ekdifxGef;cifeSifh ekdifoef;wifwdk@eSpfOD;


onf/ rGefjynfol@wyfOD;XmecsKyfokd@ jyefoGm;&ef ta=umif;ay:vmonf// ekdifa&$usifwpfOD;
wnf;rjyefbJ/ yJcl;&kd;r uGefjrLepfpcef;wGif usef&pfcJhonf// ekdifxGef;cifeSifh ekdifoef;wifwkd@
eSpfOD;onf rdrdtpDtpOfeSifhrdrd jyef=u&ef oabmwl=uonf// wa,mufwjcm;pDjyef=u&ef
oabmwl=uonf// ekdifxGef;cifonf a&mifeDawmwGif;pcef;rS wqifh yJcl;anmifav;yifjrdK@
okd@oGm;rnf// xkdrSwqifh armfvjrdKifbufokd@ tqifhqifh oGm;rnfhvrf;udk a&G;cs,fonf/
xkdpOfumvonf/ oGm;a&; vma&;onf/ tvGeftEW&m,frsm;jyD;/ tvGefowdxm;&aom/
tcsdefumvjzpfonf// yJcl;anmifav;yifqkdonfrSm/ awmwGif;vufeufudkif awmfvSefa&;
tiftm;pkrsm;/ oGm;vmusufpm;&mae&mjzpfI/ tvGefemrnf=uD;aom/ a'ojzpfonf//
ppfaxmufvSefa&;eSifh/ ykvdyfawG/ ajc&SkyfItvGefowdxm;&aomae&ma'ojzpfonf//
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 291

edkifxGef;cifonf a&mifeDpcef;rS eHufapmapm xGufvmjyD; awmwGif; vrf;wavSsmufwGif/


yefyef;=uD;pGm/ a&SmufvSrf; vmcJhonf// anmifav;yifjrdK@ a&mufaomtcg wae@wm
wnwm tem;,l tdyfpuf&ef pdwfqENjzpfay:vmonf// ab;tEW&m,fwkd@udk rrSKedkifawmh
ay// aumvdyfausmif;om;b0u/ rdrdtvGef&if;eSD;cJhbl;ol/ ausmif;aebuf oli,fcsif;/
anmifav;yifrS/ aumvdyfausmif;olwOD;udk/ jyefvnf owd&rdonf// TtrsdK;orD;tdrfY
wnwmrSs/ oGm;a&muf tem;,l tdyfpuf&vSsif/ aumif;avpG[k pdwfqEN jzpfay:vmrd
onf// Tausmif;aebuf oli,fcsif;udkrl pdwfcs&aumif;onf[k pdwfxJY jzpfay:rdonf//
rdrdtay:Y rnfhokd@r# opPm razgufedkif[kvnf;/ cdkifrmpGm ,kH=unfonf// xdkrdef;rydsK.
tdrfudkpkHprf;I ta&mufa&SmufvSrf; oGm;cJhonf// awG@=uawmhvnf; eSpfOD;om;onf/
0rf;omvkd@rqkH;/=unfel;vkd@rqkH; jzpfcJh=u&onf//teSpfeSpftvvurawG@& cGJcGmvmcJh&aom
ausmif;aebuf oli,fcsif;wOD;udk ,ckvkd jyefvnfqkHawG@&aoma=umifh/ xdkanmifav;yif
ol/rdef;rysdKonfvnf;/twdkif;rod0rf;omaerdonf//

edkifxGef;cifonfvnf;/ vrf;wavsSmuf vkH;wGif/ armyef; vmcJhorSs/ ,ckrSyif/ tarmajy


awmhonf// aumvdyf ausmif;=uD;rS xGufvmjyD; uwnf;u wOD;udkwOD; rawG@cJh&onfrSm/
umv =umanmif;jyD; jzpfonf// udk,fpD/ udk,fiS tdrfaxmifusjyD; om;oRD;rsm;yif/ toD;oD;
&&Sd ae=ujyD;jzpfonf// okd@aomf i,foli,fcsi;f / ausmif;aebufrdk@/ rnfrSsyif tcsdefumv/
=umanmif;cJhaomfvnf;/ wOD;udk wOD;rarhedkif=u// tjrJowd& wrf;w =upjrJyif// ,ckvkd
jyefvnf qkHawG@ &aomtcg/ eSpfOD;om;wkd@. i,frli,fp&kdufrsm;yif jyefvnf ekd;=um; x=uG
vmonf// eSpfOD;om;wkd@rSm wuf=uGrSK ekysdKrSKwkd@onf touf0if vSKyf&Sm;vmonf//
jyefvnf vef;qef;vm=uonf// xkdanmifav;yifol ysdKjzLacsmonf rdrd. ausmif;aebuf
i,foli,fcsif;udk tvGeftm;& 0rf;ompGm jyKpk,k,onf// wnwm rdrdtdrfY tdyfpuf
tem;,ljcif; udkrl/ tvG,fwul =unfjzLpGmyif vufcHvkdufonf//

okd@aomf xkdodk@ eSpfOD;om;/ =unfeL;=unfjzL ae=uonfhtjzpfudk ab;rSaeI rjrifvkdr&Skpdyfh


edkifaom olwOD; &Sdaeonf// xdktjzpfudk olwdk@eSpfOD; vkH;0 r&dyfpm; rdacs// xkdrdef;rysdK.
vifa,muFsm;onf/ awmwGif;rS vufeufudkif awmfvSefa&;orm;wOD;jzpfonfh ekdifxGef;cif
. tjzpfrSefudkodaomtcg/ a'golykefxavawmhonf// awmwGif;rSvmaom ekdifxGef;cifudk
qkd;oGr;f aom vufeufudkif aomif;usef;olwOD; tjzpfjrifonf// tpkd;&. jypfrSKeSifh
ywfouf aeaom vlwOD; jzpfaeonfhtwGuf rdrd. rdom;pkyg tEW&m,f usa&muf
vmekdifonf// rdrd.cspfZeD;udk TawmwGif; aomif;usef;olwOD;eSifh rnfokd@rSs/ rywfouf
rqufpyf apcsifyg// olwdk@eSpfOD;om; =unf=unf jzLjzL/ =unfeL; ae=uonfh tjzpfudk vnf;
rnfok@dr# qufvuf oD;rcH ekdifawmhacs// xkda=umifh anmifav;yifol xkdysdKjzLacsm.
292 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

vifa,muFsm;uyif/ ykvdyfudkwdwfwcdk; vufxdyfxkd;/ta=umif;=um;cJhonf// nwGif;csif;yif


ekdifxGef;ciftm;zrff;qD;apcJhonf// rdrd. aumvdyfausmif;aebuf oli,fcsif;tdrfY wnwm
at;at;aq;aq; tem;,l tdyfpuf&ef =uH&G,fcJhaom/ ekdifxGef;cifonff/ ykvdyftcsKyfpcef;
Yom pHjref;cJh&onf//

xkdokd@edkifxGef;cifeSifhekdifoef;wifwdk@eSpfO;D jyefvmjyD;aemuf/ ekdifa&$usifwpfOD;wnf;/yJcl;&kd;rwGif


usef&pfcJhonf// xdkpOfrGefjynfol@wyfOD;ygwDY/ vrf;pOf ajymif;vJa&;twGuf/ tm;oGefcGefpkduf
aqmif&Guf vmonfudk awG@&onf// Tonfudk tcsdefrSDwm;qD;ekdif&ef/ ekdifa&$usifonf
aemufxyf pmwpfapmif a&;om;jyD; rGefjynfol@wyfOD; A[kdaumfrwDodk@ ay;ykd@cJhao;onf//
4if;pmwGif/ zqyv tpkd;&onf rnfonfhtcgurS &kd;om; ajzmifhrwfjcif;r&SdcJh/ tpOftjrJ
aumufuspf pif;vJwwfaom t=uHOm%f&Sdonf// zqyv tpdk;&onf jynfol@&JabmfygwD
tay: aumufuspf pif;vJcJhonfukd axmufjy a&;om;xm;onf// zqyvtpkd;&onf/
jynfol@&JabmfygwDeSifh eSpfOD;eSpfzufoabmwljyD;/ typftcwf&yfpJa&; vkyfxm;=uonf//
eSpfOD;eSpfzuf oabmwl owfrSwfxm;aom ae&mrsm;wGif/ tpkd;&wyfonf4if;/ jynfol@
&Jabmf wyfrsm;onf4if;/ toD;oD;ae=u&ef oabmwl cJh=uonf// typfcwf &yfpJa&;
oabmwlnDcsufY rdrd *wdjyK xm;onfhtwdkif; zqyv tpdk;&onf rapmifhxdef;bJ/
jynfol@&JabmfygwD wyfrsm;csxm;aom ae&mteD;odk@ rdrdwyfrsm;udka&S@wkd;I wjznf;jznf;
csvmjcif;// Armwyfrsm;udk ykdrdktiftm;jznfhcsxm;vmjcif;// aemufqkH;wGif/ jynfol@&Jabmf
wyfrsm;pk&kH;&Sd aeaom ae&mukd tpkd;&. ppfwyfu ppftiftm;jzifh oGm;a&muf 0kdif;jyD;
twif;t"rR vufeufcsckdif;cJhonfhta=umif;udk tao;pdyf xnfhoGif; a&;om;xm;onf//
aemufqkH;wGif/ rvGJra&SmifomIjynfol@&JabmfygwDonf/ vufeufcsoGm;&onfhta=umif;/
&kd;&kd;om;om;jzifh vufeufcs oGm;jcif; r[kwfa=umif;udk owday; a&;om; oGm;onf//
4if;tjyif ygvDrefwGif OD;ek. oef@&Sif; zqyv tpkd;& ekdifoGm;jcif;tay:/ ppfwyfrS
AdkvfcsKyfrsm;uvkH;0rauseyf=uonfhta=umif;//xkd@a=umifhppfwyfrS ppfAdkvfcsKyfrsm;tcGifhtcg
oifh&if/ tm%modrf;&ef tajctae &Sdaeonfh ta=umif;udkyg xnfhoGif; a&;om;
az:jyxm;onf// okd@aomf ekdifa&$usif.pmonf tcsD;eSD; jzpfcJh&onf// rGefjynfol@wyfOD;A[kd&Sd
acgif;aqmifrsm;u tav;teuf rxm;cJh=uay//

rGefjynfol@wyfOD;onf/ Oya' abmifwGif;okd@ 0ifa&; udpPeSifh ywfoufjyD;/ tpkd;&bufrS


oufqkdif&m yk*~dKvfrsm;eSifh awG@qkH aqGaEG;&efoabmwlonf// yxrOD;pGm/ rGefjynfol@wyfOD;
udk,fpm;vS,f tzJG@wzGJ@ a&G;cs,f apv$wfa&;udk oabmwl=uonf// rGefjynfol@wyfOD;/
A[kdtvkyftrSKaqmif. qkH;jzwfwm0ef ay;csuft&/ ekdifiHa&; aqG;aEG; &mwGif/ vdrRm
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 293

yg;eyfrSK&SdoledkifaiGodef;eSifh rGefjynfol@wyfOD;ygwD. twGif;a&;rSL;ekdifcsrf;rGefwdk@ OD;aqmifaom


udk,fpm;vS,f tzGJ@wzGJ@udk a&G;cs,fjyD; y%mr apv$wfcJhonf// 4if;aemuf udk,fpm;vS,f
tzGJ@udk/ ekdifqdwfekd@tm; xyfrH jznfhpGyfI zGJ@pnf; vkdufonf// 1958-ckeSpf/ Zlvdkifvqef;
avmufwGif/ 4if; udk,fpm;vS,ftzGJ@onf yxrOD;pGm/ oHjzLZ&yfjrdK@/ trSwf(28) ajcvsif
wyf&if;rS/ wyf&if;rSL;'kwd, AkdvfrSL;=uD;xGef;vif;40eSifh awG@qkH&ef/ oHjzLZ&yfjrdK@odk@ wufcJh
onf//eSpfOD;eSpfzuftjyeftvSef/ a=uvnfpGm/ aqG;aEG;cJh=uonf// ajyvnfrSK&&SdcJh=uonf//

xkdrSwqifh rGefjynfol@wyfOD; udk,fpm;vS,ftzGJ@onf &efukef&Sd tpkd;& bufqkdif&m yk*~dKvf


rsm;eSifh xyfrH aqG;aEG;&ef &efukefokd@ oGm;a&muf cJhjyefonf// xkdpOfu tpkd;&./ jynfwGif;
jiDrf;csrf;a&; aqG;aEG;a&;rlwGif/ awmwGif; vufeufudkif tzGJ@pnf;eSifh tpkd;&buf qkdif&m
yk*~dKvfrsm;/ wkduf&kduf aqG;aEG;cGifh rjyKacs// yxrOD;pGm awmwGif; vufeufudkif tzGJ@pnf;
onf/ ppfwyfrSoufqkdif&m ppft&m&Sdyk*d~Kvfrsm;eSifh yxrOD;pGm aqG;aEG;&onf// 4if;ppfbuf
qkdif&m yk*~dKvfrsm;eSihf aqG;aEG;I ajyvnfrSom/ tpkd;& bufqkdif&m yk*~dKvfrsm;eSifh xyfrH
aqG;aEG;cGifh&&Sdonf//xdkpOfu vufeufcsa&; aqG;aEG;&mrSm ppfa&;udpP eSifh ekdifiHa&;udpPudk
ol@tydkif;eSifhol cGJjcm;xm;onf// ppfudprP sm;udk OD;pGm aqG;aEG; ajyvnf jyD;rS edkifiHa&;udpP
t00udk aqGG;aeG;&ef tpdk;& bufqkdfif&m yk*~dKvfrsm;eSifh awG@qkHcGifhjyKonf// tpkd;&bufrS
oufqkdif&m yk*~dKvfrsm;eSifh aqG;aEG;yGJwGif rGefjynfol@wyfOD; udk,fpm;vS,frS/ tcsuf(6)csuf
udk wifjyaqG;aEG; cJhonf// 4if;wkd@rSm/ (1) rGefjynfe,f/ rJpm&if;udk oD;jcm; aumufcHay;&ef/
(2) rGefjynfol@wyfOD; ygwDudk Oya'abmifwGif; w&m0if csufcsif; zGJ@pnf;cGifh ay;&ef (3)
vmrnfh rJa&G;aumufyJGwGif/ rGefjynfol@ wyfOD;ygwDrS yg0if,SOfjyKdkif cGifhjyK&ef/ paom
tcsufrsm;yg0ifcJhonf//usefaom awmif;qkdcsufrsm;rSm/ pD;yGm;a&; vkyfudkifcGifheSifh axmufyH
ulnDrSKudpP/ vlrSKa&; udpP wkd@jzpfonf// 4if;awmif;qkdcsufrsm;onf/ vkdufavSsm ekdifaom/
ekdifiHa&; awmif;qkdcsufrsm; jzpfojzifh tpkd;&onf/ vG,fvG,f ululyifvkdufavSsmcJhonf//

xkdokd@eSpfOD;eSpfzuf aqG;aEG;rSK tqifajyvmjyD; jzpfojzifh 1958-ckeSpf Zlvkdifv(19)&ufwGif/


uGmefvSmaus;&Gme,fwGif/awmfvSefvSKyf&Sm;aeom/rGefjynfol@wyfOD;rS wyfrSL;Adkvf'GwftzGJ@rS/
Adkvf'Gwf/ AkdvfpHa&$/ q&m[kd/ q&muGefbvmwkd@ acgif;aqmifonfh tzGJ@onf oHjzLZ&yf&Sd
trSwf(28)/ ajcvsifwyf&if;/ wyf&if;rSL; 'kwd,/ AkdvfrSL;=uD;xGef;vif;xHwGif/ vufeufcs/
tvif;0ifcJhonf//

40
aemifjrefrmhqkd&S,fvpf vrf;pOfygwD/ twGif;a&;rSL;tzGJ@0if/ jzpfvmol//
294 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

1958-ckeSpf/ Zlvkdif(20)&ufwGif/ rGefjynfol@wyfOD; obmywd tzGJ@0ifrsm;eSifh A[kdaumfrwD


tzGJ@0ifrsm; jzpf=uaom/ ekdifatmifxGef;/ q&mbkd;pde/f twGif;a&;rSK;ekdifcsrf;rGef/ edkfifaiGodef;/
Adkvfqdwfedk@/ rGefxGef;armif/ ekdifatmifwifh/ acgif;aqmifaom/ vlaygif;500/ ausmfyg0ifaom
tzGJ@onf/ yi&Gm bkef;awmf=uD;ausmif;Y/ Adkvf=uD;xGef;ode;f xH/ tvif;0if a&mufco Jh nf//
xkdyi&GmrSwqifh/ um;rsm;jzifh/ oHjzLZ&yfjrdK@odk@ oGm;a&muf=uonf// 1958-ckeSpf Zlvdkifv
(20)&ufae@nrSmyif/ rGefjynfol@wyfOD;tzGJ@0if&Jabmf(20)cef@onf/ a&;jrdK@e,f&Sd/ wyfrawmf
okd@ tvif;0ifcJh=ujyD;/ xkdrSwqifh oHjzLZ&yfodk@ a&mufvm=uonf//

rGefjynfol@wyfOD; tzGJ@0ifrsm;. tvif;0if vufeuftyfyGJudk/ 1958-ckeSpf Zlvkdifv(23)


&ufae@wGif/ armfvjrdKifjrdK@ rdkif'guGif;wGif usif;yygonf// rGefjynfol@wyfOD; wyfzGJ@0ifaygif;
(1111)wkd@onf/ vufeufukdifwkdufyJG toGifrSonf/ ygvDref 'Drdkua&pD wkdufyGJ toGifokd@
ajymif;jyD; Oya'abmiftwGif;okd@ 0ifa&mufvma=umif;udk twdtvif; w&m;0ifa=unm
cJh=uonf// wqufwnf;wGif/ awmwGif;wGif/ rGefjynfol@wyfOD;eSifh qufoG,faom
vufeufudkif awmckdolrsm; vkH;0r&Sdawmha=umif;/ rGefjynfol@wyfOD;trnfcHI/ awmxJwGif
qufvuf aqmif&Guf aeolrsm;onfvnf;/ rdrdwdk@eSifhvkH;0 rywfoufa=umif; twdtvif;
a=unmcJhonf//

Trkdif'guGif; vufeuf ay;tyfyJG tcrf;em;odk@ te,fe,frS rGefvlrsdK;aygif; axmifaomif;


ru vma&muf =unfh&SK=uonf// u|efawmfudk,fwkdif oGm;a&muf=unfh&SkcJhonf// u|efawmf
onf touftm;jzifh (16)eSpfr#yif&Sdao;onf// armfvjrdKif trSwf(1)wGif ynmoif=um;
aeonfh tcsdefjzpfonf// armfvjrdKifjrdK@/ rkdif'guGif;Y usif;yaom xkdae@ tcrf;em;wGif/
vlaygif; (1111)a,muf &Sdonf[k ausjimonf// tvif;0ifrnfh rGefjynfol@wyfOD;
wyfzGJ@0ifwkd@onf/ wef;pDae=ujyD;/ oufom taexm;wGif &yfae=uonf// vufeufrygbJ/
wef;pDrwfwyf&yf ae=u&onf// rdrdwkd@cstyfaom/ vufeufrsdK;pkHrsm;udkrl/ pifa&S@wGif/ tpD&D
wef;pDIaxmifxm;onfudkawG@&onf//eHeufapmapma&S@&yfrSxGufay:vmaom aeonfyif
tawmfjrifh vmjyD;jzpfonf// aea&mifjcnf atmufwGif/ vufeufcsrnfh rGef&Jabmf uav;
rsm; wef;pdD rwfwyf&yf&if; trdef@ukd apmifhqdkif; ae=uonf// xdkwdwfqdwf jidrfoufpGm
wef;pD &yfwef@aeaom rGef&Jabmfwkd@. rsufeSmjyif wnfhwnfhudk/ eD&Jaom aevkH;=uD;u
yljyif;aom tvif;a&mifjzifh rnSmrwm/ xdk;pdkufxm;onf// rGef&Jabmfwkd@. rsufeSm onf/
jidK;i,fae=uonf// odrfi,faeonf// &$ef;vef; wuf=uGjcif; vkH;0r&Sdonfudk awG@&onf//
yifyef; EGrf;e,fjcif;/ ay:vGif aeonf// rGef&Jabmfwkd@onf yljyif;aom aea&mifjcnf 'g%fudk
cH&if;/ rnDrnmeSifh =udK;pm;jyD; rwfwyf&yf ae=uonf// rvSKyfr&Sm; yifyef;=uD;pGm
trdef@udkapmifhqdkif; ae=uonf// TjrifuGif;udk jrif&ol rGefjynfol vlxk y&d\wfwkd@onf/
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 295

tvGefcHjyif;onfha0'emwrsdK;udk jyif;jyif;xefxef cHpm;apcJhonf//rGeftrsdK;om; vli,fwOD;


taejzifh/ u|efawmfonf tvGef0rf;enf; a=uuGJ rdygonf// &Sufvnf; tvGef&Sufrdonf//
twdkif;rodcHpm;rdygonf// rcHcsifpdwfawG/ emusnf;pdwfawG/ &SufpdwfawGom uGsefawmhf.
&ifrSmjynfheSuf/ wif;=uyf vmonf// vli,fausmif;om; wOD;omjzpfojzifh/ rnfokd@aom/
edkifiHa&;tjrifr&SdcJhyg// rSm;onf/ rSefonfudkvnf; rqkH;jzwfwwfyg// okd@aomf rdrdvlrsdK;u/
wyg;aom vlrsdK;tm;/ vufajrSmuf t&SKH;ay; tnHhcH&onf// rGefvlrsdK;wkd@ 'l;axmufyGJ jzpf
onf/ [laom todonfom uGsefawmfhtm; jyif;jyif; xefxef edSyfpufaeonf//

rGefvlxkxJu tcsdK@wdk@onf/ rGefppfom;wkd@udk =unfhjyD; rsuf&nfrsm;yif yg;jyifay:odk@,kdpD;


usqif;vmonf// rnfokd@aom cHpm;csufeSifh rsuf&nf usonfudkrl twdus rod&yg//
0rf;omI usaom rsuf&nfawmh rjzpfekdfif/ 0rf;enf;I usaom rsuf&nfom jzpfekdifonf[k
u|efawmfh pdwfxJrSm jzpfay:aerdonf// tcsKd@aom rGefy&d\wfwdk@onf/ trsdK;rsdK; a&&Gwf
ajymqkd aeonfudkvnf; =um;&onf// awmufacgufol/ rauseyfolvnf; &Sdonf// rdrdwdk@
tjrifudk trsdK;rsd; xkwfaz: ajymqkd ae=uonf// tcsdK@u axmifxm;aom vufeuf
=uD;i,fudk =unfhI eSajrmwo jzpfae=uonf// Tvufeuf =uD;i,fwkd@udk rGefjynfolwkd@.
ac|;enf;pmjzifh teSpfeSpf tvvu pkaqmif; vmcJh&onf[kvnf; tcsdK@u a0zefajymqdk
ae=uonf// TuJhokd@ ac|enf;pm pkaqmif;aiGjzifh/ teSpfeSpf tvvu 0,f,l pkaqmif;
&&Sdxm;onfh vufeuf=uD;i,frsm;udk/ &efoltm; ,ckvkd xkd;tyfay;vkduf&onfh tjzpfudk
xdkolwdk@u rjrifvdk=uay// rGefvlrsdK;wkd@. ac|;enf;pmjzifh 0,f,l pkaqmif; xm;aom
vufeufwkd@udk &efoltm; xkdtyf ay;&awmhrnf [laom todu u|efawmftm; tvGef
ajcmufjcm;apcJhonf// txl;yif 0rf;enf;rdonf// u|efawmf teD;tem;wGif &Sdaom
rGefvli,f tcsdK@onf/ wef;pDaxmifxm;aom vufeuf =uD;i,fwkd@udk oGm;a&muf vk,l&efk
pdwfjzpfay:rdonf[k ajAmifyif xkwfaz: ajymqkd=uonf//

u|efawmfh uJhokd@yif te,fe,f t&yf&yfrS vma&muf =unfh&Skol txJrS tcsKd@wdk@onf


0rf;enf;vGef;I =udwfI wdwfwqdwf/ idk&SdKuf=uonf// ajymifvufatmif qDokwfvdrf;
xm;aom/ aoeyfrsm;udk =unfhjyD;eSajrm=uonf// aeyljyif;jyif;atmufrSm rvSKyfr,Suf
jidrfoufpGm rwfwyf&yfae=uaom tvif;0if rGef&Jabmfrsm;udk =unfhjyD; oem;ae=uonf//
tcsdK@aom rGeftrsdK;orD;rsm;onf/ cHpm;csuf jyif;xefvGef;I pdwfudkrxdef;ekdif/ toHyif
xGufI ikd,kdonf// rsuf&nfylrsm;yif/ yg;jyifay:odk@ wvdrfhvdrfh ,kdpD;usqif; vm=uonf//

tvif;0ifwJhtcrf;em;pv#if rGefjynfol@wyfOD; wyfzG@J0if tm;vkH;. udk,fpm;/ wyf&if;rSL;


jzpfol/ AdkvfpHa&$u umbGef aoeyf wvufudk/ a&S@awmifwkdif;/ wkdif;rSL; AdkvfcsKyfoef;az
296 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

xHodk@ ay;tyf&onf//41 xkd@aemuf/ rGefjynfol@wyfOD;. obmywdjzpfol ekdfifatmifxGef;u/


rdrdwkd@ rGeftrsdK;om;awG/ tb,fa=umihf vufeufudkfif awmfvSeaf &;udk pwif cJh&onfh
ta=umif;/ ,ck tb,fa=umifh/ vufeufeSifh 'Drdkua&pD vJvS,f &onfh ta=umif;eSifh
rdrdwkd@.tem*gwf edkifiHa&;vrf;pOfudkyg rGefbmomjzifh rdef@cGef; ajym=um;cJhonf//

xkd@ae@ jrifcJh&wJh jrifuGif;udk uGsefawmfonf Twouf rarhedkifyg// ppfatmifedkifolwdk@/


usif;yaom ppfatmifyJG tcrf;em; r[kwfrlbJ// ppf&SHK;Iusif;yaom/ ppf&SHK;olwkd@. tnHhcHyGJ
jzpfaeonf// jrif&ol. pdwfeSvkH;udk nSdK;i,faponf// rGeftrsdK;om; vli,fwOD; taejzifh/
u|efawmfonf tvGef0rf;enf; a=uuGJrdygonf// &Sufrdonf// twdkif;rod cHpm;rdygonf//
rcHcsifpdwfawG/ emusnf;pdwfawG/ &Sufpdwaf wG &ifrSm jynfheSuf wif;=uyfvmonf//

1948-ckeSpfrS pwifcJhaom/ rGeftrsdK;om;wkd@. vufeufudkfif awmfvSefa&;onf/ vufeuf


a[mif;/ tusdK;yJ@ okH;av;vufjzifh t&if;wnfcJh=uonf// t=uyfwnf;rsdK;pkH/ 'kuQrsdK;pkH
=um;rS vufeuf cJ,rf; rD;ausmufrsm;udk wpp t&if;wnf pkaqmif; vmcJh=uonf//
rGefjynfolrsm;. rpm;&uf/raomuf&uf pkaqmif;aiG ac|;enf;pmrS axmufyHhay;urf;aom/
aiGa=u;jzifh/ 0,f,l pkaqmif;vmcJh=uonf// rGeftrsdK;om;wdk@.b0vGwfajrmufrSKtwGuf
ar#mfvifhcsuf=uD;rm;pGm tm;xm; cJh=uonf// ,ckrl acwfrSD vufeufrsdK;pkHeSifh vltiftm;/
axmif*%ef;ausmf &SdvmaomtcgrS/ &efolxHyg;/ oGm;a&muf 'l;axmufjyD;/ xdk;tyf
ay;vkduf=uonf// teSpftvvu/ tyifyrf;cHtqif;&JcH/ wefbdk;=uD;rm;pGm ay;jyD;/ tjrwf
wedk; pkaqmif;odrf;qnf; vmcJhaom/ t&m0xÎLwckudk/ t"dy`g,frJhpGm/ yifv,f ork'N&m
xJodk@ oGm;a&mufjyD; v$ifhypfvkdufonfeSifh wlaeonf// Ttjzpfudk jrifol rnfol@ udkrqdk
&ifxkrem/ jzpfaprSm trSefyifjzpfonf//

rGefjynfol@wyfOD;. enf;AsL[m ajymif;vJjyD;/ tvif;0if oGm;onfh jzpf&yfeSifh ywfoufI


ekdifa&$usifonfvnf;/ rdrd.tjrifukd/ atmufygtwkdif; a&;om;xm;onfudk awG@&onf//

“1956-ckeSpf pufwbFvmvrSm/ ae@&ufukdawmh/ twdtus rrSwfrdbl;/


ekdifatmifxGe;f u/ ol&SdaewJh oHr&maus;&Gm/ pcef;rSaejyD; ta&;=uD;wJhta=umif;
xl;&Sdw,f/ awG@qkH aqG;aEG;vkdw,f/ qkdjyD; u|eaf wmhqD uref;uwef;/ owif;ay;
vmw,f// awmifuav;&GmrSm awG@qkH=ubdk@ csdef;qkd xm;w,f// u|eaf wmfu

41
xkdpOfu u|efawmfjrifonfrSm/edkiaf tmifxGef;udk,fwkdif/umbkdifaoeyfwvufudk/a&S@awmifwkdif;/wkdif;rSL;
AkdvfrSL;=uD;aomif;=unfxH ay;tyfonf[k jrifonf// edkfifoef;wifudk ar;=unfhaomtcg/ ekdfifatmifxGef;
r[kwf[kqkdonf// AkdvfpHa&$ jzpfa=umif;ajymonf// wkdif;rSL;rSmvnf;/ AdkvfcsKyfoef;az[k qkdonf//
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 297

vnf;/ csdef;qkdxm;wJhtwkdif;/ csdef;qkdxm;wJh ae&mrSm/ awG@qkHr,fvkd@ ta=umif;


jyef=um; vkdufw,f// csdef;qkdxm;wJh ae@rSm/ ekdifatmifxGe;f eJ@ twl/ ekdifcsrf;rGef/
ekdifqdwfekd@/ ekdifatmifwifh wkd@vnf; ygvm=uw,f/ u|efawmhfeSifh twl/
ekdifxGef;armifeSifh xdkif;rGeftzkd;=uD; wpfa,muf ygoGm;w,f//

u|efawmfudk awG@˜awG@csif;/ ekdkfifatmifxGe;f u/ jrefrmhtvif; owif;pm wapmif


udk xkd;jyw,f// owif;pmxJrSm/ Armjynf uGefjrLepfygwD A[kdudk/ tpkd;&ppfwyfrS
0kdif;0ef;ydwfqdk@xm;jyD; jzpfwJhta=umif;/ r=umcifrSm/ tpkd;&wyfr/S ocifoef;xGe;f
eSihf Armjynf uGefjrLepfygwD A[kdaumfrwD0ifrsm;udk vuf&zrf;qD; edkifawmhrnf
jzpfa=umif; a&;om;xm;wJh owif;udk awG@&w,f// jyD;awmh/ ekdifatmifxGe;f &J@
ausmif;aebufoli,fcsif;OD;,k&Sdefu/ ekdifatmifxGe;f qDa&;wJh pmwapmifudkvnf;
u|efawmhudkjyw,f//tJ'DpmrSmtpkd;&wyfrS0kdif;0ef;ydwfqkd@xm;wJhtwGuf/ Armjynf
uGejf rLepfygwrD mS / avmavm q,fq,f =uKHawG@ae&wJh/ ppfa&; t=uyftwnf;
tcuftcJwdk@udk/ OD;,k&Sdefua&;om;az:jyxm;w,f// tu,fIArmjynfuGejf rLepf
ygwD omvSsif usqkH;oGm;&if/ usefwJh tjcm;awmwGif; vufeufudkif tzGJ@pnf;
tm;vkH;wkd@[mvJ/ wzGJ@jyD;wzGJ@ tvkdtavSsmuf usqkH;oGm;rSm aocsmw,fvkd@
a&;om;xm;w,f// 'ga=umifh ekdifatmifxGe;f wkd@ awmwGif; tzGJ@tpnf;taeeJ@/
Oya'abmifodk@ 0ifa&mufbkd@ wkdufwGef;xm;w,f//

tu,fI Oaya' abmifodk@ a&mufvkd@ &Sd&if/ vmrnfh a&G;aumufyGJrmS /


ekdifatmifxGe;f trwfjzpfbkd@twGuf/ ol@wkd@ todkif;t0kdif;rS 0kdif;0ef;ulnD yHhydk;
ay;rnfh ta=umif;yg&Sdw,f// jyD;awmh rGefjynfe,f &&Sda&;twGuf/ Oya'abmif
twGif;rSaejyD; wkdufyGJ0ifoGm;bkd@ wkdufwGef;xm;w,f// u|eaf wmfu owif;pm
rSmygwJh owif;udka&m/ OD;,k&Sdefpmudkygzwf&SK avhvmjyD;/ trsm;&Jta&S@rSm/ 'Dvkd
ajymcsvkdufw,f//

“Armjynf uGejf rLepfygwD[m tvkyform; vlwef;pm;wdk@&J@ a&S@aqmifygwD


jzpfw,f// 'Dvkd wkdufyGJjzpfvdk@ acgif;aqmifrsm; usqkH;oGm;wmbJ jzpfjzpf zrf;cHxd/
oGm;&wmbJ jzpfjzpf upifhuvsm;jzpfjyD; vufeufcswJh tpOftvm r&SdcJhbl;//
Armjynf uGejf rLepfrSm/ wAkdvfus wAkdvfwufwJh pepf&Sdw,f// Armjynf
uGefjrLepfygwDrSm/ ocifoef;xGe;f vkd acgif;aqmif aumif;awG/ &mausm&f Sdw,f//
u|efawmfwdk@ rGefygwDrSmvkd/ acgif;aqmif ta&wGuf enf;aewm r[kwfbl;
tu,fI ocifoef;xGef; tzrf;cH&onfh wkdifatmif pdk;&drfp&mrvkdbl;//”
298 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

u|efawmfu tJ'Dvkd ajymvdkufawmhrS/ ekdifatmifxGef;wdk@ vlpkvnf; pdwfa=ueyf


tm;&oGm;jyD;/ nae(3)em&DavmufrSm olwkd@pcef;qDudk jyefoGm;=uw,f// 'gudk
=unfhvSsif/tJ'Duwnf;u/ ekdifatmifxGef;wkd@tkypf k[m/ vufeufudkifawmfvSefa&;
tay:/ ,kH=unfrSK avsSmhenf;aewmudk awG@&w,f// vufeufudkif awmfvSefa&;
udk pGe@f jyD; Oaya'abmifodk@ 0ifbkd@ pdwfqEN &Sdae=uw,f/ qkdwm xif&Sm; w,f//

wzef/ ekdifaiGodr;f eJ@ ywfoufjyD; ajym&tkH;r,f// 1957-ckeSpfrSm ta=umif;wck


aa=umifh/ edkifaiGodr;f [m oxkHc&kdif/ aumhu&dwf pcef;uae/ =umtif;e,f/
rGefjynfol@wyfOD; A[kdXmecsKyf &Sd&mudk ajymif;a&$@ oGm;a&muf aexdkif &w,f//
ekdifaiGodr;f =umtif;e,f/ rGejf ynfol@wyfOD; A[kdXmecsKyfukd a&mufvmjyD;
b,favmufrS r=umygbl;/ rGefjynfol@ wyfOD;rSm tajymif;tvJawG jzpfvmw,f//
rGejf ynfo@l wyfO;D A[krd mS &Sad e=uwJh ekdifatmifxGef;/ ekdifcsrf;rGef/ edkifqdwfekd@eJ@
tjcm;olrsm;[m jynfwGif; vufeufudkif awmfvSeaf &; tzGJ@pnf;rsm;&J@ ekdifiHa&;
jzpfay:ajymif;vJrKS wkd@eJ@ (2)eSpfeD;yg; uif;uGmaevkd@bmrSrodvkdufbl;// ekdifaiGodrf;&J@
vSnfhpm;rSKudk cHvkduf&w,fvkd@ jrifw,f//

'Dtcsuef J@ ywfoufjyD; &Sif;vif;atmif/ tenf;i,f &Sif;jy&&if/ 1957-ckeSpf


ekd0bFmvrSm/ ArmjynfuGejf rLepfygwD awmifydkfif; wm0efcHwpfOD;u u|efawmftm;
awG@jyD; ta&;=uD;wJh udpw P pf&yfudk aqG;aEG;vkdwJhta=umif; ta=umif;=um;
vmygw,f// ol,ck u&ifA[kd XmecsKyfrSm a&mufaewJhta=umif;/ u|efawmfhudk
awG@vdw k Jhta=umif;/ ta=umif;=um;vmygw,f// wpfae@csdef;qkdjyD;/ u|efawmfwkd@
ESpfOD;awG@=uw,f// tJ'D(Auy)ajratmuf wm0efcHu/ u|efawmfhudk awG@awmh/
rGejf ynfo@l wyfO;D &J@ tajctae udkajymjyw,f// olajymqkdcsuft& rGejf ynfol@
wyfOD;taeeJ@“csr;f at;rl”twkdif; vufeufeSifh 'Drdkua&pD vJvS,fa&;twGuf
vufcH&ef tvm;vm&Sdaew,f// zqyvtpdk;&u OD;csrf;at;&J@ZeD;/ ekdifaiGodrf;&J@
nDr˜ roef;oef;rS wqifh ekdifaiGodrf;qDokd@ csOf;uyfjyD; =udK;pm; aew,fvkd@
twdtus olwkd@owif;&xm; wJhta=umif; ajymjyw,f// 'Dowif;udk u|efawmf
taeeJ@ tjrefqkH;/ rGejf ynfol@wyfOD;A[kdokd@ ta=umif; =um;jyD;/ tcsdefrD wm;jrpf
apcsiw f ,fvkd@ajymygw,ff//
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 299

'Dtjyif/ tJ'Dvkd roef;oef;rS wqifh tpkd;&u =udK;yrf;wm tm;r&ao;vkd@/


rGefjynfol@wyfOD;taejzifh tjrefqkH; vufeufeJ@ 'Drdkua&pD vJvS,fa&; twGuf
tpkd;&u &efukefwuUokdvf rGeaf usmif;om;rS wqifh rGejf ynfol@wyfO;D udk =udK;pm;
yrf;pm;/ pmay;jyefw,f// 'gayrJh rGeaf usmif;om;rsm;u pmudk zGifhzwfjyD;/
vufeufcsbkd@ pmjzpfaevkd@ tJ'pD mukd ray;bJ azsmufzsuf ypfvkduf w,fvkd@
=um;od&jyefw,f//

'Dta=umif;awG tm;vkH;udkodjyD;/ u|eaf wmfvJ/ rdrdtjriftwkdif; pmwpfapmif


a&;om;cg/ rGefjynfol@wyf OD;twGif;a&;rSL;/edkifcsrf;rGefqDudk vl=uKHeJ@ay;vkdufw,f//
pmxJrmS zqyv tpkd;&[m/ tvGefuvdef Om%frsm;w,f// rnfonfh tcgrS
&kd;om; ajzmifhrwfcJhjcif; r&Sdbl;// ,ck ekdifaiGodrf;rS wpfqifh/ rGefjynfol@wyfOD;
vufeufcsbkd@ zqyv tpkd;&u =udK;pm;aew,f// 'ga=umifh vufeufeJ@'Drdkua&pD
vJvS,fa&; tpDpOfudk tcsed frD wm;jrpfbkd@ wkdufwGef; xm;w,f// ekdifcsrf;rGev f J
u|efawmfqDupmudk&jyD; wkd;wkd; wdwfwdwf aqmif&Guf&rJhtpm;/ vlykHtv,frSm/
ekdifaiGodrf;tygt0if a&S@rSm/ u|efawmhfpmudk zwfjyjyD;/ ekdifaiGodrf;udk tJ'D udpP
[kwfr[kwf ar;jref;w,f// ekdifaiGodr;f vJ/ vlyHk tv,frmS r[kwf rrSeaf =umif;
ajAmifjiif;qefw,f// 'geJ@ u|efawmf &xm;wJh owif;eJ@ ta=umif;t&mwkd@[m/
vkH;0 r[kwfrrSew f Jh owif; jzpfw,fvkd@/ ekdifcsrf;rGeu f u|efawmhqD pma&;
ta=umif;jyef=um;cJhw,f//

u|efawmftJ'v D kdowif;ay;ta=umif;=um;jyD; (7)vavmuft=umrSm/ u|efawmf


u owif;&xm;wJhtwdkif; rGefjynfol@wyfOD;ygwDrSm/ vufeufcsbdk@ ajymif;vJrSK
awG jzpfay:vmw,f// odyfhjrefqef vGef;w,f// okH;ygwD wyfaygif;pkrS csrSwfxm;
aom/ ‘tpkd;&eSifhawmwGif; vufeufudkif tzGJ@pnf;wdk@ olrem/ udk,frem/ eSpfOD;
eSpfzuf awGqkHjyD;/ jynfwGif; ppf&yfpJa&;/ jynfwGif; jidrf;csrf;a&; wnfaqmufa&;’
rludk jypfy,fjyD;/ wdwfwqdwf/ ekdifaiGodr;f eJ@ ekdifcsrf;rGew
f dk@eSpOf ;D &efukef&Sd A[kd
ppf&kH;csKyfodk@ a&mufoGm;=uw,f// A[kdppf&kH;csKyfrS csay;aomrl(8)ckukd vufcHjyD;
rGefjynfol@wyfOD;A[kdokd@ jyefvmcJh=uw,f// r=umcifrSmbJ vufeufrcs&if r&bl;
qkdjyD;/ vufatmufcH tqifhqifhrS yk*~dKvfrsm;udk trdef@eJ@ qifhac: vmw,f//
vufeufrcsol[m A[kdcsKyfudkifrSKudk emrcHoltjzpfeJ@ rSwfwrf;wifjyD; ta&;,l
jcif;udk cH&r,fvkd@vJ jcdrf;ajcmuf jyefw,f//”42

4w qmNicjatitj\mukj\7\
300 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

Tokd@ ekdifa&$usifonf trSefwkdfif; yGifhyGifhvif;vif;yif/ rdrd.=uKHawG@cJh&onfh tjzpfrSefudk


xkwfaz: a&;om;xm;cJhonf// rnfokd@qkdap/ vufeufeSifh 'Drdkua&pD vJvS,fa&;udk vkH;0
t,kH=unfr&Sdol/ vkH;0vufrcH ekdifolaw/G rGefjynfol@wyfOD;Y tajrmuftrsm;&Sdfonf//

rGefjynfol@wyfOD;uJhokd@ ytkd@0ftrsdK;om; vGwfajrmufa&;tzGJ@onfvnf; vufeuf eSifh


'Drdkua&pD vJvS,fa&;twGuf tvif;0if oGm;cJhonf// 4if;ygwDrsm; tvif;0ifwJhtay:/
tjypfjrifaom awmwGif; vufeufukdif tzGJ@pnf;rsm;/ tajrmuftrsm;&SdcJhonf// t&if;&Sif
ygvD'Drdkua&pDtay: vkH;0/ r,kH=unf vufrcHolrsm;wGif/ uGefjrLepftzGJ@0ifrsm;onf/ xdyrSf
yg0ifcJhonf// jynfol@ &JabmfygwD/ rGefjynfol@ wyfOD;eSifh ytdk@0f OD;vSaz/ AdkvfcsKyf csefZkHwdk@
acgif;aqmifaom/ ytkd@0ftrsdK;om; vGwfajrmufa&; tzGJ@wdk@. vufeufeSifh 'Drdkua&;pD
vJvS,fa&; ezl;pnf;jzifh/ tvif;0if oGm;=uonfudk/ uGefjrLepfygwDrS jyif;jyif;xefxef
tjypfwif&SKwfcs uJ&h JcJhavonf//

OuUX=uD; edkifa&Gusifonf/ t&if;&Sif ygvDref 'Drdkua&pD pHepftay: vkH;0 r,kH=unfojzifh/


tvif;0if&mwGif ryg0ifcJhay// yJcl;&dk;rwGif aomifwif usef&pfcJhonf// OuUX=uD;uJo h @dk
oabmrwl olrsm;vnf; rGefjynfol@wyfOD;wGif rsm;pGm&Sdygonf// 4if;wkd@rSm ekdifpdefausmf/
(aumhbdef;)/ ekdifoef;wif/ ekdifodef;ausmf/ ekdifpkd;wifh/ ekdifcifa&$/ ekdifodrf;armif/ ekdifodef;[ef/
Adkvfrif;ekdif(oxkH)/ ekdiftkef;cif/ ekdifatmif&Sdef/ edkifpHaiG wkd@onf/ edkifiHwum tajcaeudk
qufvuf tuJcwfbdk@ vkdao;onf// ygwDnDvmcH ac:,ljyD;/ ygwD0ifwdk@. qENudkcH,l&ef
vkdonf[k wifjy cJh=uonf// okd@aomf rGefjynfol@wyfOD; A[kd aumfrwD0if wkd@onf/
TwifjycsufudkvspfvsL&SkcJhonf/ TtcsufeSihfywfoufI ekdifa&$usifonfrdrd. cHpm;csuf
udk atmufyg twdkfif; wifjyxm;cJhonf//

“oxkHc&kdifrSm/ wm0ef tqifhqifh&Sd yk*~dKvfawG jzpf=uwJh/ Edkifyef;om/ ekdifpkd;wifh/


ekdifodef;ausmf/ ekdifcifa&$/ ekdifoefwif/ ekdifodrf;armif/ ekdifodef;[efwkd@u/ pnf;a0;
=ujyD;/ vufeuf csr,fqkd&if/ rGejf ynfol@ wyfOD;rSm&SdwJh tqifhqifh wm0ef&Sd
yk*~dKvfrsm;&J@qENudk cH,lbdk@vkd w,fvkd@ wifjycJh=uw,f// 'gayrJh edkifaiGodrf;[m
'Dwifjycsufudk tjyif;txef uef@uGufjiif; qefcw Jh ,f// jyD;awmh/ &Jabmfwkd@u
xyfar;jyefw,f/ tu,fI 'Dvkd txufu A[kdaumfrwD vl=uD;rsm;&J@ qENeJ@bJ
tvif;0ifcJhjyD;/ Oya'abmifodk@ a&mufvkd@/ arSsmfrSef;xm;onfh/ rGefjynfe,f
ray:aygufcJh&if/ rnfolu wm0efcHrvJvkd@ ar;=ujyefw,f// edkifaiGodr;f ubJ/ 'DrmS
&Sd=uwJh A[kdaumfrwD tm;vkH;u wm0efcHr,fvkd@ jywfjywf om;om; ajz=um;
cJhw,f// jyD;awmh ta0;ukd a&mufaewJh A[kdaumfrwD eSpOf D;jzpfwJh ekdifa&$usifeJ@
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 301

ekdifxGef;odef; wkd@&J@ qEN oabm wlnDrKS udka&m/ &,l jyD;jyD;vm;vkd@ ar;wJhtcg/


olwdk@ c&D;vGef aew,fvkd@bJ ajz=um; cJhw,f// ygwD&J@ 'kwd, acgif;aqmifwkd@u
ekdifiHwum&J@ ekdifiHa&;tajctae/ jynfwGi;f ekdifiHa&; tajctaewkd@udk avhvmjyD;/
,ckvkd wa,muf rusef vufeufcswm rrSefbl;vkd@ jrif=uw,f// 'gayrJh txuf
A[kdaumfrwDwdk@ &@JqENudk rvGefqef ekdifvkd@om/ vufavsmhjyD;/ vufeufcsoGm;=u
&w,f//”

Todk@yif ekdifa&$usifwpfOD;onf/ rdrd&ifwGif;rScHpm;csufudkrodkr0Suf/ r&Sufra=umuf/ yGifhyGifh


vif;vif;yif wifjy xm;cJo h nf// xdkpOfu rGefjynfol@wyfOD;udkf yDyD jyifjyif rzGJ@pnf;edkifcJh
ao;acs// ygwDnDvmcHudk tajcae ta=umif;a=umif;a=umifh ac:,l usif;yekdifcJhjcif; r&Sday//
ygwDnDvmcH ac:,ljyD; trsm;qENcH,l&ef rvG,fulvSacs// odkd@jzpfI nDvmcH qkH;jzwfcsufjzifh
tvif;0ifcJhjcif;vnf;r[kwfbJ/ygwDA[kdaumfrwD trsm;pk.qkH;jzwfcsufjzifhom/ tvif;0if
cJhjcif;jzpfonf//

Tokd@ t&if;&Sif 'Drdkua&pD ygvDreftay: vkH;0 t,kHt=unf r&SdI/ ekdifa&$usifonf


t=udrf=udrf vufeufcsjcif;udk wm;qD;ekdif&ef =udK;pm;cJhonf// ratmifjrifcJhacs// trSef
wu,fyif/ rGefjynfol@wyfOD;onf/ vufeufcsrnfudk od&aomtcg/ ekdifa&$usifwpfOD;wnf;
raeekdifawmhbJ/ A*dk;&kd;rrS wqifhoxkHe,fodk@ qif;vm&ef qkH;jzwfcJhonf// Edkifa&$usifonf/
A*kd;&kd;rrS qif;rvmcif/ rdrd vkyfoifh vkyfxkdufaom/ udk,fa&; udk,fwm udpPwkd@udk pOf;pm;
qkH;jzwfvkyfaqmifonf//rGefjynfol@wyfOD;rSrdrd.vkyfaz:udkifbuf&Jabmfwkd@onf/ wOD;rusef
tvif;0ifoGm;=ujyD;jzpfonf// rdrdtaejzifh t&if;&SifygvDreftay: ,kH=unfrSK vkH;0r&Sdedkifyg//
ygvDrefwGif;wkdufyJjG zifh udkf,fydkifjyXmef;cGifh&Sdaom rGefjynfe,fw&yf az:xGef;vmrnf[kvnf;
vkH;0 r,kH=unfyg// xkda=umifh rGeftrsdK;om; vGwfajrmufa&; twGuf/ vufeufudkfif
awmfvSefa&;udk rav#mhaomZGJeSifh qufvuf qifEJo G Gm;&ef oH"dXmefcsrSwfvkdufonf//

rGefjynfol@wyfOD;. vufeufcsrnfh tcef;em;ae@wGif edkifa&$usif wpfOD;onf/ oxkHc&kdif


wpfae&modk@ a&mufvmonf// vufeufrcsbJ usef&pfcJhaom/ OuUX ekdifa&$usifonf/
rGeftrsdK;om; vGwfajrmufa&;twGuf/ vufeufudkif awmfvSefa&; ygwDw&yf/ r&Sdrjzpf
vkdtyfonf[k cH,lxm;onf// xkd@a=umifh rGefjynfopfygwDudk/ vlwa,muf awmfvSefa&;
tvHwckjzifh/ 1958-ckeSpf Zlvkdif(20)ae@Yyif pwif xlaxmifvkdufonf// rGefjynfol@
wyfOD;onf/ 10eSpf 10rdk;/ wkdifwdkfif awmwGif; vufeufudkfif awmfvSefa&; qifEGJjyD;aemuf/
tvif;0ifcJhonf[k cH,lojzifh/ pwifawmckdaom 1948-ckeSpf Zlvkdif(20)&ufae@rS/ 1958-
ckeSpf Zlvkdif(20)ae@&ufxdjzpfonf// awmckdI(10)eSpfwif;wif; jynfhaomeSpfae@&ufwGif/
rGefjynfol@ wyfOD; obmywd tzGJ@0ifrsm;jzpfaom/ ekdfifatmifxGef;/ edkfifbdk;pdef/ edkfifcsrf;rGef/
302 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

edkfifaiGodrf;/ edkfifqdwfekd@wkd@ tkyfpk yiaus;&Gm bkef;awmf=uD; ausmif;Y Adkvf=uD;xGef;odef;xH


pwif vufeufcstvif;0ifcJhonf//

xkda=umifh ekdifa&$usifonf/ rGefjynfol@wyfO;D tvif;0ifaomae@ 1958-ckeSpf Zlvkdif(20)


&ufudk wrifwum,ljyD; rGefjynfopfygwDudk pwif xlaxmif vkdufonf// rGeftrsdK;om;
vGwfajrmufrSK vufeufudkfif awmfvSefa&;onf tqufrjywf wnf&Sdaeonfudk az:n$ef;
vkdkI TuJhokd@ ,lvkdufjcif;jzpfonf[k ,lq&onf//

enf;AsL[m ajymif;vJjyD; tvif;okd@ rGefjynfol@wyfOD; 0ifoGm;onfhtwGuf/ rGeftrsdK;om;


wkd@.vufeufudkif awmfvSefa&;eSifh rGefvlrsdK;wdk@tay: rnfokd@aom tusdK;w&m;rsm;
oufa&muf vmekdifonfukd/ ekdifa&$usifonfokH;oyfa0zefjyD; atmufygtwdkif; rSwfcsuf
csxm;onf//

“1958-ckeSpfZlvkdifv(19)&ufae@[m/rGeftrsdK;om;wkd@&J@ vGwfajrmufa&;twGuf/
awmfveS cf w Jh Jhumv wavSsmufvkH;rSm/ tarSmifuswJh ae@wpfae@jzpfcJhw,f//
bdk;bGm;bDbif vufxufuwnf;u/ &efoltm; rnfhonfhtcgurS 'l;axmuf
vufajrSmuf t&SKH;ay;jcif;r&SdcJhbl;// ZGJowWd trsdK;rmefwkd@eJ@ tpOftqufrjywf/
awmfveS cf w Jh Jh ajymifajrmufonfh rGefvrl sKd ;wk@d &J@ordkif;udk/ rGefjynfol@wyfOD;A[kdf
aumfrwD0if acgif;aqmifwkd@u/ &kdufcsdK;zsufqD;vkdufw,f// vufatmuf i,fom;
rsm;udk jcdrf;ajcmuf tekdifusifhjyD; &efol zqyv tpkd;&xHyg;rSm 'l;axmuf tnHhcH
apcJh=uw,f// zqyvtpkd;&. &ufpufrKS a=umifh/ rGefjynfolwkd@&J@ touftkd;tdrf
ypPnf;OpPm &wem a&$aiGawG/ wefbkd; rjzwfekdifatmif qkH;&SKH;cJhw,f// jynfol
vlxkudk vufeuf tiftm;jzihf enf;rsdK;pkH eSdyfpuf nSif;yef;wJh zqyv tpdk;&udk
(10)eSp/f (10)rdk;awmfvSew f kdufckdufc wJh u
Jh mvrSm =uKHawG@cw Jh Jh ekdifiHa&;tawG@t=uKH/
ppfa&;tawG@t=uKH/ pnf;&kH;a&;tawG@t=uHK/ vlrKS a&;tawG@t=uHKwkkd@[m tcs;D eSD;
jzpfoGm;apw,f// ukeq f kH;cJw
h Jh vufeuf cJ,rf;rDausmuf usnfqHwkd@[m/ wefbkd;
rjzwfekdif &SdcJhw,f// vufeufukdif awmfvSefa&;a=umifh wnfaqmuf ekdifcw Jh Jh
vGwfajrmufe,fajr/ zGJ@pnf;ekdifcw Jh Jh wefwl&nfwl/ r[mrdwf qufqHa&;/ zGJ@pnf;
edifk cf w
Jh Jh r[mrdwfwyfaygif;pk/ pwJhawmfvSefa&; tusdK;w&m;rsm;udk oJxJa&oGef
ouJhokd@ tv[\jzpfoGm;w,f//

wkdif;ol jynfom; w&yfvkH;u awmif;qkd vmonfh qENeJ@tnD/ vufeufudkif


awmfveS af ewJh/ r[mrdwf tzGJ@pnf;rsm; nSdeSKdif; wkdifyifjyD; csrSwfxm;onfh/
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 303

jynfwGif;ppf &yfpJa&;/ jidrf;csrf;a&; wnfaqmufa&;twGuf/ ‘ tpdk;&eJ@ awmwGif;


vufeufudkfif wyfaygi;f pkwdk@/ olrem/ udk,frem/ eSpfOD; eSpfzuf/ tqifhwef;wl/
awG@qkHaqG;aEG;a&;’rludk/ rGefjynfol@wyfOD;u opPmazgufausmckdif;jyD;/ vufeufcs
oGm;w,f// ,ckawmh/ tqifhwef;vJrwl/ rGejf ynforl sm; twGuf/ rSwfom;
odr;f qnf;xm;ekdifwJh/ oufaocHpmcsKyf pmwrf;vJr&Sd// rnfonhfekdifiHa&;tcGifha&;/
rnfonfh trsdK;om;tcGifha&; qkdvkd@ twdtusvJ az:jyxm;jcif; r&Sdbl;//
tpkd;&&J@ A[kdppfXmecsKyfrS wm0ef&Sd yk*Kd~ yfrsm;u/ csrw S x
f m;wJhrl (8)csufudkom/
vSsKd@0SufpmG oabmwl vufcHjyD;/ ‘olom/ udk,fem’rleJ@ 'l;axmuf t&SKH;ay;
vufeufcs cJh=uw,f// jyD;awmh/ rGefjynfolvlxkudk woufvkH;/ awmfvSefa&;
wavsSmufvkH; tedkiftxufjyK zdeSdyf nSif;qJcJhwJh zqyv tpkd;&tm; ‘u|efkyw f kd@Y
tjypf&Sd cJhygw,f// tJ'D tjypfwkd@udk cGifhv$wfyg//’qkdjyD; toem;cH awmif;zefw,f//
aemuf awmh ‘a&mh/ aoeyf vufeufawG’ qkdjyD; xkd;tyf ay;cJhw,f// 'l;axmuf
tnHch cH Jh=uw,f//‘u|ekfyfwkd@ukdtpkd;&&J@ Oya'abmiftwGif;Y w&m;ojzihf&yfwnf
cGifhjyKyg//’ qkdjyD; toem;cH awmif;zef cJhjyefw,f// jynfwGif;ppf w&mcH wpfOD;
tjzpfjzifh/ rdru d kd,fudk 0efcs awmif;yefoGm;w,f// bmeJ@o¾mefwlovJqkd&if/
jypfrSKwpfckck/ usL;vGefxm;wJh aus;u|ef wpfa,mufu/ rdrdusL;vGefcw Jh Jh
tjypfwdk@udk t&SifocifxHyg;Y 0efcs awmif;zefaewmeJ@ tvGefwlw,f//

r[mrdwf tzGJ@pnf;rsm;eJ@ wlnDxm;wJh/ oabmwl nDcsufrsm;udkvJ/ azgufzsuf


oGm;w,f//rGefvlrsdK; wkd@&J@ ordkif;tpOftquf/ wavSsmufvkH;rSm/ tvGefopPm&SdwJh
vlrsdK;qkdwJh *k%foduQmudk nSdK;EGrf;oGm; apcJhw,f// rGewf rsKd ;om;vkH; twGuf/
tvGef&SufbG,f jzpfapcJ@w,f// rGefvlrsdK;wkd@&J@ &mZ0if &kdif;wJh tjzpfudk usef&pf
apcJhw,f// 'Dvkd &efol zqyvtpkd;&u/ ,drf;,kdifjydKvJ pjyKaewJhtcsdefrSm r[m
rdwfwkd@eJ@ vufwGJ yl;aygif;jyD;/ qufvuf wkdufcdkuf awmfvSeo f Gm;&rJ@tpm;/ &efol
zqyv tpkd;&&J@ tvkdus/ rGefjynfol@wyfOD;ygwDu vufeufcstvif;0ifoGm;jcif;
jzpfw,f// &efolzqyv tpkd;&udk oufqkd;&Snf oGm;apcJhjyefw,f// rGeftrsdK;om;
wkd@&J@vufeufudkfifawmfvSefa&; tiftm;r&Sdoavmuf ukefoGm;wJt h ay: zqyv
tpkd;&u wdwfwdwf qdwfqdwf =udwfjyD; &DaerSm aocsmw,ff//”

txufygtwdkif; ekdifa&$usifonf/ rGefjynfol@wyfOD; tvif;0ifvufeufcsoGm;wJhtay:


okH;oyfa0zefxm;onf//
(ekdifa&$usifpmwGif/ rGefjynfol@wyfOD;tvif;0ifae@udk 1958-Zlvkdif(19)&ufvkd@a&;om;xm;
onfukd pmzwfolrsm; owdxm; rdrnf[k xifygonf// 1958-ckeSpf Zlvkdfifv(19)&ufwGif/
rGefjynfol@wyfOD;tzGJ@0if uGmefvSm aus;&Gme,fwGif/ awmfvSefvSKyf&Sm;aeaom/ Akdvf'Gwfwkd@
304 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

tkyfpkrSpwif vufeufcsaom ae@jzpfonf// Tae@udk rGefjynfol@wyfOD; vufeufcsaom


ae@[k/ edkfifa&$usifowfrSwfxm;[efwlonf/pma&;ol)

rGefjynfol@wyfOD;ygwD enf;AsL[majymif;vJjyD; tvif;0ifoGm;onfudk vufeufcsonf[k


ajymajym/ vufeufESifh'Drdkua&pDvJonf [kqdkqdk rGeftrsdK;om;xkw&yfvkH;tay:vGefpGm
*,uf&kdufoGm;onf// rGeftrsdK;om;wkd@. trsdK;om;ekdifiHa&;=udK;yrf;rSK tay:/ aumif;usdK;
qkd;usdK; rsm;pGmoufa&mufapcJhonf//

rGefjynfol@wyfOD; tvif;0ifjyD;wvt=um 1958-ck=o*kwfv(22)&ufae@wGif tpkd;&onff/


rGefjynfol@wyfOD;udk w&m;0if tzGJ@pnf;tjzpf wnf&Sd&ef cGifhjyKa=umif;udk/ tpkd;&rS a=unm
cJhonf// rGefjynfol@wyfOD;rS tvif;0ifjcif;udk rnfokd@rSs wm;qD;I r&onfh aemufqkH;wGif/
ekdifa&$usifonf vufavsSmhvkduf&onf// okd@aomf ekdfifa&$usifonf/ ,ckvkd rGefjynfol@wyfOD;
rS enf;AsL[m ajymif;vJ oGm;onfhtay:/ rSm;,Gif;a=umif; axmufjyjyD; a&;om;xm;aom
pmudk/ ekdifatmifxGef;eSifh tjcm;xufjrufaom/ A[kdaumfrwD0ifrsm; xHokd@vnf; ay;ykd@
cJhao;onf// rGefjynfol@wyfOD;rSvnf;/ wOD;wnf; usef&pfcJhaom/ ekdfifa&$usiftm; jyefvnf
ac:oGif;&ef/ aumfr&Sifwpf&yf zJG@cJhao;onf// xkdaumfr&SifwGif/ ekdifqdwfekd@eSihf ekdifom[ef
yg0ifonf// edkifa&$usiftwGuf ekdifatmifxGe;f udk,fwkdif a&;om;xm;aompm wpfapmifeSifh
twl/xkdaumfr&Sifudkapv$wfjyD;ekdifa&$usiftm; odrf;oGif;&ef =udK;pm;cJhonf// edkfifatmifxGef;
pmwGif atmufygtwdkif; t"dy`g,f&Sdaompmjzpfonf//

odk@

&Jabmfedkfifa&$usif

u|efawmfwkd@&J@ qENeSifhvnf;udkufnD/ &Jabmftm;vkH;&J@ qENeSifhvnf; udkufnDwJh


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tu,fI &Jabmfu tvif;0if vmr,fqkd&if/ u|efkyfwkd@ A[kdaumfrwD0if
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OD;aqmifrKS udk u|efkyfwkd@tm;vkH;ucH,lrnf//

av;pm;v#uf

edkifatmifxGe;f
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 305

edkifatmifxGef;. ay;pmudk/ ekdifqdwfekd@u/ ekdifa&$usiftm;ay;jyD; atmufygtwkdif; vnf;


ajym=um;ao;onf//

“zqyv tpkd;&u/ rGejf ynfol@wyfOD;udk vlrKS axmufyHhaiG tjzpf/ aiGodef;aygif;


okH;q,fay;bkd@vJ ajymxm;w,f”

[lIvnf;/ ukd,fwkdifyg;pyfjzifhajym=um;jyD;/ ekdifa&$usiftm; tvif;0if&ef qGJao;onf//


4if;aiGodef;okH;q,f&vSsif/ or0g,rtoif;zG@Jpnf;jyD; pD;yGm;a&;vkyfief;vkyfrnfh ta=umif;
vnf;/ ekdifa&$usif pdwf0ifpm;vmatmif/ jrLqG,f odrf;oGif; aomtm;jzifhajymqkdao;onf//
txufyg ekdifatmifxGef;. pmtay:/ ekdifa&$usifonf atmufygoabm oufa&mufaom
pmwpfapmifudk a&;om;jyD;jyef ay;vkdufonf//

okd@
&JabmfedkifatmifxGe;f

&Jabmfwkd@[m/ ,m,D acwWc% tusKd ;pD;yGm;udk =unfhjyD;/ tpOfxm0&


a&&SnftusdK;pD;yGm;ukdypfy,fvkduf=uw,f// vufeufudkfifawmfvSefa&;udk
ausmckdif;jyD;/ ,ckvkd vufvGef ajcvGef vufeufcs tvif;0if vkduf=u
w,f// usKyftaeeJ@ rGet f rsdK;om;wkd@. &oifh&xkdufaom tcGifhta&;rsm;
udk &&Sdatmif awmfvSefwkdufyGJ0ifonfhae&mrSm/ us&mae&m ay;tyfwJh
wm0efudk rrSdwfrokef xrf;aqmifcJhw,f// OuUXjzpfcsifvkd@ awmfvSeaf &;
vkyfaewm r[kwfyg// ,ae@ jzpf&Sdaeaom tajctaet& &Jabmfwkd@vkd/
&mZ0ifa=uG; twif;cHjyD; vufeuf rcsvkdyg// usKyfonf/ omrefrGef
trsdK;om;wpfOD; taejzifh/ qufvufjyD; trsdK;om; tusdK;udk aqmif&Guf
oGm;r,f//wnfaqmuf &&Sx d m;jyD;wJh r[mrdwfrsm;eSifh yl;aygif;aqmif&Guf
rSK/r[mrdwfrsm;&J@tultnDwkd@eJ@wwfpGrf;oIpdwfa&mudk,fyg/ tpGrf;ukef
=udK;pm;jyD; rGeftrsdK;om; tusdK;udk aqmif&Guf oGm;r,f// awmfvSefa&;
ordkif;ay;wm0efudk qufvufxrf;aqmifjyD;/ rGefvlrsdK;wkd@. udk,fuH=urRm
udk,fzefwDekdifcGihf &onfhtxd wkdufyJ0G ifoGm;r,f//

av;pm;vsuf

edkifa&$Susif
306 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

txufyg pmudk ekdifatmifxGef; xHokd@ ay;vkdufonf/ 4if;tjyif ekdfifqdwfekd@wdk@udk yg;pyfjzifh


vnf; ekdifa&$usifuatmufyg twkdif;ajym=um;vkdufonf//

“&Jabmfwkd@xifxm;ovkd/ rGefjynfe,fay:xGe;f bkd@qkdwm rvG,fvSbl;// tcuftcJ


rsdK;pkH/ekdifiHa&;vSnfhuGufrsKd ;pkH/ twkdufcHrsdK;pkHeJ@&Jabmfwkd@ &ifqkdif&tkH;r,f//tu,fI
tJ'v D kd rGejf ynfe,f uvnf; ray:aygufao;/ tpkd;&&J@ vdrfvnf vSnfhpm;rSKudk
cH&r,f// xyfrHjyD; zdeSdyfcH&r,fqkd&if/ &Jabmfwkd@ jyefvnf ckdatmif;&m/ trSDjyK&m
ae&mwckck usef&pf aeavatmif/ jyD;awmh rGeftrsdK;om;wkd@&J@ vGwfajrmufa&;
awmfveS af &;vJ qufvufwnfwef@ ckdifjrJoGm;atmif/ tpkd;&xHrS &Jabmfwkd@&r,fh
aiGtxJu(5)odef;ukd/ cGJa0ay;r,f qkd&if tvGefaumif;r,f”

txufygtwdkif; ekdifa&$usifu ekdifqdwfekd@tm; jyefvnf ajym=um;cJhonf// Todk@ jyefvnf


ajym=um;aom pum;udk axmufxm;jcif; tm;jzifh/ ekdifa&$usifonf/ ygvDreffwGif; wkdufyGJ
enf;vrf;t& rGefjynfe,f ay:xGef; vma&;twGuf rGefjynfol@wyfOD;rS =udK;yrf;rSKonf
atmifjrif&ef rvG,fula=umif; axmufjy oGm;onfudk awG@&rnf// t&if;&Sif ygvDrefonf
aumufuspf pif;vJ wwfonf/ *vdefOm%f rsm;wwfonf/ 4if;t&if;&Sif ygvDreftay:
vkH;0pdwfcsI r&[k ekdifa&$usif jrifonf// vufeufudkif awmfvSefa&;onf/ r&Sdrjzpf vkdtyf
aeao;a=umif;udk/ ekdifa&$usifu axmufjyoGm;onf[k u|efawmfjrifonf// edkifa&$usif
onf/ aemufxyfvnf;/ atmufygtwkdif; xyfrHajym=um;ao;onf//

“,ckvkdusKyfwkd@u vufeufudkif awmfvSeaf &;udk qufvuf vkyaf qmifwJhtay:/


&Jabmfwkd@ taeeJ@ trsdK;rsdK; oduQmcs/ tykyfcswmrsKd ;ukd rvkyfapcsifbl;// tu,fI
&Jabmfwkd@ jyKvkyf vmrnfqkd&if/ usKyfwkd@bufuvnf;/ &Jabmfwkd@udk/ trsdK;tay:
opPmazgufwJhol/ ,m,D udk,fusKd ;pD;yGm;udk =unfhjyD; &efolxH/ 'l;axmuf tnHhcH
oGm;wJh olawGtjzpf pGyfpJG ajymqkd&vdrhfr,f//”

txufygtwkdif; edkfifa&$usifonf rdrdtjrif rdrd &yfwnfcsufudk yGifhyGifhvif;vif; wifjy


ajymqkdjyD;/ tvif;0if&ef vma&muf pnf;&kH;aom ekdifqdwfekd@ wdk@tm; ajymvkdufonf//
rGefjynfol@wyfOD;rSm/ vufeufcs tvif;0if oGm;onfh aemufydkif;wGif/ A[kd aumfrwD0if
rsm;jzpfaom/ ekdifaiGodrf;/ ekdifqdwfekd@/ ekdifcsrf;rGefeSifh oxkHc&kdif aumfrwD/ ekdifodrf;armif
wkd@onf/ tpkd;&rS axmufyHhrnfhaiGudk &vkd&iSm;/ &efukefjrdK@/ armfvjrdKifjrdK@odk@ t=udrf=udrf
oGm;a&muf =udK;pm;aomfvnf;/ tcsD;teSD;jzpfcJh&onf// zqyv tpkd;&xHrS axmufyHhaiG
vkH;0r&cJhacs//
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 307

rGefjynfol@wyfOD; tvif;0if&mwGif/ rygbJ/ aemufusef ae&pfcJhjyD;/ awmfvSefaom edkfifiHa&;


ygwDw&yfudk xlaxmifvkdufonfh/ OuUX=uD; ekdifa&$usiftay:/ a0zefokH;oyf&mwGif/t,lq
eSpf&yf uGsefawmfwGif jzpfay:aeonf//

(1) OuUX=uD; ekdifa&$usio


f nf/ t&if;&SifygvDref 'Drdkua&pDtay:/ ,kH=unfrSL vkH;0
r&SdI/ tvif;r0if jcif;avm// (okd@r[kwf)
(2) t&if;&Sif ygvDrefwGif; wkdufyGJ wckwnf;jzifh/ rGefjynfe,f ay:aygufa&;onf
rjzpfekdif/ rvkHavmuf// tm;r&Sdedkif// ygvDrefwGif; wkdufyGJudk taxmufuljyK/
yHhydk;ay;aom/ awmwGif; vufeufudkif awmfvSefa&;onfvnf;/ r&Sdrjzpf tvGef
vkdtyfonf/ tvGefta&;=uD;onf[k OuUX=uD; ekdifa&$usif taejzifh okH;oyf rdI
tvif; r0ifjcif;avm//

Txufyg awG;p&m/ pOfpm;p&m tcsufeSpfcsuf &Sdedkifygonf// TwkdufyGJ toGif;eSpf&yfudk/


tm;tifaumif;aumif; pkaygif; nDnGwfpGmjzifh/ jydKifwl wkdufyGJ0ifoGm;&ef vkdtyfonf[k/
OuUX=uD;taejzihf cH,laumif; cH,lxm;rnf[k xifp&m&Sdonf// rGeftrsdK;om;wkd@.
awmif;qkd wdkufyGJ0ifaeaom/ rGefjynfol@ orwekdifiHawmf&&Sda&;twGuf/ 'Drdkua&pDygvDref
wkdufyGJtoGif wckwnf;jzifh/ oGm;Ir&edkif tm;r&Sdekdif t&mra&mufedkif[k jrif[efwlonf//
rGefvlrsdK;wkd@. ygvDrefwGif; wkdufyGJudk yHhykd;axmufulay;aom vufeufudkif awmfvSefa&;
onfvnf; r&Sdrjzpfvkdtyfonf// vufeufudkif awmfvSefa&;yg/ wcsdefwnf;jyKdifwl
csdefcGifvsm nDrsSpGm qifeGJoGm;&ef txl;vkdtyfonf [laomtjrif OuUX=uD; edkifa&$usifY
&Sdedkfifonf[k uGsefawmf ,lqonf// TuJhokd@ twGif;tjyif (ygvDrefwkdufyGJtoGifeSifh
vufeufudkifwkdufyGJtoGi)f yl;aygif; wkdufyGJ0if oGm;&ef/ [laom rSefuefonfhtjrif &Sdjcif;
a=umifh/ OuUX=uD; ekdifa&$usifonf/ rGefjynfopfygwDudk xlaxmifvkdufjyD;/ vufeufudkif
awmfvSefa&;udk &J0Hhjywfom;pGm qufvufqifeGJonf[k uGsefawmfckdifrmpGm ajymcsifonf//
308 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

tceff; (12)
wa,mufxJuseftvHrvSJaomOuUX=uD;//wukd,fawmfc&D;onf//
u&ifpcef;odk@// armfvjrdKifc&kdifeSifhoxkHc&kdifpnf;&kH;e,fajr//okH;ygwDaqG;aEG;yG//J
ajy;&v$m;&// r'nwzGJ@pnf;jcif;// rdrda'oodk@tjyef// a'ocHawGu =udKqkd/
edkif"rRaeeSihfu&ifyÉdyuQ// jynfol@wyfOD;eSifh wkdif;&if;om;pnf;vkH;jcif;// 1960-
ckeSpfa&G;aumufyGJ// &ckdif/rGefjynfe,fta&;//ppfwyfrStm%modrf;jcif;//

1958-ckeSpf rGefjynfol@wyfOD; tvif;0ifonfukd tcsdefrSD wm;qD;ekkdif&ef A*dk;&kd;rrS qif;ouf


vmcJhaom ekdifa&$usifonf/ rdrdarSsmfrSef;xm;ovkd jzpfrvmcJhacs// rGefjynfol@wyfOD; tvif;
0ifjcif;udk rwm;qD; ekdifcJhay// edkifa&$usifonf oxkHc&kdif/ taygifjrdK@odk@ wdwfwcdk; jyefvmcJh
onf//taygifjrdK@&Sdrdrd. taygif;oif;a[mif; ekdifiHa&;orm;rsm;eSihfwdwfwqdwfawG@qkHonf//
edkifa&$usifeSifh rdwfaqGa[mif;/ ekdifiHa&;orm;wkd@ awG@qkH=ujyD; rGefjynfol@ygwD tvif;0if
oGm;onfhtay: aqG;aEG; wkdifyif=uonf// xkdaqG;aEG;yGJwGif rGefjynfol@wyfOD; tvif;0if
oGm;jcif;tay:/ edkifa&$usifu atmufygtwkdif; a0zeffokH;oyf ajym=um;oGm; onf//

“t&if;&Sif ygvDref 'Drdkua&pDpHepfrSm tvGef aumufuspf pOf;vJrSKawG rsm;w,f//


uvdrfOm%fawGrsm;w,f// t&if&Sif ygvDreftay: vkH;0 O\kH ,kH=unf pdwfcsvkd@
rjzpfao;bl;// rGeftrsdK;om;rsm;udk ukd,fpm;jyKwJh vufeufudkif awmfvSeaf &;
ygwDw&yf qufvuf&SdoGm;bkd@ txl;vkdtyf aeao;w,fvkd@ u|efawmfjrifw,f//
rGefjynfol@wyfOD; ygwD[m (vufeufeSifh 'Drdkua&pDvJvS,fa&;)qkdwJh OD;eKtpdk;&&J@
vdrfrmyg;eyfwJh ekdifiHa&; vSnfhuGufudk ,kH=unfjyD; tvif;0if oGm;=uw,f//
arSsmfvifhxm;ovkd rGefjynfe,f[m vG,fvG,fululeJ@ ay:ayguv f mrSm r[kwf
bl;// rGefjynfe,f &bkd@qdkwmvJ rvG,fulao;bl;// zqyv tpkd;&[m tajymeJ@
vufawG@ udkufnDrS udkufnDrSm// rGev f lrsdK;wkd@xifovkd rjzpfvm&if/ rGefvlrsdK;wkd@&J@
vGwfajrmufa&; vufeufudkif awmfvSeaf &; vSKyf&Sm;rSK[m tqufjywf
oGm;ekdifw,f// rGefvlrsdK;wkd@ trsdK;om;vGwfajrmufa&;/ awmfvSef vSKyf&Sm;rSKukd/
qufvuf wm0ef,l aqmif&GufoGm;ekdifbkd@ rGeftrsdK;om;ygwDw&yf &Sdoifhw,f
vkd@u|efawmfjrifw,f//

ponfh tcsufvufrsm;udk ekdifa&$usifuwifjy aqG;aEG;okH;oyfoGm;onf// xdkaqG;aEG;yGJrSm


&Sd=uonfhrGef&Jabmfa[mif;/ ekdifiHa&;orm;a[mif;wkd@u ekdifa&$usifa0zef okH;oyfoGm;onfh
ekdifiHa&;okH;oyfcsuftay:tm;vkH;uoabmwlvufcH=uonf//
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 309

ekdifa&$usifeSifhtaygif;oif;/ekdifiHa&;orm;wkd@onf/ rGeftrsdK;om; vufeufudkif awmfvSefa&;


w&yf &Sdoifha=umif;udk/ qENwlnDpGm qkH;jzwf=uonf// xkda=umihf 1958-ckeSpf/ Zlvidk f
aemufydkif; wGif taygifjrdK@/ ekdifyJ(n.Y'Y)v,fwJY ekdifa&$usifeSifh ekdifiHa&;orm; taygif;oif;
tcsdK@wkd@onf/ wdk;wkd; wdwfwdwf/ pnf;a0;=ujyD;/ rGefjynfopfygwDudk pHepfwus pwifzJ@G pnf;
vkdufonf// 4if;tpnf;a0;wGif/ ekdfifoufxGef;(ekdif0J)vnf; wufa&mufcJhonf// rGefjynfopf
ygwDudk pwifzGJ@pnf;onfh &ufudkrl/ rGefjynfol@wyfOD; tvif;0ifaomae@jzpfonhf/ 1958-
ckepS /f Zlvkdifv(20)&ufudkyif ,lvkdufonf// rGefvlrsdK;wkd@. trsdK;om; vGwfajrmufrSK
vufeufudkif awmfvSefa&;onf/ tqufrjywf/ wqufpyfwnf;/ wnf&dS cJhonfudk
&nfn$ef;vdkI/ 4if;ae@&ufudk owfrSwfvkdufjcif;jzpfonf//

xkdokd@ rGefjynfol@ wyfOD;ygwD enf;AsL[m ajymif;vJjyD; Oaya' abmifodk@ 0ifoGm;onfh


aemufykdif;wGif/awmwGif; vufeufudkfifygwDtjzpf/ rGefjynfopfygwDonf tm;opf/rmefopf/
tawG;ac:opfwkd@jzifh ay:xGufvmonf// acwfeSifhtnD wrlxl;aom rGefvlrsdK;wkd@.
awmfvSefa&; rsdK;qufopfonf/ wufopfp ae0ef;=uD;eSihf yrmwlnDonf// &mrnwdkif;om;
rGefvlrsdK;rsm;tm; vGwfajrmufa&;odk@ a&S@aqmif vrf;jyavonf// rGefvlrsdK;wkd@. acwfopf
awmfvSefa&; a&mifjcnfOD;onf/ uGef@jrL;I vmavonf// avmu ed,mr oabmt&/
tawG;opf/ tjrifopfonf/ tawG;a[mif;/ tjrifa[mif;wdk@. ae&mudk tpm;xkd;
0ifa&muf ae&m,lvkdufonf// rGefjynfol@wyfOD; ae&ma[mif;wGif/ rGefjynfopfygwDu
tpm;xkd; 0ifa&muf ae&m,lvdkufonf// rGefjynfopfygwDonf/ vufeufudkif awmfvSefa&;
ordkif;ay;wm0efudk rGefjynfol@wyfOD;rS &J0Hhjywfom;pGm zckH;ajymif;/ wm0efvGJ,lvkdufonf//
vufeufudkfif awmfvSefa&;tvHopfudk/ wqifhjrifhrm;pGm v$ifhxlvkdufonf//

rGefvlrsdK;wkd@. vGwfajrmufa&; awmfvSefa&; acwfopf wacwf jyefvnf qef;opf


IvmcJhjyefonf// tm;opfrmefopf/ o¾mefopfjzifh opfvGifaom [oFmvkifysdKonf/
tm;,lysHoef;IvmavjyD;// jydKjydKysufysuf/ ta&miftaoG;wvufvuf&Sdaom awmif;yHudk
jzef@csD &kdufcwfI w&Sdefwdk; vmavjyD;// jrif&ol taygif;udk eSpfaxmif; tm;&aponf//
avt[kefeSifhtwl tm;,l ysHoef;vmaom [oFmvkifysdKudk jrif&onfrSm =unfel;bG,f&m
tvGefaumif;onf// oGufoGufvufvuf xufxufjrufjruf&Sdaom/ a&$[oFmvkifysdK
onf/ bmudkrS rrSKavjyD;/ a&S@odk@wl&k/ wnfhwnfh&SKI ysHavonf// &J&J0Hh0Hh/ rwGef@rqkwf/
tm;ukefxkwfjyD;wr[kwfwnfysH0Javonf//&SKjrif&ol rGefjynfol taygif;wdk@rSm/ eSpfaxmif;
tm;&jyD;/ aomif;aomif;zszs/ =udKqkd=uonf// vufckyfvuf0g;/ tjyefw&mwD;I aumif;csD
=obmay;=uonf// tcgw&m csD;rGrf; axmyem jyK=uonf// “ysHom/ysHyg a&$[oFm&,f/
tjrifh rdk;aumif;uifqDodk@om ysHyguG,f” [lIaomif;aomif;zszs tm;ay;=u avownf//
310 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

rGefjynfopf ygwDudk pkpnf; &&Sdaom &Jabmfrsm;eSifh zGJ@pnf; jyD;aemuf edkifa&$usifonf


oxkHe,fY pwifjyD; pnf;&kH;a&; qif;onf// xkdpOf armfvjrdKifc&kdifbufwGif/ vufeufrcsol
&Sdao;onf[laom owif;udk &&Sdonf// ekdifa&$usifonf/ vufeufrcsbJ/ xkdusef&pf
aeao;aom &Jabmfrsm;eSihf tqufoG,f&&ef=udK;pm;onf// r=umcifrSm xkdusef&pfcJhonfh/
tkyfpkeSifh tqufoG,f&onf// xkdolwkd@onf ekdif"rRae tkyfpkjzpfonf// ekdif"rRaeonf/
t&if;&Sif ygvDrefudk vkH;0r,kH=unf/ zqyv tpkd;&udkvnf; vkH;0r,kH=unfoljzpfonf//
rGefjynfol@wyfOD; vufeufcsoGm;aomfvnf;rdrdwpfOD;wnf;/ usef&pfaejyD; zqyvtpkd;&udk
qufvuf awmfvSefwkdufckdufaeonf// rGefjynfopfygwDudk/ tawG;tac:opfjzifh xlaxmif
jyD; edkifa&$usifonf/ qufvufI zqyvtpkd;&udk awmfvSefoGm;OD;rnfudk od&aomtcg/
ekdif"rRaewpfOD;onf/ twkdif;rod0rf;omoGm;onf// ekdifa&$usifeSifh vufwGJ&ef tqifhoifh
&Sdonf[k ta=umif;=um;cJhonf// okd@aomf oGm;a&;vma&; tcuftcJ trsdK;rsdK;a=umifh
edkifa&$usifonf/ ekdif"rRaeeSifh yk*~dKvfcsif; awG@qkHjyD; aqG;aEG;jcif; rjyKedkifcJh=uyg// edkif"rRaeeSifh
awG@qkHa&;udk c%acwWtm;jzifh ab;z,f xm;vkdufonf//

edkifa&$usifonf/ u&if A[kdpcef;okd@ rdrdjyefroGm;cif wwfekdif orSsudk pnf;&kH;a&;qif;&ef


pDpOfaqmif&Gufonf// yxrOD;qkH; pnf;&kH;a&; qif;&mrSm edkfifa&$usifeSifhtwl vli,fvl&G,f
rGeftrsdK;om;edkifarmifnkdwOD;ygcJhonf// edkifa&$usifeSifhoxkHrS ekdifarmifnSdwkd@onf/ oxkHe,f&Sd
vufeufudkfif awmfvSefa&;tay: pdwf0ifpm;aom/ &Jabmfrsm;udk pkpnf;=uonf// xkdokd@
pkpnf;I&aom &Jabmfrsm;udk ajratmuf pnf;&kH;a&; pwifaqmif&Guf=u&ef pDpOfcJhonf//
xkdpnf;&kH;a&; qif;=urnfh/ &Jabmfrsmtm; atmufygtwkdif; ekdifa&$usifu trSmpum;
ajym=um;cJhonf//

“1948-ckeSpfrGefvlrsdK;wkd@&J@ awmfvSefa&;[m/ ewfawG zefqif;wJh awmfvSefa&;vkd@


qkd&r,f// tJ'DwkH;u/ a,muFsm;/ rde;f r/ cav;/ vl=uD;ra&G;/ &[ef;oHCmtyg0if
tm;vkH; pnf;pnf;vkH;vkH; nDnDnGwfnGwfeJ@ yg0ifcJh=uw,f// ykdifqkdiforSs ypPnf;/
&SdorSs t&m0wˆK tm;vkH;wkd@udk/ awmfvSeaf &;twGuf/ bkH;atmjyD;/ ay;urf;
axmufyhH cJh=uw,f// rGefwrsKd ;om;vkH;wdk@&J@ trsKd ;om; ekdifiHa&;rSm pdwftm;
wuf=uGpGm yg0ifvmrSK[m/ rnfonfhvlrsdK;urS r,SOfomedkfifcJhbl;// rwkyekdifcJhbl;//
1958-ckeSpf vufeufcswJh trSm;a=umifh/ wefbkd;ajrmufrsm;pGm t&if;wnfjyD;
&vmcJw h Jh/ awmfvSefa&;&J@ toD;tyGifhawG/ qkH;&SKH; oGm;w,f// tv[\
tcsnf;teSD; jzpfoGm;w,f// tJ't D rSm;udk &Jabmfwkd@ ocFef;pm,l=u//
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 311

Armjynf vGwfvyfa&; r&cifeJ@ vGwfvyfa&; &prSm/ rGev f lrsdK;wkd@&J@ trsdK;om;


vSKyf&Sm;rSKudk Armtpkd;&u tpdk;&drfqkH; ta=umuf&GH@qkH;bJ// tjcm;vlrsdK;wkd@&J@
trsdK;om; vSKyf&Sm;rSKxuf tpdk;&u pkd;&drf a=umuf&GH@w,f// bmjzpfvJqkdawmh/
rGefvlrsdK;wkd@rSm/ ckdifrmwJh aemufcHordkif;&Sdw,f// rdrw
d kd@ xD;eJ@eef;eJ@ aevmcJw h Jh
vlrsdK;jzpfw,f// rdrdwkd@ ydkifqkdifcw
Jh Jh/ e,fajra'oawG txift&Sm;&Sdw,f// 'gukd
tcsdefra&G; jyefvnfawmif;qkd,lekdifw,f// 'ga=umifh rGet f rsKd ;om;wkd@&J@ trsdK;om;
edkfifiHa&; vSKyf&Sm;rSK pwifwJh 1947-ckeSpf uwnf;u/ Armtpkd;&[m enf;rsdK;pkHeJ@
rGev f lrsdK;wkd@ &oifh&xkdufwJh tcGifhta&;awGudk ydwfyifwm;jrpfcJhw,f// tJ'v D dk
ydwfyif wm;jrpfonfhtjyif/ tiftm;eJ@vJ/ trsdK;rsdK; zdeSdyfcsKyfcs,f vmw,f//
rvGJra&Smifom vGe;f vkd@ aemufqkH;rSm/ rGefvlrsdK;wkd@ vufeufudkif awmfvSefa&;
pcJh&w,fqkdwm pnf&kH;wJhtcg/ jynfol vlxkawGem;vnf atmifajymjy&r,f//”43

TuJhokd@/ edkifa&$usifwpfOD;onf/ pnf;&kH;a&;udk pwifqif;cJhonf// rGefawmfvSefa&;orm;


vli,frsm;udk pwifpnf;&kH; odrf;oGif;cJhonf//

1958-ckeSpf atmufwkdbmv(28)ae@rSm/ OD;ektpdk;&onf/ ,m,Dtm;jzifh/ AdkfvfcsKyfae0if;


OD;aqmifaom/ tdrfapmifhtpkd;&udk tm%m vGJtyfay;cJhonf// 4if;tdrfapmifh tpkd;&onf/
(6)vtwGif;wGif/w&m;rSswaoma&G;aumufyJGudkusif;yay;rnfjzpfa=umif; a=ujimcJhonf//
xkdokd@ ppfwyfrS tekenf;jzifh/ OD;ektpkd;&xHrS/ wkdif;jynf. tm%mudk odrf;ydkuf vkdufonfh
twGuf/ ekdifa&$usifonf/ rdrd=udKwif wGufq xm;onfhtwkdif; jzpfvmonfudk odvkduf
&onf//

ekdifa&$usifonf/ oxkHc&kdifwGif pwifpnf;&kH;a&; qif;&mwGif txdkuftav#muf atmifjrif


rSK&cJhonf// rGefjynfolvlxk. axmufcHrSKudk &cJhonf// 'gayrJh wyfaygif;pk udpP/ r[mrdwf
udpPwkd@udk aqmif&Guf&ef &Sdaeao;onfhtwGuf A*dk;&kd;rbufokd@ jyefvnf xGufcGm
vmcJhjyefonf// 1959-ckeSpf/ eSpfOD;rSm/ u&ifaumfol;av A[kdXmecsKyf &Sd&modk@ a&mufoGm;
onf// ekdifa&$usif wpfOD; aumfol;av A[kdodk@a&mufaomtcsdefwGif/ u&iftrsdK;om;
tpnf;t&kH;. uGefu&ufusif;yIjyD;qkH;pyif&Sdao;onf// e,fpkH/a'opkHrS a&mufvmaom/
u&ifacgif;aqmifrsm;eSifh awG@pkH&if;eSD;cGifh &vkdufonf// =uKH=udKufojzifh aemufqkH;ae@
usif;yaom eSKwfqufyJw G Gif/ ekdifa&$usifonfvnf; wufa&mufI rdwfquf pum;
ajym=um;cGifh&cJhonf// vufeufrcsonfhtwGuf ekdifa&$usit f m;/ 0kdif;0ef;jyD;csD;rGef;=uonf//
wpfa,mufwnf; usefaomfvnf;/ tvHrvSJ/ ZGJebJ=uD;wJh awmfvSefa&; orm;tjzpf

43
qmNicjatikj\mukj\1w
312 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

edkifa&$usiftm;/ *k%fjyK csD;=uL;=uonf// vufeufudkfif awmfvSefa&;udk &J0Hh jywfom;pGm


qufvuf csDwufoGm;rnfh/ ekdifa&$usiftm;/ ol&Jaumif; wpfOD;yrm txl;yif csD;=uL;
axmyemjyK=uonf//

edkifa&$usifvnf; rdrdtm; xkdokd@ csD;=uL;*k%fjyK=uonfudk 0rf;ajrmuf 0rf;omjzpfrda=umif;/


aus;Zl;vnf; tvGefwifa=umif; jyefvnfI ajym=um;onf// 4if;tjyif/ ,ckvkd rGefjynfol@
wyfOD; tvif;0ifoGm;onfhtay: trsdK;rsdK; ajym=uonfudk rdrd=um; rda=umif; tcsdK@u
rGefjynfol@wyfOD;eSihf u&iftrsdK;om; tpnf;t&kH;wkd@. qufqHa&; tqifrajyrSK a=umifh[k
xifrSwf,lqolrsm;vnf;&Sd=uonf// rGef/u&if tqifrajyrSKonf omrnom jzpfa=umif;/
trSefwu,fonf/ &efol.ya,m*omvSsift"dujzpfonf[kaatmufyg twkdif;ajym=um;
cJhonf//

“u|efawmftm; 'Dvkd tm;ay; pum;eJ@ cs;D =uL; =uwJhtwGuf r[mrdwf/ u&if


&Jabmf tm;vkH;udk txl;bJ 0rf;ajrmuf0rf;om aus;Zl;wifw,f// wcsdefwnf;rSm
ajym=um;vkdwmu/ ,ckvkd rGejf ynfolwyfOD;/ vufeufcs tvif;0ifoGm;wJhtay:/
tcsKd @u/ rGejf ynfol@ wyfOD;eSifh u&iftrsdK;om; tpnf;t&kH;wkd@&J@ qufqHrSK
rajyvnfwJh twGufvkd@ xifrSwf ae=uw,f// tJ'g[m/ omrnta=umif;t&m
omjzpfw,f// wu,fh trSefuawmh/ &efol&J@ya,m*u/ t"duta=umif;&if;
jzpfw,f// rGeef iS fhu&if[m/ b0wl xm0& r[mrdwfrsm; jzpf=uw,f// 1948-ckeSpf
u/ rGefeSifhu&if nDnGwfwJh pdwf"gwfrsdK; jyefvnf ay:ayguf vmatmif
u|efawmfwkd@ =udK;pm;=ubkd@vkdw,f// jyD;awmh rGeu f &if jynfol vlxkw&yfvkH;u/
awmfvSeaf &;udk pdwftm;wuf=uGpGm axmufcHrSKay;vmatmif twlwuGvufwGJ
pnf;&kH;&r,f// rGefeSifhu&if ydkrdkcspfcif&if;eSD;atmif u|eaf wmfwkd@tm;vkH;/ pepfusus
uGyfuJrSKeJ@ vkyfief;rsm;udk tpOfndSKeSkdif;wkdifyifjyD; vkyaf qmif=u&ef vkdtyfw,fvkd@
ajym=um; vkdygw,f//”

u&ifaumfol;avXmcsKyfA[kdodk@ ekdifa&$usif ra&mufcifuyif/ uGefjrLepfygwDrS ay:vpfjAL&kd


tzJG@0if ocifZifuOuUX=uD;ref;bZHxHodk@ pmwpfapmif a&;om; ay;ydk@cJhonf[k od&onf//
4if;pmrSm/ a&S@vkyfief;pOfrsm;udk qufvufnSdeSdKif; wkdifyif=u&eftwGuf/ ekdifa&$usiftm;/
u&ifaumfol;av XmecsKyfY ac:xm;&ef OuUX=uD;ref;bZHtm; wkdufwGef; xm;onf//
Armjynf uGefjrLepfygwD. udk,fpm;vS,frsm; ra&mufvmrSD/ wyfaygif;pk udpPrsm;udkvnf;
rp=ucif/ rGefjynfopfygwDeSihf u&iftrsdK;om; tpnf;t&kH;wkdk@onf/ e,fajreSihf ywfouf
aom/ udpPrsm;udk aqG;aEG; ndSeSdKif;=uonf// rGefjynfopfygwD taejzifh/ oxkHc&kdifeSifh
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 313

armfvjrdKifc&kdifwkd@udk tajcwnfrnf jzpfa=umif; ekdifa&$usifu wifjycJhonf// Todk@rSvnf;/


awmfvSeaf &; ygwDwpf&yf. vuQ%meSifh udkufnDrnf[k edkifa&$usifu wifjycJhonf// 'gayrJh
,ck avmavm q,fq,fwGif/ oxkkHc&kdifwGif/ rGefjynfopfygwD pnf;&kH;a&; qif;&efeSifh
ygwD. vufeufudkfif awmfvSefa&;wyfudk taumifxnfaz:&ef/ cufcJrSK &Sdaeao;a=umif;
wifjycJhonf//

TuJhokd@ ekdifa&$usif wifjycJhonfh/ oxkHc&kdifwGif rGefjynfopfygwDrS oGm;a&muf tajccs


pnf;&kH;a&; qif;rnfhtpDtpOfudk/ au/tef/,l/yDrS vkH;0oabmrwl/ vufrcHay// TuJhokd@
oabmrwlojzifh/ eSpfOD;eSpfzuf pdwf&Snf vuf&Snfxm;jyD; aqG;aEG; tajz&Sm=uonf//
odk@aomf wdusaom tajzudkr&=uay// Armjynf uGefjrLepfygwDrS a&S@ajy;udk,fpm;vS,fwpk
a&mufvmonfhtxd e,fajreSifh ywfoufaom/ rGefjynfopfygwDeSifh au/tef/,l/yDwkd@.
aqG;aeG;rSKonf wdusaom tajzwpfck wdwdususay:xGufrvmekdifay// ArmjynfuGefjrLepf
ygwDrS udk,fpm;vS,frsm;url/ wyfaygif;pk jzpfajrmufa&;udk a&S@&SKjyD;/ e,fajrjy\emudk
acwWab;z,fxm;ap&ef qENjyK awmif;qkd wifjyvmonf// ,ck avmavmq,fq,fwGif/
armfvjrdKifc&kdif wpfckwnf;udkom tajccH vSKyf&Sm;ekdifaomfvnf;/ rGefjynfopfygwDtm;/
wyfaygif;pkwGif/ tzGJ@0if ygwDwcktjzpf vufcHrnfjzpfa=umif; ajym=um;ojzifh/ rGefeSihfu&if
e,fajrjy\emonf/ ,m,D tm;jzifh ajyvnfoGm;onf//

AdkvfcsKyfae0if; tdrfapmifh tpkd;&onf/ Tokd@ awmwGif;Y usef&Sdaeaom/ vufeufukdif


awmfvSefa&; tiftm;rsm; pkaygif; nDnGwjf yD; wyfaygif;pk wnfaqmufekdifjcif;udk
tvGefpkd;&drf rdonf// xkda=umifh wyfaygif;pkrysuf ysufjym;atmifae&m wkdif;Ytjyif;txef
xdk;ppfqifvmonf// wae&mrS wae&mokd@ ul;vl; oGm;vmI r&ekdifatmif ydwfqdk@I
ppfqifonf// ysOf;rem;rS A*dk;c&kdifa&mufonftxd/ um;vrf;rD;&xm;vrf; wavSsmufvkH;
udk ydwfqdk@wm;qD;xm;onf// xkdokd@ydwfqkd@ xm;ojzifh ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwDrS xdyfwef;
udk,fpm;vS,frsm; c&D;xGufvma&;twGuf tcufcJeSihf=uKHaeonf// 1959-ckeSpf/ eSpfv,f
a&mufrSyif/ Armjynf uGefjrLepfygwDrS/ ukd,fpm;vS,frsm;jzpfaom/ ocifZif/ &JabmfaX;/
ppfOD;pD;csKyf ausmfarmifwkd@onf/ vSsdK@0Suf vrf;a=umif;jzihf/ aumfol;av A[kdXmecsKyf&Sd&modk@
a&mufvm=uonf// ukd,fpm;vS,fpkHnDpGm a&mufvmjyD;aemuf/ oHk;ygwDjzpfaom/ Armjynf
uGefjrLepfygwD/ rGefjynfopfygwD/eSifh au/tef/,l/yDDwkd@onf/ wyfaygif;pk zGJ@pnf;a&;twGuf
rl0g'vrf;pOf/ vkyfief;pOfrsm;udk aqG;aEG; qkH;jzwf&ef jyifqif=uonf// xkdokd@okH;ygwD nDnGwf
pkaygif;jyD; tpnf;a0; jyKvkyfae=uonfudk &efolrSowif; &&SdoGm;onf[k xif&ygonf//
okH;ygwD tpnf;a0; vkyaf eaom a'oodk@ tpkd;&rS tjyif;txef xkd;ppfqifvmonf//
wae&mrS wae&mokd@ oGm;vmI r&atmif/ xGufajy;I rvGwfatmif/ ae&mteSH@/
wv=urf; ,Sufxkd;Ippfqifonf//
314 Edkifazodef;jZm (zuf'&,fwuUodkvf)

edkifa&$usif tygt0if/ okH;ygwDrS ukd,fpm;vS,frsm;onf/ &efol. xkd;ppf ab;tE@W&m,f


vGwfajrmufatmif/tvGef=udK;pm;I wae&mrSwae&mokd@ ajymif;a&$@Ia&Smifwdrf;cJh&onf//
toufab;rS oDoDuav; vGwfajrmufcJh&onhf t=udrfaygif;vnf; rsm;pGm&SdcJhonf//
ajy;v$m; wdrf;a&Smif&if;/ xrif;[if; rpm;&onfh tcsdeftcgwdk@onfvnf; &SdcJhonf//
n=uD;rif;=uD; tdyfaumif;pOf/ uref;uwef;xI r[m;'&m; xGufajy; wdrf;a&SmifcJh&onfh
tcgrsdK;vnf;&SdcJhonf// neufoef;acgif/ arSmiffarSmif rJrJxJrSm/ roJruGJ/ rjrifruef;jzifh
prf;w0g;0g;eSifh tajy;tv$m; vrf;a&Smuf oGm;&onfh tcsdeftcgvnf; &SdcJhonf// &SdKajrmif/
jrpfacsmif;/ tif;tdkifrsm;ukd wdwfwqdwf ntcg jzwfoef; oGm;&onfvnf; &SdcJhonf//
r&yfrem;/ qufwkduf/ em&Daygif;ajrmufrsm;pGm/ vrf;a&Smuf oGm;&onfhtcgvnf;&SdcJhonf//
nhOfoef;acgif vlwdwfqdwfcsdef niSufwkd@. vef@jzef@I atmf[pfoHudk/ xdef@vef@bG,f
=um;&onfh tcsdeftcgvnf; &SdcJhonf// edkifa&$usif. awmfvSefa&;orm;b0Todk@&SdcJhonf//
Todk@ tpkd;&&J@ xdk;ppfudk ajy;v$m; wdrf;a&Smif&if; &Gmaygif; t=uD;tao; ajrmufrsm;pGmudk
jzwfoef; ausmfv$m; vmcJh&onf//

edkifa&$usifwkd@ vlpk/ okH;ygwD acgif;aqmifwkd@onf/ tpkd;& xkd;ppfudk wdrf;a&Smif&if;/ &Gm=uD;


w&Gmokd@ a&mufoGm; =uonf// tdrfaumif; &maumif; rsm;pGm &Sdonf// vl=uD;.
acsmif;[wfoH/ cav;ikdoH/ cav;acsmh oD;csif;jiD;qkdoH/ eGm;atmfoH/ acG;a[mifoH wkd@udk
=um;cJh&onf// TtoHwkd@onfyif/ ekdifa&$usi. f em;wGif/ tvGefom,m emaysmfbG,f&m
aumif;aom *DwoHZOfrsm;tvm;/ cHpm;rdonf// awmfvSefa&; orm;wkd@&J@ b0qkdonfrSm
Todk@yif jzpf&rnf[k ekdifa&$usif wpfa,mufonf/ rdrpd dwfxJY a&&Gwf aerdao;onf//
Edkifa&$usifwkd@ vltkyfpkonf/ &efol. xkd;ppfeSihf tvGefuif;a0;jyD;/ pdwfat;vufat;
csekdifaom ae&mwae&mokdk@ a&mufoGm;=uonf// vloleSifh uif;&Sif;aom Z&yfwckwGif/
okH;ygwDrS udk,fpm;vS,frsm; ae&mcs=uonf// 1959-ckeSpf/ =o*kwfvv,favmufwGif/
&efol. xkd;ppfeSifh uif;a0;vmjyD;/ tajctae ay;vmojzifh/ okH;ygwDrS udk,fpm;vS,frsm;/
pwifI tpnf;ta0; xkdif=ujyefonf// wyfaygif;pk. vrf;pOfeSihf avmavmq,fq,f/
vkyfaqmiftaumifxnfaz:&rnfh wyfaygif;pkvkyfief;pOfrsm;udk csrSwf=uonf// aqG;aEG;jyD;
&ufowWywf wywfavmuft=umwGif wlnDrSK&=uonff//

Armjynf uGefjrLepfygwD/ rGefjynfopfygwD/eSifh au/tef/,l/yDDygwDwkd@ okH;ygwDudk tajcjyKjyD;/


trsdK;om;'Drdkua&pDnDnGwfa&;wyfaygif;pk(r'nw)zGJ@pnf;&ef oabmwl=uonf// wcsdef
wnf;rSm/ TuJhokd@trsdK;om;'Drkdua&pDnDnGwfa&; wyfaygif;pkwpf&yf zGJ@pnf;wnfaxmifjyD;
a=umif;eSifh wyfaygif;pk. rl0g'vrf;pOfeSifh vkyfief;pOfrsm;udk trsm;jynfolrsm;od&Sd
edkifatmif/ 0g'jzef@csDa&; vkyfief;udkvnf; csrSwf aqmif&Guf=uonf// Tokd@ wwkdif;jynfvkH;
OuUX=uD;Edkifa&$usifeiS fhawmfvSefa&;orm;/ 'dk@rGefausmif;om; 315

teSH@okd@ 0g'jzef@ owif;xkwfv$ifh ekdifcJhojzifh/ r'nwwyfaygif;pk zGJ@pnf;a=umif;ukd jynfol


vlxk w&yfvkH;u od&SdoGm;=uonf// Tokd@ wyfaygif;pk zGJ@pnf;ekdifonfh owif;udk/ wwdkif;
jynfvkH;&Sd jynfolvlxk u=udKqkdaxmufcH=uonf// 0rf;ajrmuf0rf;omjzpf=uonf//

Todk@ uGefjrLepfygwDrS OD;pD;I zGJ@pnf;aom/ r'nw wyfaygif;pkwGif rGefjynfopfygwD


yg0ifcJhjcif;twGuf/ rGefvlxk todkif;0ef;wGif tawmfyif *,uf&kdufoGm;onf// rGefjynfol@
wyfOD; acgif;aqmif tcsdK@u/ ekdifa&$usief Sifh rGefjynfopfygwDonf/ uGefjrLepfygwD.
aemufvkduf jzpfoGm;jyD;[k pGyfpGJajymqkd=uonfudkvnf; ekdifa&$usifwpfa,muf/ 0rf;enf;pGm
jyefvnf=um;cJh&onf// rnfokd@qkdap/ vlwpfa,muf tvHwpfckeSifh pwifxlaxmif
ekdifao;aom rGefjynfopfygwDvkd/ygwDi,fwcku/ tiftm;=uD;rm;aom/ tjcm;awmfvSefa&;
ygwDrsm;u wef;wl&nfwlxm;jyD;/ wyfaygif;pkwGif yg0ifekdifcGifh &onfhtwGuf/ rGefwrsdK;om;
vkH;taejzifh/ tvGef*k%f,l 0ifh=uGm;p&maumif;onf r[kwfavm// Ttcsuf udkjrifekdfifol/
tvGef&Sm;ygbdonf[k ekdifa&$usifwpfa,muf cHpm;rdonf// tcsdK@url/ rGefvlrsdK;udk
udk,fpm;jyKjyD; zqyv tpkd;&tm; awmfvSefaeonfh rGefvufeufudkfif awmfvSefa&;ygwD
wpf&yf awmwGif;Y &Sdaeao;onf[laom tcsufudkyif/ *k%f,lvkd@rqkH; jzpf=u
olrsm;vnf;&Sdonf// &efolxHyg;rSm/ 'l;axmuf tnHhcHoGm;aom/ rGefjynfol@ wyfOD;tm;/
u@J&J@&SKwfcs =uonfudkvnf; ekdifa&$usifwpfa,muf =um;cJh&onf// rnfodk@ &Sdap/ Todk@
rGefjynfopfygwDtm;/ tjcm;aom awmfvSefa&;ygwDrS wef;wl todrSwfjyK/ vufcHonfh
twGuf rGefjynfol vlxkurl/ twkdif;rod 0rf;ajrmuf0rf;om &Sd=uonf// rGefjynfopfygwD
wyfaygif;pkwGif yg0ifedkfifjcif;onfyif/ edkifa&$usif. tpGrf;tpeSifh vky&f nf udkif&nfa=umihf
jzpfonf[k csD;=uL;=uonf// awmfvSefa&; pdwf"gwf ZGJukefcrf;jyD; &efol xHyg;rSm/
oGm;a&muf 'l;axmuf tnHhcH=uonfh/ acgif;aqmifrsm;udkom uJ&h J@&SKwfcs=u onf//

r'nwwyfaygif;pkudk atmifjrifpGmzGJ@pnf; ekdifjyD;aemuf/ Armjynf uGejf rLepfygwDrS ukd,fpm;


vS,frsm;onf/ rdrdwkd@Xmeodk@ jyefoGm;=uonf// ekdifa&$usifonf autef/,lyD acgif;aqmif
rsm;eSifhtwl au/tef/,l/yD XmcsKyfrSm aomifwif usef&pfcJhonf// r=umcifrSmyif/
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