Structural

Scheme Design
Guide

Version 3.0
August 1998

Ove Arup & Partners
Arup Research & Development

Structural Scheme Design Guide
Version 3.0

August 1998

Ove Arup & Partners Arup Research & Development
13 Fitzroy Street London W1P 6BQ
Telephone +44 (0)171 636 1531 Facsimile +44 (0)171 465

Index (1/2)

THE ARUP STRUCTURAL SCHEME DESIGN GUIDE
CONTENTS
VER 3.0 / Aug 1998

1. Building Geometry & Anatomy
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5

Typical grid dimensions
Typical sections
Typical service zone requirements
Car parks
References

2. Guide toCosts
2.1
2.2

Comparative European costs for
material supply
Relative costs of steel subgrades

3. Loads
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5

Density of materials
Dead loading
Typical imposed loading
Imposed loads on barriers
References

4.1 Properties of Structural Materials
4.2 Reinforced Concrete
4.2.1
4.2.2
4.2.3
4.2.4
4.2.5
4.2.6
4.2.7
4.2.8
4.2.9

Rules of thumb
Load factors
Beams
Slabs
Stiffness
Columns
Creep and Shrinkage
Bar and mesh areas and weights
References

4.3 Prestressed Concrete
4.3.1
4.3.2
4.3.3
4.3.4
4.3.5
4.3.6
4.3.7
4.3.8

Rules of thumb
Common strands
Common tendons
Equivalent loads
Allowable stresses at service loads
Ultimate bending strength
Shear
References

4.4 Steel (Non-Composite)
4.1.1
4.4.2
4.4.3
4.4.4
4.4.5
4.4.6
4.4.7
4.4.8
4.4.9
4.4.10
4.4.11

Rules of thumb
Load factors
Design strength
Beam design
Columns (and beam columns)
Portal Frame sizing
Element stiffness
Connections
Corrosion protection
Section properties
References

4.5 Composite Steel and Concrete
4.5.1
4.5.2
4.5.3
4.5.4

Rules of thumb
Load factors
Bending resistance
Shear connectors

4.5.5
4.5.6
4.5.7
4.5.8

Bending strength (during construction)
Stiffness
Safe load tables
References

4.6 Timber
4.6.1
4.6.2
4.6.3
4.6.4
4.6.5
4.6.6
4.6.7
4.6.8
4.6.9

Rules of thumb
Materials supply
Grade stresses
Sizing of elements in domestic
construction
Outline of design rules for timber
members
Selected timber modification factors
Modification factor combinations
Deflection
Fasteners

4.7 Masonry
4.7.1
4.7.2
4.7.3
4.7.4
4.7.5
4.7.6
4.7.7
4.7.8
4.7.9
4.7.10
4.7.11
4.7.12

Rules of thumb
Load factors
Material factors
Modular dimensions
Typical unit strengths
Masonry compressive strength
Sizing external wall panels
Flexural strength of masonry
Internal non-loadbearing masonry walls
Freestanding masonry walls
Joints
Other issues

4.8 Aluminium
4.8.1
4.8.2
4.8.3
4.8.4

Main structural alloys
Durability
Typical physical properties
Design

4.9 Stainless Steel
4.9.1
4.9.2
4.9.3
4.9.4
4.9.6
4.9.7

Material grades
Mechanical properties
Physical properties
Design strength
Availability
References

5. Foundations
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5

General Principles
Appropriate foundation solutions
Presumed allowable bearing values under
vertical, non-eccentric static loading
Shallow foundations
Piled foundations

6. Water Resistant Basements
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5
6.6
6.7

Rules of thumb
Establish client's
requirements/expectations
Construction options
Waterproofing options
Critical points
Construction joints
Movement joints

THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION
ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR
AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.

Ver 3.0 / Aug 98

fixed both ends Design formulae for beams . IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.Index (2/2) 6.standard lengths CHS Sections . Fire 7.4 B.8 C.3 7.propped cantilever APPENDIX C Useful Design Data C.14 C.2 A.5 Macalloy bars Composite decking [Richard Lees Ltd] [Ward Multideck 60] Purlin systems [Metsec] Precast hollow composite concrete floors [Bison] Heavy duty anchors [ Hilti-Feb 1994] THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP.mechanical properties and dimensions of typical bolts Fasteners .10 C.7 C.0 / Aug 98 .3 B.3 C.9 C.double girder Craneage data .2 7.1 C.2 D.3 D.6 C.rolled sections Safe loads for 25 tonne capacity mobile crane Standard durbar plate sections RHS sections .13 C.2 C.1 B.5 B.8 Elastic bending formulae Elastic torsion formulae Taut wires.standard lengths Carbon steel plate sections .3 A.clearance for tightening Fasteners .1 D.11 C.4 C.1 7.12 C.1 A.5 Minimum periods of fire resistance Fire protection to steel elements Fire protection for r einforced concrete Fire protection for masonry Fire requirements for timber APPENDIX A Mathematical Formulae A.4 D.4 A.double hoist Standard rail sections Typical bend radii .8 References 7. Ver 3.6 B. cables or chains Vibration Design formulae for beams cantilever Design formulae for beams .5 A.2 B.standard sizes Fasteners .simply supported Design formulae for beams .standard sizes Carbon and carbon manganese wide flats .5 C.high strength friction grip bolts Staircase dimensions APPENDIX D Proprietary Components D.7 B.15 Road transportation limitations Craneage data .6 Trigonometric functions Hyperbolic functions Standard indefinite integrals Standard substitutions for integration Geometrical properties of plane sections Conversion factors APPENDIX B Analysis Formulae B.4 7.

for windows) THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP. Spaces between column and wall zones D. 12. Centres of columns and wall zones C.16m) grids (to span full bay) Modular sizes for horizontal coordinating dimensions of spaces Dimension/space Range of space Multiples of size (mm) (mm) A.5m or 11m grids (to suit shop units) (7. for windows and doorsteps) Note: The first preference for the multiple of size in each case is 300 1.1 TYPICAL GRID DIMENSIONS1 Preferred dimensions: Offices & retail Some retail outlets Car parks 6. Ver 3.1.5 or 7.0 / Aug98 . floor to up to 3600 100 from 3600 to 4800 300 above 4800 600 100 to 600 100 above 600 300 300 to 2400 300 above 2400 600 300 to 3000 300 or 100 floor (and roof) B. 10.g.0. 9. Zones for floors and roofs C. Openings in walls (e.2. BUILDING GEOMETRY AND ANATOMY 1.5. Changes of floor and roof levels D. Openings in walls (e. Zones for columns 200 to 1800 300 or 100 from 1200 300 or 100 from 1200 300 or 100 from 600 300 or 100 and loadbearing walls B.g.2 TYPICAL SECTIONS1 Modular sizes for vertical coordinating dimensions of spaces Dimension/space Range of space (mm) Multiples of size (mm) A. Floor to ceiling. 7. Building Geometry and Anatomy (1/4) 1. 15m grids 5. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.2) x (15 .0.

Building Geometry and Anatomy (2/4) 1. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY. Ver 3.3 TYPICAL SERVICE ZONE REQUIREMENTS2 A Specified by structural engineer B 50mm deflection and tolerance C Approx. (Specified by M&E : allow for tolerence & precamber) THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP..0 / Aug98 . small power. 500mm HVAC duct or terminal device D 50mm support and tolerance E 50 . telecoms.data.1.150mm sprinkler zone F 150mm lighting and ceiling zone G Specified by Client / Architect H Raised floor .

75 2.25 5. Building Geometry and Anatomy (3/4) 1.50 80 B 2.75 2.60 13. - - - Coaches 12.00 6.80 3.50 3.4 70 B 2.5m - Car geometry .000m 1 in 7 1 in 10 1 in 10 1 in 12 If at the top of a ramp steeper than 1 in 10 the floor or roof is laid to a fall of 1 in 60 or steeper away from the ramp. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.00 - Approx.70 15.2 3.2 45 B 3.area swept for standard large car3 A ngled parking3 Parking Stall width angle parallel to aisle (m) Aisle width (one way) Bin width Minimum Preferred Minimum Preferred (m) (m) (m) (m) 90 B 2.3 60 B 2.80 13.0 Large car 5. The transition length length should be at least 3m and its gradient half that of the ramp.75 4.4 14.0 / Aug98 . 13.50 13.8 50 B 3.7 Ramp gradients: recommended maxima3 Straight ramps: Helical ramps: rise # 1.4 CAR PARKS Bay sizes (UK)3 Car type Bay Bay width length Turning circle diameter (m) Long stay General Short stay Between kerbs Between walls Standard car 4.0 14.20 14.500m rise > 1.20 min.50 15.90 15. a transition length should be provided.000m rise > 3.6 13.1.00 15.0 - Disabled persons 4.4 3.75 - 3.1 15.65 2. THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP.500m rise # 3.9 14.25 15.60 4.60 2.50 3.40 6. Ver 3.00 - 4.50 4.30 2.4 15.40 2.45 5.

If motorcaravans are to be used.300m. BS 6750 : 1986 Modular coordination in building 2. Check if there are any specific access requirements e. INSTITUTION OF STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS & INSTITUTION OF HIGHWAYS AND TRANSPORTATION. emergency vehicles. 1. Ver 3. Design Recommendations for Multi-Storey and Underground Car Parks (1984) THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP. 2. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY. OVE ARUP & PARTNERS.5 REFERENCES 1. Building Geometry and Anatomy (4/4) Headroom3 Recommended minimum height: 2.0 / Aug98 . Building Services Concept Design Guide 3.1.050m through the building.g. allow approx.

20.8 Plaster Plasterboard 15.12.1 Wet 18.1 General1.1 .15.5 Timber C18 .9 Steel 78.2.3.3.18.1 . Loads (1/4) 3.4 Gravel.0 Clay (moist) Clay (wet) Concrete 11.4.4 Standard 21. paving 22.5 .2 Mud 16.7 14.0 In bulk 11. clean Iron 8.25. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.9 .6 Water 25.8 Shale 14.1 Moist 18.4 .22.18.20 Sandstones 12.25kN/m2 0.4kN/m2 1.6 Clay (in lumps) 25.20.1/Feb 99 7.8 20.6 Dry Normal Sand 14.4 kN/m2 on plan 0.5 kN/m2 on elevation 3.7 .8 22.7 Wrought 75.0 Glass 27.0 Lightweight 18 . 3.4 Snow Foamed blocks 13. cast or rolled Limestone 111.4 Lead.8 .1 13.8 (Softwoods) C24 .2 Marble Asphalt.1 .2 kN/m2 on plan 0.3 9.8 .1 .0 .3 C In the absence of specific details.17.3 Cast 70.18.6 Mortar.0 kN/m2 on plan 2.1 In drums 11.5 kN/m2 on elevation THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP.6 Mastic Blockwork Lightweight 12.2 C30 . in lumps 8.1 3.2 DEAD LOADING 3.25kN/m2 0.20.6 .4 .7 In barrels 5. cement 18. units for load at the end of 3.27.7 Slate.2 Material Density Material Density (kN/m3) (kN/m3) Aluminium 27.8 19.3 .5 . 22 Feb 1999.19.4.4 24.4 corrected.5 kN/m2 on plan External walling: curtain walling and glazing cavity walls (lightweight block/brick) 0.0 Clay (dry) 18.25. use the following: Floor finish (screed) 75mm Ceiling boards False ceiling Services: nominal HVAC Demountable lightweight partitions Blockwork partitions 1.1 DENSITY OF MATERIALS1. Welsh Crushed stone 17.8 Oils Brickwork Concrete Facing Cement Chalk.2 Wet compact Fresh 3.18.1 0.6 20. Ver 3.1 28.8 Crushed brick 12. LOADS Rev A.6 .

5 Steel wall framing only 0.3.5 Partition Demountable Stud with lath & plaster THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP.0. Loads (2/4) 3. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.76 .65 Lead plywood C Walls Dead load on elevation (kN/m2) Wall type Composition Concrete walls 225 wall 5. the higher value is for a re-entrant profile (Holorib).5 brick leaves plastered 5.8 .25 Patent glazing: single 0.3 double 0.55 Doors .5mm brick plastered both sides 2. Ver 3.4 Lath + plaster + studding 0.2.4 Curtain wall Glazing + spandrel 1.2 Specific dead loading C Composite construction4 Layer Screed Typical Thickness Typical Dead Load (mm) on plan kN/m2 50 1.6 * The lower value is for a trapezoidal deck (Ribdeck AL).25 .5 Plate glass / 25mm thick 0. industrial type 0.2 102.2 Normal Lightweight Slab Normal 0.4 Framing + brick panels and windows 2.3 * 2.4 102. C Cladding1 Cladding Arrangement Load on Elevation (kN/m2) Cladding sheeting and fixings 0.industrial wood 0.25 100 lightweight block and plaster 1.75 225mm thick plastered both sides 4.1/Feb 99 1 on plan 0.5 brick 2.0 Acoustic wall 265 brick and block 2.9 130 Lightweight 2.15 Cavity wall two 102.3.75 Windows.2.3 .0 Masonry wall (280 cavity) Party wall both sides Internal wall 100mm lightweight block plastered both sides 1.4 12mm plaster each face 0.4 Framing + steel sheeting 0.

5 File rooms in offices 5.0 kN/m for lightweight 2 2 demountable partitions.5 2.25 Asphalt (19mm.compactus † 7.0 Book stores storage height (min 6. Ver 3.5 4.5 Domestic.7 Classrooms 3.0 4. Loads (3/4) Roofs1.58 Tiles (clay laid to 100mm gauge) 0.0 4.5 Museum floors 4. general Shops (not stock rooms) * 4.5 4. add 1.5 Description Dead load on plan (kN/m2) (Assuming flat) Bituman roofing felts (3 layers including chipping) 0. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.7 Offices.mobile racking 4.0.5 .0 4.3.55 3.5 1.0 2.0 3.0 1.0 2. 25mm) 0.7 Bedrooms (hotels.5 Rooms with mainframe computers 3.70 Concrete tiles interlocking 0.0 4.48 .0 4.5 9. floor 1.6 .5 . hospitals) 2.5) Churches 3.0 2.5 * 2. 0.reading rooms 4. adjacent to cores).0.0 Libraries storage height (min 9. Make no allowance for imposed load reductions during the scheme design except when assessing the load on foundations. THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP.6 This may increase up to 5.8 for each metre of 7.4 Factories (general industrial) 5.7 Communal kitchens 3.3 TYPICAL IMPOSED LOADING2 C C C Be generous at scheme design stage Allow for change of use and flexibility of building.6 Banking hall 3.g.5 Garages (cars and light vans) 2. Use of structure Intensity of distributed Concentrated load loading (kN/m2) Assembly areas 5.6 Gymnasia 5.29 Ceiling tray/panels 0.1/Feb 99 .62 .5 Corridors 4.8 2.6) Plant / motor rooms etc.0 4.41.0 3. † Compact filing system (usually over a small proportion of the floor area e.0 3.0 3. 7.0 kN/m depending on the clients requirements.4 for each metre of 7.0 Grandstands (fixed seats) 5.

1/Feb 99 . Metric Handbook (1970) 3.5mv 2 *c%*b Is the gross mass of the vehicle (in kg). is the deflection of the barrier (in mm). is the ceformation of the vehicle (in mm). normal to and uniformly distributed over any length of 1. Variables Mass of vehicles <2500 kg Mass of vehicles >2500 kg m 1500 mass of vehicles v 4. Ver 3. required to withstand the impact of a vehicle is given by: F' where m v δ c δ b 0.4. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY. 4) (1991) 2.3. is the velocity of the vehicle (in m/s) normal to the barrier.5 REFERENCES 1.5 δ c 10 100 Note : where δ b = 0 use F = 150 kN for mass of vehicle = 2500 kg. SCI. RICHARD LEES Ltd. Loads (4/4) 3.1 IMPOSED LOADS ON BARRIERS The horizontal force F (in kN). Steelwork Design Guide to BS 5950 (Vol. Steel Deck Flooring Systems 5. BS 6399 . Manual for the design of reinforced concrete building structures ("Green Book") (1985) 4.5 4.5m of a barrier for a car park. OVE ARUP & PARTNERS. IStructE & ICE.Parts 1 & 2 THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP. 3.4 3.

12 24 Concrete.12 75.42 E 0.30 12 78. fcu=40 (e.0 (min) 7.38 E 0.25 11 .30 16 .37 E 0.20 7 .6 900 x fk (fk in kN/mm2 or GPa) - - 4-8 (clay) 11-15 (CaSi) - - - 60 Cast iron Masonry Water Note: 9.95 0.4 E 0.33 23 27. Ver 3.20 7 .1 Properties (1/1) 4.2 ~4.1 PROPERTIES OF STRUCTURAL MATERIALS Modulus of elasticity. shrinkage and creep THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP.2 Material Steel Aluminium alloy Stainless steel Aluminium bronze See section 4.06 E 0.42 E 0.220 0. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.9 105 0. prestressed) 22 to 34 (at 28 days) 0.4 Timber C18 (softwoods) C24 C30 6.7 Wrought iron 150 .g.19 65 .12 24 205 0.4.2 (min) 0.06 E - - ~3.42 E 0. E (kN/mm2 or GPa) Shear modulus (units of E) Poisson’s ratio Thermal expansion ( x 10-6 K-1) Density Concrete.8 ~4. fcu=35 21 to 33 (at 28 days) 0.4 E 0.0 / Aug 98 .06 E 0.5 70 0.25 11 .8 The values given for concrete above are typical and vary with age.2 (min) 8.13 70.

250 200 200 150 150 100 100 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 4 5 6 7 Multiplespan span (m) Multiple (m) 8 9 10 11 12 Multiplespan span(m) (m) Multiple Slabs requiring support from columns only 600 800 Troughedslabs slabs Troughed Flat slabs slabs Flat 550 700 600 100 10 Slab depth (mm) Slab depth (mm) 2 Liveload loadkN/m kN/m2 Live 7.5 5 350 2.1 RULES OF THUMB 1. Loads: 1. main steel. Materials in-situ: C35 concrete.4.7 Span/depth ratios for slabs Slabs requiring support from beams 600 600 One-way solid One-way 550 500 450 2 Liveload loadkN/m kN/m Live 400 Slab depth (mm) 500 Slab depth (mm) Two-waysolid solid Two-way 550 10 2 7. 750 mm 150 300 500 10 450 22 Live Liveload load kN/m kN/m 7.0 2.2 Reinforced Concrete (1/14) 4. Ver 3.2 REINFORCED CONCRETE 4.2.5 300 250 200 200 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Multiple span (m) Multiple span (m) 2 Design assumptions : 3 spans. Exposure: mild exposure conditions and 2 2 one hour fire resistance. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.0 500 d 400 2.5 5. fy = 460N/mm .0 350 2. fy = 250 N/mm THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP.2 / August 00 .5 400 5.5 5. mild steel links.5kN/m has been allowed in addition to self-weight for finishes and services.5 300 250 450 400 10 2 Live Liveload loadkN/m kN/m2 350 300 7.

Exposure: mild exposure conditions and one 2 hour fire resistance.4. Materials in-situ: C35 concrete. 300 300mm 700 600 500 25 kN/m 400 300 200 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 200 kN/m 700 100 kN/m 600 500 25 kN/m 400 300 one layer of reinforcement two layers of reinforcement one layer of reinforcement two layers of reinforcement 200 11 4 12 5 6 7 8 11 12 'T' mmwide wideweb web ‘T’beams. Ver 3. beams.600mm 600 mmwide wideweb web ‘T’'T'beams.1200mm 1200 mm wide web ‘L’ wide web 800 200 kN/m 800 50 kN/m 100 kN/m Beam depth (mm) Beam depth (mm) 900 'L' mmwide wideweb web ‘L’ beams. T beam width = Beam span / 3. Loads are Ultimate.2 / August 00 .7 Span/depth ratios for beam 1000 900 'L'beams. beams.2 Reinforced Concrete (2/14) 1. THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP. beams. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY. fy = 460N/mm .5. main steel. 2400 2400mm 100 kN/m 13 14 15 16 200 kN/m 800 200 kN/m 800 400 kN/m 400 kN/m Beams depth (mm) Beam depth (mm) 10 900 beams. 900 9 Multiple span (m) Multiple span span (m) Multiple 1000 50 kN/m 700 700 600 600 50 kN/m 500 500 50 kN/m 100 kN/m 400 400 300 300 one layer of reinforcement two layers of reinforcement 200 one layer of reinforcement two layers of reinforcement 200 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Multiplespan span(m) (m) Multiple 11 12 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Multiplespan span(m) (m) Multiple For the depth of a single span look up size at span +2% Design assumptions : Beam self weight (extra over an assumed 200mm depth of slab) allowed for and included.

7 2 2 Column area where fcu = 35 N/mm and fy = 460 N/mm is as follows (N is axial force in Newtons):1% steel : Area = N/15 2% steel : Area = N/18 3% steel : Area = N/21 Approximate method for allowing for moments: multiply the axial load from the floor immediately above the column being considered) by: 1.00-corner columns but keep the columns to constant size for the top two storeys. Ver 3.2 Reinforced Concrete (3/14) 2 Typical column size .50-edge columns 2.4.2 / August 00 .also see section 4. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY. THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP. braced column = clear height / 17.2.25-interior columns 1.6 Minimum column dimensions for 'stocky'.

100 kg/m Reinforcement availability Standard sizes (mm): 6. 12.150 kg/m 3 60 .45 400 C50 . 16.220 kg/m 3 220 .if less than 1000mm high then 150mm thick is usually allowable.severe rain. occasional freezing 40 30 Very severe .abrasive action.50 3 Minimum cement content (kg/m ) 275 300 325 350 C30 C35 C40 C45 Lowest grade of concrete 1 Cover to all reinforcement *These covers may be reduced to 15mm provided that the nominal maximum size of aggregate does not exceed 15mm. vehicles 60† Maximum free water/cement ratio 0.sea water spray. 20.2 / August 00 20* 20 25 30 50 0.2 Reinforced Concrete (4/14) Typical wall thickness At least 200mm thick (usually 300mm) for normal loads .condensation. acidic water.65 0. soil 35 30 25 Severe . IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY. NOTE : This table relates to normal-weight aggregate of 20mm nominal size. Internal walls: Thickness > Height/15 (unrestrained at top) Thickness > Height/30 (restrained at top) 2 Minimum size of elements 6 Where different. 8. † Where concrete is subject to freezing whilst wet. 25. salts 50† 40† Extreme . mm Columns fully exposed width to fire Cover Beams width cover Slabs with plain soffit thickness cover Slabs with ribbed open thickness soffit and no stirrups width of ribs cover 2 Cover to main reinforcement 4h 450 25 (35) 240 (280) 70 (80) 170 45 (55) 150 150 55 Fire Rating 2h 300 25 (35) 200 50 125 35 115 110 35 1h 200 20 (25) 200 45 100 35 90 90 35 Nominal cover Conditions of exposure Mild . 10.300 kg/m 3 40 . 2 Reinforcement weights These values are approximate and should be used only as a check on the total estimated quantity: Pile caps Rafts Beams Slabs Columns Walls - 3 110 .4.70 kg/m 3 125 . Ver 3. severe freezing. 32.160 kg/m 3 130 . 40 Standard lengths: > 12mm diameter: 12 metres < 12mm diameter: from a coil THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP.60 0.protected from adverse conditions 25 20 20* 20* Moderate . values for Hong Kong are in brackets. air-entrainment should be used.55 0. Member Minimum dimension.

2 1.4 1.0 1.3 BEAMS3 2 For high-tensile reinforcement: fy = 460 N/mm 2 For mild steel: fy = 250 N/mm Bending 2 Mu = 0.2.6 (1.29 bw and ≤ (i) actual flange width.PNAP 18F is followed.2 * For pressures arising from accidental head of water at ground level.5hf) for flanged beams.0.2 Reinforced Concrete (5/14) 4.8 d where b equals: Simply Continuous Cantilever supported T-Beam bw + L / 5 bw + L / 7.d′) Mu + A s' 0.2 LOAD FACTORS3 Partial safety factors for loads (Values in brackets are for H.4 & 1.7) 0 1.4.K. wind and imposed 1. THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP.87 f y 0. En 1. then the neutral axis is in the web and the above formulae are not correct.4* 2. The 'adverse' and 'beneficial' factors should be used so as to produce the most onerous condition. Ver 3.0 1.2 1.4 fcubfhf(d-0.6 provided the procedure outlined in .4* 1. Note : The HK dead & imposed factors can be reduced to 1. Gk Imposed.15 f cu b d2 0.8 d If: M > Mu → compression steel required As ' = As = M .2 may be used. Dead and imposed 1.87 f y (d .4 3. Dead.4 (1.2.14 bw L-Beam bw + L / 10 bw + L / 14.2 / August 00 . Qk Earth and Wind W k loading where present) adverse beneficial adverse beneficial water.5) 1. 4.156 fcubd If: M < Mu → no compression steel As = M 0.) Load type Load combination (including earth and water Dead.2 1. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY. a partial factor of 1.2 1.2 1.87 f y 0. (ii) beam spacing NOTE: If M > 0. Dead and wind 1.

0020 bwh 0.6 N/mm typical maximum 2 NOTE: Asv is the total cross-section of the link(s) in mm (2 legs for a single closed link.0013 bwh 0.beam over a continuous support): L .5vc Grade 250 (mild steel) links equal to 0.0 N/mm typical maximum 2 For ribs 0.04 bwh 3 Shear Minimum provision of links in beams 2 Value of v (N/mm ) Area of shear reinforcement Less than 0. except in members of minor structural importance such as lintels 0.2 / August 00 .4 bw/b > 0.0018 bwh 0. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.18% of the horizontal section throughout the beam. 0. sv is the link spacing along the member.95fyv (vc+0.4) 0. Ver 3.beam Transverse reinforcement in flanges of flanged beams (may be slab reinforcement) Minimum compression reinforcement: 0.002 bwh 0.4)<v v< 0.4b w s v Minimum links for whole length of beam A sv > 0.0015 hf per metre width Rectangular beam Flanged beam web in compression: Maximum reinforcement (tension and compression): Normally main bars in beams should be not less than 16mm diameter. d < 400 THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP.002 bh 0.2 Reinforced Concrete (6/14) 2 Maximum and minimum areas of longitudinal reinforcement for beams Minimum tension reinforcement (fy = 460 N/mm²) Rectangular beams with overall dimensions b and h Flanged beams (web in tension) : bw/b < 0.4.4 Flanged beams (flange in tension T .95 f yv 2 For beams 2.0026 bwh 0.5vc<v<(vc+0.8 √fcu and < 5 N/mm A sv > b w Links only provided 2 s v (v − v c ) 0.002 bh 0. 4 legs for double closed).

2.063 Fl - Shear Ultimate shear check at column face Column (inc. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.5lx then one-way spanning.5 F .4. Dead load factor = 1. Ver 3. 3.2 / August 00 Interior supports -0. head) 300 x 300 Note: For column sizes other than 300 x 300 the slab depth should be multiplied by the factor = (column perimeter/1200) Notes: 1.85. 5. The value of d/h is assumed to be 0. else M = wlx ly kNm/m 24 Design for bending as for beams (in 2 directions) lx Continuous one-way spanning: Bending moments and shear forces for one-way slabs End support End span Penultimate support Moment 0 0. The ratio of Veff/V is assumed to be 1.086 Fl -0. 4.063 Fl 0.4.4 SLABS Bending 3 Simply supported on all sides: ly ly > 1.2 Reinforced Concrete (7/14) 4. THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP.6 F Interior spans 0.4 F 0.6. Live load factor = 1.086 Fl Shear 0.2.15. fcu = 35 N/mm².

85.2 / August 00 . THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP. The ratio of Veff/V is assumed to be 1.6) Column 500 x 500 Punching shear check at first perimeter for preliminary design (vc = 0. 5.6) Notes: 1. Dead load factor = 1. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY. 2. 4.4. fcu = 35 N/mm². 3. Ver 3. The value of d/h is assumed to be 0.2 Reinforced Concrete (8/14) Column 300 x 300 Punching shear check at first perimeter for preliminary design (vc = 0.6.15. Live load factor = 1.4.

6 1.36 1.6 0 1 2 3 M/bd 4 5 6 2 Compression reinforcement modification factor (C3) 1.prov/bd THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP. Tension reinforcement modification factor (C2) fs = service stress in reinforcement 4 2 Modification factor 1.4 fs = 200 MPa 1.5 100 A's.5 2 2.2 Reinforced Concrete (9/14) 4.12 1 0 0.9 for flat slabs (use longer span) Basic span/effective depth ratios for rectangular beams Support Rectangular conditions sections Cantilever 7 Simple supported 20 Continuous 26 NOTE: For two-way slabs on continuous support. use shorter span.2 / August 00 3 3.8 fs = 300 MPa 0.5 1 1.5 .24 1.48 1. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.2 fs = 250 MPa 1 0.4.5 STIFFNESS3 Typically require : Total deflection Live Load + creep and < span/250 < span/350 < 20mm Criterion satisfied if span / effective depth < (Basic x C1 x C2 x C3) Typical multiplers (C1): C1 = 0.8 fs = 150 MPa 1.3 C1 = 10/span(m) for spans beyond 10m C1 = 0.2. Ver 3.8 for flanged beams with bw/b < 0.6 Factor 1.

Column size & braced. Ver 3.67 fyAsc where: fcu Ac fy Asc = characteristic strength of concrete (N/mm²) = area of concrete (mm²) = yield strength of reinforcement (N/mm²) = area of rebars (mm²) Ultimate resistance of braced stocky columns (fcu = 35) Area of section 2 (mm x < 3530 < 4411 < 5294 < 6176 < 7059 3 10 ) 200 x 450 250 x 360 300 x 300 90 200 x 525 250 x 420 300 x 350 105 200 x 615 250 x 490 300 x 410 350 x 350 122.5 200 x 700 250 x 560 300 x 470 350 x 400 140 200 x 800 250 x 640 300 x 540 350 x 460 400 x 400 160 200 x 900 250 x 720 300 x 600 350 x 520 400 x 450 180 200 x1000 250 x 800 300 x 670 350 x 575 400 x 500 200 200 x1200 250 x 960 300 x 800 350 x 690 400 x 600 240 * Note : Scheme design based on 4% rebar should be avoided if possible.2 Reinforced Concrete (10/14) 4.35 fcuAc + 0. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.6 COLUMNS Typical design of columns 3 For braced stocky columns use: Ncap = 0.2 / August 00 p=1% (kN) p=2% (kN) p=3% (kN) p=4%* (kN) 1369 1597 1863 2129 2433 2737 3041 3650 1635 1908 2225 2543 2907 3270 3633 4360 1901 2218 2588 2958 3380 3803 4225 5070 2168 2529 2950 3372 3854 4335 4817 5781 . clear storey height limit (mm) THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP.2.4.

IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY. Ver 3.2 Reinforced Concrete (11/14) 2 Column interaction diagrams N bhfcu N h2 fcu M h3 fcu M bh 2 fcu N bhfcu N h2 fcu M bh 2 fcu THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP.4.2 / August 00 M h3 fcu .

11 3.2 Reinforced Concrete (12/14) 4.90 5.11 0. assume long term shrinkage strain of 300 x 10 -6 Creep For normal situations.27 3.09 36.36 49.57 25.8 BAR AND MESH AREAS AND WEIGHTS5 φ = diameter (mm).09 12.96 31.02 19.96 2.58 21.73 16.05 15.50 42.78 1.27 1.39 38.05 2262 1504 1131 905 754 646 566 452 377 4022 2675 2011 1609 1341 1149 1006 804 670 Weight (kg/m²) 12 16 17.88 24.84 8.22 77.52 98.74 7.7 CREEP & SHRINKAGE Shrinkage For normal situations.89 0.10 5.69 22.53 9. width 10 12 16 20 1570 1044 785 628 523 449 393 314 262 6 8 10 4.90 6.79 12.25 21.07 4.91 65.32 8.07 31. assume creep coefficient of φ = 2 Hence long term E value: E = E28 1+ φ 4.92 5.86 8.93 4.08 51. Ver 3.2.22 1.17 63.76 56.08 2.26 THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP.55 2.44 3.46 32.13 50.42 12.27 15.64 78.88 . p = pitch (mm) φ p 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 250 300 φ p 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 250 300 6 8 566 376 283 226 189 162 142 113 94 1006 669 503 402 335 287 252 201 168 Sectional area (mm²) per m.32 5.26 1. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.63 2.52 3.83 25.95 3.33 9.26 84.88 7.44 2.46 2.66 19.63 10.76 11.04 197.85 126.2 / August 00 25 32 40 6284 4179 3142 2514 2095 1795 1571 1258 1047 9818 6529 4909 3927 3273 2805 2455 1964 1636 16084 10696 8042 6434 5361 4595 4021 3217 2681 25132 16713 12566 10053 8377 7180 6283 5026 4189 20 25 32 40 49.32 39.28 131.48 1.02 7.32 12.44 14.58 1.54 30.4.16 2.21 6.16 4.98 1.2.32 32.

2 62.222 (kg/m) n = number of bars BS Fabric reference A 393 A 252 Square A 193 mesh A 142 A 98 B 1131 B 785 Structural B 503 B 385 mesh B 283 B 196 C 785 C 636 Long C 503 mesh C 385 C 283 Wrapping D 98 mesh D 49 Stock sheet size 8 Sectional Area (mm ) 10 12 16 25 32 40 50 101 151 201 252 302 352 402 453 503 553 604 8 79 157 236 314 393 471 550 628 707 785 864 942 10 113 226 339 452 566 679 791 905 1018 1131 1244 1357 12 201 402 603 804 1006 1207 1408 1609 1810 2011 2212 2413 16 314 628 943 1257 1571 1885 2199 2514 2828 3142 3456 3770 20 491 982 1473 1964 2455 2945 3436 3927 4418 4909 5400 5891 25 804 1608 2413 3217 4021 4825 5629 6434 7238 8042 8846 9650 32 1257 2513 3770 5026 6283 7540 8796 10053 11309 12566 13823 15079 40 25.72 9 100 636 6 400 70.5 100 49 0.2 Reinforced Concrete (13/14) 2 φ 6 n 1 28 2 57 3 85 4 113 5 142 6 170 7 198 8 226 9 255 10 283 11 311 12 340 6 φ Perim.54 2.854 6.313 9.16 8 200 252 8 200 252 3. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.52m² THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP.8 5.8 78. Ver 3.73 5 100 196 7 200 193 3. 18.864 Cross wires Nominal Longitudinal wires mass per Nominal Nominal Pitch Area Pitch Area square wire size wire size (mm) (mm²) (mm) (mm²) metre (kg) (mm) (mm) 10 200 393 10 200 393 6.888 1.579 2.34 7 100 385 5 400 49 3.466 3.9 10 100 785 8 200 252 8.8m Width 2.8 6.2 / August 00 20 .7 50.55 8 100 503 5 400 49 4.53 6 100 283 7 200 193 3.1 31.41 6 100 283 5 400 49 2.02 6 200 142 6 200 142 2.77 Length 4.4.4m Sheet area 11.6 0.5 125.616 0.5 100 49 2.61 5 200 98 5 200 98 1.14 8 100 503 8 200 252 5.4 37.93 7 100 385 7 200 193 4.395 0.95 7 200 193 7 200 193 3.8 (mm²/mm) Weight 0.5 100.54 12 100 1131 8 200 252 10.05 10 100 785 6 400 70.22 5 200 98 5 200 98 1.

419 0.785 0.804 0. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.714 2.257 1.673 0.670 0.257 1.878 3.645 1.603 0.131 1. Reinforcement detailing manual (1990) 6.H.785 0.4.431 0.262 2. Manual for the design of reinforced concrete building structures ("Green book") (1985) 3.810 1.357 1.885 1. Part 1: 1985 Code of practice for design and construction 4.898 0. Goodchild C. Handbook to BS 8110 (1987) 5.262 1.939 1.503 0.450 1.262 1.698 0.131 1.393 2.628 0.942 0.574 0.---Area 8 10 12 101 2 Link Spacing 100 125 150 175 200 225 250 Sv 275 300 325 350 375 400 1.725 0. 2. OVE ARUP & PARTNERS.005 0.005 0.571 0.967 0.754 0.393 226 2.468 2.346 1.714 1.619 0.044 0.524 0.142 2.786 5.366 0.508 1. REINFORCED CONCRETE COUNCIL.928 0.005 0.628 0. Ver 3.898 0.804 0.754 471 4.447 0.503 0.2 Reinforced Concrete (14/14) Shear reinforcement Asv / Sv values for links No.885 1.862 0.268 0.016 2.795 1.356 2.857 0.011 1.712 3.293 1.785 452 4.536 0.047 0.9 REFERENCES 1.206 1. BS 8110.483 0.804 0.287 0.097 1.251 157 1.234 1.131 302 6 3.392 1.094 1.005 0.402 0.309 0.565 151 3 1.862 0.005 0.088 1.823 0.178 1.524 3.670 0.939 1.969 0.094 1.402 0.894 0.377 236 2. Reinforcing Links Issue IIA.011 1.047 0.905 0.396 1.429 4.770 3.608 1.393 3.670 0.646 0.548 0. 7.574 0.340 1.731 0.571 1.810 1. IStructE & ICE.178 679 6.696 1. 1996.714 2.016 2.508 1.2 / August 00 .257 1.413 2. THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP.335 0. HK.571 1.464 0.585 2.619 3.603 0. June 1997.508 1.047 0.206 1.696 0.262 2.293 1.848 201 4 2.905 0.149 1. Structural use of concrete.810 1.754 0.571 1.206 1.356 1.508 1.340 1. Economic Concrete Frame Elements (1997).838 0.589 339 3.723 1.011 1.524 3.513 2.696 4.346 1.503 314 3.016 2. PALLADIAN PUBLICATIONS.2.508 1.142 2. of Legs Bar Dia.449 0.571 1.693 2. Code of Practice for Fire Resisting Construction.142 1.

4. Allow sufficient cover for (at least) nominal bending reinforcement over the columns.3 PRESTRESSED CONCRETE 4. in both directions (typically T16 bars in each direction). stressed from both ends.3. Effect of restraint to floor shortening Post-tensioned floors must be able to shorten to enable the prestress to be applied to the floor. Typical span/total depth ratios for a variety of section types of multi-span prestressed floors2 . Maximum length of slab 50m. bonded. THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP.0 / Aug 98 . 1 to 2 N/mm² Cover Take minimum cover to be 25mm. stressed from one end only. Mean prestress Typically: P/A .1 RULES OF THUMB Advantages of using prestressed concrete ! Increased clear spans ! Thinner slabs ! Lighter structures ! Reduced cracking and deflections ! Reduced storey height ! Rapid construction ! Water tightness Note: use of prestressed concrete does not significantly affect the ultimate limit state (except by virtue of the use of a higher grade of steel).3 Prestressed Concrete (1/6) 4. 25m. Ver 3. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY. bonded or unbonded.

IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY. Ver 3.0 / Aug 98 .3 Prestressed Concrete (2/6) [Typical span/total depth ratios for multi-span prestressed floors (cont. THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP.4.)] .

3. details not yet published 4.090 1670 232 195 ± 10 12.0 223 1.3 Prestressed Concrete (3/6) 4.7 150 1. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.408 1770 92 195 ± 10 15.4.0 / Aug 98 .298 1860 70 195 ± 10 Compact/ 18.557 1770 125 195 ± 10 9.3 52 0.2 165 1.432 1860 102 195 ± 10 8.3 COMMON TENDONS1 No.730 1770 164 195 ± 10 11.3 75 0.0 71 0.3.9 100 0.5 93 0.890 1860 209 195 ± 10 Super * 279 also available. strands per 70% Internal duct for 15. Ver 3.2 139 1.7mm UTS sheath "super" strand (kN) (mm) Anchor sizes Jack a b c Length (mm) N (mm) Stroke (mm) 1 186 25 7 1299 65 175 210 270 630 350 150 12 2226 75 200 245 300 750 390 250 15 2783 85 750 390 250 19 3525 95 250 315 375 900 510 250 27 5009 110 300 365 450 950 610 250 37 6864 130 375 450 525 1000 720 250 THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP.2 COMMON STRANDS4 Nominal Steel area Mass Nominal tensile Characteristic diameter (mm2) (kg/m) strength breaking load elasticity (N/mm²) (kN) (kN/mm2 or GPa) (mm) Standard Modulus of 15.7 112 0.750 1700 380 195 ± 10 Dyform 15.180 1770 265* 195 ± 10 12.0 38 0.6 55 0.785 1860 186 195 ± 10 11.590 1860 139 195 ± 10 9.295 1820 300 195 ± 10 12.

33fcu (0. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.0 N/mm2 Class 2: 2N/mm2 post-tensioned 0.3 Prestressed Concrete (4/6) 4.4 EQUIVALENT LOADS6 ∆ 4.4.5fci compression: 0.5 ALLOWABLE STRESSES AT SERVICE LOADS In service Compression beams: At transfer 0.6 ULTIMATE BENDING STRENGTH6 For rectangular beams or T beams with neutral axis in flange: fpe fpu THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP.3.25fcu Tension bending: 0.36 %(fci) Class 3: See BS 8110 4.3. Ver 3.3.4fcu at supports for indeterminate beams) columns: 0.0 / Aug 98 .4fci Class 1: No tension 1.45 %(fci) 3N/mm2 pre-tensioned 0.

7 SHEAR Require that vu < 0.8 %(fcu) and 5N/mm2 Except that inclined tendons may contribute to a reduced effective shear force on the concrete provided the shear zone is not cracked in bending at Mult.85 5. Dead load factor = 1. The ratio of Veff/V is assumed to be 1.3.8 %fcu For fcu = 35 N/mm² increase slab depth by a factor of 1. head) 300 x 300 Note: For column sizes other than 300 x 300.6 4.15 6. fcu = 40 N/mm² 2. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.0 / Aug 98 .14 THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP.4 3. the slab depth should be multiplied by the factor (column perimeter/1200) Explanation Information to be used in conjunction with the graph: 1.06 For fcu = 30 N/mm² increase slab depth by a factor of 1.4. For fcu < 40 N/mm² the maximum shear stress is 0. Ultimate shear check at column face Column (inc. Live load factor = 1. Ver 3. The value of d/h is assumed to be 0. The maximum shear stress for fcu = 40 N/mm² and more is 5 N/mm².3 Prestressed Concrete (5/6) 4. These curves do not take account of elastic distribution effects 7.

June 1991 3.75 N/mm²) 4.4. Ropes and Lifting Gear 4. PSC FREYSSINET. The ’K’ Range 2.8 REFERENCES 1. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.75 N/mm²) Column 500 x 500 Punching shear check for preliminary design (vc = 0. Ver 3. BRIDON ROPES. ARUP. Handbook to BS 8110 (1987) THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP. Notes on Structures 18. Notes on Structures 29. ARUP. High tensile steel wire and strand for the prestressing of concrete 5. June 1989 6. PALLADIAN PUBLICATIONS. BS 5896 : 1980.3.3 Prestressed Concrete (6/6) Column 300 x 300 Punching shear check for preliminary design (vc = 0.0 / Aug 98 .

4. Ver 3. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY. increase Ireq by 1.3 + Precamber by L/250 ! Initial scheming chart One-or-two spans: Read depth directly from chart Multiple spans: Deduct 50mm from depth estimated by chart THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP.0 / Aug 98 .4.4 Steel (Non-composite) (1/21) 4.4 STEEL (NON-COMPOSITE) 4.1 RULES OF THUMB ! Choice of beam system Element Floor Beams (UB’s) Typical Span/depth Typical Span (m) 15-18 up to 12m (including floor slab) Plate girder 10-12 Slimfloor (steel only) 25-28 6-9m Castellated UB’s* 14-17 12-20m Lattice girders (RSA’s)+ 12-15 up to 35m Lattice girders (Tubular) 15-18 up to 100m Roof trusses (pitch>20O) 14-15 up to 17m Space Frames 20-24 up to 60m * Avoid if high point loads.

Note: Grade 50 not readily available from stockholders. ! Struts and ties Slenderness limits: .3 x 3.6 Portal Frames .305 UC for buildings up to 8 storeys high. For top storey: Prelim. .7 x 5.4 Steel (Non-composite) (2/21) 4. ! Columns Preliminary design based on a concentric axial load (see section 4.7 x 5. Typically.9 x 3.3 x 5.Stanchion depth = span / 50 (approx.5O .254 UC for buildings up to 5 storeys high.1 x 3. .see section 2. design axial load = total axial load + 2 × difference in Y-Y axis load + 1 × difference in X-X axis load Typical maximum column sizes for braced frames: .Rafter depth = span / 60 (approx.356 UC for buildings from 8 to 12 storeys high.members normally acting as a tie but subject to load reversal due to wind: 8#350 Minimum CHS sections which satisfy slenderness limits Slenderness Limit 180 250 350 ! Effective Length (m) 4 6 8 10 12 76.) .0 139.not high bay) THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP.4).7 x 5.6 76. Ver 3.4.0 139.2 x 4.1 x 3.members resisting self weight and wind only: 8#250 .0 88.4. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.6 114. --. design axial load = total axial load + 4 × difference in Y-Y axis load + 2 × difference in X-X axis load For intermediate storey: Prelim.4.2 60.3 x 3.2 168.6 76.0 / Aug 98 .6 x 3.0 114.1 x 3. Therefore expect a 6 week additional lead in time.3 x 3.7 x 5. .Hauch length = span / 10 . grade 50B sections cost 5% by weight more than grade 43B --.203 UC for buildings up to 3 storeys high.2 42.0 114.Haunch depth = rafter depth (same section) .2 139.1 Rules of thumb (Cont’d) ! Steel grades Generally grade 50 (Fe 510) (S 355)is most economical for quantities over 40 tonnes.3 x 3.2 193.members resisting load other than wind: 8#180 .3.Minimum rafter slope = 2.2 60.

4 1.3 DESIGN STRENGTH Grade BS 4360 : 1986 Thickness py Grade BS 4360 : 1986 Thickness Py (BS EN 10025 : 1990) (mm) (N/mm²) (BS EN 10025 : 1990) (mm) (N/mm²) 43 (Fe 430) (S 275) # 16 # 40 # 63 275 50 (Fe 510) (S 355) 355 255 # 16 # 40 # 63 < 100 245 < 100 325 265 345 340 4.2 1.4 1. (and for non equal flange beams) m = 1.0 1.57 + 0. Dead + imposed + Wind 1. Dead + imposed 1.4 BEAM DESIGN Ultimate strength in bending Compression flange restrained Compression flange unrestrained: Mcx = pySx Å 1.33$ + 0.4 1.43 $ is positive for single curvature. whichever is greater 4.3 1.4.1$2 Ã 0. Dead + Wind 1.2 (1.2) 4.4 (1.0 / Aug 98 . Dead + imposed + 1. $ is negative for double curvature. Ver 3.0 1.0 THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP.2 LOAD FACTORS Loadcase Dead Load Imposed Load Wind Temperature (1.0 - - 1.4.2 1.5/23) Requirement : Requirement : Mcx $ Mmax Mb $ mMmax (for beam not loaded between restrained points) where m = 0.0 1.3 - - notional horizontal* * Notional horizontal load: 1% of factored dead load at each level or 0.4 1.4.4 Steel (Non-composite) (3/21) 4. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.2) 3. Conservatively.6 0 - 2.4.5% of factored dead plus live load at each level.2) adverse beneficial adverse beneficial 1.2 pySx (plastic & compact) Mb = pbSx Å Mcx (see restrained beam) Mcx = pySx (semi-compact) Note : Mb obtained directly from graph (P.

3 5.4 1.3 2.1 3.3 6. 153 GRADE 43 D×b×Mass (mm×mm ×Kg/m) Mcx kNm 356×406×634 356×406×235 356×368×202 356×368×129 305×305×283 305×305×97 254×254×167 254×254×73 203×203×86 203×203×46 152×152×37 152×152×23 3490 1240 1050 601 1300 397 641 272 259 137 85 45.1 8.2 4.0 4100 3660 3760 2840 2840 2420 2490 2010 2080 1640 2440 1500 1670 1360 1440 1080 1100 821 1030 728 853 652 591 533 706 517 488 438 510 395 588 466 440 377 404 327 355 314 278 251 Pv kN Intermediate masses (kg/m) 4410 1460 1300 788 2000 649 1150 465 598 316 279 198 551.1 6.1 6.1 7.7 2.5 15.5 6.9 6.9 7.3 4.3 6.5 4.2 1.1 5.8 5.9 0. 198.3 2.8 2.5 4.2 3.1 1.3 5.6 9. 82. 118 132.0 10.3 2.8 2.5 9.6 12.3 6.0 7.5 1.5 2.8 5.4 2.8 10.0 2. 158 & 137. 67.2 5.4 12.9 8.7 1.2 2.5 1.0 1.8 3.3 4.1 1.8 4.6 L1 m L2 m L3 m L4 m (1.6 5.9 4.1 1.3 3. 60 57.8 4.8 2.2 0.0 2.4 4.6 5.2 2.5 2.3 7.9 2.2 3.9 6.8 2.9 Universal Columns Pv kN 3150 2810 2890 2180 2180 1860 1910 1550 1600 1260 1870 1150 1290 1050 1110 837 847 636 791 564 661 505 458 413 547 401 378 339 395 306 456 361 341 292 313 253 275 243 215 194 Mcx kNm 6020 5270 4280 2840 3110 2320 2440 1760 1910 1360 2540 1550 1410 1020 1090 731 777 523 622 389 536 373 316 255 430 244 232 192 300 222 251 192 170 120 202 125 127 93 111 82 L1 m L2 m L3 m L4 m (1.7 1.8 Pv kN 3320 1120 1000 605 1500 503 883 360 459 245 216 153 Mcx kNm 4520 1620 1370 782 1730 512 834 318 338 159 110 58.3 3.6 1.7 8.8 0.3 12.9 4.6 4.6 4. 101.8 2. 393.6 13.4 6.1 2.7 3.6 1. 51 46 42 28 37 25 GRADE 50 L1 m L2 m L3 m L4 m (1.8 2.8 4.7 4.1 1.5 2.5 4.0 8.1 2.6 1.5 5.3 4.2 8.4.2 4.5 2.3 0.2 8.5 1.3 13.1 3.7 2.5 2.9 1.7 1.6 2.0 3.5 3.7 6.2 3.3 2.3 4.0 3.4 Steel (Non-composite) (4/21) BENDING Universal Beams GRADE 43 D×b×Mass (mm×mm ×Kg/m) Mcx kNm 914×419×388 914×419×343 914×305×289 914×305×201 838×292×226 838×292×176 762×267×197 762×267×147 686×254×170 686×254×125 610×305×238 610×305×149 610×229×140 610×229×101 533×210×122 533×210×82 457×191×98 457×191×67 457×152×82 457×152×52 406×178×74 406×178×54 406×140×46 406×140×39 356×171×67 356×171×45 356×127×39 356×127×33 305×165×54 305×165×40 305×127×48 305×127×37 305×102×33 305×102×25 254×146×43 254×146×31 254×102×28 254×102×22 203×133×30 203×133×25 4680 4100 3340 2220 2430 1800 1900 1370 1490 1060 1980 1460 1100 794 849 566 592 405 477 301 415 289 245 198 334 213 180 148 232 172 194 149 132 92. 74 74.5 5.7 5. 92 89.3 4.5 4.5 1.4 1.1 4.0) (0.1 11.2 GRADE 50 L1 m L2 m L3 m L4 m (1.5 10.8 0.0 7. 60 67.3 4.3 2.7 6.0 1.9 0.4 Intermediate masses (kg/m) 253.3 2.6 9.3 3.2 2.9 5.0 6.3 5.3 1.0 12.2 4.1 2.5 2.5 7.8 8.9 2.0 6. 107.4 1.8 1.9 3.4 4.0 14.8 8.3 4.4 2.1 1.6 6.5 5. 224 194 173 152.4 71.5 12.1 0.6 3.5 4.5 3.8 15.4 2.2 5.5 1.4 3.6 1.5 6.3 5.7 10.6 1.8 2.7 11.0) (0.8 2.3 4.6 1.3 4.0 7.1 1.0 3.5 9.5 9.5) (0.1 7.0 14.2 7.5 3.5 3.6 15.1 2.7 6.0 2.6 2.75) (0.8 1.5) (0.5) (0.3 15.5 6.0 6.0 8.7 1.4 2.4 2.0 5.2 9.2 2.7 8.9 2.9 2.9 1.8 3.4 1.0 16.9 3.4 156 109 97.35) 6.6 6.5 5.8 10. 467.0 4.4 7.8 14.2 7.6 3.75) (0.6 6.2 4.4 5.0 5.8 5.0 10. 89 71.2 THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP.5 12.5 3.0 2.1 4.3 1.0 3.6 2.9 1.2 71.3 3.3 7.2 2.1 1.7 5. 113 109.3 0.0 8.4 4.3 6.3 4.7 3.3 3.2 11.6 5.1 4. 60.7 5.1 3.1 5.8 4. Ver 3.5 4.6 3.0 14.5 1.2 10.4 1.2 3.7 7.8 4.0) (0.6 86.8 1.8 4. 52 30 .0 13.0) (0.1 3.9 0.4 4.0 1.2 2.3 2.8 4.9 2.4 1.2 6.2 1.6 2.8 1.9 3.4 6.4 2.9 0.8 3.9 4.1 3.1 5.0 2.7 8.3 3.1 2.0 5.1 2.3 1.0 1.7 2.9 2.7 2.7 4.8 2.6 2.8 6.6 4.6 1.7 4.3 1.7 10. 140 179 125.4 10.2 7.0 7.2 1.5 8.75) (0.0 5.5 3.0 4.7 1.2 1.0 0.3 3.0 3.3 2.1 4.7 4.1 3.2 3.75) (0.35) 8.7 3.0 10.35) 3.9 4.4 1.5 1.4 6.0 / Aug 98 Pv kN 240.8 6.8 4.8 1.5 7.6 7.0 4.5 3.2 1.9 2.3 2.7 6.1 1.9 2.8 1.7 3.0 9.3 10.7 7.8 2.1 7.7 3.35) 3.6 7.3 5.3 3.0 8.3 2.5) (0.4 2.0 7.4 4.1 1.8 1.7 9.0 3.0 4.7 1.1 2.0 8. & 340.3 6.2 5.0 9.4 9.0 5.1 4.7 5.2 4.7 1.3 3. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY. 287 177.7 1.

).0 / Aug 98 .4 Steel (Non-composite) (5/21) ! Approximate Mb calculation Table is to used in conjunction with the table on P. From table L4 L3 Mcx From graph Mb = 7.43Mcx (approx.2m = 0. for Le = 6m.0m = 0.4. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.35Mcx = 5. Effective Length Example : 533x210x82UB (py = 275 Mpa) with Le compression flange = 6m. 4/23 to calculate approximate Mb. Ver 3. = 243 kNm THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP.50Mcx = 566 kNm = 0.

beam fully restrained against torsion Both flanges fully restrained against rotation on plan 0. Flanges free to rotate on plan Lateral torsional buckling .Stress of fabricated girders T D THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP.2L+2D Restraint against torsion provided only by dead bearing of bottom flange on supports. 1.0L+2D 1.85L Both flanges partially restrained against rotation on plan 0. both flanges free to rotate on plan 3.85L 1.4. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY. Flanges fully restrained on plan 2. Flanges partially restrained on plan Conditions of restraint at the ends of the beams Loading conditions Normal Destabilizing Compression flange laterally restrained.4 Steel (Non-composite) (6/21) Effective lengths of beam compression flanges Rotational restraint on plan 1.0 / Aug 98 .7L 0.0L Both flanges free to rotate on plan 1.2L+2D 1. Ver 3.0L 1.4L+2D Compression flange laterally unrestrained.2L Restraint against torsion provided only by positive connection of bottom flange to supports 1.

762 x 267 x 173 914 x 305 x 253 700 O/A Depth 1000 1243 . THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP.0 / Aug 98 Dia.4. 3. Spacing Depth 610 x 229 x 125 500 750 828 762 x 267 x 147 500 750 970 838 x 292 x 194 700 1000 1157 1000 1000 Spacing O/A Depth 1000 1219 700 1000 1235 914 x 305 x 201 914 x 305 x 289 700 700 1000 1219 914 x 305 x 289 700 1000 1243 1243 Secondary beam spacing 3m 150mm thick concrete slab of normal weight concrete All beams grade Fe 510 Beams laterally restrained by concrete slab. Spacing O/A Dia. 2. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR Ver 3.4 Steel (Non-composite) (7/21) Castellated & cellular beams Non-composite slab d Imposed loading 5+1 kN/m2 D S S SECONDARY BEAM SPAN (m) 6 9 12 15 18 Beam Size 356 x 171 x 45 457 x 191 x 67 533 x 210 x 92 686 x 254 x 125 838 x 292 x 176 Diameter 300 350 450 550 650 Spacing 450 525 675 825 975 0/A Depth 482 605 728 916 1116 MAIN BEAM SPAN (m) Secondary Beam Span (m) 6 9 12 15 18 Beam Size Beam Size Beam Size Beam Size Beam Size Dia. Spacing Depth 6 457 x 191 x 67 400 9 600 627 610 x 229 x 101 500 12 750 819 610 x 229 x 113 500 15 750 824 686 x 254 x 125 550 18 750 934 762 x 267 x 173 700 1000 1078 O/A Dia. 700 1000 1078 1235 AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY. 4. Spacing 914 x 305 x 201 914 x 305 x 253 914 x 305 x 289 700 Dia. O/A Depth 700 Assumptions 1.

2 py Zx ) Pc is the buckling capacity from table below Note: For columns in simple construction use m’ = 1. L2 = Effective length when Pc = 0.50Py. L3 = Effective length when Pc = 0.0 Note This graph shows the approximate relationship between axial capacity and effective length. L1 = Effective length when Pc = Py.4.4 Mb is obtained from the graph in 4. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.75Py. THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP.4. when determining Mb use L = 0.0 / Aug 98 .1 1.see following tables.35Py. Ver 3. L4 = Effective length when Pc = 0.4 Steel (Non-composite) (8/21) 4.4. where H = column height 1 1.5 H .4 ( Í 1.5 COLUMNS (AND BEAM COLUMNS) Local capacity check: Mx My P % % # 1 Py Mcx Mcy Py = squash load Buckling check: (minor axis failure) mN Mx m M P % % y y # 1 Pc Mb py Zy mN is the largest of mx or mLT from the equation in 4. --.4.0.

3 4.0 6.8 2.8 12.1 114. 10.1 4.9 4.3 7.7 6.2 8.9 4.7 8.8 4.4 6.3 444 0.5 1.1 4.7 355.0.9 0.2 1.8 1.3.8 1.75) (0.1 5.6 2530 0.1 306 0.3 5.5 1960 0.6 9.6 5.9 11.0 8.7 4.6 12.1 9.4 2. 10.6 5.5 11.8 3.0 8.0 16.2 10.4 4.9 1.0.7 3.4 4.0 10.2 6.9 9.8 3.9 8.7 1.6 0.8 12. 8.9 4.6 5.4 5.0 5.1 8.0 2.9 13.1 6070 1.9 8.6 3.6 3.9 0.1 1.0 5. 12.9 6.0.3 10.7 8.0 6.9 3.2 2.3 8.2 6.75) (0.7 3.0.8 4.5 7.7 3.9 0.6 5.0 7.6 4.0 3.8 9.0 6.1 0.0 3160 1.75) (0.6 9.5 3.3.8 1.1 7.0 0.6 9.7 6.0 583 0.3 1.7 0.4 1.0 363 0.1 1. 10.3 12.35) Ly1 m Ly2 m Ly3 m Ly4 m (1.1 4.1 7.7 5.7 0.4 6.4 753 0.6 2.0 / Aug 98 4.0 2.5) (0.5 8.7 3.8 8.7 10.0 6.3 3.7 3.3 6.3 5.3.8 12.5) (0.3 3.9 0.2 6.2 3.0 2.5) (0.8 16.5 9.8 5.7 139.5 13.3 3. 8.9 3.2 8.6 5.7 8.0 4260 1.6 10.4 2.9 10.5 323.0 814 1.1 9.0 8.9 5.3 6.7 4.0) (0.0 2.8 4.2 7.8 9.5) (0.6 5.4 10.3 4580 1.35) 2.3 1730 1.0 1.0.1 11.7 1.6 11.0 5.15 19800 17200 15200 12800 11000 9690 7950 6840 5980 5180 4380 9190 8090 6690 5320 4620 3970 3390 5630 4470 3620 3010 2560 2920 2410 2090 1830 1620 1300 1060 816 Ix Iy Ly2 m Ly3 m Ly4 m (1.1 5.5 3. 12.8 273.6 1.4 9.5 4.8 7.6 8.3 1.0 2400 1.3 8.2 237 0.3.7 3.3 11.6 7.3 3.6 6.5 3.0 2.3 8.2 4.8 5.7 5.3 1.6 5.0 1370 0.4 1670 1.1 3.5 4.3 589 0.0 10.0 469 0.2 9.5 1760 0.0 3550 1.6 5.0.1 5.4 8.0.3 7.6 8.3 8.2 4.3 5.9 2.0) (0.3 7.9 3.1 8.5 5.7 5.7 2.4 5.8 5.4 2.3 7. Intermediate thicknesses * (mm) Pc max kN 26300 22800 20200 17000 14700 12600 10300 89000 7780 6750 5700 12300 10500 8710 6930 6010 5160 4380 7330 5820 4710 3920 3300 3800 3140 2700 2360 2090 1680 1360 1050 Ly1 m Ly2 m Ly3 m Ly4 m (1.8 1.6 11.6 12.0 11.7 5.8 4.2 9.7 11.9 12.9 5.3 1.5 5.3 1450 1.0 8.5 10.7 2.35) 1.5 8.2 6.9 5.0 707 0.3 1.7 4.0 4.8 8.5 3100 1.3 1300 1.9 1.6 3.0 6.1 1.6 6.0 4080 1.4 7.2 1.3 9.0 924 1.9 6.1 9.4 12.1 3.6 7.9 11.1 5.8 6.2 1.1 2.0 5500 1.35) 3.7 6.0 8.1 5.6 0.7 12.0 6.7 9.7 5.6 12.8 3.7 5.0 9.3 9.1 6.2 6.4 7.5 4.2 11.8 4.7 11.0 1190 1.0 4.9 1.6 4.9 4.7 2.5 6.8 1.5 2.9 0.1 8.0 4.2 7.8 8.0.5 8.2 8.5 10.0 193.0 5.6 4.0 6.5 4.1 8.7 4.7 3. 8.8 9.3 7.0 6.6 5.3 2230 1. 1.7 5.2 4.0) (0.5 ½ Ly THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP.3 12. 12.6 5.7 1.0 1050 1.7 9.7 8.5 219.1 4.5 3.4 2.7 9.1 8.7 8.4 3.2 6.0 8.7 4.9 3.5 4.2 4.5 7.7 1.4 1.2 6.5 1.2 4.2 3.8 11.0) (0.5 9. 10.4 6.0 7.6 6.0 16.2 6.0 - 88.5 1.6 8.2 760 0.1 244.6 4.0 5.3 10.8 0.6 11.7 7.4 Steel (Non-composite) (9/21) COMPRESSION Circular Hollow Sections (CHS) Outside diameter (mm) Thickness (mm) GRADE 43 (S275) Pc max kN GRADE 50 (S355) Ly1 m Ly2 m Ly3 m Ly4 m Pc max kN (1.7 4.7 3.0.8 4.9 2.2 1440 0.9 1.3 7.5 8.5 6.0 .5 5.6 1.7 16.4 7.7 4.8 5.2 5.9 3.8 4.9 6.6 8.7 12.1 4.4.3 10.3 168. For the larger sections thicker tubes may be available.0 1.4 10.5 5.5 * Only part of the range is given.8 6.0 1120 0.7 1.3 6.9 0.5 4.5 1.5 13.7 11.4 1.75) (0.2 7.0 4700 1.9 1. Universal Columns GRADE 43 D×b×Mass (mm×mm×Kg/m) Pc max kN 356×406×634 356×406×551 356×406×467 356×406×393 356×406×340 356×406×287 356×406×235 356×368×202 356×368×177 356×368×153 356×368×129 305×305×283 305×305×240 305×305×198 305×305×158 305×305×137 305×305×118 305×305×97 254×254×167 254×254×132 254×254×107 254×254×89 254×254×73 203×203×86 203×203×71 203×203×60 203×203×52 203×203×46 152×152×37 152×152×30 152×152×23 NOTE: L x .2 4.9 0.4 5.6 5.5 GRADE 50 Ly1 m AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.1 1.5 10.3 7.2 1.0 5.6 8.3 6.7 13.4 12.0 9.9 0. 12.6 8.5 3.7 1870 1.7 8.7 7.7 1.5 12.4 6. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR Ver 3.6 344 0.2 1.9 1.0 4.5 2230 1.8 4.9 8. 10.9 2880 1.4 7.6 2.8 0.9 912 0.8 10.6 9. 8.3 1.3 5.6 8.7 2.

Assumptions : C wind loading does not control design C hinges formed at the eaves (in the stanchion) and near the apex. C Moment at the end of the haunch is 0.4 Steel (Non-composite) (10/21) 4.4.6 Portal Frame Sizing The following are simple charts for the sizing of pinned base portals. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.87M p C Stability of sections is not addressed Load W = vertical load on rafter per meter Horizontal base reaction H = H FR WL THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP.4.0 / Aug 98 . Ver 3.

4.4 Steel (Non-composite) (11/21)

Mp required for rafter : Mprafter = Mpr WL2

Mp required for stanchion : M pstanchion = Mpl WL2

THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION
ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR
AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.
Ver 3.0 / Aug 98

4.4 Steel (Non-composite) (12/21)

4.4.7 ELEMENT STIFFNESS
Serviceability check:

unfactored dead + imposed
unfactored dead + 0.8 × (imposed + wind)

Deflection limits under imposed load:
Element

Limit

! Cantilever
! Beam supporting plaster or brittle finish
! Beams supporting masonry
! Other beams
! Crane beams

L/180
L/360
L/500
L/200
L/500

! Columns
! Columns in multi-storey construction with movement sensitive

H/300
H/500

cladding.
Portal frames

! Lateral at eaves
! Vertical at apex

H/100 - H/300 *
L/250 - L/500 *

* Depends on cladding system

Load case

Minimum I to satisfy deflection limit

W

L/200

L/360

L/500

1.27 WL²

2.29 WL²

3.18 WL²

2.03 PL²

3.66 PL²

5.08 PL²

3.46 PL²

6.23 PL²

8.66 PL²

P

P/2 P/2

Note:

For castellated beams, assume a 30% increase in deflection due to presence of web openings.
L in metres; W, P in kN; I in cm4

4.4.8 CONNECTIONS
Bolted
! Assume S 275 fittings.
! Simple connections - use grade 8.8, 20mm diameter bolts
fin plates}
t = 8mm for UB’s < 457mm deep
partial depth end plates}
t = 10mm for UB’s > 457mm deep
web cleats}
! Moment connections -use grade 8.8, 20mm or 24mm diameter. Assume end plate
thickness equal to bolt diameter (25 thick with M24)
! Holding down bolts - assume grade 4.6 where possible.
Standard sizes:
M16 x 300
M20 x 450, 600
M24 x 450, 600
M30 x 450, 600
M36 x 450, 600, 750
See Appendices C12, C13, C14 for more information on bolts and fastening.
When carrying out design, it is important to consult new SCI/BCSA guidelines (Ref 3.4.5)

THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION
ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR
AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.
Ver 3.0 / Aug 98

4.4 Steel (Non-composite) (13/21)
Bolts
Shear Value
Dia

Tensile

Tensile

of

Stress

Cap

Bolt

Area

mm

mm2

kN

Single

Double

Shear

Shear

kN

kN

Bearing Value of plate at 460N/mm2 and end distance equal to 2xbolt diameter

Bearing Value of plate at 550N/mm2 and end distance equal to 2xbolt diameter

Thickness in mm of Plate Passed Through

Thickness in mm of Plate Passed Through

5

6

7

8

9

10

12.5

15

20

25

30

5

6

7

8

9

10

12.5

15

20

25

30

12

84.3

37.9

31.6

63.2

27.6

33.1

38.6

44.2

49.7

55.2

69.0

-

-

-

-

33.0

39.6

46.2

52.8

59.4

66.0

-

-

-

-

-

16

157

70.7

58.9

118

36.8

44.2

51.5

58.9

66.2

73.6

92.0

110

147

-

-

44.0

52.8

61.6

70.4

79.2

88.0

110

132

-

-

-

20

245

110

91.9

184

46.0

55.2

64.4

73.6

82.8

92.0

115

138

184

230

-

55.0

66.0

77.0

88.0

99.0

110

138

165

220

-

-

22

303

136

114

227

50.6

60.7

70.8

81.0

91.1

101

126

152

202

253

-

60.5

72.6

84.7

96.8

109

121

151

182

242

-

-

24

353

159

132

265

55.2

66.2

77.3

88.3

99.4

110

138

166

221

276

-

66.0

79.2

92.4

106

119

132

165

198

264

330

-

27

459

207

172

344

62.1

74.5

86.9

99.4

112

124

155

186

248

310

373

74.2

89.1

104

119

134

148

186

223

297

371

-

30

561

252

210

421

69.0

82.8

96.6

110

124

138

172

207

276

345

414

82.5

99.0

116

132

148

165

206

248

330

412

495

Dia

Proof

Tensile

of

Load

Cap

Bolt

of Bolt

Single

Double

kN

Shear

Shear

kN

kN

Slip Value

mm

kN

Bearing Value of Plate at 825N/mm2 and end distance equal to 3xbolt diameter

Bearing Value of Plate at 1065N/mm2 and end distance equal to 2xbolt diameter

Thickness in mm of Plate Passed Through

Thickness in mm of Plate Passed Though

5

6

7

8

9

10

12.5

15

20

25

30

5

6

7

8

9

10

12.5

15

20

25

30

12

49.4

44.5

24.5

48.9

49.5

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

63.9

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

16

92.1

82.9

45.6

91.2

66.0

79.2

92.4

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

85.2

102

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

20

144

130

71.3

143

82.5

99.0

116

132

148

-

-

-

-

-

-

106

128

149

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

22

177

159

87.6

175

90.7

109

127

145

163

182

-

-

-

-

-

117

141

164

187

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

24

207

186

102

205

99

119

139

158

178

198

248

-

-

-

-

128

153

179

204

230

-

-

-

-

-

-

27

234

211

116

232

111

134

156

178

200

223

278

-

-

-

-

144

173

201

230

259

-

-

-

-

-

-

30

286

257

142

283

124

148

173

198

223

248

309

-

-

-

-

160

192

224

256

288

-

-

-

-

-

-

THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION
ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR
AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.
Ver 3.0 / Aug 98

2 1.0 12.0 8.535 0.71 3.0 10.75.0 8.4 Steel (Non-composite) (14/21) Welded Use 6mm fillet where possible.0 5.602 0.0 5.0 22.0 25.753 0.0 8.0 6.0 2.0 6.0 10.43 1.0 10. Grade E51 Electrodes Leg length mm Throat thickness mm Capacity at 255 N/mm² kN/mm Leg length mm Throat thickness mm Capacity at 255 N/mm² kN/mm 3.0 15.0 0.0 For each 5mm of plate thickness multiply above by 4.79 12.21 3.903 1.14 2.0 2.0 20.0 For each additional run multiply above by 1.0 5.1 2.26 2.0 / Aug 98 .6 7.31 3.0 15.07 1.0 18.4 10.0 20.0 2.1 2.4.5 2.4 17.6 14.5 4.6 14.452 0.51 12.0 15.2 5.0 25.714 0.76 Fillet welds .5 12.57 3.46 THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP.0 20. Ver 3. Note: 6mm weld 8mm weld 10mm weld 1 run 2 runs 3 runs Single V butt weld in 10mm plate Double V butt weld in 20mm plate Single U butt weld in 20mm plate Double U butt weld in 40mm plate Single J butt weld in 20mm plate Double J butt weld in 40mm plate Single level butt weld in 10mm plate Double level butt weld in 20mm plate 6.0 18.8 3.4 17.2 5.5 4.5 1.93 4.0 9. Weld design Fillet welds .Grade 50 (Fe 510) (S 355) steel.81 2.893 1.4 10. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.68 3.8 3.0 18.0 22. Grade E43 Electrodes Leg length mm Throat thickness mm Capacity at 215 N/mm² kN/mm Leg length mm Throat thickness mm Capacity at 215 N/mm² kN/mm 3.0. Relative costs: 6mm fillet in downhand position 6mm fillet in vertical position 6mm fillet in overhead position 1.0 15.5 12.0 4.01 3.6 7.Grade 43 (Fe 430) (S 275) steel.0 4.0 10.0 8.0 0.0 3.

g.4.1 (1992) Environment Typical protection solution External All E-2 (three coat scheme) Internal Controlled (e.g.4 Steel (Non-composite) (15/21) 4.9 Corrosion protection Notes : Define the environment correctly. swimming pools kitchens) 1-2 External scheme E-2 Internal scheme I-2 Preparation Blast clean to Sa 2. office) Do nothing Cavity and perimeter Galvanise to BS729 Uncontrolled (e. Avoid specifying too many schemes for any one job. Ver 3.g.4. see Structural Guidance Note 5. There are many alternatives depending on the individual situations. The information given is typical.5 of BS7079 Pt A1 Primer Zinc rich epoxy 75µm DFT Barrier Two pack Epoxy Micaceous Iron Oxide 75µm DFT Undercoat Silicone Alkyd Enamel 35µm DFT Acrylated rubber undrecoat 40µm DFT Finish Silicone Alkyd Enamel 35µm DFT Acrylated rubber finish 25µm DFT THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY. warehouses) Zinc rich primer to BS 4652 Specials (e. The table takes no account of fire resistance.0 / Aug 98 2 pack epoxy zinc phosphate primer 50µm DFT . For further details.

9 33.0 5.1 6.5 32.500 0.4 22.75 3619 3219 2878 2518 391 343 301 256 4139 3673 3287 2887 611 535 470 401 0.60 1.869 0. Serial Size mm Mass per Metre Axis x-x cm4 Axis y-y cm4 Axis x-x cm Axis y-y cm Axis x-x cm3 Axis y-y cm3 Axis x-x cm3 Axis y-y cm3 u x H dm6 J cm4 A cm2 914x419 388 343 719300 625200 45440 39160 38.38 2798 2476 2297 2076 1799 320 279 257 228 192 3203 2827 2619 2366 2058 500 435 400 356 300 0.99 6564 4907 4093 1018 742 611 7462 5515 4575 1576 1143 938 0.863 30.21 3.3 17.18 1.3 35.6 33.877 0.53 5.7 21.6 1802 1624 1442 1283 1096 236 209 183 163 133 0.1 37.8 27.50 4.866 0.6 43.6 178 159 144 129 533x210 122 109 101 92 82 76180 66800 61650 55330 47520 3388 2939 2696 2389 2004 22.9 33.90 7985 6641 5892 773 620 534 9155 7640 6806 1212 974 841 0.22 7.5 37.8 9.4 105 95.867 0.9 0.862 0.88 4.1 85.51 216 154 112 77.80 308 220 169 116 217 194 178 159 610x305 238 179 149 207700 151500 124700 15850 11400 9308 26.7 43.43 5.23 4. Ver 3.3 18.872 25.869 0.9 36.1 11.820 0.82 1.0 27.923 0.387 0.866 0.856 35.0 18.50 6.4 930 626 422 294 369 323 286 257 838x292 226 194 176 339700 279200 246000 11360 9066 7791 34.24 4916 4375 3987 3481 518 455 409 346 5631 5001 4558 3994 811 710 638 542 0.4 Steel (Non-composite) (16/21) y SECTION PROPERTIES Universal Beams (1 of 2) x x y PROPERTIES Designation Moment of Radius Of Gyration Elastic Modulus Plastic Modulus Buck.884 0.6 27.876 0.04 0. Tors.1 36.8 75.6 34.6 7.4 41.33 179 126 102 76.9 30.9 3.0 / Aug 98 .869 0.4.42 6.32 1.7 31.72 4.853 31.46 5.0 33.33 4.875 0.0 41.868 0.5 4.0 24.2 26.3 33.1 21.3 51.1 18.886 0.0 8.864 27.12 1959 1775 1612 1462 1297 243 218 196 176 153 2234 2020 1832 1659 1472 379 339 304 273 237 0.2 37.24 3.27 6.8 21.1 125 114 105 95.5 18.1 19. Const Area Para.875 0.2 52.3 69.3 4.0 36.5 21.3 15.5 66.570 0.1 45.58 5.3 30.8 18.31 3.6 33.5 19.39 5.2 5.6 46.3 75.706 121 91.9 1.1 85.40 404 267 160 251 220 188 686x254 170 152 140 125 170300 150400 136300 118000 6630 5784 5183 4383 28.71 5.45 2.5 457x152 82 74 67 60 52 36250 32470 28600 25450 21370 1144 1013 879 795 645 18.5 38.8 28.864 0.5 156 139 129 118 105 457x191 98 89 82 74 67 45770 41140 37090 33430 29410 2347 2093 1871 1674 1452 19.26 3.879 0.58 9.6 THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP.857 33.3 46.06 5.1 27.1 25.871 0.42 6.1 88.9 21.39 7.874 0.859 27.6 30.2 13.08 6.46 15630 13720 2161 1871 17670 15470 3342 2890 0.6 18.0 514 306 221 289 247 224 762x267 197 173 147 239800 205200 168800 8175 6850 5462 30.5 14.27 6.8 47.6 24.873 0.3 10.8 37.99 1.8 36. Const Tors.861 0.2 30.11 1559 1408 1251 1119 950 149 133 116 104 84.9 42.6 6.2 38.10 790 340 201 304 228 190 610x229 140 125 113 101 111700 98500 87380 75820 4499 3932 3434 2915 25.876 0.9 7.6 2.7 18.881 0.872 0.57 4.870 0.99 2.66 4.60 4.20 4. Index Warp.06 10900 9503 8268 7217 1015 871 739 622 12590 10940 9533 8372 1603 1371 1163 983 0.7 30.97 4.311 89.430 0.8 25.5 30.886 0.7 1739 1193 495 437 914x305 289 253 224 201 504800 436400 376300 325900 15610 13300 1240 9433 37. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.9 3.886 21.8 35.1 37.883 26.872 0.3 9.8 66.9 24.28 4.870 0.862 31.98 3.2 5.39 6232 5385 4478 610 514 412 7164 6195 5169 959 807 648 0.871 0.2 41.03 4.

6 3.1 37. Tors.2 23.3 85.0 12.3 203x133 30 25 2888 2349 384 309 8.1 33.8 mm THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP.96 416 352 286 37.37 206 32.3 10.0 16.00998 4.5 0.0 178x102 19 1357 138 7.5 72.06 308 266 225 34.4 39.891 0.1 14. Index Warp.4 31.87 29. u x H dm6 J cm4 A cm2 Mass per Metre kg Axis x-x Axis y-y Axis x-x Axis y-y Axis x-x Axis y-y Axis x-x Axis y-y cm4 cm4 cm cm cm3 cm3 cm3 cm3 406x178 74 67 60 54 27430 24330 21540 18670 1551 1365 1201 1019 17.865 0.866 0.5 0.2 152x89 16 838 90.86 1329 1189 1060 927 173 153 135 115 1509 1346 1195 1051 268 237 209 178 0.9 14.5 76.85 752 647 563 127 108 92.9 0.4 12.883 0.2 31.0 47.4 305x102 33 28 25 6501 5439 4364 194 158 119 12.3 28.207 0.3 15.9 60.4 Steel (Non-composite) (17/21) y Universal Beams (2 of 2) x x y PROPERTIES Designation Serial Size Second Moment of Area Radius Of Gyration Elastic Modulus Plastic Modulus Buck.0153 6.83 75.00200 2.872 0.8 46.0 32.03 2.465 0.2 254x146 43 37 31 6554 5547 4428 677 571 448 10.5 12.91 3.8 305x165 54 46 40 11690 9935 8551 1061 896 766 13.3 0.5 10.8 16.9 95.33 1.889 19.9 57.2 356x171 67 57 51 45 19540 16060 14160 12080 1362 1106 968 810 15.57 41.8 889 718 119 90.3 36.72 8.7 1213 1009 895 773 243 198 174 146 0.92 16.8 47.05 38.54 3.2 11.2 7.4 47.413 0.9 254x102 28 25 22 4013 3420 2853 178 149 119 10.8 51.6 0.2 5.0182 9.5 354 307 260 54.9 10.9 30.872 27.3 568 435 395 141 119 94.49 2.889 0.3 32.7 85.4.610 0.5 0.1 14.2 0.3 26.6 0.67 613 532 471 73.859 38.75 2.287 0.69 4.3 29.0724 31.890 22.9 23.8 10.2l 2.391 63.5 33.15 2.9 44.94 3.888 23.0442 0.5 29.871 23.3 0.61 20.3 14.1 232 49.00473 3.8 843 722 626 195 166 142 0.9 8.0 2.3 22.2 171 41.35 505 433 352 92.6 406x140 46 39 15670 12410 540 410 16.5 62.1 0.864 35.40 2.195 0.0 61.1 23.155 19.1 0.103 0.6 36.876 21.0 78.6 0.0 22.4 0.0230 0.872 0.5 0.9 29.870 0.330 0.2 10.87 3.5 0.18 3.0810 14.5 127x76 13 477 56.165 34.873 0.8 36.2 37.882 0.237 55.2 42.7 85.0373 0.49 2.0857 0.9 68.5 59.9 32.2 203x102 23 2091 163 8.8 44.52 4.854 27.9 16.51 3.533 0.875 24.859 0.8 0.39 153 27.4 31.0 0.0 49.101 0.6 0.65 55.4 85.890 0.105 0.5 12.0 15.10 110 20.0 49.90 3. Const Area Para.874 0.2 0.5 4.1 13.08 1.3 313 259 88.889 22.65 49.4 6.0279 0.1 24.2 58.23 36.3 2.0 71.0660 24.7 0.7 654 539 88.0 0.6 15.893 16.0 356x127 39 33 10100 8192 358 280 14.99 3.68 6.70 2.8 14. Ver 3.7 27.881 0.2 0.880 0. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.2 37.7 46.891 0.89 779 625 75.2 14.0295 10.5 481 408 336 60.6 706 612 540 116 98.10 279 231 57.5 30.234 0.7 0.844 31.0355 0.69 2.59 573 470 56.9 3.879 21.886 0.7 33.8 38.6 57.0 22.37 24.77 1073 896 796 686 157 129 113 94.882 0.9 53.880 0.2 6.2 64.0265 12.3 124 31.47 3.97 3.4 28.4 8.0 2.5 21.1 14.1 68.5 3.4 46.6 305x127 48 42 37 9507 8159 7162 460 389 337 12.0843 0.4 41.9 3.6 54.03 3.2 0.8 2. Const Tors.0 / Aug 98 .15 2.5 25.9 70.4 0.99 3.

142 138 81.46 6.1 15.89 7.8 7.5 0.2 110 90.2 11.848 0.57 9.2 11. Const Area Para.3 18.16 8.844 0.7 0. u x H dm6 J cm4 A cm2 Mass per Metre kg Axis x-x Axis y-y Axis x-x Axis y-y Axis x-x Axis y-y Axis x-x Axis y-y cm4 cm4 cm cm cm3 cm3 cm3 cm3 356x406 634 551 467 393 340 287 235 275000 227000 183100 146700 122500 99930 79150 98190 82670 67930 55370 46850 38680 31040 18.7 13.3 10.4.39 3541 3101 2687 2266 1262 1099 946 792 3978 3455 2970 2485 1917 1667 1433 1198 0.0399 0.9 203x203 86 71 60 52 46 9461 7634 6103 5254 4565 3114 2530 2047 1767 1539 9.9 10.8 15.854 0.7 309 248 184 140 112 80.9 10.7 mm THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP.4 Steel (Non-composite) (18/21) Universal Columns y x x y PROPERTIES Designation Serial Size Second Moment of Area Radius Of Gyration Elastic Modulus Plastic Modulus Buck.18 0.02 7.852 0.0 15.82 47.1 360 305 252 201 174 150 123 254x254 167 132 10 7 89 73 29920 22550 17500 14280 11370 9792 7506 5894 4835 3880 11.74 10.3 52.0 10.0 66.85 10.12 851 707 582 510 449 298 245 199 173 151 979 801 654 567 497 455 373 303 263 230 0.849 0.195 0.3 9.5 18.847 0.558 625 321 173 103 57.848 0.1 6.8 5705 607 356x368 202 177 153 129 66330 57110 48640 40300 23630 20450 17510 14580 16.10 4.5 12.9 13.0 19.27 9.839 0.5 10.49 10.9 15.6 8078 3209 9704 4981 0.5 14.3 6.5 17.16 5.86 7.97 1.75 6.3 11.837 13.5 16.834 5.849 0.55 13730 9232 5817 3545 2340 1441 813 808 702 595 501 433 366 300 COLCORE 477 172500 68090 16.68 274 222 165 91.4 58.9 14.17 561 382 252 154 258 226 196 165 305x305 283 240 198 158 137 118 97 78800 64150 50860 38690 32770 27610 22200 24540 20220 16240 12500 10650 9006 7272 14.9 11.87 3.6 13.0 17.848 0. Const Tors.01 3.8 31.843 0.28 5.3 16.32 5.5 212 169 137 114 92.2 11.3 1.5 73.87 8.52 9.19 5. Ver 3.851 0.90 8.4 29.65 8.90 23.0 20.46 9.841 0.84 6.85 2.96 8.2 16.33 5.81 5.07 5.8 16.0 46. Index Warp.4 15.1 16.2 12.8 14.836 0.9 22.2 19.851 0.2 13.14 8.82 3.76 7.7 10.852 0.854 0.4 8.06 6.46 2070 1632 1312 1097 895 740 575 456 378 306 2418 1872 1484 1225 990 1131 877 695 574 463 0.3 38.846 10.5 14.57 6.9 15.38 1.86 2.6 9.855 0.843 0.849 8.837 0.1 24.25 8.67 6.82 7.893 0. Tors.3 10.5 17.8 152x152 37 30 23 2213 1748 1258 706 560 402 6.2 12.68 4314 3639 2993 2365 2045 1756 1443 1525 1272 1034 805 690 587 477 5101 4243 3438 2675 2293 1952 1589 2337 1945 1577 1225 1049 892 724 0.815 6.843 13.51 3.0 17.6 11.9 76.844 0.852 0.6 4.166 0.14 6.0 / Aug 98 .1 38.317 0.5 0.848 0.835 0. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.62 1.850 0.0307 0.850 7.4 14.8 17.52 6.3 12.714 0.249 0.55 2034 1270 735 376 249 160 91.4 10.2 11590 9964 8388 7001 6029 5077 4155 4631 3951 3295 2721 2325 1939 1572 14240 12080 10010 8225 6997 5814 4691 7112 6057 5040 4154 3543 2949 2386 0.0213 19.9 31.79 6.

8 121 154 191 235 295 125 155 196 243 300 376 10.4 Ratio For Local Buck.2 10.3 1910 2353 2949 3600 4367 5360 6385 75l5 2480 3070 3874 4766 5837 7261 8782 10530 97040 119500 149800 182900 221800 272200 324400 381800 3820 4706 5898 7200 8734 10720 12770 15030 1.12 1.12 1.60 Sections marked thus are not ncluded in BS4848: Part 2 Sections marked thus are seamless and rolled in grade 50B only Check availability of section THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP.6 28.4 40.37 9.3 12.3 8.5 25.4 22.60 1.02 1.12 40.8 10.78 3346 4160 5073 6147 7533 8957 10520 8.44 1.0 7929 9910 12160 14850 18390 22140 26400 8.0@ u u 49.97 8.0 10.44 1.0 + @ u Radius Of Gyration Elastic Modulus Plastic Modulus D/t I cm4 r cm Z cm3 S cm3 6.60 1.2 106 134 166 204 87.3 8.9 11.8 15.0 10.8 66.4 73.3 16.768 0.9 355.6 508.4 20.0@ 32.0@ u u u u u 123 153 194 241 298 376 462 565 u u u 457.2 12.02 1.0 20.0 12.0 Second Moment of Area A cm2 u u 406.7 13.02 1.5 16.768 0.0 12.0 121 150 184 62.44 1.44 156 195 247 307 379 479 588 719 50.2 11.8 30.7 36.0 12.9 l3.3 62.2 13.6 85.0 @ 25.4.0 10.8 13.6 24.0 12.9 18.37 8.0 Area Surf.8 40.0@ 32.0 @ 97.6 490 612 751 917 1136 1367 1630 636 799 986 1213 1518 1850 2239 15860 19820 24320 29700 36780 44280 52800 980 1224 1502 1834 2272 2734 3260 1.12 1.2 17.9 20.0@ 25. D(mm) Mass Per Metre Thickness t mm 244.5 323.6 22.81 6.0 20.0@ 25.9 80.858 0.6 16.3 64.5 16.4 17.43 9.768 0.12 1.6 28.3 1205 1478 1843 2236 2692 3269 1572 1940 2440 2989 3642 4497 48960 60060 74900 90860 109400 132900 2410 2956 3686 4472 5384 6538 1.6 102 129 159 195 43.5 16.4 109 135 171 211 260 44.10 8.1 12.1 16.0 13. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.60 1.0 @ 68.0 10.3 15.5 90.5 15.9 4696 5852 7154 8697 10710 12800 15130 9.0@ u u u u 110 137 174 216 266 335 411 10.28 1.5 35. 60 1.97 7.7 742 912 1117 1387 1676 2007 967 1195 1472 1847 2255 2738 26400 32440 39700 49320 59580 71360 1484 1824 2234 2774 3352 4014 1.0 46.4 Steel (Non-composite) (19/21) Circular Hollow Sections DIMENSIONS AND PROPERTIES Designation Outside Dia.6 122 155 191 235 51.0 @ 25.5 32.2 9.21 8.7 25.4 35090 43140 53960 65680 79420 97010 114900 15.44 1.0 11.4 20.8 1536 1888 2361 2874 3475 4246 5031 1998 2470 3113 3822 4671 5791 6977 70180 86280 107900 131400 158800 194000 229800 3072 3776 4722 5748 6950 8492 10060 1.3 12.4 52.9 79.02 13200 16220 19850 24660 29790 35680 12.6 31.0 12.0 12.8 71.0 12.02 1.02 1.5 16.0@ 40.0 @ 32.4 96.0 20.0 20. Const .7 10.1 14.858 0.30 8.31 9.60 1.6 10.3 21.28 140 175 222 275 339 427 524 45.42 8.0 20.0 20.9 10.768 0.2 11.2 16.858 0.858 0.2 48520 59760 74910 91430 110900 136100 162200 190900 17.0@ 50.3 17.22 9.768 344 429 524 637 784 938 1108 448 562 692 849 1058 1283 1543 9392 11700 14310 17390 21420 25600 30260 688 858 1048 1274 1568 1876 2216 0.768 0.7 15.28 1.28 1.3 12. kg u u 273.5 16. Ver 3.60 1.2 111 135 47.28 1.3 11.5 13.1 115 141 172 38.5 16.0+@ 37.5 17.10 7.0@ 25.7 24480 30030 37450 45430 54700 66430 14.0@ 25.5 19.6 15.3 77.3 14.44 1.3 34.28 1.8 14.3 15.5 I6.0 / Aug 98 Tors.7 91.858 0.3 8.1 59.7 57. Area Per Metre J cm4 C cm3 m2 358 448 550 673 837 1011 1210 6692 8320 10150 12290 15070 17910 21040 548 680 830 1006 1232 1466 1720 0.02 1.0 10.3 101 125 153 52.8 17.6 82.44 1.0 @ 25.4 98.0 20.0 @ u u 41.12 1.858 0.4 25.9 16.0 @ 40.6 15.858 11.9 12.60 1.1 27.l 13.81 274 340 415 503 616 733 860 6.6 17.768 0.6 32.1 11.

586 0.7 28.0+ 10.0 17.19 7.0 36.0 17.0 59.9 36.5 12.07 4. Area Axis y-y J C mm kg kg cm2 d/t b/t cm4 cm4 cm cm cm3 cm3 cm3 cm3 cm4 cm3 m2 150x100 5.0+ 85.0 54120 66360 82670 100100 24560 29970 37080 44550 18.07 5.0 21.57 1.0 9.6 23.2 22.0 13.0 33.766 300x200 6.9 28.7 16.0 9.6 30270 37180 45470 56420 12200 14900 18100 22250 16.3 37.0 73.1 35.5 35.93 4.626 0.3 8.7 22.0 10.59 5.7 17.38 1.2 41.1 95.966 400x200 8.8 15.5 16.60 5.38 3.4 28.0 48.7 57.7 23.5 47.0 10.7 112 142 93.38 1.9 48.31 3.0 9.9 29.0 22.469 0.50 5.50 7880 9798 11940 14460 17700 4216 5219 6331 7619 9239 11.2 77.0 9.629 0.0 9.73 151 185 227 272 322 381 102 124 149 176 204 235 186 231 286 346 417 505 115 1473 1802 2154 2541 2988 1202 1473 1802 2154 2541 2988 172 208 251 296 342 393 0.9 30.5 14.1 55.0+ 12.579 0.0 20.0 30.0+ 10.459 0.0 12.0 12.3 30.0 / Aug 98 .23 6. 466 0.3 11.5 53.7 28.99 8.00 6.0 6.3 12.74 5.00 94.0 12.88 6.77 4.0 21.0 10.1 60.0 10. 463 0.479 0.6 10.6 12.38 1.04 7.26 3.573 0.583 0.4 43. Thickness D B Second Moment of Area Radius Of Gyration Elastic Modulus Plastic Modulus Axis Axis Axis Axis Axis Axis Axis x-x y-y x-x y-y x-x y-y x-x Tors.4 10.3 11.14 8.5 37.0 92.37 1.0+ 6.5 55.23 8.3 27.0+ 6.6 90.0 9.0 12.28 7.0+ 6.07 3.0 28.00 5.1 115 139 165 192 62.5+ 24.4 18.75 99.0 85.486 0.483 0.0 12.3 35.2 8.33 9.7 22.9 9.9 36.0 17.86 3.19 9.5 73.0 25.88 3.2 22.6 53.7 22.17 450x250 8.00 747 910 1106 1312 1532 396 479 577 678 781 5.5 27.2 28.5 38.10 3.623 0.80 13.8 111 137 164 194 806 985 1202 1431 1680 127 153 184 215 246 0.29 8.14 4. 783 0.5 18.0 9.25 4.0 27.50 34270 42110 51510 63930 8170 9945 12020 14670 17.789 0.0 12.5 121 147 175 204 79.5 118 149 44.5 68.0 22.453 200x100 5.4 66.0 6.8 75.566 200x120 5.0 13.0 17.6 117 61.53 5.70 7.8 15.773 0.0 15.94 3.98 3.0 17.0 13.82 271 334 413 501 601 727 205 252 309 371 441 526 326 405 505 618 751 924 229 284 353 430 520 635 3275 4049 5014 6082 7317 8863 337 413 506 606 717 851 0.14 985 1207 1471 1815 669 814 982 1195 1210 1492 1831 2285 746 916 1120 1388 15720 19240 23410 28840 1135 1377 1657 2011 1.2 1345 1653 2021 2508 976 1192 1448 1780 1630 2013 2478 3103 1086 1338 1642 2047 27060 33250 40670 50480 1629 1986 2407 2948 1.7 18.7 12.6 27.0 37.9 8.20 4.619 0.86 4.58 1.28 6.42 7.10 8. 786 0.0 37.46 8.8 38.7 37. Const Surf.1 90.83 6.6 22.7 28.97 5.00 5.6 17.5 16.18 1.0@ 122 152 192 237 156 193 245 302 47.37 1.5 75.40 753 917 1113 1318 1536 251 302 361 419 476 5.00 5.3 8.473 160x80 5.0 12.0 13.5 14.3 10.3 28.00 3.5 16.627 0.0 45.2 11.0 12.57 1.5 18.60 1699 2000 2087 2564 3079 3658 767 899 937 1140 1356 1589 7.0 91.5 43.589 0.7 12.5 10.00 6.1 2165 2655 3307 4006 1638 1998 2472 2970 2609 3218 4042 4942 1834 2257 2825 3442 52400 64310 80220 97310 2696 3282 4046 4845 1.0 22.17 1.5 18.00 17.09 7.38 1.9 34.0 17.68 5.37 500x300 10.0 30.17 7.1 116 143 181 47.30 8.3 + 8.0 37.4 17.0+ 10.7 12.37 500x200 8.0 21.0 22.1 75.2 42.50 7.2 22.0 12.0 22.5 38.56 A + @ u Sections marked thus are not ncluded in BS4848: Part 2 Sections marked thus are seamless and rolled in grade 50B only Check availability of section THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP.4.50 7.0 9.67 170 200 209 256 308 366 128 150 156 190 226 265 206 244 255 316 384 464 144 171 178 220 266 319 1646 1940 2025 2491 2997 3567 210 245 256 310 367 429 0.6 34.0 20.613 250x150 5.5 48.0 17.0 12.0 12.0 12.1 10.0 37.5 93.38 3382 4178 5167 6259 7518 9089 1535 1886 2317 2784 3310 3943 9. 973 0.36 7.4 Steel (Non-composite) (20/21) Rectangular Hollow Sections DIMENSIONS AND PROPERTIES Designation Size Mass Per Metre Area Ratios for Local Buck.0 12.46 5.7 87.23 7.0 28.9 9.98 4.3 73.00 3.08 4.0 84.5 16.5 27.3 59.3 8.3 8.0 15.02 3.7 107 127 150 599 729 882 1041 1206 106 127 151 175 199 0.94 4.0 20.0 17.2 22.89 525 653 796 964 1180 422 522 633 762 924 627 785 964 1179 1462 475 593 726 886 1094 8468 10550 12890 15650 19230 681 840 1016 1217 1469 0.3 8.5 16. 986 0.31 1371 1684 2060 2557 817 994 1202 1467 1716 2119 2609 3267 900 1106 1354 1683 21100 25840 31480 38830 1430 1738 2097 2554 1.0 10.3 29.6 61. 983 0.48 8.00 6.0 28.3 8.18 1.0 13.27 9.1 45.5+ 16.50 19710 24140 29410 36300 6695 8138 9820 11950 14.2 12.65 8. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.7 43.779 0.5 16.37 5.16 6.0 10.0 16.25 1509 1851 2269 2718 3218 3808 509 618 747 881 1022 1175 7.7 106 132 167 109 136 168 213 59.6 16.0 29.0 6.2 105 119 117 144 177 213 254 71.50 17.0 13.9 115 136 156 121 148 183 220 263 90.57 8.0 9. Ver 3.19 3.39 8.0 29.5 17.5 16.3 14.1 28.9 46.71 4.7 106 132 167 109 136 168 213 53.489 0.0+ 12.979 0.1 95.2 48.0 117 47.37 7.

Volume 1: Design Rules. ARBED.0 / Aug 98 .11 References 4. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY. Simple Connections. Simple Connections. SCI BCSA THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP. 1990 6. Ver 3.4. Moment Connections. Structural shapes. SCI.4. SCI/BCSA 7. Volume 2: Practical Applications 8. Guide to BS 5950: Part 1: 1990.4 Steel (Non-composite) (21/21) 4. Volume 1 5.

88 3.6 1.6 .11 3.9 N/A up to 16 17 20 1.8 0.5. provided that the slab is continious (decking need not be) • Choice of beam system Likely span range (m) Scheme Simple construction with rolled sections As primary beams As secondary beams 6-10.9 (A142 mesh) 130 150 2.5 1.0 2.5 1.66 3.3 3.3 10-15 N/A 13 16 3.0 2.22 2.9 0.2 Haunched Beams Above 12 Above 12 25 (support) 32(midspan) 5.5 COMPOSITE STEEL AND CONCRETE 4.5 Slimfloor - 4. Ver 3.0 1.9 1.3 with reinforced openings - Fabricated sections Above 12 Above 12 15 25 1.2.73 3.3 1.3 Parallel Beam approach Spans up to 10.1 RULES OF THUMB • Typical starting point • Overall concrete depth 130mm (Grade 30) Depth of profiled decking 60mm Size beam with Z = ( Z for non-composite beam ) x F where F = 1.5 1.0 Typical maximum slab spans (m) Figures based on: Decking gauge 1 "Ribdeck AL" (Richard Lees Ltd) 2 Imposed load of 4+1 kN/m (unfactored) 2 (including floor.2 (A193 mesh) 130 150 3.78 2.5 8-18 Economic and practical maximum ratios of span to structural depth 20 28 Accommodation of major services.08 3.89 3.95 2.20 3.4.55 3. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR AOND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.5 Ribs up to 15 21 30 5.1 / Oct 00 .7 kN/m ) Unpropped For other profiles see section D2 Lightweight concrete Slab depth (mm) Normal Weight Concrete Simply Supported Continuous Simply Supported Continuous 0.7 1.0 1.4 Above 12 Above 12 12 16 1.41 Design assumes 60 minute fire resistance.5 to 9 20 - Slimdek - 5 to 7 - - Castellated sections Stub girders Composite trusses 14 18 THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP.02 2.5 Composite Steel and Concrete (1/11) 4.62 3.03 3. ceiling and services = 6. Maximum xsectional area for 15m span m² Estimated unit cost index for fabricated and erected steelwork 1.00 1.

5.5 Composite Steel and Concrete (2/11) 4. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR AOND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.4.4-3.0m spacing • Initial scheming chart Universal beams. Ver 3. 125mm concrete slab (Dotted Line on upper graph indicates that a 150mm slab may be required). THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP.1 / Oct 00 .1 RULES OF THUMB (CONT’D) • Preferred beam layout Inefficient 2 Efficient For maximum structural efficiency: Primary beams Secondary beams L secondary = 4/3 L primary 2.

6D .5D length .Position > 2D (or L/10) from support . THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP.4.10% of span Tapered beams: D = midspan depth Span/depth 15 .5 diameter Haunched beams (use as part of frame action): D = midspan depth Span/depth ≤ 35 (span/depth including slab = 26 – 28) Maximum overall depth at haunch = 2D Haunch length typically 7 .5 Composite Steel and Concrete (3/11) 4.5. If not.5D or maximum taper of 6 degrees • Openings in beams (non-seismic applications) Geometrical constraints : .8D centres = 1. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR AOND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.1 RULES OF THUMB (CONT’D) Fabricated beams Castellated cellular beams (not very good for point loads): Span/depth < 20 Castellated beams.Position > D from any point load .7D depth by 2D length . the depths of the upper and lower sections of web should not differ by more than a factor of 2.Space > D apart . hole = 0.0.1 / Oct 00 .Limit stiffened openings to 0. Ver 3.Limit unstiffened openings to 0.6D depth by 1.67D centres = 0.25 Depth at support = 0.1 -1.72D Cellular beams holes diameter = 0.Ideally positioned between L/5 and L/3 from support for beams with UDL .Openings should ideally be located mid-height.

5.2 LOAD FACTORS As for non-composite steel (see section 4.N.1 / Oct 00 yp IN STEEL WEB Case(c) .A. yp Ds.Dp Rc y p P.A.N. 0. Py RC D Py y IN SLAB p yp IN STEEL FLANGE Case (c) Case (b) THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP.5.45f cu 3 Rc yP P.N.4.3 BENDING RESISTANCE (composite condition) • Approximate moment resistance calculation P. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR AOND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.2) 4.A.4.5 Composite Steel and Concrete (4/11) 4. Ver 3.

Dp)Be • CASE (a) : Rc > Rs (P.Rc )2 T D ÷÷ = Rs + Rc çç 2 2 4 Rf è ø where T = flange thickness Rf = axial capacity of one steel flange CASE (c) : Rc < Rw (P.6 (N = 3 ) N h ba Dp = no studs/trough = stud height = average trough width = depth profile Design resistance = Design strength x rcon x rprofile • Spacing Minimum longitudinal transverse = 6φ = 4φ THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP. in concrete slab) • CASE (b) : Rs > Rc > Rw (P.4 4 SHEAR CONNECTORS Design strength of headed studs in normal weight concrete (kN) Dimensions of stud shear connectors (mm) Diameter Nominal height As-welded height 100 100 100 75 75 65 25 22 19 19 16 13 95 95 95 70 70 60 Design strength of concrete (N/mm²) 25 30 35 40 117 95 76 66 56 35 123 101 80 70 59 38 129 106 83 73 62 39 134 111 87 77 66 42 For concrete of characteristic strength greater than 40 N/mm² use the values for 40 N/mm².Dp ö ù ÷ú çç 2 ÷ø û è æ Ds + Dp ö (Rs .4.85 ba (h. For connectors of heights greater than tabulated use the values for the greatest height tabulated.25 L  beam spacing æ Ds .N.0 for normal weight concrete rprofile = 0.9 for lightweight concrete = 1.5 Composite Steel and Concrete (5/11) Bending Resistance Formulae (Assuming 100% interaction) Rs = pyA Rc = 0.A.Dp) N Dp Dp min 0.A.1 / Oct 00 Maximum longitudinal = 600mm .N. Ver 3. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR AOND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY. in steel flange) éD Rs Mpc = Rs ê + Ds Rc ë 2 Mpc • Be = 0.N. lies in web) Mpc æ Ds + Dp + D ö Rc2 D ÷÷ = Ms + Rc çç 2 è ø Rw 4 where Ms = plastic capacity of steel section Rw = axial resistance of web only 4. rcon = 0.A.5.45 fcu (Ds .8 (N = 2 ) min 0.

6 STIFFNESS 3 Approximate ratio of second moment of area of composite section to that of the steel section. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR AOND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY. Ver 3.4 for non-composite sections.5.4.1 / Oct 00 . 4. • Decking perpendicular to beam (secondary) provides restraint to top flange. • Decking parallel to beam (primary) does not provide restraint.5 Composite Steel and Concrete (6/11) 4. α = 10 α = 15 THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP.5.5 BENDING STRENGTH (DURING CONSTRUCTION) • Conform with requirements in section 4.

5. Steel Deck Flooring Systems 2.self weight decking . STEEL CONSTRUCTION INSTITUTE.12 kPa slab (lightweight) .1.7 4. RICHARD LEES Ltd.8 SAFE LOAD TABLES Concrete grade C35 Modular ratio 15 Overall concrete depth 130 mm Depth of decking 60 mm Partial interaction 60% Flange width as large as possible Deflection limit DL : 1/200 Dead Load steelwork .1 / Oct 00 . BS 5950 Structural use of steelwork in building Part 3: Design in composite construction THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP.5 Composite Steel and Concrete (7/11) 4. STEEL CONSTRUCTION INSTITUTE.34 kPa services + ceiling . Steel Designers Manual 3.4. Ver 3.3. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR AOND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.18 kPa slab (dense) .2. SCI-P-055 Design of Composite Slabs and Beams with Steel Decking 4.00 kPa LL : 1/350 REFERENCES 1.5.0.

0 6.50 50.89 15.00 3.0 x 15.68 62.0 6.89 32.00 3.2 6.93 45.00 3.50 25.07 34.17 67.67 79.0 18.0 x 8.0 x 12.0 8.00 3.0 7.60 85. beams Secondary Beams Primary Beams Weight 2 ( kg/m ) Secondary Beams Primary Beams Weight (kg/m2 ) 60x60 6.0 12.0 10.33 59.06 203 x 203 x 46 203 x 203 x 71 203 x 203 x 86 254 x 254 x 89 254 x 254 x 132* 305 x 305 x 198* 356 x 406 x 287* 305 x 305 x 198 356 x 406 x 287 356 x 406 x 287 356 x 406 x 340 356 x 406 x 393 356 x 406 x 551 356 x 406 x 634 51.00 56.83 97.63 29.0 18.5 Composite Steel and Concrete (8/11) SAFE LOAD TABLES (1) GRADE 43 .0 x 18.00 3.0 18.11 64.0 15.0 x 12.13 28.00 3.0 8.0 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3.17 203 x 203 x 46 203 x 203 x 52 203 x 203 x 86 254 x 254 x132* 305 x 305 x 198* 356 x 406 x 287* 254 x 254 x 132 254 x 254 x 167 305 x 305 x 158 305 x 305 x 240 305 x 305 x 283 356 x 406 x 340 40.00 67.50 2.83 33.5 x 18.50 135.50 2.0 9.00 3.1 7 (*) Natural frequency of the beam is less then 4.07 53.40 43.83 93.17 47.20 126.0 x 12.5 x 15.0 x 8.00 3.20 139.00 18.07 77.00 3.00 305 x 102 x 28 356 x 127 x 39 356 x 127 x 39 406 x 140 x 39 457 x 152 x 52 457 x 152 x 60 533 x 210 x 82 610 x 229 x 113 * 762 x 267 x 347 * 914 x 305 x 253 * 914 x 419 x 343 * 914 x 419 x 343 * 914 x 419 x 343 * FAIL FAIL FAIL FAIL FAIL 51.0 x 18.0 x 18.0 x 7.29 69.0 x 8.00 3.18 69.5 18.0 x 6.2 12.00 3.00 49.0 x 9.40 2.00 305 x 102 x 28 356 x 127 x 39 356 x 127 x 39 406 x 140 x 39 457 x 152 x 52 457 x 152 x 60 533 x 210 x 82 610 x 229 x 113 * 762 x 267 x 147 * 686 x 254 x 140 686 x 254 x 170 762 x 267 x 173 762 x 267 x 173 838 x 292 x 194 914 x 305 x 201 914 x 305 x 224 914 x 305 x 289 914 x 419 x 388 32.2 x 18.50 48.06 27. sec.0 x 15.0 x 6.0 8.00 3.5 7.50 2.5 x 6.0 7.58 102.50 2.88 203 x 203 x 46 203 x 203 x 60 203 x 203 x 71 203 x 203 x 86 254 x 254 x 89 254 x 254 x 107 254 x 254 x 167* 305 x 305 x 240* 356 x 406 x 340* 356 x 406 x 634* 914 x 419 x 343* 914 x 419 x 343* 914 x 419 x 388* FAIL FAIL FAIL FAIL FAIL 121.0 9.DENSE CONCRETE SLAB 2 Imposed load = 4.0 x 6.03 26.83 10.50 39.0 x 6.67 82.0 x 10.2 x 12.64 69. 0 x 12.67 305 x 102 x 25 356 x 127 x 39 406 x 140 x 46 457 x 152 x 52 457 x 191 x 74 610 x 229 x 101 686 x 254 x 140 * 457 x 152 x 74 533 x 210 x 82 610 x 229 x 101 610 x 229 x 101 610 x 229 x 125 762 x 267 x 147 762 x 267 x 173 21.0 x 8.5 9.40 55.5 6.25 152 x 152 x 37 203 x 203 x 46 203 x 203 x 71 254 x 254 x132* 356 x 406 x 287* 254 x 254 x 107 254 x 254 x 132 254 x 254 x 167 305 x 305 x 198 356 x 406 x 287 33.0 18.0 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 00 3.22 76.0 x 8.47 53.0 x 7.0 x 7.20 59.00 3.11 203 x 203 x 46 203 x 203 x 71 203 x 203 x 86 254 x 254 x 89 254 x 254 x132* 305 x 305 x 198* 356 x 406 x 287* 254 x 254 x 132 305 x 305 x 158 305 x 305 x 198 305 x 305 x 198 305 x 305 x 240 356 x 406 x 287 356 x 406 x 393 39.55 115.0 x 6.0 8.0 x 12.0 8. THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP.00 3.4.07 51.78 203 x 203 x 46 203 x 203 x 60 203 x 203 x 71 203 x 203 x 86 254 x 254 x 89 254 x 254 x 107 254 x 254 x 167* 305 x 305 x 240* 356 x 406 x 340* 254 x 254x 167 305 x 305 x 198 305 x 305 x 198 305 x 305 x 198 305 x 305 x 240 305 x 305 x 240 356 x 406 x 287 356 x 406 x 393 COLCORE x 477 43.40 2.0 10.0 x 18.0 15.0 x 9.0 15.0 9.0 x 10.0 15.00 305 x 102 x 28 356 x 127 x 39 406 x 140 x 39 457 x 152 x 52 457 x 152 x 60 533 x 210 x 82 610 x 229 x 113 * 762 x 267 x 147 * 838 x 292 x 176 914 x 305 x 224 914 x 305 x 224 914 x 305 x 253 914 x 305 x 289 914 x 419 x 343 * FAIL FAI L 38.42 23.93 70.00 3.38 54.0 x 8.0 x 9.0 x 15.00 3.07 133.67 36.40 2.0 9.00 3.50 93.67 2.33 60.00 3.00 3.0 x 15.71 24.0 7.2 7.63 38.73 64.40 64.25 37.00 3.37 68.00 3.17 44.47 29.2 18.0 x 10.33 35.00 3.00 45. Ver 3. 0 x 9.25 46.67 2.20 35.0 x 10.64 58.0 6.56 28.73 55.0 12.47 25.56 203 x 203 x 46 203 x 203 x 60 203 x 203 x 71 203 x 203 x 86 254 x 254 x 89 254 x 254 x 107 254 x 254 x 167* 305 x 305 x 240* 356 x 406 x 340* 406 x 406 x 287 356 x 406 x 340 356 x 406 x 393 356 x 406 x 393 COLCORE x 477 356 x 406 x 467 356 x 406 x 551 914 x 419 x 343 914 x 419 x 388 63.37 101.0 x 7.2 x 6.25 53.0 + 1.79 82.0 6.0 x 7.00 305 x 102 x 28 356 x 127 x 39 356 x 127 x 39 406 x 140 x 39 457 x 152 x 52 457 x 152 x 60 533 x 210 x 82 610 x 229 x 113 * 762 x 267 x 147 * 533 x 210 x 82 610 x 229 x 101 610 x 229 x 101 610 x 229 x 101 610 x 229 x 113 610 x 229 x 125 686 x 254 x 140 762 x 267 x 173 838 x 292 x 194 23.00 3.28 66.0 x 12.0 7.93 150.0 x 10.0 x 6.0 x 15.80 70.0 10.00 3.00 305 x 102 x 28 356 x 127 x 39 356 x 127 x 39 406 x 140 x 39 457 x 152 x 52 457 x 152 x 60 533 x 210 x 82 610 x 229 x 113 * 762 x 267 x 147 * 406 x 140 x 46 457 x 152 x 52 457 x 152 x 60 457 x 152 x 60 457 x 191 x 74 533 x 210 x 82 533 x 210 x 92 610 x 229 x 101 610 x 229 x 125 17 00 20.00 3.88 28.5 x 9.00 3.0 x 15.0 6.5 x 7.0 9.50 60.5Hz.00 3.00 3.86 37.67 2.90 55.0 9.87 134.00 3.80 98.00 20.0 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 3.0 x 10.57 88.50 2.00 27.2 x 7.46 9.00 3.10 46.0 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2.0 3 3 3 3 3 3 2.0 7.1 / Oct 00 .2 x 9.54 100.67 2.00 44.0 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2.0 x 18.50 2.0 x 7.53 7.5 12.0 x 12.44 48.50 305 x 102 x 25 356 x 127 x 39 356 x 171 x 45 457 x 152 x 52 457 x 152 x 67 610 x 229 x 101 686 x 254 x 140 * 610 x 229 x 101 686 x 254 x 140 762 x 267 x 147 762 x 267 x 147 838 x 292 x 176 914 x 305 x 201 914 x 305 x 253 26.0 12.40 2.0 x 7.50 2.0 12.0 x 7.40 305 x 102 x 25 305 x 102 x 33 356 x 171 x 45 457 x 152 x 67 686 x 254 x 125 * 457 x 152 x 60 457 x 152 x 67 533 x 210 x 82 610 x 229 x 101 762 x 267 x 147 20.0 10.00 24.50 2.60 38.67 7.0 10.0 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3.0 x 9.0 x 9.89 40.40 77.00 3.96 72.00 3.50 2.58 106.38 129.10 34.0 12.0 x 8.02 12.00 3.67 2.00 3.0 x 10.86 36. 0 18.87 41.14 71.67 2. 0 18.42 56.0 15.0 7.0 8.61 36.22 21.0 x 7. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR AOND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.0 kN/m Minimum Weight Minimum Depth Bay size (m x m) No.0 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 3.00 3.0 3 3 3 3 3 2.50 41.0 x 9. Beams per grid Spacing of sec.0 10.50 305 x 102 x 25 356 x 127 x 33 356 x 171 x 45 457 x 152 x 67 610 x 229 x 101 686 x 254 x 140 * 457 x 152 x 60 533 x 210 x 82 533 x 210 x 92 610 x 229 x 113 686 x 254 x 125 762 x 267 x 147 20.69 8.0 12.5 x 12.50 2.67 42.0 x 18.22 48.13 97.22 36.50 2.0 x 15.0 x 18.00 3.92 203 x 203 x 46 203 x 203 x 71 203 x 203 x 86 254 x 254 x 89 254 x 254 x 107 254 x 254 x 167* 305 x 305 x 240* 356 x 406 x 340* COLCORE x 477* 356 x 406 x 551 356 x 406 x 551 356 x 406 x 634* 914 x 305 x 289* 914 x 419 x 388* FAIL FAIL 94.2 9.0 15.00 3.94 203 x 203 x 46 203 x 203 x 60 203 x 203 x 71 203 x 203 x 86 254 x 254 x 89 254 x 254 x 107 254 x 254 x 167* 305 x 305 x 240* 356 x 406 x 340* 254 x 254 x 89 254 x 254 x 107 254 x 254 x 107 254 x 254 x 132 254 x 254 x 132 254 x 254 x 167 305 x 305 x 158 305 x 305 x 198 305 x 305 x 240 30 17 34.00 3.17 47.0 7. 5 15.33 52.

0 x 8.50 305 x 102 x 25 356 x 127 x 33 406 x 140 x 39 406 x 140 x 46 457 x 152 x 60 533 x 210 x 92 610 x 229 x 125* 610 x 229 x 101 610 x 229 x 125 686 x 254 x 140 762 x 267 x 147 762 x 267 x 173 914 x 305 x 201 914 x 305 x 253 26.LIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETE SLAB 2 Imposed load = 4.67 2.72 203 x 203 x 46 203 x 203 x 52 203 x 203 x 60 203 x 203 x 71 203 x 203 x 86 254 x 254 x 107 254 x 254 x 167 305 x 305 x 198* 356 x 406 x 340* 305 x 305 x 283 356 x 406 x 287 356 x 406 x 340 356 x 406 x 340 356 x 406 x 393 COLCORE x 477 356 x 406 x 511 356 x 406 x 634 914 x 419 x 388 62.0 x 9.0 7.0 12.55 110.50 51.00 3.10 85.56 29.0 x 6.17 152 x 152 x 37 203 x 203 x 46 203 x 203 x 71 254 x 254 x 132 305 x 305 x 198* 356 x 406 x 287* 254 x 254 x 107 254 x 254 x 132 254 x 254 x 167 305 x 305 x 198 305 x 305 x 283 356 x 406 x 287 32.50 2.00 3.00 3.06 152 x 152 x 37 203 x 203 x 60 203 x 203 x 71 203 x 203 x 86 254 x 254 x 132 305 x 305 x 198* 356 x 406 x 287* 305 x 305 x 198 305 x 305 x 283 356 x 406 x 287 356 x 406 x 287 356 x 406 x 393 356 x 406 x 467 356 x 406 x 634 47.23 53.29 63.0 15.80 59.37 98.0 7.0 x 15.50 57.25 203 x 203 x 46 203 x 203 x 60 203 x 203 x 71 203 x 203 x 86 254 x 254 x 107 254 x 254 x 167 305 x 305 x 198* 356 x 406 x 340* 356 x 406 x 393* 356 x 406 x 551 356 x 406 x 551 356 x 406 x 634* 356 x 406 x 634* 914 x 419 x 343 FAIL FAIL 80.04 43.0 15.42 59. sec.0 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2.58 88.0 x 12.0 9.00 3.07 55.14 58.33 48.0 18.0 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3.60 25.89 15.0 9.0 12.0 x 6. beams per grid Minimum Depth Spacing of sec.38 126.0 x 6.00 3.0 x 12.50 2.00 56.0 x 10.00 3.0 6.5 x 7.00 3.25 37.36 33.00 3.33 150.50 48.0 10.0 8.83 20.47 65.86 152 x 152 x 37 203 x 203 x 46 203 x 203 x 71 254 x 254 x 107 356 x 406 x 287* 254 x 254 x 107 254 x 254 x 132 254 x 254 x 167 305 x 305 x 198 305 x 305 x 287 33.22 19.67 2.2 18.0 8.0 10.0 x 18.5 15.14 61.33 66.0 x 18.0 x 15.0 x 18.0 x 9.50 305 x 102 x 25 305 x 102 x 33 406 x 140 x 39 457 x 152 x 60 533 x 210 x 92 610 x 229 x 125* 457 x 152 x 60 457 x 191 x 74 533 x 210 x 82 610 x 229 x 101 610 x 229 x 125 762 x 267 x 147 20.83 36.0 3 3 3 3 3 2.50 93.0 15.50 2.40 48.50 22.37 39.4.25 108.93 34.38 60.0 9.67 2.0 7.0 12.67 7.00 3.54 99.42 50.0 x 8.50 2.0 10.17 72.0 x 8.5 x 6.07 24.51 9.0 7.0 15.00 3.5 9.0 x 7.2 x 9.00 57.0 x 12.0 x 18.85 29.0 7.00 3.2 x 7.0 8.73 43.2 x 12.08 135.00 3.0 x 15.0 x 15.0 x 6.25 18.5 x 15.0 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2.50 2.42 50.17 39.94 203 x 203 x 46 203 x 203 x 52 203 x 203 x 60 203 x 203 x 71 203 x 203 x 86 254 x 254 x 107 254 x 254 x 167 305 x 305 x 198* 356 x 406 x 340* 203 x 203 x 86 254 x 254 x 89 254 x 254 x 107 254 x 254 x 107 254 x 254 x 132 254 x 254 x 132 254 x 254 x 167 305 x 305 x 198 305 x 305 x 240 29.0 x 9.00 3.54 24.50 2.81 53.0 9.0 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3.0 x 7.00 305 x 102 x 25 356 x 127 x 33 305 x 102 x 37 356 x 127 x 39 406 x 140 x 46 457 x 152 x 52 457 x 191 x 74 610 x 229 x 101 686 x 254 x 140* 406 x 140 x 46 457 x 152 x 52 457 x 152 x 52 457 x 152 x 60 457 x 152 x 67 457 x 191 x 74 533 x 210 x 82 610 x 229 x 101 610 x 229 x 113 16.40 2.67 2.78 24.16 33.0 x 7.0 x 8.78 24.0 x 12.50 2.0 x 15.50 40.0 + 1.63 36.0 8. THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP.2 7.40 254 x 102 x 22 305 x 102 x 28 356 x 127 x 39 457 x 152 x 60 610 x 229 x 125* 457 x 152 x 52 457 x 152 x 67 533 x 210 x 82 610 x 229 x 101 686 x 254 x 140 17.0 10.54 47.0 9.0 x 12.78 (*) Natural frequency of the beam is less then 4. beams Secondary Beams Primary Beams Weight 2 (kg/m ) Secondary Beams Primary Beams Weight 2 (kg/m ) 6.00 305 x 102 x 25 356 x 127 x 33 305 x 102 x 37 356 x 127 x 39 406 x 140 x 46 457 x 152 x 52 457 x 191 x 74 610 x 229 x 101 686 x 254 x 140* 686 x 254 x 125 762 x 267 x 147 762 x 267 x 147 762 x 267 x 173 838 x 292 x 176 838 x 292 x 194 914 x 305 x 224 914 x 305 x 289 914 x 419 x 343 29.0 10.07 84.50 2.00 305 x 102 x 25 356 x 127 x 33 305 x 102 x 37 356 x 127 x 39 406 x 140 x 46 457 x 152 x 52 457 x 191 x 74 610 x 229 x 101 686 x 254 x140* 914 x 305 x 253 * 914 x 305 x 289 * 914 x 419 x 343 * 914 x 419 x 343* 914 x 419 x 388* FAIL FAIL FAIL FAIL 50.96 69.00 3.0 x 8.00 3.63 34. 0 x10.0 12.67 2.0 7.0 18.02 12.33 52.60 34.0 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 3.00 3.40 2.0 x 15.33 83.69 34.0 x 10.67 305 x 102 x 25 356 x 127 x 39 406 x 140 x 39 457 x 152 x 52 457 x 152 x 67 610 x 229 x 101 686 x 254 x 125* 457 x 152 x 67 533 x 210 x 82 533 x 210 x 92 610 x 229 x 101 610 x 229 x 113 686 x 254 x 140 686 x 254 x 170 20.13 58.0 12.00 3.0 x 7.67 2.00 3.00 3.67 29. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.73 66.0 8.38 49.0 x 18.58 79.00 3.83 93.88 58.0 x 7.00 3.83 10.00 305 x 102 x 25 305 x 102 x 37 356 x 127 x 39 406 x 140 x 46 457 x 152 x 52 457 x 191 x 74 610 x 229 x 101 686 x 254 x 140* 762 x 267 x 173 914 x 305 x 201 934 x 305 x 224 914 x 305 x 253 914 x 305 x 289 914 x 419 x 343 FAIL FAIL 37.0 8.0 x 10.50 2.0 x 15.00 3.2 9.0 x 9.00 3.00 3.88 43.13 41.42 45.87 69.00 3.5 Composite Steel and Concrete (9/11) SAFE LOAD TABLES (2) GRADE 43 .74 8.00 3.88 24.10 38.83 31.0 x 7.2 12.5 x 18.2 x 18.0 15.0 x 8.0 18.89 36. Ver 3.27 20.0 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 3.44 203 x 203 x 46 203 x 203 x 52 203 x 203 x 60 203 x 203 x 71 203 x 203 x 86 254 x 254 x 107 254 x 254 x 167 305 x 305 x 198* 356 x 406 x 340* 254 x 254 x 167 305 x 305 x 158 305 x 305 x 198 305 x 305 x 198 305 x 305 x 198 305 x 305 x 240 356 x 406 x 287 356 x 406 x 340 COLCORE x 477 43.0 6.17 31.67 139.00 23.0 15.0 x 9.0 18.00 3.00 43.0 6.5 6.28 46.0 x 6.63 26.0 9.0 x 6.5 x 12.00 305 x 102 x 25 356 x 127 x 33 305 x 102 x 37 356 x 127 x 39 406 x 140 x 46 457 x 152 x 52 457 x 191 x 74 610 x 229 x 101 686 x 254 x 140* 533 x 210 x 82 533 x 210 x 92 533 x 210 x 92 610 x 229 x 101 610 x 229 x 101 610 x 229 x 125 686 x 254 x 140 686 x 254 x 170 838 x 292 x 176 22.00 46.00 3.0 x 6.0 x 9.5Hz.0 x 12.67 79.20 64.0 12.1 / August 00 .54 71.40 2.0 10.00 3.0 x 10.47 92.00 3.11 99.67 59.0 x 12.0 x 18.73 31.27 134.20 126.40 52.0 x 10.53 7.00 3.00 18.42 31.07 130.5 x 9.5 7.32 152 x 152 x 37 203 x 203 x 60 203 x 203 x 86 254 x 254 x 89 254 x 254 x 132 305 x 305 x 198* 356 x 406 x 287* 254 x 254 x 132 254 x 254 x 167 305 x 305 x 158 305 x 305 x 198 305 x 305 x 240 356 x 406 x 287 356 x 406 x 340 35.0 18.00 3.30 98.5 18.97 25.0 18.0 3 3 3 3 3 3 2.00 3.0 x 10.50 2.00 3.0 x 7.00 3 00 3.00 3.0 kN/m Minimum Weight Bay size (m x m) No.33 45.44 203 x 203 x 46 203 x 203 x 52 203 x 203 x 60 203 x 203 x 71 203 x 203 x 86 254 x 254 x 107 254 x 254 x 167 305 x 305 x 198* 356 x 406 x 340* 356 x 406 x 634* 914 x 305 x 289* 914 x 419 x 343* 914 x 419 x 34 * 914 x 419 x 388* FAIL FAIL FAIL FAIL 121.0 x 7.50 2.44 46.5 12.00 3.40 2.0 x 9.18 69.19 65.0 x 8.0 x 18.00 3. 0 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3.0 7.00 23.0 x 7.27 37.0 6.83 28.21 56.0 6.2 6.0 6.2 x 6.71 32.93 65.

2 x 12.0 x 15.0 8.5 12.0 x 7.50 2.5 x 6.5 9.67 24.00 3.38 89.00 3.73 132.0 x 10.00 3.0 6.5 x 12.00 3.47 40.0 x 15.13 40.43 32.83 80.0 12.0 x 12.50 2.5 15.50 2.17 30.0 10. beams Secondary Beams Minimum Depth Primary Beams Weight 2 (kg/m ) Secondary Beams Primary Beams Weight 2 (kg/m ) 6.50 2.0 x 9.25 21.5 x 18.50 2.57 9.00 3.63 152 x 152 x 37 203 x 203 x 46 203 x 203 x 52 203 x 203 x 60 203 x 203 x 86 254 x 254 x 89 254 x 254 x 132* 305 x 305 x 198* 356 x 406 x 340* 356 x 406 x 634 * 914 x 305 x 253* 914 x 305 x 253* 914 x 305 x 289* 914 x 419 x 343* 914 x 419 x 343* FAIL FAIL FAIL 118.53 39.0 12.83 46.00 90.2 12.0 x 6.2 7.44 29.83 18.0 15.0 12.00 3.0 x 12.0 x 7.50 254 x 102 x 22 305 x 102 x 28 356 x 127 x 39 457 x 152 x 52 533 x 210 x 82 610 x 229 x 113 * 457 x 152 x 52 457 x 152 x 67 457 x 152 x 74 533 x 210 x 92 610 x 229 x 113 686 x 254 x 125 17.49 29.0 x 8.0 18.2 x 18.71 40.0 8.0 x 9.0 x 18.33 50.50 2.1 / August 00 .38 45.0 x 7.64 29.00 85.13 51.33 34.67 49.0 x 9.0 x 18.0 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2.0 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 3.18 48.00 305 x 102 x 25 305 x 102 x 33 356.0 x 8.0 7.67 58.2 x 9.5Hz.73 46.00 3.00 3.0 15.2 x 7.0 18.00 3.78 63.97 (*) Natural frequency of the beam is less then 4.0 x 8.5 x 7.74 26.50 254 x 102 x 22 305 x 102 x 33 356 x 127 x 39 406 x 140 x 39 457 x 152 x 52 533 x 210 x 82 610 x 229 x 113 533 x 210 x 92 610 x 229 x 113 610 x 229 x 125 686 x 254 x 140 762 x 267 x 147 838 x 292 x 176 914 x 305 x 201 24.0 x 18.75 50.0 8.17 36.67 2.50 19. beams per grid Spacing of sec.0 x 12.05 44.0 18.83 36.0 + 1.63 38.0 x 10.00 3.00 3.0 x 10.22 27.0 x 7.67 2. x 127 x 33 406 x 140 x 39 457 x 152 x 52 457 x 152 x 67 533 x 210 x 92 686 x 254 x 125 762 x 267 x 147 * 838 x 292 x 176 * 838 x 292 x 194 * 914 x 305 x 201 * 914 x 305 x 224 * 914 x 305 x 289 * 914 x 419 x 343 * FAIL 32.40 2.00 42.0 15.08 88.0 6.50 2.00 50.00 3.00 3.67 2.0 x 18.33 29.DENSE CONCRETE SLAB 2 Imposed load = 4.00 3. Ver 3.5 x 9.0 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3.08 55.67 22.75 23.0 x 12.80 50.89 93.25 123.0 x 12.50 47.45 30.0 7.0 10.53 56.0 x 10.40 2.00 3.30 12.0 9.00 3.00 305 x 102 x 25 305 x 102 x 33 305 x 102 x 33 356 x 127 x 33 406 x 140 x 39 457 x 152 x 52 457 x 152 x 67 533 x 210 x 92 686 x 254 x 125 610 x 229 x 125 686 x 254 x 140 686 x 254 x 140 762 x 267 x 147 686 x 254 x 170 762 x 267 x 173 838 x 292 x 194 914 x 305 x 253 914 x 305 x 289 29.50 2.0 10.67 2.11 51.0 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3.5 6.0 x 7.33 52.56 59.00 3.40 2.0 8.00 3.2 9.92 39.00 3.64 55.00 3.05 66.50 2.0 x 9.40 254 x 102 x 22 305 x 102 x 25 305 x 127 x 37 457 x 152 x 52 610 x 229 x 101 457 x 152 x 52 457 x 152 x 60 457 x 152 x 74 533 x 210 x 92 610 x 229 x 125 17.33 54.0 x 8.14 44.00 3.53 152 x 152 x 37 203 x 203 x 52 203 x 203 x 60 203 x 203 x 86 254 x 254 x 89 254 x 254 x132* 305 x 305 x198* 356 x 406 x 340* 356 x 406 x 393* COLCORE x 477* 356 x 406 x 467* 356 x 406 x 551 356 x 406 x 634* 914 x 305 x 289* 914 x 419 x 343* FAIL 77.0 6.00 3.00 3.13 132.5 x 15.25 35.00 3.0 12.00 3.5 Composite Steel and Concrete (10/11) SAFE LOAD TABLES (3) GRADE 50 .70 71.0 x 7.60 39.67 83.82 28.47 51.0 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3.42 53.30 95.0 12.00 3.67 29.00 3.0 x 12.2 6.0 6.69 29.0 10.52 8.39 21.92 76.00 3.0 7.03 29.00 3.03 39.28 152 x 152 x 37 203 x 203 x 46 203 x 203 x 52 203 x 203 x 60 203 x 203 x 86 254 x 254 x 89 254 x 254 x132* 305 x 305 x 198* 356 x 406 x 340* 203 x 203 x 86 254 x 254 x 89 254 x 254 x 89 254 x 254 x 89 254 x 254 x 107 254 x 254 x 132 254 x 254 x 167 305 x 305 x 158 305 x 305 x 198 26.0 15.0 x 8.60 33.0 6.0 x 9. sec.50 135.13 27.0 x 18.0 x 9.37 152 x 152 x 30 203 x 203 x 52 203 x 203 x 60 203 x 203 x 86 254 x 254 x 107* 305 x 305 x 198* 356 x 406 x 287* 305 x 305 x 158* 305 x 305 x 240* 305 x 305 x 240* 305 x 305 x 283* 3% x 406 x 340* 356 x 406 x 393* COLCORE x 477* 38.0 8.0 x 10.0 x 10.50 2.53 124.87 57.0 7.38 31.0 18.56 42.0 x 15.0 10.0 6.0 x 18.0 x 15.40 2.73 47.72 152 x 152 x 37 203 x 203 x 46 203 x 203 x 52 203 x 203 x 60 203 x 203 x 86 254 x 254 x 89 254 x 254 x 332* 305 x 305 x198* 356 x 406 x 340* 305 x 305 x 240* 305 x 305 x 283* 305 x 305 x 283 356 x 406 x 287* 356 x 406 x 340* 356 x 406 x 340* COLCORE x 477* 356 x 406 x 551 914 x 419 x 343 52.07 68.93 17.67 2.47 20.00 305 x 102 x 25 305 x 102 x 33 305 x 102 x 33 356 x 127 x 33 406 x 140 x 39 457 x 152 x 52 457 x 152 x 67 533 x 210 x 92 686 x 254 x 125 914 x 305 x 201 * 914 x 305 x 253 * 914 x 305 x 253 * 914 x 305 x 289 * 914 x 419 x 343 * 914 x 419 x 343 * FAIL FAIL FAIL 41.03 152 x 152 x 30 203 x 203 x 46 203 x 203 x 60 254 x 254 x 107* 356 x 406 x 287* 254 x 254 x 89 254 x 254 x 107 254 x 254 x 132 254 x 254 x 167 305 x 305 x 283 27.53 57.0 7.0 x 15.0 x 8.39 15.00 305 x 102 x 25 305 x 102 x 33 305 x 102 x 33 356 x 127 x 33 406 x 140 x 39 457 x 152 x 52 457 x 152 x 67 533 x 210 x 92 686 x 254 x 125* 457 x 191 x 74 533 x 210 x 82 533 x 210 x 82 533 x 210 x 92 610 x 229 x 101 610 x 229 x 101 610 x 229 x 125 762 x 267 x 147 762 x 267 x 173 20.0 x 9.0 18.0 x 6.0 9.0 9.0 kN/m Minimum Weight Bay size (m x m) No.0 9.0 x 15.0 x 6.0 x 7.0 18.44 63.50 24.2 x 6.0 3 3 3 3 3 3 2.0 8.50 2.0 x 12.67 62.0 3 3 3 3 3 2.63 23.0 x 18.0 x 10.0 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2.33 7.00 3.67 254 x 102 x 22 305 x 102 x 33 356 x 127 x 39 406 x 140 x 46 457 x 152 x 60 533 x 210 x 82 610 x 229 x 125* 457 x 152 x 60 457 x 152 x 74 533 x 210 x 82 533 x 210 x 92 610 x 229 x 101 610 x 229 x 125 762 x 267 x 147 18.87 18.00 3.89 34.00 3.00 3.39 17.33 38.67 2.28 152 x 152 x 37 203 x 203 x 46 203 x 203 x 52 203 x 203 x 60 203 x 203 x 86 254 x 254 x 89 254 x 254 x 132* 305 x 305 x 198* 356 x 406 x 340* 254 x 254 x 132 254 x 254 x 167 254 x 254 x 167* 305 x 305 x 158 305 x 305 x 198 305 x 305 x 198 305 x 305 x 240* 356 x 406 x 287* 356 x 406 x 340* 34.13 66.00 3.0 x 7.33 49.00 305 x 102 x 25 305 x 102 x 33 305 x 102 x 33 356 x 127 x 33 406 x 140 x 39 457 x 152 x 52 457 x 191 x 67 533 x 210 x 92 686 x 254 x 125 406 x 140 x 39 406 x 140 x 46 457 x 152 x 52 457 x 152 x 52 457 x 152 x 60 457 x 152 x 67 533 x 210 x 82 533 x 210 x 92 610 x 229 x 101 14.0 10.07 56.93 78.47 35.0 x 6.40 141.0 x 6.0 7.00 3.14 152 x 152 x 30 203 x 203 x 46 203 x 203 x 60 254 x 254 x 107* 305 x 305 x 198* 356 x 406 x 287* 254 x 254 x 89 254 x 254 x 132 254 x 254 x 167 305 x 305 x 198 305 x 305 x 240 305 x 305 x 283 26.0 7.13 23.20 130.75 40. THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP.0 x 15.00 3.0 12.88 66.0 9.75 102.0 x 6.83 17.20 31 .33 39.80 47.31 7.00 3.22 10. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.67 27.5 18.93 22.04 152 x 152 x 37 203 x 203 x 52 203 x 203 x 71 203 x 203 x 86 254 x 254 x 132* 305 x 305 x 198* 356 x 406 x 287* 254 x 254 x 107 254 x 254 x 167 254 x 254 x 167 305 x 305 x 158 305 x 305 x 198 305 x 305 x 240 356 x 406 x 287 31.0 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 3.00 3.0 9.0 x 7.07 55.0 x 6.13 1 05.2 18.4.0 15.0 x 8.47 51.83 34.00 3.0 15.5 7.47 64.

2 7.73 41.11 152 x 152 x 37 203 x 203 x 46 203 x 203 x 46 203 x 203 x 52 203 x 203 x 71 254 x 254 x 73 254 x 254 x132* 305 x 305 x198* 356 x 406 x 340* 254 x 254 x 132 254 x 254 x 167 254 x 254 x 167 254 x 254 x 167 305 x 305 x 158 305 x 305 x 198 305 x 305 x 240 305 x 305 x 283 356 x 406 x 340 34.0 6.00 3.33 76.00 3.0 x 8.0 x 10.73 148.0 10.50 2.00 3.5 x 7.75 41.33 34.0 18.0 x 18.28 36.00 28.0 7.50 2.67 2.0 10.63 76.10 33.67 2.52 8.0 x 12.00 3.63 45.0 8.07 42.0 18.5 Composite Steel and Concrete (11/11) SAFE LOAD TABLES (4) GRADE 50 . sec.00 3.0 8.5 x 9.00 3.03 152 x 152 x 30 152 x 152 x 37 203 x 203 x 52 254 x 254 x 107* 356 x 406 x 287* 254 x 254 x 73 254 x 254 x 107 254 x 254 x 132 254 x 254 x 167 305 x 305 x 240 24.0 3 3 3 3 3 2.0 x 6.89 87.42 28.0 x 9.0 x 12.50 2.2 18.00 3.30 12.2 x 7.64 53.21 55.0 6.27 21.LIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETE SLAB 2 Imposed load = 4.0 x 6.80 47.00 3.22 10.00 3.47 39.0 7.43 29.0 x 8.0 8.0 12.0 x 9.0 12.56 37.67 38.0 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2.08 50.65 152 x 152 x 30 203 x 203 x 46 203 x 203 x 60 203 x 203 x 86 254 x 254 x132* 305 x 305 x198* 356 x 406 x 287* 254 x 254 x 107 254 x 254 x 132 254 x 254 x 167 254 x 254 x 167 305 x 305 x 198 305 x 305 x 240 305 x 305 x 283 29.0 x 18.83 17.00 3.63 52. beams per grid Minimum Depth Spacing of sec.07 53. Ver 3.69 26.0 10.0 10.00 3.0 x 7.0 kN/m Minimum Weight Bay size (m x m) No.47 23.00 3.33 38.89 18.0 x 8.67 51.60 57.0 x 6.00 46.96 55.00 3.0 6.40 141.0 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 3.00 84.33 152 x 152 x 37 203 x 203 x 46 203 x 203 x 46 203 x 203 x 52 203 x 203 x 71 254 x 254 x 73 254 x 254 x132* 305 x 305 x 198* 356 x 406 x 340* 356 x 406 x 634* 914 x 305 x 224* 914 x 305 x 253* 914 x 305 x 253* 914 x 305 x 289* 914 x 419 x 343* 914 x 419 x 388* FAIL FAIL 118.93 75.0 x 8.0 9.13 124.0 9.0 x 7.5 12.50 254 x 102 x 22 305 x 102 x 28 356 x 127 x 33 356 x 127 x 39 457 x 152 x 52 533 x 210 x 82 610 x 229 x 101 533 x 210 x 82 610 x 229 x 101 610 x 229 x 125 686 x 254 x 125 762 x 267 x 147 762 x 267 x 173 838 x 292 x 194 22.70 66.00 3.00 3.0 x 10.00 77.0 x 7.50 2.0 3 3 3 3 3 3 2.2 x 18.2 x 9.0 x 10.00 3.08 45.35 9.11 49. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.92 7.60 38.00 21.87 1 32.0 15.0 12.0 6.00 3.0 x 18.0 x 6.0 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 3.83 78.67 2.22 44.03 55.0 x 15.72 20.72 15.46 35.5 9.15 50.00 3.44 43.67 2.0 12. THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP.0 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3.33 7.21 41.0 9.78 21.0 18.00 34.20 63.40 2.67 30.0 7.0 x 18.00 3.0 10.0 9.2 12.0 x 15.5 7.0 x 12.67 2.33 58.40 254 x 102 x 22 305 x 102 x 25 305 x 102 x 33 457 x 152 x 52 610 x 229 x 101 406 x 140 x 46 457 x 152 x 52 457 x 152 x 67 533 x 210 x 82 610 x 229 x 125 16.5Hz.00 254 x 102 x 22 305 x 102 x 28 305 x 102 x 28 305 x 102 x 33 356 x 127 x 39 406 x 140 x 46 457 x 152 x 60 533 x 210 x 82 610 x 229 x 125 457 x 191 x 67 533 x 210 x 82 533 x 210 x 82 533 x 210 x 82 533 x 210 x 92 610 x 229 x 101 610 x 229 x 113 686 x 254 x 140 686 x 254 x 170 18.2 x 6.00 3.0 x 15.0 x 10.50 132.06 48.0 15.50 2.83 43.67 45.67 62.00 3.5 6.0 x 9.13 '64.0 15.50 18.64 21.0 x 18.5 x 18.73 68.0 x 7.0 x 8.0 x 7.4.83 32.17 27.34 152 x 152 x 30 203 x 203 x 46 203 x 203 x 60 254 x 254 x132* 305 x 305 x 198* 356 x 406 x 287* 254 x 254 x 89 254 x 254 x 107 254 x 254 x 132 305 x 305 x 158 305 x 305 x 198 305 x 305 x 283 26.75 102.09 28.33 32.2 9.0 x 15.07 28.42 36.0 x 15.0 7.0 x 12.0 x 10.33 54.0 15.50 20.0 x 10.67 65.97 92.0 x 9.0 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2.0 x 7.18 152 x 152 x 30 203 x 203 x 46 203 x 203 x 60 203 x 203 x 86 254 x 254 x 107* 305 x 305 x 198* 356 x 406 x 287* 254 x 254 x 167* 305 x 305 x 198* 305 x 305 x 240 305 x 305 x 283 356 x 406 x 287* 356 x 406 x 393 COLCORE x 477* 39.05 44.50 2.00 3.0 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3.0 10.0 15. beams Secondary Beams Primary Beams Weight 2 (kg/m ) Secondary Beams Primary Beams Weight (kg/m2) 6.0 15.00 3.50 29.71 84.0 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3.00 3.0 x 7.0 x 18.67 254 x 102 x 22 305 x 102 x 33 356 x 127 x 33 406 x 140 x 39 457 x 152 x 52* 533 x 210 x 82* 610 x 229 x 101* 457 x 152 x 52 457 x 152 x 74 533 x 210 x 82 533 x 210 x 82 610 x 229 x 101 610 x 229 x 125 686 x 254 x 140 16.0 x 6.63 21.53 37.5 x 6.87 134.00 3.00 3.0 8.0 x 7.53 47.2 6.0 x 12.0 9.50 2.47 17.50 2.00 3.5 18.56 35.83 15.7B 58.00 3.67 2.00 3.00 3.33 26.28 152 x 152 x 37 203 x 203 x 46 203 x 203 x 46 203 x 203 x 52 203 x 203 x 71 254 x 254 x 73 254 x 254 x132* 305 x 305 x 198* 356 x 406 x 340* 203 x 203 x 71 203 x 203 x 86 254 x 254 x 73 254 x 254 x 89 254 x 254 x 107 254 x 254 x 107 254 x 254 x 132 254 x 254 x 167 305 x 305 x 198 24.0 7.0 x 9.50 49.5 x 15.00 3.0 18.83 27.B3 32.00 254 x 102 x 22 305 x 102 x 28 305 x 102 x 28 305 x 102 x 33 356 x 127 x 39 406 x 140 x 46 457 x 191 x 60 533 x 210 x 82 610 x 229 x 125* 356 x 127 x 39 406 x 140 x 46 406 x 140 x 46 457 x 152 x 52 457 x 152 x 52 457 x 191 x 60 457 x 191 x 74 533 x 210 x 82 610 x 229 x 101 13.0 12.00 3.00 90.0 12.40 130.0 x 15.40 2.47 18.40 33.5 15.0 7.44 49.49 22.22 25.0 6.00 3.08 33.2 x 12.0 7.19 28.00 3.0 x 12.0 x 15.0 x 7.00 254 x 102 x 22 305 x 102 x 28 305 x 102 x 28 305 x 102 x 33 356 x 127 x 39 406 x 340 x 46 457 x 152 x 60 533 x 210 x 82 610 x 229 x 125 838 x 292 x 194* 914 x 305 x 224* 914 x 305 x 253* 914 x 305 x 253* 914 x 305 x 289* 914 x 419 x 343* 914 x 419 x 388* FAIL FAIL 39.00 254 x 102 x 22 305 x 102 x 28 305 x 102 x 33 356 x 127 x 39 406 x 140 x 46 457 x 152 x 60 533 x 210 x 82* 610 x 229 x 125* 762 x 267 x 147* 762 x 267 x 173* 838 x 292 x 176* 838 x 292 x 194* 914 x 305 x 224* 914 x 305 x 253* 914 x 419 x 343* 914 x 419 x 388* 31.17 32.56 58.92 21.92 39.0 9.40 2.00 3.00 3.0 x 10.0 x 6.00 3.0 8.50 2.0 x 18.17 26.0 8.0 x 9.07 48.33 51.0 18.22 152 x 152 x 37 203 x 203 x 46 203 x 203 x 52 203 x 203 x 71 254 x 254 x 73 254 x 254 x 132* 305 x 305 x 198* 356 x 406 x 340* 356 x 406 x 393* COLCORE x 477* 356 x 406 x 467* 356 x 406 x 551 356 x 406 x 634* 914 x 305 x 289 914 x 419 x 343* 914 x 419 x 388* 77.25 123.25 23.08 88.95 66.83 27.28 25.67 40.0 x 8.0 x 9.5 x 12.50 254 x 102 x 22 305 x 102 x 25 356 x 127 x 33 457 x 152 x 52 533 x 210 x 82 610 x 229 x 101 457 x 152 x 52 457 x 152 x 60 457 x 152 x 74 533 x 210 x 92 610 x 229 x 101 610 x 229 x 125 17.50 2.72 152 x 152 x 37 203 x 203 x 46 203 x 203 x 46 203 x 203 x 52 203 x 203 x 71 254 x 254 x 73 254 x 254 x132* 305 x 305 x198* 356 x 406 x 340* 305 x 305 x 240* 305 x 305 x 283* 305 x 305 x 283* 356 x 406 x 287* 356 x 406 x 287 356 x 406 x 340* 356 x 406 x 393* 356 x 406 x 551 356 x 406 x 634* 52.00 3.1 / August 00 .0 x 12.56 15.0 x 8.0 + 1. 33 (*) Natural frequency of the beam is less then 4.00 254 x 102 x 22 305 x 102 x 28 305 x 102 x 28 305 x 102 x 33 356 x 127 x 39 406 x 140 x 46 457 x 152 x 60 533 x 210 x 92 610 x 229 x 125 610 x 229 x 101 686 x 254 x 125 686 x 254 x 125 686 x 254 x 140 762 x 267 x 147 686 x 254 x 170 838 x 292 x 176 914 x 305 x 224 914 x 305 x 289 24.0 x 6.00 3.72 105.50 2.0 18.40 2.0 6.

) BS 5628 : Pt 1 Cl 28.7 Masonry (1/9) 4.05 t . limits slenderness ratio to 27 THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP.7 MASONRY 4. limits slenderness ratio to 27 Pier sizing : e < 0.05 t .1.7. grade (iii) mortar (Note: For cavity walls load is applied to inner leaf only.1. grade (iii) mortar BS 5628 : Pt 1 Cl 28. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY. 20N brick .0 / Aug 98 . VER 3.1 RULES OF THUMB Ultimate resistances in compression Wall sizing: e < 0.4.

Water. VER 3.5* * Use for initial sizing Note particular requirements for use of ‘Special’ catogory THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP.5 3. Height = 1/40 distance between supports cavity walls. whose removal would in no way affect the stability of the remaining structure.2 may be used for freestanding walls and laterally loaded walls panel.7 Masonry (2/9) Initial sizing rules Trial wall thicknesses: For compressive loading only: Supported top and bottom Supported at base only Solid H/16 H/8 Cavity* H/11 H/5. Dead.8 3. * A partial factor of 1.9 - - 1.6 0 1. Dead and Beneficial Imposed and Wind † Use 0.2 1.3 MATERIAL FACTORS (From BS 5628 Part 1 Table 4) Partial safety factors for material strength Construction Control Manufacturing Control Special Normal Special 2.2 1.2 1. Height = 1/30 distance between supports 4.4*† 3.015Gk if greater than factored Wk. En Wk Adverse Beneficial Adverse 1.5 H is wall height Min.7. 4.2 1.2 LOAD FACTORS (From BS 5628 Part 1 Clause 22) Load Combination Load Type (Including Earth Dead.2 1.4 1.0 / Aug 98 . IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.7.2† Where Present) 1.4 0. Dead and Wind 1. Imposed 1.4 0.4 - 2. leaf thickness 100mm * Wall thickness is sum of leaf thickness For lateral loading: solid walls. Qk and Water Loading Earth and Wind. Gk Imposed.9 1.4.1 Normal 2.

8.4 MODULAR DIMENSIONS (Brickwork) 102.7.5. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.5.5 Class 4 27.5 Class 3 20. 7 (10) Dense solid As dense solid concrete blocks Natural stone† (BS 5390 and BS Structural quality 8298) 15 .5. 10 Lightweight† 2.20 Dense solid† 7.0 / Aug 98 . VER 3.) † These are often selected by client or architect for appearance or thermal performance check this.7. location. 7.10 Mortar Thickness = 10mm 4.5. 3.5 215 65 (n x 225) .30 Class 7 48. before starting to size members.100 (dependent on stone type.5 TYPICAL UNIT STRENGTHS Material and BS Class Typical unit compressive strength (N/mm2) Fired-clay bricks (BS 3921) Calcium silicate bricks (BS187) Engineering A† > 50 Facing bricks† 10 . bed.4. 327. 215. 10 .35 Dense hollow† 3.5 Class 6 41. 4. and establish strength.50 Common bricks 10 .7 Masonry (3/9) 4. THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP.5 Class 5 34. 440 102. etc.5 Concrete bricks (BS 6073: Part 1) Concrete blocks (BS 6073: Part 1) Reconstructed stone† (BS 6457) > 70 Engineering B† 7 .

9 5.5A).1 6.5 5.4 (ii) 2.2 15.4 8.3 7. take 75% of squared natural stone values.8 10.12.4 1.0 5.1 5. designation 2.0 19.0 7.5 4.4 (iii) 2.0 10 15 20 35 or greater (i) 1. interpolate Mortar between Tables (b) and (d) as Compressive strength of unit (N/mm2) necessary.2 5.8 3.2 11.4 1. in N/mm2 (a) Constructed with standard format bricks Mortar NOTE TO TABLE OF fk Compressive strength of unit (N/mm2 ) 1.5 3.5 (iv) 2.8 3. 2.4 7.0 7.4 14.2 4.5 5.4 (iii) 1.4 12. VER 3.0 (iv) 2. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.6 Mortar 1.5 35 50 70 100 (i) 2.0 / Aug 98 BS 5628.0 8. Table 2) Characteristic compressive strength of masonry.15.6 17.0 7.5 3. For squared natural stone and dimension of between 2.9 8.0 (ii) 2.7 2. For piers.4 10.7 6.0 20 35 or greater 14. multiply the Table (a) values by: (b) Constructed with blocks having a ratio of height to least horizontal dimension of 0.5 5.4 6.2 (iii) 2.6 MASONRY COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH (BS 5628. multiply Table (a) values by 1.0 5.8 Cement:Lime:Sand (i) 1:0-¼:3 (ii) 1 : ½ : 4 .6 7.5 4.4 5. For 90 x 90mm section modular bricks.4 5.0 10 15 20 35 or greater (i) 2.7 + 1.8 3.0 7.5 5.9 9.2 4.5 5.5 4.4 (ii) 1.0 reconstructed stone.8 3.7 Masonry (4/9) 4. multiply fk by (0.4½ (iii) 1 : 1 : 5-6 (iv) 1 : 2 : 8-9 Pure lime 0 : 1 : 3 (ii) 2.8 3.2 7.5 9.8 3.7 2.3 9.5 5.5 (iv) 2. For ’half-brick thick’ brick walls.7 nation # 0.8 7.5 5.8 15 12.2 2.0 7.8 3.25 if wall thickness = brick width.5 (iv) 1.8 3.4 1.3 6.0 5.0 11.0 and 4.8 (iii) 2.4 4. (c) Constructed from hollow blocks having a ratio of height to least horizontal 6.6 12.8 4. and THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP.0 5. For solid and concrete-filled hollow blocks.0 and 4.3 6.6 13.5 3.5 3.8 3.5 11. with height:least horizontal dimension between 0.4 6.7.0 5.5 5. fk. interpolate between Tables (b) and (d) as necessary.4 11. take 50% of strength for grade (iv) mortar.1 5.1 6.5 4.4. 1.4 9.0 6.5 5.8 8.4 5.2 7.0 10.7 5. .2 5.6 and 2.7 6.5 10. For random rubble natural stone.2 10.4 5.8 3.0 nation Mortar Compressive strength of unit (N/mm2) designation 2.2 6.0 6.4 4.5 4.2 24.4 8.7 2.3 interpolate between Tables (b) and (c) as necessary. designation 2.1 5.2 3.0 5.6 See also Section 4.5 5.1 8.3 7.8 7.7 2.8 12.1 otherwise 2 Compressive strength of unit (N/mm ) 4.2m2.8 3. MORTAR STRENGTHS (d) Constructed from solid concrete blocks having a ratio of height to least Desig- horizontal dimension of between 2.4 1. and short walls with plan area A (in m2) desig5 10 15 20 27.8 18. Pt 1. For unfilled hollow blocks.1 18.8 22.5 4.1 15.8 (i) 2.8 10 8. 5. If using lime mortar. Pt. columns.4 9. 3.0. 1.4 15.5 4. Table 1.7.0 6.

Pt.2t 0.00 0. $ † Slenderness Eccentricity at top of wall.38 27 0.88 0.83 0.88 0.4.34 26 0.66 0.0 / Aug 98 .44 20 0.66 0.47 0.53 0.4 20 (or more) 1 1 1 pier width (sp / wp) 3 and thicker Reduction factor $ (From BS 5628.62 0. e L ratio: Up to le/te 0.33 Le = 2L L DPC Le= 1.66 0.use 3.37 22 0.70 0.44 16 0.66 0. Table 5) Ratio of pier spacing Ratio of pier thickness to actual thickness of wall or leaf (t p / t) (centre-to-centre) to 1 2 6 (or less) 1 1.89 0.88 0.00 0.66 0.44 14 0. Pt.64 0.56 0. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.44 6 1.4 2 10 1 1. Table 7) Capacity reduction factor.40 0.87 0. THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP.93 0.44 12 0.45 0.1t 0.7 Masonry (5/9) Values of K for the design of piers (From BS 5628.70 0.77 0.00 0.3t 0 1. VER 3.77 0.30 24 0.83 0.88 0.3 .5 for sizing.57 0. or leaf thickness fk = characteristic compressive strength from table (m = partial safety factor for material from Table 4.44 10 0.64 0.0L † Linear interpolation between eccentricities and slenderness ratios is permitted Vertical load resistance of wall or column per unit length: P' $tfk (m where $ = capacity reduction factor from above table t = actual wall.97 0.05t 0.51 0.66 0.44 18 0. 1.44 8 1. column.43 0.7. 1.2 1.

5 17.0 41.5 4.0 10.5 20.5 12.0 11. crosswalls.5 9.8 8.5 14.0 35.0 31.0 12. Solid walls: Single leaf.0 24. Any bricks or blocks not less than 3.0 32.Openings are entirely framed by lateral restraints (floors.5 30. (ii) or (iii) ! Treat pitched gable walls as rectangular panels with height taken at mid-height of roof slope.7 SIZING EXTERNAL WALL PANELS ! Walls in buildings up to four storeys high and subject only to lateral loads may be sized as below.5 6.0 11.0 6. wall ties 900 x 450mm spacing.5 5. etc.0 13.5 24.5 24.0 11.5 16.7.5 22.0 21. THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP.5 15.5 13.7 Masonry (6/9) 4.5 15.0 N/mm²) 100mm inner leaf (any bricks or blocks not less than 3.5 6.5 15.5 31. each leaf min.0 10. towns.0 41.5 12.5 23.5 27.0 10. increase the areas by 20% 2.5 Notes: 1.5 15.0 7.5 9.0 32.0 30. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.5 17.(b) no opening is less than half its maximum dimension from any edge of the wall panel (other than its base) and from any adjacent opening.0 35.5 12.5 11.5 10.8 or design to BS 5628: Part 1. ! Thickness of wall should be at least: For solid wall: 1/40th of distance between supports For cavity wall: total thickness 1/30th of distance between supports. doors.5 25.0 13.5 N/mm² 3.5 7.8 7.0 6.5 10. ! If above conditions not satisfied.0 20.5 N/mm²).0 8. woodland etc.5 13.5 10.0 17.5 21.5 20.5 14.5 14.0 11. mortar grade (i).0 9.5 10.8 9.0 11.0 41.4 8.4.0 19.5 10.0 7. Gravity stresses generally improve capacity to resist wind.5 40. ! Applicable only in areas with many windbreaks (cities.0 / Aug 98 .0 36.0 5. 100mm thick.5 12.) within the defined wind zones.5 27.0 7.4 11.(a) the total area of openings is less than the lesser of 10% of the maximum tabulated area 25% of the actual wall area and .0 26.0 41.5 13.0 17.0 8.0 27. and so thickness may be guesstimated for higher loadbearing walls.5 7.0 14. Maximum permitted areas of certain walls Wind Height zone B A C D E F G H I Cavity 190mm Cavity 190mm Cavity 190mm Cavity 190mm Cavity 190mm Cavity 190mm Cavity190mm Cavity 190mm Cavity 190mm wall solid wall wall 1 2 3 4 solid wall wall solid wall wall solid wall wall solid wall wall solid wall solid wall wall wall solid wall wall solid wall m m2 m2 m2 m2 m2 m2 m2 m2 m2 m2 m2 m2 m2 m2 m2 m2 m2 m2 5. collar-jointed.5 5.0 14.0 17.0 5.5 6.0 28.0 12.5 13.5 17. roof.0 17.5 10.5 11.5 8.5 21.0 7.5 10.5 17.5 8.0 15.0 14.5 11.5 7.5 18.5 19.0 6.5 21.0 19. Cavity wall: 100mm outer leaf (any bricks or blocks not less than 14.5 10.7.5 9. cavity width 100mm max.0 17.5 32.4 8. etc.5 17. Wind zones: As BS 5628 Part 3 Figure 1.5 24.) or . grouted cavity.0 8. If either leaf is increased to 140mm.5 20.5 19.0 13.8 6.5 13.0 13. calculate wind forces and use Table in 4.0 24.0 21.5 14.4 9.5 32.5 5.5 29.) only if either: .0 9.5 28. ! Openings (windows. VER 3.5 15.5 22.0 10.0 15.0 12.0 14.5 9.5 19.0 32.5 28.5 27.0 9.

25 1.40 0.1 1.4 0.15 0.5 1.9 0.0 250mm 10.0 to 100mm 2. for a single leaf wall.3 0.4. For concrete blocks 100-250mm thick.9 INTERNAL NON-LOADBEARING MASONRY WALLS For single-leaf wall of length L and height H.4 2.75 0.25 0.6 4. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.3 0.7.8 FLEXURAL STRENGTH OF MASONRY Characteristic Flexural Strength of Masonry. fkx.5 Concrete blocks (solid or hollow) of compressive strength in N/mm2: 2.4 0.6 0.4 0.6 Concrete bricks 0.5 1.7 0.60 0.8 used in wall 3. in N/mm2 Mortar designation Plane of failure parallel to bed Plane of failure perpendicular to joints (spanning vertically) bed joints (spanning horizontally) (i) (i) (ii) and (iv) (iii) (ii) and (iv) (iii) Clay bricks having a water absorption: less than 7% 0.7.2 0.9 0.25 0. Note: This graph only applies where significant internal wind pressures cannot occur.90† 0.2 0. figure 6.1 0.5 0.7.0 1.1 0.9 0.5 0.2 0.4 0.2 0. calculate the minimum thickness required from the graph: Extract from BS5628: Part 3. with adequate lateral restraint.5 thickness* of 7.35 1.25 0.2 0.45 0. assume the orthogonal ratio µ=0. THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP.8 used in wall 3.2 between 7% and 12% 0. interpolate.8 Calcium silicate bricks 0.2 0.7 Masonry (7/9) 4.0 / Aug 98 .3 0.0 over 12% 0.35 0.7† and over * The thickness should be taken to be the thickness of the wall. or the thickness of the leaf.3 Note: Mortar designation as in Table 4.5 used in walls of 14.6 0.3 0.5 thickness* up 7. VER 3. for a cavity wall. † When used with flexural strength in parallel direction.0 any thickness* 0.25 0.

4.p. ratio of height (above Max.elsewhere calculate wind forces and design as gravity wall or to BS 5628: Part 1. Horizontal joints in non-loadbearing masonry† (BS 5628 Part 1 Cl 29. 2. ratio of height (above lateral restraint): actual d.c. chases.3 x spacing in 3:1 (suggested) 15 12 (preferable) Calcium silicate (sand- Joint width (mm) metres (minimum) 7. value. joint spacing (m)† Max. cannot resist flexure.0 4. Unit compressive strength $ 3. VER 3.5 † Assume d. 4.11 JOINTS Recommended Vertical Joints in Masonry Material Fired-clay bricks Max.0 / Aug 98 . Notes: 1.) .5 6. woodland.7.5 5. unstiffened by piers) Wind zone Max. minimum 10mm storeys Storey-high At head of wall Allow 1mm per metre † Consider also other requirements for joint (acoustic and thermal insulation.2) Uninterrupted wall height Joint spacing (m) Joint width (m) Multi-storey 9m or every third storey (whichever Allow 1mm per metre between is less).9 4 6. sum of leaf thicknesses to be not less than 1½t where t is calculated as above. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.6 3 6.c. etc. fire separation. aspect ratio* 1. THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP.2. density $ 1400 kg/m3.5 . etc) when selecting joint filler.4 2 7.5 4. Note that the presence of openings. but can omit if building is masonry support and top of less than 12m with four or fewer masonry below.10 FREESTANDING MASONRY WALLS Thickness of freestanding walls (Single leaf. and movement joints may demand greater thickness and/or additional intermediate restraints. Wind zones as BS 5628 Part 3 Figure 1 4.9 10 (typical) 3:1 6 10 (suggested) 2:1 6 10 3:1 (suggested) lime) bricks Concrete blocks and bricks Natural stone cladding in cement-based mortar † Use max of half these values for joint nearest corner (Internal or External) * Ratio of panel length:panel height for solid panel. 3. towns.p. Applicable only in areas with many windbreaks (cities. weathertightness.5 N/mm2.7 Masonry (9/9) For cavity wall with wall ties. check each sub-panel separately and consider reinforcement for ratios beyond max.†): actual thickness thickness 1 8.7. if openings.

strength. Health and safety Thickness of unit Units weighing more than 20kg should not be used if one-man laying is intended (which is normal). density 1990kg/m3). See Building Regulations Approved Document E1 and noise thickness Airborne sound resistance where necessary (e. and mortar grade: Issue Influence on Recommendation Weathertightness Wall thickness Use cavity construction (min. (ii).4. A 100mm unplastered wall or leaf of a cavity wall will give 2 hour fire resistance thickness in all materials and loading conditions (sometimes conservatively) except: Fired-clay bricks/blocks with voids or perforations (75-100% solid .FL.[iii] grade mortar.7 Masonry (9/9) 4. grade to satisfy Concrete blocks (any strength) in (iii). This often dictates use of cavity wall with lightweight/hollow . Unrendered 440mm Durability Material.MN] in (i).7 N/mm2 and 100-150mm min. This must be resolved with architect/service engineer EARLY in design. strength Architect’s choice . Consider collar-jointed wall or blocks laid on side † if thicker wall required ( †check strength with manufacturer).hence WEAK - insulation (and thickness of external concrete blocks. Appearance Material. 170mm thickness). THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP.classes 2-7 in (iii).two 102mm leaves of plastered brickwork (min.g. [iv] mortar*. * See remarks on table 13C for mortar grade (iv). Sound absorption Material.g. E.0 / Aug 98 . strength.use min.classes 2-7 in (iii) or (iv) mortar.140mm. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY. sizing.$ 7N/mm2 in (iv) mortar. Fire resistance Material and whether See Table 16. Concrete blocks (any strength) in (iii) or (iv) mortar.12 OTHER ISSUES Non-structural issues influencing decisions on material strength. Cavity walls . VER 3. or assume min. two 100mm leaves (50mm cavity) of plastered dense blockwork (min. thickness dense blockwork at 2000kg/m 3 is 105mm (standard 440x215 block). solid wall thickness for Sheltered/Moderate exposure (Table 11. BS 5628: Part 3): Rendered Clay/calcium silicate/dense concrete/reconstructed stone . Pay attention to joints aroud panels. max. Lightweight concrete . density 1600 kg/m 3).any in (i)-(iv) mortar. wall thickness. Applied condensation) insulation in cavity or on inner [or outer] face may be used.must be resolved EARLY as it profoundly influences structural design. for Fired-clay units . or 190mm unplastered concrete (min. this avoidance of walls may be a problem on multi-storey loadbearing wall construction.8 . See Table 13 BS 5628: Part 3. solid/perforated/hollow. BS 5628: Part 3. unit strength and mortar Concrete bricks $ 15 [7] N/mm2 in (iii) mortar. between dwellings) is typically reduction achieved by: Single leaf walls . density 2200kg/m3). choose lowest Calcium silicate units . or two 100mm leaves (75mm cavity) of plastered drylined lightweight blockwork (max. durability For internal walls and inner leaves of cavity walls: Fired-clay units . typically 2. density 1840kg/m 3). Pay attention to joints around panels.density 1970kg/m3).190mm. Calcium silicate units .[iv] mortar *. strength. 200mm thickness with vermiculite-gypsum plaster.215mm plastered brickwork (min. thickness. mortar grade. Concrete bricks . density 1610kg/m 3) or dense blockwork (min.FN [ML.7. For unrendered external walls with high [and low] risk of saturation: Conservatively. 90mm thick outer leaf). Hollow concrete blocks with gravel or natural stone aggregate (limestone OK) min. Thermal Material.

150 (H30) T6 Extruded 20 .150 5083 O Sheet.3 TYPICAL PHYSICAL PROPERTIES Density Young’s modulus Thermal coefficient 2710 kg/m3 70 kN/mm2 23 x 10-6 OC THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP.4.150 treatable (H9) T6 Extruded 0 . 4. plate 0.8.2 .3 must be used with these numbers Figures in square brackets [ ] apply to all material within 25mm of a weld zone.0 / Aug 98 .8 Aluminium (1/2) 4. Ver 3.80 (N8) H22 Sheet. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY. * For durability see corrosion protection table below. plate 0.8.2 .6 Limiting stress (N/mm²) B B A pa pv 65 [65] 85 [85] 40 [40] 160 [80] 175 [87] 95 [47] 115 [115] 145 [145] 70 [70] 270 [135] 290 [145] 160 [80] 105 [105] 150 [150] 65 [65] 235 [105] 270 [121] 140 [63] p0 is the limiting unfactored stress for bending and overall yielding pa is the limiting unfactored stress for local capacity of the section in tension or compression pv is the limiting unfactored stress in shear Note : A material factor up to 1.8.2 DURABILITY (General corrosion protection of aluminium structures) P = Protection is required (see BS 8118 : Part 2) Alloy Material durability thickness rating (mm) Protection needed according to environment Atmospheric Rural Industrial/urban Moderate Severe Immersed Marine Non- Moderate Severe Fresh Sea water water industrial A All None None P None None P None None B <3 None P P P P P P P $3 None None P None None P P P 4.150 Nonheattreatable where: 6082 T4 Extruded 0 .8 ALUMINIUM 4.1 MAIN STRUCTURAL ALLOYS Typical uses: Curtain walling Rainscreen cladding Glazing arms/rails Alloy Condition Product Range of Dura- thickness bility * p0 (mm) Heat- 6063 T4 Extruded 0 .

THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP.4.8.4 DESIGN Design in accordance with BS 8118 : 1991 BS 8118 : 1991 uses the limit state for design.cast .plate . Aluminium comes in the following forms: .extrusion .8 Aluminium (2/2) 4. Ver 3.sheet Usually buckling in compression is critical. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.0 / Aug 98 .

9 STAINLESS STEEL As described in Notes on Materials: 190 the system of designation for stainless steel has been changed by the introduction of BS EN 10088. The mechanical properties given below are for the grades in BS EN 10088.Typical of that category. Hot Bars.1 MATERIAL GRADES For structural use with high resistance to corrosion: use austenitic or duplex stainless steels.The optimum choice for corrosion resistance.4462 460 450 2205 THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP. The nearest equivalent old designation is also given.Likely to suffer excess corrosion. ( T ) . WARNING: Consult Arup Swimming Pool Design Guide M .2% proof stress UTS number (N/mm2) (N/mm²) Hot Bars.2 MECHANICAL PROPERTIES Old Material Name designation Material 0.Can be considered if precautions are taken.Least corrosive conditions within that category. O .0 / Aug 98 Elongation (%) ons 500 to 460 to 650 680 520 to 500 to 670 700 520 to 500 to 670 700 640 to 650 to 840 880 Bars. Hot Rolled rods Rolled rods Rolled rods Plate +sectio Plate +secti Plate +secti ns 304L X2CrNi19-11 1. where appropriate. Ver 3. Suggested grades for atmospheric applications Location Steel grade Rural Urban Industrial Marine L M H L M H L M H L M H 304L T T T T T (T) (T) (T) X T (T) X 316L O O O O T T T T (T) T T (T) duplex O O O O O O O O T O O T 2205 L . H .Corrosion higher than typical. T .9. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY. 4. 4.4.4435 220 200 316S13 Duplex X2CrNiMoN22-5-3 1.4306 200 180 304 S11 316L X2CrNiMo17-12-2 1. X .4404 220 200 316S11 316L X2CrNiMo18-14-3 1.9. ons 45 45 45 40 45 40 25 25 .Potentially over-specified for corrosion.9 Stainless Steel (1/3) 4.

05 should be used.4. k and m are constants obtained from the previous table.4404 8000 16 15 500 duplex 2205 1.2 as those are minimum values.50 2.4306 7900 16 15 500 316L 1.00 2.4 DESIGN STRENGTH The basic design strength. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY. E (N/mm2) Grade Shear Transverse Longitudinal direction direction modulus.5 ELASTIC PROPERTIES Design values of elastic properties Values of constants to be used for determining secant modulus (see over) Young’s modulus.2% proof stress given in 4.9.2 is the average test value of the 0.2/1. Alternatively based on tensile tests py=F0.9.100BC conductivity (J/kgBC) -6 B B (10 / C) (W/m C) 304L 1.2 is the average value of the 0.00 77 900 0.3 PHYSICAL PROPERTIES Old Material Density Thermal expansion Thermal Heat capacity designation Number (kg/m3) 20 .2% proof stress as given on the mill certificate or release note.4462 7800 13 15 500 4. use the secant modulus: where Est % Esc 2 E Est ' pt 1 % k and Es ' m py E Esc ' 1 % k pc m py pt and pc are the values of p in the tension and compression flange respectively.2% proof stress. The exception is Duplex 2205 where a maximum of 450N/mm² should be used and this should be verified by mill certificates.9.0 / Aug 98 m 5. Ver 3.00 Deflection calculations For estimating deflections. py.22 74 000 2. If mill certificates are used py=Fm0. THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP. may generally be taken as the 0. For duplex 2205 with thickness 10<t<20mm a material safety factor of 1.05 8.9 Stainless Steel (2/3) 4.91 4.22 7.00 6. G (N/mm2) Transverse Longitudinal direction direction 304L 200 000 200 000 316L 195 000 190 000 duplex 2205 205 000 200 000 k m k 76 900 2.2 where Fm0.2/1.50 .00 0.89 4. 4.9.1 where F0.

2.11 N 1100 N 12 .7 REFERENCES 1.25 N Reinforcing bar and 300 500 N 6 . Stainless steels.9. Parts 1 . None for duplex 2205. bar and tubes widely available for 304L and 316L. fy UTS High tensile rod Weldable Sizes (mm) 1350 N 4 . Similar for duplex 2205 but not as widely stocked.32 N deformed 180 Y 6 .50 N plain plain rod 460 625 N 6 .300 100 N 400 N . plate.0 / Aug 98 250 . Concise guide to the structural design of stainless steel.6 AVAILABILITY Sheet.19 N 950 N 19 .9. BS EN 10088 : 1995. .50 N 180+ Y 3 Πl Structural sections .3 THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP. Certain rolled sections available for 304L and 316L.4. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.9 Stainless Steel (3/3) 4. ~ F 4. Ver 3. SCI.

preferably in the local neighbourhood of the site.5. especially if there are trees nearby.1 GENERAL PRINCIPLES ! All foundations should be taken down to an adequate bearing stratum. which ensures the settlement under load will be acceptable to the structure. seismic loading or inondation creep of natural granular deposits (time dependant but usually small) ! Foundations should be taken to a depth at which they will not be affected by seasonal changes. FOUNDATIONS 5. In addition advice may be required to determine the geological character of the founding strata and whether any unusual features may be present. ! Settlement under loads should always be considered. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY. including chalk.1/March 99 . Foundations (1/7) 5. BRE Digests and NHBC guidelines provide advice on foundations in clay deposits which have become desiccated due to vegetation. ! It is important that all foundation designs are reviewed by a geotechnical engineer preferably in advance of any design decisions. Frost action is particularly important in silty soils. ! Settlement arises from the following: Undrained elastic settlement which occurs on loading and hence during construction Consolidation settlement of clays as porewater pressures dissipate (time dependant) secondary consolidation of soft clays and peat (time dependant) creep of fill (time dependant) settlement induced by construction vibration. and shrinkage is important in many clays. This may be done by calculation and/or by reference to successful use of similar foundations in similar materials. ! In assessing settlement the interaction between foundations needs to be considered plus the overall load of the complete structure as well as the loading of an individual foundation. THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP. Advice from Building Control Engineers is helpful in this respect. including both frost and action and swelling and shrinkage due to changes of water content. VER 3.

Foundations (2/7) 5. depending on settlement considerations Spread footings would be 3. Consider mat (raft) foundations or consider compacting sand by vibroflotation or other method then use spread footings. may cause large settlements. groundwater changes or Depth greater than frost or erosion depth seismic loading for example. DESIGN COMMENTS Spread footings most appropriate for conventional foundation needs. Any later disturbance to the sand by vibration. VER 3.1/March 99 . Cyclic loading may cause larger Comment as for 2 above 4. Spread footings most appropriate solution in many cases. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY. settlements. A deep foundation such as piles could be required if uplift forces were to act.2 APPROPRIATE FOUNDATION SOLUTIONS APPROPRIATE FOUNDATION TYPE SOIL CONDITIONS AND LOCATION 1.5. appropriate for low to medium range of loads if not installed too close to soft clay. Take care to not 0m overstress the soft clay. Spread footings may settle excessively or require use of very low bearing pressures. Also consider continuous flight auger piles. Driven piles could be used and would densify the sand. THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP. 2. If settlements become excessive 3m deep foundation might be required.

If time is available preloading might make it possible to use shallow foundations. settlement problems. THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP. Consider straight shafted piles or piles with bells in the stiff 6m clay layer.piles. spread footings in upper sand layer would probably 0m experience large settlement because of underlying soft clay 2. Expanded base piles into sand layer not common. Foundations (3/7) APPROPRIATE FOUNDATION TYPE SOIL CONDITIONS AND LOCATION DESIGN COMMENTS 5. infill etc. Spread footings probably not 0m ground surface appropriate.5.bearing directly on or in the rock. continuous flight auger piles suitable. 8. Downdrag (negative skin Soft clay 20m friction) may add to the loads on the piles. The weathering. Friction piles or piers Soft 8m Soft clay but strength would be satisfactory if some Soft firm 16m increasing with depth to very great depth Long piles would reduce settlement could be tolerated. 0m Deep foundations . VER 3. piers. 6. Bells may be difficult to form in some clay strata. For heavy loads. Deep foundations best. of the rock may be critical in the Rock design of the socket 7.1/March 99 .5m layer. ground surface caissons . Bored piles require water (if cased) or bentonite (if not) to balance water pressures. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY. Also firm consider mat or floating foundation.

) Negative skin frcition should be considered 10. Deep foundations penetrating ground surface Miscellaneous loose Made Ground through fill are appropriate. Strong possibility for drilled pile bored under bentonite.5. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY. then use spread footings in the new fill. steel piles. VER 3. Also consider cast-in-place and driven concrete pile. THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP. fill. DESIGN COMMENTS Deep foundation types extending into medium dense sand.CFA piles. (Cannot underream in till. Also consider replacing poor fill with new imported. Foundations (4/7) SOIL CONDITIONS APPROPRIATE FOUNDATION TYPE AND LOCATION 9. Calculate settlements due to consolidation of clay under complete load of new structure. compacted. With piles or piers consider stopping in upper zone of sand layer to limit consolidation of clay layer.1/March 99 . or preferably into compact glacial till.

heavy. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY. 12. consider using piles or 0m piers bearing in the upper zone of Ground Surface sand layer and check for settlement. If foundation loads are Soft Clay heavy. consider full excavation to rock and construction of two basement levels.5. Foundations (5/7) SOIL CONDITIONS APPROPRIATE FOUNDATION TYPE DESIGN COMMENTS AND LOCATION If foundation loads are not too 11. Driving can induce positive pore presures and negative skin friction. consider driven piles (steel) 12m or caissons to rock. If Sub Basement basement areas are useful. If no basement areas are needed for the building consider piers. Nature of rock is very important. THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP.1/March 99 . Soft Clay 45m Rock Rock For light to medium heavy loading For heavy loading . Also consider 18m Medium dense to dense sand floating foundation. Foundations should bear directly on the rock which is relatively Basement close to the ground surface. VER 3.

75m below ground level Description of soil N-value in standard Presumed bearing value penetration test (kN/m2 or kgf/cm2 x 100) for foundation of width 1m 2m 4m >50 600 500 400 Dense sands and gravals 30-50 350-600 300-500 250-400 Medium-dense sands and gravels 10-30 150-350 100-300 100-250 Loose sands and gravals 5-10 50-150 50-100 50-100 Very dense sands and gravels The allowable bearing pressure is defined as that causing 25mm settlement under the foundation width.g. deeper London and Gault clays) Very stiff boulder clay. fluvio-glacial and lake clays. upper weathered ‘brown’London clay Soft normally consolidated alluvial clays (e. VER 3. Foundations (6/7) 5. the settlements will be doubled. Foundations in non-cohesive soils at a minimum depth of 0.3 PRESUMED ALLOWABLE BEARING VALUES UNDER STATIC. stiff ‘blue’and brown London clay). the allowable bearing values should be halved.g. marine. NONECCENTRIC STATIC LOADING Bearing values relate to characteristic loads.1/March 99 . stiff weathered boulder clay Firm normally consolidated clays (at depth).g. river and estuarine clays) THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP. very stiff ‘blue’ London Clay Stiff fissured clays (e. hard fissured clays 1m 2m 4m >300 800 600 400 150-300 400-800 300-500 150-250 75-150 200-400 150-250 75-125 40-75 100-200 75-100 50-75 20-40 50-100 25-50 Negligible (e. Further values are given in BS8004. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY. This information is given for preliminary assessment purposes only.5. If settlements must not exceed 25mm. If the water table is within a depth equal to the width of the foundation and the depth of the foundation is small in relation to its width. Foundations in conhesive soils at a minimum depth of 1m below ground level Description Cohesive strength Presumed bearing value (kN/m2 or kgf/cm2 x (kN/m2 or kgf/cm2 100) for foundation of width x 100) Hard boulder clays.

25fcu (0.base x base area f2 For straight sided piles higher capacities may be available by following the guidelines for Site Investigations and pile tests in the London District Surveyors Association Publication.base x base area 0.5 f2 = 3 whichever gives the lower capacity Minimum spacing of pile shafts = 3 x diameter (ensure under-reams do not encroach) THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP. Foundations (7/7) Chart for estimating allowable bearing pressure for foundations in sands SPT ‘N’values are shown as belows per 300mm If the water table is within a depth equal to the width of the foundation and the depth of the foundation is small in relation to its width.5 Characteristic load Allowable bearing pressure PILED FOUNDATIONS Working load on pile < 0. 5.1fcu for continuous flight auger) Warning: The following relationships apply only to bored cast in place concrete piles in London clay. the settlements will be doubled. Working bearing capacity of straight shafted piles ' ( 0. VER 3.4 SHALLOW FOUNDATIONS Area of foundation ' 5.5.1/March 99 ) ) . the allowable bearing values should be halved. If settlements must not exceed 25mm. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY. Guide Notes for the Design of Straight Shafted Piles in London Clay (1996) Cu = undrained shear strength of London Clay Typically diameter of under-ream = 3 x diameter of shaft Factor of safety : or f1 = 1 f1 = f 2 = 2.35cu x perimeter f1 3 )%( 9cu.5cu x perimeter Working bearing capacity of large under&reamed piles ' ( 3 )%( 9cu. For all other piles check with Geotechnics (which should always be done anyway).

Reinforcement Typically for water resistant walls: T16 @ 200 c/c in both faces and in both directions or T12 @ 150 c/c in both faces and in both directions Standard cover Assumed concrete grade 35 (This should be a minimum) Put the horizontal reinforcement furthest from earth face.g. Do stains matter? (aesthetics) c).2 Required by BS 8102 for grade 1 basements with concrete design to BS 8110 Give extra "comfort" at construction joints. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY. THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP. swimming pool).1 RULES OF THUMB Minimum thickness Preferred minimum thickness of walls and slabs: 300mm Where thicker consider surface zones of 200mm each face for reinforcement to control shrinkage/thermal cracking. must be carefully supported/kept in place.1 / January 99 . What level of (vapour) ingress is acceptable/tolerable (for people and contents)? Note. WATER RESISTANT BASEMENTS 6.1 and 6. ventilation etc). Water Resistant Basements (1/6) 6.2 (from CIRIA Report 139) will help. ESTABLISH CLIENT'S REQUIREMENTS / EXPECTATIONS These can vary even for the same type of space. Tables 6. Ver 3. Does small amount of leaking (liquid) matter (for people and contents)? b). Some of the requirements for a particular performance will not be within our control (heating.6. otherwise total reliance on workmanship Not essential but often desirable Use external waterstop for basements (preferred) Can use centrestop in vertical construction if necessary (e. Establish (for example): a). Face Cover (mm) Earth face of walls where shuttered 50 Earth face of walls (cast against 75 earth) External exposed faces of walls 40 Bottom and sides to base 75 Internal faces Greater of 25 or bar diameter Waterstops / waterbars • • • • • 6.

4 WATERPROOFING OPTIONS (Combined with options of structure) Tanking (Type A) • • • • Preformed membranes or liquid applied Can prevent liquid and vapour passage Best installed by open cut construction Best installed external to construction (outside face of structural wall) Structurally Integral Protection (Type B) • Reinforced concrete with calculated crack widths to BS8110 Part 2 possible for Type 1 • Concrete design to BS8007 required for type 2 and 3 • If used.6. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY. Steel sheet piling can prevent ingress of liquid water. Water Resistant Basements (2/6) 6. except at joints. THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP. to the structure • Enhanced quality of concrete elements • Continuous construction • Good finish • Straightness of line of walls • Provides restraint to the ground • Provides restraint to water flow (both Post and panel Diaphragm wall Disadvantages short and long term) • Can be used as a shutter for the concrete • Provides restraint to the ground • Provides some restraint to water flow • Can build deep basements inner city sites) • Provides restraint to concrete increased risk of cracking • Difficult to install a membrane on external face of structure • Difficult to install a membrane on external face of structure • Allows water through the joints (use drained cavity?) • Difficult to get an effective connection with the slab Contiguous piles • Poor appearance • Expensive • Provides restraint to the ground • Little restraint to water flow • Cost • Difficult to get an effective connection with the slab • Difficult to install a membrane • Poor appearance • Expensive Table 6.2 (from CIRIA report 139) gives examples of types of basement. there must be careful consideration of mix design and the workmanship required as well as a strategy for dealing with leaks. 6. Construction option Advantages Cut & cover • Sheet piling & Secant piles Allows easy inclusion of membrane • Deep basements not easy external • Not always sufficient room (e.g. generally.1 / January 99 . Consider welded sheet piling – low carbon type. particularly for type 2 and 3 basements. It will also reduce the passage of moisture vapour. except at joints and cracks. It will not. Ver 3.3 CONSTRUCTION OPTIONS Structural concrete can prevent ingress of liquid water. prevent the passage of moisture vapour.

6. pipe services (group together). 138. Water Resistant Basements (3/6) Drained cavity (Type C) • • • • • • 6. area (m? ) Max. Ver 3. Reinforcement detailing manual Notes on Materials 86. dimension (m) Watertight walls 25 5 Watertight slabs 100 10 May be reviewed for particular cases 6. 24. between tower and podium blocks above. Only consider providing them if essential to control movements e. not cracking): Construction Max. Guide to the design of waterproof basements BS 8007: 1987: Design of concrete structures for retaining aqueous liquids BS8102: 1990: Protection of structures against water from the ground BS8110: Part 1: 1997: Structural use of concrete: Code of Practice for design and construction BS8110: Part 2: 1985: Structural use of concrete: Code of Practice for special circumstances OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP: Structural Typical details for use in buildings OVE ARUP & PARTNERS.g. 145 Notes on Structures 4.8 REFERENCES CIRIA Report 139 Water – resisting basements 1995 CIRIA. steel columns into top of pile.7 MOVEMENT JOINTS • Rarely necessary below ground level • Potential weak points. 29 THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP. earthing pits Wall/slab junctions .g. CONSTRUCTION JOINTS • • • • Need to control the effects of temperature and shrinkage The fewer.g.6. e.particularly in non-open excavation Changes in section/depth e.6 Provide channels to allow drainage of water Ventilate cavity externally to reduce vapour and build up of other gases Ventilate basement to reduce vapour Automatic pump may be required in sump Design inner leaf as free-standing or restrained at top by slab Beware vermin Re-entrant corners – keep plan form simple Penetrations e. the better Arrange the sequence of castings to reduce restraint from adjacent pours Recommended spacing of joints (principally to control workmanship. Guide 5.1 / January 99 . IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY. lift pits Pile/slab junctions "One column per pile" junctions.g.5 CRITICAL POINTS • • • • • • 6.

Ver 3. Type C. Calculated crack widths less than 0.1 / January 99 The performance level defined in BS8102 for workshops is unlikely to meet the requirements of the Building Regulations. with wall and floor cavity and DPM Type A.1 Guide to level of protection to suit basement use from table 2. Reinforced concrete design in accordance with BS8007 The performance level assumes no serious defects in workmanship. Reinforced concrete design in accordance with BS8110 Unless there is good ventilation. With ventilated wall cavity and vapour barrier to inner skin and floor cavity with DPM THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP. Groundwater should be checked as for Grade 1. There is no guidance on control of thermal cracking in BS8110. leisure centres Archives and stores requiring controlled environment No water penetration but moisture vapour tolerable Type A Type B. restaurants etc. which are more likely to require a Grade 3 (habitable) environment. Water Resistant Basements (4/6) Table 6. Groundwater should be checked for chemicals. Grade 2 (better utility) Grade 3 (habitable) Grade 4 (special) Workshops and Plantrooms requiring drier environment . workshops Performance level Form of protection* Commentary on Table 1 of BS8102: 1990 Some seepage and damp patches tolerable Type B.. visible water may not be acceptable even for the suggested uses. plant rooms (excluding electrical equipment).6. A high level of supervision of all stages of construction is necessary. As Grade 2 In highly permeable ground multi-element systems (possibly including active precautions) will probably be necessary. or local drainage. although these may be masked in dry conditions or impermeable ground.3 mm to BS8110 Part 2 BS8110: Part 1 contains only limited guidance on crack control and lacks consideration of early thermal movement. With reinforced concrete design to BS8007. approved Document C for workshops.1 of CIRIA 139 (The first four columns are from table 1 of BS8102) Grade of Basement basement usage Grade 1 (basic utility) Car parking. Membranes may be applied in multiple layers with well-lapped joints. Type B. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY. which may have a deleterious effect on the structure or internal finishes. Type C. With reinforced concrete design to BS8007 plus a vapour-proof membrane. As Grade 3 . Type B. Using Part 1 may result in the formation of cracks with widths unacceptable in permeable ground. retail storage areas Ventilated residential and working areas including offices. Dry environment Totally dry environment Type A.

1 / January 99 . IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY. Water Resistant Basements (5/6) Table 6.6.2 of CIRIA 139) Performance level Grade of Relative basement humidity Grade 1 (basic utility) Grade 2 (better utility) Grade 3 (habitable) Temperature Dampness Wetness >65% normal UK external range Car parks: atmospheric Visible damp patches may be acceptable Minor seepage may be acceptable 35~50% Retail storage: 15°C max None acceptable Electrical plantrooms 42°C max No visible damp patches. Ver 3. The limits for a particular basement application should be agreed with the client and defined at the design approval stage). Mechanical plantrooms: 32°C max. construction materials to contain less than the air-dry moisture content Offices: 21~25°C None acceptable Residential: 18~22°C Active measures to control internal humidity may be necessary 40~60% Workshops: 15~ 29°C. THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP. at ceiling level Leisure centres: 18°C for spectators 10°C for squash courts 22°C for changing rooms 24~29°C for swimming pools 55~60% for a restaurant in summer Restaurants: 18~25°C Kitchens 29°C max Grade 4 (special) 50% for art storage Art storage: 18~22°C >40% for microfilms and tapes 35% for books Active measures to control internal humidity probably essential Book archives: 13~18°C (N.B.2 Guidance on the functional environments requirements for basement usage (Table 2.

external or sandwich tanking systems are recommended for both new and existing basements where it is possible to use them. (Table 3. Ver 3. Type A) or drained (Type C) protection Concrete piling or reinforced concrete box (Type B) plus an internal vapour barrier (Type A) or drained (Type C) protection Passive precautions alone are not likely to be sufficient Passive precautions alone are not likely to be sufficient Achieved only at high cost Concrete piling or reinforced concrete box (Type B) plus tanking (vapour barrier. etc. reinforced masonry.3 Construction methods and examples of passive precautions available to achieve the required Grade of internal environment in deep or shall basements. i.6.1 / January 99 . plain or reinforced concrete box construction plus tanking (Type A) or drained (type C) protection Reinforced concrete box (Type B) protection Reinforced concrete box (Type B) protection Concrete piled wall or reinforced concrete box (Type B) plus drained (Type C) protection (High cost. low reliability) Some water penetration Acceptable Grade not usually acceptable for residential basements Masonry. For deeper basements. plain or reinforced concrete box construction plus tanking (Type A) or drained (Type C) protection Reinforced concrete box (Type B) protection Steel sheet piling in conjunction plus drained (Type C) protection Reinforced concrete box (Type B) protection Concrete piled wall possibly requiring drained cavity (type C) protection Masonry. The choice of tanking system also requires an assessment of the external hydrostatic pressure and its effect on the basement wall design and construction. Where significant quantities of water are likely to accrue in sumps on a regular basis the drainage authority should be approached at an early stage to request acceptance of the discharge.) in achieving the required internal environment. Type A) and drained (Type C) protection Passive precautions alone are not likely to be sufficient Notes: When tanking is required. groundwater level below basement floor or drainage provided) likely to be residential Target internal environment / examples of construction methods and passive precautions Grade 1 Grade 2 Grade 3* Grade 4* (basic utility) (better utility) (habitable) (special) Limited environment control Complete environment control possibly adequate normally required (Low cost. or where excavation is impracticable. The costs of available options and associated risks will need to be evaluated. reinforced masonry. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY. Type A). * The design for Grade 3 or Grade 4 should take account of the contribution of active precautions (heating and ventilation. plain or reinforced (pre-cast or insitu) concrete or steel sheet piling Deep (with permanent hydrostatic pressure) Reinforced concrete including piled or in-site perimeter wall.e. Water Resistant Basements (6/6) Table 6. plain or reinforced (pre-cast or insitu) concrete or steel sheet piling Shallow (with permanent hydrostatic pressure) Masonry.1 of CIRIA 139) Basement depth and construction materials Shallow (assumed no hydrostatic pressure. internal protection by cavity construction with internal or reverse tanking may be used. This implies a reduction in usable volume or increased excavation volume. THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP. plus drained (Type C) protection Reinforced concrete box (Type B) plus tanking (vapour barrier. Such systems become feasible either by virtue of an existing permanent external surface (including faced sheet piling) or where working space is created through open excavation. high reliability) Increasing requirements for vapour control Masonry or plain concrete plus tanking (Type A) protection and/or Type C protection Reinforced concrete box (type B) plus tanking vapour barrier (Type A) or drained (type C) protection Masonry or plain concrete plus tanking (vapour barrier. Integral protection must not be damaged by wall fixings. Type A) and drained (Type C) protection If grade required the methods and precautions for shallow basements with permanent hydrostatic pressure should be followed Reinforced concrete box (type B) with tanking (vapour barrier. Water penetration Unacceptable Masonry or plain concrete plus tanking (Type A) or drained cavity (Type C) protection Reinforced concrete box (Type B) protection Masonry.

not sprinklered 1½ 1 1 1 1½ permitted .sprinklered (2) 1 1 ½* 1 1 2# . Office: not 4.not sprinklered 2 1½ 1 1½ 2 permitted . Residential (domestic): (a) flats and maisonettes 1½ 1 ½* 1** 1½** 2** (b) & (c) dwelling houses not ½* ½* 1 not relevant not relevant relevant 2. Car park for light vehicles: not not i) open sided park (3) applicable applicable ¼*+ ¼*+ ¼*+ 1 ii) any other park 1½ 1 ½* 1 1½ 2# 3. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY. Purpose group of building Minimum periods (hours) for elements of structure in a: Basement storey(!) Ground or upper storey including floor over Depth (m) of a lowest Height (m) of top floor above ground. but not if the floor contributes to the support of the building # Reduced to 1½ hours for elements not forming part of the structural frame + Increased to ½ hour for elements protecting the means of escape ~ Multi-storey hospitals designed in accordance with the NHS Firecode documents should have a minimum 1 hour standard THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP. more than not more not more not more not more more than 10 than 10 than 5 than 20 than 30 30 1.sprinklered (2) 1 1 ½* 1 1 2# . Other British Standards or Local Acts may set higher standards.sprinklered (2) 1½ 1 ½* 1 1½ 2# b.0 / Aug 98 . Ver 3. Fire (1/3) 7.sprinklered(2) 1 1 ½* 1 1½ 2# .not sprinklered 1½ 1 1 1 1½ permitted . FIRE 7. Storage & other non-residential: a.not sprinklered 2 1½ 1 1½ 2 permitted . (UK Practice only) Table A2 from the approved document B to Building Regulations (1991). Industrial: not 7.sprinklered (2) 1 1 ½* ½* 1 2# . * Increased to a minimum of 1 hour for compartment walls separating buildings ** Reduced to ½ hour for any floor within a maisonette. in building or basement separating part of building. Residential: (a) Institutional (~) 1½ 1 ½* 1 1½ 2# (b) other residential 1½ 1 ½* 1 1½ 2# .not sprinklered 1½ 1 ½* 1 1½ permitted . Shop and commercial: not 5.1 MINIMUM PERIODS OF FIRE RESISTANCE. Assembly and recreation: not 6. building or part not described above: ! not The floor over a basement (or if there is more than 1 basement.7. the floor over the topmost basement) should meet the provisions for the ground and upper storeys if that period is higher.

2 FIRE PROTECTION TO STEEL ELEMENTS (UK Practice only) Approximate thickness (mm) of protection for fully loaded steel members based on a range of manufacturers’ test data (Fire protection for structural steel in buildings. (1988).0 / Aug 98 . Fire (2/3) 7.7. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY. also see revised 2nd edition (1992)) For the example line given: Hp / A = 130 Line intersects zones: Board 20 and 25 Solution: Spray 20mm to 25mm depending on system used Fire resistance period = 1½ hours Spray 20 and 25 Board 25mm to 30mm depending on system used Blanket 38mm to 45mm depending on system used 7. ASFPCM. see Section 4.2 Reinforced Concrete THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP.3 FIRE PROTECTION FOR REINFORCED CONCRETE For cover details. Ver 3.

Many are moisture sensitive. Timber will ignite when subjected to temperatures of around 270EC. means that timber which is just a few millimetres inside the burning zone is only warm. BS 5628: Part 3. or by surface treatment. Fire (3/3) 7. Period of fire resistance The Regulations also define specific periods of fire resistance for elements of structure (although generally no period is required for roofs). related to the extent of travel of a flame front under standard conditions in a given time. 200mm thickness with vermiculite-gypsum plaster.1 as 20mm (or 25mm for columns). which. In addition. together with more generous deflection limits (1/30 span). the fire resistance of the members themselves may be calculated by the method given in BS 5268: Part 4. The insulation value of the outer charred layer. Structural elements. either by ensuring that the component lies with the residual section. however. significant improvements may be obtained. if a pilot flame is present to ignite the gases given off during the ’cooking’ process. Thus timber burns at a predictable speed. ! Hollow concrete blocks with gravel or natural stone aggregate (limestone OK) . and can discolour if they get wet. Section 4. and these are described in BS 5268: Part 4.use min. Section 4. A lower class rating can be achieved by impregnation. known as the ’charring rate’.(1)) Period of fire resistance Spread of flame The Regulations define spread of flame classes for walls and ceilings for various building purpose groups and sizes. 7. Increased stresses are allowed (of the order x2 to x2. Spread of flame is determined by tests described in BS 476: Parts 6 & 7 which allocate materials into classes. the full section minus the charred zone) is checked for strength and deflection. This requirement is often satisfied for walls and floors by applying protective materials to the frame. or that it is suitably protected by a fire resistant cladding or sacrificial timber.25). Alternatively.5 FIRE REQUIREMENTS FOR TIMBER (UK Practice only) The requirement of the Building Regulations with respect to timber fall under two headings: ! ! (B2) Spread of flame (B3 . Most timber (>400kg/m3) falls into Class 3. A 100mm unplastered wall or leaf of a cavity wall will give 2 hour fire resistance in all materials and loading conditions (sometimes conservatively) except: ! Fired-clay bricks/blocks with voids or perforations (75-100% solid . If the fire load is small and/or the member is lightly stressed.1. 7. it is necessary to look at the overall stability of the charred structure. for common softwoods with a density of about 450kg/m3 is defined in section 4. THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP.2. The charring rates quoted for solid timber may be applied without modification to glulams made with the conventional adhesives. Ver 3. and assume the member is fully stressed.0 / Aug 98 . Contact Arup Fire for more information. in 30 minutes. and to protect any metal (including bolts) which forms part of the structural system. are generally given surface coatings.min.7. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY. based on charring rates. because of their size. 170mm thickness).6 FURTHER INFORMATION The requirements above relate to standard furnace tests. The reduced section (ie.4 FIRE PROTECTION FOR MASONRY (UK Practice only) See Table 16.

A. Ver 3.5.2.5. corrected equation for trapezium inertia.Appendix A – Mathematical formulae (1/5) APPENDIX A – MATHEMATICAL FORMULAE Version 3.2 Hyperbolic functions e x + e− x 2 cosh ix = cos x cosh x = sinh ix = i sin x ex − ex 2 cos ix = cosh x sin ix = i sinh x sinh x = cosh 2 x − sinh 2 x = 1 cosh ( x ± y ) = cosh x cosh y ± sinh x sinh y sinh (x ± y ) = sinh x cosh y ± cosh x sinh y cosh ( x ± iy ) = cosh x cos y ± i sinh x sin y sinh (x ± iy ) = sinh x cos y ± i cosh x sin y THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP.2 / May 2000 sin A sin B . May 2000. A.1. Jan 99. A.1 Trigonometric functions eix − e −ix 2i sin ( A ± B ) = sin A cos B ± cos A sin B tan A ± tan B tan ( A ± B ) = 1 tan A tan B sin x = A+B A−B cos 2 2 A+B A−B cos A + cos B = 2 cos cos 2 2 1 sin A sin B = [cos( A − B ) − cos( A + B )] 2 1 sin A cos B = [sin ( A + B ) + sin ( A − B )] 2 1 sin 2 x = [1 − cos 2 x] 2 1 sin 3 x = [3 sin x − sin 3x] 4 sin A + sin B = 2 sin eix + e −ix 2 cos( A ± B ) = cos A cos B cos x = A+ B A−B sin 2 2 A+ B A−B cos A − cos B = − 2 sin sin 2 2 1 cos A cos B = [cos( A + B ) + cos( A − B )] 2 sin A − sin B = 2 cos 1 [1 + cos 2 x] 2 1 cos3 x = [3 cos x + cos 3x ] 4 cos 2 x = A. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY. corrected equation for trapezium inertia. Version 3.

3 Standard indefinite integral Integrand Integral Integrand Integral sin x -cos x sinh x cosh x cos x sin x cosh x sinh x tan x -ln (cos x ) tanh x ln (cosh x ) cosec x ln(tan x / 2) cosech x ln (tanh x / 2) sec x ln (tan x + sec x ) sech x 2 tan-1(ex) cot x ln (sin x ) coth x ln (sinh x ) sec2 x tan x sech2 x tanh x tan x sec x sec x tanh x sech x -sech x cot x cosec x -cosec x coth x cosech x -cosech x æ xö sin −1 ç ÷ or èa 1 a −x 2 2 1 x +a 2 2 1 x −a 2 2 æ xö − cos −1 ç ÷ èa ( ) ( ) æ xö sinh −1 ç ÷ or èa ln x + x 2 + a 2 æ xö cosh −1 ç ÷ or èa ln x + x 2 − a 2 1 æ xö tan −1 ç a èa 1 x + a2 2 A.2 / May 2000 .4 Standard substitutions for integration If the integrand is a function of : Substitute: (a (a (x 2 − x2 2 + x2 2 − a2 ) ) ) or a2 − x2 x = a sin θ or x = a cos θ or a2 + x2 x = a tan θ or x = a sinh θ or x2 − a2 x = a sec θ or x = a cosh θ or of the form: {(a x + b) {(a x + b) px+q } −1 p x2 + q x + r p x + q = u2 } −1 ax+b= 1 u or a rational function of: t = tan sin x and / or cos x é 2t ê whence sin x = 1 + t2 ë cos x = 1 − t2 1 + t2 x 2 dx = 2 dt ù 1 + t2 THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP. Ver 3.Appendix A – Mathematical formulae (2/5) A. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.

866s = ( bd b 2 sin 2 θ + d 2 cos 2 θ 12 ) I xx = I yy = s 4 / 12 ( d 3 a 2 + 4ab + b 2 36(a + b) I yy = ( d a + a b + ab + b 48 3 2 æ b 2 sin 2 θ + ö bd ç ç d 2 cos 2 θ è 6(b sin θ + d cosθ ) Z vv = I vv = s 4 / 12 I xx = 6 b2 + d 2 Z xx = Z yy = I bb = s 4 / 3 2 b2d 2 Z xx = 2 bd 3 48 db3 = 48 3 ) ) 6 2 Z xx = I xx d − ex (two values) Z yy = 2 I yy I yy Z yy d 2 = 0.1042d 3 .Appendix A – Mathematical formulae (3/5) A.1203d 3 Z yy = Z vv = 0.5 Geometric properties of plane sections Triangle section Position of centroid Area Moments of inertia I xx = bh 3 / 36 Z xx I yy = hb / 48 base = bh 2 / 12 I aa = bh 3 / 4 apex = bh 2 / 24 I bb = bh 3 / 12 Z yy = bh 2 / 24 3 h ex = 3 bh A= 2 Section Moduli Rectangle A = bd Rectangle A = bd Rectangle I xx = bd 3 / 12 ex = Square ex = Trapezium Diamond Hexagon A= ev = bd 2 A = 0.2 / May 2000 b3 d 3 6 b2 + d 2 I xx = s 2 s d (2a + b ) 3(a + b ) ex = 2 I bb = bd / 3 I xx = b sin θ + d cosθ 2 d (a + b ) 2 Z yy = db 2 / 6 3 b2 + d 2 ex = A = s2 Z xx = bd 2 / 6 I yy = db 3 / 12 bd ex = A = bd A= h 2 Z xx = 0.0601d 4 b bd 2 24 db 2 = 24 Z xx = I xx = I yy = I vv s3 6 s3 I xx = THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP.866d ex1 = ( Z xx = ) d 2 ex = 0. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY. Ver 3.

Appendix A – Mathematical formulae (4/5)

Geometric properties of plane sections (cont.)
Section

Area

Octagon

A = 0.8284d 2
s = 0.4142d

n s 2 cot θ
4
A = n r 2 tan θ

Polygon

A=

A=

n R sin 2θ
2
2

Circle

A = π r2
A = 0.7854d 2

Position of
centroid

Moments of inertia

d
2
ev = 0.541d

Z xx = Z yy

I xx = I yy = I vv

ex =

= 0.1095d 3

= 0.0547d 4

e = r or R

I1 = I 2

depending on
the axis and

=

Z vv = 0.1011d 3

(

)

(

)

A 6R2 − s2
24
A 12r 2 + s 2
=
48

value of n

Z=

π d4
64
I = 0.7854r 2

I
e

π d3
32
Z = 0.7854r 3

I =

d
e =r=
2

Section Moduli

Z=

Semi-Circle

Z xx =

A = 1.5708r 2

I xx = 0.1098r

ex = 0.424r

base = 0.2587r 3

4

crown = 0.1907 r 3

I yy = 0.3927r 4

Z yy = 0.3927 r 3

Segment

A=
r2 æ π θ °
ö
− sin θ
ç
2 è 180°

Quadrant

Sector

θ°
π r2
A=
360°

π r2
A=
4

e0 =

3

c
12 A

ex = e0 − r cos

2 c
ex = r
3 a
r 2c
ex =
3A

ex = 0.424r
ev = 0.6r
eu = 0.707 r

Complement

ex = 0.777r

A = 0.2146r 2

I xx =

θ
2

r4 æ π θ °
ö
− sin 2θ ÷
ç
16 è 90°

360° 2 θ 4r
sin
θ °π
2 9
r4 æ π θ °
ö
= ç
− sin θ ÷
8 è 180°

I xx = I o −

I0 =

r4 æ π θ °
ö
+ sin θ
ç
8 è 180°

I xx = I yy = 0.0549r 4
I bb = 0.1963r 4
I uu = 0.0714r 4
I vv = 0.0384r 4
I xx = I yy = 0.0076r 4

eu = 0.707 r

I uu = 0.012r 4

eb = 0.391r

I vv = 0.0031r

THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION
ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR
AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.

Ver 3.2 / May 2000

crown =

ö
æπθ°

r4 ç
30°
ç
48 ç
è 8 sin θ + sin 2θ

ev = 1.098r
eσ = 0.316r

base = I xx / eI

20r 4 (1 − cosθ )3
π θ ° − 180° sin θ

I yy =

I yy

Z xx

4

Z vv =
4

I xx
b − eI

2 I yy
c

Z xx
centre =

I xx
ex

crown =

I xx
r − ex

Z yy =

2 I yy
c

MinimumValues
Z xx = Z yy = 0.0953r 3
Z uu = 0.1009r 3
Z vv = 0.064r 3

MinimumValues
Z xx = Z yy = 0.0097r 3
Z uu = 0.017 r 3
Z vv = 0.0079r 3

Ver 3.2 / May 2000

THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION
ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR
AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.

= 0.102 kgf
= 0.2248 lbf
= 0.1004 tonf

1 kgf
1 lbf
1 tonf

= 9.807 N
= 4.448 N
= 9.964 kN

= 0.102 kgf.m
= 86.80 lbf.in
= 8.851 lbf.in
= 0.7376 lbf.ft
= 3.951 tonf.in

= 0.102 kgf/m
= 0.6720 lbf/ft
= 68.53 lbf/ft
= 0.03059 tonf/ft

= 145.0 lbf/in2
= 0.102 kgf/m2
= 0.2048 lbf/ft2
= 0.02089 lbf/ft2
= 0.009324 tonf/ft2
= 0.06475 tonf/in2

= 61.01 x 10-6 in3

1 mm4

= 2.403 x 10-6 in4

Second Moment of Area

1 mm3

= 145.00 lbf/in2

Modulus of Elasticity

1 Nm
1 kgf.m
1 Nm
1 Nm
1 kNm

Moment

Section Modulus

= 16.02 kg/m3
= 1.329 tonne/m3

= 16390 mm3
= 0.02832 m3
= 0.7646 m3

1 N/m
1 kgf/m
1 kN/m
1 kN/m

Strip Loading

1 N/mm2
1 N/m2
1 kgf/m2
1 N/m2
1 kN/m2
1 N/mm2

1N
1N
1 kN

1 lb/ft3
1 ton/yd3

1 in3
1 ft3
1 yd3

2

= 645.2 mm
= 0.09290 m2
= 0.8361 m2

= 25.40 mm
= 0.3048 m
= 0.9144 m

= 0.4536 kg
= 1.016 tonne

1 N/mm2

= 0.06242 lb/ft3
= 0.7524 ton/yd3

= 0.000061 in3
= 35.32 ft3
= 1.308 yd3

1 in
1 ft2
1 yd2

2

2

= 0.00155 in
= 10.76 ft2
= 1.196 yd2

1 in
1 ft
1 yd

1 lb
1 ton

= 0.03937 in
= 3.281 ft
= 1.094 yd

= 2.205 lb
= 0.9842 ton

Stress

Force

1 kg/m3
1 tonne/m3

Density

1 mm3
1 m3
1 m3

Length
1 mm
1m
1m
Area
1 mm2
1 m2
1 m2
Volume

1 kg
1 tonne

Mass

1 in4

1 in3

1 lbf/in2

1 kgf.m
1 lbf.in
1 lbf.in
1 lbf.in
1 tonf.in

1 kgf/m
1 lbf/ft
1 lbf/ft
1 tonf/ft

1 lbf/in2
1 kgf/m2
1 lbf/ft2
1 lbf/ft2
1 tonf/ft2
1 tonf/in2

= 416200 mm4

= 16390 mm3

= 6.895 x 10-3 N/mm2

= 9.807 Nm
= 0.01152 kgf.m
= 0.1130 Nm
= 1.356 Nm
= 0.2531 kNm

= 9.807 N/m
= 1.488 kgf/m
= 0.0146 kN/m
= 32.69 kN/m

= 0.006895 N/mm2
= 9.807 N/m2
= 4.882 kgf/m2
= 47.88 N/m2
= 107.3 kN/m2
= 15.44 N/mm2

Appendix A – Mathematical formulae (5/5)

A.6 Conversion Factors
Imperial : Metric conversion factors

Appendix B – Analysis formulae (1/8)

APPENDIX B – ANALYSIS FORMULAE
B.1 Elastic bending formulae
Bending about a principle axis:

σ M
=
= Eκ ;
y
I

curvature-change

κ=

1
1

R R0

In general, bending moment is section modulus Z times maximum bending stress.
Longitudinal shear force S on material of area As , due to transverse shear force F on the
beam.

S=

F
I

AS

y dA =

F AS y
I

per unit length of beam.

B.2 Elastic torsion formulae
Round shafts:

τ T
= = Gφ
r J

where φis the angle of twist per unit length

2
and J = r dA is the polar moment of area.

Circular area, radius R: J =

π R4
2

Thin circular tube, radius R thickness t: J = 2π R 3 t

Thin walled tube of arbitrary cross-section:
τ=

T
2 Ae t

:

T =G

4 Ae2
φ
ds
∫t

where Ae is the enclosed area to mid thickness, t is
the wall thickness. and s is the distance round the
permiter.

THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION
ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR
AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.

Ver 3.0 / Aug 98

. H = ps 2 / 8 f a. Tmax = H 1 +  + 4n  s  e.8 Simply Supported Mass and stiffness distributed f = 18 Cantilever Mass concentrated at end Cantilever Mass and stiffness distributed THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP. ∆Lt = εtL ≅ εts1 +   sec θ    8n f . 5   Hs  36 2  e. ∆L s ≅ 8 3 n2 − Hs  16 AE  3 1 +   f = 18 y 2   n2  8 3   n2   18  d . L = s1 + h  c.3 Taut wires. Tmax = H 1 + 16n 2 )  8n 2 d . ∆Ls ≅ 2 s2 c. L ≅ s1 + 3 sec 4 θ  (sx − x ) 4f f = y y 15. ∆Lt ≅ εts1 + 3 sec 4 θ  Hh ps + g . ∆Ls ≅ 1 + n  AE  5  Hs  16n 2  1 +  sec θ  AE  3 sec 4 θ   18  f . ∆Lt ≅ εts1 + n 2  5     sec θ   for most structures   n 4 + . Vs = s 2 8f   Triangular loading on cables with horizontal chords 2 ps 2 d .7 y . L = s1 + n 2 − 18n 4 + . cables or chains Uniformly loaded cables with horizontal chords s = span length f = cable sag n = f/s = sag ratio L = length of cable curve ∆Ls = cable elongation due to axial stress ∆Lt = cable elongation due to temperature change. c. y = b.Appendix B – Analysis formulae (2/8) B. t A = area of cable E = modulus of elasticity of cable ε = thermal coefficient of linear expansion t = temperature change in °F p = load per unit length Uniformly loaded cables With inclined chords ( 4f a. y = 2 sx − x 2 s b...4 Vibration Typically 32 f . H = e. y = f 1 − 8 3  s   b.0 / Aug 98 5  x3  a.8 f = y 19. Tmax = 1 + 36n 2 Where: f is in cycles per second y is the static deflection in mm Simply supported Mass concentrated in centre f = 15. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY. H = ps 2 / 24 f B.. Ver 3.

cantilever THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP.5 Design formulae for beams . Ver 3. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.0 / Aug 98 .Appendix B – Analysis formulae (3/8) B.

IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.Appendix B – Analysis formulae (4/8) B.0 / Aug 98 .6 Design formulae for beams .fixed both ends THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP. Ver 3.

IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.Appendix B – Analysis formulae (5/8) B.simply supported THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP. Ver 3.7 Design formulae for beams .0 / Aug 98 .

Ver 3.0 / Aug 98 .Appendix B – Analysis formulae (6/8) [B..simply supported (cont. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.)] THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP.7 Design formulae for beams .

Appendix B – Analysis formulae (7/8)

B.8 Design formulae for beams - propped cantilever

THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION
ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR
AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.

Ver 3.0 / Aug 98

Appendix B – Analysis formulae (8/8)
[B.8 Design formulae for beams - propped cantilever (cont..)]

THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION
ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR
AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.

Ver 3.0 / Aug 98

Appendix C – Useful Design Data (1/12)

APPENDIX C – USEFUL DESIGN DATA
C.1 Road transport limitations (simplified) (in the UK)

Upto 2.9m

Upto 18.3m

Movements of loads within these
parameters do not require Police
notification etc.

3.175m
Upto
4.975m
1.7m typ
Upto 0.3m

2.9m to 5.0m

18.3m to 27.4m

Movements of loads within these parameters
require notification of all Police forces at least 2
clear days in advance.

Greater than5.0m

Greater than 27.4m

Movements of loads exceeding these parameters requires
special permits from the DoT, normally needing 8 weeks
prior notice; additional plans and drawings of routing may
be requested

THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION
ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR
AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.

Ver 3.0 / Aug 98

2. 6.98 8. tonnes 1.52 17.70 4. Crane weights include the crab.83 20. Above information is approximate only and is intended for guidance.77 8.67 13. H or hook path dimension.26 7.22 18.47 6. Alternative crabs are available in all capacities for extended heights of lift.84 7.65 15.61 8. is based upon a standard crab unit.36 15.64 19.49 17.03 22.91 8.62 16. Alternative end constructions can be provided to either increase or reduce dimension B to suit existing building condition The height of lift.82 10.13 16.54 24. 3. 4.Appendix C – Useful Design Data (2/12) C.99 14.98 7.68 11. Ver 3.18 5. tonnes 5. Wheel loads are for static conditions with maximum working load and minimum crab approach.40 11.08 Dimension B is based upon construction where end carriages are built into bridges member for maximum rigidity and compact headroom dimension.14 14.30 8.60 11.78 Wheel load tonnes 6. Exact information should be obtained from manufactures’publication.53 27.2 Craneage data – double girder Capacity tonnes 10 25 1. Weights of crane and crab are with unloaded hooks.04 15.90 15. THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP.20 20.11 12.0 / Aug 98 .17 11. 5. Span S metres 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 A mm 920 920 920 920 920 920 950 950 950 950 1650 B mm C mm 1250 1250 1278 1280 1375 1375 1535 1715 1715 1865 1650 1650 1650 1800 1800 1950 1950 2100 2100 2125 1225 1225 1255 1255 1325 1325 1485 1665 1665 1815 1540 1540 1540 1690 1690 1840 1840 1990 1990 2035 D mm E mm F mm H mm 970 200 430 9700 1150 220 220 220 220 220 220 220 220 235 235 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 520 600 600 8000 W mm 2500 2500 2500 3100 3700 3700 3700 3700 4300 4300 4300 4300 4300 4300 4300 4300 4300 4900 4900 4900 Crab wt.92 18.04 7.00 Crane wt. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.97 13.19 6.

5 5.6 2.7 D m 1.3 Craneage data – double hoist Capacity tonnes 50/10 1. Above information is approximate only and is intended for guidance. tonnes 0.0 Wheels in end carriage 2 Crane weights include the weight of the crab.0 30.2 6.9 5.0 43. Weights of crane and crab are with unloaded hooks.0 5.6 2.7 2.1 1. Wheel loads are for static conditions with maximum working load and minimum crab approach. THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP.7 2.Appendix C – Useful Design Data (3/12) C.3 4. 3.8 1. 4. Exact information should be obtained from manufactures’publication. Ver 3. tonnes 21.0 Wheel load tonnes 30.0 34.3 1.6 0.4 1.1 6.6 2.0 50.0 32.0 F m 16 G m H m K m L m M M Crab wt. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY. A m B mm C m 10 12.2 5.8 5.0 40.0 41.1 20 Crane wt.6 4.0 35.5 E m 2.2 37.5 16 20 25 32 330 330 330 340 340 340 2.4 1.0 35.6 4.9 6.0 1.0 / Aug 98 . 2.7 4.

0 92 47.95 20.45 265.93 100.37 505.3 73.55 27.144 THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP.70 14.000 101 crane 12.0 165 155.81 141.23 719.5 50.04 3410.38 165.17 21.47 580.0 Area Y Ixx Iyy Zxx Zyy cm2 mm cm4 cm4 cm3 cm3 16.0 152 67.92 Dimension mm Head Base Height width width C A B 36.5 108 54.37 For A.0 76.23 80.38 50.Appendix C – Useful Design Data (4/12) C.8 28.9 34.5 44.05 63.59 16.9 67.0 58.0 102.86 28.18 55.09 153.000 56 bridge 15.67 159.15 87. B and C see figure below Maximum lengths for individual Bridge and crane rail sections Section Length (m) 13 bridge 9.4 Standard rail sections Mass/ unit length Kg/m Section 13 bridge 16 bridge 20 bridge 28 bridge 35 bridge 50 bridge 56 bridge 89 crane 101 crane 164 crane 13.0 58.91 420.7 39. Ver 3.67 685.000 35 bridge 15.01 82.10 167.0 171 102.0 127 55.0 140.144 28 bridge 15.192 164 crane 9.0 100.000 50 bridge 15.144 20 bridge 9.22 113.50 445.4 29.5 165 76.91 88.88 211.34 192.0 50.36 48.76 371.83 794.34 25.0 178 114.0 / Aug 98 .5 24.91 1266.144 16 bridge 9.90 1415.31 15.06 63.24 245.37 21.97 19.78 4776.30 36.95 74. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.01 64.0 230 150.38 116.3 25.8 53.0 160 76.62 35.79 69.67 325.92 71.70 21.29 127.54 30.86 63.3 43.66 44.34 5121.46 45.38 1493.000 89 crane 15.

85 RSJ 203 x 152 x 52.25 1 1 254 x 203 x 81.5 1.50m 22.85 3.60 15.3 x 10 CHS 114.25 2 1.30 12.75 The examples shown are not the minimum radii possible C.30 15.30 8.80 2.70 20.30 10.40 20.30 8.10 3.50m to 20.15 2.50 10.40 6.80 16.5 1.00 13.0m 25.00 20.75 1.30 15.5 3 2.0m 13.90 .90 12.07m fully retracted 10.00 17.60 9.80 7.25 0.85 3.50 10.09 RSJ 152 x 127 x 37.25 1.80 2.0m 5.35 5.5 CHS 168.20 RSJ 4 2.50m to 24.80 17.00 12.35 3. Ver 3.6 Safe load for 25 tonne capacity mobile crane Main boom capacities (tonnes) – through full 360°circle slew – with outriggers fully extended Boom length Radius in meters 10.35 5.00 4.5 2.80 2.5 305 x 305 x 283 UC 254 x 254 x 167 UC 203 x 203 x 86 UC 152 x 127 x 37 UC 6 4.0m 15.0m THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP.70 1.30 8.0m 19.50 10.0m 10.50m 12.75 3 1.00m to 17.50m 3.0m 16.0m 1.30 8.20 11.80 12.00 19.35 5.15 18.50 10.15 2.5 2 10 7 6 4 3 219.50 4.5m 17.30 8.80 16.85 2.70 5.5 3 2 3.75 250 x 250 x 16 SHS 200 x 200 x 12.75 1.35 5.00m 20.85 3.1 x 12.5 2 2.50 9.50 14.35 5.00m 15.5 1.Appendix C – Useful Design Data (5/12) C.00 18.00 16.07m to 12.40 8.30 10.5 2.40 12.10 20.3 x 5 CHS 3 1.0m 14.30 15.0m 8.70 16.0m 22.5 Typical bend radii – rolled sections Typical recommended bend radii Serial size Typical possible bend radii X-X Axis Y-Y Axis (metres) (meters) 533 x 210 x 122 UB 406 x 178 x 74 UB 305 x 165 x 54 UB 254 x 146 x 43 UB 203 x 133 x 30 UB 178 x 102 x 19 UB 152 x 89 x 16 UB 127 x 76 x 13 UB 25 18 7 5 4 4 2. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.50 10.5 1.85 3.0 / Aug 98 17.90 12.57m 0.25 1.00m to 22.40 12.50 18.5m 22.0m 1.5 SHS 200 x 100 x 10 RHS 150 x 100 x 10 RHS 120 x 80 x 10 RHS 10 7 4 2.30 1.3 CHS 60.80 2.3 x 6.50m to 15.25 0.70 20.

5 49.44 8.0 8.0 6.14 10.0 1830 Mass per square metre of durbar plates Thickness on plain Kg/m2 mm* 37.03 159.87 3.5 +150 .25 14.0 4.55 39.77 12.77 65.9 mm to 2.87 57.0 8.97 4.4 25 x 25 & 30 x 30 - 6.0 8.23 11.38 25.0 4.0 8.11.0 4.40 102.80 6.48 36.5 120 x 80 x 10 up to 200 x 100 x 12.62 2.0 8.e.23 14.7 Standard durbar plate sections Standard Sizes Width Thickness range on plain mm mm 10.6 .5 12.85 7.30 5.8 RHS sections – standard lengths Length ranges and tolerances for rectangular hollow sections (RHS) Size Square mm Rectangular mm Welded Standard Special mill mill lengths lengths m m 20 x 20 - 6.Appendix C – Useful Design Data (6/12) C.70 11.5 6. Ver 3.5 7.45 13.2 +300 – 0 +300 – 0 .4 – 7.20 9.5 50 x 25 7.0 random Seamless Standard lengths m Length tolerance mm 5.5 20. *Thickness as measured through body of the plate Ultimate load capacity (kN/m2) for plates simply supported on two sides.0 6.98 3.5 12.4 – 13. 10 & 12 6.0 / Aug 98 Maximum exact lengths m 5. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.30 17.0 10.95 5.74 6.68 1.62 20.28 23.5 12.0 6.0 65.0 6.0 10 .27 2.73 11.11.8 THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP.97 18.7 100 x 100 x 10 up to 150 x 150 x 12.70 29.0 6.5. in one length and one width.6 150 x 150 x 16 200 x 100 x 16 180 x 180 up to 400 x 400 x 16 250 x 150 up to 500 x 300 x 16 10 & 12 400 x 400 x 20 500 x 300 x 20 8.4 & 7.40 5. 10 & 12 5.2 9 – 14.68 36.5 1000 10.5 1250 10.07 7.4 mm.5 12. stressed to 275 N/mm2 Thickness on plain mm 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 4.0 81.0 100.5 12.0 4. i.5 Consideration will be given to requirements other than standard sizes where they represent a reasonable tonnage per size.5 1500 10.20 16.0 12.48 36.5-9.1 – 14.42 89.28 4.0 8.5 1750 10.67 57.5. Lengths up to 10 meters can be supplied for plate 6mm & over Depth of pattern ranging from 1.17 9.45 22.50 Span (mm) Stiffeners should be used for spans in excess of 1100mm to avoid excessive deflections C.5 40 x 40 up to 100 x 100 x 8 50 x 30 up to 120 x 80 x 8 7.93 9.

Appendix C – Useful Design Data (7/12) C.0 10.0 Up to 12.4.0 – 16.0 8.0 32.0 32.4 5.7 – 168.0 – 16.5 Standard mill lengths m Length tolerance mm O.8 9 – 14.0 25. 8 & 10 4. 4 & 6 3.0 9 – 14. 10 & 12 6.0 508 10 & 12 20.8 20.3 All 6.4 & 7.4 – 12 +150 – 0 139.8 9 – 14.1 – 14.0 – 16.D.4 – 7. 10 & 12 4.0 6.0 6.5 10 & 12 10 & 12 9 – 14.3 & 26.0 20.8 16.8 8.6 +150 – 0 193.0 – 16.3 – 114.9 8.7 16.0 10. 10 & 12 9 – 14.0 406. 6 & 8 2. 8 & 10 4.3 All 7.9 All 6. 4 & 6 +300 .48.0 25. 6. 10 & 12 10. 6 & 8 +300 .7 .6 457 10 & 12 8.8 20.6 +150 – 0 Up to 12. 8 & 10 4. 10 & 12 6.0 & 6.5 219.0.3 – 16. 6 & 8 2.4 10 & 12 20. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.5. 12 & 14 +300 . 8 & 10 9 – 14.0 10.0 / Aug 98 +300 .1 244.5 +150 – 0 60. Ver 3.0 25.0 8.5 7. 6.5 & 10 5.0 8.0 25.0 9 – 14.8 20.0.0 40.9 CHS sections – standard lengths Length ranges and tolerances for circular hollow section (CHS) Size (mm) Welded Seamless Thickness Standard mill lengths m Special mill lengths m 21. 8 & 10 4. 6 & 8 +300 .0 6. 6 & 8 +300 . 4 & 6 10 & 12 +300 . 10 6.0 6.5 5.5.0 +300 – 0 6.3 All 6.3 – 16 273 355.0 . & 12 6.0 9 – 14.1 – 14. 10.5 +150 – 0 33. 6 & 8 2.0 6.0 10 & 12 10 & 12 6. 6. 4 & 5 +300 . 7.0 323.8 20 & 25 32 40 50 THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP.0 25.3 – 16 8 – 12. 8 & 10 4. 8 & 10 20.4 – 7.

10 Carbon steel plate sections – British Steel standard sizes Typical size range of carbon steel plates (maximum length in m) Width 1220 .3000 .7 7.3 10.3 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 16.2 9.4 11.9 4.6 14.7 8.3 7.7 8.5 - - - - - 8 13.5 9.6 8.5 5.9 6.5 13.2 11.5 13.3 10.5 7.3 18.2 11.1750 .9 4.5 13.3 18.5 8.6 3.2 9.6 100 - 15.9 10.5 13.5 13.3 18.9 7.5 13.2 5.1 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 15.4 12.5 13.5 12.3 18.7 11.7 120 - 13.5 13.2 12.8 16.5 13.8 6.4 4.5 13.5 3.8 6.3 18.3460 .2 9.7 7.5 11.5 13.6 12.1 15.5 - 200 - 7.Appendix C – Useful Design Data (8/12) C.9 7.3 18.4 140 - 11.6 11 70 13.9 10.1 - 250 - 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3.5 13. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.0 / Aug 98 .5 3.6 9.1500 .1 13.7 8.1300 .5 13.7 5.4 13.3 13.7 15.1 4.3 11.9 3.7 4.7 12.5 - - - - - - 13.9 5.7 6.5 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 - 15 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 - 20 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 25 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 30 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 35 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 40 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 45 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 50 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 16.5 6.5 13.1 10.5 13.3 18.7 8.5 13.6 14.5 12.5 13.5 13.5 13.8 8.6 10.1 13.1 3.5 5.6 11 75 8.3 18.5 7.3 10 - - - 12.5 12.7 8.3 18.5 7.2 9.7 13.5 15.3250 .9 12.6 5.8 65 13.1250 .3 13.6 13.7 6.3 18.9 17 17 16.7 6.5 8.5 13.3 15.3500 .3 - - - - 10 18.5 13.6 12.5 13.7 9.3 18.4 5.6 3.4 17 17 16.5 13.5 13.3 18.2 9.8 7.3050 .7 11.7 9.6 6.5 13.5 3.2 5.6 10.4 4.3 18.5 13.2750 .6 13.7 80 7.5 11 - - - - 18.9 10.6 12.6 6.5 12.5 8.5 7.5 11.3 18.5 7 13.8 6.5 10.6 15.3 18.6 7.6 9.6 13.3 18.4 9.3 18.2 6.indicates size not available THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP.8 - 160 - 9.3 18.3 8.3 18.8 17 17 17 17 15.3 18.4 12.7 9.3750 1250 1300 1500 1600 1750 1800 2000 2100 2250 2500 2750 3000 3050 3250 3460 3500 3750 3960 (mm) Thickness 5 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 - - - - - - - - 6 13.5 8.2 4.1 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 15.3 15.5 13.1 5.8 6.2000 .2100 .2 7.1800 .4 60 15.4 9.7 90 - 17 17 15 15 17 17 15.2 - - - - - - 300 - 4 4 4 4 4 4 3. Ver 3.9 5.2 5.6 11.3 18.1 11.7 4.5 13.7 11.5 13.8 9.8 7.3 13.3 18.9 14.2250 .6 11.3 6.3 6.2 11.9 9.8 16.6 13.9 10.4 8.2500 .9 6.3 18.5 7.3 18.9 10.2 - - - - - - - - 350 - 4 4 4 4 3.9 14.1 - - - - - - - - - .5 13.9 12.7 7.9 15.8 17 17 17 17 15.5 9 18.6 10.1600 .1 8.4 13.3 13.1 - 180 - 8.3 18.5 13.

11 Carbon and carbon manganese wide flats – British Steel standard sizes Typical size range of carbon and carbon-manganese wide flats (max length in m) Thickness (mm) Width 10 12 15 150 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 13 13 13 15 15 15 15 15 15 65 70 75 180 12 13 13 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 16 16 16 16 200 12 13 14 15 15 15 15 15 16 16 16 16 16 16 220 12 13 14 15 15.0 / Aug 98 100 .5 18 18 18 18 18 250 12 13.5 23 23 23 23 425 12 16 18 21 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 450 16 18 21 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 475 15 18 21 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 500 15 18 21 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 525 18 21 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 22 550 18 21 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 22 20 575 18 21 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 21 19 600 18 21 23 23 23 23 23 23 22 21 19 625 18 21 23 23 23 23 23 23 21 20 19 650 18 21 23 23 23 23 23 22 21 19 18 Not available 80 90 Development range – please consult May be available with dimensions and material properties by arrangement Not normally available except by special arrangement on straightness and flatness tolerances THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP.5 16.5 18 18 18 18 275 12 14 14 15 15.5 17.5 16 16.Appendix C – Useful Design Data (9/12) C.5 20 20 20 20 20 20 21 21 21 21 400 12 16 17 21 21 22 22 22.5 22.5 17 17 17.5 14 15 15. Ver 3. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.5 16.5 18 18 18 18 18 300 12 14 15 16 18 18 18 18 18 19 19 19 19 19 325 12 12 15 16 18 18 18 18 18 19 19 19 19 19 350 12 15 16 18 18 18 18 20 20 20 20 20 20 375 12 16 16.5 17.5 17.5 17 17 17.

power M12 M16 M20 M24 M30 M36 23 30 30 36 49 49 27 46 46 65 78 97 30 60 60 60 70 100 500 500 600 600 700 700 Impact wrench for HSFG bolts Size of bolt v M24 65 M30 78 M36 97 w* 250 500 270 600 300 600 x 60 65 65 min.1 18.0 27.00 353 M30 3.74 84.402 33.6 Grade 8.Appendix C – Useful Design Data (10/12) C.8 123 89.3 M16 2.6 15.701 18.0 63.0 21.50 245 M24 3.8 Ultimate load kN Proof load Ultimate load kN Proof load C.0 / Aug 98 .0 36. y to max.50 561 M36 4.0 46.1 19. Ver 3.6 96.5 23.0 Basic effective diameter (pitch diameter) (mm) Grade 4.1 54.727 33.7 66.0 55.0 53.0 16.0 10.0 41.0 19.12 Fasteners – mechanical properties and dimensions of ordinary bolts Metric coarse threads Pitch (mm) Tensile stress area M12 1.00 817 10.1 61.0 29. after consultation with the equipment manufacturer.2 277 201 220 124 439 321 321 181 641 466 Length of threads = 125mm > 125mm and = 200mm > 200mm = 125mm (short thread length) 30 36 49 - 38 44 57 24 46 52 65 30 54 60 73 36 66 72 85 - 78 84 97 - Dimensions (mm) Maximum width across flats Maximum width across corners Nominal head depth of bolts Nominal depth of nuts 19.13 Fasteners – clearance for tightening Up to and including M20 diameter.376 22.0 34.3 192 140 138 78.00 157 M20 2.9 8.0 13. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.2 48. Lesser values than these may be used where necessary. y 82 210 89 260 89 260 Note that the clearances given are the minimum values for convenient working.0 24.051 27.7 10. tightening is usually best done by hand Size of bolt a b c d.0 30.863 14.0 24.6 13. Torque multiplier for HSFG bolts THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP.6 34.

5 0. Min.75 52.00 35.16 32.5 4.10 13.75 33.90 20.4 0.55 19.65 24.0 4.70 16.75 43.05 7.55 15.0 3.4 0.95 mm 24 32 40 44 48 54 60 66 72 Max.14 Fasteners – high strength friction grip bolts Dimensions for high strength friction grip bolts and nuts to BS 4395 parts 1 and 2 Nominal diameter Diameter of unthreaded shank Pitch (coarse pitch series) Width across flats B mm (M12) M16 M20 M22 M24 M27 M30 M33 M36 A Max Min mm mm 12. mm mm 8. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.16 26.30 19.80 mm 0.20 mm 22 26 30 34 36 39 42 45 48 .5 5.45 10.5 0.55 9.45 18.4 0.75 47.75 38.5 3.90 14.80 58.0 See figures below for the dimensions used in the table Size shown in brackets is non-preferred * Countersunk head ** Allows for nut. THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP.55 18.00 11.0 4.84 30.0 3.35 23.75 mm 2.00 53.84 34.16 29.65 29.91 24.35 21.84 24.80 10.84 27.35 30.0 3.55 12.5 0.00 35.05 24.5 0. Flash G H J Max.65 31.0 4.16 21.30 15.00 40.95 19. Ver 3.90 17.10 16. washer Head face C Max Min mm mm 22 27 32 36 41 46 50 55 60 21.55 57.0 Depth Thickness of *Dia of hexagon head of Csk.0 3. Min.45 13. mm mm 11.16 23.10 14. Min.75 2.90 15.0 2. one flat round washer and sufficient thread protrusion beyond nut. mm mm 22 27 32 36 41 46 50 55 60 19.95 21.5 F Diameter of washer face *Dept h of Csk.5 3.4 0.35 25.Appendix C – Useful Design Data (11/12) C.84 22.91 29.00 45.0 / Aug 98 Thickness of nuts Addition to grip length to give length of bolt E required** Max.45 17.00 49.10 17.00 37.5 2.0 5.05 22.65 22.35 28.45 14.00 mm 1.0 2.70 20.16 26.65 26.16 31.

IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.0 / Aug 98 .Appendix C – Useful Design Data (12/12) C.15 Staircase dimensions THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP. Ver 3.

1 Macalloy Bars Tie rods grades Stainless steel architectural ties High strength precision ties 43 50 17m 79 80 36 49 58 52 71 83 82 114 132 144 198 229 219 303 351 60 398 525 636 72 574 758 918 90 709 1022 100 892 1286 Bar dia.0 / Aug 98 .Appendix D . IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY. Ver 3. mm Stressing ties Stainless steel stressing ties 18 20 147 22 24 92 153 27 112 187 30 138 230 195 322 25 241 26.Proprietary Components (1/9) APPENDIX D D.5 270 32 394 36 500 40 618 232 379 591 45 50 75 959 2056 Approximate safe working loads (kN) THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP.

5 kN/m² for construction loading.20 3.50 3.21 3.19 3.84 2.76 3.63 3.22 3.00 2.15 3.65 3.64 3.77 2.35 3.12 2.05 3.09 2.50 2.80 3.0 / Aug 98 10.55 4. 6.64 3.50 3.57 2.0 SUPPORT CONDITION SLAB DEPTH mm Permanent Temporary SINGLE MULTIPLE PROPPED 100 120 130 150 175 200 100 120 130 150 175 200 100 120 130 150 175 200 0.05 3.79 2.00 3.35 3.12 3.75 2.83 2.92 2.89 4.25 4.55 4.50 A193 6.30 5.60 5.90 4.69 3.16 3.60 3. Maximum deflections are limited to span/130 after taking account of ponding. excluding only the self weight of the slab.02 3.0MM GAUGE IMPOSED LOAD (kN/m²) 1.85 2.07 3.70 2.65 3.50 3.28 3.10 4.62 3. 3.95 4.97 2.69 5.20 3.31 4.10 3.10 2.30 3.65 3.90 4.30 6.70 2.50 - A142 6.95 4.63 4.8 and 6.00 3.0 2.30 5.35 2.83 2.05 2.30 5.42 2.10 4.30 6.10 A252 6.63 2. An ultimate load factor of 1.50 3.61 3.31 2.07 3.60 3.12 2.7 2.41 10.58 2.55 3. 3.83 3.42 2.55 5.94 2.55 4.55 5. 6.14 3.35 2.69 2.85 2.79 2.78 3.5 2.30 2.04 4.57 2.12 2.85 2.79 2.50 3.95 4.70 3.65 2.25 4.82 2.05 3.58 3.02 3.10 3.56 3.35 3.65 3.50 3.45 5.58 2.25 4.19 3.16 3.21 3.85 4.80 3.65 2.0 3.12 2.69 2.50 3.44 3.10 2.69 3.56 3.63 2.93 10.63 2.30 5.17 3.10 4.50 3.62 3.05 3.28 3.60 5.20 2.10 3.05 3.12 2.50 A193 6.90 4.56 3.16 3.85 2.45 3.79 5. 2.05 3.05 3.50 3.55 4.57 2.60 5.31 3.05 3.14 3.98 4.10 4.14 2.02 4.50 2.42 - A142 6.60 5.57 2.10 3.78 3.08 2.30 5.06 3. The simplified fire design method is based on fire tests on composite slabs incorporating steel meshes with 15-45mm top cover.95 4.12 3.65 2. 1991.51 3.92 2.83 5.30 5.20 - 10.55 5.84 2.65 3.57 2.05 3.23 2.00 2.42 2.0 SLAB DEPTH mm 100 120 130 150 175 200 105 110 130 150 175 200 130 140 150 175 200 NORMAL WEIGHT CONCRETE SPAN (m) FOR GIVEN INPOSED LOAD (kN/m2) 5.33 4.00 3.10 4.56 3.55 2.16 4.75 2.19 3.70 2.95 4.70 2.90 4.74 2.44 2.84 3.30 5.0 2.05 2.00 2.65 3.32 4.80 3.52 4.23 2.35 3.95 4.44 3.99 2.05 3.28 3.44 5.10 4.7 2.35 2.55 4.56 Notes (on table above) 1.59 2.09 2.48 3.47 2.0 2.71 2.50 2.28 3.22 3.40 3.31 4.30 5.00 2.15 3.80 2.80 3.94 4.65 3.75 2.05 2.94 4.63 2.52 2.23 2.55 4.400 kg/m³ and 1900 kg/m2 for lightweight.07 3.10 4.59 3.07 3.02 4.20 2.38 3.30 3.10 4. All other construction stage design checks include an allowance of 1.65 3.05 3.51 3.28 3.55 2. A span to depth ratio of 35:1 for normal weight and 30:1 for lightweight concrete is imposed in deriving the above spans.56 3.69 3. 2.10 3.60 3.0 6.28 3.01 4.05 3.30 2.20 3.04 3.10 4.50 3.95 5.79 2.82 2.0 * 2.01 4.31 2.11 4.7 10.71 2.10 4.99 2.82 2.22 3.0 2.25 4.05 3.85 2.01 4.79 2.71 3.67 3.14 2.14 2.2 Composite decking [Richard Lees ltd.0 6.12 2.57 3.56 3.44 3.84 2.09 2.30 2.00 5.0 is assumed throughout.97 2.98 4.40 3.31 3.05 3.61 2.65 2.84 2.28 3.12 3.25 4.60 2.10 4.80 2.37 3.55 5. partition walls.08 4. THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP.95 4.94 2.59 2.20 (On tables to left) *depicts maximum spans when deck used as permanent shuttering only.94 2.30 2.23 3.74 2.00 2.44 3.05 3.12 5.30 2.48 3.14 2.0 2.18 5.54 3.82 2.09 2.7 10.78 3.02 3.67 3.34 3.60 5.21 3.71 - LIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETE SPAN (m) FOR GIVEN IMPOSED LOAD (kN/m²) .05 3.00 3.19 3.69 2.7 2.9mm GAUGE IMPOSED LOAD (kN/m²) * 100 120 130 150 175 200 100 120 130 150 175 200 100 120 130 150 175 200 2.57 3.71 2.00 2.35 3.50 3.98 4.7 10.82 2. consideration should be given to finishes.00 3.84 3.0MM GAUGE IMPOSED LOAD (kN/m²) 5.44 5.96 5.44 4.31 3.84 3.69 2.05 3.00 2.45 3. Composite slabs are designed as simply supported irrespective of the deck support configuration.05 3.33 3.56 3.53 2. The spans indicated assume clear span + 100mm to the centreline of supports.12 2.23 4.30 10. including all isolated spans.10 4.06 4.10 4.7.10 3.75 2.79 2. 4.Continuous spans only FIRE RATING hrs Load Span Table .05 3.00 3.63 2.76 2. The dead weight of the slab has been included in the development of the spans shown.23 2.84 2.94 2.08 2.7 10.60 2.44 2.40 3.27 3.9mm GAUGE IMPOSED LOAD (kN/m²) 1.77 2.50 3.22 3.55 5.21 2.47 2. 5.51 3.31 3.99 2.53 2.28 3.07 3.Normal Weight Concrete SUPPORT CONDITION SLAB DEPTH mm Permanent Temporary SINGLE MULTIPLE PROPPED 0.64 2.59 2.80 2.0 6.74 2.08 3. 8.99 2.04 3.79 2.93 4.00 3.54 3.30 6.00 2.57 2.08 Notes 1.43 3.00 3.20 3.67 3.21 2.7 2.05 3.14 3.25 4.05 3.79 3.50 3.10 4.68 3.68 3.00 2.14 2.7 2.94 2.64 3.97 2.47 4.71 4.52 2.63 2.50 2.70 2.78 3.42 4.Appendix D – Proprietary Components (2/9) Super Holorib Z28 D.09 2.14 3.41 3. Tables are based on grade C30 concrete of wet density 2.05 3.55 2.61 2.02 3.30 5.38 3.92 4.7 2.94 2.18 4.31 2.52 2.80 2.65 3.17 5.40 3.84 3.58 2.10 3.05 3.10 3.37 3.45 3.22 3. 9.10 A252 6.0 2.38 3.61 2.86 4.57 3.0 2.7 10.08 2.30 3.48 3.85 4.41 2.35 2.77 3.21 2.5 kN/m² is included by RLSD Ltd to allow for non-recoverable deflection due to construction personnel.00 3.50 3.60 2.50 3.40 3.09 2.13 3.41 2. However.10 4.60 5.77 2.78 3.53 4.95 4.85 2.00 3.30 5.95 5.07 3.28 3.19 4.28 3.35 3.57 2.22 3.82 3.90 5.77 3.14 3.82 1. Loads shown here are unfactored working loads and should include all imposed dead and live loads.12 3.14 2.92 2.89 5.0 2. 1.27 3.79 3. For conditions outside the scope of these tables .57 2.12 - 5.55 5.0 * 2.0 2.10 4.69 3.69 2.76 - 5.10 2.05 3.65 3.22 5.04 4.10 2.05 2.55 4. All figures in the table are derived strictly in accordance with guidance given in SCI publication 056-'The fire resistance of composite floors with steel decking' (2nd edition).49 2.14 2. For calculating deflections an additional loading of 0.94 2.83 3.00 2.80 3.41 2.05 3. consult the appropriate fire engineering chart.46 3.09 2.0 2.83 4.10 4.55 4.10 3.52 2.63 2.9 of BS 5950:Part 4.55 4.79 3.97 2.0 2.60 3.82 2.57 3.00 3.54 3.37 3.25 4.55 5.65 2.55 4.] Load Span Table .59 3.35 3.12 2.40 3.05 3.83 3.60 2.60 5.85 2. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.64 3.31 2.22 3.95 4.16 2.63 2.02 2.25 4. A nominal crack control mesh is required over the supports in accordance with clause 6.57 2.41 2.52 2.22 3.14 2.08 2.30 4.35 3.05 3.74 2.09 2.37 3. This method is applicable for any construction where the mesh may act in tension over a supporting beam or wall (negative bending).2mm GAUGE IMPOSED LOAD (kN/m²) * 5. The mesh should satisfy the minimum elongation requirement given in BS4449 : 1998.30 4.0 2.77 2.08 2.06 4.71 3.61 2.56 3.64 3.53 2.79 2.14 2.0 6.90 4.09 10.0 6. etc when reading from these tables.07 3.10 2.67 3.07 3.22 3.28 3.55 2.44 2.0 * 5.96 4.55 5.47 2.86 4.05 3.45 3.35 3.14 3.19 3. 7.50 3.59 3. This includes all end bay conditions.15 3.92 2.80 3.19 2.95 4.63 2.2mm GAUGE IMPOSED LOAD (kN/m²) 5.7 10. Simplified Fire Design Method .21 3. Decking is manufactured from material meeting the following specification: BS EN 10147 designated in accordance with BS EN 10025 S280 GD + Z275 NA-C. Ver 3.Lightweight Concrete 1.0 2.83 2.50 2.16 3.] 4.00 2.05 3. 5.59 3.94 2.55 4.08 3.47 2.77 3.0 * 5.44 2.14 2.22 3.53 2.85 2.56 5.20 1.71 2.51 3.42 2.79 3.08 2.83 2.0 6.07 3.60 3.84 2.00 2.58 3.52 2.65 3.62 3.10 3.

25 2.56 4.40 3.98 3.03 * * 3.79 1.00 3.40 2.80 2.27 5.63 2.58 2.61 3.66 t = 1.61 4. 6 Total applied load referred to in the above table is a working Load based on factored combinations of live loads.45 14.37 4.40 2.51 3.0 12.91 * * * 4.85 2.37 5.05 3.0 4.71 2. 8 * The addition of props gives no further benefit in these cases.54 3.54 * 4.0 8.87 3.0 8.80 3.42 * 4.0 10.71 2.0 3.63 5.0 10.71 2.65 2.56 2.06 2.28 2.0 3.60 3.26 5.67 2.44 2.00 2.11 4.40 4.37 2. divided by a load factor of 1.05 3.22 3.13 3.09 3.67 2.79 1.60 2.19 2.Appendix D – Proprietary Components (2/9) Composite Decking cont.24 3.79 2.79 1.32 2.83 2.31 3.85 3.28 3.17 3.5kN/m² for spans of 3m and over.79 2.03 2.0 8.15 * * * 6.03 3.40 2.12 14.36 3.06 t = 1.54 5.05 3.40 2.57 * * 4.25 2.22 3.56 2.25 5. the distance between the centre-lines of the supports of an end span may be used.01 2.13 3.83 4.0 14.78 3.80 4.82 3.19 3.26 3.90 4.73 2.89 2.0 6.04 3.16 3.2 Total Applied Load (kN/m²) (See note 6) 6.40 3.06 t = 0. 9 Propped loads assume props are equally spaced.42 3.99 3.80 2.31 3.0 10.87 5.55 3.03 2.0 10.0 3.89 2.71 2.76 6.01 2.65 2.0 * * * * * 2.0 6.31 3.58 3.37 2.2 Total Applied Load (kN/m²) (See note 6) 6.1% of the gross cross-sectional areas of the concrete at the support.48 2.93 A252 5.69 14.36 3.09 4.95 * * 4.51 3.60 5.10 1.89 4.14 2.98 1.5/span kN/m² for spans less than 3m in accordance with the recommendations of BS 5950: Part 4 1994.51 3.0 12.69 t = 1.03 2. For the purpose of calculating the span/depth ratio.78 4.32 * * * * * * * 6.68 2.13 3.38 3.52 2.03 3.15 3. 3 The suggested maximum ratios of slab span to slab depth are 30 for LWC and 35 for NWC to control deflections. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.67 * 5.71 2.85 2.05 2.42 3.48 2.15 3.1 Total Applied Load (kN/m²) (See note 6) 8.51 3.32 2.81 2.13 3.13 2.32 2.87 4.82 4.68 2.45 3.10 2.0 2.22 3.05 3.09 3.41 3.84 2.13 3.36 3.62 3.59 3.05 3.88 2.71 2.93 3.56 3.93 3.66 3.05 2.83 2. services and partitions.98 3.10 2.31 2.01 3.85 2.53 2.26 3.25 4. ceilings.40 2.45 3.37 3.00 3.31 3.65 2.98 1.63 2.71 2.52 2.55 4.71 3.12 4.60 2.31 2.36 3.0 4.1 Total Applied Load (kN/m²) (See note 6) 6.0 8.22 3.42 * * * 6.65 2.22 3.13 3.03 3.33 * * 3.84 2.13 2.00 3.32 * 4. 7 Temporary supports should remain in place until the concrete has achieved its 28 day cub strength.48 2.38 4.53 5.91 5.60 3.71 3.20 3.57 3.84 2.53 4.90 2.86 3.63 2.30 4.44 3.21 3.0 3.90 5.68 2.27 3.88 4.85 2.0 4.63 3.0 12.32 2.40 2.55 3.96 2. [Ward Multideck 60 – Normal weight concrete] LIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETE Span Type (Support Condition) MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE SPAN (m) Slab Depth (mm) Min Mesh Size 120 130 140 150 160 175 200 250 120 130 140 150 160 175 200 250 A98 A142 A142 A142 A142 A193 A193 A252 A98 A142 A142 A142 A142 A193 A193 A252 4.71 2.90 2.94 3.30 3.14 2.37 4.09 3.94 3. Deflection under construction loading (wet concrete etc.0 3.26 3.30 3.92 5.40 3.12 4.56 4.44 2.25 3.40 2.14 4.95 3.13 3.14 2.16 3.53 2.78 4.50 3.11 12.45 4.63 2.15 4.47 4.19 2.98 6.25 5.20 4.01 2.0 10.31 3.86 3.05 2.0 4.0 12.83 14.36 3.19 4.60 3.68 2.85 3.53 2.75 * * 4.80 4.62 3.0 * * * * 3.31 14.30 3.0 * * * * * 3. 2 All tabulated figures include a construction allowance of 1.78 2.60 2.71 2.96 2. .0 8.42 3.80 4.0 12.78 5.19 2.58 5.94 3.39 2.30 3. 5 The composite slabs should meet the requirements of BS 5950: Part 4 1994 with regard to their composite behaviour under normal imposed loads.40 3.31 3.40 2.80 2.30 3.07 * * * * * 6.06 5.34 5.14 3.20 2.60 2.0 3.66 3.22 3.79 2.53 2.89 2.09 3. THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP.69 4.50 3.15 3.37 2.0 8.76 * * 4.45 3.0 * * * * 3.76 3.47 4.90 2.06 2.0 2.80 2.26 3.25 4.97 4.32 2.13 3.53 2.44 2.40 3.10 2.52 t = 1.53 2.0 10.79 4.19 2.01 3.28 2.53 2.67 2.56 4.78 2.40 12.36 3.12 4.04 4.60 2.36 3.51 3.0 2.26 3.89 2.14 2.22 3.40 5.18 3.25 2.91 4.39 3.0 2.20 5.82 3.42 3.16 * * * * or Notes: 1 All tabulated figures include the self weight of the slab.65 2.28 3.61 4.42 3.52 2.0 2.84 2.98 1.55 3.42 2.01 3.20 4.36 3.67 2.17 3.28 2.69 2.22 3.13 343 3.73 A193 5.06 2.92 3.38 3.52 2.66 5.98 1.45 4.0 3.37 2.01 3.42 4.16 3.42 2. finishes.42 3.85 2.27 5.48 2.0 / Aug 98 10 Deck must lie flat on all support beams.60 (excluding slab self weight).0 2.80 2.00 3.19 2. or 4.28 3.55 3.03 3.19 2.56 2.85 2.89 2.10 1.68 2.32 2.00 2.40 14.16 3.23 3.0 Total Applied Load (kN/m²) (See note 6) 4.76 5.9 Total Applied Load (kN/m²) (See note 6) 6.56 * * * 3. Ver 3.14 3.0 * * * * * 3.67 2.0 12.88 2.68 2.31 3.89 2.06 LIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETE PROPPED Span Type (Support Condition) or Slab Depth (mm) Min Mesh Size 120 130 140 150 160 175 200 250 A98 A142 A142 A142 A142 A193 A193 A252 200 250 14.13 3.83 t = 1.14 2.90 3.78 2.14 3.01 2.28 2.0 3.28 3.45 3.28 3.13 2.10 1.00 5.25 2.77 4.32 2.50 4.0 10.79 * * * * * 6.90 3.06 4.40 3.) has been limited to that stipulated in BS 5950: Part 4 1994.96 2.57 4.28 2.31 3.36 3.51 3.80 2.14 3.40 3.42 2.16 3.14 3.84 2. 4 Minimum reinforcement mesh sizes provide 0.94 4.16 3.39 2.67 2.37 2.55 4.42 4.32 2.55 3.42 2.52 2.60 3.48 2.17 3.84 2.15 * * * 4.17 3.96 2.77 3.63 2.42 2.37 2.80 3.01 3.42 2.43 * * 4.90 2.88 2.72 2.13 3.38 3.11 MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE SPAN (m) 4.90 2.40 2.16 3.23 * * 4.22 3.81 t = 1.53 5.0 Total Applied Load (kN/m²) (See note 6) 4.52 2.09 3.25 2.25 2.23 3.69 2.28 3.38 6.50 3.90 5.71 2.56 2.0 10.77 4.88 4.12 t = 0.26 3. Point only contact will affect design loading.56 5.96 2.9 Total Applied Load (kN/m²) (See note 6) 6.01 3.44 3.0 8.71 3.14 3.79 3.83 4.98 1.05 3.09 3.16 3.00 2.05 3.98 1.85 2.28 2.71 2.30 3.78 2.69 2.33 3.0 2.22 3.86 6.71 2.67 3.83 2.78 2.96 2.63 2.14 3.44 2.56 3.60 2.17 3.38 3.54 2.

86 3.63 2.75 3.58 2.47 3.23 3.55 3.26 3.82 3.59 3.02 6.77 4.37 2.71 t = 1.28 3.96 2.15 2. THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP.05 3.0 3.66 3.44 3.10 3.59 3.84 5.38 3.01 6.91 2.54 2.77 3.22 3.96 2.75 3.23 3.0 2.97 2.65 3.97 2.60 3.65 2.96 t = 1.40 3.10 14.38 4.10 3.75 2.67 3.0 Total Applied Load (kN/m²) (See note 6) 4.43 4.95 3.0 3.15 1.25 2.44 3.10 2.35 6.0 10.28 2.82 2.92 2.59 2.66 * * * 3.0 * 3.48 2. divided by a load factor of 1.96 1.63 2.83 4.84 3.48 2.03 3.0 * * * * 3.0 14.20 4.48 2.24 3.0 10.0 12.77 3.12 2.51 3.55 3.Lightweight concrete] LIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETE Span Type (Support Condition) MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE SPAN (m) Slab Depth (mm) Min Mesh Size 120 130 140 150 160 175 200 250 120 130 140 150 160 175 200 250 A98 A142 A142 A142 A142 A193 A193 A252 A98 A142 A142 A142 A142 A193 A193 A252 4.94 3.36 3.25 LIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETE PROPPED Span Type (Support Condition) or Slab Depth (mm) Min Mesh Size 120 130 140 150 160 175 200 250 A98 A142 A142 A142 A142 A193 A193 A252 200 250 14.87 - 14.51 3.10 3.0 8.55 3.Appendix D – Proprietary Components (3/9) Composite Decking cont.82 2.0 12.18 3.0 10.92 2.0 * * * * 3.97 2.05 3.10 3.82 5.18 3.38 3.12 3.35 4.44 3.22 3.56 4.74 2. 2 All tabulated figures include a construction allowance of 1.50 * * * * or NOTES 1 All tabulated figures include the self weight of the slab.14 4.08 3.36 3.25 5.05 3.42 3.33 4.52 3. Ver 3.55 * * 4.51 3.34 5.00 12.58 2.67 3.37 2.65 3.38 2.60 3.37 2.35 2.86 2.60 3.18 3.75 2.82 4.00 * * * * * * * * * * * * * 6.96 2.25 2.38 3.12 3.30 * 4. finished.48 2.94 3.12 2.95 4.0 * * * * * 3.38 3.38 3.08 3.72 2.48 2.72 3.61 3.67 3.51 3.03 3.59 2.90 5.37 2.67 5.18 3.84 3.43 2.91 2.79 3.92 2.82 2.72 2.25 3.08 3.60 * * 4.11 3.15 1.95 4.0 8.0 10.65 14.30 3.20 t = 1.25 2.50 2.75 3.0 10.06 4.25 t = 1.12 4.51 3.30 3.30 5.08 3.63 2.90 3.0 2.82 3.20 3.08 2.42 3.54 2.05 3.0 3.20 14.68 t = 1.1 Total Applied Load (kN/m²) (See note 6) 8.21 4.92 5.87 3.26 3. Total applied load referred to in the above table is a working load based on factored combinations of live loads.40 3.39 2.10 4.94 5.0 8.15 1.04 3.95 2.97 3.35 2.58 2.37 2.20 * * * 4. The composite slabs should meet the requirements of BS 5950: Part 4 1994 with regard to their composite behaviour under normal imposed loads.63 14.89 * * * 4.50 2.94 3.86 3.74 2.11 MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE SPAN (m) 4.32 2.03 3.40 3.96 3.10 3.40 3.59 2.11 3.90 * * * 4.23 2.30 3.96 1.03 3.72 2.2 Total Applied Load (kN/m²) (See note 6) 6.96 14.43 2.95 2.71 4.93 5.85 2.05 3.39 2.26 3.26 3.52 3.0 2.68 3.95 3. Point only contact will affect design loading.26 3.23 5.15 2.50 2.40 3.98 5.0 8.53 * 4.24 4.54 6.40 3.54 - 4.92 * * 6.66 5.82 2.81 3.38 3.9 2.00 5.50 4.52 4.63 5.32 6. . 4 5 6 Minimum reinforcement mesh sizes provide 0.31 4.43 2.08 3.61 3.86 2.55 3.28 2.80 4.72 2.95 4.16 3.67 2.44 4.59 3.08 2.28 2.63 2.47 4.44 3.38 3.31 4.00 6.44 3.96 t = 1.30 2.10 3.22 3.47 4.03 3.48 3.30 3.63 2.63 2.0 * * * * * * 3.61 * * 4.21 3.84 3.60 3.43 3.76 5. ) has been limited to that stipulated in BS5950: Part 4 1994.75 2.0 * * * * 3.58 2.90 4.75 3.0 6.55 3.65 2. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.24 3.10 3.50 4.72 3.91 2.58 2.43 2.96 4.39 2.67 3.96 2.48 4.74 2.12 3.0 3.67 4.60 3.30 3.63 2.50 4.37 2.57 3.08 2.0 / Aug 98 7 8 9 10 Temporary supports should remain in place until the concrete has achieved its 28 day cube strength.77 3.50 4.12 2.65 2.51 3.42 3.19 3.39 2.35 2.72 2.0 6.80 5.0 10.29 3.80 4.0 10.70 4.58 2.1 Total Applied Load (kN/m²) (See note 6) 6.03 2.32 2.01 3.19 3.76 5. * The addition of props gives no further benefit in these cases.48 2.28 2.50 2.25 4.25 t = 0.37 3.0 2.0 2.08 2.03 3.86 3.90 4.65 * * * 7.86 2.10 3.96 1.01 4.51 5.23 2.28 2.0 8.10 3.14 3.86 2.50 2.25 3.17 3.22 3.10 3.63 5.38 3.98 5. services and partitions.92 6.0 12.36 3.63 4.18 3.86 3.94 3.75 2.92 2.0 12.92 2.17 3.38 3.44 3.67 2.92 2.59 5.68 3.51 3.87 7.0 3.95 2.95 2.0 8.43 3.51 3.81 3.0 Total Applied Load (kN/m²) (See note 6) 4.79 * * 4.86 2.05 * * A252 6.30 3.50 4. Propped loads assume props are equally spaced.59 3.38 3.58 4.22 3. the distance between the centre-lines of the supports of an end span may be used.57 3.74 2.03 2.84 3.92 2.1% of the gross cross –sectional area of the concrete at the support.23 3.00 2.5kN/m² for spans of 3m and over. For purpose of calculating the span /depth ratio.59 2.61 3.86 2.73 4.35 2.38 3.77 2.97 2.67 3.41 4.10 3.01 4.0 3.68 3.28 5.01 4.20 5.0 12.33 3.00 3.0 3.36 4.57 3. or 4.0 2.25 3.40 3.9 Total Applied Load (kN/m²) (See note 6) 6.5kN/m² for spans less than 3m in accordance with the recommendations of BS5950: Part 4 1994.50 4.82 2.60 3.33 3.36 3.59 3.95 2.94 3.55 3.67 2.20 4.88 3.16 3.55 4.00 2.97 4.0 10.36 3.59 2.75 2.81 4.43 2.82 2.0 2.65 5.35 3.95 2.63 2.74 3.24 3.57 4. 3 The suggested maximum ratios of slab span to slab depth are 30 for LWC and 35 for NWC to control deflection.63 2.33 3.33 3.32 3.75 2.66 2.63 12.72 3.0 3.97 2. Deck must lie flat on all support beams.35 2.38 3.10 2.0 8.82 2.10 2.16 3.15 2.10 * * 4.13 3.18 3.19 3.28 2.36 3. [Ward Multideck 60 .75 3.74 2.32 2.55 3.50 2.16 3.55 3.24 3.66 2.23 2.97 2.0 * * * * 3.9 Total Applied Load (kN/m²) (See note 6) 6.43 2.87 3.50 t = 0.77 2.73 2.0 * * * * * * 3.42 3.76 3.44 3.68 3.24 3.82 2.52 3.29 - A193 5.79 * 5.15 4.25 3.92 4.30 3.59 2.67 4.22 3.43 * * 4.0 3.26 3.82 2.38 3.58 2.2 Total Applied Load (kN/m²) (See note 6) 6.25 5.44 3. Deflection under construction loading (wet concrete etc.68 3. ceilings.71 3.94 3.74 2.60 (excluding slab self weight).92 3.58 2.79 3.82 2.0 12.44 3.52 3.25 3.94 3.51 3.23 3.55 3.

0 hour(s) Fire rating: 1.89 3.18 3.10 3.76 4.91 3.43 3.43 4.14 3.83 3.50 4.47 4.65 4.56 4.74 3.04 3.31 3.16 4.78 4.60 3.63 4.95 4.42 3.82 3.44 3.17 2.92 2.10 3.54 3.83 3.31 3.10 3.55 4.97 3.00 2.68 3.23 3.12 2.90 3.01 4.73 130 193 4.14 175 252 5.0 hour(s) – end span Total Applied Load (kN/m²) See note 6 (page 8) 6.56 3.06 3.47 4.18 3.00 3.02 5.93 4.52 2.25 3.06 THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP.90 3.98 2.17 4.19 4.26 4.82 3.13 3.62 3.14 3.40 3.38 10.59 3.95 4.37 4.00 2.63 3.00 120 142 3.59 3.87 2.84 3.00 6.83 3.19 4.00 3.54 3.85 3.55 5.21 3.99 3.12 3.10 3.02 3.20 3.87 3.82 3.06 3.87 3.13 3.25 3.42 3.65 4.64 3. Ver 3.12 3.12 3.62 3.80 4.72 4.46 3.59 3.37 4.04 3.31 3.75 3.89 3.97 4.81 3.42 3.51 3.86 3.78 12.80 3.70 3.50 4.88 3.21 5.19 2.83 3.45 3.34 2.95 3.33 3.14 2.13 3.90 3.00 2.59 200 *142 4.53 3.38 4.50 4.21 3.86 4.14 3.23 3.70 3.38 2.03 3.42 4.40 3.80 4.00 130 142 3.25 2.20 4.75 .77 130 252 3.15 3.33 250 252 5.41 3.96 3.25 3.98 4.26 150 142 4.56 4.38 4.00 2.43 3.60 3.31 3.47 4.92 4.80 4.42 4.95 3.98 3.76 5.56 4.50 3.00 10.30 8.00 2.78 3.91 3.69 4.88 3. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.01 3.40 3.09 3.36 3.03 3.49 2.59 2.99 4.60 3.51 4.84 3.89 3.72 4.97 3.63 3.15 2.80 3.83 3.Fire resistance] NORMAL WEIGHT CONCRETE MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE SPAN (m) Fire rating: 1.41 2.85 3.17 3.38 3.43 3.14 4.50 200 252 5.10 4.12 2.43 160 142 4.83 3.38 8.67 4.21 3.40 2.97 3.43 4.66 2.27 3.87 3.86 2.96 4.07 3.26 3.87 3.27 3.53 3.16 4.89 4.14 3.05 3.24 3.20 4.00 3.91 3.09 175 193 4.45 4.86 4.48 3.80 3.00 150 252 4.31 4.30 3.75 3.14 2.96 4.37 3.26 4.47 2.48 4.71 4.00 5.55 3.78 3.45 3.93 3.57 3.47 3.48 4.94 4.94 10.85 3.50 3.96 2.12 3.00 3.79 4.28 3.12 2.09 3.50 3.96 3.03 3.26 3.15 5.31 4.53 3.92 3.66 3.81 4.72 4.0 hour(s) – internal span Total Applied Load (kN/m²) See note 6 (page 8) 10.11 3.06 2.91 3.73 4.52 130 193 3.13 3.13 3.64 2.35 3.25 3.68 2.60 3.27 3.62 3.46 3.76 4.0 hour(s) – internal span Total Applied Load (kN/m²) See note 6 (page 8) 12. [Ward Multideck 60 .18 4.58 3.03 3.37 3.53 175 *142 4.20 4.59 3.15 4.44 4.16 2.59 2.77 3.95 3.01 3.67 3.5m and over are based on 12mm deck only.66 40.30 3.66 2.39 4.44 3.39 140 193 4.25 3.00 10.92 3.98 3.20 3.52 3.00 8.00 3.5 hour(s) Slab Min Total Applied Load (kN/m²) Total Applied Load (kN/m²) Depth See note 6 (page 8) See note 6 (page 8) Mesh (mm) Size 4.25 3.21 200 252 5.63 160 193 4.64 3.26 3.88 3.80 3.70 4.76 3.40 3.86 4.38 175 252 4.90 3.08 4.56 Fire rating: 2.91 5.08 2.41 3.74 3.73 3.73 3.93 4.60 3.31 3.80 4.59 4.05 3.74 3.38 4.04 3.33 3.21 3.71 4.76 4.99 4.70 2.85 250 *193 5.69 3.08 2.32 3.80 3.01 3.42 4.49 4.37 3.34 4.24 3.95 3.85 3.31 3.25 3.96 130 252 4.03 3.40 4.79 3.54 3.90 3.92 3.51 3.33 4.87 4.98 3.12 3.62 4.66 5.56 3.20 4.84 4.63 3.35 2.64 4.27 3.79 3.31 4.52 3.56 4.75 3.68 4.36 2.22 4.99 4.76 4.37 4.15 3.23 3.97 4.74 200 193 4.06 4.39 3.45 3.00 8.18 3.54 3.03 3.00 4.11 3.17 150 252 4.03 4.39 250 *193 4.27 4.87 3.73 3.05 3.39 3.09 4.37 6.17 5.76 3.53 3.27 2.03 140 142 4.68 3.80 140 252 4.37 4.36 3.42 3.60 3.16 3.62 3.00 4.67 3.76 4.75 4.81 3.58 3.74 3.61 4.13 2.19 3.58 5.60 3.74 3.07 3.77 3.17 4.11 2.59 3.38 3.00 8.01 LIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETE MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE SPAN (m) Fire rating: 1.06 3.25 3.00 2.12 4.90 3.43 160 142 4.50 2.86 3.81 4.83 3.53 4.00 2.20 4.19 3.43 3.82 3.00 6.89 3.24 4.22 2.70 4.80 4.Appendix D – Proprietary Components (4/9) Composite Decking cont.30 3.00 3.20 150 142 4.00 4.31 3.55 3.80 4.29 2.65 12.52 3.77 3.22 3.00 10. For single span conditions use the Ward Multideck Software (see page 6) or contact Ward Technical Services.13 3.19 3.53 4.03 3.30 4.01 3.41 3.66 4.51 3.70 3.66 4.51 3.68 4.73 2.75 3.60 2.43 3.04 3.60 2.50 4.92 3.20 3.53 2.00 8.83 3.67 175 193 4.82 5.15 4.87 5.59 4.42 4.00 12.43 2.89 3.87 3.24 3.21 200 193 4.85 4.35 4.29 3.25 3.87 3.06 2.70 250 252 5.73 3.68 120 193 3.29 160 252 4.36 3.02 140 252 4.51 2.47 4.41 3.21 3.94 3.51 5.0 hour(s) Fire rating: 1.13 3.52 4.00 3.38 2.65 3.69 3.40 5.46 4.06 3.86 4.99 3.74 3.91 120 252 3.06 3.39 4.40 3.05 3.03 3.39 4.62 3.80 4.51 4.66 3.00 4.42 4.50 4.43 3.00 2.92 4.62 4.87 4.71 4.05 8.01 3.72 3.78 2.00 3.09 3.5 hour(s) Slab Min Total Applied Load (kN/m²) Total Applied Load (kN/m²) Depth Mesh See note 6 (page 8) See note 6 (page 8) (mm) Size Fire rating: 2.97 3.90 3.56 150 193 4.91 150 193 4.80 Spans of 3.20 2.84 3.0 / Aug 98 10.17 4.53 3.00 3.28 3.28 3.75 4.68 3.72 4.72 3.18 3.92 2.40 2.00 3.43 3.47 4.46 3.90 4.75 5.35 3.66 4.50 4.41 Fire rating: 2.39 3.04 12.25 3.32 4.95 4.62 4.45 3.58 5.41 3.48 4.13 3.91 3.60 3.93 3.0 hour(s) – end span Total Applied Load (kN/m²) See note 6 (page 8) 12.26 3. 6.00 12.90 3.16 2.67 3.29 3.10 2.35 3.64 4.90 3.93 2.84 3.43 3.36 4.64 4.75 3.01 2.79 4.50 2.08 3.12 3.97 4.94 2.27 3.96 3.74 Fire rating: 2.17 5.77 3.00 6.34 3.81 8.20 140 142 4.72 3.88 3.38 4.20 4.19 4.25 4.24 4.03 3.67 5.00 2.50 4.80 6.93 3.01 3.32 3.77 4.72 4.40 3.22 2.66 4.05 3.69 3.02 3.96 4.10 3.00 4.04 2.56 3.00 12.50 3.44 4.11 4.30 3.21 4.53 4.82 3.58 2.54 3.60 3.54 3.21 2.60 3.54 2.20 4.99 3.59 4.70 6.42 3.31 2.72 4.39 3.32 3.47 3.00 2.86 4.69 3.89 3.20 4.00 10.01 160 193 4.07 3.44 3.09 3.96 2.41 3.95 3.00 2.00 6.59 5.26 4.59 3.49 4.27 2.53 3.94 3.91 3.16 3.20 3.84 3.22 3.67 250 *142 4.5 3.50 4.41 3.22 3.14 130 142 3.97 3.73 3.17 3.02 3.27 3.31 3.35 4.58 3.90 3.65 200 *142 4.12 4.32 3.65 2.74 3.17 3.60 3.65 4.44 4.86 5.57 4.63 3.06 3.80 250 *142 4.20 4.90 3.77 140 193 4.26 3.97 2.23 4.20 3.83 4.28 3.22 3.60 3.22 2.18 3.07 3.39 2.09 160 252 4.57 175 142 4.56 3.20 3.40 3.

Z..11 1.20 Imposed load 1.51 0.16 202.58 1.18 232. Ver 3.45 1.11 4.10 0.25 6.25 7.68 13.05 0.36 0.20 262.17 17.49 1.27 1.19 26.74 11.98 2.87 1.08 0.69 0.14 1.86 0.49 27.01 28.15 43.92 8.73 6.92 172.04 23.18 262.05 20.39 1.80 10.97 19.65 37.22 15.51 15.16 172.55 18.28 SPAN 8.18 262.23 232.55 0.93 16.99 1.42 18.16 31.11 6.43 0.10 8.02 1.60 16.57 0.29 1.0m 0.54 7.42 1.11 19.85 0.79 0.98 9.34 1.36 1.12 1.58 1.14 9.38 1.81 1.00 1.89 28.58 0.49 27.42 39.92 9.79 5.71 11.Z.00 13.39 1.88 35.56 22.79 0.23 1.55 1.27 2.33 1.38 1. Loading Factor SECTION REFEREN CE WEIG HT kg/m WORKING LOAD ALLOWABLE LOADNG in kN/m² TOTAL PURLIN CENTRES in millimetres U.17 17. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.53 202.81 13.23 16.51 7.70 0.Z.98 1.89 1.Z.20 13.59 9.94 0.61 0.Z.29 6.96 29.15 1.Appendix D .76 2.97 23.Z.08 10.17 16.86 2.45 23.12 16.14 1.36 1.15 1.84 0.18 1.78 11.66 0.2).Z.25 6.30 SPAN 11.98 0.74 0.73 6.83 29.13 5.32 1.09 0.51 19.74 7.31 15.56 15.94 0.58 26.70 37.25 5.82 1.30 8.17 27.69 0.25 6.23 262.64 0.75 24.49 5.Z.08 1.60 16.Z.78 1.94 21.90 6.69 7.53 1.04 9.44 16.02 1.62 0.17 2.15 202.93 1.19 18.04 9.76 - 35.03 7.88 13.04 13.78 0.85 21.00 6.0m 0.21 32.81 10.00 1.39 5.32 1.85 20.60 0.11 2.65 37.25 6.25 8.88 1.20 232.20 1.85 232.Z.06 1.11 12.21 7.41 15.Z.89 1.90 8.98 32.74 0.78 0.56 37.68 1.56 11.28 24.22 0.31 22.15 - 32.60 0.16 0.73 0.89 1.04 1.Z.63 0.74 12.25 6.98 0.06 15.21 4.Z.18 232. local wind pressure and suction need to be considered”.57 5.25 302.55 0.38 1.49 9.19 1.89 23.10 1.Z.42 23.84 2.13 1.68 0.96 8.Z.35 8.48 1.06 9.65 0.59 9.74 11.65 34.Z.21 2.85 19.06 1.44 9.08 39.19 15.Z.18 232.64 10.Z.28 1.97 19.23 302.85 8.96 29.49 1.03 5.76 15.02 12.24 2.97 8.52 1.83 15.18 - -39.11 4.84 0.74 14.63 14.76 19.36 21.20 202.57 1.24 2.94 0.97 0.40 1.23 13.25 5.66 0.Z.25 342.59 20.60 1.47 16.85 4.Z.79 0.01 15.56 0.37 10.Z.47 9.16 232.28 1.05 Drifting Snow Forces due to temperature effects Wind load acting with imposed load Wind load Imposed load acting with wind load 1.49 1.25 5. Purlin load tables are valid up to and including 25º roof slopes.00 0.22 1.67 8.12 36.92 7.76 2.85 4.49 5.31 8.71 0.60 3.10 9.51 25.17 27.70 0.26 44.L kN 2000 SPAN 6.27 10.82 0.01 1.87 45.70 33.80 0.59 16.20 262.49 5.16 202.28 24.45 8.52 1.92 8.15 202.92 12.05 0.80 0. For slopes greater than 25º use the Metspec Pulin computer design program.49 5.23 17.80 10.92 1.34 1.22 13.80 2.39 10.69 1.20 1.33 SPAN 10.42 14.96 22.80 39.45 23.Z.16 232.21 4.68 0.74 202.10 1.20 232.52 0.01 2.66 0.09 13.60 10.72 14.11 5.00 1.03 1.62 31.32 1.Z.40 15.88 2.84 1.06 24.57 0.0m 0.85 1.68 0.92 7.06 0.85 0.23 1.93 1.96 22.64 0.68 13.11 13.36 33.19 14.50 15.58 26.Z.15 172.25 6.70 37.39 1.39 11.20 SPAN 10.01 28.68 0.57 27.35 18.92 18.11 6.80 12.83 29.59 10.53 0.31 1.47 23.80 10.68 12.56 14.65 0.15 15.45 23.Z. “In the case of purlins an sheeting rails.76 1.62 0.Z.88 0.24 1.94 17.16 3.96 1.53 15.54 2.23 262.96 22.54 1.97 11.92 7.26 1.Z.94 1.08 26.19 41.70 33.79 30.30 1.Z.34 6.73 0.18 262.03 2.Z.03 1.80 0.74 0.25 6.15 172.92 8.36 1.23 262.04 1.12 1.29 9.69 0.70 33.67 0.Z.01 15.13 23.91 7.70 0.49 1.Z.19 41.11 7.90 2.31 1.60 0.02 1.11 53.92 1.16 262.08 1.09 1.72 0.5m 0.85 - 37.Z.30 7.55 0.55 28.44 16.21 1.17 9.25 1.79 2.01 1.92 7.49 0.37 7.26 1.33 1.25 302.54 0.44 1.11 5315 28.86 0.60 14.98 17.55 0.65 37.51 0.69 2.75 0.62 31.25 302.79 0.90 2.Z.Z.92 13.73 17.Z.56 22.92 7.36 21.3 Purlin Systems .42 1.57 27.34 6.22 22.74 0.33 39.48 1.49 27.07 5.18 262.73 24.11 53.07 10.08 26.47 1.75 0.82 10.92 8.92 1.20 262.15 1.01 5.Z.23 302.51 12.17 1.91 1.86 0.77 0.17 1.83 0.Z.41 1.20 1.63 0.05 8.65 1.18 1.92 18.79 0.13 11.13 23.02 6.50 1.05 1.67 0.07 0.Z.98 1879 21.02 1.60 14.88 1.Proprietary Components (6/9) D.46 6.24 1.58 0.38 1.82 0.51 10.03 5.03 1.85 4.37 11.48 23.99 1.63 0.17 1.20 262.25 1.03 1.08 1.29 8.75 17.49 SPAN 9.29 1.31 22.92 1.79 11.80 5.59 9.Z.30 1.80 39.59 18.78 2.40 14.98 32.00 17.74 0.08 32.05 20.74 14.09 13.08 26.18 262.72 0.89 23.18 232.76 0.52 10.83 29.43 0.68 18.41 2.26 10.32 1.99 0.96 2.85 0.59 12.40 12.Z.Z.Z.00 Dead load acting with wind and imposed loads combined 1.30 10.Z.88 1.35 27.13 1.81 1.55 1.62 21.66 0.D.47 1.5m 0.62 31.59 18.82 35.62 8.63 14.28 24.Z.58 1.02 15.22 1.81 20.98 12.40 17.88 15.Z.Z.96 0.56 15.77 1.63 20.02 24.62 8.24 1.89 23.59 0.16 202.74 11.80 9.43 5.03 5.99 1.02 1.73 24.54 1.18 1.(Clause 2.53 1.12 1.29 19.01 15.88 1.16 202.88 7.68 0.12 23.73 2.31 2.18 262.18 232.92 8.Z.40 0.41 1.94 21.65 14.69 0. The load tables contained in this technical catalogue are based on the criteria shown below and are the results of a extensive design and testing programme completed by using the facilities and skills of the Department of Mechanic’s of Materials at Strathclyde University.11 1.50 10.99 1.18 202.62 10.93 1.03 20.50 24.15 THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP.15 1.02 1.90 1.00 12.44 14.49 0.98 1.51 0.04 1.Z.50 24.11 7.71 0.66 0.66 1.07 2.73 0.96 29.35 5.Z.42 1.21 4.23 262.83 24.57 5.25 7.D.04 9.78 0.17 16.92 0.47 1.16 202.78 0.05 20.Z.43 35.85 262.73 6.16 232.15 33.0m 0.26 SPAN 7.89 23.03 0.Z.10 1.40 17.Zed purlin sleeved system [Metsec] 1.65 2.17 2.56 1.13 23.90 15.85 1.92 1.33 39.22 15.70 1.25 302.28 30.24 16.58 26.07 11.08 21.70 1.08 2.51 0.09 13.95 1.89 12.37 1.33 1.40 17.36 1.92 8.46 1.41 2.99 0.00 17.29 9.31 1.18 3.27 1.34 2.00 17.0m 0.Z.53 7.83 2.26 6.00 1.27 28.20 232.29 1.85 1.18 1.73 24.60 3.45 1.53 12.Z.73 0.5m 0.44 1.55 1.24 19.56 16.19 26.88 0.20 20.Z.99 1.14 8.86 25.60 1.11 5.15 1.37 2.Z.50 24.73 6.72 20.Z.33 SPAN 9.67 0.33 39.34 7.59 9.78 9.91 32.Z.21 14.66 1.80 10.5m 0.77 0.59 0.21 1.36 2.63 2.98 13.25 302.23 302.61 1.18 4.13 2.56 1.95 1.89 23.22 SPAN 6.04 12.85 1.04 23.02 0.10 1.64 31.16 31.77 4.89 0.Z.22 1.62 1.07 5.87 2.Z.72 0.92 21.44 1.86 28.38 1582 18.95 1.62 2.39 1.51 19.12 36.07 24.37 8.04 0.03 21.13 4.17 16.92 8.31 1.12 1.41 1.36 21.93 14.49 1.77 2.85 - 20.65 6.77 0.72 1.01 2.56 1.17 1.23 16.25 9.25 6.02 6.64 31.50 0.23 262.62 16.48 22.03 16.55 28.17 27.Z.73 3.20 27.71 0.80 11.01 8.25 29.15 1.59 13.11 1.74 1.44 6.11 13.24 11.20 4.65 2.40 1.61 20.23 262.90 0.65 0.25 342.77 0.80 12.77 0.44 16.44 1.18 4.20 262.13 1.74 0.20 1.01 28.19 41.39 1.14 20.25 6.01 21.16 232.20 1. IN kN/SPAN DOWN Uplift – Metal Cladding LOAD Number of Anti Sags 1000 1200 1500 1800 2400 0 1 2 142.25 342.63 14.23 262.03 1.67 1.07 1.20 14.18 262.20 2.64 15.84 2.67 1.Z.34 6.88 35.64 20.70 37.15 33.82 1.87 0.28 30.75 24.43 35.08 14.20 1.73 2.40 1.06 22.29 20.86 0.20 25.18 262.05 2.23 302.10 0.77 0.56 37.16 - 33.40 Dead load restraining uplift or overturning Dead load Performance The performance of the systems shown in the Technical Design Manual has been derived by calculation in accordance with BS 5950 Part 5.12 8.Z.15 43.95 1.24 1.Z.Z. calibrated and proven by full scale tests.04 23.94 13.21 0.79 30.57 27.20 1.Z.26 44.63 20.2.82 0.82 35.36 1.63 31.27 10.66 13.92 18.62 14.18 1.72 19.90 1.87 1.46 SPAN 180 SPAN 360 ULTIMATE U.17 1.19 1.04 9.12 36.08 26.91 1.08 1.18 19.45 0.04 10.36 33.40 202.49 13.58 0.05 1.46 1.25 6.51 - 20.18 232.97 2.57 6.81 2.26 6.20 262.28 7.Z.0 / Aug 98 DEFLECTION .15 43.52 SPAN 8.75 24.03 5.86 1.51 232.58 1.96 0.Z.31 24.89 23.93 2.46 10.82 2.76 262.94 21.38 14.23 302.16 27.85 19.Z.65 1.15 202.24 1.00 12.85 19.13 1.61 1.31 1.04 10.02 13.59 1.69 1.42 39.43 35.43 12.69 1.92 1.92 13.08 32.73 17.71 11.91 8.83 0.97 19.81 17.48 25.87 19.86 7.18 202.20 1.49 4.62 0.87 45.97 23.20 20.93 0.32 15.34 1.59 18.Z.Z.78 9.61 21.Z.71 1.Z.37 1.Z.73 0.45 1.69 0.25 SPAN 7.02 24.13 0.16 202.41 1.20 20.15 21.27 21.11 2.61 3.51 20.62 0.66 0.13 23.51 16.Z.26 44.Z.20 262.73 17.0m 0.04 9.30 12.19 1.59 10.11 5.71 9.86 1.L.14 172.87 45.57 1.Z.11 5.59 9.84 26.36 18.66 0.5m 0.20 262.73 6. Wind Assessment With reference to BS 5950 : Part 5 : 1987 ‘Code of Practice for design of cold formed sections’ please note the following:.08 32.

61 0.77 4.31 1.25 262.74 0.57 15.92 7.69 0.73 18.84 10.19 18.89 1.63 0.03 47.11 29.25 8.15 16.Z.75 15.26 1.92 0.89 0.12 1.94 15.57 8.04 9.71 10.90 16.53 25.49 28.32 9.35 0.78 0.56 12.74 21.24 1.98 1.13 50.90 1.94 14.03 8.40 262.74 1.18 1.Z.93 0.08 13.58 6.45 5.25 342.41 302.08 15.25 6.02 9.68 46.87 25.11 25.60 3.81 20.49 1.82 23.Z.93 2.25 342.Z.66 0.Z.70 0.37 15.89 1.85 4.00 1.78 0.65 0.76 1.80 26.15 3.67 30.21 1.49 11.14 SPAN 5.98 1.Z.05 21.74 0.81 0.35 26.Z.14 172.45 20.23 1.04 1.62 0.18 1.29 SPAN 7.24 16.13 1.75 0.28 7.41 6.30 SPAN 6.Z.21 4.84 7.23 1.70 0.13 38.19 23.Z.49 14.92 12.40 10.81 6.62 12.58 0.70 28.32 31.Z.54 40.54 0.85 16.64 6.55 6.49 7.71 1.35 7.Z.03 1.73 0.15 12.03 5.34 21.33 24.05 9.Z.62 1.83 2.49 5.25 6.80 16.76 20.40 1.41 20.46 22.49 5.Z.24 1.79 1.Z.32 1.09 33.17 12.74 18.97 9.23 1.94 1.95 15.05 21.57 5.87 1.08 12.23 2.98 1.Z.86 2.45 16.69 1.35 0.03 22.98 8.18 19.06 0.Z.5m 0.16 1.16 1.37 23.67 0.88 0.28 1.5m 0.81 0.87 0.74 0.91 1.92 8.98 12.28 8.24 6.23 302.15 172.06 11.70 13.12 1.94 12.60 1.20 262.37 1.11 5.83 1.2).37 26.42 1.18 1.31 15.84 0.19 27.02 SPAN 6.29 7.38 3.40 23.36 16.49 0.15 16.28 24.33 1.02 8.16 1.09 42.38 1.22 27.81 0.0m 0.95 8.56 1.86 4.26 6.89 14.90 25.98 2.50 18.55 1.24 10.Z. Loading Factor Zed purlin butt system [Metsec] SECTION REFEREN CE WEIG HT kg/m WORKING LOAD ALLOWABLE LOADNG in kN/m² TOT PURLIN CENTRES in millimetres AL U.64 0.37 1.16 232.25 1.53 1.93 1.73 3.05 11.04 9.65 14.80 10.29 1.77 0.98 12.D.25 342.92 7.Z.70 0.17 6.16 22.28 18.82 18.39 9.00 19.46 25.27 16. Wind Assessment With reference to BS 5950 : Part 5 : 1987 ‘Code of Practice for design of cold formed sections’ please note the following:.Z.51 2.64 10.11 5.04 21.41 1.24 1.38 43.Z.29 9.77 0.13 15.Z.84 12.80 13.23 6.27 15.49 0.80 16.69 - 15.02 13.08 1.80 44.25 342.76 0.Z.01 1.74 0.77 34.45 1.81 6.12 26.45 33.75 0.16 1.61 0.21 1.02 1.35 6.17 0.75 0.82 8.38 17.25 342.68 0.97 18.84 24.39 29.11 0.60 7.35 16.96 2.60 0.60 3.94 12.99 14.91 13.28 1.21 2.81 2.82 0.89 7.50 13.07 8.07 1.48 0.32 12.48 2.92 7.81 2.14 142.95 15.Z.92 1.45 - 18.10 1.84 2.Z.05 13.98 6.78 THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP.55 14.63 1.20 1.67 0.57 16.00 1.96 10.11 1.29 1.33 7.26 17.92 0.06 1.Z.77 31.68 13.21 4. calibrated and proven by full scale tests.11 1.75 5.10 22.03 0.25 6.50 1.09 8.91 18.16 142.82 1.28 262.19 30.38 19.21 4.07 - 16.65 1.64 0.39 1.13 28.29 342.03 3.3 20.54 - 17.64 33.18 232.28 1.90 342.06 17.71 0.Proprietary Components (7/9) 1. For slopes greater than 25º use the Metspec Pulin computer design program.81 SPAN 12.83 26.Z.29 342.75 15.27 172.67 1.73 10.53 0.10 23.64 14.85 0.91 0.31 - 14.16 232.69 0.18 3.69 0.45 9.86 2.38 1.94 14.15 142.92 7.35 0.49 0.69 1.66 2.74 2.48 1.26 1.28 SPAN 7.05 Drifting Snow Forces due to temperature effects Wind load acting with imposed load Wind load Imposed load acting with wind load Imposed load Dead load acting with wind and imposed loads combined Dead load restraining uplift or overturning Dead load Performance The performance of the systems shown in the Technical Design Manual has been derived by calculation in accordance with BS 5950 Part 5.86 0.58 0.18 8.28 18.52 0.67 20.11 1.11 0.19 27.12 SPAN 8.81 0.24 12.04 9.38 3.22 0.34 1.67 20.69 0.59 9.71 1.35 14.85 4.24 12.80 10.Z.55 8.48 1.20 262.03 5.11 SPAN 4.68 13.11 7.25 342.02 21.37 10.39 1.04 23.73 6.29 36.47 1.23 1.12 15.77 9.87 9.19 23.86 1.67 0.84 0.40 8.60 0.62 8.06 2.25 7.04 10.92 13.28 13.73 0.23 302.81 0.56 8.97 1.11 5.59 29.18 262.78 14.65 0.60 3.24 20.87 25.78 8.34 7.5m 0.90 13.97 1.09 24.65 1.59 34.59 9.91 1.32 9.Z.91 16.72 190.62 24.61 0.28 13.38 8.83 32.25 0.46 172.Z.18 232.18 6.92 7.32 35.35 0.Z.18 262.25 6.35 7.85 0.50 13.98 1.74 31.45 9.22 1.72 1.Z.Z.99 7.39 6.15 202.32 11.25 5.97 19.86 0.65 15.61 0.98 1.95 0.27 16.23 302.91 1.91 0.90 18.43 27.49 13.D.94 12.04 1.49 0.Z.73 6.Z.60 4.Z.48 16.57 1.30 1.54 1.Z.85 2.13 18.65 0.23 1.96 1.23 262.35 1.29 302.Z.93 1.96 29.84 18.00 1.82 0.84 1.20 1.03 5.04 4.06 27.32 13.15 1.64 28.22 9.71 0.25 5.06 11.29 342.14 172.20 1.62 1.98 11.55 0.84 12.55 13.54 15.96 25.02 1.36 2.15 172.82 137 1.14 1.27 16.Z.73 6.81 1.48 0.05 16.61 0.72 0.80 10.28 13.09 2.68 13.21 342.67 20.82 1.18 3.53 1.99 1.09 3.05 1.29 9.29 342.03 16.05 28.18 3.05 32.5m 0.Appendix D .99 1.14 1.22 7.54 21.55 14.46 2.92 1.20 232.79 1.98 4.82 0.83 0.22 15.Z.83 16.23 1.Z.38 25.68 15.11 31.29 4.22 1.93 9.92 1.85 1.75 13.45 1.31 17.67 1.07 302.43 16.46 1.89 22.Z.61 0.73 0.25 6.05 13.73 16.25 1.24 1.65 1.45 202.74 0.12 45.80 11.81 2.82 0.64 0.17 1.74 0.47 1.14 15.78 41.65 0.Z.Z.06 13.63 9.12 24.28 40.40 26.11 4.90 1.13 2.16 1.57 31.31 1.12 19.Z.15 172.63 1.73 - 18.45 0.09 1.63 0.98 1.23 0.34 0.20 7.55 0.29 1.00 7.67 20.42 18.92 1.21 2.85 6.62 12.11 28.11 5.85 10.Z.04 1.Z.Z. The load tables contained in this technical catalogue are based on the criteria shown below and are the results of a extensive design and testing programme completed by using the facilities and skills of the Department of Mechanic’s of Materials at Strathclyde University.11 13.17 0.68 20.95 5.Z.16 13.06 21.44 10.32 9.50 16.48 1.52 0.42 9.74 6.11 1.80 16.07 8.72 1.14 142.04 1.11 5.18 262.99 1.49 8.21 11.93 13.84 20. Ver 3.16 202.87 0.48 18.45 0.14 0.87 0.65 7.49 5.22 20.63 9.57 15.97 SPAN 9. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.93 1.07 29.17 7.49 8.59 24.10 1.Z.78 1.54 0.25 8.Z.20 1.78 0.35 12.30 1.51 1.Z.Z.14 2400 9.38 35.12 16.16 16.04 342.Z.29 9.10 1.92 1.21 1.39 14.75 15.34 22.39 1.47 7.89 0.97 1.56 0.18 2.98 9.86 0.75 1.55 1.22 11.77 0.42 232.61 20.87 0.54 10.48 18.78 17.37 13.07 13.21 1.11 16.72 11.0m 0.13 28.06 9.86 0.Z.40 19.83 22.04 12.18 262.80 5.98 12.90 15.40 1.68 14.85 0.25 8.94 8.98 7.Z.20 262.25 302.02 17.31 2.68 0.68 0.37 SPAN 4.03 6.78 0.04 4.28 22.82 7.82 0.Z.85 3.19 9.56 0.Z.87 32.16 202.93 5.92 9.18 7.98 0.Z.Z.11 1.78 14.77 0.51 6.20 1.94 SPAN 11.87 0.00 2.06 7.07 9.Z.16 10.71 ULTIMATE U.68 13.65 0.83 0.81 0.84 22.34 1.17 12.32 10.25 17.56 1.92 8.Z.54 1.43 232.18 1.62 0.04 17.21 10.84 0.49 20.Z.28 12.Z. Purlin load tables are valid up to and including 25º roof slopes.0m 0.27 SPAN 10.13 0.25 302.18 262.98 2.72 0.14 172.76 1.42 7.90 9.22 1.43 18.59 16.85 4.02 6.83 12.0m 0.70 9.38 1.16 3.72 1.01 1.42 1.Z.Z.5m 0.44 28.91 25.Z.92 1.87 20.59 9.Z.25 342.42 16.34 13.5m 0.02 13.56 1.17 13.30 3.16 3.43 1.39 10.20 4.17 12.22 11.20 262.5m 0.00 2.64 31.28 21.07 8.83 0.21 1.0m 0.56 1.32 10.65 0.0m 0.23 302.24 262.58 2.65 0. “In the case of purlins an sheeting rails.87 2.L kN 1000 1200 1500 1800 142.10 4.35 14.49 12.03 11.03 1.0m 0.08 1.54 0.21 13.68 13.66 0.09 1.41 0.97 1.53 .80 9.47 7.15 SPAN 9.13 17.02 17.16 202.Z.04 4.05 21.64 1.02 21.81 1.38 19.15 202.78 18.33 1.07 8.80 12.51 4.64 4.38 19.38 2.65 18.Z.28 1.18 262.52 12.02 35.55 1.56 0.83 16.23 1.16 202.94 26.30 1.92 1.47 6.29 0.03 7.0m 0.15 13.51 0.53 5.65 15.40 0.69 0.02 21.77 0.5m 1.55 14.Z.65 1.25 342.99 11.28 1.0 / Aug 98 DEFLECTION SPAN SPAN 180 360 2000 SPAN 3.15 1.27 18.19 23.54 0.19 9.39 30.61 10.84 0.85 39.22 1.27 29.93 1.73 6.87 1.80 1.23 262.90 1.35 - 21.71 0.08 1.53 0.04 9.15 202.Z.77 7.53 0.19 1.98 12.13 202.58 26.56 3.03 12.52 7.72 0.51 302.83 17.18 0.78 14.91 1.70 17.98 9.16 3.66 11.21 13.00 1.16 232.08 31.50 13. local wind pressure and suction need to be considered”.59 9.09 8.36 1.57 1.01 1.08 0.59 0.69 0.85 22.19 0.04 1.71 0.11 4.30 1.25 6.03 1.29 22.51 0.04 6.77 21.05 2.09 1.69 9.95 1.39 10.74 0.23 142.77 0.70 0.21 13.94 8.61 1.36 11.Z.03 30.5m 0.32 9.25 8.0m 0.51 10.50 1.32 1.22 1.58 0.92 7.54 0.07 1.86 12.Z.26 SPAN 8.92 8.58 11.94 0.Z.95 0.50 13.99 4.08 9.63 0. IN kN/SPAN DOWN Uplift – Metal Cladding LOAD Number of Anti Sags 0 1 2 1.95 1.68 0.85 1.63 2.18 262.31 1.87 25.29 342.20 5.96 27.12 15.48 1.53 25.64 26.93 1.80 10.59 8.02 1.23 5.60 35.11 1.83 10.05 13.60 37.26 13.31 SPAN 5.2.70 4.95 15.23 262.46 17.36 SPAN 10.(Clause 2.89 0.09 7.93 1.54 18.16 1.15 16.18 202.03 1.16 202.Z.02 20.10 1.26 1.41 1.71 0.13 11.01 19.84 2.54 1.31 5.10 8.01 1.65 15.32 14.Z.04 1.86 1.52 142.74 21.94 16.78 1.61 4.73 0.50 0.00 1.52 - 20.75 1.07 1.44 4.15 172.28 18.82 8.48 1.78 22.Z.79 8.72 0.59 0.09 1.48 11.87 1.46 1.77 1.18 11.20 12.09 SPAN 11.99 1.39 4.64 1.34 0.22 1.98 18.12 22.98 12.44 3.L.80 0.Z.58 0.72 1.95 34.69 14.78 0.52 2.98 12.60 1.39 18.19 27.Z.62 0.84 2.15 16.81 20.

7 18.0 5.1 8.0 10.8 9.3 8.0 Spans indicated below allow for characteristic service load (live load) Plus self weight plus 1.6 7.0 6.4 15.1 The above data is based upon 50 or 75mm structural topping of C30 concrete which should be regarded as a minimum.0 6.Appendix D . IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.0 10.6 7.2 12.2 15.2 15.0 2.1 5.7 13. Other topping depths may be recommended in some circumstances.9 7. daywork and movement joints should be considered in relation to the overall structural concept of the building.1 7.6 14.0 5. Ver 3.3 11.9 12.4 13.2 8.2 10.2 6.7 16.4 Precast hollow composite concrete floors [Bison] LOAD / SPAN TABLE Overall structural depth mm Unit depth Available fire period Self Wt KN/m² 0.0 10.6 4.3 11.6 9.2 8.Proprietary Components (8/9) D.4 12.5 2.5 5.8 10.5 12. Topping reinforcement.3 14.3 11.8 16.1 16.1 9.0 4.9 13.4 13.6 11.5 kN/m² for finishes Characteristic service loads kN/m² 1.5 15. Design data for alternative combinations are available from Bison Design Offices.2 14.2 12.5 3.1 4.5 6.9 15.3 15. Composite Profiles Simple bearing on top flange of steelwork Insitu construction Nominal support reinforcement and/or daywork joints Determined by general layout and site operation Solid composite floors may be placed on insitu beam downstands or supported on shutters before pouring site concrete THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP.6 15.1 12.9 14.3 13.7 13.7 14.5 16.9 8.1 9.0 / Aug 98 .4 17.9 15.0 14.0 Effective span in metres 8.5 7.7 6.4 17.7 10.9 11.2 10.75 200 250 300 375 425 475 525 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 1 Hour or 2 Hours 2 Hours or 4 Hours 2 Hours 2 Hours 2 Hours 2 Hours 2 Hours 3.8 9.

0 42.Proprietary Components (9/9) D.9 7. A4-70 DIN 267 T11 (stainless steel) Setting Details Anchor M 8/20 M 8/40 Setting details do (mm) Drill bit diameter 12 h1 (mm) Hole depth 80 hnom (mm) Min. TE14.7 31.6 M 16/50 24 125 105 Recommended load F30.feb 1994] Features: high loading capacity force controlled expansion reliable pull-down of part fastened suitable for dynamic loading no rotation when tightening bolt Bolt material: 8.6 16.2 19. in kN. TE54 M 10/20 M 10/40 M 12/25 15 90 75 20 107 M 12/50 18 100 80 40 127 25 120 50 145 10 50 11 80 5 17 17 25 140 TE-C-15/25 TE-Y-15/34 8 19 24 20 30 160 TE-C-18/20 TE-Y-18/34 M8 6.5 13.8 21.4401. galvanised to min 5 P HSLG-R: X5CrNi Mo1810. V = 3. base material thickness 120 Drill bit TE-C-12/20 TE-Y-12/34 Drilling system TE10.3 34.9 8. TE18-M TE24.5 M16 25.6 25 148 M 20/30 M 20/60 M 24/30 28 155 130 50 173 14 200 120 9 24 30 26 40 180 TE-C-24/25 TE-Y-24/32 TE24.6 42. TE18-M.Appendix D . thickness fastened 20 40 I (mm) Anchor length 95 115 hn (mm) Head weight + washer 7.0 Anchor size Tensile N 0 30 Combined 45 Load 60 Shear V 90 M 16/25 30 183 M 24/60 32 180 155 60 213 17 380 200 12 30 36 31 45 220 TE-Y-28/37 30 205 60 235 19 500 16 36 41 35 50 270 TE-Y-32/37 TE54.3 24. non-cracked Concrete fcc = N/mm².7 M12 15.6 58.5 HSL 25 Tinst (Nm) Tightening torque HGSGL-R Max.0 18. ISO 898 T1 Galvanised to min 5 P Versions: Hilti HSLB heavy-duty anchor with inspection control Features: . TE74 Recommended load for specific application: Frec = F30 fB fT fA fR Influence of concrete strength fB FB   . TE54. TE74 TE54. gap (mm) 4 HSL 13 Sw (mm) Width across flats HSLB dh (mm) Max. TE74 TE14.4 8.8 9.8.8. ISO 898 T1. clearance hole 14 dw (mm) Washer diameter 20 h (mm) Min.Various threaded rod lengths Bolt/rod material HSLG 8.6 50.5 Heavy duty anchors (Hilti HSL) [Hilti .Automatic torque control Hilti HSLG heavy-duty anchor with threaded rod Feature: . TE24 TE54 M20 34.2 37. 1.6 14. depth of embedment 65 tfix (mm) Max.4 12.6 46.8 M10 10.

70 0.82 0.70 0.79 0.0 Edge Distance C (mm) 65 75 80 105 130 155 162 187 200 225 265 275 300 325 350 390 M8 0.84 1.55 0.85 0.0 0 0.70 0.5 55.95 1.50 0.1 66.73 0.95 1.89 1.act # 55) Influence of depth embedment fT fT = hact hnom Limiting depth of embedment hlim = 1.0 Reduction Factors (Edge Distance) fR Tensile f RN Shear fRV Anchor size Anchor size M10 M12 M16 M20 M24 M8 M10 M12 M16 M20 0 0.85 0.0 0 0.92 1.90 0.76 0. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.92 0.92 0.79 0.0 1.66 0.80 0.59 0.77 0.52 0.39 0.30 0.5 hnom hact actual embedment depth M24 45.70 0.87 0.0 1. Ver 3.73 0.51 0.0 1.30 0.30 0.90 0.70 0.0 .75 0.79 0.84 0.0 THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP.80 0.94 1.71 0. fR Reduction Factors (Anchor Spacing) fA Tensile/Shear Anchor size M10 M12 M16 M20 M24 Spacing S M8 (mm) 65 75 80 105 130 155 175 195 225 240 275 315 350 395 430 470 0.81 0.78 0.82 0.76 0.80 0.85 0.97 1.78 0.37 0.97 1.94 1.85 0.80 0.91 0.77 0.0 0 0.78 0.0 1.72 0.82 0.6 Influence of anchor spacing and edge distance fA.94 1.78 0.0 0 0.74 0.71 0.88 0.71 0.66 0.0 / Aug 98 0.0 M24 0 0.90 0.39 0.0 1.95 1.71 0.0 1.84 0.86 0.70 0.43 0.41 0.70 0.92 1.73 0.91 0.0 1.0 0.81 0.96 1.32 0.74 0.0 1.87 0.74 0.70 0.64 0.63 0.85 0.89 0.44 0.91 1.33 0.92 0.84 0.96 1.72 0.0 0 0.93 1.30 0.0 0 0 0.30 0.70 0.90 0.2 76.96 1.59 0.91 0.55 0.0 0 0.81 0.0 0 0.83 0.74 0.act – 30) For (20 # fcc.49 0.88 0.73 0.0 0 0.75 0.0 0 0.40 0.0 0 0.87 0.82 0.76 0.41 0.79 0.64 0.0 0 0.80 0.0 1.83 1.73 0.89 0. fcc.75 0.88 0.88 0.70 0.9 61.79 0.70 0.77 0.73 0.73 0.30 0.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful