This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
1. Shear force and bending moment
diagrams
Internal Forces in solids
Sign conventions
• Shear forces are given a special symbol on
y
V
1
2
and
z
V
• The couple moment along the axis of the member is
given
x
M T = =Torque
y z
M M = =bending moment.
Solid Mechanics
We need to follow a systematic sign convention for
systematic development of equations and reproducibility of
the equations
The sign convention is like this.
If a face (i.e. formed by the cutting plane) is +ve if its outward
normal unit vector points towards any of the positive coordinate
directions otherwise it is –ve face
• A force component on a +ve face is +ve if it is directed
towards any of the +ve coordinate axis direction. A force
component on a –ve face is +ve if it is directed towards any of
the –ve coordinate axis direction. Otherwise it is –v.
Thus sign conventions depend on the choice of coordinate
axes.
Shear force and bending moment diagrams of beams
Beam is one of the most important structural components.
• Beams are usually long, straight, prismatic members and
always subjected forces perpendicular to the axis of the beam
Two observations:
(1) Forces are coplanar
Solid Mechanics
(2) All forces are applied at the axis of the beam.
Application of method of sections
What are the necessary internal forces to keep the segment of
the beam in equilibrium?
x
y
z
F P
F V
F M
¿ = ¬
¿ = ¬
¿ = ¬
0
0
0
• The shear for a diagram (SFD) and bending moment
diagram(BMD) of a beam shows the variation of shear
Solid Mechanics
force and bending moment along the length of the
beam.
These diagrams are extremely useful while designing the
beams for various applications.
Supports and various types of beams
(a) Roller Support – resists vertical forces only
(b) Hinge support or pin connection – resists horizontal and
vertical forces
Hinge and roller supports are called as simple supports
(c) Fixed support or builtin end
Solid Mechanics
The distance between two supports is known as “span”.
Types of beams
Beams are classified based on the type of supports.
(1) Simply supported beam: A beam with two simple supports
(2) Cantilever beam: Beam fixed at one end and free at other
(3) Overhanging beam
(4) Continuous beam: More than two supports
Solid Mechanics
Differential equations of equilibrium
[ ]
x
F Σ = →+ 0
y
F Σ
(
= ↑ +
¸ ¸
0
V V V P x
V P x
V
P
x
∆ ∆
∆ ∆
∆
∆
+ − + =
= −
= −
0
x
V dV
P
x dx
lim
∆
∆
∆
→
= = −
0
[ ]
A
P x
M V x M M M
∆
Σ ∆ ∆ = − + + − =
2
0 0
2
P x
V x M
M P x
V
x
∆
∆ ∆
∆ ∆
∆
+ − =
+ − =
2
0
2
0
2
Solid Mechanics
x
M dM
V
x dx
lim
∆
∆
∆
→
= = −
0
From equation
dV
P
dx
= − we can write
D
C
X
D C
X
V V Pdx − = −
}
From equation
dM
V
dx
= −
D C
M M Vdx − = −
}
Special cases:
Solid Mechanics
Solid Mechanics
Solid Mechanics
Solid Mechanics
( ) ( ) x ≤ ≤ − 0 2 1 1
A B
V
V
V ; V
− =
=
= =
5 0
5
5 5
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
B C
x
V . x
V . x
V ; V
. x
x .
≤ ≤ −
− + − − =
= − + −
= − =
− + − =
¬ =
2 6 2 2
5 30 7 5 2 0
5 30 7 5 2
25 5
25 7 5 2 0
5 33
( ) ( )
C D
x
V
V
V ; V
≤ ≤ −
− + − − =
= +
= + = +
6 8 3 3
5 30 30 10 0
15
15 15
( ) ( )
D E
x
V
V
V
V ; V
≤ ≤ −
− + − − + =
+ =
= −
= − = −
8 10 4 4
5 30 30 10 20 0
5 0
5
5 5
x ( ) ( )
x ( ( )
x ( ) ( )
x ( ) ( )
≤ ≤ − −
≤ ≤ − −
≤ ≤ − −
≤ ≤ − −
0 2 1 1
2 6 2 2
6 8 3 3
8 10 4 4
Solid Mechanics
Problems to show that jumps because of concentrated force
and concentrated moment
( ) ( )
A B
x
M x
M x
M ; M
≤ ≤ − −
− + =
= − +
= + =
0 2 1 1
10 5 0
5 10
10 0
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
E
x .
C
x
x
. x
M x x
. x
M x x
M .
M
=
=
≤ ≤ − −
−
− + − − + =
−
= − + − −
= +
=
2
2
5 33
6
2 6 2 2
7 5 2
10 5 30 2 0
2
7 5 2
10 5 30 2
2
41 66
40
( ) ( ) [ ]
( ) ( ) ( )
C
x
D
x
x C D
M x x x x
M
M
=
=
≤ ≤ − − −
− + − − + − + − + =
= +
= −
6
8
6 8 3 3
10 5 30 2 30 4 10 6 20 0
20
10
[ ] ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
E
x
x D E
M x x x x x
M
=
≤ ≤ − −
− + − − + − + − + − − =
=
8
8 10 4 4
10 5 30 2 30 4 10 6 20 20 8 0
0
Solid Mechanics
We can also demonstrate internal forces at a given section
using above examples. This should be carried first before
drawing SFD and BMD.
[ ] x A B ≤ ≤ − 0 2
Solid Mechanics
A
B
V
V
V
V
− =
=
=
=
5 0
5
5
5
A B
M x
M x
M ; M
− + =
= −
= =
10 5 0
10 5
10 0
[ ] x B C ≤ ≤ − 2 6
( )
( )
( )
B C
V . x
V . x
V ; V
. x
x .
− + − − =
= − + −
= − =
− + − =
=
5 30 7 5 2 0
7 5 2 5 30
25 5
25 7 5 2 0
5 33
( )
( )
C
E
B
x
M x x .
x
M
M x . .
x
M
−
− + − − + =
=
=
= =
=
=
2
2
10 5 30 2 7 5 0
2
6
40
5 33 41 66
2
0
[ ] x C D ≤ ≤ − 6 8
C D
V
V
V , V
− + − − =
=
= =
5 30 10 30 0
15
15 15
Solid Mechanics
[ ] x D E ≤ ≤ − 8 10
D E
V
V
V , V
− + − − + =
= −
= − = −
5 30 10 30 20 0
5
5 5
Solid Mechanics
[ ]
[ ]
x Ax
y Ay
Ay
F R
F R
R kN
M M .
M k m
∆
¿ →+ = ¬ =
(
¿ ↑ + = ¬ + − =
¸ ¸
= ↑
¿ = ¬ + − × =
= −
0 0
0 60 90 0
30
0 60 90 4 5 0
285
( )
( )
V x
V x
+ + − − =
= − −
= × −
= −
=
30 60 30 3 0
30 3 90
30 3 90
90 90
0
( )
B A
B A
M M
M M
− = − −
= + = −
= −
60
60 60 285
225
Solid Mechanics
( )
C B
C B
M M
M M
− = − −
= + = − +
= −
90
90 225 90
135
( )
D C
D C
M M
M M
− = − −
= + = − + =
135
135 135 135 0
y
Ay Cy
Ay Cy
F
R R
R R ( )
(
¿ ↑ + =
¸ ¸
+ − − =
+ =
0
200 240 0
440 1
[ ]
A
Cy
Cy
Ay
M
R
R kN
R kN
¿ =
− × − × + × =
= ↑
= ↑
0
200 3 240 4 8 0
195
245
V x
V x
V
V
+ − − =
= −
= × − = −
=
245 200 30 0
30 45
30 8 45 240 45
195
Solid Mechanics
*
M .
M .
M
− × + ×
= × − ×
=
245 3 90 1 5
245 3 90 1 5
600
[ ]
Ay By
A By
By
By
Ay
R R
M R
R
R kN
R kN
+ =
¿ = − × + + + =
− + + =
=
=
32
0 32 2 18 8 4 0
64 16 4 0
12
20
Solid Mechanics
Problem:
[ ]
( )
x
Ax
y Ay Dy Ay Dy
F
R
F R R R R
¿ →+ =
=
(
¿ = ↑ + + − − = ¬ + =
¸ ¸
0
0
0 60 50 0 110 1
( )
C A
C A
M M
M M
− = − −
= + = − + =
50
50 8 25 17
V x
V x
x
x / .
+ − =
= −
− =
= =
20 8 0
8 20
8 20 0
20 8 2 5
[ ]
A Dy
Dy
Ay
M . R
R kN
R kN
¿ = − × − × + × =
= = ↑
= ↑
0 60 1 5 50 4 5 0
290
58
5
52
Solid Mechanics
( )
y
B
F V x
V x x m
(
¿ = ↑ + + − =
¸ ¸
 
= − ≤ ≤

\ .
0 52 20 0
20 52 0 3
[ ]
( )
M
x
M x
x
M x x m
¿ =
+ − =
= − ≤ ≤
2
2
0
20
52 0
2
20
52 0 3
2
y
B C
F
V
V kN x m
(
¿ = ↑ +
¸ ¸
+ − =
 
= ↑ ≤ ≤

\ .
0
52 60 0
8 3 4
[ ] ( )
( )
B C
M M x x .
M x x . x m
¿ = − + − =
 
= − − ≤ ≤

\ .
0 52 60 1 5 0
52 60 1 5 3 4
Solid Mechanics
B E
B
M M .
M . .
− = −
= − +
1 6
1 6 67 6
x / . m
×− =
= =
20 52 0
52 20 2 6
dM
V
dx
dV
P
dx
= −
= −
[ ] ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
M M x x . x
M x x . x x
¿ = − + − + − =
= − − − − ≤ ≤
0 52 60 1 5 50 4 0
52 60 1 5 50 4 4 5
( )
y
F
V
V kN x
(
¿ = ↑ +
¸ ¸
+ − − =
= ≤ ≤
0
52 60 50 0
58 4 5
Solid Mechanics
D C
D C
M M
M M
− = −
= +
= − =
58
58
58 58 0
C B
C B
M M
M M
− = −
= − +
= − + =
8
8
8 66 58
B E
B E
M M .
M . M . .
− = −
= − + = − +
=
1 6
1 6 1 6 67 6
66
x / .
×− =
= =
20 52 0
52 20 2 6
dM
V
dx
dV
P
dx
= −
= −
B A
M M Vdx − = −
}
Solid Mechanics
2. Concept of stress
Traction vector or Stress vector
Now we define a quantity known as “stress vector” or
“traction” as
∆
∆
∆
→
=
,
,
R
n
A
F
T
A
lim
0
units
a
P N / m −
2
and we assume that the quantity
∆
∆
∆
→
→
,
R
A
M
A
lim
0
0
(1)
n
T
,
is a vector quantity having direction of
R
F ∆
,
(2)
n
T
,
represent intensity point distributed force at the point
"P" on a plane whose normal is ˆ n
(3)
n
T
,
acts in the same direction as
R
F ∆
,
Solid Mechanics
(4) There are two reasons are available for justification of the
assumption that
∆
∆
∆
→
→
,
R
A
M
A
lim
0
0
(a) experimental
(b) as A ∆ →0,
R
F ∆
,
becomes resultant of a parallel
force distribution. Therefore
R
M ∆ = 0
,
for  force
system.
(5)
n
T
,
varies from point to point on a given plane
(6)
n
T
,
at the same point is different for different planes.
(7)
n n
T T
′
= −
, ,
will act at the point P
(8) In general
Components of
n
T
,
R n t s
ˆ
ˆ ˆ F F n v t v s ∆ ∆ ∆ ∆ = + +
¸¸¸¸,
Solid Mechanics
∆ ∆ ∆ ∆
∆ ∆ ∆ ∆
∆ ∆ ∆ ∆
→ → → →
= = + +
,
,
R n t s
n
A A A A
F F v v
ˆ
ˆ ˆ T n t s
A A A A
lim lim lim lim
0 0 0 0
n nn nt ns
ˆ
ˆ ˆ T n t s σ τ τ = + +
,
where
∆
∆
∆
∆
σ
∆
∆
τ
∆
∆
τ
∆
→
→
→
= = =
= = =
= = =
n n
nn
A
t t
nt
A
s s
ns
A
F dF
Normal stresscomponent
A dA
v dv
Shear stresscomponent
A dA
v dv
Another shear componet
A dA
lim
lim
lim
0
0
0
σ
τ
−
−
Normal Stress
Shear stress
n nn
dF dA σ =
t nt
dV dA τ =
Notation of stress components
The magnitude and direction of
n
T
,
clearly depends on the
plane mm. Therefore, stress components magnitude &
direction depends on orientation of cut mm.
(a) First subscript plane on which σ is acting
(b) Second subscript direction
Solid Mechanics
Rectangular components of stress
Cuts ⊥ to the coordinate planes will give more valuable
information than arbitrary cuts.
∆ ∆ ∆ ∆
∆
∆ ∆ ∆
∆ ∆ ∆ ∆
→ → → →
= = + +
,
,
y
R x z
x
A A A A
v
F F v
ˆ ˆ ˆ
T i j k
A A A A
lim lim lim lim
0 0 0 0
x xx xy xz
ˆ ˆ ˆ
T i j k σ τ τ = + +
,
where
x
xx
A
y
z
xy xz
A A
F
Normal stress
A
v
v
Shear stress; Shear stress
A A
lim
lim lim
∆
∆ ∆
∆
σ
∆
∆
∆
τ τ
∆ ∆
→
→ →
= =
= = = =
0
0 0
Solid Mechanics
σ =
x xx
dF dA
y xy
dv dA τ =
z xz
dv dA τ =
Similarly,
∆ ∆ ∆ ∆
∆
∆ ∆ ∆
∆ ∆ ∆ ∆
→ → → →
= = + +
,
y
R x z
y
A A A A
F
F v v
ˆ ˆ ˆ
T i j k
A A A A
lim lim lim lim
0 0 0 0
τ σ τ = + +
,
y yx yy yz
ˆ ˆ ˆ
T i j k
τ τ σ = + +
,
z zx zy zz
ˆ ˆ ˆ
T i j k
xx
σ and
xy
τ will act only on xplane. We can see
x
σ and
xy
τ
only when we take section ⊥ to xaxis.
The stress tensor
σ τ τ
σ τ σ τ
τ τ σ
(
(
(
=
(
¸ ¸
(
(
¸ ¸
xx xy xz
jj yx yy yz
zx zy zz
Rectangular stresscomponents
• This array of 9 components is called as stress tensor.
• It is a second rank of tensor because of two indices
Components a point “P” on the xplane in x,y,z
directions
Solid Mechanics
• These 9 rectangular stress components are obtained by
taking 3 mutually ⊥planes passing through the point
“P”
• ∴ Stress tensor is an array consisting of stress
components acting on three mutually perpendicular
planes.
τ τ τ = + +
,
n nx ny nz
ˆ ˆ ˆ
T i j k
What is the difference between distributed loading & stress?
R
A
F
q lim
A ∆
∆
∆ →
=
0
yy
q σ = can also be called.
No difference!
Except for their origin!
Solid Mechanics
Sign convention of stress components.
A positive components acts on a +ve face in a +ve coordinate
direction
or
A positive component acts on a negative face in a negative
coordinate direction.
Say
x xy a
; Pa P σ τ = − = − 20 10 and
xz
Pa τ = 30 at a point P
means.
Solid Mechanics
State of stress at a point
The totality of all the stress vectors acting on every possible plane
passing through the point is defined to be state of stress at a point.
• State of stress at a point is important for the designer in
determining the critical planes and the respective critical
stresses.
• If the stress vectors [and hence the component] acting
on any three mutually perpendicular planes passing
through the point are known, we can determine the
stress vector
n
T
,
acting on any plane “n” through that
point.
The stress tensor will specify the state stress at point.
x x x y x z
ij y x y y y z
z x z y z z
σ τ τ
σ τ σ τ
τ τ σ
′ ′ ′ ′ ′ ′
′ ′ ′ ′ ′ ′ ′
′ ′ ′ ′ ′ ′
(
(
(
=
(
¸ ¸
(
(
¸ ¸
can also represent state of
stress at a point.
Solid Mechanics
The stress element
Is there any convenient way to visualize or represent the
state of stress at a point or stresses acting three mutually
perpendicular planes say x plane , yplane and zplane.
xx xy xz
ij yx yy yz
P
zx zy zz
σ τ τ
σ τ σ τ
τ τ σ
(
+ + +
(
(
= + + +
(
¸ ¸
(
+ + +
(
¸ ¸
( )
( )
xx xx
yy yy
x, y, z
Continuous functions of x, y, z
x, y, z
σ σ
σ σ
= ¹
¦
`
=
¦
)
Let us consider a stress tensor or state of stress at a point in a
component as
Solid Mechanics
ij
σ
− −
(
(
(
= −
¸ ¸
(
− − − (
¸ ¸
10 5 30
5 50 60
30 60 100
Equilibrium of stress element
[ ]
x
F ¿ = →+ 0
x yx zx x yx zx
dydz dxdz dydx dydz dxdz dxdy σ τ τ σ τ τ + + − − − = 0
Similarly, we can show that
y
F ¿ = 0 and
z
F ¿ = 0 is satisfied.
y
dz
dy
z
dx
x
xy
τ
xz
τ
x
σ
Solid Mechanics
P
z
M
C.C.W ve
¿ =
(
(
+
¸ ¸
0
( ) ( )
xy yx
dydz dx dxdz dy τ τ − = 0
xy yx
τ τ − = 0
xy yx
τ τ =
Shearing stresses on any two mutually perpendicular planes
are equal.
P
x
M
(
¿ = ¬
¸ ¸
0
yz zy
τ τ = and
P
y
M
(
¿ = ¬
¸ ¸
0
zx xz
τ τ =
Crossshears are equal a very important result
Since
xy yx
τ τ = , if
xy
ve τ = −
yx
τ is also –ve
Solid Mechanics
∴The stress tensor
xx xy xz
ij yx xy xy yz
zx xz zy yz yz
issec ondranksymmetrictensor
σ τ τ
σ τ τ σ τ
τ τ τ τ σ
(
(
(
= =
(
¸ ¸
(
= =
(
¸ ¸
Differential equations of equilibrium
[ ]
x
F ¿ →+ = 0
yx
x zx
x yx zx
x xy zx x
x y z y x z z y x
x y z
y z x z y x B x y z
τ
σ τ
σ τ τ
σ τ τ
∂
 
∂ ∂
   
+ ∆ ∆ ∆ + + ∆ ∆ ∆ + + ∆ ∆ ∆
 

∂ ∂ ∂ \ . \ .
\ .
− ∆ ∆ − ∆ ∆ − ∆ ∆ + ∆ ∆ ∆ = 0
yx
x zx
x
x y z y x z x y z B x y z
x y z
τ
σ τ
∂
∂
∆ ∆ ∆ + ∆ ∆ ∆ + ¿ ∆ ∆ + ∆ ∆ ∆ =
∂ ∂ ∂
2
0
Canceling x y ∆ ∆ and z ∆ terms and taking limit
yx
x zx
x
x
y
z
lim B
x y z
τ
σ τ
∆ →
∆ →
∆ →
∂
∂ ∂
+ + + =
∂ ∂ ∂ 0
0
0
0
Similarly we can easily show that
Solid Mechanics
[ ]
yx
x zx
x x
B F
x y z
τ
σ τ
∂
∂ ∂
+ + + = ¿ =
∂ ∂ ∂
0 0
xy yy zy
y y
B F
x y z
τ σ τ ∂ ∂ ∂
(
+ + + = ¿ =
¸ ¸
∂ ∂ ∂
0 0
[ ]
yz
xz zz
z z
B F
x y z
τ
τ σ
∂
∂ ∂
+ + + = ¿ =
∂ ∂ ∂
0 0
• If a body is under equilibrium, then the stress
components must satisfy the above equations and must
vary as above.
For equilibrium, the moments of forces about x, y and z axis
at any point must vanish.
p
z
M
(
¿ =
¸ ¸
0
xy yx
xy xy yx
yx
y x x
x y z y z y x z
x y
y
x z
τ τ
τ τ τ
τ
∂ ∂
    ∆ ∆
+ ∆ ∆ ∆ + ∆ ∆ − + ∆ ∆ ∆
 
∂ ∂
\ . \ .
∆
− ∆ ∆ =
2 2 2
0
2
.
Solid Mechanics
xy xy yx yx
xy yx
xy yx
y x z x y z
x y z x y z
x y
y x
x y
τ τ τ τ
τ τ
τ τ
∆ ∆ ∆ ∂ ∆ ∆ ∆ ∂
∆ ∆ ∆ ∆ ∆ ∆
+ − − =
∂ ∂
∂ ∂
∆ ∆
+ − − =
∂ ∂
2 2
2 2
0
2 2 2 2
0
2 2
Taking limit
xy yx
xy yx
x
y
z
y x
lim
x y
τ τ
τ τ
∆ →
∆ →
∆ →
∂ ∂
∆ ∆
+ − − =
∂ ∂ 0
0
0
0
2 2
xy yx
τ τ ¬ − = ¬ 0
xy yx
τ τ =
Relations between stress components and internal force
resultants
Solid Mechanics
x xx
A
F dA σ =
}
;
y xy
A
V dA τ =
}
;
z xz
A
V dA τ =
}
xz xy x
y dA dAz dM τ τ − =
( )
x xz xy
A
M y z dA τ τ = −
}
y xz
A
M dA σ =
}
;
z xy
A
M dA σ = −
}
Solid Mechanics
3. Plane stress and Plane strain
Plane stress 2D State of stress
If
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
x xy
ij
xy yy
x, y x, y
plane stressis a  state of stress
x, y x, y
σ τ
σ
τ σ
(
(
= −
(
¸ ¸
(
¸ ¸
All stress components are in the plane x y − i.e all stress
components can be viewed in x y − plane.
xy
x xy
x xy
ij xy y
yx y
D State of stress
Stresscomponentsinplane xy
τ
σ τ
σ τ
σ τ σ
τ σ
=
−
(
(
(
(
= =
(
(
¸ ¸
(
¸ ¸
(
¸ ¸
2
0
0
0 0 0
x xy xz
ij yx yy yz
zx zy zz
D State of stress
components
σ τ τ
σ τ σ τ
τ τ σ
−
(
(
(
= −
(
¸ ¸
(
(
¸ ¸
3
6
Solid Mechanics
This type of stressstate (i.e plane stress) exists in bodies
whose z direction dimension is very small w.r.t other
dimensions.
Stress transformation laws for plane stress
The state of stress at a point P in 2Dplane stress problems
are represented by
x xy
nn nt
ij
xy y nt tt
σ τ
σ τ
σ
τ σ τ σ
(
(
(
= =
(
(
¸ ¸
¸ ¸ (
¸ ¸
Solid Mechanics
* We can determine the stress components on any plane “n”
by knowing the stress components on any two mutually
⊥planes.
Stress transformation laws for plane stress
In order to get useful information we take different cutting
planes passing through a point. In contrast to 3D problem,
all cutting planes in plane stress problems are parallel to x
Solid Mechanics
axis. i.e we take different cutting plane by rotating about z
axis.
As in case of 3D, the state of stress at a point in a plane stress
domain is the totality of all the stress. If we know the stress
components on any two mutually⊥planes then stress
components on any arbitrary plane mm can be determined.
Thus the stress tensor
x xy
ij
xy y
σ τ
σ
τ σ
(
(
=
(
¸ ¸
(
¸ ¸
is sufficient to tell about the state of stress
at a point in the plane stress problems.
dA Area of AB
dACs Areaof BC
dASin Area of AC
θ
θ
=
=
=
n
F ¿ + = (
¸ ¸
0 ×
nn x xy xy
yy
dA dACos Cos dACos Sin dASin Cos
dASin Sin
σ σ θ θ τ θ θ τ θ θ
σ θ θ
− − − −
= 0
nn x xy yy
Cos Sin Cos Sin σ σ θ τ θ θ σ θ − − − =
2 2
2 0
Solid Mechanics
nn x y xy
x y x y
nn xy
Cos Sin Sin Cos
Cos Sin
σ σ θ σ θ τ θ θ
σ σ σ σ
σ θ τ θ
= + +
+ −
= + +
2 2
2
2 2
2 2
n
F ¿ + = (
¸ ¸
0 `
nt x xy xy
y
dA dACos Sin dACos Cos dASin Sin
dASin Cos
σ σ θ θ τ θ θ τ θ θ
σ θ θ
− − + −
= 0
( )
nt x y xy
Cos Sin Sin Cos Cos Sin τ σ θ θ σ θ θ τ θ θ = − + + −
2 2
( ) ( )
( )
nt x y xy
x y
nt xy
Cos Sin Cos Sin
Sin Cos
τ θ θ σ σ τ θ θ
σ σ
τ θ τ θ
= − − + −
−
= − +
2 2
2 2
2
We shall now show that if you know the stress components
on two mutually ⊥ planes then we can compute stresses on
any inclined plane. Let us assume that we know that state of
stress at a point P is given
x xy
ij
xy y
σ τ
σ
τ σ
(
(
=
(
¸ ¸
(
¸ ¸
This also means that
Solid Mechanics
Solid Mechanics
If θ θ = we can compute on AB
If
π
θ θ = +
2
we can compute on BC
If θ θ π = + we can compute on CD
If
π
θ θ = +
3
2
we can compute on DA
•
nn
σ and
nt
τ equations are known as transformation
laws for plane stress.
• They are not only useful in determination of stresses on
any plane but also useful in transforming stresses from
one coordinate system to another
• Transformation laws do not require an equilibrium state
and thus are also valid at all points of the body under
accelerations.
• These laws are true for any point P of a body.
Invariants of stress tensor
• Any quantity for which its 2D scalar components
transform from one coordinate system to another
according to
nn
σ and
nt
τ is called a two dimensional
Solid Mechanics
symmetric tensor of rank 2. Here in particular the tensor
is a stress tensor.
• Moment of inertia if
x xx y yy xy xy
I , I ; I σ σ τ = = = −
• By definition a tensor is a mathematical quantity that
transforms according to certain laws, such that certain
invariant properties are maintained for all coordinate
systems.
• Tensors, as governed by their transformation laws,
possess several properties. We now develop those
properties for 2D second vent symmetric tensor.
x y x y
nn xy
Cos Sin
σ σ σ σ
σ θ τ θ
+ −
= + + 2 2
2 2
x y x y
t xy
Cos Sin
σ σ σ σ
σ θ τ θ
+ −
= + − 2 2
2 2
x y
nt xy
Sin Cos
σ σ
τ θ τ θ
−
= − + 2 2
2
Solid Mechanics
n t x y x y
I σ σ σ σ σ σ
′ ′
+ = + = + =
1
I =
1
First invariant of stress in 2D
n t nt x y xy x y x y
I σ σ τ σ σ τ σ σ τ
′ ′ ′ ′
− = − = − =
2 2
2
I =
2
Second invariant of stress in 2D
• I , I
1 2
are invariants of 2D symmetric stress tensor at a
point.
• Invariants are extremely useful in checking the
correctness of transformation
• Of I
1
and I
2
, I
1
is the most important property : the
sum of normal stresses on any two mutually ⊥ planes
(⊥directions) is a constant at a given point.
• In 2D we have two stress invariants; in 3D we have
three invariants of stresses.
Solid Mechanics
Solid Mechanics
Problem:
A planestress condition exists at a point on the surface of a
loaded structure, where the stresses have the magnitudes
and directions shown on the stress element. (a) Determine
the stresses acting on a plane that is oriented at a −15
w.r.t.
the xaxis (b) Determine the stresses acting on an element
that is oriented at a clockwise angle of 15
w.r.t the original
element.
Solution:
it is in C.W.
x
y
xy
Q
σ
σ
τ
= −
=
= −
= −
46
12
19
15
Solid Mechanics
Substituting θ = −15
in
nt
τ equation
x y
MPas
σ σ +
− + −
= = = −
46 12 34
17
2 2 2
( ) ( ) Sin Sin . ; Cos Cos . θ θ = − = − = − = 2 2 15 0 5 2 2 15 0 866
x y x y
n xy
Cos Sin
σ σ σ σ
σ θ τ θ
+ −
(
= + +
(
¸ ¸
2 2
2 2
n
. . σ = − − × + × 17 29 0 866 19 0 5
n
. MPas σ = −
1
32 6
x y
nt xy
Sin Cos
σ σ
τ θ τ θ
−
(
= − +
(
¸ ¸
2 2
2
n t
MPa τ = −
1 1
31
x y
MPa
σ σ −
− − −
= = = −
46 12 58
29
2 2 2
n t
. . τ = − × − ×
1 1
29 0 5 19 0 866
Solid Mechanics
Now
As a check
t n nt
θ
σ σ τ
=
(
= =
¸ ¸ 2 75
n
Cos Sin
MPa
σ = − − × − ×
= −
17 29 2 165 19 2 165
32
nt
nt
. Sin Cos
MPa
τ
τ
= −
= −
0
0 29 330 19 330
31
n t x y
. . MPa s σ σ σ σ + = + = − − = − = − + 32 6 1 4 34 46 12
θ = 145
tn
Sin Cos
MPa
τ = + × − ×
=
29 150 19 150
31
t
cos sin σ ∴ = − − − 17 29 150 19 150
t
. MPa σ = −1 4
tn n t nt
θ
τ τ τ
=
(
= =
¸ ¸ 2 2 75
Solid Mechanics
4. Principal Stresses
Principal Stresses
Now we are in position to compute the direction and
magnitude of the stress components on any inclined plane at
any point, provided if we know the state of stress (Plane
stress) at that point. We also know that any engineering
component fails when the internal forces or stresses reach a
particular value of all the stress components on all of the
infinite number of planes only stress components on some
particular planes are important for solving our basic
question i.e under the action of given loading whether the
component will ail or not? Therefore our objective of this
class is to determine these plane and their corresponding
stresses.
(1) ( )
n y n y
n n xy
Cos Sin
σ σ σ σ
σ σ θ θ τ θ
+ −
= = + + 2 2
2 2
(2) Of all the infinite number of normal stresses at a point,
what is the maximum normal stress value, what is the
minimum normal stress value and what are their
Solid Mechanics
corresponding planes i.e how the planes are oriented ? Thus
mathematically we are looking for maxima and minima of
( )
n
Q σ function..
(3)
n y n y
n xy
Cos Sin
σ σ σ σ
σ θ τ θ
+ −
= + + 2 2
2 2
For maxima or minima, we know that
( )
n
x y xy
d
Sin Cos
d
σ
σ σ θ τ θ
θ
= = − − + 0 2 2 2
xy
x y
tan
τ
θ
σ σ
=
−
2
2
(4) The above equations has two roots, because tan repeats
itself after π . Let us call the first root as
P
θ
1
xy
P
x y
tan
τ
θ
σ σ
=
−
1
2
2
( )
xy
P P
x y
tan tan
τ
θ θ π
σ σ
= + =
−
2 1
2
2 2
Solid Mechanics
P P
s
π
θ θ = +
2 1
2
(5) Let us verify now whether we have minima or minima at
P
θ
1
and
P
θ
2
( )
( )
P
n
x y xy
n
x y P xy P
d
Cos Sin
d
d
Cos Sin
d
θ θ
σ
σ σ θ τ θ
θ
σ
σ σ θ τ θ
θ
=
= − − −
∴ = − − −
1 1
1
2
2
2
2
2 2 4 2
2 2 4 2
We can find
P
Cos s θ
1
2 and
P
Sin s θ
1
2 as
x y
P
x y
xy
Cos
σ σ
θ
σ σ
τ
−
=
−
 
+

\ .
1
2
2
2
2
2
xy xy
P
x y x y
xy xy
Sin
τ τ
θ
σ σ σ σ
τ τ
= =
− −
   
+ +
 
\ . \ .
1
2 2
2 2
2
2
2
2 2
Substituting
P
Cos θ
1
2 and
P
Sin θ
1
2
Solid Mechanics
( )( )
( )
P
x y x y
xy xy
n
x y x y
xy xy
x y
xy
x y x y
xy xy
x y
xy
x y
xy
d
d
θ θ
σ σ σ σ
τ τ
σ
θ
σ σ σ σ
τ τ
σ σ
τ
σ σ σ σ
τ τ
σ σ
τ
σ σ
τ
=
− − −
= −
− −
   
+ +
 
\ . \ .
− −
= −
− −
   
+ +
 
\ . \ .
(
−
  −
(
= +

(
\ .
−
 
¸ ¸
+

\ .
1
2
2
2 2
2 2
2
2
2 2
2 2
2
2
2
2
2
4
2
2 2
4
2 2
4
2
2
x y
n
xy
d
d
σ σ
σ
τ
θ
−
 
∴ = − +

\ .
2
2
2
2
4
2
(ve)
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
P P
n
x y P xy P
x y P xy P
d
Cos Sin
d
Cos Sin
π
θ θ θ
σ
σ σ θ π τ θ π
θ
σ σ θ τ θ
= = +
= − + − +
= − +
1 1
2 1
1 1
2
2
2
2 2 4 2
2 2 4 2
Substituting
P P
Cos &Sin θ θ
1 1
2 2 m we can show that
P
x y
n
xy
d
s
d
θ θ
σ σ
σ
τ
θ
=
−
 
∴ = − +

\ .
2
2
2
2
2
4
2
(+ve)
Solid Mechanics
Thus the angles
P
s θ
1
and
P
s θ
2
define planes of either
maximum normal stress or minimum normal stress.
(6) Now, we need to compute magnitudes of these stresses
We know that,
P
x y x y
n xy
x y x y
n P xy P
Cos Sin
Cos Sin
θ θ
σ σ σ σ
σ θ τ θ
σ σ σ σ
σ σ θ τ θ
=
+ −
= + +
+ −
= = + +
1 1
1
1
2 2
2 2
2 2
2 2
Substituting
P
Cos s θ
1
2 and
P
Sin θ
1
2
x y x y
xy
Max. Normal stress because of sign
σ σ σ σ
σ τ
+ −
 
= + +

\ .
+
2
2
1
2 2
Similarly,
( )
( )
P P
x y x y
n P
xy P
x y x y
P xy P
Cos
Sin
Cos Sin
π
θ θ θ
σ σ σ σ
σ σ θ π
τ θ π
σ σ σ σ
θ τ θ
= = =
+ −
= = + + +
+
+ −
= − −
1
2 1
1
1 1
2
2
2
2 2
2
2 2
2 2
Substituting
P
Cos θ
1
2 and
P
Sin θ
1
2
Solid Mechanics
x y x y
xy
Min.normal sressbecause of vesign
σ σ σ σ
σ τ
+ −
 
= − +

\ .
−
2
2
2 2
We can write
x y x y
xy
or
σ σ σ σ
σ σ τ
+ −
 
= ± +

\ .
2
2
1 2
2 2
(7) Let us se the properties of above stress.
(1)
P P
s
π
θ θ = +
2 1
2
 planes on which maximum normal stress
and minimum normal stress act are ⊥ to each other.
(2) Generally maximum normal stress is designated by σ
1
and minimum stress by σ
2
. Also
P P
; θ σ θ σ → →
1 2
1 2
alg ebraically i.e., σ σ
σ
σ
>
−
− −
1 2
1
2
0
1000
Solid Mechanics
(4) maximum and minimum normal stresses are collectively
called as principal stresses.
(5) Planes on which maximum and minimum normal stress
act are known as principal planes.
(6)
P
θ
1
and
P
θ
2
that define the principal planes are known as
principal directions.
(8) Let us find the planes on which shearing stresses are zero.
( )
nt x y xy
Sin Cos τ σ σ θ τ θ = = − − + 0 2 2
xy
x y
tan
directions of principal plans
τ
θ
σ σ
=
=
=
2
2
Thus on the principal planes no shearing stresses act.
Conversely, the planes on which no shearing stress acts are
known as principal planes and the corresponding normal
stresses are principal stresses. For example the state of stress
at a point is as shown.
Then
x
σ and
y
σ are
principal stresses because
no shearing stresses are
acting on these planes.
Solid Mechanics
(9) Since, principal planes are ⊥ to each other at a point P,
this also means that if an element whose sides are parallel to
the principal planes is taken out at that point P, then it will
be subjected to principal stresses. Observe that no shearing
stresses are acting on the four faces, because shearing
stresses must be zero on principal planes.
(10) Since
1
σ and
2
σ are in two ⊥ directions, we can easily
say that
x y x y
I σ σ σ σ σ σ
′ ′
+ = + = + =
1 2 1
Solid Mechanics
5. Maximum shear stress
Maximum and minimum shearing stresses
So far we have seen some specials planes on which the
shearing stresses are always zero and the corresponding
normal stresses are principal stresses. Now we wish to find
what are maximum shearing stress plane and minimum
shearing stress plane. We approach in the similar way of
maximum and minimum normal stresses
(1)
x y
nt xy
Sin Cos
σ σ
τ θ τ θ
−
 
= − +

\ .
2 2
2
( )
nt
x y xy
d
Cos Cos
d
τ
σ σ θ τ θ
θ
= − − + 2 2
For maximum or minimum
( )
nt
x y xy
d
Cos Sin
d
τ
σ σ θ τ θ
θ
= = − − − 0 2 2 2
( )
x y
xy
tan
σ σ
θ
τ
− −
¬ = 2
2
This has two roots
( )
x y
S
xy
tan
s stands for shear stress
p stands for principal stresses.
σ σ
θ
τ
−
= −
−
−
1
2
2
Solid Mechanics
( )
( )
x y
S S
xy
tan tan
σ σ
θ θ π
τ
− −
= + =
2 1
2 2
2
S S
π
θ θ ∴ = +
2 1
2
Now we have to show that at these two angles we will have
maximum and minimum shear stresses at that point.
Similar to the principal stresses we must calculate
( )
( )
S
nt
x y xy
nt
x y S xy S
d
Sin Cos
d
d
Sin Cos
d
θ θ
τ
σ σ θ τ θ
θ
τ
σ σ θ τ θ
θ
=
= − −
= − −
1 1
1
2
2
2
2
2 2 4 2
2 2 4 2
xy
S
x y
xy
Cos
τ
θ
σ σ
τ
=
−
 
+

\ .
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
( )
x y
S
x y
xy
Sin
σ σ
θ
σ σ
τ
− −
=
−
 
+

\ .
1
2
2
2
2
2
Substituting above values in the above equation we can
show that
Solid Mechanics
S
nt
d
d
θ θ
τ
θ
=
=
1
2
2
 ve
Similarly we can show that
S S
nt
d
d π
θ θ θ
τ
θ
= = +
=
2 1
2
2
2
+ ve
Thus the angles
S
θ
1
and
S
θ
2
define planes of either maximum
shear stress or minimum shear stress. Planes that define
maximum shear stress & minimum shear stress are again ⊥
to each other.. Now we wish to find out these values.
( )
( )
S
x y
nt xy
x y
nt S xy S
Sin Cos
Sin Cos
θ θ
σ σ
τ θ τ θ
σ σ
τ θ τ θ
=
−
= − +
−
= − +
1 1
1
2 2
2
2 2
2
Substituting
S
Cos θ
1
2 and
S
Sin s θ
1
2 , we can show that
x y
max xy
σ σ
τ τ
−
 
= + +

\ .
2
2
2
( )
( ) ( )
S S
x y
nt S xy S
Sin Cos
π
θ θ θ
σ σ
τ θ π τ θ π
= = +
−
= − + + +
1 1
2 1
2
2 2
2
Substituting
S
Cos θ
1
2 and
S
Sin θ
1
2
x y
min xy
σ σ
τ τ
−
 
= − +

\ .
2
2
2
Solid Mechanics
max
τ is algebraically
min
τ > , however their absolute
magnitude is same. Thus we can write
x y
max min xy
or
σ σ
τ τ τ
−
 
= ± +

\ .
2
2
2
Generally
max S
min S
τ θ
τ θ
−
−
1
2
Q. Why
max
τ and
min
τ are numerically same. Because
S
θ
1
&
S
θ
2
are ⊥ planes.
(2) Unlike the principal stresses, the planes on which
maximum and minimum shear stress act are not free from
normal stresses.
Solid Mechanics
x y x y
n xy
Cos Sin s
σ σ σ σ
σ θ τ θ
+ −
= + + 2 2
2 2
S
x y x y
n S xy S
Cos Sin
θ θ
σ σ σ σ
σ θ τ θ
=
+ −
= + +
1 1
1
2 2
2 2
Substituting
S
Cos θ
1
2 and
S
Sin θ
1
2
S
x y
n
θ θ
σ σ
σ σ
=
+
= =
1 2
( )
( )
S S
x y x y
n S
xy S
Cos
Sin
π
θ θ θ
σ σ σ σ
σ θ π
τ θ π
= = +
+ −
= + +
+ +
1
2 1
1
2
2
2 2
2
Simplifying this equation gives
S
x y
n
θ θ
σ σ
σ σ
=
+
= =
2 2
Therefore the normal stress on maximum and minimum
shear stress planes is same.
(3) Both the principal planes are ⊥ to each other and also the
planes of
max
τ and
min
τ are also ⊥ to each other. Now let us
see there exist any relation between them.
Solid Mechanics
6. Mohr’s circle
Mohr’s circle for plane stress
So far we have seen two methods to find stresses acting on
an inclined plane
(a) Wedge method
(b) Use of transformation laws.
Another method which is purely graphical approaches is
known as the Mohr’s circle for plane stress.
A major advantage of Mohr’s circle is that, the state of the
stress at a point, i.e the stress components acting on all
infinite number of planes can be viewed graphically.
Equations of Mohr’s circle
We know that,
x y x y
n xy
Cos Sin
σ σ σ σ
σ θ τ θ
+ −
= + + 2 2
2 2
This equation can also be written as
x y x y
n xy
Cos Sin
σ σ σ σ
σ θ τ θ
+ −
− = + 2 2
2 2
x y
nt xy
Sin Cos
σ σ
τ θ τ θ
−
 
= − +

\ .
2 2
2
( )
x y x y
n nt xy
x a y R
σ σ σ σ
σ τ τ
+ +
(    
− + = +
(  
\ . \ .
¸ ¸
↓ ↓ ↓
− + =
2
2
2 2
2
2 2
2 2
Solid Mechanics
The above equation is
clearly an equation of
circle with center at ( ) , 0 a
on τ σ − plane it
represents a circle with
center at
x y
,
σ σ +
 

\ .
0
2
and
having radius
x y
xy
R
σ σ
τ
−
 
= +

\ .
2
2
This circle on σ τ − plane
Mohr’s circle.
From the above deviation it
can be seen that any point P
on the Mohr’s circle
represents stress which are
acting on a plane passing
through the point.
In this way we can
completely visualize the
stresses acting on all
infinite planes.
Solid Mechanics
(3) Construction of Mohr’s circle
Let us assume that the state of stress at a point is given
A typical problem using Mohr’s circle i.e given
x y
, σ σ
′ ′
and
x y
τ
′ ′
on an inclined element. For the sake of clarity we
assume that,
x y
, s σ σ
′ ′
and
x y
τ
′ ′
all are positive and
x y
σ σ >
Solid Mechanics
• Since any point on the circle represents the stress
components on a plane passing through the point.
Therefore we can locate the point A on the circle.
• The coordinates of the plane
( )
x xy
A , σ τ = + +
Therefore we can locate the point A on the circle with
coordinates
( )
x xy
, s σ τ + +
• Therefore the line AC represents the xaxis. Moreover,
the normal of the Aplane makes 0
w.r.t the xaxis.
• In a similar way we can locate the point B
corresponding to the plane B.
Solid Mechanics
The coordinates of
( )
y xy
B , s σ τ = + −
Since we assumed that for the sake of similarity
y x
s σ σ < .
Therefore the point B diametrically opposite to point A.
• The line BC represents y axis. The point A corresponds
to Q = 0
, and pt. B corresponds to Q = 90
(+ve) of the
stress element.
At this point of time we should be able to observe two
important points.
• The end points of a diameter represents stress
components on two ⊥ planes of the stress element.
• The angle between x axis and the plane B is 90° (c.c.w)
in the stress element. The line CA in Mohr’s circle
represents x axis and line CB represents yaxis or plane
B. It can be seen that, the angle between xaxis and y
axis in the Mohr’s circle is 180° (c.c.w). Thus 2Q in
Mohr’s circle corresponds to Q in the stress element
diagram.
Stresses on an inclined element
• Point A corresponds to 0 Q = on the stress element.
Therefore the line CA i.e xaxis becomes reference line
from which we measure angles.
• Now we locate the point “D” on the Mohr’s circle such
that the line CD makes an angle of 2Q c.c.w from the x
axis or line CA. we choose c.c.w because in the stress
element also Q is in c.c.w direction.
Solid Mechanics
• The coordinates or stresses corresponding to point D on
the Mohr’s circle represents the stresses on the x′  face or
D on the stress element.
x avg
x y
y avg
RCos
RSin
RCos
SinceD&D are planesinthe
stress element ,thentheybecome
diametrically opposite point s on
thecircle, just likethe planes A&Bdid
σ σ β
τ β
σ σ β
′
′ ′
′
= +
=
= −
′
⊥
Calculation of principal stress
The most important application of the Mohr’s circle is
determination of principal stresses.
The intersection of the Mohr’s circle  with normal stress
axis gives two points P
1
andP
2
. Thus P
1
and P
2
represents
points corresponding to principal stresses. In the current
diagram the coordinates the of
P , s
P ,
σ
σ
=
=
1 1
2 2
0
0
avg
R σ σ = +
1
avg
R σ σ = −
2
The principal direction corresponding to σ
1
is now equal to
p
θ
1
2 , in c.c.w direction from the xaxis.
Solid Mechanics
p p
π
θ θ = ±
2 1
2
We can see that the points P
1
andP
2
are diametrically
opposite, this indicate that principal planes are ⊥ to each
other in the stress element. This fact can also be verified from
the Mohr’s circle.
In plane maximum shear stress
What are points on the circle at which the shearing stress are
reaching maximum values numerically? Points S
1
and S
2
at
the top and bottom of the Mohr’s circle.
• The points S
1
and S
2
are at angles θ = 2 90
from
pointsP
1
P
2
and, i.e the planes of maximum shear stress
are oriented at ±45
to the principal planes.
• Unlike the principal stresses, the planes of maximum
shear stress are not free from the normal stresses. For
example the coordinates of
max avg
max avg
S , s
S ,
τ σ
τ σ
= +
= −
1
2
max
R τ = ±
avg
σ σ =
Mohr’s circle can be plotted in two different ways. Both the
methods are mathematically correct.
Solid Mechanics
Finally
• Intersection of Mohr’s circle with the σ axis gives
principal stresses.
• The top and bottom points of Mohr’s circle gives
maximum –ve shear stress and maximum +ve shear
stress.
• Do not forget that all these inclined planes are obtained
by rotation about zaxis.
Solid Mechanics
Mohr’ circle problem
Solution:
A  (15000,4000)
B  (5000,4000)
(a)
x y
MPa
σ σ +
+
= =
15000 5000
10000
2 2
R MPa = 6403
x y
xy
R
σ σ
τ
−
 
−
 
= + = +


\ .
\ .
= +
2
2
2 2
2 2
15000 5000
4000
2 2
5000 4000
x y
σ σ −
= 5000
2
Solid Mechanics
Point D:
x
Cos . MPa σ
′
= + = 10000 6403 41 34 14807
x y
Sin . MPa τ
′ ′
= − = − 6403 41 34 4229
Point D′ :
n y
Cos . MPa σ σ
′
= = − = 10000 6403 41 34 593
nt x y
Sin . τ τ
′ ′
= = = 6403 41 34 4229
b)
P
.
; . σ θ = = =
1
1
38 66
16403 19 33
2
MPa σ =
2
3597
c)
max S
MPa . . τ θ = − = = −
1
6403 25 67 25 67
Solid Mechanics
(2) θ = 45
Principal stresses and principal shear stresses.
Solution:
( )
x y
x y
xy
R MPa
σ σ
σ σ
τ
+
− +
= = −
−
  − −
 
= + = + − =


\ .
\ .
2
2
2 2
50 10
20
2 2
50 10
40 50
2 2
( )
( )
A ,
B ,
→ − −
→
50 40
10 40
x y
x y
p R s
p R
σ σ
σ
σ σ
σ
+
= = + = − + =
+
= = − = − − = −
1 1
2 2
20 50 30
2
20 50 70
2
Solid Mechanics
p
p
p
Q .
Q .
Q .
=
=
=
1
1
2
2 233 13
116 6
206 6
s
s
s
Q .
Q .
Q .
=
=
=
1
1
2
2 143 13
71 6
161 6
Solid Mechanics
Q.
x y xy
MPa, MPa and MPa σ σ τ = = − = 31 5 33
Stresses on inclined element θ = 45
Principal stresses and maximum shear stress.
Solution:
x y
avg
MPa
σ σ
σ
+
−
= = =
31 5
13
2 2
x y
xy
R . MPa
σ σ
τ
−
 
= + =

\ .
2
2
37 6
2
( )
( )
A ,
B , − −
31 33
5 33
x avg
RCos s
. Cos . MPa
σ β σ
′
= +
= + = 37 6 28 64 13 46
x y
RSin . . . τ β
′ ′
= − = − = − 37 6 28 64 18 02
y avg
RCos
MPa
σ β σ
′
= −
= −20
Solid Mechanics
. MPa σ ∴ =
1
50 6
. MPa σ = −
2
24 6
p
. θ =
1
30 68
max s
min
avg
. MPa .
. MPa
MPa
τ θ
τ
σ σ
= − = −
= −
= =
1
37 6 14 32
37 6
13
Solid Mechanics
7. 3DStress Transformation
3Dstress components on an arbitrary plane
Basically we have done so far for this type of coordinate
system
x x x y x z
x x x y x z
n n n D i r . c o s i n e s o f x
ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ
i n i n j n k
′ ′ ′
′ ′ ′
′
−
′
= + +
y x y y y z
y x y y y z
n n n
ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ
j n i n j n k
′ ′ ′
′ ′ ′
′
= + +
z x z y z z
z x z y z z
n n n
ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ
k n i n j n k
′ ′ ′
′ ′ ′
′
= + +
Solid Mechanics
n x x x y x z
n x x x y x z
ˆ ˆ ˆ
T T i T j T ks
ˆ ˆ ˆ
T i j k σ τ τ
′ ′ ′
′ ′ ′ ′ ′ ′
= + +
′ ′ ′
= + +
,
,
x x
x x
x z
ABC dA
PAB dAn
PAC dAn
PBC dAn
′
′
′
−
−
−
−
[ ]
x
F ¿ →+ = 0
x x x x x yx x y zx x z
T da dAn dAn dAn σ τ τ
′ ′ ′ ′
= + +
x x x x x yx x y zx x z
x y xy x x y x y zy x z
x z xz x x yz x y z x z
T n n n
T n n n
T n n n
σ τ τ
τ σ τ
τ τ σ
′ ′ ′ ′
′ ′ ′ ′
′ ′ ′ ′
= + +
= + +
= + +
x x y y z
x y y y z
z x y z z
σ τ τ
τ σ τ
τ τ σ
′ ′ ′ ′ ′
′ ′ ′ ′ ′
′ ′ ′ ′ ′
(
(
(
(
(
¸ ¸
x x y x z
, , σ τ τ
′ ′ ′ ′ ′
( ) ( )
x n x x x y x z x x x y x z
ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ
T i T i T j T k . n i n j n k σ
′ ′ ′ ′ ′ ′ ′
′
= = + + + +
,
(1)
( ) ( )
x y n x x x y x z y x y y y z
ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ
T j T i T j T k . n i n j n k τ
′ ′ ′ ′ ′ ′ ′ ′
′
= = + + + +
,
(2)
( ) ( )
x z n x x x y x z z x z y z z
ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ
T k T i T j T k . n i n j n k τ
′ ′ ′ ′ ′ ′ ′ ′
′
= = + + + +
,
(3)
y x x y x yx y y zx y z
y y xy y y y y y zy y z
y z xz y y yz y y z y z
T n n n
T n n n
T n n n
σ τ τ
τ σ τ
τ τ σ
′ ′ ′ ′
′ ′ ′ ′
′ ′ ′ ′
= + +
= + +
= + +
( )( )
y y x y y y z y x y y y z
ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ
T i T j T k n i n j n k σ
′ ′ ′ ′ ′ ′ ′
= + + + + (4)
( )( )
z z x z y z z z x z y z z
ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ
T i T j T k n i n j n k σ
′ ′ ′ ′ ′ ′ ′
= + + + + (5)
Solid Mechanics
( )( )
y z y x y y y z z x z y z z
ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ
T i T j T k n i n j n k τ
′ ′ ′ ′ ′ ′ ′ ′
= + + + + (6)
x x
x y
x z
n Cos
n Sin
n
θ
θ
′
′
′
=
=
= 0
y x
y y
y z
n Sin
n Cos
n
θ
θ
′
′
′
= −
=
= 0
z x
z y
z z
n
n
n
′
′
′
=
=
=
0
0
1
z x z y z
z
: : σ τ τ
σ
′ ′ ′ ′ ′
= = =
=
0 0 0
( ) ( )
x x y xy
y x y xy
x y x y xy
Cos Sin Sin Cos
Sin Cos Sin Cos
Sin Cos Cos Sin
σ σ θ σ θ τ θ θ
σ σ θ σ θ τ θ θ
τ σ σ θ θ τ θ θ
′
′
′ ′
= + +
= + −
= − − + −
2 2
2 2
2 2
2
2
x xy
xy y
σ τ
τ σ
(
(
(
(
¸ ¸
0
0
0 0 0
Principal stresses
x y z
n ,n ,n
( )
n x y z
n nx ny nz
ˆ ˆ ˆ
ˆ T n n i n j n k
ˆ ˆ ˆ
T T i T j T k
σ σ = = + +
= + +
,
,
Where
nx x x yx y zx z
ny xy x y y zy z
nz xz x yz y z z
T n n n
T n n n
T n n n
σ τ τ
τ σ τ
τ τ σ
= + +
= + +
= + +
x x y y z z
Tn n Tn n Tn n σ σ σ = = =
Solid Mechanics
( )
( )
( )
x x yx y zx z
yx x y y zy z
xz x yz y z z
n n n
n n n Syst. of linear homog. eqns.
n n n
σ σ τ τ
τ σ σ τ
τ τ σ σ
− + + = ¹
¦
¦
+ − + =
`
¦
+ + − =
¦
)
0
0
0
x y z x y z
n n n : n n n = = = + + =
2 2 2
0 1
( )
x xy zx
x
xy y zy y
zx yz z z
n
n
n
σ σ τ τ
τ σ σ τ
τ τ σ σ
(
−
¦ ¹
(
¦ ¦
− =
( ´ `
( ¦ ¦
−
¹ ) (
¸ ¸
0
For non trivial solution must be zero.
( ) ( )
( )
x y z x y y z z x xy yz zx
x y z xy yz zx x yz y zx z xy
σ σ σ σ σ σ σ σ σ σ σ τ τ τ σ
σ σ σ τ τ τ σ τ σ τ σ τ
− + + + + + − − −
− + − − − =
3 2 2 2 2
2 2 2
2 0
This has 3 real roots , , σ σ σ
1 2 3
( )
( )
x x yx y zx z
yx x y y zy z
x y z
n n n
n n n
and n n n
σ σ τ τ
τ σ σ τ
− + + =
+ − + =
+ + =
1
1
2 2 2
0
0
1
x y z
n ,n ,n σ
σ σ σ
¬ →
> >
1
1 2 3
Stress invariants
I I I σ σ σ − + − =
3 2
1 2 3
0 (1)
Solid Mechanics
x y z
x y y z x z xy yz zx
x y z xy yz zx x yz y zx z xy
I
I stress invar iants
I
σ σ σ
σ σ σ σ σ σ τ τ τ
σ σ σ τ τ τ σ τ σ τ σ τ
¹
= + +
¦
¦
= + + − − −
`
¦
= + − − −
¦
)
1
2 2 2
2
2 2 2
3
2
I I σ σ ′ ′ − + =
3 2
1 3
0
x y z x y x z y z x y y z x z
I I σ σ σ σ σ σ σ σ τ τ τ
′ ′ ′ ′ ′ ′ ′ ′ ′ ′ ′ ′ ′ ′ ′
′ ′
= + + = + + − − −
2 2 2
1 2
I I ; I I ; I I
′
′ ′
= = =
1 1 2 2 3 3
3D 2D
I
I
I
σ
σ σ σ
σ σ σ σ σ σ
σ σ
= + +
= + +
=
3
1 1 2 3
2 1 2 2 3 3 1
3 1 2
I
I
I
σ σ
σ σ
= +
=
=
1 1 2
2 1 2
3
0
Principal planes are orthogonal
n n
ˆ ˆ T n T .n
′
′
=
, ,
x y z
x y z
n nx ny nz
n n x n y n z
ˆ ˆ ˆ
ˆ n n i n j n k
ˆ ˆ ˆ
ˆ n n i n j n k
ˆ ˆ ˆ
T T i T j T k
ˆ ˆ ˆ
T T i T j T k
′ ′ ′
′ ′ ′ ′
= + +
′
= + +
= + +
= + +
,
,
Solid Mechanics
yx
n n
xy
ˆ ˆ T n T n
τ
τ
′
=
′
=
, ,
( ) ( )
n n
ˆ ˆ T n T n
ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ n n n n σ σ
′
′
=
′ ′ =
1 2
, ,
( ) ( )
x x y y z z x x y y z z
n n n n n n n n n n n n σ σ
′ ′ ′ ′ ′ ′
+ + = + +
1 2
σ σ ≠
1 2
x x y y z z
n n n n n n
′ ′ ′
+ + = 0
ˆ ˆ n .n
′
must be ⊥ to each other.
The state of stress in principal axis
σ
σ
σ
(
(
(
(
¸ ¸
1
2
3
0 0
0 0
0 0
x
y
z
n x
n y
n z
T n
T n
T n
σ
σ
σ
=
=
=
1
2
3
n x y z
n n n σ σ σ σ = + +
2 2 2
1 2 3
x y z
n n n n
x y z
T T T T s
n n n σ σ σ
= + +
= + +
2
2 2 2
2 2 2 2 2 2
1 2 3
n n
T τ σ = −
2
2 2
,
Solid Mechanics
8. 3D Mohr’s circle and Octahedral stress
3D Mohr’s circle & principal shear stresses
x xy
ij xy y
z
σ τ
σ τ σ
σ
(
(
(
=
(
¸ ¸
(
¸ ¸
0
0
0 0
Once if you know and σ σ
1 2
τ
σ σ
τ
σ σ
σ
−
=
+
=
1
2 3
1
1 3
2
2
τ
σ σ
τ
σ σ
σ
−
=
+
=
2
1 3
2
1 2
2
2
τ
σ σ
τ
σ σ
σ
−
=
−
=
3
1 2
3
1 2
2
2
max
max , ,
σ σ σ σ σ σ
τ
− − −
=
1 2 2 3 3 1
2 2 2
σ σ σ > >
1 2 3
Solid Mechanics
• The maximum normal stress
1
σ and maximum shear
stress
max
τ and their corresponding planes govern the
failure of the engineering materials.
• It is evident now that in many twodimensional cases
the maximum shear stress value will be missed by not
considering σ =
3
0 and constructing the principal circle.
Solid Mechanics
Problem:
The state of stress at a point is given by
x y z
MPa, MPa, MPa and σ σ σ = = − = 100 40 80
xy yz zx
τ τ τ = = = 0
Determine in plane max shear stresses and maximum shear
stress at that point.
Solution:
MPa, MPa MPas σ σ σ = = = −
1 2 3
100 80 40
MPa
σ σ
τ
− −
= = =
1 2
12
100 80
10
2 2
MPa
σ σ
τ
− +
= = =
1 3
13
100 40
70
2 2
MPa
σ σ
τ
− +
= = =
2 3
23
80 40
60
2 2
MPa
MPa
σ σ
σ
σ
σ
+
= =
=
=
1 2
12
13
23
90
2
30
20
max
max , , τ τ τ τ =
12 13 23
max
MPa τ = 70 This occurs in the plane of 13
Solid Mechanics
, , τ τ τ →
1 2 3
Principal shear stress in 3D
( )
max
max , , τ τ τ τ =
1 2 3
Solid Mechanics
Plane stress
z
σ σ
σ σ
>
= =
1
3
0
x y
xy
σ σ
τ τ
−
 
= ± +

\ .
2
2
2
 in plane principal shear stresses.
max
σ σ σ
τ
−
= =
1 3 1
2 2
Solid Mechanics
Problem
At appoint in a component, the state of stress is as shown.
Determine maximum shear stress.
Solution:
ij
σ
(
(
=
(
¸ ¸
¸ ¸
100 0
0 50
 plane stress problem
We can also write the matrix as
ij
a
(
(
(
=
¸ ¸
(
(
¸ ¸
100 0 0
0 50 0
0 0 0
σ
σ
σ σ
=
=
− −
= =
1
2
1 2
100
50
100 50
25
2 2
max
MPa τ = 25
Solid Mechanics
Now with , , σ σ σ = = =
1 2 3
100 50 0
max
MPa
σ σ
τ
−
= =
1 3
50
2
Occurs in the plane 13 instead of 12
Solid Mechanics
Some important states of stresses
(1) Uniaxial state of stress: Only one nonzero principal
stress.
σ
σ
(
(
(
=
(
(
¸ ¸
(
¸ ¸
1
1
0 0
0
0 0 0
0 0
0 0 0
 plane stress.
(2) Biaxial state of stress: two nonzero principal stresses.
σ
σ
σ
σ
(
(
(
=
(
(
¸ ¸
(
¸ ¸
1
1
1
1
0 0
0
0 0
0
0 0 0
 plane stress
(3) Triaxial state of stress: All three principal stresses are
non zero.
σ
σ
σ
(
(
−
(
(
¸ ¸
1
2
3
0 0
0 0
0 0
3D stress
(4) Spherical state of stress: σ σ σ = =
1 2 3
(either +ve or – ve)
D
σ
σ
σ
(
(
−
(
(
¸ ¸
0 0
0 0 3
0 0
stressspecial case of triaxial stress.
Solid Mechanics
(5) Hydrostatic state of stress
P
P
P
+
(
(
+
(
+ (
¸ ¸
0 0
0 0
0 0
hydrostatic tension
P
P
P
−
(
(
−
(
− (
¸ ¸
0 0
0 0
0 0
hydrostatic compression.
(6) The state of pure shear
zy
x xy xz
ij xy y yz
zx z
σ τ τ
σ τ σ τ
τ τ σ
(
(
(
( =
¸ ¸
(
(
¸ ¸
x y x z
ij x y y z
z x z y
τ τ
σ τ τ
τ τ
′ ′ ′ ′
′ ′ ′ ′
′ ′ ′ ′
(
(
(
=
(
¸ ¸
(
(
¸ ¸
0
0
0
Then we say that the point P is in state of pure shear.
I =
1
0 is necessary and sufficient condition for state of pure
shear
Solid Mechanics
Octahedral planes and stresses
If
x y z
n n n = = w.r.t to the principal planes, then these planes
are known as octahedral planes. The corresponding stresses
are known as octahedral stresses.
Eight number of such planes can be identified at a given point 
Octahedron
x y z
n x y z
n n n
T n n n
σ σ σ σ
σ σ σ
= + +
= + +
2 2 2
1 2 3
2
2 2 2 2 2 2
1 2 3
x y z
x y z
n n n
n n n .
+ + =
= = = ± =
2 2 2
0
1
1
54 73
3
oct
σ σ σ σ
σ σ σ
     
= + +
  
\ . \ . \ .
+ +
=
2 2 2
1 1 1
1 2 3
1 1 1
3 3 3
3
Solid Mechanics
1
I
= meanstress
3
σ σ σ + +
=
1 2 3
3
oct
canbeint erpreted meannormal stress at a pt. σ = − −
oct n oct
T τ σ = −
2
2
( ) ( ) ( )
oct
τ σ σ σ σ σ σ = − + − + −
2 2 2
1 2 2 3 3 1
1
3
Therefore, the state of stress at a point can be represented
with reference to
(i) stress components of x,y,z coordinate system
(ii) stress components of x’,y’z’ coordinate system
(iii) using principal stresses
(iv) using octahedral shear and normal stresses
We can prove that:
oct
τ is smaller than
max
τ (exist only on 4 planes) but can exist on 8
planes at a point.
Solid Mechanics
Decomposition into hydrostatic and pure shear stress
x xy xz
ij yx z yz
zx zy z
σ τ τ
σ τ σ τ
τ τ σ
(
(
(
=
(
¸ ¸
(
(
¸ ¸
Mean stress
x y z I
P
σ σ σ + +
= =
1
3 3
x xy xz x xy xz
yx y yz yx y yz
zx zy z zx zy z
P
P
P P
P
P
Hydrostatic State of pureshear
stat of stress Deviatoric state of stress
Dilitational stress Stress deviator
σ τ τ σ τ τ
τ τ τ τ σ τ
τ τ σ τ τ σ
( (
−
(
( (
(
= + −
( (
(
( (
(
−
¸ ¸
( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
0 0
0 0
0 0
Thus the state of the stress at a point can alos be represented
by sum of dilational stress and stress deviator
Solid Mechanics
I
P
σ σ σ + +
= =
1 2 3 1
3 3
P P
P P
P P
σ σ
σ σ
σ σ
−
( ( (
( ( (
= + −
( ( (
− ( ( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
1 1
2 2
3 3
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
σ =
1
mean stress + deviation from the mean
The deviatoric and octahedral shear stresses are the answer
for the yielding behavior of materials – which is a type of
failure of materials.
Solid Mechanics
9. Deformation and strain analysis
Two types of deformation have been observed for an
infinitesimal element.
Deformation of the whole body = Sum of deformations of
Deformation is described by measuring two quantities.
(1)Elongation or contraction of a line segment
(2)Rotation of any two ⊥ lines.
Measure of deformations of an infinitesimal
element is known as strain.
• The strain component that measures elongation or
construction – normal strain ε
• The strain component that measures rotation of any two
⊥lines is – shearing strain γ
( )
( )
( )
u u x, y, z
v v x, y, z ( x, y, z) is the point in the undeformed geometry
w w x, y, z
= ¹
¦
=
`
¦
=
)
( ) ( ) ( )
= + +
,
ˆ ˆ ˆ
u u x, y, z i v x, y, z j w x, y, z k
Solid Mechanics
Normal strain ε  Account for changes in length between two
points.
( )
* * *
n
s s
P Q PQ s s
P lim lim
PQ s ∆ → ∆ →
− ∆ − ∆
∈ = =
∆ 0 0
We can also define the same point
x y z
, , ∈ ∈ ∈
(1) By definition
x
∈ is + if
*
s s ∆ > ∆
x
∈ is  if
*
s s ∆ > ∆
(2) It is immaterial how
* *
P Q is oriented finally. However for
n
∈ we must consider PQ in the direction of ˆ n in the
undeformed geometry
(3) In general
( )
n n
x, y, z s ∈ =∈
(4) No units.
(5) Meaning of
nn
∈
Shearing strain 
Accounts the change in angle
( )
n
Y P
+
Change in angle between
⊥ lines in
ˆ
ˆ n&t direction.
( )
nt nt
x x
y y
Y P lim lim
π
φ α β
∆ → ∆ →
∆ → ∆ →
− = +
0 0
0 0
2
Mm/mm,0.5%=0.005;
, µ µ
−
=
6
10 1000
. mm / mm
−
= × =
6
1000 10 0 001
( )
( )
*
n
*
n
n n
s s
s s if s
s s s s
∆ = +∈ ∆
∆ +∈ ∆ ∆ →
∈ ∆ =∈ ∆
1
1 0 =
=
lim as s ∆ →0
Solid Mechanics
(1)We must select two ⊥ lines in the undeformed geometry.
(2)Units of
nt
Y →radius.
(3)By deflection
nt tn
Y Y =
(4)Two subscripts are required for
Y  to show directions of initial
infinitesimal line segments.
(5)
nt
Y is +ve if angle is decreased
nt
Y is ve if angle is more.
By taking two ⊥ lines
We can define
n t nt
, &Y ∈ ∈
Rectangular strain components
x y xy
z y yz
x z xz
, andY PQRS
, andY QABS
, andY RSCD
∈ ∈ −
∈ ∈ −
∈ ∈ −
x xy xz
ij xy y yz
xz yz z
Y Y
E Y Y
Y Y
(
∈
(
(
= ∈
(
¸ ¸
(
∈
(
¸ ¸
They represent the state of strain at a point , since we can
determine strain along any direction ˆ n
 Rectangular strain components .
 We then say that we have strain
computer associated with x, y, z
coordinate system.
Solid Mechanics
Strain displacement relations: Strains are due to
deformation as displacement so there must be some relation
between deformational displacements and strains. So let us
consider the side of the element PQRS. We shall demonstrate
that ‘w’ has no impact. So it can be neglected.
P u, v
u v
Q u x ; v x
x x
→
∂ ∂
→ + ∆ + ∆
∂ ∂
* * *
PQ x
P Q x
= ∆
= ∆
( )
*
x
x x ∆ +∈ ∆ 1 =
( )
*
x
x
lim x x
∆ →
∆ = +∈ ∆
0
1
*
u v w
x x x x
x x x
u u v w
x
x x x x
∂ ∂ ∂
     
∆ = + ∆ + ∆ + ∆
  
∂ ∂ ∂ \ . \ . \ .
(
∂ ∂ ∂ ∂
     
= + + + + ∆
   (
∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ \ . \ . \ .
¸ ¸
2 2 2
2 2 2
1
1 2
Solid Mechanics
*
x
x
x
x
y
z
x x
lim
x
u u v w
lim
x x x x
u u v w
x x x x
v u v w
y y y y
w u v
z z z
∆ →
∆ →
∆ − ∆
∈ =
∆
∂ ∂ ∂ ∂
     
= + + + + −
  
∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ \ . \ . \ .
∂ ∂ ∂ ∂
     
∈ = + + + + −
  
∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ \ . \ . \ .
     
∂ ∂ ∂ ∂
∈ = + + + + −
  
∂ ∂ ∂ ∂
\ . \ . \ .
∂ ∂ ∂
   
∈ = + + +
 
∂ ∂ ∂ \ . \ .
0
2 2 2
0
2 2 2
2 2 2
2
1 2 1
1 2 1
1 2 1
1 2
w
z
∂
 
+ −

∂ \ .
2 2
1
So far no assumption has been made except for size of
x, y& z ∆ ∆ ∆
*
xy
* *
y u x u
Cos
x y
x y
φ
∆ ∂ ∆ ∂
(
 
= +

(
∂ ∂ \ . ∆ ∆ ¸ ¸
1
* *
y v x v
x y
x y
(
  ∆ ∂ ∆ ∂
 
+ +
(  
∂ ∂
\ . ∆ ∆
\ .
¸ ¸
1
* *
y w x w
x y
x y
(
∆ ∂ ∆ ∂
 
+
( 
∂ ∂
\ . ∆ ∆
¸ ¸
*
xy xy
x
y
z
Y lim
π
φ
∆ →
∆ →
∆ →
= −
0
0
0
2
Solid Mechanics
*
xy xy
x
y
z
SinY lim Cosφ
∆ →
∆ →
∆ →
=
0
0
0
( )
( )
xy
* *
x
y
z
*
x
*
y
x y u u v v w w
SinY lim
x y y x x y
x y
x x
y y
∆ →
∆ →
∆ →
(   ∆ ∆ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂
 
= + + + +
 ( 
∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ \ . ∆ ∆
\ .
¸ ¸
∆ = +∈ ∆
∆ = +∈ ∆
0
0
0
1 1
1
1
( )
( )
xy
x
x y
y
z
u v u u v v w w
y x x y x y x y
SinY lim
∆ →
∆ →
∆ →
 
∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂
+ + + +

∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂
\ .
=
+∈ +∈
0
0
0
1 1
( )
( )
xy
x y
u v u u v v w w
Sin
y x x y x y x y
Y
−
 
∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂
+ + + +

∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂
\ .
=
+∈ +∈
1
1 1
( )
( )
yz
x y
u v u u v v w w
y x x y x y x y
Y sin
−
∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂
(
+ + + +
(
∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂
=
(
+∈ +∈
(
(
¸ ¸
1
1 1
( )( )
xz
x z
w u w w u u v v
x w x z x w x z
Y sin
−
∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂
(
+ + + +
(
∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂
=
(
+∈ +∈
(
¸ ¸
1
1 1
All bodies after the application of loads under go “small
deformations”
Solid Mechanics
Small deformations :
(1) The deformational displacements
ˆ ˆ
u ui vj wk = + +
,
are
infinitesimally small.
(2) The strains are small
(a) Changes in length of a infinitesimal line segment are
infinitesimal.
(b) Rotations of line segment are also infinitesimal.
x y z
u u u v u u v
, , , ; ; ; ;
x u w x x x y
∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂
 
∈ ∈ ≤< ∈

∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ \ .
2
1 1 1 1 < < < are
negligible compare to
u v
,
x x
∂ ∂
∂ ∂
quantities.
x
u
x
u
x
∂
∈ = + −
∂
∂
−
∂
= +
1 2 1
2
1
1
2
x
y
z
u
x
v
y
w
z
∂
∈ =
∂
∂
∈ =
∂
∂
∈ =
∂
xy xy
SinY Y ≈
Solid Mechanics
( )
xy
x y
u v
y x v u
Y
x y
∂ ∂
+
∂ ∂ ∂ ∂
= = +
∂ ∂
+∈ +∈ 1
xz
yz
w u
Y
x z
v w
Y
z y
∂ ∂
= +
∂ ∂
∂ ∂
= +
∂ ∂
Another derivation : Let us take plane PQRS in xy plane.
Also assume that
( ) ( )
u u x, y & v v x, y = = only.
Small deformation
Displacements are small
Strains are small
* * *
x
x
P Q PQ x x
lim
PQ x ∆ →
− ∆ − ∆
∈ = =
∆ 0
Strains<0.001
* * *
x
x
y
y
y
x P Q x
x
y
x x
u
x
lim
x x
v
y y
y
v
lim
y y
′
∆ →
∆ →
∂
 
∆ = + ∆

∂
\ .
∂
 
+ ∆ − ∆

∂
∂
\ .
∈ = =
∆ ∂
 
∂
+ ∆ − ∆

∂
∂
\ .
∈ = =
∆ ∂
0
0
1
1
1
=
Y . < 0 06
*
s .
s mm
−
∆ =
= ×
4
0 2002
2 10
Solid Mechanics
*
xy xy
x x
y y
Y lim lim
π
φ α β
∆ → ∆ →
∆ → ∆ →
= − = +
0 0
0 0
2
v v
x
x x
tan
y y
x
x
x
α
∂ ∂
∆
∂ ∂
= =
∂ ∂
 
+
+ ∆

∂
∂
\ .
1
1
tanα α ≈
v
x
u
y
α
β
∂
=
∂
∂
=
∂
xy
u v
Y
y x
∂ ∂
= +
∂ ∂
u u v v
, , ,
x y y x
u u v
, ,
x y yx
∂ ∂ ∂ ∂
∂ ∂ ∂ ∂
   
∂ ∂ ∂
 

 
∂ ∂ ∂ \ .
\ . \ .
2 2
2
1 <
We can define the state of strain at point by six components
of strains
State of strain
 Engineering strain matrix
 We can find
n
∈ in any
direction we can find
nt
Y for
any two arbitrary directions.
x y, z, xy xz yz
yx zx zy
, Y , Y , Y
Y Y Y
∈ ∈ ∈
↓ ↓ ↓
x xy xz
ij xy y yz
xz yz z
Y Y
E Y Y
Y Y
(
∈
(
(
= ∈
(
¸ ¸
(
∈
(
¸ ¸
Solid Mechanics
2D strain transformation
Plain strain: In which
x xy
xy y
Y
Y
∈
(
(
∈
(
¸ ¸
( )
( )
( )
x x
y y
xy xy
x, y
x, y
Y Y x, y
∈ =∈
∈ =∈
=
z
yz
zx
Y
Y
∈ =
=
=
0
0
0
implication of these
equation is that a point in
a given plane does not
leave that plane all
deformations are in to
plane of the body.
Solid Mechanics
Given
x y xy
, & Y ∈ ∈ what are
n t nt
, & Y ∈ ∈ .
We can always draw PQRS for given ˆ n
If
x y xy
, & Y ∈ ∈
As in case of stress we call these formulae as transformations
laws.
x
x
x
dxSin
ds
dx
sin
ds
sin cos
θ
α
θ
θ θ
∈
=
=∈
=∈
1
y y
dy
cos cos sin
ds
α θ θ θ =∈ =∈
2
xy
xy
dy
Y sin
ds
Y sin sin
α θ
θ θ
=
=
3
Solid Mechanics
x y xy
n x y xy
x y xy
dL dxcos dysin Y dycos
dy dy dL dx
cos sin Y cos
dS ds ds ds
cos cos sin Y sin cos
θ θ θ
θ θ θ
θ θ θ θ θ
=∈ +∈ +
=∈ =∈ +∈ +
=∈ +∈ +
2
 state of strain at a point
 stress tensor
 strain tensor
Replace
x x
y y
xy
xy xy
Y
σ
σ
τ
→∈
→∈
→∈ =
2
( ) ( )
x y xy
x y xy
x y xy
sin cos sin cos Y sin
cos sin cos sin Y cos
cos sin cos sin Y cos
α θ θ θ θ θ
β θ θ θ θ θ
θ θ θ θ θ
= −∈ +∈ −
= −∈ − +∈ − −
=∈ −∈ −
2
2
2
( )
x y
xy
nt
Y
Y
sin cos θ θ
∈ −∈
= − + 2 2
2 2 2
x xy
xy y
Y
Y
∈
(
(
∈
(
¸ ¸
xy
x
xy
y
Y
Y
(
∈
(
(
(
∈
(
¸ ¸
2
2
x xy
xy y
∈ ∈
(
(
∈ ∈
(
¸ ¸
xy
xy
Y
∈ =
2
x xy
xy y
σ τ
τ σ
(
(
(
¸ ¸
x y x y xy
n
Y
cos sin θ θ
∈ +∈ ∈ −∈
∈ = + + 2 2
2 2 2
Solid Mechanics
Principal shears and maximum shear
In plane principal strains
xy xy
p
x y
/
tan Q
ϒ ∈ →
=
∈ −∈
2 2
2
p p
θ θ − − ⊥
1 2
to each other
, ∈ ∈ ∈ >∈
1 2 1 2
( )
x y
s
xy
s p
tan
/
θ
θ θ π
∈ −∈
= −
∈
= ±
1
2
2
4
s s
θ θ − − ⊥
1 2
to each other
x y
x y I
x y xy
y xy
xy
x y
I
J
I
J
Y
J
σ σ
σ σ τ
+ =
∈ +∈ =
− =
∈∈ −∈ =
 
∈ ∈ − =

\ .
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
x y
max min xy
max
max s
min
min s
or R
Y
Y
θ
θ
∈ −∈
 
∈ ∈ = ± = ± +∈

\ .
=∈ −
=∈ −
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
Solid Mechanics
Mohr’s Circle for strain
3Dstrain transformation
xy
x x y y z z xy xy
Y
; ; ; σ σ σ τ →∈ →∈ →∈ =∈ =
2
( )
( )
( )
x xy xz
xy y yz
xz yz z
∈ −∈ ∈ ∈
∈ ∈ −∈ ∈ =
∈ ∈ ∈ −∈
0
, , ∈ ∈ ∈
1 2 3
 ∈ >∈ >∈
1 2 3
* * * * *
s x y
s P Q P R
u v
x y x y
x x
′ ′
∆ = ∆ + ∆
∆ = +
∂ ∂
( (    
= + ∆ + + ∆ − ∆ + ∆
 
( (
∂ ∂ \ . \ . ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
2 2 2
2 2 2
2 2
2 2
1 1
x x y y
,Y ,
′ ′ ′ ′
∈ ∈
Solid Mechanics
n
y
. x
x
y u v
x x y
x x x
∆
 
∈ = + ∆

∆
\ .
∆ ∂ ∂
(
   
= + + + ∆ − ∆ − ∆
 
(
∂ ∂ ∆ \ . \ . ¸ ¸
2
2 2
2 2 2
1
1 1
u u v v
x y x y
x x y y
y
x
x
u v
x y x y
x y
y
x
x
(
 
 
∂ ∂ ∂ ∂
 
( + + ∆ + + + ∆ − ∆ − ∆
 

∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ \ .
(
\ .
\ .
¸ ¸
=
∆
 
+ ∆

∆
\ .
 
∂ ∂
 
+ ∆ + + ∆ − ∆ + ∆


∂ ∂ \ .
\ .
=
∆
 
+ ∆

∆
\ .
2
2
2 2 2
2
2
2 2 2 2
2
1 2 1 2
1
1 2 1 2
1
Transformation
x x x x y y y z z z xy x x x y
yz x y x z zx x z x x
n n n n n
n n n n
σ σ σ σ τ
τ τ
′ ′ ′ ′ ′ ′
′ ′ ′ ′
= + + +
+ +
2 2 2
x x x x y x y z x z xy x x x y
yz x y x z zx x z x x
n n n n n
n n n n
′ ′ ′ ′ ′ ′
′ ′ ′ ′
∈ =∈ +∈ +∈ +∈
+∈ +∈
2 2 2
x y
x y x y
Y
τ
′ ′
′ ′ ′ ′
→∈ →
2
xy xy
yz yz
zx zx
τ
τ
τ
→∈
→∈
→∈
x x
y y
z zx
σ
σ
σ
→∈
→∈
→∈
Solid Mechanics
Principal strains:
( )
( )
( )
x x xy y xz z
xy x y y yz z
xz x yz y z z
n n n
n n n
n n n
∈ −∈ +∈ +∈ =
∈ + ∈ −∈ +∈ =
∈ +∈ + ∈ −∈ =
0
0
0
( )
( )
( )
x xy xz
xy y yz
xz yz z
∈ −∈ ∈ ∈
∈ ∈ −∈ ∈ =
∈ ∈ ∈ −∈
0
J J J ∈ − ∈ + ∈− =
3 2
1 1 2 3
0
x y z
J =∈ +∈ +∈
1
x xy
x y x z y z xy yz zx
xy y
y yz
x xz
yz z xz z
J
∈ ∈
=∈ ∈ +∈ ∈ +∈ ∈ −∈ −∈ −∈ +
∈ ∈
∈ ∈
∈ ∈
+
∈ ∈ ∈ ∈
2 2 2
2
x y z xy yz zx x yz y xz
x xy xz
z xy yx y yz
zx zy z
J =∈ ∈ ∈ +∈ ∈ ∈ −∈ ∈ −∈ ∈
∈ ∈ ∈
−∈ ∈ ∈ ∈ ∈
∈ ∈ ∈
2 2
3
2
∈ >∈ >∈
1 2 3
System of linear
homogeneous
equations
Solid Mechanics
( )
( )
x x xy y zx z
xy x y y zy z
x y z
n n n
n n n
n n n
∈ −∈ +∈ +∈ =
∈ + ∈ −∈ +∈ =
+ + =
1
1
2 2 2
0
0
1
x y z
n ,n &n ¬ unique
Decomposition of a strain matrix into state of pure shear +
hydrostatic strain
x xy xz x xy xz
ij yx y yz yx y yz
zx zy z zx zy z
State of pureshear Hydrostatic
( (
∈ ∈ ∈ ∈ −∈ ∈ ∈
∈
(
( (
(
(
∈ = ∈ ∈ ∈ = ∈ ∈ −∈ ∈ + ∈
( (
¸ ¸ (
( (
∈ (
∈ ∈ ∈ ∈ ∈ ∈ −∈
¸ ¸
( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
0 0
0 0
0 0
where
x y z
∈ +∈ +∈
∈=
3
J
J
J
=∈ +∈ +∈
=∈ ∈ +∈ ∈ +∈ ∈
=∈ ∈ ∈
1 1 2 3
2 1 2 2 3 3 1
3 1 2 3
Solid Mechanics
Plane strain as a special case of 3D
∈ =
3
0 is also a principal strain
z → is a principal direction
if ; ∈ >∈ ∈ =∈
1 2 1 2
+ve
if ∈
1
+ve, ∈
2
ve.
if +ve, ve ∈ ∈
1 2
P & z ′ ′
1
will come closer
to the maximum extent,
so that the included angle
is
max
π
−∈
2
Solid Mechanics
Transformation equations for planestrain
Given state of strain at a point P.
xx xy
ij
xy yy
Y
E
Y
∈
(
(
=
(
¸ ¸
∈
(
¸ ¸
This also means that
Now what are the strains associated with x , y ′ ′ i.e
x x x y
i j
x y y y
Y
E
Y
′ ′ ′ ′
′ ′
′ ′ ′ ′
∈
(
(
=
(
¸ ¸
∈
(
¸ ¸
This also means that
deformation
Solid Mechanics
Assume that
xx yy
, ∈ ∈ and
x y
Y
′ ′
are +ve
Applying the law of cosines to triangular P* Q* R*
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
xy
x x y x
y xy
P* R* P* R* Q* R* P* R* Q* R*
cos Y
x x y x
y cos Y
π
π
′
= + −
 
+

\ .
(
′
∆ +∈ = ∆ +∈ + ∆ +∈ − ∆ +∈ ( ( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
¸ ¸
 
(
∆ +∈ +

¸ ¸
\ .
2 2 2
2
2 2
2
2
1 1 1 2 1
1
2
x x cosθ
′
∆ = ∆ and y x sinθ ′ ∆ = ∆
( )
xy xy xy
cos Y sinY Y
π
+ = − ≈ −
2
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )( )
x x y
x y xy
x x cos x sin
x sin cos Y
θ θ
θ θ
′
′ ′ ′ ∆ +∈ = ∆ +∈ + ∆ +∈
′
− ∆ +∈ +∈ −
2
2 2
2 2 2 2 2
2
1 1 1
2 1 1
Solid Mechanics
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )( )
( ) ( )
( )
x x y
x y xy
x x x x y y
xy x y x y
cos sin
sin cos Y
cos sin
sin Y
θ θ
θ θ
θ θ
θ
′
′
+∈ = +∈ + +∈
− +∈ +∈ −
+∈ + ∈ = +∈ + ∈ + +∈ + ∈
+ +∈ +∈ +∈ ∈
2
2 2
2 2
2 2 2 2 2
1 1 1
2 1 1
1 2 1 2 1 2
2 1
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
x x y
xy x y
x y
xy
cos sin
Y sin
cos sin
Y sin
θ θ
θ
θ θ
θ
+ ∈ = + ∈ + + ∈
+ +∈ +∈
= + ∈ + + ∈
+
2 2
2 2
1 2 1 2 1 2
2 1
1 2 1 2
2
x x y xy
xy
x x y
cos sin Y sin
Y
cos sin sin
θ θ θ
θ θ θ
′
′
+ ∈ = + ∈ + ∈ +
∈ =∈ +∈ +
2 2
2 2
1 2 1 2 2 2
2
2
x y x y xy
x
Y
cos sin θ θ
′
∈ +∈ ∈ −∈
∈ = + + 2 2
2 2 2
If
y
Q
π
θ
′
= + ¬∈
2
x y x y xy
x
Y
cos sin θ θ
′
∈ +∈ ∈ −∈
∈ = + + 2 2
2 2 2
x y x y xy
y
Y
cos sin θ θ
′
∈ +∈ ∈ −∈
∈ = + − 2 2
2 2 2
x y x y ′ ′
∈ +∈ =∈ +∈ J = =
1
first invariant of strain.
Solid Mechanics
( )
x y xy
x OB
Q
OB x y xy
xy OB x y
Y
Y
Y
π
′
=
∈ +∈
∈ =∈ = +
∈ =∈ +∈ +
= ∈ − ∈ +∈
4
2 2
2
2
( )
( )
OB x y x y
x y OB x y
OB x y
Y
Y
( )
′ ′ ′ ′ ′
′ ′ ′ ′
′
∈ =∈ +∈ +
= ∈ − ∈ +∈
= ∈ − ∈ +∈
2
2
2 3
x y x y xy
x OB
Q Q
Y
sin cos
π
θ θ
′ ′
= +
∈ +∈ ∈ −∈
∈ =∈ = − +
4
2 2
2 2 2
 (4)
Substituting (4) in (3)
( ) ( ) ( )
x y x y x y xy x y
Y sin Y cos θ θ
′ ′
= ∈ +∈ − ∈ −∈ + − ∈ +∈ 2 2
( )
x y x y xy
Y sin Y cos θ θ
′ ′
= − ∈ −∈ + 2 2 (5)
tensorial normal strain
xx
∈ =engineering normal strain
xx yy z
, , =∈ ∈ ∈
tensorial shear strain
( )
xy
xy
Y
Engineeringshear strain 
∈ =

\ .
2 2
Solid Mechanics
( )
xz
xx xy xz
ij xy yy yz
zx zy zz zz
Y
(
 
∈ ∈ ∈ =

(
\ .
(
(
∈ = ∈ ∈ ∈
(
¸ ¸
(
∈ ∈ ∈ =∈
(
¸ ¸
2
( )
x y x y
x xy
x y x y
y xy
x y
x y xy
cos sin
cos sin
sin cos
θ θ
θ θ
θ θ
′
′
′ ′
∈ +∈ ∈ −∈
∈ = + +∈
∈ +∈ ∈ −∈
∈ = − −∈
∈ −∈
∈ = − +∈
2 2
2 2
2 2
2 2
2 2
2
Components.
 Strain tensors
Solid Mechanics
Problem:
An element of material in plane strain undergoes the
following strains
x y xy
Y
− − −
∈ = × ∈ = × = ×
6 6 6
340 10 110 10 180 10
Show them on sketches of properly oriented elements.
Solution:
x
−
′
∈ = − ×
6
340 10 ;
y
−
′
∈ = ×
6
110 10 ;
x y
Y
−
′
′
= ×
6
180 10
x
−
∈ = ×
6
340 10
Solid Mechanics
Problem:
During a test of an airplane wing, the strain gage readings
from a 45
rosette are as follows gage A,
−
×
6
520 10 ; gage B
−
×
6
360 10 and gage C
−
− ×
6
80 10
Determine the principal strains and maximum shear strains
and show them on sketches of properly oriented elements.
Solution:
(1)
x
OB
y
−
−
−
∈ = ×
∈ = ×
∈ = − ×
6
6
6
520 10
360 10
80 10
( )
( )
xy OB x y
Y
rad
− − −
−
= ∈ − ∈ +∈
= × × − × − ×
= ×
6 6 6
6
2
2 360 10 520 10 80 10
280 10
x y
− −
−
∈ +∈
× − ×
= = ×
6 6
6
520 10 80 10
220 10
2 2
Solid Mechanics
x y
− −
−
∈ −∈
× + ×
= = ×
6 6
6
520 10 80 10
300 10
2 2
xy
p
x y
xy
xy
e
tan
Y
θ
−
−
−
−
∈
× ×
= =
∈ −∈
×
×
∈ = = = ×
6
6
6
6
2
140 10
2
300 10
280 10
140 10
2 2
p
p p
.
. .
θ
θ θ
∴ =
= =
2 25 02
12 51 102 51
( ) ( )
x y x y
xy
or
.
− − −
− −
∈ +∈ ∈ −∈
 
∈ ∈ = ± +∈

\ .
= × ± × + ×
= × ± ×
2
2
1 2
2 2
6 6 6
6 6
2 2
220 10 300 10 140 10
220 10 331 06 10
.
.
−
−
∴ ∈ = ×
∈ = − ×
6
1
6
2
551 06 10
111 06 10
( ) ( )
x
.
x y x y
xy
Cos Sin
cos . Sin .
.
θ
θ θ
′
=
− − −
−
∈
∈ +∈ ∈ −∈
= + +∈
= × + × × + × ×
= ×
12 51
6 6 6
6
2 2
2 2
220 10 300 10 2 12 51 140 10 2 12 51
551 06 10
Solid Mechanics
p
. θ =
1
12 51 and
p
. θ =
2
102 51
(b) In plane maximum shear strains are
x y
xy xy
max xy
min
or
.
−
∈ −∈
 
∈ ∈ = ± +∈

\ .
= ± ×
2
2
6
2
331 06 10
( )
( )
xy
max
xy
min
.
.
−
−
∈ = ×
∈ = − ×
6
6
331 06 10
331 06 10
( )
x y
s
xy
tan Q
.
−
−
∈ −∈
− ×
= − =
∈
×
6
6
300 10
2
2
140 10
s
s s
Q .
Q . Q .
=
= − =
2 64 98
32 5 57 5
( )
( ) ( )
x y
x y xy
Q .
Sin . Cos .
. . .
′ ′
=
− − −
∈ −∈
∈ = − +∈
= − × − × = ×
57 5
6 6 6
2 57 5 2 57 5
2
271 89 10 59 17 10 331 06 10
Solid Mechanics
and
s
. θ = −
1
32 5
s
. θ = −
2
32 5
x y
−
∈ +∈
∈= = ×
6
220 10
2
min
max
Y .
Y .
−
−
= − ×
= ×
6
6
662 11 10
662 11 10
Solid Mechanics
10. Stress strain diagrams
• Bar or rod – the longitudinal direction is considerably
greater than the other two, namely the dimensions of
cross section.
• For the design of the m/c components we need to
understand about “mechanical behavior” of the
materials.
• We need to conduct experiments in laboratory to
observe the mechanical behavior.
• The mathematical equations that describe the
mechanical behavior is known as “constitutive
equations or laws”
• Many tests to observe the mechanical behavior tensile
test is the most important and fundamental test as we
gain or get lot of information regarding mechanical
behavior of metals
• Tensile test Tensile test machine, tensile test specimen,
extensometer, gage length, static testslowly varying
loads, compression test.
Stress strain diagrams
After performing a tension or compression tests and
determining the stress and strain at various magnitudes of
load, we can plot a diagram of stress Vs strain.
Solid Mechanics
Such is a characteristic of the particular material being tested
and conveys important information regarding mechanical
behavior of that metal.
We develop some ideas and basic definitions using σ −∈
curve of the mild steel.
Structural steel = mild steel = 0.2% carbon=low carbon steel
Region OA
(1) σ and ∈ linearly proportional.
(2) A Proportional limit
p
σ  proportionality is maintained.
(3) Slope of AO = modulus of elasticity “E” – N/m
2
,Pa
(4) Strains are infinites ional.
f o
o
L L
L
−
∈=
Solid Mechanics
Region AB
(1) Strain increases more rapidly than σ
(2) Elastic in this range
Proportionality is lost.
Region BC
(1) The slope at point B is horizontal.
(2) At this point B, ∈ increases without increase in further
load. I.e no noticeable change in load.
(3) This phenomenon is known as yielding
(4) The point B is said to be yield points, the corresponding
stress is yield stress
ys
σ of the steel.
(5) In region BC material becomes “perfectly plastic i.e
which means that it deforms without an increase in the
applied load.
(6) Elongation of steel specimen or ∈ in the region BC is
typically 10 to 20 times the elongation that occurs in region
OA.
(7)
s
∈ below the point A are said to be small, and
s
∈ above A
are said to be large.
(8)
s A
∈ <∈ are said to be elastic strains and
A
∈>∈ are said to
be plastic strains = large strains = deformations are
permanent.
Solid Mechanics
Region CD
(1)The steel begins to “strain harden” at “C” . During strain
hardening the material under goes changes in its crystalline
structure, resulting in increased resistance to the
deformation.
(2)Elongation of specimen in this region requires additional
load,
∴ σ −∈ diagram has + ve slope C to D.
(3) The load reaches maximum value – ultimate stress.
(4)The yield stress and ultimate stress of any material is also
known as yield strength and the ultimate strength .
(5)
u
σ is the highest stress the component can take up.
RegionDE
Further stretching of the bar is needed less force than
ultimate force, and finally the component breaks into two
parts at E.
Solid Mechanics
Look of actual stress strain diagrams
CtoE BtoC Oto A
∈ >∈ >∈
(1) Strains from O to A are
so small in comparison to the
strains from A to E that they
cannot be seen.
(2) The presence of well defined
yield point and subsequent large
plastic strains are characteristics of mild – steel.
(3) Metals such a structural steel that undergo large
permanent strains before failure are classified as ductile
metals.
Ex. Steel, aluminum, copper, nickel, brass, bronze,
magnesium, lead etc.
Aluminum alloys – Offset method
(1) They do not have clear cut yield point.
(2) They have initial straight line portion with clear
proportional limit.
(3) All does not have obvious
yield point, but undergoes
large permanent strains after
proportional limit.
(4) Arbitrary yield stress is
Solid Mechanics
determined by off set method.
(5) Offset yield stress is not material property
Elasticity & Plasticity
(1) The property of a material by which it (doesn’t) returns to
its original dimensions during unloading is called (plasticity)
elasticity and the material is said to be elastic (plastic).
(2) For most of the metals proportional limit = elastic limit.
(3) For practical purpose proportional limit = elastic limit =
yield stress
(4 )All metals have some amount of straight line portion.
Solid Mechanics
Brittle material in tension
(1) Materials that fail in tension at relatively low values of
strain are classified or brittle materials.
(2) Brittle materials fail with only little elongation (elastic)
after the proportional limit.
(3)Fracture stress = Ultimate stress for brittle materials
(4)Up to B, i.e fracture strains are elastic.
(5)No plastic deformation in case of brittle materials.
Ex. Concrete, stone, cast iron, glass, ceramics
Ductile metals under compression
Solid Mechanics
(1) σ −∈ curves in compression differ from σ −∈ in tension.
(2)For ductile materials, the proportional limit and the initial
portion of the σ −∈ curve is same in tension and
compression.
(3)After yielding starts the behavior is different for tension
and compression.
(4)In tension after yielding – specimen elongates – necking
and fractures or rupture. In compression – specimen bulges
out with increasing load the specimen is flattened out and
offers greatly increased resistance.
Brittle materials in compression
(1)Curves are similar both in tension and compression
(2)The proportional limit and ultimate stress i.e fracture
stress are different.
(3)In case of compression both are greater than tension case
(4)Brittle material need not have linear portion always they
can be nonlinear also.
Solid Mechanics
11. Generalized Hooke’s Law
(1) A material behaves elastically and also exhibits a linear
relationship between σ and ∈ is said to be linearly elastic.
(2) All most all engineering materials are linearly elastic up
to their corresponding proportional limit.
(3) This type of behavior is extremely important in
engineering – all structures designed to operate within this
region.
(4) Within this region, we know that either in tension or
compression
E
Stressinparticular direction straininthat dir. X E
σ = ∈
=
E =Modulus of elasticity –Pa,N / m
2
= Young’s modulus of elasticity.
(5)
x x
E σ = ∈ or
y y
E σ = ∈
(6) E σ = ∈ is known as Hooke’s law.
(7) Hooke’s law is valid up to the proportional limit or
within the linear elastic zone.
Solid Mechanics
Poisson’s ratio
When a prismatic bar is loaded in tension the axial
elongation is accompanied by lateral contraction.
Lateral contraction or lateral strain
f o
o
d d
d
−
′
∈= this comes out to be –ve
( )
lateral strain
Poisson's ratio = nu
axial strain
is perpendicular to
ν
′
−∈
=− =
∈
′
∈ ∈
If a bar is under tension ∈ +ve, ′ ∈ ve and ν = +
If a bar is under compression ∈ ve, ′ ∈ +ve and ν = +
ν =always +ve = material constant
For most metals . to . s ν = 0 25 0 35
Concrete . to . ν = 0 1 0 2
Rubber . ν = 0 5
ν is same for tension and compression
ν is constant within the linearly elastic range.
Solid Mechanics
Hooks law in shear
(1)To plot ,Y τ the test is twisting
of hollow circular tubes
(2) ,Y τ diagrams are (shape of them) similar in shape to
tension test diagrams
( )
Vs σ ∈ for the same material,
although they differ in magnitude.
(3)From Y τ − diagrams also we can obtain material
properties proportional limit, modulus of elasticity, yield
stress and ultimate stress.
(4)Properties are usually ½ of the tension properties.
(5)For many materials, the initial part o the shear stress
diagram is a st. line through the origin just in case of tension.
GY τ =  Hooke’s law in shear
G =Shear modulus of elasticity or modulus of rigidity.
Pa or N / m s =
2
Proportional limit
Elastic limit
Yield stress
Ultimate stress
Material properties
τ
ϒ
Proportional limit
G
1
Yield point
Solid Mechanics
E, v, and G → material properties – elastic constants  elastic
properties.
Basic assumptions solid mechanics
Fundamental assumptions of linear theory of elasticity are:
(a) The deformable body is a continuum
(b) The body is homogeneous
(c) The body is linearly elastic
(d) The body is isotropic
(e) The body undergoes small deformations.
Continuum
Completely filling up the region of space with matter it
occupies with no empty space.
Because of this assumption quantities like
( )
( )
( )
u u x, y, z
x, y, z
x, y, z
σ σ
=
=
∈=∈
Homogeneous
Elastic properties do not vary from point to point. For non
homogenous body
( )
( )
( )
E E x, y, z
v v x, y, z
G G x, y, z
=
=
=
Solid Mechanics
Linearly elastic
Material follows Hooke’s law
E
GY
v Constant
σ
τ
= ∈
=
=
Isotropic
Material properties are same in all directions at a point in the
body
E C for all
C for all
G C for all
θ
ν θ
θ
=
=
=
1
2
3
The meaning is that
x x
y y
E
E
σ
σ
= ∈
= ∈
The material that is not isotropic is anisotropic
( )
( )
( )
E E
G G
θ
ν ν θ
θ
=
=
=
The meaning is that
x x
y y
E
E
E E
σ
σ
= ∈
= ∈
≠
1
2
1 2
Solid Mechanics
Small deformations
(a) The displacements must be small
(b) The strains must also be small
Generalized Hooke’s law for isotropic material
We know the following quantities from the tension and
shear testing.
E
Tensiletest
v
σ = ∈
¹
¦
′
∈ `
= −
¦
) ∈
GY τ =  Shear test or torsion test.
What are the stress –strain relation for an element subjected
to 3D state of stress. i.e what is the generalized Hooke’s law.
Hooke’s law – when only one stress is acting
Generalized Hooke’s law – when more than one stress acting
We assume that
Material is linearly elastic, Homogeneous, Continuum,
undergoing small deformations and isotropic.
For an isotropic material the following are true
(1)Normal stress can only generate normal strains.
 Normal stresses for reference xyz cannot produce Y of this
reference
Solid Mechanics
(2)A shear stress say
xy
τ can only produce the corresponding
shear strain
xy
Y in the same coordinate system.
Principal of superposition:
This principle states that the effect of a given combined loading on
a structure can be obtained by determining separately the effects of
the various loads individually and combining the results obtained,
provided the following conditions are satisfied.
(1)Each effect is linearly related to the load that produces it.
(2)The deformations must be small.
Solid Mechanics
Let us know consider only
x
σ is applied to the element.
From Hooke’s we can write
x
x
x
y
x
z
E
v
E
v
E
σ
σ
σ
∈ =
∈ = −
∈ = −
Solid Mechanics
Only
y
σ applied
y
y
y
x
y
z
E
v
E
v
E
σ
σ
σ
∈ =
∈ = −
∈ = −
Similarly,
z
σ alone is applied
z
z
z
x
z
y
E
v
E
v
E
σ
σ
σ
∈ =
∈ = −
∈ = −
Contribution to
x
∈ due to all three normal stresses is
y
x
x
v
v
E E E
σ
σ σ
∈ = − −
3
( )
( )
( )
x x y z
y y x z
x z x y
Therefore
v
E
v
E
v
E
σ σ σ
σ σ σ
σ σ σ
(
∈ = − +
¸ ¸
(
∈ = − +
¸ ¸
(
∈ = − +
¸ ¸
1
1
1
Normal strains are not affected by shear stresses
Solid Mechanics
Now let us apply only
xy
τ
xy
xy
Y
G
τ
=
Similarly because of
yz xz
and τ τ
yz
yz
xz
xz
Y
G
Y
G
τ
τ
=
=
Therefore, when all six components of stresses and strains
are acting on an infinitesimal element or at a point then the
relation between six components of stresses and strains is
( )
( )
( )
x x y z
y y x z
x z x y
xy
xy
yz
yz
xz
xz
v
E
v
E
v
E
Y
G
Y
G
Y
G
σ σ σ
σ σ σ
σ σ σ
τ
τ
τ
(
∈ = − +
¸ ¸
(
∈ = − +
¸ ¸
(
∈ = − +
¸ ¸
=
=
=
1
1
1
These six equations are known as generalized Hooke’s law for
isotropic materials.
Solid Mechanics
Matrix representation of generalized Hooke’s law for
isotropic materials is therefore,
x x
y y
z z
xy xy
yz yz
xz xz
v v
E E E
v v
E E E
v v
E E E
Y
G
Y
Y
G
G
σ
σ
σ
τ
τ
τ
− −
(
(
(
− −
∈ (
¦ ¹ ¦ ¹
(
¦ ¦ ¦ ¦
∈
(
¦ ¦ ¦ ¦
− −
(
¦ ¦ ¦ ¦
∈
¦ ¦ ¦ ¦
(
=
´ ` ´ `
(
¦ ¦ ¦ ¦
(
¦ ¦ ¦ ¦
(
¦ ¦ ¦ ¦
(
¦ ¦ ¦ ¦
¹ ) ¹ )
(
(
(
¸ ¸
1
0 0 0
1
0 0 0
1
0 0 0
1
0 0 0 0 0
1
0 0 0 0 0
1
0 0 0 0 0
Stress components in terms of strains
( ) ( )
( )
x y z x y z x y z
x y z
v
s
E E
v
e
E
σ σ σ σ σ σ
σ σ σ
∈ +∈ +∈ = + + − + +
−
(
= + +
(
¸ ¸
1 2
1 2
x y z
e ∈ +∈ +∈ =
( )
x x x y z
v v
E
σ σ σ σ
(
∈ = − − +
¸ ¸
1
( )
x x y z x
v v
E
σ σ σ σ σ
(
= − + + +
¸ ¸
1
( )
( )
x x y z
v v
E
σ σ σ σ
(
= + − + +
¸ ¸
1
1
Solid Mechanics
( )
( )
( )
( )
x
veE
v
E v
v ve
E v
σ
σ
(
= + −
(
−
¸ ¸
× +
= −
−
1
1
1 2
1
1 2
x x
ve E
v v
σ
(
∴ = ∈ +
(
− + ¸ ¸ 1 2 1
E
v
µ =
+ 1
(mu) where
( )( )
Ev
v v
λ =
+ − 1 1 2
,
λ µ are Lames constants
x x
y y
z z
xy xy xy
xy yz yz
xy zx zx
e
e
e
Y G Y
Y G Y
Y G Y
σ λ µ
σ λ µ
σ λ µ
τ µ
τ µ
τ µ
= +∈
= +∈
= +∈
= =
= =
= =
2
2
2
Lame’s constants have no physical meaning
Stressstrain relations for plane stress
Solid Mechanics
( )
( )
( )
x x
y y
xy xy
z yz zx
x, y
x, y
x, y
σ σ
σ
τ τ
σ τ τ
=
=∈
=
= = = 0
( )
( )
( ) ( )
x x y
y y x
z x y x y
xy
xy
yz xz
v
E
v
E
v v
E v
Y
G
Y Y
σ σ
σ σ
σ σ
τ
∈ = −
∈ = −
−
∈ = − + = ∈ +∈
−
=
= =
1
1
1
0
Stress strain relations for plane strain
( )
( )
( )
x x
y y
xy xy
xz yz
x y
x, y
x, y
Y Y x, y
Y Y
e
∈ =∈
∈ =∈
=
∈ = = =
=∈ +∈
3
0
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
x x x
y y y
z x y z
x y
e x, y
e x, y
v x, y
v e e
ve
v
σ λ µ σ
σ λ µ σ
σ σ σ σ
λ µ
λ µ
λ µ
= + ∈ =
= + ∈ =
= − + =
= − +
= − +
= − + ∈ +∈
2
2
2
xy xy
xz yz
GY τ
τ τ
=
= = 0
Solid Mechanics
• Therefore, the stress transformation equations for plane
stress can also be used for the stresses in plane strain.
• The transformation laws for plane strain can also be
used for the strains in plane stress.
z
∈ does not effect
geometrical relationships used in derivation.
Example of Generalized Hooke’s law
Principal stress and strain directions of
isotropic materials
τ is zero along those planes,
therefore Y is also zero along these planes
i.e normal strains of the element are
principal strains. For isotropic materials 
the principal strains and
principal stresses occurs in the same direction.
σ λ µ
(
∈ = − − ∈
¸ ¸
x x y
v e v
E
1
σ σ =
x y
2
σ σ
σ λ µ
σ σ
σ λ µ
(
∈ = −
¸ ¸
= + ∈
(
∈ = −
¸ ¸
= + ∈
x x y
x x
y y x
y y
v
E
e
v
E
e
1
1
σ σ = −
x y
σ σ
σ
(
∈ = +
¸ ¸
+
 
=

\ .
x x y
x
v
E
v
E
1
1
Solid Mechanics
12. Volumetric strain and Bulk modulus
Relation between E, andG ν
( )
( )
xy
xy
v
E
v
E
σ τ σ σ
σ τ σ σ
= ∈ = −
= − ∈ = −
1 1 1 2
2 2 2 1
1
1
( )
( )
( )
xy
xy xy
xy
xy xy
xy
xy
v
v
E E
v
E
Y
G
G
τ
τ τ
τ
τ
τ
+
∈ = + =
− +
∈ =
∈ =∈ = =
−
∈ =
1
2
1
2
1
1
1
2 2
2
( )
xy xy
v
E G
τ τ +
= ¬
1
2
( )
E
G
v
=
+ 2 1
Only two elastic constants are independent.
Solid Mechanics
Volumetric straindilatation
Consider a stress element size dx,dy,dz
dv dxdydz =
After deformations
( )
( )
( )
*
x
*
y
*
z
dx dx
dy dy
dz dz
= +∈
= +∈
= +∈
1
1
1
In addition to the changes of length of the sides, the element
also distorts so that right angles no longer remain sight
angles. For simplicity consider only
xy
Y .
The volume
*
dv of the deformed element is then given by
( )
* * * * *
dv Area OA B C dz = ×
( ) ( )
* * * * *
xy
* *
xy
Area OA B C dx dy CosY
dx dy CosY
=
=
* * * *
xy
dv dx dy dz CosY ∴ =
For small
xy xy
Y CosY ≈ 1
( )
( )
( )
* * * *
x y z
dv dx dy dz Volumechange doesn't dependonY
dxdydz
∴ = −
= +∈ +∈ +∈ 1 1 1
dropping all second order infinitesimal terms
Solid Mechanics
( )
*
x y z
dv dxdydz = +∈ +∈ +∈ 1
Now, analogous to normal strain, we define the measure of
volumetric strain as
final volumeinitial volume
Volumetric strain
initialvolume
=
*
dv dv
e
dv
−
=
x y z
e =∈ +∈ +∈
• e =volumetric strain = dilatation. This expression is
valid only for infinitesimal strains and rotations
•
x y z
e J first invariance of strain. =∈ +∈ +∈ = =
1
• Volumetric strain is scalar quantity and does not
depend on orientation of coordinate system.
• Dilatation is zero for state of pure shear.
Bulk modulus of elasticity
( )
( )
x y z x y z
v
E
σ σ σ
−
∈ +∈ +∈ = + +
1 2
Mean stress
( )
x y z
σ σ σ σ = = + +
1
3
( ) v
e
E
σ
−
=
3 1 2
Ke σ =
Solid Mechanics
Where
( )
E
K
v
=
− 3 1 2
bulk modulus of elasticity.
• Bulk modulus is widely used in fluid mechanics.
• From physical reasoning E ,G ,K > > ≥ 0 0 0
Steel : E = 200 Gpa
v = 0.3
Al : E = 70 Gpa
v = 0.33
Copper: E = 100 Gpa
v = 0.35
( )
( )
E
G SinG Eand G
v
v v
= >
+
+ > → > −
0
2 1
1 0 1
Similarly SinG E & K > ≥ 0 0
( )
E
K v v .
v
= → − ≥ → ≤
−
1 2 0 0 5
3 1 2
∴ Theoretical bounds on v are
v . − < ≤ 1 0 5
asv . K α → → 0 5 and 0 C → material is incompressible.
Solid Mechanics
13. Axially loaded members
Solid Mechanics
Geometry, locating and material properties
• A prismatic bar is subjected to axial loading
• A prismatic bar is a st. structural member having
constant crosssection through out it length.
• Bar or rod →length of the member is > cross sectional
dimensions.
Axial force is a load directed along the axis of the member –
can create tension or compression in the member.
Typical cross sections of the members
 Solid Sections
 Hollow Sections
Solid Mechanics
Material properties: The member is homogenous linearly
elastic and isotropic material.
Stresses, strains and deformations
Consider a prismatic bar of constant crosssectional area A
and length L, with material properties A & v. Let the rod be
subjected to an axial force “p”, which acts along xaxis.
x y z
y z
F P
M M M
V V
=
= = =
= =
0
0
The right of the section mm exerts elementary forces or
stresses on to the left of the section to maintain the
equilibrium. Sum of all these elementary forces must be
equal to the resultant F.
 Other sections
Solid Mechanics
x
A
y x
z x
dA F
M zdA
M ydA
σ
σ
σ
=
= =
= − =
}
}
}
0
0
Above equation must be satisfied at every crosssection,
however, it does not tell how
x
σ is distributed in the cross
section.
The distribution cannot determine by the methods of static
or equations of equilibrium statically indeterminate
To know about the distribution of
x
σ in any given section, it is
necessary to consider the deformations resulting from the
application of loads.
Since the body needs to develop only
x
σ component in order
to maintain equilibrium, therefore the state of stress at any
point of prismatic rod is
x
ij
σ
σ
(
(
(
=
¸ ¸
(
(
¸ ¸
0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
Solid Mechanics
We make the following assumptions on deformation based
on experimental evidence
(1)The axis of the bar remains straight after
deformation
(2)All plane crosssections remain plane and
perpendicular to the axis of the bar
Key
kinematical
assumptions
• As a result of the above kinematic assumptions all
points in a given yz plane have the same displacements
in the xdirection.
• Any line segment AB undergoes same strain
x
∈ therefore
x
∈ cannot be a function of y or z, but at most is a function
of x only.
In the present case situation is same at all crosssections of
the prismatic bar, therefore
x
Constant ∈ =
at all points of the body i.e
x
∈ is also no a function of x.
Solid Mechanics
Since we are studying a homogenous, linearly elastic and
isotropic prismatic bar
( )
( )
( )
x x y z
y y x z
z z x y
v
E
v
E
v
E
σ σ σ
σ σ σ
σ σ σ
(
∈ = − − →
¸ ¸
(
∈ = − − →
¸ ¸
(
∈ = − − →
¸ ¸
1
1
1
In the present case,
x
∈ is independent of y and z coordinates,
therefore
x
σ is also independent of y and z coordinates i.e
x
σ is uniformly distributed in a crosssection
Moreover throughout the bar.
We know that internal resultant force
x
A
F dA σ =
}
Since
x
σ is a independent of y & z
x
x
y x
z x
E
V
E
V
E
σ
σ
σ
∈ =
∈ = −
∈ = −
x x
E Constant σ = ∈ =
Solid Mechanics
A
F da A σ σ = =
}
∴
F P
A A
σ = =
y x
A A
z x
A A
M .zdA zdA
M .ydA ydA
σ
σ
= = ¬ =
= − = ¬ =
} }
} }
0 0
0 0
(1)
Eq. (1) indicates that moment are taken about the centroid of
the crosssection.
Elongation or Contraction
x
x
P
E AE
σ
∈ = =
Total elongation of the rod
( ) ( )
L L
x
P PL
u L u da dx
AE AE
δ − = = ∈ = =
} }
0 0
0
Solid Mechanics
x
P
A
PL
AE
AE Axial rigidity
σ
δ
=
=
=
If A,E and P are functions of x then
( )
( ) ( )
L
P x
dx
A x E x
δ =
}
0
Stiffness and flexibility
These are useful in computer analysis of structural members.
k
f
=
1
AE
k
L
=
L
f
AE
=
P kS
S fP
=
=
Solid Mechanics
Extension of results: Nonuniform bars (nonprismatic)
For a prismatic bar
This is exact solution for prismatic bar.
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
x
L
P x F x
A x A x
P x
S dx
A x E x
Approximate expression
σ = =
=
}
0
The above formula becomes a good approximation for
uniformly varying crosssectional area ( ) A x member.
Above formula is quite satisfactory if the angle of taper is
small
Plane sections remain plane and perpendicular to the x axis
is no longer valid for the case of nonprismatic rods.
x
P PL
&
A AE
σ δ = =
Solid Mechanics
( ) ( )
x x yx
F b y b x Σ σ τ = ¬ ∆ − ∆ = 0 0
( )
xy yx x
y
x . s
x
τ τ σ
∆
= =
∆
Taking x ∆ →0, we note that
yx
τ →0 only if
y
x
∆
→
∆
0 i.e at the
slope of the upper surface of the rod tends to zero.
Solid Mechanics
Case2
( )
A B
BC
A
AB
P P L PL
AE A E
PL P L
AE A E
δ
δ
− +
= =
−
= =
2
2 2
1
1 1
( )
A B
BC
AB A
P P
A
P / A
σ
σ
+
= −
= −
2
1
CA BC AB
S S δ = +
This method can be used when a bar consists of several
prismatic segments each having different material, each
having different axial forces, different dimensions and
different materials. The change in length may be obtained
from the equation
n
i i i
i
i i i
i
PL P
and
A E A
δ σ
=
= =
¿
1
Solid Mechanics
Statically indeterminate problems
Equilibrium
y
a a s
F
F F F P
Σ
(
=
¸ ¸
+ + − =
1 2
0
0
[ ]
C
a a
M
bF bF
Σ =
− =
1 2
0
0
(1)
For statically indeterminate problems we
must consider the deformation of the
entire system to obtain “compatibility
equation”
The rigid plate must be horizontal
after deformation
s A
geometric compatibility equation δ δ = ¬
s s A A
s A
s s A A
F L F L
and
A E E A
δ δ = =
Then using the geometry compatibility
(2)
a a
F F =
1 2
a s
F F P + = 2
s A
δ δ = ¬
A A s As
A A s s
F L F L
E A E A
=
Solid Mechanics
By solving (1) & (2) we can obtain internal forces
s
F &
A
F
Stresses in axially loaded members
Uniaxial state stress is a special case of plane stress
x
ij
σ
σ
(
(
=
(
¸ ¸
¸ ¸
0
0 0
x
x
max
σ σ
σ σ
τ
=
= =
1
1
2 2
Occurs at 45
to x y − or x z − planes.
Solid Mechanics
A−Principal stress elements
B,C −maximum shear stress elements.
Ductile material are weak in shear. They fail along
max
τ
planes.
Brittle materials weak in normal tensile stresses. They fail
along σ
1
planes.
Limitations of analysis
x
P PL
& S
A AE
σ = =
(1)They are exact for long prismatic bars of any crosssection,
when axial force is applied at the centroid of the end cross
sections.
Solid Mechanics
(2)They should not be employed (especially
x
P
A
σ = ) at
concentrated loads and in the regions of geometric
discontinuity.
(3)They provide good approximation if the taper is small.
(4)Above equations should not be applied for the case of
relatively short rods.
(5)They are exact for relatively short members under
compressive loading.
Solid Mechanics
Stress concentrations
• High stresses are known as stress concentrations
• Sources of stress concentrations stress raisers
• Stress concentrations are due to :
(1)Concentrated loads
(2)Geometric discontinuities
Stress concentration due to concentrated loads
max
ave
nom
Stress concentration factor=K
P
bt
σ
σ
σ
=
=
Solid Mechanics
Stress concentration due to hole
Discontinuities of cross section may result in high localized
or concentrated stresses.
max
nom
nom
P
K
dt
K Stressconcentration factor
σ
σ
σ
= =
=
Solid Mechanics
Stress Concentration due to fillet
max
ave
ave
P
K
dt
σ
σ
σ
= =
Solid Mechanics
14. Torsion of circular bars
Geometry, loading and Material properties
A prismatic bar of circular cross section subjected to equal
and opposite torques acting at the ends.
Whenever torques act on a member, then it will be twisted.
Torsion refers to the twisting of a straight bar when it is
loaded by torques.
Material: Homogeneous, linearly elastic, and isotropic
undergoing small deformations.
Presently theory is valid only for
Stresses and strains in polar coordinates
Stresses, strains and displacements in polar coordinates.
Since we are dealing with a circular member it is preferable
to use polar coordinates
Solid Mechanics
r r rx
ij r x
xr x x
θ
θ θ θ
θ
σ τ τ
σ τ σ τ
τ τ σ
(
(
(
=
¸ ¸
(
(
¸ ¸
( )
( )
( )
x x r
r r x
x r x
rQ
x rx
r x x xr rx
v
E
v
E
v
E
Y ; Y Y ; Y Y
G G G
θ
θ
θ
θ θ θ
σ σ σ
σ σ σ
σθ σ σ
τ
τ τ
∈ = − + (
¸ ¸
∈ = − + (
¸ ¸
∈ = − + (
¸ ¸
= = = = =
1
1
1
Equilibrium and elementary forces
Since every crosssection of the bar is identical and since every
crosssection is subjected to the same internal torque “T”, then the
bar is said to be under “pure torsion”
To keep the body under
equilibrium, elementary forces
x
dF dA
θ
τ = are only forces that are
required to be exerted by the other
section, so that
x y z y z
x
F V V M M
M T T
= = = = =
= =
0
0
Solid Mechanics
(1)
Direction of
zθ
τ can be obtained from the direction of
internal torque T at that section.
The state of stress in pure torsion is therefore
While the relation in (1) express an important condition that
must be satisfied by the shearing stresses
xQ
τ in any given
crosssection of the bar it does not tell how these stresses are
distributed in the crosssection.
The actual distribution of stresses under a given load is
statically indeterminate. So we must know about the
deformation of the bar.
Presence of
xθ
τ in polar coordinates means, presence of
xy xQ
xz xQ
Cos
Sin
τ τ θ
τ τ θ
=
=
x
x
A
dT dF r rdA
T rdA
T T
θ
θ
σ
τ
= × =
=
=
}
0
x
x
θ
θ
τ
τ
(
(
(
(
¸ ¸
0 0 0
0 0
0 0
Solid Mechanics
Therefore the state of stress in case pure torsion in terms of
rectangular stress components is then
xy xz
yx
zx
τ τ
τ
τ
(
(
(
(
¸ ¸
0
0 0
0 0
 state of pure shear.
We must then ensure that
Deformation in pure torsion
Following observations can be made from the deformation of
a circular bar subjected to equal and opposite end torques.
(1)The crosssections of the bar do not change in shape i.e
they remain circular.
(2)A line parallel to the x axis or longitudinal line become a
helical curve.
(3)All crosssections remain plane.
(4)All crosssections rotate about the axis of the bar as a solid
rigid slab.
y xy
z xz
V dA
V dA
τ
τ
= =
= =
}
}
0
0
Solid Mechanics
(5)However, various crosssections along the bar rotate
through different amount.
(6)The radial lines remain radial lines after deformation
(7)Neither the length of the bar nor the length of radius will
change.
These are especially of circular bars only. Not true for non
circular bars.
Assumptions on deformation for pure torsion
(1)All cross –sections rotate with respect to the axis of the
circular bar i.e xaxis.
(2)All crosssections remain plane and remain perpendicular
to the axis of the bar.
(3)Radial lines remain straight after the deformation.
(4)Neither the length of the bar nor its radius will change
during the deformation.
These assumptions are correct only if the circular bar
undergoes “small deformations” only.
Variation of shear strain (
x
Y
θ
)
Because of T
0
, the right
end will rotate through
an infinitesimal angle
φ  angle of twist.
Solid Mechanics
*φ  varies along the axis of the bar.
angle of twist per unit length.
xQ
Y dx Ydx rdφ = =
d
dx
φ
= − ¸ rate of twist
xQ
Y is independent of x and
d
Y r
dx
φ
=
Solid Mechanics
In case of pure torsion the shear strain Y varies linearly with
“r”
Maximum shear strain Y occurs at the outer surface of the
circular bar i.e., r R =
Shear strain is zero at the center of the bar.
The equation
d
Y r
dx
φ
= is strictly valid to circular bars having
small deformations.
If the material is linearly elastic
Therefore, variation of shear stress
xQ
τ in pure torsion is
given by
Shear stress τ is only function of “r” and varies linearly with
radius r of the circular bar.
max
d
Y R
dx
φ
=
GY τ =
xQ xQ
d
GY GY
dx
φ
τ τ = = =
max
max xQ
d
RG
dx
φ
τ τ = =
Solid Mechanics
The torsion formula
Relation between internal torque T and shear stressτ
A
T rdA
d
T Gr rdA
dx
τ
φ
=
=
}
}
Since G &
d
dx
φ
are independent of area A then
A
d
T G r dA
dx
φ
=
}
2
For solid circular bar,
P
d
T GI
dx
φ
∴ =
∴
But
d
Gr
dx
φ
τ =
P
T
Gr GI
τ
=
P
A
I r dA
Polar moment of inertiaof across sec tion
=
−
}
2
P
I D
π
=
4
32
P
I R
π
=
4
2
P
d T
dx GI
φ
= = ¸
P
Tr
I
Torsion formula
τ =
Solid Mechanics
This is the relation between shear stresses
xQ
τ and torque T
existing at the section.
Torsion formula is independent of material property.
Angles of twist
We now determine the relative rotation of any two cross
sections
P
d T
dx GI
φ
= = ¸
max
max xQ
P
TR
I
τ τ = =
max
T
D
for solidcircular bars
τ
π
=
3
16
B
A
x
B / A B A
P
x
T
dx
GI
φ φ φ = − =
}
Solid Mechanics
In case of prismatic circular bar subjected to equal opposite
torques at the ends
Direction of φ at a section is same as that of T
Since
P
d T
dx GI
φ
= = ¸ then, in case of pure torsion.
Thus in case of pure torsion ( ) x φ varies linearly with x
In case of torsion
The product
Load
displacement
P
GI −Torsional rigidity
B / A B A
P
B A
TL
n
GI
if x x L
puretorsion
φ φ φ = − =
− =
P P
TL T L
GI GI
φ = =
0
d
constant
dx L
φ φ
= = = ¸
P
TL
GI
φ =
P
P
GI L
k ; f
L GI
= =
Solid Mechanics
xy xQ
xz xQ
Cos
Sin
τ τ θ
τ τ θ
=
=
We should ensure that distribution of
xQ
τ should also gives
y z
V V = = 0
y xy x
A A
R
y
P
R
P
V dA Cos dA
Tr
V Cos drd
I
T
rCos drd
I
θ
π
π
τ τ θ
θ θ
θ θ
= =
=
= =
} }
} }
} }
2
0 0
2
0 0
0
R
z
P
T
V rSin drd
I
π
θ θ = =
} }
2
0 0
0
Hollow circular bars: The deformation of hollow circular
bars and solid circular bars are same. The key kinematic
assumptions are valid for any circular bar, either solid or
hollow. Therefore all equations of solid circular bars can be
employed for hollow circular bars, instead of using
y
V = 0
∴
z
V = 0 ∴
Solid Mechanics
Hollow bars are move efficient than solid bars of same “A”.
• Most of the material in soild shaft is stressed below the
maximum stress and also have smaller moment arm “r”.
• In hollow tube most of the material is near the outer
boundary, where τ is maximum values and has large
moment arms “r”.
( )
P
P
o i
Tr
I
I D solid
D D hollow
τ
π
π
=
= −
= − −
4
4 4
32
32
( )
P
P o i
I D Soild
I D D hollow
π
π
= −
= − −
4
4 4
32
32
o
max
P
i
min
P
TR
I
TR
I
τ
τ
=
=
Solid Mechanics
o
max
P P
i
min
P
TR TR
;
I I
TR
I
τ
τ
=
=
( )
Y
G
,Y f r
τ
τ
=
−
P
d T
dx GI
φ
= = ¸
B A
B / A
P
B A
TL
GI
L x x
constant
linearly withx
φ φ φ
φ
= − =
= −
=
=
¸
(4) If weight reduction and savings of materials are
important, it is advisable to use a circular tube.
(5) Ex large drive shafts, propeller shafts, and generator
shafts usually have hollow circular cross sections.
Extension of results
CaseI Bar with continuously varying crosssections and
continuously varying torque
• Pure torsion refers to torsion of prismatic bar subjected
to torques acting only at the ends.
Solid Mechanics
• All expressions are developed based on the key
kinematic assumptions, these are therefore, strictly valid
only for prismatic circular bars.
The above equations yield good approximations to the exact
solution, provide if ( ) R x doesn’t vary sharply with x.
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
B
A
P
P
x
B A B / A
P
x
T x r
x
I x
T x d
x
dx GI x
T x
dx
GI x
τ
φ
φ φ φ
=
= =
− = =
}
¸
Solid Mechanics
Some special cases
( )
( )
( )
( )
P
P
Tr
x
I x
T
x
GI x
τ =
= ¸
( )
( )
( )
( )
P
P
T x r
x
I
T x
x
GI
τ =
= ¸
Case II
i
i i
i
P
T r
I
τ =
i
n
i i
B / A
i P
i
T L
G I
φ
=
=
¿
1
Solid Mechanics
Statically indeterminate problems
(1)
We note that within
A
AB, T T = and
within
C
BC T T =
• To solve the problem we must consider geometry of
deformation to formulate the compatibility equation.
• Clearly the rotation of section B with respect to A must
be same as that with respect to C i.e
AB BC
A AB C BC
B / A B / C
AB P BC P
T L T L
;
G I G I
φ φ = =
(2)
A C
T T T + + = 0
[ ]
x
M Σ = 0
B / A B / C
Compatibility equation
φ φ =
AB BC
A AB C BC
AB P BC P
T L T L
G I G I
=
Solid Mechanics
Stresses in pure torsion
If a torsion bar is made up of brittle material, which is
generally weak in tension, failure will occur in tension along
a helix inclined at 45
to the axis.
Ductile materials generally fail in shear. When subjected to
torsion, a ductile circular bar breaks along a plane
perpendicular to its longitudinal axis or x – axis.
Solid Mechanics
x
P
A
σ =
Torsion testing m/c
Solid Mechanics
Combined loading or combined stress
Principal of
superposition
max
P
TR
I
τ =
x
P
A
σ =
Solid Mechanics
Stress concentrations in torsion
Stress concentration effect is greatest at section BB
avg nom
T
K K
D
τ τ τ
π
 
= = =

\ .
1
3
1
16
max avg nom
K K τ τ τ = =
Solid Mechanics
Limitations of torsion formulae
(1)The above solutions are exact for pure torsion of circular
members (solid or hollow section)
(2)Above equations can be applied to bars (solid or hollow)
with varying crosssections only when changes in ( ) R x are
small and gradual.
(3)Stresses determined from the torsion formula are valid in
regions of the bar away from stress concentrations, which are
high localized stresses that occur whenever diameter
changes abruptly and whenever concentrated torque are
applied.
(4)It is important to recognize that, the above equation
should not be used for bars of other shapes. Noncircular bars
under torsion are entirely different from circular bars.
P P P
Tr T TL d
, ; ;Y r
I GI GI dx
φ
τ φ = = = = ¸
Solid Mechanics
15. Symmetrical bending of beams
Some basics
• Transverse loads or lateral loads: Forces or moments
having their vectors perpendicular to the axis of the bar.
• Classification of structural members.
• Axially loaded bars : Supports forces having their
vectors directed along the axis of the bar.
• Bar in tension: Supports torques having their moment
vectors directed along the axis.
• Beams : Subjected to lateral loads.
• Beams undergo bending (flexure) because of lateral
loads.
Solid Mechanics
Roughly speaking, “bending” refers to a change in shape from
a straight configuration to a non straight configuration.
Bending moments i.e
z
M and
y
M are responsible for
bending of beams.
The loads acting on a beam cause the beam to bend or flex,
thereby deforming its axis into a curveknown as “
deflection curve” of the beam.
If all points inx y − plane remain in the xy − plane after
deformation i.e after bending then xy − plane is known as
“plane of bending”.
If a beam bend in a particular plane, then the deflection
curve is a plane curve lying in the plane of bending.
Solid Mechanics
The y −direction displacement [i.e. v −component] of any
point along its axis is known as the “deflection of the
beam”.
Pure bending and nonuniform bending
If the internal bending moment is constant at all sections
then beam is said to be under “pure bending”.
dM
V
dx
= −
Pure bending (i.e., M=constant) occurs only in regions of a beam
where the shear force is zero.
If ( ) M M x = it is non uniform bending
Solid Mechanics
Curvature of a beam
When loads are applied to the beam, if it bends in a plane
say xy −plane, then its longitudinal axis is deformed into a
curve.
O− Center of curvature
R− Radius of curvature
k
R
= =
1
Curvature
in general ( ) R R x = and ( ) k k x = .
RdQ dS =
dQ
k
R dS
= =
1
for any amount of R
The deflections of beams are very small under small
deformation condition. small deflections means that the
deflection curve is nearly flat.
under small deformations.
dQ
k
R dX
= =
1
Solid Mechanics
It is given that deflections at A and B should be zero.
Symmetrical bending of beams in a state of pure bending
Geometry, loading and material properties
A long prismatic member possess a plane of symmetry
subjected to equal and opposite couples M
0
(or bending
moments) acting in the same plane of symmetry.
Solid Mechanics
Initially we choose origin of the coordinate system “O” is
not at the centroid of the crosssection.
The y −axis passing through the crosssection is an axis of
symmetry. The XY plane is the plane of symmetry.
Material is homogeneous, linearly elastic and isotropic
undergoing small deformations.
Stresses in symmetric member in pure bending
x y z
x y
z
F V V
M M
M M M
= = =
= =
= =
0
0
0
Solid Mechanics
Therefore,
x
dA σ are the only elementary forces that are
required to be developed by right of the section on to the left
of the section.
The distribution of
X
σ any section should satisfy
x x
y x
z x
F dA
M z dA
M M y dA M
σ
σ
σ
= ¬ =
= ¬ =
= ¬ − =
}
}
}
0 0
0 0
Actual distribution of stresses  cannot by statics  statically
indeterminate  deformations should be considered.
Thus, the state of stress at any point within a prismatic beam
(crosssection having an axis of symmetry) subjected to pure
bending is a uniaxial state of stress.
x
M y dA σ = −
}
x
ij
σ
σ
(
(
(
=
¸ ¸
(
(
¸ ¸
0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
Solid Mechanics
Deformations in a symmetric member in pure bending
Since the member is subjected to bending moments, it will
bend under the action of these couples.
Since, the prismatic member possessing a plane of symmetry
(i.e xy plane) and subjected to equal and opposite couples
M
0
acting in the plane of symmetry, the member will bend
in the plane of symmetry (i.e xy plane).
The curvature k at a particular point on the axis of the beam
depends on the bending moment at that point. Therefore a
prismatic beam in pure bending will have constant
curvature.
The line AB, which was originally a straight line, will be
transformed in to a circle of center O and so the line A B ′ ′.
Solid Mechanics
Decrease in length of AB and increase in length of A B ′ ′ in
positive bending.
Crosssections which are plane and ⊥ to the axis of
the undeformed beam, remain plane and remain⊥ to
the axis of the deformed beam i.e to the deflection
curve.
Kinematic
assumption
Variation of strain and M κ − relation
Elementary theory of bending or EulerBernoulli theory
Under the action of M
0
, the beam deflects in the xy – plane
(plane of symmetry) and any longitudinal fibers such as SS
bent into a circular curve. The beam is bent concave upward
(due to +ve bending) upon which is a +ve curvature.
Solid Mechanics
Crosssections mn and pq remain plane and normal to the
longitudinal axis of the beam. Crosssections mn and pq
rotate with respect to each other about zaxis.
Lower part of the beam is intension and upper part is in
compression.
The x axis lies along the neutral surface of undeformed
beam
Variation of strain and Mk relations (contd.)
Initial length of fiber ef dx =
Final length of
( )
* *
ef e f R y dQ = = −
The distance dx between two planes is unchanged at the
neutral surface,
dQ
RdQ dx k
R dx
= ¬ = =
1
Solid Mechanics
Therefore, the longitudinal strain i.e
x
∈ at a distance “y”
from the neutral axis is
( )
* *
x
R y dQ dx e f ef y
ef dx R
− − − −
∈ = = =
In case of pure bending
( ) ( )
x x x x
x and z , y ∈ ≠∈ ∈ =∈
The preceding equation shows that the longitudinal strains
( )
x
∈ in the beam (in pure bending) are proportional to the
curvature and vary linearly with the distance y from the
neutral axis or neutral surface.
x
∈ = 0 at the neutral surface
Maximum compressive
x
y
R
−
∈ =
1
Maximum tensile
x
y
R
+
∈ =
2
However, we still do not know the location of neutral axis or
neutral surface.
x
y
R
∴ ∈ = − ¬
x
ky ∈ = −
Solid Mechanics
Stresses in beams in pure bending : For linearly elastic and
isotropic beam material
( )
xy
x x y z xy
v Y
E G
τ
σ σ σ
(
∈ = − + =
¸ ¸
1
( )
yz
y y x z yz
v Y
E G
τ
σ σ σ
(
∈ = − + =
¸ ¸
1
( )
zx
z z x y xz
v Y
E G
τ
σ σ σ
(
∈ = − + =
¸ ¸
1
The state of the stress at any point within a prismatic beam
in pure bending is
x
ij
σ
σ
(
(
(
=
¸ ¸
(
(
¸ ¸
0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
x x
Ey
E Eky
R
σ
−
∴ = ∈ = = −
y x x
z x x
V
V
E
V
V
E
σ
σ
∈ = − = − ∈
∈ = − = − ∈
From the above equation
( )
( ) ( )
x
x x x
x
x
x, z
y y
linear f ( y)
linear f ( y)
i.e., var ylinearly with the distance y from the neutral surface
σ σ
σ σ
σ
≠
= ∈ =∈
∈ =
∴ =
Solid Mechanics
x
σ at y = 0 i.e on the neutral surface = 0
Maximum compressive
x
EC
R
σ = −
1
Maximum tensile
x
EC
R
σ =
2
Maximum normal stress
x
σ occurs at the points farthest
from the neutral axis.
In order to compute the stresses and strain we must locate
the neutral axis of the crosssection.
Solid Mechanics
Location of neutral axis
We must satisfy the following equations at any given section
mm
Considering first equation
The above equation shows that the distance y between
neutral axis and centroid “C” of a crosssection is zero.
In other words, the neutral axis i.e zaxis pass through
the centroid of the crosssection, provided if the
material follows Hooke’s law.
x
x z
x y
dA
ydA M M M
zdA M
σ
σ
σ
=
− = = =
= =
}
}
}
0
0
0
x
A A
A
Ey
dA
R
ydA
σ = − =
=
} }
}
0
0
Solid Mechanics
The origin ‘O’ of coordinates is located at the centroid of the
crosssectional area.
Thus, when a prismatic beam of linearly elastic material is
subjected to pure bending, the y and z (neutral axis) axes are
principal centroidal axes.
Moment – Curvature relationship
Moment of inertia of
crosssectional area about
neutral axis
MomentCurvature relation
x
A
M ydA σ = −
}
A
Ey
M ydA
R
= +
}
A
E
M y dA
R
=
}
2
zz
A
y dA I = =
}
2
EI
M
R
∴ =
M
k
R EI
= =
1
M
k
R EI
= =
0
1
Solid Mechanics
Curvature k is directly proportional to M internal bending
moment and inversely proportional to EI flexural rigidity of
the beam.
Flexural rigidity is a measure of the resistance of a beam to
bending.
Relation between
x
σ and M Flexure formula
x
Eky σ = −
and
M
k
EI
=
 flexure formula.
Stresses evaluated from flexure formula are called bending
stresses or flexural stresses.
x
My
I
σ ∴ = −
Solid Mechanics
The maximum tensile and compressive bending stresses
occur at points located farthest from the neutral axis.
The maximum normal stresses are
Cross sectional properties of some common shapes
Section moduli
S =Section modulus
z − axis – neutral axis
MC M
I S
σ
−
= = −
1
1
1
MC M
I S
σ = =
2
2
2
I I
S and S
C C
= =
1 2
1 2
Solid Mechanics
zz
bh bh
I S = =
3 2
12 6
zz
d
I d S
π π
= =
3
4
64 32
zz
bh
I
h b / for eqilateral triangle
=
=
3
36
3 2
zz
I . r =
4
0 1098
Solid Mechanics
Distribution
x
σ on various crosssections
max
M
S
σ =
max
I
S
y
=
alllow
M S σ =
square
circle
S
.
S
= 1 18
Solid Mechanics
• This result shows that a beam of square crosssection is
more efficient in resisting bending then circular beam of
same area.
• A circle has a relatively larger amount of material
located near the neutral axis. This material is less highly
stresses.
• I  Section is more efficient then a rectangular cross
section of the same area and height, because I  section
has most of the material in the flanges at the greatest
available distance from the neutral axis.
Extension of results
Long prismatic beam under pure bending, and symmetrical
bending.
Elementary theory of bending
( ) M M x
M Constant
≠
=
( )
x
zz
My
y
I
I I
M
k
R EI
σ = −
=
= =
1
x
x
y x
z z
E
v
v
σ
∈ =
∈ = − ∈
∈ = − ∈
Solid Mechanics
Bending of beams due to applied lateral loads
Consider now a beam subjected to typical arbitrary
transverse loads acting. In this case the interval bending
moment ( ) M M x = and ( ) V x ≠ 0, and thus we have non
uniform bending.
Nonuniform bending is a result of presence of transverse shear
force
( )
V y . If
( )
V y = 0 then M = constant.
It can be shown that the above results can also be used for
nonuniform bending problems.
dM
V
dx
= −
( )
( )
( )
( )
x
M x y
x, y
I
M x
k
R x EI
σ
−
=
= =
1
( )
( )
x
x
y x
z x
x, y
x, y
E
σ
ν
ν
∈ =
∈ = − ∈
∈ = − ∈
Solid Mechanics
The above results can also be used for nonuniform bending
problems provided if they satisfy the following conditions.
• The crosssections should have yaxis of symmetry
• All applied transverse or lateral loads should lie in the
xy plane of symmetry and all applied couples act about
zaxis only.
• L h longslender beams − − >
• Bending that conforms to conditions (i) and (ii) is called
symmetrical bending.
If these three conditions are satisfied then one can employ
the following expressions for nonuniform bending aswell
Solid Mechanics
Application of above equations to the nonuniform bending
problems is equivalent to the following two assumptions.
(a)That even under such loading conditions, plane sections
still remain plane after deformation and they remain ⊥ to
the deformed longitudinal axis or neutral surface.
Bending stresses in a nonprismatic beam
The above equation can also be applied to the case of non
prismatic beam subjected to either pure or nonuniform
bending, provided crosssectional properties do not vary
sharply.
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
x
zz
M x y
x, y
I
I I
M x
k x
R x EI
σ = −
=
= =
1
( )
( )
( )
x
x
y x
z z
x, y
E
x, y v
x, y v
σ
∈ =
∈ = − ∈
∈ = − ∈
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
x
M x y
I x
M x
k x
R x EI x
σ = −
= =
1
Solid Mechanics
Problem
Determine the maximum tensile and compressive stresses in
the beam due to the uniform load.
Solution
Centroid :
2
A mm
y
3
yA mm
1
× = 20 90 1800
50
×
3
90 10
2
× = 40 30 1200
20
×
3
24 10
A A Σ = = 3000
yA Σ = ×
3
114 10
Ay yA Σ =
y = × ¬
3
3000 114 10 ¬
y mm = 38
( )
zz
I I I Ad s Σ = = +
2
bh
Ad Σ
 
= +

\ .
= × + × + × × + ×
3
2
3 2 2 2
12
1 1
90 20 1800 12 30 40 1200 18
12 12
4 4
zz
I I mm m
−
= = × = ×
3 9
868 10 868 10
Solid Mechanics
C mm =
1
22 and C mm =
2
38
x
max
max
My
I
M I
: S
S
y
σ
σ
= −
= =
At maximum +ve bending moment i.e at (D)
at D:
At maximum ve moment i.e at (B)
I
S .
C
I
S .
C
−
−
−
−
−
−
×
= = = ×
×
×
= = = ×
×
9
6
1
3
1
9
6
2
3
2
868 10
39 45 10
22 10
868 10
22 84 10
38 10
max
t
M .
s .
σ
−
= =
×
6
2
1 898
22 84 10
max
t
. MPa σ = 83 1
max
C
M .
s .
σ
−
= =
×
6
1
1 898
39 45 10
max
C
. MPa σ = 48 11
max
t
M .
. MPa
s .
σ
−
= = =
×
6
1
3 375
85 55
39 45 10
max
C
M .
. MPa
s .
σ
−
= = =
×
6
2
3 375
147 8
22 84 10
max max
t C
. and . MPa σ σ = = 85 55 147 8
Solid Mechanics
Problem
a wooden member of length L = 3m having a rectangular
crosssection 3 cm × 6 cm is to be used as a cantilever with a
load P = 240N acting at the free end. Can the member carry
this load if the allowable flexural stress both in tension and
in compression is
allow
σ = 50 Mpa ?
Solution
max
M Nm = 720
A
. .
S m
.
−
×
= = ×
3
6 3
1 0 06 0 03
9 10
12 0 015
max max
t C
A A
M PL
S S
σ σ = = =
max max
t C allow
σ σ σ = =
∴The beam can carry P N = 240 only when oriented as in (B)
allow A
alow
S
P N
L
σ ×
= = 150
B
. .
S . m
.
−
×
= = ×
3
5 3
1 0 03 0 06
1 8 10
12 0 03
allow B
alow
S
P N
L
σ ×
= = 300
Solid Mechanics
Limitations
(1)The flexure formula is exact for a prismatic beam in pure
bending.
(2)It provides very good approximation of
x
σ for long
slender beams (L h) >> under symmetrical bending.
(3)The flexure formula can be employed for any shape of the
crosssection, provided the crosssection has yaxis of
symmetry.
(4)It should not be employed in regions close to geometric
discontinuities and concentrated loads.
Solid Mechanics
16. Shear Stresses in Beams
( )
y xy
A
V x dA τ =
}
It is reasonable to assume that
(1)The shear stresses acting on the crosssection are parallel
to the shear force ( )
y
V x i.e ⊥ to the line PQ
(2)It is also reasonable to assume that the shear stresses
xy
τ
are uniformly distributed across the width of the beam, so
that
x
M T = = 0 for symmetrical bending
( )
( ) ( )
xy xy
y xy
A
x, y such thats
V x x, y dA
τ τ
τ
∴ =
=
}
Solid Mechanics
• Thus, there are horizontal shear stresses (or longitudinal
shear stresses) acting between horizontal layers of the
beam as well as vertical shear stresses acting on the
crosssections.
• At any point of the beam
xy yx
τ τ =
• Pattern of distribution of
xy
τ =pattern of distribution of
yx
τ
• Since
xy yx
τ τ = , it follows that the vertical shear stresses
xy
τ must vanish at
h
y = ±
2
, if the beam is subjected only
lateral loads.
Solid Mechanics
Derivation of shear stress formula
Beam under nonuniform bending i.e ( ) M M x =
t = width or thickness of the beam at y y =
1
t = width or thickness of the beam at y y =
1
Solid Mechanics
We now wish to satisfy equilibrium in the x direction.
Taking
[ ]
x
F Σ →+ = 0 we have then
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
x x yx
A A
yx x x
A A
x
x x, y dA x, y dA t x
t x x, y dA x, y dA
x
M x y
x, y
I
σ σ τ
τ σ σ
σ
− + ∆ + + ∆ =
(
= + ∆ −
(
∆
(
¸ ¸
−
=
} }
} }
0
1
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
yx
A A
yx
A
yx
A
t M x x ydA M x ydA
x I I
t M x x M x ydA
xI
M x x M x
ydA
It x
τ
τ
τ
(
= − + ∆ +
(
∆
(
¸ ¸
(
= − + ∆ −
(
∆
(
¸ ¸
+ ∆ − −
(
=
(
∆
¸ ¸
} }
}
}
1 1 1
1
1
taking limit as x ∆ →0
( ) ( )
yx
x
A
yx
A
M x x M x
lim ydA
It x
dM
ydA
It dx
τ
τ
∆ →
+ ∆ − −
=
∆
−
=
}
}
0
1
1
( )
y
dM
V x
dx
= −
( )
y
yx
A
V x
ydA
It
τ ∴ =
}
Solid Mechanics
The above integral is by definition the first moment of are A
about the zaxis, we denote it by symbol Q.
A
Q ydA =
}
y
yx xy
V Q
It
shear formula
τ τ τ ∴ = = =
(1)
in the above equation
zz
I I = stands for the moment of
inertia of the entire cross sectional area around the neutral
axis.
From (1)
y
yx
V Q
VQ
t f
I I
τ = = =
The quantity “f” is known as the “shear flow”.
Shear flow is the horizontal shear force per unit distance
along the longitudinal axis of the beam.
Solid Mechanics
Distribution of shear stresses in a Rectangular beam
An example of application of equations
A
h / y h
Q udA b y y s
b h
Q y
I bh
−
(  
= = − +

(
\ . ¸ ¸
 
= −

\ .
=
}
2
2
3
2
2 2
2 4
1
12
at
xy yx
h
y τ τ = ± = = 0
2
The shear stresses in a rectangular beam vary quadratically
with the distance y from the neutral axis.
Maximum value of shear stress occurs at the neutral axis
where Q is maximum.
max max
xy yx
Vh V
I A
τ τ = = =
2
3
8 2
xy yx
VQ V h
y
It I
τ τ
 
= = = −

\ .
2
2
2 4
Solid Mechanics
Thus
max
τ in a beam of rectangular crosssection is 50%
larger than the average shear stress
V
A
It is always possible to express the maximum shear stress
xy
τ
as
max
xy
V
K
A
τ =
for most of the crosssectional areas
K Rectangular =
3
2
K Circular =
4
3
K Triangular =
3
2
For most of the crosssection
max
τ occurs at the neutral axis.
This is not always true.
Solid Mechanics
Stress elements in nonuniform bending
Solid Mechanics
Problem
A wood beam AB is loaded as shown in the figure. It has a
rectangular cross –section (see figure). Determine the
maximum permissible value
max
p of the loads if the
allowable stress is bending is
allow
MPa σ = 11 (for both tension
and compression) and allowable stress in horizontal shear is
allow
. MPa τ = 1 2
Solution
max
V occurs at supports and maximum BM occurs in
between the loads.
Therefore, the maximum permissible values of the load P in
dending and shear respectively are
max
V P = max
M . P Pa = = 0 5
bh
S =
2
6
A bh =
max
max
M Pa
S
bh
σ ∴ = =
2
6
max max
max
xy yx max
V P P
A A bh
τ τ τ = = = = =
3 3 3
2 2 2
allow allow
allow allow
b s
bh bh
P P
a
σ τ
= =
2
2
6 3
Solid Mechanics
Substituting numerical values into these formulas,
Thus bending governs the design and the maximum
allowable load is
Problem
An I –beam is loaded as in figure. If it has the crosssection as
shown in figure, determine the shearing stresses at the levels
indicated. Neglect the weight of the beam.
Solution
Vertical shear is same at all sections
allow
b
allow
s
P . kN
P . kN
=
=
8 25
8 25
max
P . kN = 8 25
Solid Mechanics
( )( ) ( )( )
zz
I I . mm s = = − = ×
3 3
6 4
150 300 138 276
95 7 10
12 12
The ratio
V
. N / mm s
I .
−
×
= = ×
×
3
3 4
6
250 10
2 61 10
95 7 10
Level
( )
2
A mm
y
mm
3
Q Ay
mm
=
×
3
10
t
mm
xy
VQ
MPa
It
τ =
11 0 150 0 150 0
22
×
=
12 150
1800
144 259.2 150
12
4.5
56.4
33
×
=
×
=
12 150
1800
12 12
144
144
132
259.2
19.0
12
60.5
44
×
=
×
=
12 150
1800
12 138
1656
144
69
259.2
114.3
12
81.3
278.2
373.5
max
. MPa τ = 81 3
Solid Mechanics
Warping of the cross sections due to shear stress
Plane sections will not remain plane and perpendicular to
the axis of the beam in the deformed configuration due to
the presence of shear force.
The crosssections are wrapped with highest distortion at the
axis.
It can be shown that if L h >> then distortion of crosssections
due to shear negligible.
Use all formulae developed so far only when L h >>  such
beams are called slender beams.
Do not apply them if L h <<  short beams.
Solid Mechanics
17. Theories of failure or yield criteria
(1) Maximum shearing stress theory
(2) Octahedral shearing stress theory
(3) Maximum normal stress theory – for brittle materials.
Maximum shearing stress theory or Tresca Criterion
This theory says that:
Yielding occurs when the maximum shear stress in the material
reaches the value of the shear stress at yielding in a uniaxial
tension (or compression) test.
Maximum shearing stress under general state of stress is
( )
max
max , , τ τ τ τ =
1 2 3
where ; ;
σ σ σ σ σ σ
τ τ τ
− − −
= = =
2 3 1 3 1 2
1 2 3
2 2 2
The maximum shearing stress in uniaxial tension test at the
moment of yielding is
ys
t
σ
τ =
2
Tresca criterion is
ys
max
σ
τ ≥
2
Octahedral shearing stress theory or HenckyVonMises
failure criterion
This theory also known as “The maximum distortion strain
energy theory”
For ductile materials
Solid Mechanics
This theory states that
Yielding occurs when the octahedral shear stress in the material is
equal to the value of the octahedral shear stress at yielding in a
uniaxial tensile test.
( ) ( ) ( )
oct
τ σ σ σ σ σ σ = − + − + −
2 2 2
1 2 2 3 1 3
1
3
Octahedral shear stress in the uniaxial tension test at the
moment of yielding i.e.
y ys
σ σ σ = =
1
( )
( )
( )
t ys ys
t ys
τ σ σ
τ σ
= − + − + −
=
2 2
2
1
0 0 0 0
3
2
3
Von Mises theory says that
oct ys
τ σ ≥
2
3
von oct
σ τ =
3
2
Von Mises theory says that
von ys
τ σ ≥
Maximum Normal stress criterion or Rankine Theory:
This theory is generally used for design of components made
up of brittle materials.
* Excellent experimental evidence is available for
supporting maximum shearing stress and Von Mises
criterion
Solid Mechanics
According to this theory, a given structural component fails when
the maximum normal stress (tensile) in that component reaches the
ultimate strength or ultimate stress
ult
σ obtained from the tensile
test of a specimen of the same material.
Thus the structural component will fail when
Simple application of theories
ult
σ σ ≥
1
Solid Mechanics
18. Combined loading
Torsion + Direct shear
A
Mr
I
σ =
p
Tr
I
τ =
1
V
A
τ =
2
4
3
Solid Mechanics
Bending + axial loading
Neutral surface is now shifted due to the application of axial
load.
x
P
A
σ =
x
My
I
σ
−
=
zz
x
zz
M y P
A I
σ
  −
= +

\ .
Solid Mechanics
19. Elastic strain energy
Consider an infinitesimal stress element at point in a linearly
elastic body, subjected to a normal stress
x
σ
The work done by this force
¸
int
x x
distance
force
dW dF dS
dydz dx σ
= ×
= × ∈
1
2
1
2
¸¸_¸¸
int x x
dW dV σ = ∈
1
2
This internal work is stored in the volume of the element as
the internal elastic energy or the elastic strain energy.
x x
dU dV σ ∴ = ∈
1
2
dV =volume of the element.
The strain energy density U
0
is defined as the internal elastic
energy stored in an elastic body per unit volume of the
material.
x x
dU
Strainenergydensity U
dV
σ ∈
∴ = = =
0
2
Solid Mechanics
U
0
can be interpreted as an area under the inclined line on
the stressstrain diagram. Similar expressions can developed
for
y
σ and
z
σ corresponding to strains
y
∈ and
z
∈ .
Elastic strain energy for shearing stresses:
Analogous expressions apply for the shearing stresses
xz zx
, τ τ with the corresponding shear strains
yz
Y and
xz
Y
Strain energy for multiaxial states of stress
The strain energy expressions for a 3D state of stress follow
directly by addition of the energies of each stress component.
x x y y z z xy xy yz yz zx zx
dU
Y Y Y dV σ σ σ τ τ τ
=
(
∈ + ∈ + ∈ + + +
(
¸ ¸
1 1 1 1 1 1
2 2 2 2 2 2
The strain energy density for the most general case is
¸
shear xy xy
distance
average force
dU dxdz Y dy τ = ×
1
2
¸¸_¸¸
shear xy xy
dU Y dv τ =
1
2
Solid Mechanics
x x y y z z xy xy
yz yz zx zx
dU
U Y
dv
Y Y
σ σ σ τ
τ τ
= = ∈ + ∈ + ∈ +
+ +
0
1 1 1 1
2 2 2 2
1 1
2 2
Substituting the values of strain components from
generalized Hooke’s law, we can show that
It is the expression for elastic strain energy per unit volume
for linearly plastic, homogeneous, isotropic materials.
In general, for a stressed body the total strain energy is
obtained by integration of
0
U over its volume.
Internal strain energy in axially loaded bars
x z xy xz yz
σ σ τ τ τ = = = = = 0
x
x x x x
U
E E
σ
σ σ σ ∴ = ∈ = =
2
0
1 1 1
2 2 2
∴The total internal energy
x
V V
U U dv dV
E
σ = = =
} }
2
0
1
2
( ) ( )
( )
x y z x y y z z x
xy yz zx
v
U
E E
G
σ σ σ σ σ σ σ σ σ
τ τ τ
= + + − + +
+ + +
2 2 2
0
2 2 2
1
2
1
2
( )
V
U elastic energy stored U dV = =
}
0
Solid Mechanics
x
P P L
U AL .AL
E EA
EA
σ
= == =
2 2 2
2
2 2
2
P L
U
EA
=
2
2
Strain energy in torsion of circular shafts
U .Y .
G G
τ
τ τ τ = = =
2
0
1 1 1
2 2 2
v v
U U dv dv
G
τ = =
} }
2
0
1
2
p
Tr
I
τ = where
p
I R
π
=
4
2
R
p
T
U . .r . r.dr.L
G
I
π =
}
2
2
2
0
1
2
2
Strain energy in bending
x
v v
M M
U dv y dv y dA.L
E
EI EI
σ
∴ = = =
} } }
2 2 2
2 2
2 2
2
2 2
p
T L
U
GI
=
2
2
P
TY
I
τ =
Solid Mechanics
Conclusion
Axially loaded bars
P L
U
AE
=
2
2
Torsion of shafts
P
T L
U
GI
=
2
2
Bending (pure) of beams
M L
U
EI
=
2
2
We can use the following equations in case of nonuniform
cases
L L L
P
P T M
U dx ; U dx ; U dx
AE GI EI
= = =
} } }
2 2 2
0 0 0
2 2 2
M L
U
EI
=
2
2
Solid Mechanics
Problem:
( ) ( ) P x Y.A L x = −
( )
L
L
L
P
U dx
AE
Y A L x
dx
AE
Y A Y A L
L x Lx.dx L L L
AE E
Y A L Y AL
L L
AE E
=
−
=
(
= + − = + −
(
¸ ¸
(
= + − =
(
¸ ¸
}
}
}
2
0
2 2 2
0
2 2 2 3
2 2 2
3
0
2 2 3 2 3
3 3
2
2
2
2 2 3
2 3 6
P L
U
AE
=
2
2
( ) ( ) P x Y.A L x P = − +
( ) ( )
L
Y A L x P YA L x .P
U dx
AE
− + + −
=
}
2 2 2 2
0
2
2
Y AL P L YAP L
U L
E AE AE
Y AL P L YP
E AE E
(
= + + −
(
¸ ¸
= + +
2 3 2 2 2
2
2 3 2 2 2
2
6 2 2 2
6 2 2
Since U P or U δ ∞ ∞
2 2
principle of superposition should
not be used.
Solid Mechanics
20. Deflection of beams
When a beam with a straight longitudinal axis is loaded by
lateral loads, the axis is deformed into a curve, called the
“deflection curve” or “elasticcurve”
Deflections: means u ,v displacement of any particle. In case
of beams deflection means v displacement of particles
located on the axis of the beam.
Deflection calculation is an important part of component
design
Deflections  useful in vibration, analysis of various
engineering components ex. Earthquake loading.
Undesirable vibrations are due to excessive deflections.
Solid Mechanics
Approximate sketches of deflection curves
Approximate sketches of the deflection curve can be drawn
if BM diagram is available for a given loading.
We know that +BM means
 BM means
Examples
(1)
Solid Mechanics
The objective is to find the shape of the elastic curve or
deflection curve for given loads i.e., what is the function v(x).
There are two approaches
(1) Differential equations of the deflection curve
(2) Momentarea method
Differential equations of the deflection curve
Consider a cantilever beam: The axis of the beam deforms
into a curve as shown due to load P.
Here we assume only symmetrical bending case. The xy
plane is the plane of bending.
v ↓ − deflection of the beam.
v ve ↑ + and. v ↓ −
To obtain deflection curve we must express v as a function
of x.
Solid Mechanics
When the beam is bent, there is not only a deflection at each
point along the axis but also a rotation.
The angle of rotation θ of the axis of the beam is the angle
between x – axis and the tangent to the deflection curve at a
point.
For given xy coordinate system
ve anticlockwise θ →+ →
O Center of curvature ′ =
Radiusof curvature ρ =
From geometry d ds ρ θ =
d
k
ds
curvature of the deflectioncurve
θ
ρ
= =
1
k  curvature  +ve when angle of rotation increases as we
move along the beam in the +ve x – direction.
dv
Slopeof thedeflectioncurve tan
dx
θ = =
Slope
dv
dx
is positive when the tangent to the curve slopes
upward to the right.
The deflection curves of most beams have very small angles
of rotations, very small deflection and very small curvatures.
That is they undergo small deformations.
When the angle of rotation θ is extremely small, the
deflection curve is nearly horizontal
Solid Mechanics
ds dx ≈
This follows from the fact that
( ) ds dx dv v dx
′
= + = +
2 2 2
1
for small θ ( ) v′
2
can be neglected compared to 1
ds dx ∴ ≈
Therefore, in small deflection theory no difference in length
is said to exist between the initial length of the axis and the
arc of the elastic curve.
d
k
dx
θ
ρ
= =
1
Since θ is small tanθ θ ≈
d d v
k
dx
dx
θ
ρ
∴ = = =
2
2
1
d
k
dx
onlyinsmall deformationtheory
du
u
dx
ν
ν
θ
¹
′′
= =
¦
¦
`
¦
′ = =
¦
)
2
2
If the material of the beam is linearly elastic and follows
Hooke’s law, the curvature is
M
k
EI ρ
= =
1
dv
dx
θ ∴ =
Solid Mechanics
M + →leads to +K and so on
d v M
EI
dx
∴ =
2
2
or
d v
EI M
dx
=
2
2
The basic differential equations of the deflection curve.
Sign conventions used in the above equation:
(a) The (b)
dv
dx
and θ are
(c) k is + (d) M is +ve if beam bends
Another useful equations can be obtained by noting that
Nonprismatic beams
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
d v
EI x M x
dx
EI x v v x
EI x v P x
=
′
′′
= −
′′
′′
= +
2
2
dM
V
dx
dV
p
dx
= −
= −
Solid Mechanics
For prismatic beams.
( )
( )
( )
nd
rd
th
EIv M x BMequation( order )
EIv V x Shear force equation( order )
EIv P x Load equation( order )
′′
=
′′′
= −
′′′′
= +
2
3
4
Integrating the equations and then evaluating constants of
integration from boundary conditions of the beam.
Assumptions involved in the above equations
(a) Material obeys Hooke’s law
(b) Slope of deflection curve small – small deformations
(c) Deformations due to bending only – shear neglected
When sketching deflection curve we greatly exaggerate the
deflection for clarity. Otherwise they actually are very small
quantities.
Solid Mechanics
Approximate sketching
(3) (4)
(5) (6)
Solid Mechanics
Boundary conditions
(1)Boundary conditions
(2)Continuity conditions
(3)Symmetry conditions
Boundary conditions
Pertain to the deflections and slopes at the supports of a
beam:
(i)Fixed support or clamped support
(ii)
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
v a
M a EIv a v a
=
′′ ′′
= = ¬ =
0
0 0
(iii)
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
M a EIv a
V a EIv a
′′
= =
′′
= − =
0
0
( )
( ) ( )
v a
a v a θ
=
′
= =
0
0
Solid Mechanics
Continuity conditions
All deflection curves are physically
continuous. Therefore
Similarly at “C”
( ) ( )
from side AC from side BC
v c v c
′ ′
=
Symmetry conditions
L
v
 
′
=

\ .
0
2
because of loading
and beam. This we should load
in advance.
The method for finding deflection using differential
equations is known as “ method of successive integration”.
Application of principle of superposition: Numerous
problems with different loadings have been solved and
readily available. Therefore in practice the deflection of beam
subjected to several or complicated loading conditions are
solved using principle of superposition.
+ +
( ) ( )
from side AC from side BC
v c v c =
Solid Mechanics
Problem 1
Determine the equation of the deflection curve for a simple
beam AB supporting a uniform load of intensity of acting
through out the span of the beam. Also determine maximum
deflection
max
δ at the mid point of the beam and the angles
of rotation
A
Q and
B
Q at the supports. Beam has constant EI.
Solution
qL
V qx = −
2
(1)
qL qx
M x − + =
2
0
2 2
qLx qx
M = −
2
2 2
(2)
Differential equation of deflection curve.
( ) EIv M x
qLx qx
EIv
′′
=
′′
= −
2
2 2
Slope of the beam
qL
V qx + − = 0
2
Solid Mechanics
qLx qx
EIv C ′ = − +
2 3
1
4 6
BC →Symmetry conditions
L
v x
qLL qL
C
qL qL
C
 
′
= =

\ .
= − +
= − +
2 3
1
3 3
1
0
2
0
16 48
0
16 48
qL
C = −
3
1
24
Slope equation is
( )
qLx qx qL
EIv s
q
v L L x
EI
′
= − −
−
′
= − +
2 3 3
3 2 3
4 6 24
6
24
Deflection of the beam
qLx qx qL
EIv x C = − − +
3 4 3
2
12 24 24
B.C.
( ) v x
C
= =
= − − + ¬
2
0 0
0 0 0 0
qLx qx qL
EIv x = − −
3 4 3
12 24 24
C =
2
0
Solid Mechanics
( )
( )
q
v L x Lx x
EI
q
v x L x Lx
EI
−
∴ = − +
−
= + −
3 3 4
4 3 3
2
24
2
24
you can check v = 0 at x = 0and L = 0
(b) From symmetry maximum deflection occurs at the
midpoint
L
x =
2
qL L
v x
EI
−
 
= =

\ .
4
5
2 384
ve sign means that deflection is downward as expected.
max
qL L
v x s
EI
δ
 
= = =

\ .
4
5
2 384
( )
A
qL
Q v
EI
−
′
= =
3
0
24
ve sign indicates clock wise rotation as expected.
( )
B
qL qL qL
Q v x L
EI EI EI
′ = = = − −
3 3 3
4 6 24
( )
qL
v L
EI
′
=
3
24
+ ve sign means anticlockwise direction.
since the problem is symmetric, ( ) ( ) v v L
′ ′
= 0
Solid Mechanics
Problem: 2
Above problem using third order equation
( ) EIv V x ′′′ = −
qL qL
EIv qx qx
 
′′′
= − − = −

\ .
2 2
Moment equation
qLx qx
EIv C
′′
= − +
2
1
2 2
B.C.
( ) ( ) M x EIv x
C
qLx qx
EIv
′′
= = ¬ = =
¬ =
′′
= −
1
2
0 0 0 0
0
2 2
Problem 3
Above problem using fourth order differential equation
P q
EIv q
=
′′′′
= −
Shear for a equation
EIv qx C ′′′ = − +
1
From symmetry conditions
Solid Mechanics
L L
V x EIv x
qL L
q C C
qL
EIv qx
   
′′′
= = ¬ = =
 
\ . \ .
= − + ¬ = +
′′′
∴ = − +
1 1
0 0
2 2
0
2 2
2
Problem 4
Determine the equation of the deflection curve for a
cantilever beam AB subjected to a uniform load of intensify
q. Also determine the angle of rotation and deflection at the
free end. Beam has constant EI.
Solution:
qL qx
M qLx + − + ¬
2 2
2 2
Differential equation of deflection curve
( ) EIv M x
qL qx
EIv qLx
′′
=
′′
= − + −
2 2
2 2
V qL qx + − = 0
V qx qL = −
qL qx
M qLx = − −
2 2
2 2
Solid Mechanics
Slope equation:
qL x qLx qx
EIv C ′ = − + − +
2 2 3
1
2 2 6
BC: ( ) v x ′ = = ¬ 0 0
qL x qLx qx
EIv′ = − + −
2 2 3
2 2 6
Deflection equation
qL x qLx qx
EIv C = − + − +
2 2 3 4
2
4 6 24
( ) v x
C
= =
= + − + ¬
2
0 0
0 0 0 0
qL x qLx qx
EIv ∴ = − + −
2 2 3 4
4 6 24
( ) v x L
qL qL qL qL
EIv
′ = ¬
− −
′
= + − =
3 3 3 3
2 2 6 6
B
qL
v Q
EI
′
∴ = = −
3
6
( ) v x L
q qL
v L L L
EI EI
= ¬
− −
(
= − + =
¸ ¸
4
4 4 4
3
6 4
24 24
maximum deflection also.
C =
1
0
C =
2
0
q
v L x Lx x
EI
− +
− (
= +
(
¸ ¸
2 2 3 4
6 4
24
¸
qL
v
EI
=
4
8
¬
( )
qL
v x L
EI
−
= =
4
3
24
Solid Mechanics
Problem 5
Above problem using third order equation
( ) EIv V x
EIv qL qx
′′
= −
′′′
= −
Moment equation
qx
EIv qLx C
′′
= − +
2
1
2
B.C. ( ) ( ) M x L EIv x L ′′ = = ¬ = = 0 0
qL qL qL
qL
qx qL
EI v qLx
¬ = − = ¬ = −
′ ′′
= − +
2 2 2
2
2 2
0 4
2 2 2
2 2
qx qL
EIv qLx
′′
= − +
2 2
2 2
Problem 6
Above problem with fourth order equation
( ) EIv P x
EIv q
−
′′′′ =
′′′′
∴ = ⊕
Shear force equation
EIv qx C ′′′ = − +
1
( ) ( ) B.C V x L EIv x L
qL C C qL
′′′
= = ¬ = =
= − + ¬ = +
1 1
0 0
0
Solid Mechanics
EIv qx qL ′′′ ∴ = − +
Problem 7
A simple beam AB supports a concentrated load P acting at
distances a and b from the lefthand and righthand supports
respectively. Determine the equations of the deflection
curve, the angles of rotation and at the supports, the
maximum deflection and the deflection at the midpoint C of
the beam. Constant EI
Solution
Pb
M x
L
− = ¬ 0
A
Q
B
Q
max
δ
L
δ
EI =
Pb
V
L
+ = 0
Pb
V
L
= −
Pbx
H
L
=
Pb
V P
L
+ − = 0
Pb
V P
L
= −
Pb Pb
x P x P
L L
+ = ¬ = −
Solid Mechanics
( )
( )
Pbx
M P x a
L
Pbx
M P x a
L
Pbx Pxa
M Px Pa Pa
L L
+ − −
= − −
= − + = − +
Differential equation of deflection curve
Pbx
EIv x a
L
Pxa
EIv Pa a x L
L
′′
= ≤ ≤
′′
= − + ≤ ≤
0
Slope equations:
Pbx
EIv C o x a
L
′
= + ≤ ≤
2
1
2
Px a
EIv Pax C a x L
L
−
′
= + + ≤ ≤
2
2
2
B.C. ( ) ( )
AP PB
v x a v x a
′ ′
= = =
( ) P L a a Pa
C Pa C
L L
PLa Pa Pa
C Pa C
L L L
Pa
C C
− −
+ = + +
/ / /
/ /
− + = − + +
/ / / / /
¬ = +
2 3
2
1 2
2 3 3
2
1 2
2
1 2
2 2
2 2 2
2
Solid Mechanics
Deflection curve equations:
Pbx
EIv C x C x a
L
Px a Pax
EIv C x C a x L
L
′
= + + ≤ ≤
−
= + + + ≤ ≤
3
1 3
3 2
2 4
0
6
6 2
B.C: ( ) v x = = 0 0 and ( ) v x L = = 0
C = + + ¬
3
0 0 0
PL a PaL
C L C
L
PL a PaL
C L C
PaL
C L C
= − + + +
= − + + +
= + +
3 2
2 4
2 2
2 4
2
2 4
0
6 2
0
6 2
3
( ) ( )
( )
AP PB
v x a v x a
P L a a Pa Pa
C a C a C
L L
PLa Pa Pa Pa
C a C a C
L L L
Pa Pa
C a C a C
Pa PaL
C a C a C L
= = =
− −
+ = + + +
/ / −
/ /
+ + = + + +
/ / /
+ = + +
= + − −
3 4 3
1 2 4
3 4 4 3
1 2 4
3 3
1 2 4
3 2
1 2 2
6 6 2
6 6 6 2
6 2
3 3
C =
3
0
PaL
C C L = − −
2
4 2
3
Solid Mechanics
Pa Pa PaL
C a C a C L
Pa PaL PaL Pa
C L C L
PaL Pa
C
/ / + = + − −
= − − ¬ = − −
= − −
3 3 2
2 2 2
3 2 2 3
2 2
3
2
2 3 3
6 3 3 6
3 6
Some important formulae to remember
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
Problem 8
A simple beam AB supports a concentrated load P acting at
the center as shown. Determine the equations of the
deflection curve, the angles of rotation
A
Q and
B
Q at the
supports, the maximum deflection
max
δ of the beam.
B B
qL qL
,Q
EI EI
δ = =
4 3
8 6
B B
PL PL
, Q
EI EI
δ = =
3 2
3 2
B B
M L M L
, Q
EI EI
δ = =
2
0 0
2
c max A B
qL qL
; Q Q
EI EI
δ δ = = = =
4 3
5
384 24
c max A B
PL PL
;Q Q
EI EI
δ δ = = = =
3 2
48 16
Solid Mechanics
Solution
P
V = −
2
Px
M =
2
Px
M =
2
P
M x − = 0
2
Px
M =
2
V P / = 2
P
V P + − = 0
2
Px L
M P x
Px L Px PL PL Px
M P x Px
 
− + − =

\ .
 
= − − = − + = −

\ .
0
2 2
2 2 2 2 2 2
PL Px
M = −
2 2
Solid Mechanics
Differential equation deflection curve
Px
EIv x L /
PL Px L
EIv x L
′′
= ≤ ≤
′′
= − ≤ ≤
0 2
2
2 2 2
Slope equations
Px
EIv C x L /
PLx Px L
EIv C x L
′
= + ≤ ≤
′
= − + ≤ ≤
2
1
2
2
0 2
4
2 4 2
AP PB
L L
v x v x
   
′ ′
= = =
 
\ . \ . 2 2
PL PL PL
C C + = − +
2 2 2
1 2
16 4 16
PL PL PL
C C C = + − = +
2 2 2
1 2 2
4 8 8
Deflection equations:
Px
EIv C x C x L /
PLx Px
EIv C x C L / x L
= + + ≤ ≤
= − + + ≤ ≤
3
1 3
2 3
2 4
0 2
12
2
4 12
B.C: ( ) v x = = 0 0 and ( ) v x L = = 0
PL
C C = +
2
1 2
8
Solid Mechanics
C = + + ¬
3
0 0 0
PL PL
C L C
PL
C L C
= − + +
= + +
3 3
2 4
3
2 4
0
4 12
6
AP PB
L L
v x v x
PL C L PL PL L
C C
L PL PL L
C C C
   
′ ′
= = =
 
\ . \ .
+ = − + +
= − + +
3 3 3
1
2 4
3 3
1 2 4
2 2
96 2 16 96 2
2 16 48 2
L PL PL L PL
C C C L
/ /
/ / + = + − −
/ /
3 3 3
2 2 2
2 16 24 2 6
( ) PL PL PL PL
C L C
− −
− − = ¬ =
2 3 3 3
2 2
2 8 3
24 6 16 48
C =
3
0
PL
C C L = − −
3
4 2
6
L PL L
C C C = + +
3
1 2 4
2 24 2
PL PL
C
−
= − =
2 2
2
9 3
48 16
PL
C = −
2
2
3
16
Solid Mechanics
PL PL PL
C ∴ = − + = −
2 2 2
1
3
16 8 16
( )
PL PL
C L
PL PL PL
 
−
∴ = − −

\ .
− + −
= + =
3 2
4
3 3 3
3
6 16
8 9 3
6 16 48
Deflection curves
Px PL L
EIv x C x
PLx Px PL PL L
EIv x x L
= − + ≤ ≤
= − + − + ≤ ≤
3 2
3
2 3 2 3
0
12 16 2
3
4 12 16 48 2
L
x
PL PL PL
EIv
=
−
= − =
3 3 3
2
96 32 48
( )
L
x
PL PL PL PL PL
EIv
PL
=
− − +
= − − + =
= −
3 3 3 3 3
2
3
6 1 9 2 3
16 96 32 48 96
48
PL
C = −
2
1
16
PL
C = −
3
4
48
L
x
PL
v
EI
=
∴ = −
3
2
48
Solid Mechanics
Slope equations:
Px PL L
EIv x
PLx Px PL L
EIv x L
′
= − ≤ ≤
′
= − − ≤ ≤
2 2
2 2
0
4 16 2
3
2 4 16 2
( )
( ) ( )
A
PL PL
EIv x
PL
v x Q Clock wise
EI
′
= = − = −
′
∴ = = = − −
2 2
2
0 0
16 16
0
16
( )
( )
( ) ( )
B
PL PL PL PL PL
EIv x L
PL
v x L Q +ve, CCW from xaxis
EI
− −
′
= = − − = =
′ ∴ = = =
2 2 2 2 2
2
8 4 3 3
2 4 16 16 16
16
Problem 9
A cantilever beam AB supports load of intensity of acting
over part of the span and a concentrated load P acting at the
free end. Determine the deflections
B
δ and angle of rotation
B
Q at end B of the beam. Beam has constant EI. Use principle
of superposition.
Solution
( )
B B
qa qL
L a , Q
EI EI
δ = − =
1 1
3 3
4
24 6
B B
PL PL
, Q
EI EI
δ = =
2 2
3 2
3 2
v PL / EI = −
3
48
Solid Mechanics
( )
B B B
B B B
qa PL
L a
EI EI
qa PL
Q Q Q
EI EI
δ δ δ = + = − +
= + = +
1 2
1 1
3 3
3 2
4
24 3
6 2
Solid Mechanics
21. Moment Area Method
This method is based upon two theorems related to the area
of the bending moment diagram it is called momentarea
method.
First moment area theorem
Consider segment AB of the deflection curve of a beam in
region of + ve curvature.
The equation
d M
EI
dx
θ
=
2
2
can be written as
d d M
dx EI
dx
θ θ
= =
2
2
M
d dx
EI
θ =
The quantity
M
dx
EI
corresponds to an infinitesimal area of
the
M
EI
diagram. According to the above equation the area is
equal to the arrange in angle between two adjacent point m
1
and m
2
. Integrating the above equation between any two
points A & B gives.
B B
B A BA
A A
M
d dx
EI
θ θ θ θ = − = ∆ =
} }
Solid Mechanics
This states that the arrange in angle measured in radius
between the two tangents at any two points A and B on the
elastic curve is equal to the area of
M
EI
diagram between A &
B , If
A
θ is known then
B A BA
θ θ θ = + ∆
In performing above integration, areas corresponding to the
M + are taken + ve, area corresponding to the – ve M are
taken –ve
If
B
A
M
dx
EI
}
is +ve tangent B rotates c.c.w from A or
B
θ is
algebraically larger than A.
If – ve – tangent B rotates c.w from A.
Second momentarea theorem
This is related to the deflection curve between A and B.
Solid Mechanics
We see that dt is a small contribution to
BA
t . Since the angles
between the tangents and xaxis are very small we can take
The expression
M
x dx
EI
=
1
first moment of infinitesimal area
M
dx
EI
w.r.t. a vertical line through B.
Integrating between the point A & B
B B
BA
A A
M
t dt x dx
EI
′
= =
} }
1
= First moment of the area of the
M
EI
diagram between points A & B, evaluated w.r.t. B.
if M is +ve φ =+ve
if M is ve φ =ve
x and x
1
are always taken +ve quantities.
∴Sign of tangential deviation depends on sign of M.
M
dt x d x dx
EI
θ = =
1 1
BA
AB
B
A
t x
t x
M
where dx
EI
φ
φ
φ
=
=
=
}
1
Solid Mechanics
A positive value of tangential deviation point B is above A
and vice versa – ve value means point B is below the point A.
In applying the moment area method a carefully prepared
sketch of the elastic curve is always necessary.
Problem:1
Consider an aluminum cantilever beam 1600 mm long with a
10 –kN for a applied 400 mm from the free end for a distance
of 600 mm from the fixed end, the beam is of greater depth
than it is beyond, having
4
I mm = ×
6
1
50 10 . For the
remaining 1000 mm of the beam
4
I mm = ×
6
2
10 10 . Find the
deflection and angular rotation of the free end. Neglect
weight of the beam and E GPa = 70
Solution:
2
2
N/mm
N/mm
−
× ×
= ×
9 6
3
70 10 10
70 10
EI . = ×
24
3 5 10
Solid Mechanics
.
A bh
E E
.
A bh
E
. .
A bh
E E
. .
A bh
E E
−
 
= = × × = −

\ .
= = −
−
 
= = × × = −

\ .
−
 
= = × × = −

\ .
1
2
3
4
1 1 0 12 36
600
2 2
129 6
1 1 0 48 115 2
480
2 2
1 1 0 12 7 2
120
2 2
B
BA B A
A
M
Q Q Q dx A A A A
EI
∆ = − = = + + +
}
1 2 3 4
B
. . .
Q
E E E E E
= − − − − = −
36 129 6 115 2 7 2 288
Solid Mechanics
B
Q . rad
E
−
= − = − = − ×
×
3
3
288 288
4 14 10
70 10
from tangent at
A.
BA B
t δ =
x mm; x ; x mm; x mm = = = =
2 1 3 4
1060 1400 840 480
BA B
t A x A x A x A x
. . .
E E E E
. mm
E
δ = = + + +
− − − −
       
= + + +
   
\ . \ . \ . \ .
−
= = −
1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4
36 129 6 115 2 7 2
1400 1060 840 480
288000
4 11
below the tangent at point A.
Problem 2
Find the deflection due to the concentrated force P applied as
soon as figure, at the center of a simply supported beam EI
constant.
Solution:
B
Q . rad
−
= ×
3
4 14 10
B
. mm δ = −4 11
Solid Mechanics
c CB
AB
v c c t
c c t
′′ ′
= −
′′ ′
=
1
2
Pa Pa
A bh a s
EI EI
Pa Pa
A bh a
EI EI
= = × × =
= = × × =
2
1
2
2
1 1 3 3
2 2 4 8
1 1 3 9
3
2 2 4 8
x a ; x a = =
1 2
2
2
3
( )
AB
Pa Pa
t A x A x a a
EI EI
Pa Pa Pa Pa
ve
EI EI EI EI
= + = +
= + = = +
2 2
1 1 2 2
3 3 3 3
3 2 9
2
8 3 8
9 10 5
4 4 4 2
Since EI is constant
M
EI
diagram is same as M
diagram.
Solid Mechanics
CB
Pa a Pa
t a s
EI EI
 
= × × × =

\ .
3
1 2
2
2 2 3 3
AB /
Pa
c c t
EI
′′ ′
= =
3
2
5
4
( )
c
Pa Pa Pa Pa
v
EI EI EI EI
−
∴ = − = =
3 3 3 3
15 4 5 11
4 3 4 12
The +ve sign of
AB
t &
CA
t indicate points A & C above the
tangent through B.
(a) The slope of the elastic curve at C can be found from the
slope of one of the ends as:
BC B C C B BC
Q Q Q Q Q Q ∆ = − ¬ = − ∆
B
BC B C
C
M Pa Pa
Q Q Q dx a s
EI EI EI
∆ = − = × × =
}
2
1
2
2 2 2
B AB
Pa Pa Pa Pa
Q t / L
EI a EI EI EI
≈ = − = −
3 2 2 2
5 1 5
2 4 2 8 2
(b) If the deflection curve equations is wanted then by
selecting an ordinary point E at a distance x
E
v E E EE
′′ ′ ′′
= −
c
Pa
v
EI
=
3
11
12
c
Pa
Q
EI
=
2
8
Solid Mechanics
E AB EB
L x
v t t
L
−
 
= −

\ .
In this way one
can obtain equation
of the deflection curve.
(c) To simplify the calculations some care in selecting the
tangent at a support must be considered.
In this approach to find
CA
t we need to consider
unhatched region which
is more difficult.
(d) The deflection at C can also be calculated as follows.
AC BC
c
t t
v
+
=
2
∴C is at the center of the beam. However, this is also move
complicated approach compared to first, as to find
CA
t we
again need to consider unhatched region.
Solid Mechanics
Problem 3
Find the deflection of the end A of the beams shown in
figure caused by the applied forces. The EI is constant.
Solution
Solid Mechanics
Pa Pa
A bh a
EI EI
a Pa Pa
A
EI EI
Pa Pa
A and A
EI EI
−
 
= = × × = −

\ .
 
= × × − = −

\ .
= =
2
1
2
2
2 2
3 4
1 1
2 2 2
1
2 2 4
4 2
a a a a a
x a ; x a
a a
x a a / ; x
= + = = + + =
= + = =
1 2
3 4
7 2 11
2
3 3 3 3 2 6
1 2
7 6
3 2 3
( )
CB
t A x A x A x
Pa a Pa a Pa a
EI EI EI
Pa Pa Pa Pa
EI EI EI EI
= + +
= − × + × + ×
− + +
= − + + =
2 2 3 3 4 4
2 2 2
3 3 3
3
11 7 2
4 6 4 6 2 3
11 7 8 11 7
24 24 3 24
CB
Pa Pa
t
EI EI
= =
3 3
4
24 6
The + sign of
CB
t indicates that the point C is above the
tangent through B. Hence corrected sketch of the elastic
curve is made.
Solid Mechanics
AB
Pa Pa
t a
EI EI
= − × = −
2 3
2
2 3 3
A AB
v t A A
Pa Pa Pa
EI EI EI
′′ ′
∴ = −
= − =
3 3 3
3 12 4
Note: Another method to find
A
v is shown. This may be
simpler method than the present one.
A
Pa
v
EI
=
3
4