# Kinetics of Microbial Growth

Unlimited growth
Assuming td = 0.33 h, in 48 h, one cell would become If a cell weighs 10 g, then the total would be
-12

Factors Determining Growth & Synthesis of Products • Absolute Factors
Nutrients; pH; Temperature; Oxygen

2.33 X 10 cells 2.23 X 1031 g

43

• Rate-Determining Factors
Temperature; pH; Mass Transfer; Energy Transfer

This would be 4000 times the weight of the earth!
Dr. Clem Kuek ZIP/Lect+Prac/IndusMicrobiol/Lectures/GrowthKinetics.doc 1 Dr. Clem Kuek ZIP/Lect+Prac/IndusMicrobiol/Lectures/GrowthKinetics.doc 2

Kinetics of Batch Culture
Growth Rate, rx = =
Δx Δt

Kinetics of Batch Culture 2

Phases of growth in batch culture
Deceleration Maximum population

Exponential

=

rx x

Units

e.g.

g g-1 cells mL-1h-1

Specific Growth Rate

Specific Growth Rate,

μ

μ

Lag

dx dt

Units

e.g.

g cells mL-1h-1

Acceleration

or as t becomes infinitesimally small

Ln Population Size

Time
Dr. Clem Kuek ZIP/Lect+Prac/IndusMicrobiol/Lectures/GrowthKinetics.doc 3 Dr. Clem Kuek ZIP/Lect+Prac/IndusMicrobiol/Lectures/GrowthKinetics.doc 4

Death

μmax

slope of which = μ 5 Dr.100 0.93 39.000 10.11 Growth Rate.11 1.433 0.90 17.70 39. Curve fitting r x = ln x − ln x t −t 2 [ 3 3 1 1 ]⋅ x 2 Dr.00 37. Hand-drawn tangent y rx = x Numerical differentiation Difference between values on either side of data point 2. plot of ln X vs.50 38.20 34.70 14.241 0.Kinetics of Batch Culture 3 Kinetics of Batch Culture 4 Integrating equation 2.500 3.90 S (g L-1) 40.doc Determining x from data Time (h) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 r Determining rx from data 2 X (g L-1) 0.040 1.doc ZIP/Lect+Prac/IndusMicrobiol/Lectures/GrowthKinetics.490 6.134 0. rx 1.778 1.97 38.20 36.180 0.870 2.2) Log Cell Number 10000 Exponential Phase (2. equation 2.doc 7 Dr. t gives straight line in the exponential phase.60 1.20 22.2 becomes 2000 ln xt = ln x0 + μt 1 4 7 10 Time 100 0 13 16 Thus.000 8.581 0.323 0.1) 8000 x = [microbial biomass] t = time (h) μ = specific growth rate (h-1) 6000 1000 4000 Taking natural log.10 9.doc 8 .1 gives The exponential phase may be described by Cell Number Exponential Phase dx where 10000 dt = μx xt = x0 eμt where xo xt e = [original biomass] = [biomass after time t] = base of natural log (2.50 39.10 17.83 39.90 17. Clem Kuek 10 1 4 7 10 Time 13 16 6 Dr.80 17.400 1. Clem Kuek ZIP/Lect+Prac/IndusMicrobiol/Lectures/GrowthKinetics.80 32.30 38. Clem Kuek ZIP/Lect+Prac/IndusMicrobiol/Lectures/GrowthKinetics.00 39. Clem Kuek ZIP/Lect+Prac/IndusMicrobiol/Lectures/GrowthKinetics.11 1. rx = x − x t −t 3 2 3 1 1 3.50 27.90 30.350 4.

Lineweaver-Burke plot dx r = dt μ ⋅S ⋅x = K +S μ ⋅S r = x K +S x m Determining μmax from data 3 Compare Thus.doc 12 Dr.581 0.433 0.072 0.054 0.Determining μ from data Using the values for growth determined as described previously.040 1. Clem Kuek ZIP/Lect+Prac/IndusMicrobiol/Lectures/GrowthKinetics.70 14.600 rx μ = rx/x 0. μ does not remain constant.350 4.299 0.040 0.000 8.doc 9 Dr. Determining μmax from data 1.311 0.255 μmax Substrate concentration *rx via numerical differentiation. Specific Growth Rate rx μ= x μmax 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 (h-1)* 0.180 0.995 1.550 0.500 3. Clem Kuek . Substrate concentration is a major affecting factor. Clem Kuek ZIP/Lect+Prac/IndusMicrobiol/Lectures/GrowthKinetics.350 3.050 3.doc 10 Determining μmax from data 2 2.241 0.325 1.300 0.299 0.740 0.297 0.096 0.298 0.doc 11 Dr.870 2.778 1.297 0.490 6. in batch culture.10 However.294 0. By tabulation of values for μ through the exponential phase of the culture.000 10.296 0.296 0.294 0. we get s 1 μ rx =ì x Intercept 1 = μmax Note large number of points in this area x m s Taking the reciprocal and since x 1 K +S = = r μ μ S K1 S = + μ ⋅S μ S K 1 1 = ⋅ + μ S μ s x m ⋅ Slope = Ks μmax s m m ⋅ s m m 1 S ZIP/Lect+Prac/IndusMicrobiol/Lectures/GrowthKinetics. when μ μ 1 1 = Ks ⋅ 1 + 1 μ S μ m with y = mx + c S m is plotted against 1 .755 2.293 0. Dr.129 0.298 0.295 0.285 0. Clem Kuek ZIP/Lect+Prac/IndusMicrobiol/Lectures/GrowthKinetics.100 0.296 0.415 0.296 0. Time (h) Specific Growth Rate may be estimated by the relationship x (g L-1) 0.400 1.323 0.134 0.172 0.230 0.

when x is plotted against x . Dr. Clem Kuek ZIP/Lect+Prac/IndusMicrobiol/Lectures/GrowthKinetics. Since μmax is determined by the • genetics of the microorganism • conditions of culture Attainment of μmax has implications for both determinants. we get rs rx r x Note large number of points in this area Determination of Yield Factor on carbon substrate.g. and thus productivity. Since Y is determined by the • genetics of the microorganism • conditions of culture • nature of the input (substrate) For processes where maximal growth rates are diserable. Yx/s 2 Thus. Clem Kuek Attainment of an efficient Y has implications for the determinants.doc .doc 16 ZIP/Lect+Prac/IndusMicrobiol/Lectures/GrowthKinetics. in the production of secondary metabolites. For other processes.doc 13 Dr. Yx/s Yield of cell weight per unit weight substrate utilized Yp/n Yield of product weight per unit weight of nitrogen utilized Determination of Yield Factor on carbon substrate.doc r x 14 Dr. Attainment of efficient Y translates directly into economic efficiency. 15 Dr. attainment of μmax in culture is important.g. Clem Kuek The Importance of μmax The Importance of the Yield Factor Y Y indicates the degree of efficiency of the conversion of substrates into desired products. Yx/s rs = rs + m s Y x x s Intercept = ms Slope = 1 Yx/s rs = 1 ⋅ rx + m s x Y x x s where rs ms = rate of consumption of carbon substrate = maintenance coefficient on carbon substrate ZIP/Lect+Prac/IndusMicrobiol/Lectures/GrowthKinetics. identification of μmax is important so that it can be avoided e.Yield factor Y Y = the ratio of product or cell quantity resulting from a certain quantity of input e. Clem Kuek ZIP/Lect+Prac/IndusMicrobiol/Lectures/GrowthKinetics.