Connection-oriented vs.

Connectionless You should know the following facts about connection-oriented communication:
y y y

Connection-oriented protocols are reliable. They perform session initiation, error detection, and error correction. They identify and retransmit lost packets. A connection-oriented protocol is a good choice where reliable, error-free communications are more important than speed. The three phases of connection-oriented communication are: 1. Session initialization (connection establishment), 2. Session maintenance (data transfer), and 3. Session termination (connection release).

You should also know the following facts about connectionless communication:
y y y y

Connectionless services assume an existing link between devices and allow transmission without extensive session establishment. Connectionless communications include no error checking or acknowledgement mechanisms. Connectionless communications use no error checking, session establishment, or acknowledgements. Connectionless protocols allow quick, efficient communication. However, data errors and packet loss might occur.

Connection Facts
Cisco routers and switches do not have monitors, and they do not directly support keyboards or mouse commands. Therefore, you need to connect the router to either a dedicated terminal or a PC to configure it. There are several options you can use to gain access the console. These include: y y y Connecting through the Console port Connecting through the LAN or WAN with a virtual terminal connection Connecting through the Auxiliary port (available on some routers)

You can connect to routers and switches using the following cable types:

Cable Type

Pinouts 1 --> 8 2 --> 7 3 --> 6 4 --> 5 5 --> 4 6 --> 3 7 --> 2 8 --> 1


Connect a rollover cable to a serial connector. Connect the RJ-45 end to the console port, connect the serial end to the serial port of a PC. Use HyperTerminal to make the console connection.

Rollover Cable

1 --> 1 2 --> 2 3 --> 3 6 --> 6 Straight-through Ethernet Cable

Connect an Ethernet port on a router to an Ethernet port on a hub or switch. If the router has an AUI port, connect one end to an AUI transceiver before connecting to the router.

1 --> 3 2 --> 6 3 --> 1 6 --> 2 Crossover Ethernet Cable

Connect an Ethernet port on a router to the NIC in a PC. Connect two switches (or hubs) together. If the router has an AUI port, connect one end to an AUI transceiver before connecting to the router.

When connecting routers through a serial port, use the appropriate serial cable. When connecting to a Cisco device through the console port, you can use the HyperTerminal program included with Windows to make a console connection with the router. Default console port settings are: y y 9600 baud (or a rate supported by your router) Data bits = 8 (default)

y y y y Mode

Parity = None (default) Stop bits = 1 (default) Flow control = None

Command Mode Prompts and Commands
Prompt Router> Router# To Enter Press <enter>, log in enable To Exit exit, logout, or disconnect disable (exit disconnects) exit, ^Z* exit, ^Z* exit, ^Z* exit, ^Z* exit, ^Z* ^C

User EXEC Privileged EXEC

Global Router(config)# config terminal Configuration Line Interface Subinterface Router Setup Router(configline)# Router(configif)# Router(configsubif)# Router(configrouter)# None, interactive dialog line <type> <number> interface <type> <number> interface <type> <number>.<subnumber> router <type> setup or erase startup-config + reload ROM Monitor mode lets you configure your router if the router can't find a valid system image, or if the boot sequence is interrupted when you start the router. It is an emergency command-line access to the router. To go to EXEC mode from this mode, type continue at the prompt. RXBoot mode lets a router boot with a limited version of the IOS when it cannot find a valid IOS image in Flash. You enter RXBoot mode by modifying the configuration register before rebooting the router.

ROM Monitor rommon>



y y y

*^Z (<ctrl> + Z) exits all configuration modes to privileged EXEC mode. exit "backs up" one

Command Help Facts
Help is available in all router modes. It is context sensitive, so the information you see depends on what you are doing. Cisco bases this on the mode you are in and the words or partial words you type with the ?. Use... ? xx? (no space between the letter and ?) command ? (space between command and ?) partial command + <tab> (no space)

To... Show list of all commands available in the current mode Show commands that begin with specific letter(s) Show keywords for a command Get the full command from a partial command

C. Type a one-word response Type a multiple-word response Identifies a specific keyword that must be typed as shown Enter a number within the range in brackets Enter a hexadecimal number within the range in brackets The command is complete as typed.. . WORD (in caps) LINE (in caps) keyword <0-4567> <0-FFFFFF> <cr> A..D Editing Features Facts This feature uses the same keystrokes as UNIX emacs editing. the IOS automatically saves the last 10 commands in the command history buffer. The following lists summarize the router advanced editing features. Move to the beginning of the line Move to the end of the line Go back one character Go forward one character Go back one word Move forward one word Turn advanced editing on Turn advanced editing off When you are in advanced editing mode. <Ctrl> + A <Ctrl> + E <Ctrl> + Z <Ctrl> + B To . commands longer than the command line appear to scroll under the prompt. the $ indicator appears after the prompt..y y Note: Typing ? acts as a return...B. . The command history is specific to the configuration mode you are in. When you use Help to display the possible keywords for a command. and repeats the last command you entered after the Help information displays. You do not need to retype the command after you ask for help on it. <Ctrl> + A <Ctrl> + E <Ctrl> + B Left arrow <Ctrl> + F Right arrow <Esc> + B <Esc> + F terminal editing terminal no editing To .. you will see the following types of items. As you type.. press Enter to execute the command Enter an IP address When you see. .. . Command History Command List By default. Use this . Move cursor to beginning of line Move cursor to the end of line Quit a configuration mode Move cursor back one character . Use . Supply.

Setup mode is a special. Solution Use: no logging console to turn these messages off. Therefore. the following message is constantly displayed (sometimes as you are typing): %SYS-5-CONFIG_1: Configured from console by console When working with the router through a Telnet session. or when you boot a new router. you want to review previous information. guided routine that asks you a series of questions and uses your responses to make basic configuration entries. Use the setup command from privileged mode. Use: logging buffered to send logging information to RAM. it has no startup-config file. When viewing debug information. Use: terminal monitor to send debug output to the telnet session. output will not be shown.<Esc> + B <Esc> + F <Ctrl> + P or Up arrow <Ctrl> + N or Down arrow terminal history terminal no history terminal history size <number> show history Move cursor back one word Move the cursor ahead one word Show the previous command Show the next command Turn the command history on Turn the command history off Set the size of the history buffer Show all the commands in the history buffer Controlling Screen Output As you work with the router at the console and make configuration changes. The information you've entered to that point will not be saved. response messages are often displayed on the screen. The following table describes various ways to control the response messages shown. . it immediately enters Setup mode. then use: show log to view information one screen at a time. when you use a debug command. when it boots. You can exit setup mode without answering all the questions by pressing <Ctrl> + C. Setup Mode Facts If the router is brand new. This happens when you erase the current startupconfig file. Problem When making configuration changes. or debug information is shown too quickly for you to examine it. There are two ways to enter setup mode: y y Boot the router without the startup-config file.

and all interfaces are in shutdown mode until they're enabled. . Copy Command List The router can load a configuration file from: y y NVRAM (startup-configuration file by default value 0x2102) TFTP server Changes to the configuration are stored in RAM in the running-config file. and the Power-on Self-Test (POST) program Flash Non-volatile but programmable memory containing the proprietary Cisco operating system (IOS) images RAM (random Volatile memory containing the running operating system and current access memory) (unsaved) configuration information NVRAM (nonvolatile RAM) Non-volatile but persistent memory that contains the backup copy of the startup configuration (startup-config) file and virtual configuration register The contents of non-volatile memory (such as ROM. and to load different versions of the configuration files from various locations. To save your configuration changes permanently. The contents of volatile memory (RAM) are lost when the router is powered down. Save the contents of the running-config file to NVRAM Copy the startup-config file into RAM Save the contents of the running-config file to a TFTP server Save the contents of the startup-config file to a TFTP server Copy a configuration file from the TFTP server into NVRAM . non-writable memory containing the bootstrap startup ROM (read-only program. an older. Memory Type Characteristics Preprogrammed. smaller-scale version of the operating system (IOS) memory) software. you must modify the configuration registry and NVRAM during password recovery). Router#copy run start Router#copy start run Router#copy run tftp Router#copy start tftp Router#copy tftp start To . . new Cisco routers have no passwords set. Use . .Note: By default. and NVRAM) remain when the router is powered off (however. use the copy command in privileged EXEC mode. flash. Router Memory Be sure you understand the difference between the following types of router storage. .

. . Router#erase flash Delete the contents of Flash memory (deletes the IOS image) Router#erase start Erase the contents of the startup-config file Router#erase nvram Delete the contents of NVRAM (which also erases startup-config) Router#reload Restarts the router You can also use the following commands to manage system files: Use . Use . Router(config)#boot system flash <IOSfilename> To . To . upgrade. . . You can also use the erase command to delete the configuration files--but be very careful not to erase files you need! Use . . Display information about hardware and firmware including the configuration register value Copy configuration information from another source (like NVRAM) Configure information into the RAM of a router IOS Boot and Upgrade Location Command List The router can load an IOS image from the following locations: y y y Flash TFTP server ROM (limited version of the IOS software) Use the boot system command in global configuration mode to identify alternate locations for the IOS image. . . . you must specific the location (flash or flash <filename> rom) of the IOS image file as well as the IOS image file name. . . Use the copy command to archive. show version configure memory or copy startup-config running-config configure terminal To . Identify an IOS image file in flash to use at boot. . .Router#copy tftp run Copy a configuration file from the TFTP server into RAM Configure a Cisco router as a TFTP server. When using Router(config)#tftp-server this command. . or replace an IOS image.

It tries each location in turn. Use this command..Router(config)#boot system tftp <IOSfilename> <tftp_address> Identify an IOS image file on a TFTP server to use at boot. it returns to the default load sequence. You are directing the router where to look for the IOS image on boot-up. Restore the IOS image from backup on the TFTP server to Flash. running IOS version. until it finds a valid IOS image.. Note: When you use the boot system command.2 and below) Specify to use the limited IOS Router(config)#boot system flash version stored in ROM at boot. and RAM and processor information View the currently running configuration file View the startup configuration file stored in NVRAM (the saved copy of the configuration file) View the size of the configuration files and the available flash memory View information for all IOS image files stored on the router View the commands in the command history list show protocols or show interfaces View the IP addresses assigned to a specific interface or show ip interfaces show protocols View the status of all interfaces or . you are not making backup copies of the IOS image. Router(config)#boot system rom (IOS versions 11... nor are you replacing the default IOS search order.0 and above Router#copy flash tftp Router#copy tftp flash Back up (copy) the IOS image from Flash to the TFTP server. show version show runningconfig show startupconfig or show config show flash* show history To. ROM bootstrap version. bootflash: (IOS versions 12. View hardware configuration. Show Command List (Basic) The following list summarizes common information you can display using common show commands. If one is not found.

the router interfaces do not have specific names that change the prompt. . eth) keywords to switch to Ethernet interface mode. For example. Set a description for a specific interface Router(config-if)#description <description text> Examples The following set of commands sets the hostname of the router to ATL1: Router#config t Router(config)#hostname ATL1 ATL1(config)# The following set of commands adds a description of "ATL to NYC" for the first serial interface on the router: Router(config)#int ser 0 Router(config-if)#description ATL to NYC Note: To undo any configuration change. . . This is the name that appears in the EXEC prompt. Router Password Facts The following table list three of the most common passwords that you can configure on your router: Password Type Console Description Controls the ability to log on to the router through a console connection . you can configure a host name for your router. Router(config)#hostname <name> Router(config)#int Router(config)#int Router(config)#int Router(config)#int serial 0 ser 0 ser0 s0 To . Change the host name of the router Go to interface configuration mode for the first serial interface. Use the Ethernet (e. Router and Interface Identification Command List During initial setup. to remove a description from an interface. Use . you can add a description to the configuration file that helps you identify the interface. However. use the same command preceded by the no keyword followed by the command. use the following command: Router(config-if)#no description Notice that in many cases you can leave off additional parameters when using the no command. . Unlike the router interfaces *The show flash command is not enabled in the simulations.

Be aware of the following recommendations for configuring router passwords: y y y y Passwords are case-sensitive. Switch to the line configuration mode for the console. Set the encrypted password used for privileged mode access. There are two different passwords that might be used: EXEC mode y y The enable password is stored in clear text in the configuration file. Require the password for line access. . .Line Controls the ability to log on to the router using a virtual terminal (VTY) or Telnet connection Controls the ability to switch to configuration modes. enable secret. login Router(config-line)#no password Router(config)#service Encrypt all passwords. . and line passwords in setup mode. password-encryption Note: If you do not use the login command in line mode. You can set the enable. The enable secret is always used if it exists. . However. Router(config)#no enable secret Router(config)#no enable password Remove the password. Set the line password (for either console or VTY access). even though one is set. Cisco routers support Terminal Access Controller Access Control System (TACACS) and Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service (RADIUS) to centrally validate users attempting to gain access to the router. The no login command disables password Router(config-line)#no checking. Specify one line number or a range of line numbers (line vty 0 4). Password Command List Use . This password is used if the enable secret is not set. Switch to the line configuration mode for the virtual terminal. Router(config)#enable secret <password> Router(config)#enable password <password> Router(config)#line con 0 Router(config)#line vty <0-197> <1-197> Router(configline)#password Router(configline)#login To . a password will not be required for access. . For security reasons. Set the unencrypted password for privileged mode access. The router always uses the enable secret password if it exists. you should not use the same password for both your enable and enable secret passwords. there are other passwords that you cannot set in setup mode. The enable secret password is stored encrypted in the configuration file.

Access is allowed based on the following conditions: y y y y no login. 5. 4. use the keyboard to send a break sequence to the router. 1. Shift + b) 4. Type copy start run to load the startup-config file. Establish a console connection to the router. Router(config)#banner Router(config)#banner motd To . Exit configuration mode and use copy run start to save the changes to the passwords. type o. Enter configuration mode to change the passwords. You can then load the existing startup-config file and view or modify the current password settings. At the prompt. Type o/r 0x2142 to change the configuration register setting. use the confreg command followed by the appropriate register value to make the change. For a Windows system. To prevent VTY access. . the break sequence is typically one of the following: o Break + F5 o Shift + F5 o ^$B (Shift + 6. password = access is allowed without a password login. 2. 8. Use . no password = access is denied (the error message indicates that a password is required but none is set) no login. At this point you can: o Use Setup mode to configure the router (including the passwords). Set the Message-of-the-day (MOTD) banner.) 6. Type config-register 0x2102 to change the configuration register back to the default. List below are the general steps you would take for the 2500 series routers: 1. Type i to reboot. Shift + 4. there must be a login entry without a password set. . Banner Command List Banners display messages that anyone logging into the router can see. no password = access is allowed without a password login. 3. . you modify the configuration register to bypass the startup-config file and boot the router with a limited IOS version. The following four types of banners display at various times during the login or startup sequence. Use the reload command to restart the router normally. 2. . o Quit Setup mode (using Ctrl + C) and change only the existing passwords. the router reboots bypassing the startup-config file.Access to the router console through a telnet session is controlled by the login and the password entries. Within 60 seconds. In the recovery process. password = access is allowed only with correct password Password Recovery Password recovery is the process of discovering or resetting forgotten router passwords. . (On some routers. The MOTD banner displays immediately after a connection is made. With the configuration register changed. Turn the router off and on. 3. The exact process you use to recover lost passwords depends on the router model. The router will automatically enter Setup mode. Record the value for the configuration register (usually 0x2102). 7.

Set the EXEC banner. Follow the banner command with a delimiting character. the router must be connected to a device (such as a CSU/DSU or another router) that provides clocking signals. The incoming banner displays for a reverse telnet session. Set the incoming banner.. line protocol down up. Back-to-Back Configuration Facts When you configure a router to connect to a network through a serial interface. Example The following commands set the MOTD. The following table summarizes some possible conditions indicated by the interface status. The login banner displays after the MOTD banner and before the login prompt. and helps the router identify the beginning and ending of the banner. Removes the specified banner Note: The banner command without a keyword defaults to set the MOTD banner.. However. line protocol is up Even though the interface status shows "up. login.Router(config)#banner login Router(config)#banner exec Router(config)#banner incoming Router(config)#no banner <type> Set the login banner." you might need to perform additional tasks for router-to-router communication to take place (such as assigning an IP address). using # as the delimiting character and inserting a hard return between each banner: Router(config)#banner motd # This is the Message-of-the-day banner! # Router(config)#banner login # This is the Login banner! # Router(config)#banner exec # This is the Exec banner! # Interface Statuses You can use the interface status to troubleshoot connectivity problems and quickly see whether the link between the router and the network is operational. most networking tasks occur at higher layers (Network through Application layers). Indicates. line protocol is down up. and EXEC banners.. This allows you to construct multipleline banners. A status of. Hardware or network connection problem (Physical layer) No carrier detect signal Connection or communication problem (Data Link layer) No keepalives The link is functional administratively down. line protocol is up. line protocol is down The interface is shut down (with the shutdown command) down. The interface status indicates whether Data Link layer communications are enabled.. The delimiter encloses the banner text. The exec banner displays after a successful login. When you .

It can discover information on LANs. and other network architectures. Cisco devices. The DCE interface is configured to provide a clocking signal with the clock rate command. .configure two routers in a back-to-back configuration through their serial ports. can discover neighboring Cisco devices through CDP. Use . CDP Command List The Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP) is a protocol that Cisco devices use to learn and share information about each other. The router not providing clocking is known as the DTE (data terminal equipment). Use the following commands to customize and view CDP information. If the clock rate command is not issued. . Frame Relay. CDP only shares information with directly connected (neighboring) devices. y y The router providing clocking is known as the DCE (data circuit-terminating equipment). y y y y By default. CDP works regardless of the Network layer and other protocols used. . and the line between the two routers will not change to up. Specify the amount of time that information in a packet is still valid (default = 180 seconds) Specify how often CDP packets are exchanged (default = 60 seconds) Enable CDP on the router Disable CDP on a router. Connect the DCE end of the cable to the interface you want to be the DCE device. The DCE interface is identified in two ways: y y The cable connecting the two routers has both a DCE and a DTE end. and CDP exchange interval Show information about all neighboring Cisco devices including: Router#show cdp neighbors y y y Device ID Local interface Holdtime . clocking is not provided. CDP works when there is a valid Data Link layer connection. such as routers and switches. one router interface must be configured to provide the clocking signals for the connection. Router(config)#cdp holdtime <10-255> Router(config)#cdp timer <5-900> Router(config)#cdp run Router(config)#no cdp run Router(config-if)#cdp enable Router(config-if)#no cdp enable Router#show cdp Router#show cdp interface To . encapsulation. to prevent the router from exchanging CDP packets Turns CDP for an interface on Turns CDP for an interface off View CDP information Show information about neighbors accessed through an interface Show CDP configuration information for the router including the holdtime. CDP is enabled on all interfaces. .

Solid green = Full duplex Off = Half duplex Solid green = 100 Mbps Off = 10 Mbps On a simple LAN. In this course. The switch comes preconfigured to work out-of-the-box without configuration. Each switch port has a single LED.y y y Capability Platform Port ID Shows all information for the show cdp neighbors command and adds: Router#show cdp neighbors detail y y y Network address Enabled protocols Software version Examples The following commands turns on CDP for the router and configures it to send CDP packets every 90 seconds. you can connect the switch to the network. Port LEDs mean different things based on the mode selected with the Mode button. the higher the utilization. Router(config)#int eth 0 Router(config-if)#no cdp enable Switch Components Switches connect multiple segments or devices and forward packets to only one specific port. you will learn how to configure the Catalyst 2950 series switch. connect devices. connect to the switch in one of the following ways: . The more lights that are lit. Router(config)#cdp run Router(config)#cdp timer 90 The following commands turns off CDP on the router's first Ethernet interface. To customize the switch configuration. Mode Meaning Stat Util Duplex Speed Solid green = Operational Flashing green = Link activity Off = Non-functional All switch port lights act as a meter to indicate overall utilization. all of which are part of the same network segment. An important characteristic of a switch is multiple ports. and it will automatically begin switching traffic to the correct ports. Modern switches can also be used to create virtual LANs (VLANs) and perform some tasks previously performed only by routers (Layer 3 switches). The color of the LEDs change to give you information about how the switch is working.

Catalyst switches include a vlan database configuration mode. changes made in vlan mode take place immediately.y y y Console connection Telnet session Web management software (connect through the LAN through a Web browser) Note: You must configure an IP address for the switch to manage it through a Telnet or Web session Switch Configuration Modes Like a router. Changes made in the vlan database configuration mode are not stored in the regular switch configuration file. Ports are numbered beginning with 1 (not 0). In addition to the special interface modes. follow the interface type and number (FastEthernet0) with the port number (/14). the switch has similar configuration modes. In other words. Like a router. the switch has multiple interface modes depending on the physical (or logical) interface type. there will be some configuration tasks that you cannot perform in vlan database mode. Enter vlan mode from the global configuration prompt. The following graphic illustrates some of the configuration modes of the switch. The vlan database mode allows you to configure a subset of features supported by the vlan configuration mode. . y y Note: Do not confuse the vlan configuration mode with the interface vlan configuration mode. For this course. You can always use the vlan configuration mode to perform all VLAN configuration tasks. On the other hand. you should be familiar with the following switch interface modes: y y y FastEthernet (100 Mbps Ethernet) GigabitEthernet (1 GB Ethernet) VLAN (Logical management interface) Note: When switching to interface configuration mode. Changes made in the vlan database configuration mode do not take effect until you save the changes. You will learn more about using each of the configuration modes throughout this section. either before or while exiting the configuration mode. You should understand the following about these two modes: y y Enter the vlan database configuration mode from the privileged user prompt. with some differences to account for switch functionality not included in routers. Configuration tasks that you can perform in this mode overlap configuration tasks you can complete in the vlan configuration mode.

Use the same options to get help.1.1 switch(config)#hostname ATL switch(config-if)#description IS_VLAN switch(config)#cdp run switch(config-if)#cdp enable switch(config)#cdp holdtime 181 switch(config)#cdp timer 66 switch(config-if)#speed 10 switch(config-if)#speed 100 switch(config-if)#speed auto . and to save and load configuration files.cfg switch(config)#enable password cisco switch(config)#enable secret cisco switch(config)#ip default-gateway 1. to move between configuration modes. or exit the system Exit all configuration modes Show the current switch configuration Show switch information such as software version and hardware components switch#show interfaces Show interface status and configuration information switch#show interfaces fastethernet 0/14 Save the current switch configuration Load a configuration file from another location Set the enable password (to cisco) Set the secret password (to cisco) Set the default gateway Set the switch hostname Set a description for a port Enable CDP on the switch Enable CDP on a port Set CDP parameters Set the port speed switch#copy running-config startupconfig switch#copy tftp://1. to set the hostname.0/my_config.0. Task Move to privileged mode from user mode Move to user mode from privileged mode Move to global configuration mode Command switch>enable switch#disable switch#configure terminal switch(config)#interface fastethernet0/14 switch(config)#interface gigabitethernet 0/17 switch(config)#interface con 0 switch(config)#interface vty 0 4 switch(config)#interface vlan 1 switch(config-if)#exit switch(config)#^Z switch#show running-config switch#show version Move to interface configuration mode Leave the current configuration mode. The following table lists common switch configuration commands. If you are familiar with router configuration.1.0. you will probably be able to guess how to complete many switch configuration tasks.Switch Configuration Command List Using the switch command line interface is similar to using the router command line interface.

Only VLAN-capable devices understand the frame tag. Use the following commands to configure the switch IP address: switch#config terminal switch(config)#interface vlan 1 switch(config-if)#ip address 1.Set the duplex mode switch(config-if)#duplex half switch(config-if)#duplex full switch(config-if)#duplex auto Switch IP Address Facts One task that is different for switches than for routers is configuring the IP address. For large networks. The area between switches is called the switch fabric. By default. Remember the following facts regarding switch frame tagging (or coloring). To configure the switch IP address. called frame tagging or frame coloring. . a switch performs switching functions just fine without an IP address set. As a frame moves from switch to switch within the switch fabric. The switch itself has only a single (active) IP address. Tags must be removed before a frame is forwarded to a non-VLAN-capable device.255. One way to identify the VLAN is for the switch to use a filtering table that maps VLANs to MAC addresses.0 switch(config-if)#no shutdown Note: To enable management from a remote network. you set the address on the management VLAN logical interface.1. and therefore do not need an IP address to function. this VLAN is VLAN 1 on the switch. and removed by the last. you will also need to configure the default gateway on the switch using the following command (notice that the default gateway is set in global configuration mode): switch(config)#ip default-gateway 1. most networks involve connecting multiple switches. Tags are appended by the first switch in the path.1 255. The IP address identifies the switch as a host on the network but is not required for switching functions. each switch must be able to identify the destination virtual LAN. Each switch port does not have an IP address (unless the switch is performing Layer 3 switching.255. Keep in mind the following facts about IP addresses configured on switches: y y y Basic switches operate at Layer 2. identifies the VLAN of the destination device.1. this solution does not scale well.254 Frame Tagging Facts Although you can create VLANs with only one switch. In fact. You only need to configure a switch IP address if you want to perform in-band management of the switch from a Telnet or Web session. This process. This is a logical interface defined on the switch to allow management functions. y y y y VLAN IDs identify the VLAN of the destination device.1.1. However. switches append a VLAN ID to each frame. a function which is not supported on 2950 switches).

or other criteria rather than physical proximity Using VLANs lets you assign devices on different switch ports to different logical (or virtual) LANs. FastEthernet ports 0/3 and 0/4 are members of VLAN 2. you might need to stick with one switch vendor. The above example has two broadcast domains. When designing VLANs. Defining VLANs creates additional broadcast domains. or service) You can simplify device moves (devices are moved to new VLANs by modifying the port assignment) You can control broadcast traffic and create collision domains based on logical criteria You can control security (isolate traffic within a VLAN) You can load-balance network traffic (divide traffic logically rather than physically) Creating VLANs with switches offers the following benefits over using routers to create distinct networks. Cisco's proprietary protocol is called the Inter-Switch Link (ISL) protocol. . workstations in VLAN 1 will not be able to communicate with workstations in VLAN 2. switches come configured with several default VLANs: o VLAN 1 o VLAN 1002 o VLAN 1003 o VLAN 1004 o VLAN 1005 By default. y Creating VLANs with switches offers the following administrative benefits.1q-capable switches to ensure a consistent tagging protocol.y Tag formats and specifications can vary from vendor to vendor. The following graphic shows a single-switch VLAN configuration. Although each switch can be connected to multiple VLANs. protocol. each of which corresponds to one of the VLANs. y y y y y You can create virtual LANs based on criteria other than physical location (such as workgroup. all ports are members of VLAN 1. each switch port can be assigned to only one VLAN at a time. even though they are connected to the same physical switch. Be aware of the following facts about VLANs: y y y y In the graphic above. By default. VLAN Facts A virtual LAN (VLAN) can be defined as: y y Broadcast domains defined by switch port rather than network address A grouping of devices based on service need. Use 802. In the graphic above. FastEthernet ports 0/1 and 0/2 are members of VLAN 1. protocol.

By default.y y y Switches are easier to administer than routers Switches are less expensive than routers Switches offer higher performance (introduce less latency) A disadvantage of using switches to create VLANs is that you might be tied to a specific vendor. y Creating VLANs with switches offers the following administrative benefits. In the graphic above. When using multiple vendors in a switched network. protocol. . Be aware of the following facts about VLANs: y y y y In the graphic above. workstations in VLAN 1 will not be able to communicate with workstations in VLAN 2. be sure each switch supports the 802. switches come configured with several default VLANs: o VLAN 1 o VLAN 1002 o VLAN 1003 o VLAN 1004 o VLAN 1005 By default. Although each switch can be connected to multiple VLANs. routers are still needed to: y y y Filter WAN traffic Route traffic between separate networks Route packets between VLANs VLAN Facts A virtual LAN (VLAN) can be defined as: y y Broadcast domains defined by switch port rather than network address A grouping of devices based on service need. each switch port can be assigned to only one VLAN at a time. FastEthernet ports 0/3 and 0/4 are members of VLAN 2. FastEthernet ports 0/1 and 0/2 are members of VLAN 1. each of which corresponds to one of the VLANs. even though they are connected to the same physical switch. or other criteria rather than physical proximity Using VLANs lets you assign devices on different switch ports to different logical (or virtual) LANs. The above example has two broadcast domains. Despite advances in switch technology. The following graphic shows a single-switch VLAN configuration. Creating a VLAN might mean you must use only that vendor's switches throughout the network.1q standards if you want to implement VLANs. Details of how VLANs are created and identified can vary from vendor to vendor. Defining VLANs creates additional broadcast domains. all ports are members of VLAN 1.

) Assign ports to the VLAN Show a list of VLANs on the system Show information for a specific VLAN y y y *Notice that the vlan database command is issued in privileged EXEC mode. protocol. Despite advances in switch technology. switch#config t switch(config)#vlan 12 switch(config-vlan)#name IS_VLAN switch(config-vlan)#interface fast 0/12 switch(config-if)#switchport access vlan 12 . ***If you have not yet defined the VLAN. **Giving the VLAN a name is optional. routers are still needed to: y y y y y Filter WAN traffic Route traffic between separate networks Route packets between VLANs VLAN Command List To configure a simple VLAN. identifies port 0/12 as having only workstations attached to it. Command(s) switch#vlan database* switch(vlan)#vlan 2 name name** switch(vlan)#exit OR apply switch(config)#vlan 2 switch(config-vlan)#name name** switch(config-if)#switchport access vlan number*** switch#show vlan switch#show vlan id number Task Define a VLAN (You can create VLANs in either vlan database mode or by using the vlan command in global configuration mode. When using multiple vendors in a switched network.y y y y y You can create virtual LANs based on criteria other than physical location (such as workgroup. The following table shows common VLAN configuration commands. and assigns the port to VLAN 12. it will be created automatically when you assign the port to the VLAN. or service) You can simplify device moves (devices are moved to new VLANs by modifying the port assignment) You can control broadcast traffic and create collision domains based on logical criteria You can control security (isolate traffic within a VLAN) You can load-balance network traffic (divide traffic logically rather than physically) Creating VLANs with switches offers the following benefits over using routers to create distinct networks. y y y Switches are easier to administer than routers Switches are less expensive than routers Switches offer higher performance (introduce less latency) A disadvantage of using switches to create VLANs is that you might be tied to a specific vendor. first create the VLAN.1q standards if you want to implement VLANs. be sure each switch supports the 802. Creating a VLAN might mean you must use only that vendor's switches throughout the network. Details of how VLANs are created and identified can vary from vendor to vendor. Example The following commands create VLAN 12 named IS_VLAN. and then assign ports to that VLAN.

Frames from all other VLANs are tagged. Workstations in VLAN 1 can only communicate with workstations in VLAN 1. ISL can only be used between Cisco devices. frames from the default VLAN 1 are not tagged. Trunking is important when you configure VLANs that span multiple switches as shown in the diagram. . The port will not use DTP on the interface. Be aware of the following facts regarding trunking and VLANs: y y In the above graphic. Trunk ports identify which ports are connected to other switches.1Q trunking. Gigabit Ethernet ports are used for trunk ports. Communications within the VLAN must pass through the trunk link to the other switch. when you connect two switches together.Trunking Trunking is a term used to describe connecting two switches together. An IEEE standard for trunking and therefore supported by a wide range of devices. One port on each switch has been assigned to each VLAN. Trunk ports are automatically members of all VLANs defined on the switch. each switch has two VLANs. they will automatically recognize each other and select the trunking protocol to use. This means that the two workstations connected to the same switch cannot communicate with each other. and to negotiate the trunking protocol used between devices. Trunking Command List The following table lists important commands for configuring and monitoring trunking on a switch. Switches use the Dynamic Trunking Protocol (DTP) to detect and configure trunk ports. Command Switch(config-if)#switchport mode trunk Function y y Enables trunking on the interface. ISL tags each frame with the VLAN ID. Catalyst 2950 switches do not support ISL. With 802. For example.1Q Cisco switches have the ability to automatically detect ports that are trunk ports. frames that are sent over a trunk port are tagged with the VLAN ID number so that the receiving switch knows to which VLAN the frame belongs. y y y When trunking is used. 802. Cisco supports two trunking protocols that are used for tagging frames. Typically. Trunking Protocol Inter-Switch Link (ISL) Characteristics A Cisco-proprietary trunking protocol.

switches are placed in one of the following three configuration modes. Enables dynamic trunking configuration. but the changes apply only to the local switch (changes are not sent to other devices). it will communicate as a normal port. A switch in transparent mode does not receive VTP configuration information from other switches. Mode Server Client Characteristics A switch in server mode is used to modify the VLAN configuration. Keep in mind the following facts about VTP: y To make VLAN changes on a switch.1Q for 2950 switches). Disables trunking configuration on the port. If a switch is connected. You can Transparent modify VLAN configuration information from a switch in transparent mode.Switch(config-if)#switchport trunk encapsulation dot1q Switch(config-if)#switchport trunk encapsulation isl Switch(config-if)#switchport mode dynamic auto y y Sets the trunking protocol to use 2950 switches only support 802. you cannot modify the VLAN configuration from a switch in client mode.1Q and therefore you will not use this command on 2950 switches Enables automatic trunking discovery and configuration. It passes VTP information to other switches as it receives the information. the switch must be in either server or transparent mode. However. The switch uses DTP to configure trunking. it will attempt to use the desired trunking protocol (802. Configuration information is then broadcast to other VTP devices. You must disable trunking before you can assign a port to a VLAN. If a switch is not connected. . A switch in client mode receives changes from a VTP server and passes VTP information to other switches. y y y y Switch(config-if)#switchport mode dynamic desirable y Switch(config-if)#switchport mode access y y Shows interface trunking information with the following: Switch#show interface trunk Switch#show interface fa0/1 trunk y y y y Mode Encapsulation Trunking status VLAN assignments VTP Facts The VLAN Trunking Protocol (VTP) simplifies VLAN configuration on a multi-switch network by propagating configuration changes to other switches. With the VTP.

This condition is known as a bridging loop. The bridge role determines how the device functions in relation to other devices. All redundant devices are classified as backup bridges. However. they will not forward packets. Only the designated bridge can forward packets. verify that neighbor devices are still functioning. It should be assigned by the network administrator. A designated bridge is any other device that participates in forwarding packets through the network. there is only one designated bridge per segment. . Spanning Tree Facts To provide for fault tolerance. providing redundant paths between segments causes packets to be passed between the redundant paths endlessly. Use the vtp mode command to configure the VTP mode of the switch. Use the show vtp status command to view the current vtp mode of the switch. Redundant bridges (and switches) are assigned as backups.y y y y If you cannot modify the VLAN configuration. With this protocol. These messages are used to select routes and reconfigure the roles of other bridges if necessary. select the bridge that is closest to the physical center of the network. There is only one root bridge per network. and creates a single. When selecting the root bridge. the IEEE 802. switches send BPDUs (Bridge Protocol Data Units) out each port. and recover from network topology changes. They are selected automatically by exchanging bridge configuration packets. The root bridge periodically broadcasts configuration messages. Switches use information in the BPDUs to elect a root bridge. To prevent bridging loops. or spanning tree protocol (STP). the switch is in client mode. Role Characteristics The root bridge is the master or controlling bridge. switches are configured in server mode. Backup bridges listen to network traffic and build the bridge database. Root Bridge Designated Bridge Backup Bridge Devices send special packets called Bridge Protocol Data Units (BPDUs) out each port. By default.1d committee defined a standard called the spanning tree algorithm (STA). Devices participating in the spanning tree algorithm use the following process to configure themselves: 1. optimum path through a network by assigning one of the following roles to each bridge or switch. The spanning tree algorithm provides the following benefits: y y y y y Eliminates bridging loops Provides redundant paths between devices Enables dynamic role configuration Recovers automatically from a topology change or device failure Identifies the optimal path between any two network devices The spanning tree algorithm automatically discovers the network topology. At startup. and whether the device forwards traffic to other segments. BPDUs sent and received from other bridges are used to determine the bridge roles. To prevent bridging loops. However. many networks implement redundant paths between devices using multiple switches. 2. A backup bridge can take over if the root bridge or a designated bridge fails. one bridge (or switch) for each route is assigned as the designated bridge.

This time period allows network traffic to settle down after a change has occurred. As the switch participates in the configuration process. it is in the blocking state. After configuration. Use the following commands to customize the spanning tree protocol. A timer is also associated with this state. Spanning Tree Command List You can configure multiple paths with switches to provide fault-tolerance. The listening state is a transitionary state between blocking and learning. the spanning tree protocol is enabled on all Cisco switches. When a device is first powered on. switches periodically send BPDUs to ensure connectivity and discover topology changes. and while it operates. The root bridge and designated bridges are in the forwarding state when they can receive and forward packets. In addition. A port in the forwarding state can both learn and forward. Command Switch(config)#no spanning-tree vlan number Switch(config)#spanning-tree vlan number root primary Function Disables spanning tree on the selected VLAN. A bridge must be manually placed in the disabled state. each of its ports is placed into one of five states. The port state determines whether the port receives and forwards normal network messages. Like bridges. verify that the first line of the output is: VLAN1 is executing the IEEE compatible spanning tree protocol.3. Forces the switch to be the root of the spanning tree. having multiple paths means that the network is susceptible to data transmission (bridging) loops. Switch port configuration is automatic when the switch is connected to the network and powered on. switches can run the spanning tree algorithm to prevent such loops from forming. The bridge receives packets and BPDUs sent to all bridges. For example. Listening Learning Forwarding Note: When you use spanning tree on a switch with multiple VLANs. if a bridge goes down. all other bridges go to the listening state for a period of time. backup bridges are always in a blocking state. To determine if the VLAN is functioning properly. Switches on redundant paths are configured as either designated (active) or backup (inactive) switches. The port remains in listening state for a specific period of time. A port in the learning state is receiving packets and building the bridge database (associating MAC addresses with ports). 4. The port goes to the forwarding state after the timer expires. By default. Port State Description Disabled Blocking A device in the disabled state is powered on but does not participate in listening to network messages or forwarding them. During this time the bridges redefine their roles. but will not process any other packets. As you know. Show spanning tree configuration information. Switch#show spanning-tree . each VLAN runs a separate instance of the spanning tree protocol.

communication will still occur over the other links in the group.Example The following commands disable spanning tree for VLAN 12 and force the switch to be the root of the spanning tree for VLAN 1. there are no restrictions on the devices that can be attached to a switch port. Port Security Facts The basic function of a switch is to pass packets from one host to another. Use EtherChannel to establish automatic-redundant paths between switches. . Note: If you do not use the channel-group command. logical link between two switches. the switch learns the MAC address of the device(s) connected to each of its ports. Switch(config)#no spanning-tree vlan 12 Switch(config)#spanning-tree vlan 1 root primary EtherChannel Facts EtherChannel combines multiple switch ports into a single. All links in the channel group are used for communication between the switches. If one link fails. When a device is connected to the switch port. With EtherChannel: y y y y y You can combine 2-8 ports into a single link. Under normal circumstances. Use EtherChannel to increase the bandwidth between switches. the spanning tree algorithm will identify each link as a redundant path to the other bridge and will put one of the ports in blocking state. Use EtherChannel to reduce spanning tree convergence times. All ports assigned to the same channel group will be viewed as a single logical link. Under normal operations. the MAC address of the frame from the connected device is place in a forwarding table. Use the channel-group command for a port to enable EtherChannel as follows: Switch(config)#interface fast 0/12 Switch(config-if)#channel-group 1 mode on Each channel group has its own number.

With switch port security. The address in the first frame received by the switch port is the allowed MAC address for the port. security mac-address h.h is a hexadecimal if)#switchport portnumber).02af .h. not with an attached switch). Enable switch port security. The following commands list the switch port configuration commands: Command Function switch(configif)#switchport mode access Identifies the port as an access port. Configures the switch to dynamically identify the allowed MAC address.02af to use Fast Ethernet port 0/12: switch(config)#interface fast 0/12 switch(config-if)#switchport mode access switch(config-if)#switchport port-security switch(config-if)#switchport port-security mac-address 5ab9. Any devices not explicitly identified will not be allowed to send frames through the switch. switch(configIdentifies the allowed MAC address (h.h switch(configif)#switchport portsecurity maximum number switch(configif)#switchport portsecurity mac-address sticky Configures the maximum number of MAC addresses that can be allowed for a port. Identifies the action the switch will take when an unauthorized device attempts to use the port.0012. The default allows only a single MAC address per port.0012. You identify the MAC address of allowed devices. Note: The Catalyst switch can sticky learn a maximum of 132 MAC addresses. Action keywords are: switch(configif)#switchport portsecurity violation action y y y switch#show port-security interface interfacetype and number protect drops the frames from the unauthorized device restrict does the same as protect and also generates an SNMP trap shutdown disables the port Shows port security information for the specified port. Use this command to increase the number allowed. Identify the MAC addresses that can use the switch. To configure port security. Examples The following commands configure switch port security to allow only host 5ab9. switch(configif)#switchport portsecurity Enables port security. take the following general actions on the port: y y y Explicitly configure the port as an access port (a port with attached hosts.h. you configure the switch to allow only specific devices to use a given port.

802. Default VLANs of 1. The switch uses fragment-free switching.1Q). In each case.1Q trunkingInter-VLAN Routing In a typical configuration with multiple VLANs and a single or multiple switches. The bottom example uses a single physical interface on the router. 1003. 1002. you will need to use a router (or a Layer 3 switch) as shown in the following graphic. In this configuration.1Q trunking is used (2950 switches only support 802. 1004. All ports are members of VLAN 1. y y Classless Interdomain Routing (CIDR) . the physical interface is divided into two logical interfaces called subinterfaces. the router interfaces are connected to switch trunk ports. All ports will automatically detect the port speed. All ports will perform automatic trunking negotiation. The router interfaces or subinterfaces must be running a trunking protocol (either ISL or 802. and 1005 exist. VTP mode is set to transparent. Be aware of the following conditions with inter-VLAN routing: y y The top example uses two physical interfaces on the router. workstations in one VLAN will not be able to communicate with workstations in other VLANs. All ports will automatically detect the duplex mode.The following commands configures Fast Ethernet port 0/15 to accept the first MAC address it receives as the allowed MAC address for the port: switch(config)#interface fast 0/15 switch(config-if)#switchport mode access switch(config-if)#switchport port-security switch(config-if)#switchport port-security mac-address sticky Default Switch Configuration By default. Each interface or subinterface requires an IP address. a Catalyst 2950 switch comes configured as follows: y y y y y y y y y All ports are enabled (no shutdown). To enable inter-VLAN communication. Spanning tree is enabled. This configuration is also called a router on a stick.

Classfull addresses are IP addresses that use the default subnet mask. you will need to be proficient at converting decimal and binary numbers. IPv6 uses 128-bit addresses instead of the 32-bit addresses used with IPv4. As the Internet grew. 10000000 01000000 00100000 00010000 00001000 00000100 00000010 00000001 128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 Binary Value Decimal Value y To find the decimal value of a number with multiple 1 bits. With private addressing. hosts are assigned an unregistered address in a predefined range. however. One solution to the problem is Classless Interdomain Routing (CIDR). CIDR routers use the following information to identify networks. each device on the network needs its own unique IP address. Private addressing with address translation. Route aggregation (also called route summarization).You can think of the Internet as one big network. the routing table represents the address as 199. combining multiple network addresses into a single larger subnet. All hosts on the private network use a single registered IP address to connect to the Internet. The following table shows the decimal value for various binary values with a single 1 bit. For example. where 21 is the number of bits in the custom subnet mask. They are classfull because the default subnet mask is used to identify the network and host portions of the address. every device would receive a registered IP address. the decimal value of the binary number 10010101 is: . Classless addresses are those that use a custom mask value to separate network and host portions of the IP address. y y The beginning network address in the range The number of bits used in the subnet mask For example. this allows multiple Class C addresses to be combined into a single network. As such. CIDR allows for variable length subnet masking (VLSM) and enables the following features: y y y Subnetting. For example.70. Supernetting. it became apparent that the number of hosts would quickly exceed the number of possible IP addresses. When working with IP addresses. simply add the decimal value of the bits together. In addition to CIDR. dividing a network address into multiple smaller subnets. In the early days of the Internet. For example. A special router (called a network address translation or NAT router) translates the multiple private addresses into the single registered IP address. this allows a single Class B or Class C addresses to be divided and used by multiple organizations. y y Binary Calculations To perform subnetting operations. work with each octet separately.0. IPv6 is not yet used on the Internet.0/21. the following other solutions were put into place to make efficient use of available IP addresses: y y IP version 6. where multiple routes are combined in a routing table as a single route.

Magic number The magic number is the decimal value of the last one bit in the subnet mask. what subnet mask should you bits and use the formula to find the number that gives you use? enough subnets and hosts. 2^n-2 Given a network address and customer Write out the default subnet mask in binary. find Use the following process to find the information you need: the: 1. set all host bits to 1 . Identify the subnet and host portions of the mask. Trust the line Given an IP address and subnet mask.y y 10000000 = 128 00010000 = 16 00000100 = 4 00000001 = 1 Total = 128 + 8 + 4 + 2 = 149 To calculate the number of valid subnets or the number of hosts per subnet. Then use the formula to find the number of subnets and Given a network address and subnet mask. how many subnets can you have and how To find the number of valid subnets. To find the number of valid hosts. draw a line y Subnet address 2. The magic number identifies: y y The first valid subnet address The increment value to find additional subnet addresses Given a network address and a subnet mask. set all host bits to 0 y Broadcast address 3. you will need to know how to find the exponential values of 2. To find smaller or larger values. To find the subnet address. divide or multiply the exponent value Subnetting Operations Use the following chart to identify the solutions to common subnetting tasks. n = the number of unmasked bits by the custom mask. hosts. 1 2 2 4 2 3 8 6 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 # of bits Exponent Exponent value 2^1 2^2 2^3 2^4 2^5 2^6 2^7 2^8 2^9 2^10 2^11 2^12 16 32 64 128 256 512 1024 2048 4096 14 30 62 128 254 510 1022 2046 4094 Total number (-2) 0 y Tip: Memorize the shaded values. Then borrow requirements. n = the number of many hosts per subnet? additional bits borrowed from the default mask. identify the valid subnet addresses. Use the following chart to identify the exponent values and the final possible number (after subtracting 2 from each exponent). Scenario Solution 2^n-2 Begin by converting the subnet mask to a binary number. To find the broadcast address.

In addition.2 255. Be sure to include an IP address for each router interface. Use the following process to identify and assign IP addresses throughout your network. Example 255. and assign them to network segments. This is the most common form used and recognized by network administrators. use the following command: terminal ip netmask-format <format keyword> Format keywords are bit-count. Calculate the subnet mask that will subdivide your network. In privileged EXEC mode. Identify the number of network addresses.255. Identify the valid subnet addresses.1 Assigning IP Addresses With Cisco routers.0 /24 (identifies 24 bits in the mask) 0xFFFFFF00 (the 0x indicates a hexadecimal number follows) Hexadecimal Eight hexadecimal numbers (each number ranges from 0 to F). Use the following commands to configure static host names or enable DNS on a router. . 3. you have the following three choices for viewing the subnet mask. 2.y Valid host address range 4.e. The bit count is typically found in routing tables.0.10. each WAN connection must have its own network address (typically assigned by the WAN service provider). Identify the number of hosts for each subnet. use the secondary parameter with the ip address command as follows: ip address 10.255.0. 5. Assign IP addresses to hosts. You will need one IP address for each device. 4.10. To do this. You can also assign multiple IP addresses to a single interface. When setting up a network for IP. Each network segment will require its own network (subnet) address. 1. Method Dotted decimal Bit count Description Four octets with set incremental values between 0 and 255. The valid host range is: o First address = Subnet address + 1 o Last address = Broadcast address . decimal. The bit count is a number that follows the IP address and indicates the total number of masked bits. or hexadecimal. Identify valid IP addresses on each subnet (i. the host address range). You can modify how the router displays the subnet mask.0 secondary Managing Host Names Host names allow you to identify network devices using logical names instead of IP addresses. or plan on using DHCP to dynamically assign IP addresses. you will have to make various decisions about the addresses used on the network.

Protocol Description Address Resolution Used by hosts to discover the MAC address of a computer from its IP address. . creating static DNS entries Identifies the router default domain (for DNS) Sets the default DNS name server Enables the router to use DNS to identify IP addresses from host names Use the show hosts command to display a list of known IP hosts. or to provide Internet connectivity with a limited number of registered IP addresses. A DHCP server can use a static list to assign a specific IP address to a specific host. (RARP) Bootstrap Protocol (BootP) Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) Used by a host (such as a diskless workstation) to query a bootstrap computer and receive an IP address assignment. NAT can be used to provide a measure of security for your private network. however. More commonly.Command ip host <name> <address> ip domain-name <name> ip name-server <address> ip domain-lookup Function Identifies hostnames. DHCP is used to dynamically assign IP address and other TCP/IP configuration parameters. the DHCP server automatically assigns an IP address from a preset range of possible addresses. Address Resolution Protocols You should know the following protocols that perform address resolution. A BootP server has a static list of MAC addresses and their corresponding IP addresses. Protocol (ARP) Reverse Address Resolution Protocol Used by a host to discover the IP address of a computer from its MAC address. Private addresses are translated to the public address of the NAT router. As you work with NAT. it's important to understand the following terminology. NAT Facts Network Address Translation (NAT) allows you to connect a private network to the Internet without obtaining registered addresses for every host. An improvement on BootP.

each inside host IP address is manually associated with a registered IP address.255 172. except that the address mappings are done automatically. Otherwise. Dynamic NAT is just like static NAT. Implementation Static NAT Characteristics With static NAT.0. The port number is appended to the inside global IP address. Overloading is the process of assigning multiple inside local addresses to a single inside global address.255.Term Inside Outside Definition The inside network is the private network.0 to 10.0. your computer will use the global outside address to contact the Web server. and fall within the following ranges: y y y y y 10.0. The following table lists the configuration steps and commands for each method. The outside network is the public network (the Internet). address Inside global address Outside global address Outside local address The inside global address is the IP address of the host after it has been translated for use on the Internet.0.31. be sure to use an IP address in the private IP address ranges for the inside local IP addresses. when you visit a Web site. A router interface that connects to the public network is also called the outside interface. Port numbers are used to identify specific inside local hosts. Instead of using the Web server address.255. Inside local The inside local address is the IP address of the host on the inside network. you manually map an inside local address to an inside global address. Dynamic NAT Overload with Port Address Translation (PAT) Note: When you configure NAT. An outside local address is an outside global address that has been translated for inside (or private) use. The term global refers to the registered IP address that identifies the inside host on the Internet. When you configure NAT. but the configuration is difficult. The outside global address is an IP address of an Internet host. A Cisco router can be configured to overcome this problem. you have the following options on a Cisco router.255.0 to 172.168.255 192. the NAT router translates an Internet host IP address into a private IP address.168.0 to 192.16. In other words. For example. In other words. hosts on your network might not be able to access outside hosts with the same IP address. Private IP addresses do not need to be registered. A router interface that connects to the private network is also called the inside interface. the internal computer will use the translated address instead.255 NAT Command List The exact method and commands you use to configure NAT on a Cisco router depends on the NAT method you use. Configuration Process Command Examples Method Static NAT Configure static mappings (mapping Router(config)#ip nat inside source . The NAT router has a pool of inside global IP addresses that it uses to map to inside local addresses.255.

0.55.255 Router(config)#ip nat inside source list 1 interface ethernet0 overload Router(config)#interface ethernet0 Router(config-if)#ip nat inside Router(config-if)#interface serial0 Router(config-if)#ip nat outside y y **These examples use access lists to identify a range of inside addresses that will be translated.0.44. traceroute.1 Router(config)#interface ethernet0 Router(config-if)#ip nat inside Router(config-if)#interface serial0 Router(config-if)#ip nat outside Router(config)#ip nat pool mary 203. the outside global address that is used is the IP address of the outside router interface. and Telnet.168. Note: When you use the overloaded method.1 IP Troubleshooting Tools Three tools you can use to help troubleshoot are ping.168. Tool Description Tests Reports Success (destination responded) or failure (no response) Round trip time to destination IP address of each hop to destination Host name of each hop (if configured) ping Uses ICMP echo packets The physical path to the Operates at the Network destination layer Network layer configuration of source.255. Uses ICMP echo packets and TTL traceroute Operates at the Network layer .0.1 203.55.1.inside local addresses to outside local addresses) Identify inside and outside interfaces Define an inside global address pool Identify allowed translated inside local addresses** Dynamic NAT Associate the allowed list with the pool Identify inside and outside interfaces Identify allowed translated inside local addresses** Overloaded with PAT Associate the allowed list with the inside interface and identify the translation type as overloaded Identify inside and outside interfaces static 192.1 203. and destination devices The physical path to the destination Network layer configuration of source.254 netmask 0. You will learn about access lists in Module 7.255 Router(config)#ip nat inside source list 1 pool mary Router(config)#interface ethernet0 Router(config-if)#ip nat inside Router(config-if)#interface serial0 Router(config-if)#ip nat outside Router(config)#access-list 1 permit 192.250 Router(config)#access-list 1 permit 192.0. intermediary.

intermediate, and destination devices

Round trip time to destination and each intermediary device Success (destination responded) or failure (no response) No report generated. An open connection indicates a valid connection.


Uses upper-layer protocols Operates above the Network layer (relies on lower-layer protocols)

The physical path to the destination Network layer configuration of source, intermediate, and destination devices Upper-layer configuration of source and destination devices

The following table describes special conventions that you should be aware of when working with these utilities. Utility Considerations
y y y y


By default, the ping command performs five tests to the destination. It waits 2 seconds for a response from the target router. An exclamation mark indicates a successful ping. A period indicates a failure. Ping includes an extended mode (available only in privileged EXEC mode). Extended ping lets you modify the number of tests, the timeout, and even the protocol tested. With extended ping, you can test non-IP protocols (such as AppleTalk or Novell IPX). Traceroute sends successive ICMP messages to a destination with increasing TTL values. For example, the first test pings the destination using a TTL of 1, the second pings with a TTL of 2, and so on. By default, traceroute sends three ping tests for each TTL value. It waits three seconds for a response. Responses to each test within the traceroute command are as follows: o A time exceeded message indicates that a router has received the packet but the TTL has expired. For example, if the TTL is set to 3, the third router in the path responds with the time exceeded message. o A destination unreachable message indicates that the router in the path does not have a route to the destination network or device. o An asterisk ( * ) indicates that the timer has expired without a response. Traceroute includes an extended version that lets you modify the number of packets sent, the timeout, and the protocol. With extended traceroute, you can


y y



test non-IP protocols.
y y y


To suspend a Telnet session, press Ctrl + Shift + 6, then X. To resume a Telnet session, use the resume command. By default, debug information shows only on the console, not in the Telnet session window. Use the terminal monitor command to show debug information in a Telnet session.

IP Troubleshooting Tips One important step in troubleshooting network communications is to verify the IP address, subnet mask, and default gateway settings of each host. Keep in mind the following as you troubleshoot IP:
y y y y y y

All computers must be assigned a unique IP address. Hosts on the same physical network should have IP addresses in the same address range. The subnet mask value for all computers on the same physical network must be the same. Configure the default gateway value to enable internetwork communication. The default gateway address must be on the same subnet as the host's IP address. You do not need to configure an IP address on a switch for frames to be switched through the switch. To ping to and from a switch or to remotely manage the switch, configure an IP address on the switch.

Listed below are several common symptoms and things to try to correct communication problems. Problem A single host cannot communicate with any other host. Symptoms Ping to any other host fails. Solution Because the problem exists with only one host, troubleshoot the configuration of the host with the problem.

A single host can communicate with all hosts on the same network, but can't communicate with any host on any other network. All hosts can communicate within the same network, but cannot communicate with any host outside of the local network.

Ping to hosts on the same network succeed, ping to hosts on other networks Verify the default gateway setting fails. of the host with the problem. Traceroute on the host times out with only a single entry. Ping to hosts on the same network succeed, ping to hosts on other networks fails. If DHCP is used to assign IP information to hosts, verify the default gateway setting delivered by the DHCP server.

Traceroute on the host times out with only a single entry. The routing table on the router shows only directly-connected networks. Verify the routing configuration of the default gateway router.

All hosts cannot communicate with hosts on a specific outside network. Communication with other networks is fine.

Ping to the remote network fails, traceroute on the host times out with only a single entry. Add a route to the routing table, or The routing table on the configure the gateway of last resort router does not show the (default route) on the router. destination network, or the gateway of last resort is not set. The routing table has a route to the destination network. Traceroute on the router times out. Troubleshoot other routers in the path to the destination network. Use traceroute to identify the last responding router and begin troubleshooting there.

All hosts cannot communicate with a specific remote host. Communication with other remote hosts in the same remote network is fine.

Ping to the remote host fails. Traceroute to the remote host indicates no response from the host. Troubleshoot the configuration of The routing table shows a the remote host. route to the destination network (or the gateway of last resort is used).

Access List Facts Routers use access lists to control incoming or outgoing traffic. You should know the following characteristics of an access list.
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Access lists describe the traffic type that will be controlled. Access list entries describe the traffic characteristics. Access list entries identify either permitted or denied traffic. Access list entries can describe a specific traffic type, or allow or restrict all traffic. When created, an access list contains an implicit "deny all" entry at the end of the access list. Each access list applies only to a specific protocol. Each router interface can have up to two access lists for each protocol, one for incoming traffic and one for outgoing traffic.

Access lists can be used to log traffic that matches the list statements. IP. TCP..0.e. it automatically contains a "deny any" statement. For a list to allow any traffic. . Router(config)#access-list 1 deny 10. When you create an access list. each interface can only have one incoming and one outgoing list. . Create an access list entry.0. UDP. Access lists exist globally on the router. .0. Use the following number ranges to define the access list: 1-99 = Standard IP access lists 100-199 = Extended IP access lists Apply the standard or extended IP access list to a specific interface. and applies the list to the Ethernet0 interface.) Source hostname or host IP address Source hostname or host IP address Source or destination socket number Destination hostname or host IP address Precedence or TOS values IP Access List Command List Configuring access lists involves two general steps: 1.0 0.. it must have at least one permit statement. Source IP protocol (i. Examples The following commands create a standard IP access list that permits all outgoing traffic except the traffic from network 10.0.. . However.255. it identifies whether the list restricts incoming or outgoing traffic. etc. Use an extended list to filter on. Create the list and list entries with the access-list command 2. There are two general types of access lists: basic and extended. Apply the list to a specific interface with the ip access-group command Use .255. either permitting a specific traffic type or permitting all traffic not specifically restricted.0.255 Router(config)#access-list 1 permit any Router(config)#int e0 Router(config-if)#ip access-group 1 out . Use a standard list to filter on. although this statement does not appear in the list itself.. Each access list can be applied to more than one interface. Router(config)#access-list <number> Router(config-if)#ip accessgroup <number> To . but filter traffic only for the interfaces to which they have been applied.y y y y When an access list is applied to an interface.

1.1. wildcard masks operate at the bit level.0. When used to identify network addresses in access list statements. and applies the list to the first serial interface. The following commands create an extended IP access list that rejects packets from host 10.1.255 11.255 = 0 o Second octet: 255 .0.12.0. wildcard masks are the exact opposite of a subnet mask.16. and applies the list to the second serial interface.0/21.0 Router(config)#access-list 101 permit ip any any Router(config)#int s1 Router(config-if)#ip access-group 101 in The following commands create an extended IP access list that does not forward TCP packets from any host on network 10. For example.12.255 = 0 o Third octet: 255 . Any bit in the wildcard mask with a 0 value means that the bit must match to match the access list statement.255. A mask that covers 21 bits converts to 255. To find the wildcard mask: 1. Router(config)#access-list 101 deny ip 10.0 0. The wildcard mask would be: o First octet: 255 .0.12. Router(config)#access-list 111 deny tcp 10. Subtract each octet in the subnet mask from 0.0 2. When created.0.1 sent to host 15. Router(config)#access-list 2 permit 10.0 = 255 This gives you the mask of: 0.248.255 Router(config)#access-list 111 permit ip any any Router(config)#int s0 Router(config-if)#ip access-group 111 in Calculating Wildcard Masks The wildcard mask is used with access list statements to identify a range of IP addresses (such as all addresses on a specific network).255.1.16 Router(config)#int s0 Router(config-if)#ip access-group 2 in Note: Remember that each access list contains an explicit deny any entry. Identify the decimal value of the subnet mask.1 0.0. and applies the list to the Serial0 interface. 2.248 = 7 o Fourth octet: 255 .1.1.255 Like subnet masks.1.1.0. A bit with a 1 value means that the bit . following commands create a standard IP access list that rejects all traffic except traffic from host 10.12.1. To calculate the wildcard mask: 1. suppose you wanted to allow all traffic on network 10.16. the access list denies all traffic except traffic explicitly permitted by permit statements in the list.12.0 15.0 to network 11.12.255.

all bits identified with a 0 in the wildcard mask must match between the address and the network address.7.00010000.mmmmmmmm. Address Type Subnet address Wildcard mask Target address #1 Decimal Values 10. In this example.00000000 00000000.15 Binary Values 00001010.255 Notice how the bits in the wildcard mask are exactly opposite of the bits in the subnet mask.00001100.00000000 11111111.mmmmmmmx.00001100.00001101.16.mmmmmiii.16.00000111. Now suppose that a packet addressed to 10.16.255 10. The router uses the wildcard mask to compare the bits in the address to the bits in the subnet address. Suppose an access list were created with a statement as follows: access-list 12 deny 10.0. let's examine the subnet address.16.7. Address Type Decimal Values Binary Values Subnet address 10.00000000.mmmmmiii.17.0 How the router applies the mask to the address m=match mmmmmmmm.13.11111000.12.00010000.15 was received.0 00001010.12.255 10.00000000.0.00001100.00000000 00000000.15 matches the access list statement and the traffic is denied.11111111.0.00000000.0.11111111 Wildcard mask 0. Any bit identified with a 1 is ignored.248. and wildcard mask in binary form for the preceding example.11111111 00001010.0 0.11111111 00001010. The router uses the wildcard mask to compare the bits in the address to the bits in the subnet address.12.00000111.00001100. For example.iiiiiiii .17.00010000.16.00000000 00000000.does not have to match. Address Type Subnet address Wildcard mask Target address #1 Decimal Values 10.0 Subnet mask 255.7.00010001.13.00010000.00000111.7.255.00001111 How the router applies the mask to the address y y y m=match i=ignored x=doesn't match mmmmmmmm. 10.15 Binary Values 00001010.16.15 was received.0 0.iiiiiiii i=ignored x=doesn't match In this example. subnet mask.255 Suppose that a packet addressed to

Identify blocked and allowed traffic. For example. You can have two access lists for the same direction applied to an interface if the lists restrict different networking protocols. Place the access list on the interface where a single list will block (or allow) all necessary traffic. Keep in mind the following: y Each interface can only have one inbound and one outbound access list for each protocol.. Designing Access Lists After you have created an access list. y y y y y y y Monitoring Access Lists The following list summarizes the commands to use for viewing specific access list information on the router. Each access list has an implicit deny any statement at the end of the access list. this means you will need to decide which router. When making placement decisions. As a general rule. Traffic is matched to access list statements in the order they appear in the list.Notice that this address does not match the access list statement as identified with the wildcard mask. as well as the direction that traffic will be traveling. carefully read all access lists statements and requirements.. and which direction to apply the access list to. Your access list must contain at least one allow statement. As a general rule. This means that an interface can have either a standard inbound or an extended inbound IP access list. subsequent statements will not be applied to the traffic. If traffic matches a statement high in the list. apply extended access lists as close to the source router as possible. show run show access-lists show ip int show run show log show run show ip access-lists All access lists applied to an interface Rejected traffic information IP access lists configured on the router . This is because standard access lists can only filter on source address. or no traffic will be allowed. In many cases. Access lists applied to inbound traffic filter packets before the routing decision is made. but not both. If you want to view. Placing the list too close to the source will prevent any traffic from the source from getting to any other parts of the network. with port. you can have one outbound IP access list and one outbound IPX access list.. apply standard access lists as close to the destination router as possible. traffic would be permitted. This keeps the packets from being sent throughout the rest of the network. you must apply it to an interface.. In this case. Access lists applied to outbound traffic filter packets after the routing decision is made. When constructing access lists. place the most restrictive statements at the top. All access lists that exist on the router Use.

That organization is free to create one large network. y y y Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP)--protocol that routes traffic within the AS Exterior Gateway Protocol (EGP)--protocol that routes traffic outside of or between ASs Border Gateway Protocol (BGP)--enhancement of EGP that routes traffic between ASs In this course. build routing tables. and make decisions about how to send packets through the internetwork. . routers continue to send information about routes back to the next hop router. In addition. Routers do not report route information to the routers on that path. Each autonomous system is identified by an AS number. y y y y Routers send updates only to their neighbor routers Routers send their entire routing table Tables are sent at regular intervals (each router is configured to specify its own update interval) Routers modify their tables based on information received from their neighbors Because routers using the distance vector method send their entire routing table at specified intervals. routers do not report information back to the router from which their information originated. In other words. Like a bridging loop. Using the split horizon with poison reverse method (also called poison reverse or route poisoning). they are used to connect multiple ASs together. or divide the network into subnets. they are susceptible to a condition known as a routing loop (also called a count-to-infinity condition). routers keep track of where the information about a route came from. This number can be locally administered. a routing loop occurs when two routers share different information. Method Split horizon Split horizon with poison Characteristics Using the split horizon method (also called best information). you will learn about the following Interior Gateway Protocols: y y y y Routing Information Protocol (RIP) Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP) Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) Distance Vector Routing Facts Keep in mind the following principles about the distance vector method. Routers use a routing protocol to dynamically discover routes.A specific access list show access-lists <number> Routing Protocol Facts Each organization that has been assigned a network address from an ISP is considered an autonomous system (AS). Routing protocols can be classified based on whether they are routing traffic within or between autonomous systems. or registered if the AS is connected to the Internet. Routers are used within an AS to segment (subnet) the network. The following methods can be used to minimize the effects of a routing loop.

for a period of time. The time period typically reflects the time required to attain convergence on the network. Neighboring routers exchange LSAs (link-state advertisements) to construct a topological database. routers broadcast their routing tables periodically. Routers select routes based on the shortest route using an algorithm known as Shortest Path First (SPF). If the next hop router notices that the route is still reachable. Routers send information about only their own links. With the hold down method. With this method. y y y y y The link state method has the following advantages over the distance vector method. routers will. If. With the triggered update method (also known as a flash updates). . it ignores the information. Routers use LSPs to build their tables and calculate the best route. routers that receive updated (changed) information broadcast those changes immediately rather than waiting for the next reporting interval.reverse but advertise the path as unreachable. the path timeout has been reached. Triggered updates Hold downs The distance vector method has the following advantages: y y y y Stable and proven method (distance vector was the original routing algorithm) Easy to implement and administer Bandwidth requirements negligible for a typical LAN environment Requires less hardware and processing power than other routing methods Distance vector has the following disadvantages: y y y y Relatively long time to reach convergence (updates sent at specified intervals) Routers must recalculate their routing tables before forwarding changes Susceptible to routing loops (count-to-infinity) Bandwidth requirements can be too great for WAN or complex Link State Routing Facts Keep in mind the following information about the link state method. "hold" an update that reinstates an expired link. o There is a new neighbor. it results in greater network traffic because the entire table is broadcast each time an update is sent. however. Link-state protocols send hello packets to discover new neighbors. Network administrators have greater flexibility in setting the metrics used to calculate routes. Convergence happens faster with poison reverse than with simple split horizon. y y y y Routers broadcast LSPs to all routers (this process is known as flooding). punctuated by special broadcasts if conditions have changed. The hold down timer is reset when the timer runs out or when a network change occurs. This method reduces the convergence time. The SPF algorithm is applied to the topological database to create an SPF tree from which a table of routing paths and associated ports is built. o A neighbor has gone down. However. o The cost to a neighbor has changed. the route is immediately set to unreachable (16 hops for RIP). LSPs are sent at regular intervals and when any of the following conditions occur.

Each area router receives updates from the designated router. Use . . Identify a next hop router to receive packets sent to the specified destination network. . It is possible for LSPs to get delayed or lost. the link state method has the following problems: y The link state algorithm requires greater CPU and memory capability to calculate the network topology and select the route because the algorithm re-creates the exact topology of the network for route computation. This is particularly a problem for larger networks. To turn off all routing protocols and reduce traffic or improve security. For small networks that do not change very often and that have only a few networks. or if the bandwidth between links vary (i. Listed below are several situations when you might want to configure static routes.e. However. Routers share information within the area. . resulting in an inconsistent view of the network. When your router cannot find a packet's address in its routing table. Configuring static routes is useful for increasing security. a collection of areas under common administration. the last problem is of greatest concern. y y Static Route Facts Most networks will use one (or more) routing protocols to automatically share and learn routes.y y y y Less convergence time (because updates are forwarded immediately) Not susceptible to routing loops Less susceptible to erroneous information (because only firsthand information is broadcast) Bandwidth requirements negligible for a typical LAN environment Although more stable than the distance vector method. LSPs can be identified with a time stamp. y y In particular. and routers on area borders share information between areas. . You can also configure a default router. It generates a high amount of traffic when LSPs are initially flooded through the network or when the topology changes. Router(config)#ip route <destination> <next_hop> To . Routers can be grouped into areas. sequence or ID number. after the initial configuration occurs. Static Route Command List Static routes lock a router into using the route you specify for all packets. y y Slowing the LSP update rate keeps information more consistent. y y y y To configure a default route or a route out of a stub network (a stub network is one that has a single route into and out of the network).) One router in each area is designated as the authoritative source of routing information (called a designated router). the traffic from the link state method is smaller than that from the distance vector method. and for small networks or networks that have only one possible path. The following solutions are often implemented to overcome some of the effects of inconsistent LSP information. . (Areas logically subdivide an Autonomous System (AS). it sends the packet to the default router. To configure routes that are lost due to route summarization. LSPs travel faster through parts of the network than through others). or aging timer to ensure proper synchronization. if parts of the network come on line at different times.

the invalid timer default is 180.0.1. and the flush timer default is It has the following characteristics when running on a Cisco router. Router(config)#ip route 0. but only if the cost is the same.0 s1 11.1.2 Use the ip route command to configure static routes on each router.255.1 RIP Facts The Routing Information Protocol (RIP) is a simple. so it uses full address classes.35 25 The following command creates a permanent static route to network 192. Router(config)#ip classless Enables the router to match routes based on the number of bits in the mask and not the default subnet mask.1.0 10.1. the holddown timer default is 180.168.168. The update interval default is 30. RIP routing is limited to 15 hops to any location (16 hops indicates the network is unreachable).0.0 255.2. RIP will select this route as the optimal route.1. use the following three steps: 1. RIP broadcasts updates to the entire network.0 as the default network for the local router.168. Router(config)#ip default-network Identify a default network on which all packets sent to <network> unknown networks are forwarded. Because the first route has fewer hops. 255.35 and gives it a value of 25. Router(config)#ip route 192.Router(config)#ip route <destination> <interface> Identify the interface used to forward packets to the specified destination network.1. One route uses a 56 Kbps link with a single hop. suppose that two routes exist between two networks.0 The following command identifies a default route through an interface with address 10. RIP supports load balancing over same-cost paths. effective routing protocol for small.0 serial 1 30 permanent The following command designates network 10. y y y y y y y y Examples The following command creates a static route to network 255.0.0 0. y y y y y y y y RIP uses hop and tick counts to calculate optimal routes. .1. Enable IP routing if it is not already enabled (use the ip routing command). Router(config)#ip route 192.255.1. RIP uses only classful routing. LAX(config)#ip route 13. while the other route uses a Gigabit link that has two hops. RIP uses the split horizon with poison reverse method to prevent the count-to-infinity problem.168.1.0 through the router's second serial interface.0.0. the following command configures a static route on router LAX to the 13.0.1. not subnets.0. For example. it might end up selecting a less than optimal route.0 network.168. RIP can maintain up to six multiple paths to each network.0 through the router with the IP address 192. RIP Command List To configure any routing protocol. For example.0.255. Note: Because RIP uses the hop count in determining the best route to a remote medium-sized networks. Router(config)#ip default-network 10.

Use this command only if it has been disabled. and not interfaces.0. IP routing is enabled by default. not a subnetted network address. Identify the networks that will participate in dynamic routing (use the network command.0. y y Identify only networks to which the router is directly connected. When you use the network command to identify the networks that will participate in RIP routing. Example The following commands enable IP routing and identify two networks that will participate in the RIP routing protocol.10. Router(config)#ip routing Router(config)#router rip Router(config-router)#network 10.0 RIP Troubleshooting Introduction The next set of simulations gives you a chance to troubleshoot RIP routing. Your job is to diagnose and fix the problem. . follow these rules. .0 Router(config-router)#network 192. 3. <network> Router(config)#passive-interface Prevent routing update messages from behind sent through <interface> a router interface. Switch to router configuration mode (use the router command. Notice that you identify networks. . Identify networks that will participate in the router protocol. Use . Router(config)#no ip routing Disable IP routing on the router. Use the classful network address. one or more routers have been misconfigured. followed by the routing protocol you want to configure). Router(config-router)#no network Remove a specific RIP network. Enable IP routing for the entire router. Enter router RIP configuration mode (also referred to as "enabling RIP"). . Router(config)#no router rip Disable RIP and remove all RIP networks. followed by the address of a network to which the router is directly connected). Router(config)#ip routing Router(config)#router rip Router(config-router)#network <address> To . For each scenario. All simulations use the same network layout as shown.168. . This identifies the interfaces that will share and process received routing updates.2.

255.168. metric 3 The following table interprets each line in the sample output. metric 2 network on Serial0 192.201) network 192. you should be able to identify the consequences of the various messages. From the output of a debug ip rip command.201) network y y y y ping or traceroute show ip route sh int/sh ip int sh run For example.1.0 in 2 hops RIP: sending v1 update to 255. 8 Meaning This line identifies the router and the interface where RIP updates are received.0 in 16 hops (inaccessible) RIP: received v1 update from 192. begin by verifying the problem. From the LAX router.0 in 1 hops 192.255 via Serial0 (192.0 in 15 hops RIP: sending v1 update to 255. Line Number(s) 1. you can use the following commands to help identify the problem: y y y show ip route show ip protocols debug ip rip You should be familiar with the RIP routing update sequences and messages. you can then examine the configuration of specific routers RIP Debugging If you are having problems with routers not sharing or learning routes.255 via Ethernet0 (192.5. Based on the missing networks.0 in 1 hops 192. metric 1 network 192.0. ping the SFO Ethernet0 interface. In this . metric 1 network 192.0.1 on Ethernet0 10.1. metric 2 network identifying which networks are missing from the routing table. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 RIP: received v1 update from 192.0. one way to use the sh ip route command in troubleshooting is to view the routing table for each router.255.255. Listed below is sample output from the debug ip rip command. The following commands may be useful in identifying the problem.0.0.In each case.

This is because the local router has a hop count of 15 for that network.168.0/24 [120/2] via 192. Be aware of the following items: 5-7. Ethernet0 192.1. Serial0 192.202 on Serial0 The hop count shown in the received route will be the metric used when the route is placed in the routing table of the local router. IGRP Facts .168. the router increments the hop count. 16 hops is the maximum hop count for RIP. subtract 1 from the sent hop count.2. Serial0 with an IP address of from router 192.0 from router 192.168. 12-14 y y Before sending the information. is directly connected.0.1. This line identifies the interface on which RIP updates are sent.168. This example shows the following routes received: 2- 00:00:04.0/24 [120/1] via 192. To identify the hop count in the local routing table.5.0 and 192. Serial0 192.202 on Serial0 Indented below each RIP line are the specific routing entries that are received.168.5.0/24 is directly connected.168.168.0 and 192.201 For comparison.168.1.168. the following interfaces have been enabled to share RIP information: y y 4.168.3. 11 This means that the following commands have been entered on the router: router rip network 00:00:04. In this example.0/8 [120/1] via Line 7 (network 192.0 Indented below the RIP line are the entries that are shared with other routers. the router is connected to two other routers: y y Router is advertised as inaccessible (16 hops).1. 00:00:05. Serial0 [120/15] via 192.1 on Ethernet0 Router 192. 9-10 y y 10.168.0 network 192.0. here's how the routing table of the local router would appear: R C C R R R 10.201 Ethernet0 with an IP address of 192. Ethernet0 192.1.1 on Etherent0 192.

You should remember the following characteristics of link state protocols that apply to OSPF: y Is a public (non-proprietary) routing protocol. When using the router command.168. The default update interval is higher for IGRP than RIP because it uses flash updates. IGRP uses an autonomous system (AS) number as part of the configuration.Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP) is a dynamic routing protocol that sends neighboring routers updates of its routing table. and MTU). Defaults are: o Update interval = 90 seconds o Invalid route = 270 seconds (3 times the update) o Holddown = 280 seconds (3 times the update + 10) o Flush = 630 seconds (7 times the update) y y IGRP Command List Configuring IGRP is very similar to configuring RIP. . IGRP uses split horizon with poison reverse. You can also configure the hop count limit. It is Cisco's proprietary routing protocol. Notice that you identify networks. reliability. loading. use the classful network address (the network specified with the default subnet mask). To . which Cisco recommends that you use instead of RIP. Router(config)#ip routing Enter router IGRP configuration mode for the specified Autonomous Router(config)#router igrp System. . IGRP has the following characteristics: y y y y y y y y IGRP can handle much larger networks. IGRP uses flash updates (sending changed information immediately) for faster convergence. IGRP supports multiple-path connections. It will keep track of same-cost and different-cost routes. Use . the AS number must match on all routers.0 OSPF Facts The Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) routing protocol is a robust link state routing protocol well-suited for large networks.0.0. This AS number must be the same on each router that will share information. It can keep track of up to six different paths. however. Router(config)#router igrp 25 Router(config-router)#network 10. When identifying networks. Note: When configuring multiple routers to share <ASnumber> information with IGRP. . .0 Router(config-router)#network 192. and not interfaces. Use this command only if it has been disabled. Enable IP routing for the entire router. delay. . IP routing is enabled by default. with a hop count limit of 255 (rather than 16). IGRP uses a composite metric (a 24-bit number assigned to each path that can include such factors as bandwidth. you must include the AS number. y y Example The following commands identify two networks that will participate in the IGRP routing protocol for AS number 25 (assuming IP routing is already enabled). Router(configrouter)#network <address> Identify networks that will participate in the router protocol.0.

o A stub area is an area with a single path in to and out of the area. OSPF uses built-in loop avoidance techniques. the process ID number is not the same thing as outer ospf the AS number used in IGRP/EIGRP routing. Router(config)#r The process ID identifies a separate routing process on the router. Uses hello packets to discover neighbor routers.0. Routers within an area share information about the area. you can force a specific router ID by defining a loopback interface and assigning it an IP address OSPF Command List OSPF is fairly simple. split horizon. Good design can minimize this impact. Maintains a logical topographical map of the network in addition to maintaining routes to various networks. Because the loopback interface takes precedence over the physical interfaces in determining the router ID. and distributes routing information between areas. (Unadvertised links save on IP space. Note: Although similar. It sends the subnet mask in the routing update and supports route summarization and VLSM. It contains networks not held within another area. Routers on the edge of areas (called Area Border Routers (ABR)) share summarized information between areas. process-id Process IDs do not need to match between routers (in other words. The Shortest Path First (SPF) algorithm (also called the Dijkstra SPF algorithm) is used to identify and select the optimal route. each router is assigned a router ID (RID).) Under normal conditions. but they cannot be pinged because they won't appear in an OSPF routing table. o The backbone is a specialized area connected to all other areas. Is scalable and does not have the 16 hop limitation of RIP. Command Purpose Use to enter configuration mode for OSPF. Uses link costs as a metric for determining best routes. or poison reverse are not needed. Instead. You can think of the backbone as the "master" or "root" area.y y y y y y y y y y y Is considered a classless routing protocol because it does not assume the default subnet masks are used.0. Mechanisms such as holddown timers. OSPF only sends out updated information rather than exchanging the entire routing table. the highest IP address of the router's physical interfaces. Converges faster than a distance vector protocol.0. LSAs contain small bits of information about routes. The following table lists the commands and details for configuring OSPF. All OSPF networks must have a backbone area. Configuration is as simple as defining the OSPF process using the router ospf command. The router ID is: y y The highest IP address assigned to a loopback (logical) interface. and then identifying the networks that will participate in OSPF routing. two routers configured with different process IDs might still share OSPF . Can require additional processing power (and therefore increased system requirements). Uses areas to subdivide large networks. If a loopback interface is not defined. As part of the OSPF process. Is not susceptible to routing loops. Its address is always 0. Shares routing information through Link State Advertisements (LSAs). with only a few variations from the RIP and IGRP configuration steps you have previously use.

0. Example The following graphic shows a sample network with two OSPF areas. not the process ID. router)#network m.0.information).255. Shows the neighbor router ID numbers. Managing OSPF The following table lists some commands that are useful in monitoring and troubleshooting OSPF. 0.255 area 0 network 10.1 0.1. Use the following commands to configure OSPF on each router: Router Configuration router ospf 1 network 10.255 area 1 network 10.1. You can use the subnet address with the appropriate wildcard mask (as in 10.m is a wildcard mask (not the normal subnet mask).m.0 The n. The area number must match between routers.0 0.n.0.2.n is the network address.1 0.15.255 area 1 network 10.32.0. and the OSPF area of the subnet.32. Identifies networks that participate in OSPF routing.0 area 1 router ospf 1 network 10. .255 area 1 router ospf 2 network View neighbor OSPF routers.1.0 0. classless Router(confignetwork. OSPF uses areas to identify sharing of routes. area number number is the area number in the OSPF topology. n.16.m.0 area 1 network 0. wildcard mask. or you can use the IP address of the router interface with a mask of 0.15.16.m.0 0.m.n. Command show ip route show ip ospf neighbor Function View the routing table and OSPF entries. A subnet can only be in one area.n.0.n m. This can be a subnetted.255 area 1 SFO LAX PHX Notice the following in the configuration: The process ID on each router does not match. The network command identifies the subnet.255).0.m wildcard mask identifies the subnet address.

Exchanges the full routing table at startup. The following table lists the applicable commands. EIGRP will query neighbor routers to discover an alternate route. Uses hello packets to discover neighbor routers.n.n. Requires less processing and memory than link state protocols. Instead. When change occurs. EIGRP can exchange routes for IP. only routing table changes are propagated in EIGRP not the entire table. EIGRP uses built-in loop avoidance techniques. Includes information such as: y y y y y Area number Process ID Router ID Timer settings Adjacent routers show ip ospf interface EIGRP Facts Enhanced IGRP is a Cisco-proprietary balanced hybrid routing protocol that combines the best features of distance vector and link state routing. Minimizes network bandwidth usage for routing updates. During normal operation EIGRP transmits only hello packets across the network. convergence can be almost instantaneous because an EIGRP router stores backup routes for destinations. or poison reverse are not needed. Supports automatic classful route summarization at major network boundaries (this is the default in EIGRP). It supports route summarization and VLSM. Converges more quickly than distance vector protocols. EIGRP: y y Sends the subnet mask in the routing update. In some cases. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y EIGRP Command List You configure EIGRP just the same as you would configure IGRP. Maintains partial network topology information in addition to routes. In this manner. Is scalable and does not have the 16 hop limitation of RIP.View interfaces that are running OSPF. EIGRP can quickly adapt to alternate routes when changes occur. Supports multiple protocols. Command Router(config)#router eigrp number Router(config-router)#network n.n . manual route summarization can also be configured on arbitrary network boundaries to reduce the routing table size. Keeps multiple paths to a single network. Is not susceptible to routing loops. EIGRP does not send periodic routing updates like RIP and IGRP. Identifies a network that participates in the routing process. Uses the DUAL link-state algorithm for calculating routes. Mechanisms such as holddown timers. split horizon. AppleTalk and IPX/SPX networks. and then partial routing updates thereafter. The number must match between routers for information to be shared. If no appropriate route or backup exists in the routing table. Function Defines an EIGRP process. Uses bandwidth and delay for the route metric (similar to IGRP). Unlike IGRP and RIP.

168. split Full network Partial network horizon.0 Use the following commands to manage and monitor EIGRP.168. poison reverse Low No No Hold down timers.0 Router(config-network)#network 192. Command show ip route show eigrp neighbors show eigrp interfaces Routing Protocol Comparison The following table compares various features of the routing protocols you will need to know for this course. Features View EIGRP-learned routes. poison reverse topology topology Low No No Can be high Yes Yes Lower than OSPF No No . also sends triggered updates of changed routes Yes Fast Yes No Discovers neighbors before No sending routing information Sends full routing table at each update Loop avoidance Memory and CPU requirements Uses areas in network design Uses wildcards to define participating networks Yes Hold down timers.1.0 Router(config-network)#network 192. Lists the IP address of the connected router.168. split horizon.y y y Example The following commands enable EIGRP on a router and defines three networks that participate in the routing process. Characteristic Routing method Public standard Metric VLSM support Classless routing Route summarization Sends mask in updates Convergence time RIP Distance vector Yes Hop count IGRP Distance vector No Bandwidth and delay OSPF Link state Yes Link cost EIGRP Balanced hybrid No Bandwidth and delay Yes Fast Yes No Version 2 only Slow No Slow (faster than RIP) No Yes. View neighboring routers from which EIGRP routes can be learned.3.2. View the interfaces that are running EIGRP and the number of connected routers. Router(config)#router eigrp 2 Router(config-network)#network 192.

Component Consumer premises equipment (CPE) Description Devices physically located on the subscriber's premises. The wiring typically includes UTP cable . A typical WAN structure includes the following components. telephone.Routing Administrative Distances The administrative distance is a number assigned to a source of routing information (such as a static route or a specific routing protocol). In addition. it will choose the route with the lowest administrative distance (OSPF in this example). the router will choose the route that has the best cost as defined by the routing metric (for EIGRP the link with the highest bandwidth and least delay will be used). The following table shows the default administrative values for a Cisco router. When making routing decisions. The router uses these values to select the source of information to use when multiple routes to a destination exist. 3. If a router has learned of two routes through the same protocol (for example two routes through EIGRP). 2. WAN Structure 4. CPE includes the telephone wire. If a router has learned of two routes to a single network through different routing protocols (such as RIP and OSPF). there might be multiple paths between any two points. A smaller number indicates a more trusted route. modem. Routers can learn about routes to other networks using multiple routing protocols. Route Source Connected interface Static route EIGRP summary route EIGRP internal route IGRP OSPF RIP EIGRP external route Administrative Distance 0 1 5 90 100 110 120 170 Note: You can modify how routes are selected by modifying the administrative distance associated with a source. the router uses the following criteria for choosing between multiple routes: 1. both the devices the subscriber owns and the ones leased from the WAN provider. and other equipment. 5.

The hierarchy of trunks. A device on the network side of a WAN link that sends and receives data. carriers to provide connections to almost anywhere in the world. fiber optic. DCEs may be devices similar to DTEs (such as routers). and central offices that make up the network of telephone lines. Fiber optic cable to the demarc is rare. and arrives at its destination. It provides WAN-cloud entry and exit points for incoming and outgoing calls. The demarc media is owned and maintained by the telephone company. and marks the point of entry between the LAN and the WAN. it is UTP. Cable that extends from the demarc to the central telephone office. COs use long-distance. The phone company is responsible for all equipment on the other side of the demarc. and the nearest point of presence for the WAN provider. the customer is responsible for all equipment on one side of the demarc. but computers and multiplexers can also act as DTEs. The switching facility closest to the subscriber. Few people thoroughly understand where data goes as it is switched through the "cloud. The DTE resides on the subscriber's premises. or toll. but it can also be one or a combination of UTP. It also provides reliable DC power to the local loop to establish an electric circuit." What is important is that data goes in. except that each device plays a different role. A device that communicates with both DTEs and the WAN cloud. CPE is sometimes used synonymously with DTE. Typically. a modem or CSU/DSU at the customer site is often classified as a DCE. DCEs are typically routers at the service provider that relay messages between the customer and the WAN cloud. Central office (CO) Data circuitterminating equipment (DCE) WAN cloud Packet-switching exchange (PSE) WAN Services Facts Listed below are the most common WAN transmission media. and can include all computers. A switch on a carrier's packet-switched network. switches. DTEs are usually routers. Line Type Characteristics POTS service has the following characteristics: Plain Old Telephone Service (POTS) y y y y Existing wires use only one twisted pair Analog signals are used through the local loop A modem is required to convert digital signals to analog The line has an effective limit of 56 Kbps . the DTE is the device that communicates with the DCE at the other end. and acts as a switching point to forward data to other central offices. DTEs are any equipment at the customer's site. The demarc can also be called the network interface or point of Demarcation point presence. (demarc) Typically. It is represented as a cloud because the physical structure varies. In a strict sense. Long-distance carriers are usually owned and operated by companies such as AT&T or MCI. and different networks with common connection points may overlap. PSEs are the intermediary points in the WAN cloud. In a narrow sense. travels through the line. Data terminal equipment (DTE) Local loop The point where the telephone company's telephone wiring connects to the subscriber's wiring. Broadly. Thus. A CO provides services such as switching incoming telephone signals to outgoing trunk lines. a DCE is any device that supplies clocking signals to DTEs.with RJ-11 or RJ-45 connectors. or other media.

2 Gbps Digital Integrated Services 144 Kbps (BRI) Digital Network (ISDN) 4 Mbps (PRI) Digital DSL 6.You can also use the same physical wires for digital signaling. fiber-optic POTS T-1 Signaling Method Analog Analog Analog Characteristics Dialup over regular telephone lines Dedicated line with consistent line quality Dedicated line Variable packet sizes (frames) Ideal for low-quality lines Variable packet sizes (frames) Fixed-size cells (53-byte) High-quality. However. high-speed lines Basic rate operates over regular telephone lines and is a dialup service Primary rate operates over Tcarriers Operates using digital signals over regular telephone lines DSL comes in many different flavors (such as ADSL and HDSL) Frame Relay Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) 1. and other transmission media.1 Mbps (1.a. DS-1) T-3 (a.25 Bandwidth (Max.544 or lower is POTS more common) Digital There is no clear distinction between WAN services such as Frame Relay and ISDN. If your organization needs WAN connectivity. Once a device connects to the WAN cloud. Multiple digital channels are sent over the same physical wires. wireless. Data Link layer protocols control some or all of the following functions: . DS-3) E-1 24 64-Kbps channels (used in the U. then convert the data again at the other end. twisted pair.S. WAN Encapsulation Facts WAN Physical layer protocols specify the hardware and bit signaling methods.54 Mbps Digital 1. satellite. the use of these media to the local loop is not common at this time. you can use Frame Relay protocol over ISDN lines.a.) 56 Kbps 56 Kbps 64 Kbps Line Type POTS POTS POTS POTS T-1 T-3 Coaxial. you can choose from the following service options: Service Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) Leased lines X.) 672 64-Kbps channels 31 64-Kbps channels (used in Europe) Note: WAN services also use fiber optic.k.k. For example. T-1 (a. internal protocols can convert data traffic into the necessary formats.

IPX. It supports multilink connections.25 networks. and numerous others. synchronous serial (dial up). AppleTalk. PPP is nonproprietary. It includes looped link detection that can identify when messages sent from a router are looped back to that router. PPP Facts The following list represents some of the key features of the Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP): y y y y y y It can be used on a wide variety of physical interfaces including asynchronous serial. This term is both a generic name for Data Link protocols and the name of a specific protocol within a WAN protocol suite or service. Optional authentication is provided through PAP (2-way authentication) or CHAP (3-way authentication). LCP packets are exchanged periodically to do the following: Link Control Protocol (LCP) y During link establishment. WAN encapsulation methods are typically called HDLC (high-level data link control). It supports multiple Network layer protocols. LCPs are used to agree upon encapsulation.y y y y Error checking and correction Link establishment Frame-field composition Point-to-point flow control Data Link layer protocols also describe the encapsulation method or the frame format. LAPD is a Layer 2 ISDN protocol that manages flow and signaling. the link is looped. and ISDN networks. Depending on the WAN service and connection method. It includes Link Quality Monitoring (LQM) which can detect link errors and automatically terminate links with excessive errors. including IP. LAPD in combination with another protocol for the B channels in ISDN networks. maintaining. If a router receives a packet with its own magic number. you will select one of the following encapsulation methods. point-to-point connections with other Cisco routers (Cisco HDLC does not communicate with other vendors' implementations of HDLC). This is done through routers sending magic numbers in communications. PPP for dial-up LAN access. y . This is the default encapsulation method for synchronous serial links on Cisco routers. and tearing down the PPP link. packet size. y Cisco HDLC for synchronous. LCPs are exchanged to detect and correct errors or to control the use of multiple links (multilink). so it works in implementations that use products from multiple vendors. load-balancing traffic over multiple physical links. Protocol Description The Link Control Protocol (LCP) is responsible for establishing. and compression settings. and ISDN. LCPs also indicate whether authentication should be used. Cisco/IETF for Frame Relay networks. PPP uses two main protocols to establish and maintain the link. circuit-switched WAN networks. Throughout the session. LAPB for X. y y y y Note: Routers on each side of a WAN link must use the same encapsulation method to be able to communicate.

NCPs are exchanged to agree on upper-layer protocols to use. 2. packet size. PPP options are configured in interface mode for a specific interface. LCP phase. LCPs are exchanged to open the link and agree upon link settings such as encapsulation. . If authentication is used. you complete the following tasks: 1. 1. routers might exchange IPCP and CDPCP packets to agree upon using IP and CDP for Network-layer communications. For example. or AppleTalk). 2.y When the session is terminated. Examples of control protocols include: Network Control Protocol (NCP) y y y y IP Control Protocol (IPCP) CDP Control Protocol (CDPCP) IPX Control Protocol (IPXCP) AppleTalk Control Protocol (ATCP) A single PPP link can run multiple control protocols. authentication-specific packets are exchanged to configure authentication parameters and authenticate the devices. LCPs might continue to PPP Command List PPP configuration is often done in connection with configuring other services. one for each Network-layer protocol supported on the link. Router(config-if)#encapsulation ppp Router(config-if)#ppp authentication <chap|pap> Router(config-if)#ppp authentication chap pap Router(config-if)#ppp compression Router(config-if)#ppp chap|pap password To . During this phase. configure username/password combinations. Set the encapsulation type to PPP Set the authentication method(s) When multiple methods are specified. and whether authentication will be used. 3. You must set the encapsulation method to PPP before you can configure authentication or compression. During this phase. . Use . The Network Control Protocol (NCP) is used to agree upon and configure Network layer protocols to use (such as IP. Each Network layer protocol has a corresponding control protocol packet. PPP establishes communication in three phases. LCPs might also be exchanged during this phase to maintain the link. LCPs are responsible for tearing down the link. . Set PPP encapsulation on the interface. NCP phase. the first method will be tried first Set compression options Set the password used with CHAP or PAP for . Authenticate phase (optional). A single Link Control Protocol runs for each physical connection. IPX. Select CHAP and/or PAP as the authentication method (optional). To configure PPP on the router. 3. .

digital lines.<password> Router(config)#username <hostname> password <password> Router(config)#bandwidth <value> an unknown host Set the username and password for the local router Set a bandwidth value for an interface View encapsulation and PPP information on an interface Router#show interface To hide the CHAP password from view in the configuration file. 2. Frame Relay Facts Frame relay is a standard for packet switching WAN communications over high-quality. the interface status changes to "up. When you change the encapsulation. and LAX and PDX can now share routing information. use the service password-encryption command from the global configuration mode. 4. the interface status on PDX Serial1 changes to "up. Note: At this point in the configuration. Because the encapsulation between PDX and SFO no longer match. line protocol down. 5. Example The following commands configure the SFO router to use PPP and enable it to connect to the LAX router using PAP authentication. it no longer matches the connected device. Can be used as a backbone connection to LANs. 3. LAX can still communicate with SFO even though LAX and SFO are not using the same encapsulation types. Have a variable packet size (called a frame) . Ping succeeds. Therefore. LAX and PDX are using PPP to communicate. SFO(config)#hostname LAX password cisco5 SFO(config)#int s0 SFO(config-if)#encap ppp SFO(config-if)#ppp auth pap 1. It is up to end devices to request a retransmission of lost packets.54 Mbps. LAX can ping SFO." PDX and SFO cannot communicate (ping fails). . When you change PDX Serial0 to PPP. line protocol down. Can provide data transfer up to 1. Setting the encapsulation on SFO restores communication between PDX and SFO." Ping does not work because the Serial1 interface is not up. LAX can again ping SFO. The interface status changes to up. the encapsulation used between LAX and PDX matches. The status of the interface is up. while PDX and SFO are using HDLC. Frame-relay networks: y y y y Provide error detection but not error recovery.

Error correction is performed by sending and receiving devices. Frame Relay switches perform error checking but not correction. y y y y The DLCI ranges between 16 and 1007. Packets travel through the Frame Relay cloud without acknowledgments. T-1. When you sign up for Frame Relay service. Congestion is the most common cause of packet loss on a Frame Relay network. Frame Relay switches send Backward Explicit Congestion Notification (BECN) messages to slow data transfer rates. As network traffic increases. LMI is responsible for managing the connection and reporting connection status. The Frame Relay network is made up of multiple switches for moving packets. the same DLCI number can be used multiple times in the entire network to identify different devices. The CIR is the maximum guaranteed data transmission rate you will receive on the Frame Relay network. Data-Link Connection Identifiers (DLCIs) Local Management Interface (LMI) Local Management Interface (LMI) is a set of management protocol extensions that automates many Frame Relay management tasks. Frame Relay switches begin dropping packets when congestion occurs. Sending routers send data immediately without establishing a session. you are guaranteed to have at least the amount of bandwidth specified by the CIR. . You should be aware of the following Frame Relay protocols: Protocol Characteristics Like an Ethernet MAC address. you will likely be able to send data faster than the CIR. Packets are discarded based on information in the Discard Eligible (DE) bit. Corrupted packets are simply dropped without notification. DLCIs identify each virtual circuit. Gather status information about other routers and connections on the network. Frame Relay Protocols Most Frame Relay installations involve connecting to a Frame Relay network through a T-1 line. y y y y y y y y y y y Routers connect to a Frame Relay switch either directly or through a CSU/DSU. The router connects to a CSU/DSU. and the effective rate may drop. Each DLCI is unique for the local network. The DLCI represents the connection between two frame relay devices. you are assigned a level of service called a Committed Information Rate (CIR). priority is given to data coming from customers with a higher CIR.y y Can be implemented over a variety of connection lines (56K. T-3). which is connected to the Frame Relay network. When network traffic is low. In other words. but not for the entire WAN. You should be familiar with the following concepts about how Frame Relay networks send data. The Frame Relay service provider assigns the DLCI when the virtual circuit is set up. In any case. Operate at the Physical and Data Link layers of the OSI model. Frame relay networks simulate an "always on" connection with PVCs. LMI can: y y Maintain the link between the router and the switch.

To configure Frame Relay on an interface. With a point-to-point connection. the router interface has a direct line to the Frame Relay switch at the service provider. You only need to set the LMI type if autosensing does not work or if you want to manually assign it. Note: You must set the encapsulation method on the interface before you can issue any other Frame Relay commands. and Q933a. Make DLCIs globally significant for the entire network. you will need to associate logical. . the circuit is configured to talk to only one other device. The administrator identifies the address of each destination device. complete the following tasks: y y y y y Enable Frame Relay on the interface by setting the encapsulation type Assign a Network layer address to the interface (such as an IP address) Configure dynamic (inverse ARP) or static (mapped) addresses For a point-to-point subinterface.y y Enable dynamic DLCI assignment through multicasting support. assign a DLCI to the subinterface Configure the LMI settings (optional). Turn on inverse ARP (it is on by default) . or a multipoint subinterface with dynamic addressing. you have the following configuration options. Network layer destination addresses with the DLCI number used to reach that address. Manually map addresses to DLCIs. Frame Relay supports multiple virtual circuits. the DLCI number acts like a Data Link or physical device address. Frame Relay Command List When configuring a router for Frame Relay. A multipoint link configures each circuit to communicate with more than one destination device. The same circuit is used for multiple conversations. A point-to-point link simulates a direct connection with a destination device. the same number is used throughout the entire network to identify a specific link). When configuring a Frame Relay connection or circuit. Cisco routers support three LMI types: Cisco. By default. Although more work. Multipoint. . y y Dynamically associate DLCIs with inverse ARP. results are less prone to errors than when using inverse ARP. . Although there is only one physical path between the router and the switch. IPX. When you connect a router to the Frame Relay network. through LMI these numbers can be globally significant (i.e. and associates each address with a DLCI. and DECnet). Router(config-if)#encap frame-relay Router(config-if)#frameTo . ANSI. Cisco routers autosense the LMI type and configure themselves accordingly. . Set the encapsulation method You can following this command by various keywords to set a specific frame relay encapsulation protocol. Although DLCI numbers are only locally significant. Use . you have the following options: y y Point-to-Point. For multipoint connections. This is the default. Cisco is the default frame relay encapsulation. The router uses the inverse ARP protocol to dynamically discover destination addresses associated with a specific DLCI. Because Frame Relay supports multiple upper-layer protocols (such as IP.

y Use the clear frame-relay command to manually clear dynamic entries. y Disabling inverse arp does not clear the cached entries. disable inverse ARP. you have the following options: . the change may not be communicated through inverse arp.relay inverse-arp Router(config-if)#framerelay map Router#show frame map Map protocol addresses to DLCIs Note: Add the broadcast parameter to the command to configure the router to forward broadcast traffic over the link. Subinterfaces Facts Cisco uses the term interface to describe the physical component that connects the router to a network. Although there is only one physical path between the router and the switch. With subinterfaces. Instead of adding physical interfaces. When you connect a router to the Frame Relay network.1.55 25 This scenario illustrated the following principles about inverse ARP and the frame relay map cache: y Inverse arp discovers IP address and DLCI information for routers connected to the cloud. inarp Router#show frame pvc Router#frame lmi-type <LMI type> Show DLCI statistics and information. Clear the cache to rebuild it and rediscover the changed information.55 to DLCI 25. y If a destination IP address is changed. When configuring a Frame Relay connection or circuit. using subinterfaces lets you subdivide a single physical interface into several separate virtual channels.1. Router(config)#int s0 Router(config-if)#encap frame-relay Router(config-if)#no frame inverse Router(config-if)#frame-relay map ip 10. Configure LMI on the Cisco router Examples The following commands enable Frame Relay on serial interface 1 using IETF as the encapsulation method and dynamic addressing. The discovered information goes into the frame relay map cache. y Inverse arp entries in the cache are cleared when an interface goes down. the router interface has a direct line to the Frame Relay switch at the service provider. Router#clear frame-relayClear the dynamic entries from the frame-relay map cache. A subinterface is a virtual interface that you configure on a Cisco router's physical interface. and map IP address 10. Frame Relay supports multiple virtual circuits. Router(config)#int s1 Router(config-if)#encap frame-relay ietf The following commands enable Frame Relay on serial interface 0 using Cisco as the encapsulation method.1. They make it possible to support multiple connections and/or networks through a single physical port. you can expand your router's capability without adding modules containing physical interfaces. Display the contents of the frame-relay map cache (showing IP address to DLCI number mappings). and rediscovered when the interface comes up.1.

Do not assign an IP address to the main interface. . .12. Using subinterfaces in this manner overcomes the split horizon problem that can occur when sending updates out the same interface. Use . A point-to-point link simulates a direct connection with a destination device.103 mult Router(config-subif)#frame map ip 199. assign the DLCI number to the subinterface For a multipoint connection using static assignments. Frame Relay Subinterface Command List To configure Frame Relay on a subinterface. A multipoint link configures each circuit to communicate with more than one destination device. All simulations use the same network layout as shown. complete the following tasks: y y y y Enable Frame Relay on the interface and set the encapsulation method Create the subinterface. you will need to assign a Network layer address to the subinterface. Router(config)#int s0 Router(config-if)#encap frame Router(config-if)#int s0.55 point Router(config-subif)#frame interface-dlci 44 The following commands create a multipoint subinterface on the second serial interface. .12. map DLCIs to protocol addresses In addition.16 Frame Relay Troubleshooting Introduction The next set of simulations gives you a chance to troubleshoot Frame Relay. . Router(config)#int s1 Router(config-if)#encap frame Router(config-if)#int s1. . The same circuit is used for multiple conversations. With a point-to-point connection.X <type> Router(config-subif)#frame-relay map To . the circuit is configured to talk to only one other device. specifying either point-to-point or multipoint For a point-to-point connection or a multipoint connection using inverse ARP. The subinterface is configured to use inverse ARP. Create the subinterface Map protocol addresses to DLCIs Router(config-subif)#frame-relay interface-dlci Assign the DLCI to the interface Examples The following commands create a point-to-point subinterface on the first serial interface and assign it to DLCI 44. Using subinterfaces also lets you send routing updates out the same physical interface on which they were received.16.y y Point-to-Point. and configure it with a static IP mapping of device 199. Router(config-if)#int sX. Multipoint.155 to DLCI 111.

. . . This information is not the DLCI number associated with the interface. Each scenario has some misconfiguration that prevents communication. . y y y y y y y y ping sh frame map sh frame pvc sh int/sh ip int sh run no ip sh frame-relay sh frame-relay traffic Monitoring Frame Relay The following list summarizes the commands to use for viewing specific Frame Relay information on the router. DLCI numbers Use . show run show frame pvc show int show run show frame lmi show int show frame pvc show int show frame traffic show frame map Frame Relay encapsulation method LMI information and traffic statistics Interface configuration (DCE or DTE) Global traffic statistics Addresses and associated DLCIs Note: Output for the show interfaces command shows an entry for DLCI followed by a number.The scenario description for each exercise identifies whether the routers should be configured using inverse-arp or static mappings. If you want to view . The following commands may be useful in identifying the problem. .

terminology. and error correction Protocol Designation E I Q . digital transmission of both voice and data (including graphics. such as call setup. It supports the majority of upper-level protocols and encapsulation protocols. ISDN BRI is a relatively low-cost WAN service that is ideal for the following situations: y y Home office or telecommuters who need a relatively fast connection Businesses that need to periodically send data between sites (bursty traffic patterns) ISDN BRI offers the following benefits over dial-up modems and other WAN connection options. and Network layers. Service B channels D channel Characteristics One 16 Kbps One 64 Kbps Uses existing phone lines (but may not be available where existing copper wires don't support it) The connection is "demand-dial" (established only when data needs to be sent) Uses an entire T-1 line Sometimes called 23B+D The connection is "always on" Basic Rate ISDN Two 64 Kbps (BRI) Primary Rate ISDN (PRI) Twenty-three 64 Kbps Note: The total bandwidth of an ISDN BRI line is 144 Kbps (two B channels and one D channel). video. The physical cable of an ISDN connection is divided into logical channels. Standard Standards for ISDN on the existing phone network. It allows fast.ISDN Facts Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) is a set of standards covering the Physical. such as international addressing Standards for ISDN concepts. The total data transfer rate is 128 Kbps (data is sent only on the two B channels). and services. such as network services Standards for switching and signaling. and so on) over existing telephone lines. D channels are used to carry control and signaling information. The protocol groupings and descriptions follow a lettering standard. Data Link. Channels are classified as one of two types: y y B channels are used to carry data. flow control. ISDN uses T-carrier technology to quickly and efficiently send digital data streams. you have the choice between the following services. y y y y y Faster data transfer rates (128 Kbps) than dial-up modems (56 Kbps maximum) Faster call establishment (dial-up) than modems Lower cost than other WAN solutions (users pay a monthly fee plus connection charges) ISDN Protocol Standards ISDN standards are grouped according to function. When you order ISDN service.

ISDN has its own Network and Data Link layer addressing. In North America. . It lets you connect multiple devices. a TA (Terminal Adapter) is any device that generates traffic on an ISDN line. or ISDN telephone. it converts ISDN signals to nonISDN signals. Generically speaking. the term is usually used to describes a device that converts non-ISDN signals to ISDN signals. NT2 TE1 TE2 TA y ISDN Addressing ISDN is a Network layer protocol that operates over a specific hardware interface configuration. ISDN Device Function Designation NT1 An NT1 (Network Terminator) is the connection point between the local loop and ISDN network. but you will need to memorize them for the certification exam. A TE1 (Terminal Endpoint Device type 1) is an ISDN-compatible device such as a router. The TA is often called an ISDN modem. TEIs are dynamically assigned to the router by the ISDN switch when the connection is made. you will probably not need to know these standards. E for Existing networks I for Identifying concepts Q for Quality switching signals y y ISDN Components and Reference Points ISDN devices are classified based on whether they are ISDN-capable and the role they can play on the network. NT2s are optional. and/or split the signal into data and voice transmissions. Rather.y y In practice. Each ISDN device is assigned one TEI. For this reason. An NT2 (Network Switching Equipment) connects with an NT1. NT1 functionality is the responsibility of the service provider. Use the following to help remember the classifications. although it does not convert digital signals to analog signals. A TE2 (Terminal Endpoint Device type 2) is a non-ISDN-compatible device such as a computer without an ISDN adapter. More specifically. ISDN uses the following addresses: Address Terminal Endpoint Identifier (TEI) Characteristics Data Link layer address (similar to an Ethernet MAC address). the customer is responsible for the NT1. computer. A Cisco router might be classified as an NT1. Outside of North America.

4. TEIs are dynamically assigned to identify the router. In North America. Assigning TEIs. Your ISDN router will be connected to an ISDN switch at the WAN service provider. ISDN Command List To configure an ISDN connection. you need to complete the following configuration processes: y y y Configure the ISDN switch type Assign SPIDs (if required) Configure encapsulation . Maintaining the session. 1. 3. each device can have one or more SPIDs.Network layer address (similar to a telephone number that that allows each channel to make and receive calls). The D channel is used for session maintenance. the following process is used. Cisco routers support over 10 switch types. The receiving device answers and the link is established. the D channel is used to tear down the link. The router uses the D channel to perform Data Link (layer 2) initialization. Link Access Protocol for the D-Channel (LAPD) is the Data Link encapsulation protocol used on an ISDN network. Depending on the specific ISDN implementation. it operates on the D channel of an ISDN connection and is used for: y y y y Initializing Layer 2 and Layer 3 communications. The B channel is used to transmit data. As its name implies. Service Protocol Identifier (SPID) y y y One SPID is assigned to the entire device Each B channel has its own SPID Each B channel can have more than one assigned SPID The WAN service provide assigns the SPIDs for you to configure on the router. the most common types are: y y y AT&T 5ESS Northern DMS-100 National ISDN-1 ISDN Communication Facts The following process is used to initialize an ISDN router. Your router must be configured to communicate with the switch type used by your WAN service provider. The router uses the D channel to perform Network (layer 3) initialization. 2. It uses its preconfigured SPIDs (if required) to set up the B channels. The following are common SPID assignments. After the transmission is over. Terminating the link. 1. When a router needs to communicate with another ISDN device. The sending device requests a connection through the D channel. 2.

enable multilink PPP (MLP).Use the following commands to configure an ISDN connection. An ISDN connection consists of multiple logical B channels on a single physical connection. Show all past and current ISDN phone calls. Set the ISDN switch type to match that used by the service provider. Show active ISDN phone calls. bri0:1. To .2 and below. Identifies the utilization percentage that must exist for the additional channels to be used. Use only if SPID numbers are not dynamically assigned.3 and above. Router(config)#isdn switchtype <type> Router(config-if)#isdn spid<#> <number> <number> Router(config-if)#encap ppp Router#show isdn status Router#show isdn active Router#show isdn history Router(config-if)#ppp multilink Router(config)#dialer loadthreshold Example The following commands set the switch type. The exact commands you will use depend on the equipment used at the central office. Use . Router(config)#interface bri0 Switch to ISDN interface configuration mode. . this is a global configuration command. use this command in interface mode or global configuration mode. For IOS 11. bri0:2 You should be aware of the following conditions regarding configuring ISDN connections on a live system: . Set the encapsulation method for the interface (PPP is the most common). To use multiple channels at the same time. . and assigns two SPIDs for an ISDN interface: Router(config)#isdn switch-type basic-5ess Router(config)#int bri0 Router(config-if)#encap ppp Router(config-if)#isdn spid1 0835866201 8358662 Router(config-if)#isdn spid2 0835866401 8358664 About ISDN Simulations The following commands have been enabled in the simulations for configuring and testing an ISDN connection: y y y y y y y interface bri0 isdn switch-type isdn spid1. encapsulation method. isdn spid2 show isdn status show isdn active show isdn history show interface bri0. . View the status of the ISDN connection. Enables multilink on the interface. . Identify SPIDs for an interface. For IOS 11.

For dialer interfaces. On a live system. Spoofing allows the router to place entries in the routing table for dial-on-demand interfaces. This product simulates the IOS version 12. 4. Setting it globally automatically adds it to the interface. Think of spoofing as "pretending" to be up. you can only set the switch type globally. The following principles are illustrated in this simulation: y If a BRI interface is connected to a network and not shut down. The two B channels for the first BRI interface are identified as BRI0:1 and BRI0:2. etc. interfaces do not come up until dialed. y Channels do not come up until traffic must be sent (such as a ping) and a call is placed and answered. Each physical BRI interface has three separate channels (1 D channel and 2 B channels). the interface pretends to be up so a routing entry gets made. keep in mind the following: Each BRI interface represents a single connection to an ISDN network. y Spoofing is required to place routing entries in the table when the interface is really down. Because the BRI0 interface is spoofing (pretending to be up).x method of setting the switch type. o For IOS versions 11. If you misconfigure the interface and connect to the ISDN switch. there is an entry in the routing table for the directly-connected network. while the channels reveal the true interface status. BRI interfaces are identified as BRI0.0. but if it is removed from the interface. data cannot be routed out to an interface unless it is up. y . But the interface cannot dial until IP traffic is sent out the interface. BRI interfaces are up only when a call is successfully placed to another router. the interface status is "spoofing. or take several minutes to change. these statuses may not update. there will be an entry for that network in the routing table.2 and below. and what is required. line protocol up (spoofing). even if one is not defined for the interface. routes that correspond to an interface are not placed in the routing table until the interface status is up. On a Cisco router. When you remove the shutdown from BRI0. BRI0:1 and BRI0:2 are both down. Verify that the configuration settings are correct before bringing the interface up. BRI Interface Facts y y y y As you work with ISDN BRI interfaces. you can set the switch type globally or on an interface basis. the router can still make a connection if the switch type is defined globally. the switch type must be defined for the interface. you may need to use the clear interface bri0 command or restart the router on a live system before some configuration changes take place. the connection cannot be made. In addition. 5. If it is up. o For IOS versions 11. its status changes to "up. the switch at the service provider may report excessive errors and disable itself. How the switch type is set. the interface status changes to spoofing. A dialer interface will spoof being up." Think of spoofing as "pretending" to be up. Generally. You will then need to contact your service provider to reset the switch. you should set the ISDN switch type and SPIDs with the interface shut down. Normally.3 and above. differs depending on the IOS version: o For IOS versions 11. When you remove the shutdown for a BRI interface. BRI1.y y y As best practice.3 up to (but not including) 12." Spoofing is a way for an interface that is really down to pretend to be up. The status reported with the show isdn status command in the simulations updates automatically and immediately after making configuration changes.0 and above. o For IOS versions 12. and traffic cannot be directed out the interface unless there is a routing table entry for the network. To overcome this problem.

Use access lists to identify the type of traffic that will bring the link up (called interesting traffic). Identify the host called by the router using one of the following commands in interface mode: y y dialer string. the connection is terminated.y Channels are up when a call is initiated that uses that specific channel. It is possible to have one channel active and the other channel inactive y y DDR Facts A dial-on-demand link is one that is non-persistent (not always on). The list of interesting traffic only defines which traffic brings the link up. The DDR link will be brought down if no interesting traffic has crossed the link in a specified period of time. to identify a specific destination and the DDR Command List Configuring dial-on-demand routing involves completing the following general steps: y Configure the interface to connect to the network. both interesting and non-interesting. The link is brought up (or dialed) when traffic needs to cross the link. y y y y Interesting traffic is identified and applied to an interface using the following three items: Access List Contains multiple entries that define interesting traffic Each list applies only to one protocol in type Access lists are optional Dialer List Identifies all traffic of a specific protocol. not which traffic can cross the link once it is established. to identify a single number to dial for all connections. will be sent over the link. Keep in mind the following points about dial-on-demand routing (DDR): Access lists define interesting traffic (traffic that will bring the link up). The link between two devices is established when one device calls another and the answering device answers the request. such as: o Configuring the ISDN connection o Configuring IP addresses for applicable interfaces Define interesting traffic Apply the interesting traffic definition to the dial-on-demand interface y y . If a DDR link is up. If a DDR link is down. all traffic. a maximum of one per protocol Dialer Group Applies a dialer list to an interface Maximum of one group per interface Dialer interfaces (such as ISDN BRI) are non-persistent and might be used to connect to multiple devices. or identifies an access list Contains multiple entries. Non-interesting traffic is ignored (never sent). only interesting traffic will bring it up. This process is much like placing a telephone call. When the link is idle. Non-interesting traffic that needs to be sent will not keep the link up if the time limit has expired. dialer map.

Configure access list statements that define interesting traffic Identify the traffic type or access list that defines interesting traffic. To enable DDR on a serial interface. y You can only use either dialer string or dialer map statements (not both at the same time).1.0.1 Note: You can also configure serial or asynchronous interfaces to support dial-on-demand routing. .0. Use this command if the router contacts multiple routers over the same physical interface. Identify the number to dial to contact the destination router. Router(config)#access-list Router(config)#dialer-list <#> protocol <type> permit/deny Router(config-if)#dialer-group <#> Router(config-if)#dialer string <number> Router(config-if)#dialer map ip <address> <number> Router(config)#ip route Examples The following commands define all IP traffic as interesting traffic for BRI0 and identifies two numbers of a single destination router to dial when traffic must be sent.0 255.0.0. . This allows hosts on the local network to access hosts on the remote network(s). .0 bri0 1. .0.y y y Use . use the following command: Router(config-if)#dialer in-band y Both dialer strings and dialer maps identify the LDN of the destination device.1 eq 21 Router(config)#dialer-list 9 protocol ip list 101 Router(config)#int bri0 Router(config-if)#dialer-group 9 Router(config-if)#dialer map ip 1. defines a called device.0. apply it to an interface.1. Use this command if the router contacts only one other router.1 name LAX 5552345 Router(config-if)#exit Router(config)#ip route 10. The link will be brought up for HTTP or FTP traffic. Router(config)#dialer-list 7 protocol ip permit Router(config)#int bri0 Router(config-if)#dialer-group 7 Router(config-if)#dialer string 5551111 Router(config-if)#dialer string 5552222 The following commands create an access list and dialer list.0.1. Apply the dialer-list to an interface. Configure the numbers to call when interesting traffic is received Configure static routes to remote networks accessible through the ISDN link Configure the DDR timers (optional) To . Router(config)#access-list 101 permit tcp any host 10.1 eq 80 Router(config)#access-list 101 permit tcp any host 10. Configure static routes to remote networks accessible through the ISDN link. and configures a static route to the remote device. Identify the number to dial to contact the destination router. .0.1.

In this way. but involves the following general process. DDR Timers DDR timers identify the amount of time that passes without interesting traffic before the link is brought down. Dialer Profiles In a typical ISDN BRI connection. Create a dialer-list statement pointing to the access list. y Dialer maps that match the destination IP address are tried in order. The fast-idle timer is a special timer that allows the DDR link to be brought down before the idle-timeout timer has expired. For example. the next one is tried. one interface could connect to half of the sites. Associate a dialer pool number with the logical dialer interface. y y y y y Create access list statements to define interesting traffic.y Use dialer strings to communicate with a single device. and the other interface could connect to the other half. y Dialer string and map statements go in the configuration file in the order they are typed. It identifies an alternate timer that is used if: Fast-idle y y y y The physical interface connects to multiple sites (phone numbers) The interface has an existing link to one site Packets are ready to be sent to a different site There is no interesting traffic currently being sent . if you have two interfaces and four sites. the next one is tried. If the first one fails. Dialer maps include the destination IP address. the router has a single BRI interface that is used to connect to all other sites. This is a logical interface that groups multiple physical interfaces. Assign each physical interface to the dialer pool. or if you want to use different B channels to reach multiple sites. the DDR link is closed. Think of a dialer string indicating "any" destination address. you have the following choices: y Use dialer lists to configure specific interfaces to connect with specific sites. If your router has multiple BRI (or PRI) interfaces. y Configuring dialer profiles is beyond the scope of this course. You do this by setting one or both of the following timeouts: Timer Idletimeout Description The idle-timeout identifies when the DDR link will be brought down. Use dialer profiles to pool all physical interfaces into a single logical interface. y Dialer strings are tried in order. If the first one fails. If no interesting traffic has crossed the link during the specified time interval. y Use dialer maps to identify multiple destination devices. Create a special dialer interface. Configure the dialer interface as you would a physical interface with dialer-group commands and dialer map statements. traffic to any of the four sites could be sent out either of the two interfaces.

DDR Show Commands You should be familiar with the information shown for each of the following commands as they relate to DDR routing. use the show isdn status command to check the status of the ISDN interfaces. To view. . A physical connection exists. Use. . . Router(config-if)#dialer idle-timeout Router(config-if)#dialer fast-idle To . . (TEI and SPID messages will show if SPIDs are configured. The following table describes the possible meaning of each layer status.. Here you can examine the status of each of the three OSI model layers. Set the amount of time that elapses without interesting traffic before the DDR link is disconnected...) . Check the physical connection or remove the shutdown from the interface.. Details of active calls such as: show isdn active y y y y y y y y y y y y The number dialed The device called Time left until disconnect ISDN switch type ISDN status by layer (layers 1-3) Number of active calls Number of available ISDN channels Idle and fast idle timer settings for an interface Reason for the connection (source and destination addresses) Number and hostname dialed Time connected Time left until disconnect show isdn status show dialer int bri ISDN Troubleshooting Tips As you work with ISDN connections.Use the following commands to configure the DDR timers: Use . Set the amount of time that must elapse before the DDR link can be disconnected early if a call to another destination is received. but communication to the ISDN network is not taking place. Status Information Layer 1 Status = NOT Activated Layer 1 Status = ACTIVE Layer 2 Status = NOT Activated TEI Not Assigned Actions to Take There is no physical connection to the ISDN network.

SPID configuration. The problem may be with either router. spid1 valid Endpoint ID Info shown Layer 3 shows 0 active calls SPIDs have been validated and EIDs assigned. For each scenario. y y Layer 2 indicates whether the router has established communications with an ISDN switch. and EIDs are assigned or validated by the switch. SPID statuses do not show. Reverify the SPID status = spid1 configured. Note: SPIDs will not be sent or validated until Layer 2 communications have been established. SPIDs. check to make sure that static routes have been defined on each router. Note: SPID2 will not be sent and cannot be validated until spid1 NOT valid SPID1 has been configured correctly. one or more routers have been misconfigured. but devices on either network cannot communicate over the link. Layer 2 State = MULTIPLE_STATE_ESTABLISHED An incorrect SPID number was configured. Problems with the communication are limited to those configuration settings taught in this section. but you cannot communicate through the ISDN link. begin by verifying the problem. If Layer 1 and Layer 2 statuses are active. spid1 sent. All simulations use the same network layout as shown. verify that interesting traffic is properly defined to bring the link up. Layer 3 indicates whether there is an active phone call through the switch to another ISDN Troubleshooting Introduction The next set of simulations gives you a chance to troubleshoot ISDN configuration. TEIs. Check to make sure the dialer group command has been used for the interface to associate the list with the interface. Your job is to diagnose and fix the problem.spid1 NOT sent Verify the ISDN switch type configuration on the router. Validate the SPID configuration. The router is communicating with the ISDN network over the D channel. check the following: y If the ISDN status shows active but a ping between the two routers fails. y If you can successfully ping the remote ISDN router from the local ISDN router. Either the router does not require SPIDs. Layer 3 will not show active until a call has been placed to open communication. y show isdn status . A single TEI is assigned and Layer 2 is active. The following commands may be useful in identifying the problem. In each case. or SPIDs are not yet assigned.

. you should be able to diagnose the problem using the output from the show isdn status command.y y y y y y ping show show show show show interface bri0 interface bri0:1 interface bri0:2 ip route run Tip: For most troubleshooting activities.

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