Cajori History of mathematics

48 00376 4479








I am sure that no subject loses more than mathematics J. W. L. any attempt to dissociate it from, its history."













ITortooob prt
J. S,



& Co, -Berwick & Smith,

Boston, Mass,, U.S.A.

The proof-shoots of this Dr. Davis. chapter have also been submitted to Van Velzer. To all the gentlemen above named. A. to Dr. although I have spent much time in the effort render them accurate and criti reasonably complete. pages treating necessarily in a very condensed of the progress made during the present to century. University College. as well as to Dr. HosMns. and the attention given to historical inquiry in the mathematical class-rooms and seminaries of our leading universities. both of the University of Wisconsin.B/ecent Times&quot. of Amherst of whom have afforded valuable assistance. E. E. are put forth with great diffidence. Halsted. Many valuable suggestions and cisms on the chapter on &quot. 3T. of Colorado has read the proof-sheets throughout. and Professor Gr. all . of the University of Nebraska. Loud. have been made by . W. cause me to believe that a brief general History of Mathematics will be The form found acceptable to teachers and students. of the University of Texas Professor L.I)r. of the Leland . G-. Olds. J. B. D. Carlo Veneziani College. who v . AN increased interest in the history of the exact sciences manifested in recent years by teachers everywhere. Stanford Jr. Davies and Professor C. 1 am specially indebted to Professor H. M.PREFACE.

. in acknowledging to lay their kindness. who read the first part of my work But in. Lake City. manuscript. December. I trust that I shall not seem upon them any share in the responsibility for errors which I may have introduced in subsequent revision of the FLORIAN CAJOBL COLORADO COLLEGE. of Salt PKEFACE. I desire to express my hearty thanks.

PAGE . . .TABLE OF CONTENTS. INTRODUCTION ANTIQUITY THE BABYLONIANS 1 5 5 9 THE EGYPTIANS THE GREEKS Greek Geometry 16 16 17 The Ionic School of Pythagoras The School The 19 The Sophist School Platonic School First Alexandrian School 23 29 34 54 The The Second Alexandrian School Greek Arithmetic 63 77 TUB ROMANS MIDDLE AGES ^ 84 THE HINDOOS THE ARABS EtJBOPE DURING THE MIDDLE AOES Introduction of 84 100 117 Roman Mathematics its 117 Translation of Arabic Manuscripts 124 128 138 : The First Awakening and Sequel MODERN EUROPE THE RENAISSANCE VIETA TO DJCSOARTES DBSGARTES TO NEWTON . . 189 ^ 183 NBWTGN TO EULBK vii 199 .


S. Histories marked with a has been made. HANKBL. Erlangen. 7. Theorie der Complexen Zahlensysteme. Bel I. ix KopQnlaagen. Leip 11. 9. Leipzig. Bd. 1890. des. J. *CANToit.BOOKS OF REFEKENCE. XEUTIIISN. CAJTOEI. 1876. * HANKBL. *ALLMAN. Leipzig. History of the Inductive Sciences. . STUASSMAIER. A. Reference to any of them is made in the text by giving the respective number. II. MORITZ. torischen JForschung. G-reek G-eometry from Thales to JEuclid. J. Ziele 2. The Teaching and History of Mathematics in the U. JAMES. 1880. Leipzig. Zur Gfeschichte der MathematiJc Cambridge. und 8. K. Astronomisches aus Babylon. A. 6. 5. P. zig. WILLIAM. 4. G. 1874. DB MORGAN. Freiburg. im Alterthum Dublin. HERMANN.. Washington. GUNTHER. 1892. A Short History of Greek Mathematics.Euclides&quot. 1870. The following books. 1884. WmcwELL. pamphlets. and articles have been used in the preparation of this history. 3. 10. tmd Hesultate der neueren Mathematisch-hisstar are the only ones of which extensive use 1. Die Lehre von den Kegelschnitten im Alterthum. Unter Mitwirlcung von EPPING. 12. F. 1807. J. 1889. Mittelalter. in Smith s Dictionary of Greek and Itoman Biography and Mythology. Die Qeometrie und die G-eometer vor EukliBituTHOHNKiDfflR. C. II. S. Vorlesungen uber Gfeschichte der MathematiJc. * Gow. 1889. 1886.. HERMANN. &quot. G.

G-eschichte der Geometric. Kritische Geschichte der allgemeimn Principien der Leipzig. Philosophical Magazine.&quot. Sciences Mathetna&iques et IViysiques ehe% les Beiges.wton. BtiHRiNG. G. W. 30. to the Arithmetical Books from the Invention of Printing Present Time. MADAME PERIER. A Short Account of the History of Mathematics. 25. Cfeschichte der Mathematischen Wissenschaften. Leipzig. HANKEL. 1 23. 1802. DR. ten Jahrhunderten. MAXIMILIEN. SUTER. Geschichte der reinen Mathematik. QUETELET. JOHN. Mechanik. SOHNCKE. 24. 1834. London. 26. Vol. English by 31. 1839. BE MORGAN. 1884. 1879. 27. The Memoirs of Nc.-XII. GUNTHER. Bruxelles. OURTMANN und MULLER. 21. in the BREWSTER. DE MORGAN. 1873-75. Halle.E. 1847. ^81. BALL. burgh. 1866. ARNETH. 1863.&quot. HALSTEB. PEACOCK. A. London. 15. COMTE. * CHASLES. 1888. CANTOR. 33. HEINRICH. MATTIIIESSEN. W. Edinburgh.&quot. SIEGMUND und WiNBELBAND. F. MOIUTZ. Article u Progress of the Mathematical and Phys in Encyclopedia Britannica. 7th editi6n. 20. MONTUCLA. &quot. Aritlimetic. M. XL. !F. NAPIER. HERSCHEL. LTIDWIG. 19. D. siques. Memoirs of John Napier of Merchiston. Zurich. Aus dem Franzosischen Phy GILletz- tibertragen durcli 14. 1852. MARK. Paps. . American Journal of Mathematics. A. London.X 13. 1744. Grundzilge der Antiken und Modernen Algebra der Litteralen GUichungen. GesckicJite der antiJcen Naturwissenschaft und Philosophic. 28. 1883-1888. W. R. BOOKS OF REFERENCE. A. Paschal.&quot. 18. Article 22. Fort$chritte der Mathematik. of Pure Mathematics. Tome I. November. 1888.Note on the First English Euclid. 1887. Histoire des Mathematiques. 17. A. in Edinburgh Jfflncy- dopcedia. Edin 29. 1878.On the Early History of lEfiEitesixualB. A. Article * Mathematics. LESPIE. W. in The Encyclopedia. 16. PLAYFAIR. MARIE. B. Stuttgart. 32. translated by W. Die ISntwickelung der Mathematik in den Tubingen. A. 1860. &quot. Histoire des Sciences Matheniatiques et Paris. L. ical Sciences. 2nd edition. W.. HERMANN. 1852. 189S. J. con tinued in the 8tlx edition by SIK JOHN LESLIE. Mathematische Beitrage zum Kulturleben der VoUcer. Nordlingen. GEORGE. J. 35. Philosophy of Mathematics. Halle. &quot. M. A. Translated into The Life of Mr.

GUNTHER. tlie TOBHUNTKR. X Joseph Fourier. 1850.BOOKS OF REFERENCE.&quot. 41. Mtinchen. Philosophical Magazine. . Leibniz in London. 39. 3.Muxions&quot. Die JBasler Mathematiker. GERIIARBT. ins deutsche tibertravon Fitm SOHUTTB. Eulogy on Laplace. Deutschland. Ueber das Quadratische J&eciprocitatsgesetz.Memoir of Legendre. ical Trigonometry. Vermischte Untersuchtingen zur Geschichte der mathematischen Wissenschaften. SntdecJcung der Di/erenzialrechnung durch Leib &quot. Tubingen. mm Q-ed&chniss. I). A. February. *GERHARDT. Cambridge. Cambridge and 43. ALEXANDISR. FeTbruar. HATHAWAY. of the Theory of Elasticity and of the Edited and completed by KARL PEARSON. 1871. BAUMCJART. Gfeschichte der Unendlichen Heihen. R. Lehrfatch der Darstellenden Gfeometrie. zig. 1888. 40. History of the Mathematical Theory of Probabil to that of Laplace. Mathematical Society. A History &quot. *Toi&amp.&quot. A. 1884. ihrer fr dhtren Die Ilmptsilchliehstm Theorien der Geometrie in und heutlgen fJntwicMnnff. I. Translated by Eeport. 1865. A ity from the Time of Pascal London. Halle. 1877. Leip 55. *TODUUNTEK. Translated by B. 36. DB MoR(UK. SAHTOUIXIS. Geschichte der Mathematik in. 1887. 50. K. Smithsonian Iteport. M. I. 58. AUAOO. I. AUAOO. SIEGMUND. &quot. I^LIK DB. Cfeschichte der Astronomie. 38. Note on I. History of Certain Formulas in Spher 46. 1884. xi Bibliotheca Mathematica. Leipzig. 37. POWELL. Leipzig. &quot. &quot. 1889. 1886. cum. . Y.&quot. 46. Gauss . niz. 1874. WITHER. CnuiHTiAN. 1876.iniNTBK. C. Smithsonian 54. Stockholm. herausgegeben von GUSTAP ENESTROM.&quot. A. I. 1885. 7 Smitlisonian 52* llPfiort. Leipzig. RKIFF. I. 1891. the S. 1867. BEAUMONT. W. 51.&quot. F. 47. Leip 48.&quot. tlie Articles &quot. OSWALO. J. 44. Miinclien.Early Potential. Daniel Bernoulli und Leonhard Euler. gen GTKO. GERHARDT. N. BaHol. Cyclopaedia. *LoiA. 1873. 1). RUDOLF. and u Commercimn Epistoli- in Penny 42. WOLF. in jSitzirngsberichte der Koniglich Preussischen Academic der Wissenschaften zu Berlin. WALTKRSIIAUSKN zig. Strength of Materials. C. History of the Bulletin of 49. 1848. I. C.

BOOKS OF REFERENCE.Xll 56 . Ikiffim. 1871. 1883. Cambridge. BAUER. 1893. 1878. KARL. A. Mathematische Annalen. Multiple Algebra. FINK. HENRY B. 1878. GEORGE. : 1882. Leben zweier ungarischer Mathe&quot. VICTOR. Zeitschrift fur Mathematik FAVARO. ANTON. GUSTAV. H. Geometry of Position. 1873. Boston and New York. 67. Versuch einer Darstellung der Geschichte dvs HAAS. Ilankol. sein Leben und seine Leipzig. Proceedings of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. J. BRONICE. KLEIN. 1878.&quot.James Joseph Sylvester. ALFRED CLEBSCH. Bonn.Aus dem matiker Johann und Wolfgang Bolyai von Bolya. . 39:10. 48:2. Nature. 60. Tubingen. SCHLEGEL. FRANZ. VII. GRAHAM. September. zig. ARTHUR. Inaugural Address before the British Association. 63. Geschichte der Elenientar-Mathematik. 69. Justus Bellavitis. FELIX. CAYLE Y.Arthur Cayley. 1874. Tubingen. AD. London. &quot. Nordlingen. 4. Zeitschrift der Die AnfUngo der Gruppontliooiie und MathemaUk und Physik. Grrunertfs Archiv. BURKHARDT. MUIR. GIBBS. 1891. Theory of Functions of a Complex Variable. SPOTTISWOODE. The Number. 1868. und Physik. 72. &quot. FORSYTH. 73. Erlangen.&quot. 62. W. &quot. 1881. Paolo HEiNRicii.&quot. CAYLEY.&quot. R.System of Algebra. WILLIAM. 59. 57. Association. Werke. Versuch einer Darlegung und Wunligung seiner Leip 70. 1886. 1890. 65. v. January.&quot. 76.&quot. A. 28:21. 74. &quot. WITTSTEIN. wissenschaftlichen Leistungen von einigen seiner Freunde. AUGUST. 1890. SALMON. Miinchen. 68. Zur Qeschichte des Malfatttf schen Problems. Julius Plucker. ARMIN. Supple ment. 1883. R. 66. 1889. WILLARD.&quot. 26 5. ^1 Treatise on Determinants*. 64. Inaugural Address before the British 58. SCHMIDT. THOMAS. Hermann Gfrassmann. Vergleichende Betrachtimgen uber neuere geometrische Forschungen. Einige Worte zum Andenkon an Hermann 1882. Krwnmungsmasses. 75. 1892. 61. Gfedachnissrede auf Otto Hesse. 1872. 71. FINE. Nature. ZAHN. 1881.

Paris. J*. 96.&quot. ALFRED. Versuch einer Qeschichte der Darstellung willkiirlicher Funktionen einer variablen durch trigonometrische Meihen. &quot. ton Darboux. Festrede aus Veranlassung von HesseVs hundertjahrigem Geburtstag. 1879. &quot. FRANTZ. 81. Janvier. BE. 79. 88. HENRI. Tblique. ARNOLD. Harrington and 94. J. STEPHEN. .. HERMITB. 26: 17. Jacobi. . Paris. Gas- Paris. Paris. 1885. 80. Notice sur les Travaux Scientifiques de Henri Poincare. POINCARE.The 1890. 1876. 1884.&quot. 82. Konigsherg. 105. JUlliptische JFunktionen. Heilien.. 89. xiii SYLVESTER 1869. 43 stir les : and 15. 0. 1876. Carl Gf-iistav Jacob 85. TUCKER. KERBEDJS. 1884. &quot. SMITH. Vol. Nos. &quot. Proceedings of the London Mathematical Society. Inaugural Presidential Address to the Mathe matical and Physical Section of the British Association at Exeter. &quot. II. BJERKNES. Bulletin des Sciences Mathematiques. 1891. of the Eoyal Astronomical Society. XLIV. 1886. ENNEPER.Carl 83. YALSON. Hussey.&quot. 90. R. VIII. 95.Theory 86. J. KUMMER. . 1868. BOIS-KEYMOND. HENRICI. Mathematical Theories &quot. Gottingen. J. Bessel als 92. DARBOUX.BOOKS OF REFERENCE. XIV. Zum Gfeddchniss von G. 1891. Bremen. A. E.Discours prononc6 devant le president de la R6pii- DZIOBEK. J. &quot. Nature. Tableau de sa vie et de son action scientifique. W. of Planetary Motions. GASTON.. C. Gfedachnissrede auf G-ustav Peter Lejeune-Dirichlet. 1890. Berlin. PAUL DU. Mine JBntgegnung. VOIGT. Bendiconti del Circolo Matematico di Palermo. 91. &quot. W. SACHSE. O. 78. E. E. Kirchhoff. 4. Henry John Stephen Smith. J.&quot. 1877. SCHUSTER. DIRICHLET. 104. Theorie und Ge14 Halle a/S. 93. Influence of Mathematics on the Prog Nature.97. ARTHUR. schichte. Tome I.&quot. A. V. &quot. 84.W.Sophie de KowalevsM. Bremer Ifandlungslehrling. 1884. Zur G-eschichte der Trigonometrischen Tubingen. 1860.On the Present State and Prospects of Some Branches of Pure Mathematics.. 1852. Translated into English by M. April. 1882. L.. ress of Physics. Niels-HenriTc Abel. Cn. Gfedachnissrede auf Nature. La Vie et les travaux du Baron Cauchy. H.&quot. 77. C... LEJEUNE.W&quot. of Functions. Notice Travaux Scientijlques de M. 1888. Gottingen. 87. Friedrich Gauss. Monthly Notices GLAISUISH.

1887-1890. the T. II. Report on the Recent Progress of Theoretical Dynamics. CAY:LEY. 1885. 100. U. Braunschweig. 101. u A Bit of Mathematical History. 1857. ROSENBERGER. Bulletin of Vol. 08) Bdci-iER.&quot. 5. 2V&quot. /SV&amp. 99. . Math. Geschichte tier Physik. MAXIME.xiv BOOKS O:F BEFBBBNCE. ARTHUR. No.. GLAZEBROOK..c. Report on Optical Theories. If..

inay * The early history of the mind of men with regard to mathe matics leads us to point out our own errors. The chemist smiles at the childish. INTEODUCTION. but the mathematician jnatheBiati. the importance of a good notation upon the progress of the science it discourages excessive specialisation on the part of . but agreeable also teach us how to increase our store. more than any other. yet in the main it has been pre-eminently a progressive science. THE contemplation of the various steps by which mankind has come into possession of the vast stock of mathematical knowledge can hardly fail to interest the mathematician. mathematics has had periods of slow growth. efforts of alchemists.A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. and that hardly anything ever done in has proved to be useless.&quot. and in this it * aspect matics. He takes pride in the fact that his science. in course of its develop ment. is an exact science. Says De Morgan. it is It well to pay attention to the history of mathe warns us against hasty conclusions it points out . He is pleased to notice that finds the geometry of the Greeks and the arithmetic of the Hindoos as useful and admirable as any research of to-day. The history of mathematics 5 may be instructive as well as may not only remind us of what we have. 1 .

when investigators possessed that most powerful tool. yet no conquest has been made by direct assault. and answered at last. this ratio is also transcendental the Some years ago. with the old allowance of means: Euclid s postulates and nothing more. persons versed in mathematics dropped the subject. The circle-squarers have existed in crowds ever since the period of Archimedes.^ to square the problem.&amp. perhaps. Linclomaim demonstrated that &amp.2 circle a question to be solved by a definite method was tried by\$k6 best heads. 1 by which the apparently unconquerable position The importance of this strategic rule may be emphasised by citing a case in which it has been violated. says De Morgan. it discourages him from attacking an unsolved problem by the same method which has led other mathematicians to fortifications can be taken in other failure . meiisurable. and that the quadrature by means of the ruler and compass only.&quot.Our &quot. A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. the differential calculus. is . by that after thou sands of complete failures.&quot. even. We cannot remember an instance tyx &quot. by showing how apparently distinct brandies have been found to possess unexpected connecting links. it saves the student from wasting time and energy upon prob lems which were. (An untold amount of intellectual energy has been expended on the quadrature of the circle. After innumerable fail ures to solve the problem at a time. But progress was made on this problem by approaching newly discovered wMlo those who still persisted were completely ignorant of its Mstory and generally misunderstood the conditions of the prob lem. it from a a different direction and by Lambert proved circle to its in 1761 that ratio of the circumference of diametot is iad0. it teaches that ways than by direct attack. repulsed from a direct assault it is well to recon noitre and occupy the surrounding ground and to discover the that secret paths when can be taken. solved long since.

A class in arithmetic will be pleased to hear about the Hindoos and their invention of of geometrical demonstrations the &quot. as indestructible as Another reason for the desirability of historical study is the value of historical knowledge to the teacher of mathe The interest which pupils take in their studies may matics. been assaulting a fortification which the firmament of heaven. After the class have exhausted their ener gies on the theorem of the right its triangle. many trisec- by elementary geometry. him. surprise futile them by which have been made to attempts telling of the solve. jubilant over his great sacrificed a hecatomb to the Muses who inaccomplishment.INTBODUCTION. and how mathematicians long wrestled with this problem. bo greatly increased logic if the solution of problems and the cold historical arc interspersed with remarks and anecdotes. sible. that the . : Let no one who is . the philosopher &quot. Arabic notation &quot. great army of circle-squarers have. tell them how the wrath of ^Apollo about the duplication of the cube could be appeased only by the construction of a cubical altar double the given altar. After the pupils have learned how to j they will find it bisect a given angle. 3 He thus showed by actual proof that which keenminded mathematicians had long suspected namely. they will marvel at the thousands of which elapsed before people had even thought introducing into the numeral notation that Coluni bus-egg of years the zero astounding that it should have taken so long to invent a notation which they themselves can now learn in a month. When they know how to construct a square whose area is double the area of a given square. for is two thousand years. When the value of mathematical training is discoverer in question. tell them something Pythagoras. quote the inscription over the entrance into i about how academy of Plato. . the apparently very simple problem of the tion of an angle.

after taking up the differential and integral calculus. and Lagrange played in creating that science. and. Mathematical and physical researches are a reliable record of intellectual The history of mathematics is one of the large progress. is Human progress thought.4 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. Students in analyt^ geometry should know something of Descartes. In his historical possible for the teacher to make it plain to the that mathematics is not a dead science. unacquainted with geometry enter here. Leibniz. scientific closely identified with windows through which the philosophic eye looks ages and traces the line of intellectual development. but a living student talk it is one in which steady progress is made.&quot. they should ical become familiar with the parts that Kewton. 2 The history of mathematics is important also as a valuable contribution to the history of civilisation. into past .

*. were employed the ^ditive) and multiplica |i Numbers below 100 were expressed by symbols whose had for 4. as held in prayer. of higher order appear always to the left of those of I order. on the other hand. I notation the signified 10 and 100 respec G-rotefend believes the character for 10 originally to tively. of a united kingdom out of tho previously disunited tribes.* respt-Mctive values |f )f ^ Thus. Thus. In the study of Babylonian mathematics we begin with the A vertical wedge If stood for 1. to be added. the peoples inhabiting this region begins only with the foun dation. XJJ1 for 23. In writing the hundreds. been the picture of two hands. btiTOhe thumbs thrust out. a Ir J Here the symbol was placed to the to be multiplied left of the 100. while of numbers. and was. ^^ for 30 &amp. in fjase. s y ^^ signified the eaf 5 . In the Babylonian notation two ptincjiiples tive. the characters&quot. in Chaldaoa and Babylonia. Much light has been thrown on their history by the discovery of the art of reading the cuneiform or wedge-shaped system of writing. y&amp.ANTIQUITY. THE BABYLONIANS. &amp. the fingers close to each other. y stood for | |or 3. ^ and palniis being pressed together. by THE fertile valley of the the primeval seats of human Euphrates and Tigris was one of Authentic history of society.

The latter was used chiefly in constructing tables for weights full of and measures.66. reveals a high degree of mathematical insight. but cates the acquaintance of the Babylonians with . none go as high as symbols. But this symbol for 1000 was itself taken for a new unit. both for integers and fractions. 36. 9.*&quot. 3 If. (=80). 49. ^^ f &amp.4 =8 s . The i tablet records the moon s magnitude of the illuminated portion of disc for every day from new to full moon. numbers up to given asv the The numbers first 16. the from the fifth to the fifteenth 1. as is believed by most specialists.28. 2. 3. 2. not only of the above decimal system.12.40.1 11*.44. seven integers respectively. the early Sumerians were the inventors of the cuneiform writing.C. 10/ 20.8. in this connection.40 = 10 2. .1 = 2. which could take smaller coefficients to its left. etc. a million. 2. We possess two Babylonian tablets historical interest. 10 times 100. 2. or 1000. 10 times 1000. 2. the wlxol being assumed to consist of 240 parts. . taxless we assume the sexagesimal scale.reinLfta = unintelligible.24. One of them. denoted.21 =9 2 .20! This only exhibits the use of the sexagesimal system. 2 1. From the series becomes an arithmetical progression.4 = 60 + 4. is the fact that Sumerian inscriptions disclose the use. probably written between contains a table of square 1. We have next This&quot. 4. 3.6 A HISTOKY OF MATHEMATICS. 3.60 + 1. Of the largest numbers written in cuneiform which have hitherto been found. biit also of a sexagesimal one..25. Its which exhibit 2300 and 1600 601 its use. in all probability. not 20 times 100. also familiar with the notation of numbers. Thus. The illuminated during the first five days are the series 5. then they were. day being respectively 1. 4. 40. which is a geometrical progression. B. are squares of the 1. wl xioh makes 1.21 = 60 + 21. It is consequential development. but Most surprising. 1.

7 Not to be overlooked is the fact that in the sexagesimal nota-. in 1. The introduction of this principle at so early a date is the more because in the decimal notation it remarkable. tion of integers the &quot. We ask. This led to the division of the circle into 360 degrees. | and | are designated by 30 and 20. to supply the eter Hypsicles word borrowed the sexagesimal notation of fractions from the Babylonians and introduced it into Greece. in the Babylonian inscriptions. may be asked. by virtue of its position with respect to the 4. Christ. happen to contain no number in which there was in fractions. Now they were. The sexagesimal system was used also Thus.THE BABYLONIANS. was employed. familiar with the . in or sixth century after its general and syste matic application. But nothing of the human body could have suggested 60. What mal system ? this Why led to the invention of the sexagesi was it that 60 parts were selected ? To we have no positive answer. in occasion to use a zero.&quot. was not introduced till about the fifth The principle of position. when they It finally yielded their place to the decimal fractions. because reckoned the year at 360 days. sixtieths. From that time sexagesimal fractions held almost full sway in astronomical and mathematical calculations until the sixteenth century. Thus.principle of position&quot. the 1 is made to stand for 60. the unit of the second order. it Ten was chosen. in the represents the number of fingers. the reader being expected.4 (=64). The Greek geom and the Alexandrian astronomer Ptolemaeus &quot. Did the Babylonians possess one? Had taken the they already gigantic step of representing by a symbol the absence of units? for they Neither of the above tables answers this question. Cantor offers the following theory At first the Babylonians : decimal system. requires a symbol for zero. each degree representing the daily amount of the supposed yearly revolution of the sun around the earth. his mind. very probably.

Like the Hebrews (1 Kin. = 3. Fixing their attention upon these degrees. them.&quot. Besides the division of the circumference into 6 parts by its radius. which they used in their auguries. the -metropolis of many and it is. her merchants employed this most improved aid to calculation.8 A HISTOKY OF MATHEMATICS. 7 23). such as the triangle and quadrangle. when greater precision necessitated a subdivision of the degree. &quot. tive powers eclipse the severely rational and logical. It appears that the people in the Tigro-Exiphrates basin had made very Their knowledge of arithmetical and geometrical progressions has already been alluded to. Among the races of middle Asia. Though we possess. they took w Of geometrical demonstrations there is^ of no trace. The astronomy of the Babylonians has attracted much attention. When Alexander the Great. even as far as China. and of the hour into minutes and seconds on the scale of 60. and into 360 degrees. was once a great commercial centre. in the Oriental mind the intui course. The division of the day into 24 hours. and even the invention of the so-called musical proportion. a fact that the radius can be applied to its cir%umference as chord 6 times. In this way the sexagesimal notation may have originated. not unreasonable to suppose that nations. the abacus is as old as fable. they had some knowledge of : geometrical figures. after . it was partitioned into 60 minutes. They worshipped the heavenly bodies from tie earliest historic times. conclusive proof. Babylon. Now. lamblichus attributes to them also a knowledge of proportion. In geometry the Babylonians accomplished almost nothing. we have nevertheless reason to believe that in practical calculation they used the abacus. is due to the Babylonians. creditable advance in arithmetic. the division into 60 parts may have suggested itself tp Thus. and that each of these chords subtends an arc measuring exactly 60 degrees.As a rule.

9 the battle of Arbela (331 B. These scholars have succeeded in giving an account of the Babylonian calculation of the new and full moon. Menes. I erred not. they find no uncivilised state of society.C. .C.C. THE EGYPTIANS. Eecently Epping and Strassmaier 4 threw considera ble light on Babylonian chronology and astronomy by explain two calendars of the years 123 B.C.&quot. We append part of an Assyrian astronomical report. my lord. yet all authorities agree in is the statement that. . &quot. Mar-Istar. Ptolemy. On the first day.C. the moon was had already predicted to my again visible over the planet Mercury. and have identified by calculations the Babylonian names of the planets. Callisthenes found there on burned brick astronomical records reaching back as far as 2234 B. took possession of Babylon. and 111 B. . and of the twelve zodiacal signs and twenty-eight normal stars which correspond to some extent with the twenty-eight naksJiatras of the Hindoos. and builds the temple of Phthah at Memphis.THE EGYPTIANS. thy faithful servant.). Though there antiquity of great difference of opinion regarding the Egyptian civilisation.&quot. the course of the Wile. presumably. Surely a people engaging in .. the first king. makes a great reservoir. The Egyptians built the pyramids at a very early period. taken ing from cuneiform tablets coining.To : the King. possessed a Babylonian record of eclipses going back to 747 B. as master the King. Porphyrius says that these were sent to Aristotle. however far back they go. the Alexandrian astrono mer. changes &quot. as translated by Oppert &quot. as the new moon s day of the month Tham- muz I declined. from an old observatory.&quot.

dice. to in ascribing. was deciphered by Eisenlohr in 1877. lamblichus. and other ancient 5 writers to have originated in Egypt. without Egypt the priority of invention in the mathematical At the Egyptian city Plato in Pho&drus says sciences. lxad&amp.-y proportion to the entire tax imposed. smaller. Diodorus. is said by Herodotus. it. . : Theuth. or from indulging in wild We rest our account on documentary evidottc^. in/ Iti this wny/ifc appears to me.. &quot. mathematics All Greek writers are unanimous envy. Diogenes Laertius. have known something of enterprises of such magnitude must at least of practical mathematics. and he was the inventor of many arts. : quadrangle of equal size and to draw from each Ms revenues. geometry originated. from introducing additional Greek opinion regarding Egyptian mathematics. by imposing a tax to be levied yearly. the bird which is called the Ibis was sacred to him. c. included in the Rhine! collection of tha British in particular. who had to measure out by how much th0 land become in order that the owner might pay on what was left. abstain We A hieratic papyrus. In Herodotus wo find They said also that this king [Sesostjris] 109) divided the land among all Egyptians so as to give each 0110 a this (II. and found to be a mathematical manual containing problems in It was written by Ataw arithmetic and geometry. lie then sent the overseers.10 A HISTOBY OF MATHEMATICS. 15 because there the priestly class had the leisure needful for the study of Geometry. Naucratis there was a famous old god whoso name was of &quot. conjectures. had to go to hh^i and notify what had happened. But every one from whose part the river tore away anything. Hellas. such as arithmetic and calculation and geometry and astronomy and draughts and but his great discovery was the use of letters/ Aristotle says that mathematics had its birth in Egypt. which passed thence to &quot.

written by Eudenus. According to Plutarch. ? cording to Diogenes Laertius. the pyramids were measured by Thales in. his commentaries on This abstract constitutes shall quote it frequently our most reliable information. one of the &quot. which took him to Egypt. Ac of the pyramid.). staff was 0(jual to its own wise and the founder of the Ionic school. a different way viz. and to have studied the physical sciences and mathematics with the tian priests. by finding the length of the shadow of the pyramid at the moment when the shadow of a . falls the honour of men. We under the name of Eudemian Summary. having introduced the study of geometry into Greece. the equality the angles at the base of an isosceles triangle. who. in Euclid. A full jdstory of Greek geometry and astronomy during this period.THE GREEKS. and the congruence of two . of the pyramid as the height of the staff bears to the height This solution presupposes a knowledge of and the Ahmes papyrus actually shows that the proportion rudiments of proportion were known to the Egyptians. has been lost. the bisec tion of a circle by any diameter. gives a brief account of it. During middle life he engaged in commercial pursuits. It was well known to Proclus. He is said to have resided there. The Ionic School To Thales of Miletus (640-546 B. a pupil of Aristotle. Egyp Plutarch declares that Thales soon excelled his and amazed King Amasis by measuring the heights of the pyramids from their shadows. The JSud&mian Summary ascribes to Thales the invention of the af theorems on the equality of vertical angles.&quot. this was dono by considering that the shadow cast by a verti cal staff of known length bears the same ratio to the shadow masters.C. left 17 behind no written records of their discoveries.

empirical in their character. have made use of the above theorems on the straight line. The theorem that all angles inscribed in a semicircle are right first to angles is attributed by some ancient writers to Thales. abstract expression. It is told of him that is not known.). Thales may be said to have created the geometry of lines.C.a the last philosopher of the Ionic pupil of Anaximenes. an and to put into scientific lan explicit. Egyp tians studied only the geometry of surfaces and the rudiments 8 of solid geometry. The last the apply theoretical geometry to practical uses. in 585 B. simply while contemplating the stars during an evening walk. essentially abstract in its character.C. and the sides of equi 8 The Egyptians must angular triangles to be proportional. &quot. the or With Thales year. but was left for the Greek philosopher to give these truths. but did not formulate into words. and chiefly . when thou seest not what 611 is at thy feet ? &quot.) and Anaximenes pupils of Thales were Anaximander They studied (b. He acquired great celebrity by the prediction of a solar eclipse Whether he predicted the day of the occurrence. It has been inferred that he knew the sum of the three angles of a tri angle to be equal to two right angles.How canst thou know what is doing in the heavens. other theorems. begins also the study of scientific astronomy.18 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. triangles having a side and the two adjacent angles equal re theorem he applied to the measurement spectively. B. The two most prominent (b. which others saw. he fell The good old woman attending him exclaimed. by Thales was doubtless familiar with others to Pythagoras. Thus Thales was of the distances of ships from the shore. into a ditch. . 570 B. while the.C. Of Anaxagoras. in it some of their constructions found in the Ahmes papyrus. not recorded by the ancients. astronomy and physical philosophy. guage and subject to proof that which others merely felt to be true.

19 we know little. he passed This is the first time. is the knotty problem which has engaged the attention of many minds from the time of Anaxagoras down to our own. except that. school.C. and that the Greeks had not yet gotten far beyond the Egyptian con structions. and to draw an angle a line equal to a given augle. : to on. flourished (Enopides of Chios. that we find mention of the famous problem of the quadrature of the circle. The Ionic school lasted over one hundred years.THE GREEKS. It turns upon the determination of the exact value of IT. that rock upon which so many reputations have been destroyed. as compared with its growth in a later epoch of Greek history. in the history of mathematics. The jtello^dng account of Pythagoras excludes the most doubtful . Anaxagoras did not ofer any solution of und seems to have luckily escaped paralogisms. But the invention of a method to value. A new impetus to its progress was given by Pythagoras. Approx imations to TT Hebrews. which Pyrthagoras (580 ?-500? B. and Egyptians. indieates that geometry was still in its infancy. Babylonians. find its exact had been made by the Chinese. while in prison. TJie School of Pythagoras. About the time of Anaxagoras.d&a| med through the mythical haze that envelops them. his time attempting to square the circle. it. draw a perpendicular to a given line. That a man could gain a reputation by solving problems so elementary as these. The pt ogress of mathematics during that period was slow. but isolated from the Ionic Proclus ascribes to him school. the solution of the following problems From a point without.) was one of those figures /ffmes to such an impressed the imagination of succeeding eitenlt that their real histories have become difficult to be .

20 statements. ras fled to destroyed the buildings of the Pythagorean school* Tarentum and thence to Metapontum. of The democratic party in Lower Itely revolted and suspicion. visited On his return to Samos. mathematics. is to be ascribed. he quitted He of civilisation. sojourned in Egypt many years. murdered. mathematics was the study. in the Pythagorean school. and find it difficult to determine to whom each particular discovery themselves were in the habit of referring every to the great founder of the sect. The Pythagoreans discovep&quot. caused it to becoiae ai* object. This was not merely an academy for the teaching of philosophy.approaching life. removed to Magna Grsecia in South Italy. and was drawn by He then the fame of Pherecydes to the island of Syros. icipal iencc. This brotherhood masonic peculiarity. visited the ancient Thales. Failing in an attempt to found a tyranny of Polycrates. and our sources of information are rather scanty. following the current school there. a native of Samos. home again and. Certain it is that. duced in imitation of Egyptian usages. back This school grew rapidly and gained considerable political But the mystic and secret obseivaaptcfe. settled at Croton. Pythagoras raised mathematics to the taak of a so Arithmetic was courted by him as fervently ft&*geo$tetYj fact. A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. he found it under the Babylon. Hence we are obliged to speak of the Pythagoreans as a body. and may have. and the a*|stooratic tendencies of the school. He and founded the famous Pythagorean school. the members of which were united for l|ad observances &quot. intro ascendency. Pythagoras has left behind no mathematical tventtees. Thejr wore forbidden to divulge the discoveries and doctrines of their school. He was who incited him to stndy in Egypt. arithmetic is the foundation of his philosophic . and natural science. but it was a brotherhood.

the geometry of the Pythagoreans much concerned with areas. that Pythagoras was so hecatomb. 21 The Eudemiart Summary says that &quot. His geometry was connected closely with his arithmetic. is possible to divide up a plane into figures of either kind. presumably known to Thales. and investigated its theorems in an immaterial and intellectual manner.THE GrKEEKS. From the . given in Euclid s Elements. four squares. The story goes. To Pythagoras is ascribed the important theorem that the square on the hypotenuse of a right triangle is equal to the sum of the squares on the other . . 6. and not to the Pythagoreans. icosaedron. 47. They demonstrated also that the filled by six equilateral plane about a point is completely so that it triangles. of proof was has been a favourite topic for The theorem on the sum of the three angles of a triangle. the square arise the solids.of three squares. octaedron. respectively. two sides/ He had probably learned from the Egyptians the truth of the theorem in the special case when the sides are 3. equilateral triangle and the tetraedron. ! . is due to the What Py thagorean method conjecture. the shedding of blood. for he examined its principles to the bottom. therefore.Pythagoras changed the study of geometry into the form of a liberal education.eo-Pythago-&quot. namely These solids were. Euclid himself. known to the Egyptians. In the later traditions of the !N&quot. was proved bythe Pythagoreans after the manner of Euclid. I. Its jubilant over this discovery that he sacrificed a is doubted. is Like Egyptian geometry. 4. and the cube. because the Pythagoreans believed in authenticity the transmigration of the soul and opposed. He was especially fond of those geometrical relations which admitted of arithmetical expression.&quot. in all probability. or three regular hexagons. reans this objection is removed by replacing this bloody sacri The proof of the law an ox made of flour fice by that of &quot.

Though politics broke up the Pythagorean fraternity. namely the dodecaedron. &quot. f 1 shaped pentagram was used as a symbol of recognition by the Pythagoreans. In Pythagorean philos the four elements of the ophy. According to Eudemus. It is worth noticing that on the circle no theorem of any importance *wa$ discovered by this school. some cannot be attributed to Pythagoras himself. 29. Of the theorems generally ascribed to the Italian school. The the subjects of proportion and of irrational treatment of under the quantities by him and his school will be taken up and the circle the most beautifttl of all head of arithmetic. including the cases ~f defect and excess. in absence of a/fifth element. they represent respectively physical world. of necessity. was made to represent the universe itself. They were iqual with the construction of a polygon in area to a given polygon and similar to another given also familiar This problem depends upon several important and somewhat advanced theorems. water. and was called by them Health. have been slow. lamblichus states that Hippasus. Philolaus and Arckytas aw the most prominent. Pythagoras called the sphere the most beautiful of all solids. Philolaus wrote a book on the Pythago* Among . namely. perhaps. solutions must. and testifies to the fact that )olygon. plane figures. the Pythagoreans invented the prob-* lerns concerning the application of areas. 28. and earth. the later Pythagoreans. air. another regular solid was/ discovered. fire. as in Euclid. which. the icosaedron. no* to his The progress from empirical to reasoned earliest successors. perished in the sea. Later excepting. VI. yet the school continued to exist at least two centuries longer* .&quot.because he boasted that he first The stardivulged the sphere with the twelve pentagons.A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. jhe t Pythagoreans made no mean progress in geometry. &quot. a Pythagorean.

a league was formed among the Greeks fco liberated Greek cities on preserve the freedom of the now Of this league bhe islands and coast of the JEgsean Sea. rean doctrines. He also found a very ingeni ous mechanical solution to the problem of the duplication of the cube. The Sophist School After the defeat of the Persians under Xerxes at^the battle of Salamis. to be merged into that of separate treasury of the league then spent the money of her allies for her own Athens. These mean proportionals were obtained by Archytas from the section of a half-cylinder. and universally admired for his virtues. Archytas was the first to apply geometry to mechanics and to treat the latter subject methodically. She caused the Athens soon became leader and dictator.C. was advanced through him. This problem reduces itself to finding two mean proportionals between two given lines. which had been kept secret The brilliant Archytas of Tarentum for a whole century.. and Athens was also a great commercial centre. tion of cones His solution involves clear notions on the genera and cylinders.). Phus she became the richest and most beautiful city of aniquity. All menial work was performed by slaves. The . was the only great geome ter among the Greeks when Plato opened his school. and had a warm friend in Archytas. tggrandisement. known as a great statesman and general. 23 given to tlie world tlie teachings of the Italian school. first By him were (428-347 B.THE GREEKS. The Sophists acquired geometry from Pythagorean sources.C. Plato bought the works of Philolaus. The doctrine of proportion There is every reason to believe that the later Pythagoreans exercised a strong influence on the study and development of mathematics at Athens. 480 B.

other hand. or &quot. first of all. be educated. every To make his influence felt among politician. presented unexpected A right iwagle had been divided into three equal parts by the Pythagoreans. an angle was one of the easiest The trisection of an angle. and of mathematicians in particular. his fellow-men he must.e. to find a square or some other rectilinear figure exactly equal in area to a given circle* These problems have probably been the subject of more discussion and research than any other problems mathe double that of a given cube. Athens soon became the headquarters of Grecian men of letters. The bisection of problems in geometry. These of leisure. they accepted pay for their teaching. of at Athens. citizen was a teachers were called Sophists. Greeks was first in the Ionian Islands. they also taught geometry. The supply came principally from Sicily. then in Italy. was taken up by the Sophists.&quot.wise men. m matics. (3) To &quot. Unlike the Pythagoreans. which had been entirely neglected by the Pythagoreans. Although rhetoric was the principal feature of their instruction.&quot. though easy in appearanee^ tran scended the power. and philosophy.24 * A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. Thus there arose a demand for teachers.&quot. double the i. Among the firfit . cube. an arc or an angle.e. The geometry the circle. of elementary geometry. on the difficulties. But the general problem. The home of mathematics among Lower \ the. where Pythagorean doctrines had spread. Nearly all their discoveries were made in connection with their innumerable attempts to solve the following three famous problems (1) : (2) is To To trisect &quot. Athens was well-to-do and enjoyed a large amount citizen of The government being purely democratic. to find a cube whose volume i.square the circle. astronomy. and during the time now under consideration.

was the first to show that the problem could be line reduced to finding two mean proportionals between a given and another twice as long. Prockts mentions a man. = 2 cfx : since 2 a? 3 and a? = ay =2a 8 .THE GREEKS. This same curve was used later by Deinostratus and others for the quadrature of the circle.&quot. His attempt to square the though lie was also a failure. for made himself celebrated by squaring a kine. and y2 = 2 ax and ce* = a2/. .C. we But he failed to find the two pircl& mean proportionals. but this did not The error being discovered. of the cube. Hippocrates of Chios (about 430 B. a contemporary of and born about 460 B. for a solution to this He and his disciples searched eagerly &quot. i. lujhis study of the quadrature and duplication-problems. have 4 = y 2 a.). sulted on the matter. to find the edge of a cube duplication having The Pythagoreans had shown this double the volume of a given cube.Delian Problem. that the diagonal of a square the side of another square having double the area of the This probably suggested the problem of the original one. in the proportion a: a? =x : y a. Eratosthenes ascribes to problem a different origin. he failed in effecting the trisection by means of a ruler and compass only. Plato was con pacify the gods. ters.e. presum wrestle with ably Hippias of Elis. a talented mathematician. as the inventor of a transcendental curve which served to divide an angle not only into three. he committed an error in attempting to apply this result to the squaring of the circle. On is this account it is called the quadratrix. For. contributed much to the geometry of the circle. but otherwise slow and stupid. The Delians were once suf fering from a pestilence and were ordered double a certain cubical altar. Hippias.C. Thoughtless by the oracle to workmen simply constructed a cube with edges twice as long. Like all the later geome Socrates. but into any number of equal parts. fco 25 it was Hippias of Blis.

thus far. Greeks only They never succeeded in uniting the notions of numbers and magnitudes. Ho did himself credit by that by inscribing in a circle a square. etc. What we call &quot.integers. irrational numbers was not included under this notion. of &quot. The Sophist Antiphon. The term &quot.&quot. while magnitudes were The two notions appeared. the Pythagorean habit of secrecy was being abandoned. 64 sides. called the Elements. Thais is obtained an iTD0 ^e . approaches nearer to the circle than the pxeviot^. therefore. one could obtain a succession of . o&f until the circle is finally exhausted. 16. distinct.. and oa its remarking sides erecting isosceles triangles with their vertices itt the circumference.which eneh. The chasm between them is exposed to full view in the statement of Euclid that &quot. The transfer of the theory of proportion from numbers to mag nitudes (and to lengths in particular) was a difficult and important step. and on the sides of these triangles erecting new triangles. bers were conceived as discontinuous. Not even rational fractions were called numbers. a contemporary of Hippocrates. secrecy was contrary to the spirit of Athenian life. and so on. They used the Hence num word in the same sense as wo use &quot.number was used by them in a restricted sense. The subject of similar figures was studied and partly This involved the theory of developed by Hippocrates.26 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS.&quot. Hippocrates added to his fame by writing a geometrical This publication shows that text-book.regular polygons of 8.incommensurable magni s tudes do not have the same ratio as numbers. been used by the in numbers. proportion. In Euclid Elements we find the theory of proportion of magnitudes developed and treated independent of that of numbers. 32. intro duced the process of exhaustion for the purpose of solving the problem of the quadrature. Proportion had. entirely continuous.

THE GREEKS* 27 polygon whose sides coincide with the circumference. attempted to show if its absurdity by proving that magnitudes are infinitely divisible. there also can be found a square equal to the last polygon inscribed. by such paradoxes from introducing the idea of their geometry. Aristotle always supported the theory of tihe infinite divisibility. Brys0n of Heraclea. Such arguments greatly con No wonder they were deterred founded Greek geometers. process of Antiphon and Bryson gave rise to the brous but perfectly rigorous &quot. and then bv infyrAfl. always in advance of Achilles. The cum In determining the ratio of the areas between two curvilinear plane i| of exhaustion. says Simplicius. Zeno argues that Achilles could not overtake a tortoise. and while Achilles reached that second spot. and therefore equal to the circle itself. geometers first inscribed or Similar t&amp. advanced the prob lem of the quadrature considerably by circumscribing poly gons at the same time that he inscribed polygons. in assuming that the area of a circle was the arith metical mean between circumscribed and inscribed polygons. Since there can be found squares equal in area to any polygon. Antiphon it possible. rest of disputes in Athens. then. a contemporary of Antiphon. the tortoise crept some distance ahead. the tortoise again Thus the tortoise was moved forward a little.ainar i .He erred. If circle.|% s&y/two circles. Unlike Bryson and the seems to have believed Greek geometers. motion is impossible.olverons. by continually doubling the sides of an inscribed polygon. the Stoic. and so on. while Zeno. a polygon can coincide with the we must put aside the notion that magnitudes are divisible ad infinitum..&quot. for while he hastened to the place where the tortoise had been when he started. however. infinity into It did not suit the rigour of their proofs. to obtain a polygon coin This question gave rise to lively ciding with the circle.

yet Ionia. and suppose that can mention here only Bemociitus of B. j&amp. and Gyrene produced mathematicians who made creditable contribution B at to the science. D and d be respectively the Let 2. Hone of these works are He used to boast that in the construction of plane extant. Since can be neither to it. He visited Egypt and perhaps even c. Sicily.D.C. polygon in C. not even . But in order to exclude all vagueness and possibility of doubt. : D 2 : d2 =C c is D $= : : . Greek geometers applied reasoning like that in Euclid. We Abdera (about 460-370 of Philolaus. d2 P =G : c . seem insufficient. rather than to Eudoxus. c f. on numbers. in the circle c which conies then a polygon p can be inscribed If be the corresponding nearer to it in area than does c and diameters in question. the number of sides. f . geometers may have divined the theorem attributed to Hippocrates of Chios that the circles.A HISTOEY OF MATHEMATICS. which differ but little from the last drawn poly gons. then Since &amp. nearly exhausted the spaces between the polygons and circumferences. figures with proof no one had yet surpassed him. Though progress in geometry at this period is traceable only Athens. and on perspective. a pupil of Anaxagoras. a friend and an admirer of the Pythagoreans. Next they ad absurdum the c c. Hankel refers this Method of Exhaustion back to Hippo crates of Chios. we have which is absurd. Abdera in Thrace. later XII. IProm the theo rem that similar polygons inscribed in circles are to each othsr as the squares on their diameters.C. larger nor smaller than. it must be equal it QJE. Ho was a successful geometer and wrote on incommensurable lines. &amp. on geometry. that c &amp. proved by this same method of reductio f falsity of the supposition.). and P O=p : : c . 2 . but the reasons for assigning to this early writer. must be to each other as the squares on their as follows : circles Then if the proportion 2 If d c not true. P : p=D P&amp.

Plato s physical philosophy is partly based on that of the Like them.) of Egypt. Archytas of Tarentum and Timaeus of Locri became his intimate friends..THE GREEKS.) the progress was checked. Athens sank into the background as a minor political power. where he came in contact with the Pythagoreans. and was born at Athens in 429 B. a knowledge of geometry &quot. After the war. Plato acquired his taste for mathematics. When questioned about He geomthe occupation of the Deity. then to Lower Italy and Sicily. geometry the key to the universe. TJie Platonic School. by declining to admit a pupil who had no mathematical training. teacher in the Academy. Plato answered that etrises continually. Plato travelled extensively.C. (&quot. Accordingly. and died in 348. After the death of Soc mathematics under Theodoras. but it was not from him that he science. and devoted the remainder of his life to teaching and writing..C. the year He was a pupil and of the great plague. To show how great a value he put on mathematics and how it is necessary tion over for higher speculation. On his return to Athens^ about 389 B. He went In Cyrene he studied to Egypt. is a necessary preparation for the study of philosophy. literature. but advanced more and more to the front as the leader in philosophy. Ms porch. &quot. he sought in arithmetic and Pythagoreans. rates. near friend of Socrates.Let no one who . he founded his school in the groves of the Academia.C.&quot. By the so-called harpedonaptae rope-stretchers this assertion he pays a flattering compliment to the skill and ability of the Egyptians. Xenocrates.&quot. followed in his master s footsteps. 29* &quot. of geometry During the Peloponnesian War (431-404 B. Plato placed the inscrip is unacquainted with a successor of Plato as geometry enter here.

and a line as &quot. surface. like a true philosopher^ turned the instinc tive logic into a conscious.30 A HISTOBY OF MATHEMATICS. or as &quot. with the remark. we need not wonder that the Platonic school produced so large a number of mathemati Plato did little real original work. statement of a philosophical theory 7 Plato objected to calling a point a geometrical fiction. Hence it was that the for correct and vigorous thinking.&quot. that &quot. 1 for thou hast not the grip of Plato observed that geometry trained the mind philosophy. others The terms in a synthesis more special sense than in logic.Depart. without assigning this is a thagoreans called a point &quot. matical discoveries. surface. method had been used unconsciously by Hippocrates and . etc.&quot. length without breadth. ible line. respectively. and exhibited on every occasion the re markable connection between mathematics and philosophy. The Py to them formal definitions.beginning of a line&quot. and the geometrical concepts.equals The same is probably Aristotle refers to Plato the axiom 7 One this subtracted from equals leave equals.. but he made cians. Many of the definitions in Euclid are to solid. &quot. line. He called the point. Eudemian Summary says.& indivis &quot. such as the point. the boundaries of the line. line. of the greatest achievements of Plato and his school is the invention of analysis as a method of proof. but as a rule previous century were rigorous in their proofs. and analysis are used in mathematics In ancient mathematics .&quot. legitimate method. He filled his writings with mathe &quot. To be sure. they did not reflect on the inward They used the axioms without giving them explicit expression.&quot. but Plato.unity in position/ but rather than a definition. surface. nature of their methods. valuable improvements in the logic and methods employed It is true that the Sophist geometers of the in geometry. With Plato as the head-master. be ascribed to the Platonic school. true of Euclid s axioms. He defined a point as the &quot.

Plato gave a healthful stimulus to the study of stereometry. but the prism. These objections indicate either that the solution is wrongly attrib uted to Plato or that he wished to show how easily non-geo metric solutions of that character can be found. which in all probability was framed by Eudoxus &quot. cannot be solved by means of the ruler and compass only. as well as the trisection and quadrature problems. He said that thereby the good of geometry is set aside and destroyed. to the world of sense. Thus the aim of analysis was to aid in the discovery of synthetic proofs or solutions.&quot. 5. The sphere and the regular solids had been studied to some extent. XIII. for they required the use of other instruments than the ruler and compass. for which reason He always is God. even as it is employed by God. and Menaeclmius. Eudoxus.&quot. tion But the solution is open to the very same objec which he made to the solutions by Archytas. 31 they had a different meaning from what they now have. The oldest definition of mathematical analysis as opposed to syn thesis is that given in Euclid. instead of elevating and imbuing it with the eternal and incorporeal images of thought. Plato is said to have solved the problem of the duplication of the cube. so is and the it. cylinder. but mechanical. doubt.THE GREEKS. reasoning up to an obtaining of the thing to the inference and proof of sought by reasoning up The analytic method is not conclusive. . which until his time had been entirely neglected. and cone were hardly known to . It is now generally admitted that the duplication problem. He called their solutions not geometrical. as a rule. for we again reduce it &quot. pyramid. consisting of a reversion of all operations occurring in the analysis. : Analysis it is the obtaining of the thing sought by assuming admitted truth synthesis . the Greeks. unless all operations To remove all involved in it are known to be reversible. added to the analytic process a synthetic one.

by means of intersections of these curves.Delian. Diogenes Laertius describes Eudoxus as astronomer. as well as geometer. and hyperbola. under Plato. by the Platonic One result of these inquiries was epoch-making. All these solids became the subjects of investigation school. and Helicon. and has beea called the father of scientific astronomical observation. which. and later. Judging from the two very elegant solutions of the &quot. where ho died 355 B.. by means of the quadratri of Hippias. Another great geometer was Dinostratus. and then returned to Cyzicxis. Mensechimis must have succeeded well in investigating their properties. invented the conic sections. Athensaus. ellipse. studied under Archytas.O. three kinds of cones. for two months.32 exist. physician. Celebrated is his mechanical solution of the quadrature of the circle. Eudoxus had a school at Cyzicus. found in later writers. The fame of the academy of Plato is to a large extent tion of planetary motions due to Eudoxtts s pupils of the school at Cyzicua. Dinostratus. an associate of Plato and pupil of Eudoxus. Problem&quot. Perhaps the most brilliant mathematician of this period was Eudoxus. From the fragmentary notices of his astronomical researches. He was imbued with a true spirit of scientific inquiry. legislator. the brother of Menaechmus and pupil of Plato. He was born at Cniclus about 408 B. in course of only a century. visit ing Plato. The Eudemimi Summary .concentric spheres*&quot. and thus obtained the three sections which we now call the parabola. went with his pupils to Athens. aiaong whom are Meneeclnnus. Ideler and Schiaparolli succeeded in recon structing the system of Eudoxus with its celebrated representa by &quot. the right-angled/ acute-angled/ and obtuse-angled/ by planes at right angles to a side of the cones. raised geometry to the loftiest height which Mensechmus cut it was destined to reach during antiquity.C. A HISTOBY OF MATHEMATICS. Menaechmus.

the pupils found two mean proportionals between two but the method of solution is not known.THE GREEKS. and. to each other as the cubes of their radii is probably due to him. The proof that spheres are geometry. Euclid was greatly indebted 8 in the composition of the 10th book treating of incommensugifts. of which he was in all probability the inventor. Plato has been called a maker of mathematicians. that a pyramid is one-third of a prism. thought to be Proclus. given lines. no\loubt. Theudius of Magnesia. very good which had been confined to particular cases Hermotimus of . who added much of their predecessors. He made frequent and skilful use of the method of exhaustion. the line in extreme propositions in Euclid XIII. finally. to . By this c section is &quot. Feocleides and his pupil Leon. Besides already named. for Leon wrote an Elements carefully designed. Cyzicenus of Athens. says that Eudoxus &quot. which cuts a meant. first five and mean The He proved. on the subject of the section. relate to lines cut by this section. to which he applied the analyt first increased the ical method. says further that A Eudoxus Eudoxus practically invented the whole of Euclid also s fifth book. propositions of the Elements and composed some on loci. and a cone one-third of a cylinder. says Archimedes. who discovered many of Heraclea. scholiast on Euclid. and Philippus of Mende. ratio. a tions the following: man of great natural whom. 33 number of general theorems. who composed a book of Elements and generalised propositions. .golden section&quot. and are generally attributed Eudoxus added much to the knowledge of solid to Eudoxus. begun by Plato. both in number and work utility of its proofs.&quot. aixd raised to a considerable quantity the learning. Leodamas of Thasos to the . added to the three proportions three more. rables . exactly having equal base and altitude. no doubt. the names of Amyclas Colophon. (sectio aurea). the Theaetetus Eudemian Summary men of Athens.

la eleven years he built beaten. the systematise! of deductive logic. was forever. sections tends to The show that much progress had been made in the elder. at the battle of OUf&ronea. Alexander the Great. and her power was broken Soon after.C. During her declining years. Athens produced the greatest scientists and philosophers of antiquity. the son of Philip. in Greece from feeble childhood to vigorous manhood. Athens by Philip of Macedon.C. In 338 B. Aristous wrote also on regular solids and cultivated the analytic method. Mechanics was totally neglected by the Platonic school. and Wo now we derive shall see it return to the land of its birth and there new vigour. The First Alexandrian School. A skilful no details life and works we have is rary of Euclid. mathematician of whose Aristaelis. of which he is regarded by some as the author. promoted the science of geometry by improving some of the most difficult defini tions. His works contained probably a summary of the researches of the Platonic school.34 A HISTOBY OF MATHEMATICS. though not a professed mathematician.). up a great empire which broke to pieep ia a day* . In the previous pages we have seen the birth of geometry in Egypt.. His Physics contains passages with suggestive hints of the principle of virtual velocities. 8 Aristotle (384-322 B. It was the timo of Plato and Aristotle. started out to conquer the world. About his time there appeared a work called Mechanic. thence to Lower have witnessed its growth Italy and to Athens. immediately following the Feloponnesian War. its transference to the Ionian Islands. probably a senior contempo fact that he wrote a work on conic their study during the time of Menaechmus.

Alex andria soon became the great centre of learning. and promenades. He was of the Platonic sect. and well read in in order its doctrines. who. Literature.&quot. completed many things of Theaetetus.THE GREEKS. museums. and were diligently cultivated. Euclid returned the answer. Pappus states that Euclid was distin guished by the fairness and kindness of his disposition. added by Proclus to was younger than Plato and older than . Euclid s greatest activity was during the time of the first Ptolemy. contrast to Apollonius. Of the life of to was invited with him Euclid. and was the first who reduced to unob that jectionable demonstration. that open the mathematical school. is The art history of Egypt during the next three centuries mainly the history of Alexandria. Ptolemy created the university He founded the great Library and built labo of Alexandria.&quot. which soon became of all cities.Eratosthenes and Archimedes.C.reigned from 306 to 283 B. except what is the Eudemian Summary. a zoological garden. Demetrius Phalereus was invited from Athens to take charge of the Library. the latter of whom mentions him. says Gow. the imperfect attempts of his prede cessors. baeus: &quot. He collected the Elements. noblest Ptolemy made Alexandria the capital. inquired. ratories.the the seaport of Alexandria. Pappus is evidently making a whom he more than insinuates the little A pretty story is related by Sto- youth who had begun to read geometry with when h had learnt the first proposition. &quot. Euclid. much When Ptolemy once asked him if geometry could not be mastered by an easier process than by studying the Elements. little is known.There is no royal road to geometry. Alexander had founded &quot. Euclid. fell to 35 the lot of Ptolemy Soter. of 9 opposite character. par ticularly toward those who could do anything to advance the mathematical sciences. says Proclus. put Eudoxus had prepared.A 6 . and Euclid it is probable. philosophy.

These are about all the what he learns/ make gain out of writers. called the Elements. from the head of Jupiter. A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. Allman conjectures that the substance of Books I. do I get by learning these tilings &quot. ~ Theudius. &quot. IV. It is a remarkable fact in thei of Euclid. The fame of Euclid has at all times rested mainly upon his book on geometry. that Thesetetus contributed much toward Books X. however. the proof of tlie Theorem of Pythagoras is the only one directly ascribed to him. but they are unre At one time Euclid of Alexandria was universally liable. ntroduction to the mathematical sciences.36 &amp. written two xistory of geometry. II. confounded with Euclid of Megara.Elements&quot. Comparatively few of the propositions and proofs in the Elements are his own discoveries. is due to the Pythagoreans and Exidoatufy tlto latter con &quot. that the latter works soon perished in the straggle The Greeks gave Euclid the special title of c the author of the . and for existence. that tlie substance of Book VI. This book was so far superior to the Elements written by Hippocrates.). bo credit him with more than is his due.&quot. comes from the Pythagoreans.. that the Elements are still regarded by many as the best thousand years ago. In England they xre used at the present time extensively as a text-book in Some editors of Euclid have. tributing the doctrine of proportion as applicable to ineommensurables and also the Method of Exhaustions (Book VII. who lived a century Loon. They fail to mention the earlier eminent mathematicians from whom Euclid got his material. since he must said. In fact. and XIII. been inclined schools. They would have us believe that a finished and unassailable system of geometry sprang at once from the brain of Euclid. an armed Minerva &quot. . What ? So Euclid called his slave and Give him threepence. Syrian and personal details preserved by Greek Arabian writers claim to know much more.

version were noticed therein. The Elements has been considered as offering is models of scrupulously rigoroxis demonstrations. the father of Hypatia. who laboured under the idea that Euclid must be absolutely perfect. his time. and showed that Theon The defects in the generally made only verbal changes.&quot. therefore. rivals . Many variations from Theon s Elements for which Theon was blamed must. has been pronounced by C. edition. The text of the Elements now commonly used is Theon s Theon of Alexandria. . but they were not at all important. S. by Napoleon it. Archimedes. under the head of definitions. experience keeps him on his guard. he built up. Peirce to be riddled with only because the writer s At the beginning of our editions of the Elements. Apollonius. it It certainly true that in point of rigour its with strict modern &quot. a proud and lofty structure. are given the assumptions of such The results are correct fallacies. and even he himself refer to theorems not included in his Ele ments.THE GREEKS. It would be erroneous to believe that he incorporated into his Elements all the elementary theorems known at. brought out an edition. But among the manuscripts sent from the Vatican to Paris was found a copy of the Elements believed to be anterior to Theon s recension. 37 that the principal part of the original work of Euclid himself 8 Euclid was the greatest systemais to be found in Book X. compares favourably but when examined in the light of it mathematical logic. be due to Euclid himself. especially Robert Simson. about 700 years after Euclid. By careful selection from the material before him. as being well-known truths. tions in the text. from a few definitions and axioms. and by logical arrangement of the propositions selected. tiser of his time. later commentators. made Theon the scape goat for all the defects which they thought they could discover in the text as they knew I. with some altera As a consequence.

eighth. and then uses polygons. The regular octaedron. about parallels plays an important role in the history of non* Euclidean geometry. Tho thirteenth treats of the regular of the triangle and pentagon. according to which figures and parallels can. more elementary theorems the . and not common notions or axioms. and twelve axioms. An immense preponderance of manuscripts and the ? testimony of Proclus place the axioms about right angles 9 10 (Axioms 11 and 12) among tho postulates. notions as the point. found the proof to the theorem that tha number infinite. icosaedron. cone. of which it is the authors. The to book treats of the theory of proportion as applied The sixth book develops the magnitudes in general. the metrical relations of the pyramid. The stipposed that Hypsicles and Damasoms are first four books are on plane geometry. The term axiom 7 was used by Proclus. but not by Euclid. The next three books are on stereometry. The Moments contains thirteen books by Euclid. instead. and sphere. This is indeed their proper place. The only postulate which Kxiolid missed was the one of superposition. for they arc really assump Tho postulate tions. . solids were studied so extensively by the.. twelfth. etc. line.38 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. the totraedron. In the is of primes is incommensurables. especially them as faces of the five regular solids namely. and two. of common notions There has been much contro to all men or to all sciences. versy among ancient and modern critics on the postulates and axioms.Platonists fhfrjfe they . The tenth book treats of the theory of contains its The eleventh cylinder. ninth geometry of similar figures. Then follow three postulates or demands. prism. cube. and dodecaedron. on the theory of numbers. He common either speaks. or on arithmetic. fifth booksy^re ninth book The seventh. and some verbal explanations. be moved about in space without any alteration in form or magnitude.

like a problem. as. A remarkable feature of Euclid is s. are apocryphal. like a theorem. and not from the object seen. could not pick up from the Elements utes little to the stock of scientific knowledge.THE GEBEKS. nor to effect a construction. Greek geometry Thus the theorem that the area of a triangle equals half the product of its base and its altitude is foreign to Euclid. into parts ftus. treat ing of solid geometry. on musical intervals. His treatise on Porisms is lost . It seems to have been written for those who.D. The term porism is vague in meaningl The aim of a porism is not to state some property or truth. The fourteenth and fifteenth books. 6 His other lost works are Fallacies. containing . a work on spherical geometry and astronomy. a treatise on the division of plane figures to one another a given ratio Sectio Canonis. and of all before Archimedes that it eschews mensuration. The Data is It contains little or nothing that a course of practice in analy an intelligent student itself. which develops the hypothesis that light proceeds from the eye. is obviously wrong.C. Hence it contrib The following are the other extant works generally attributed to Euclid: Phenomena. Ohasles in restoring it from numerous notes found in the writings of Pappus. received the 39 name of &quot. Catoptrica. Optics. to find the centre of a given circle.&quot. but learning has been expended by Eobert Sims on and M. wish to acquire the power of solving new problems proposed to them. sis. much but to find and bring to view a thing which necessarily exists with given numbers or a given construction. The statement of Proclns that the whole aim of Euclid in writing the Elements was to arrive at the construction of the regular solids. of two given numbers. Another extant book of Euclid is the Data. con taining propositions on reflections from mirrors De Divisioni. a work having . or to find the G. having completed the Ele ments.Platonic figures.

tJTIxe the Romans. since he was a great friend of Conon and it is Eratosthenes. the greatest mathematician of antiquity. and known of them. which are the foundation of a ject work on the same sub by Apollonius. to Syracuse. at the time. by the use of mirrors reflecting bhe sun s rays. Plutarch calls him a rela tion of Oicero. and. where he made himself useful to his admiring friend He King Hieron. This belief highly probable that he studied in. but \ successors of Euclid in the mathematical Conon. was born in Syracuse. visited King Hieronj but more reliable is the statement of who tells us he was of low birth. and Loci on a Surface.&quot. rushed upon him and killed him. he was. by wjbdch he inflicted much loss on the Romans during the siege of patron. in four exercises in detection of fallacies. Heiberg believes it to mean &quot. Marcellus. who admired his and raised in his honour a tomb bearing the figure of a sphere inscribed in a cylinder. Conic Sections. books.&quot. studying the diagram was taken ait &quot. The immediate Zeuxippus. he called out. Roman general Marcelltts.40 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. school at Alexandria were probably little is Dositheus. returned. and Archimedes length perished in the indiscriminate slaughter which followed. As a Roman soldier approached him. Ac cording to tradition. dria. feeling insulted. 1 The story that.loci which are surfaces. Diodorus says he Egypt. is probably a fiction. Archimedes (287?~212 B. Jf No -blame attaches to [the bo some problem drawn in the sand.Don t spoil my circles. when they came within bow-shot of the city walls. he set on fire the Roman ships. the meaning of which title is not understood. &quot.C. Alexan is strengthened by the fact that he had bhe most thorough acquaintance with all the work previously done in mathematics. by applying his extraordinary inventive genius to the construction of various war-engines. however.). The soldier. When .

The Sand-Counter. are the extant books. between which is inserted his treatise or. his discoveries in pure science. 6. Conoids and Spheroids. Cicero 41 was in Syracuse. The following vulgar-^&quot. he finally arrived at the conclusion that limit ?r&amp. ratio of the circum ference to the diameter. arranged approximately in chronological Equiponderance of Planes or Centres of Plane Gravities. is he starts with an which the base circle. 48. The Measurement of the Circle . and by taking the irrational square roots always a little too small. 5. 7. finding for each successive polygon its perimeter. Thus he finally concludes that &quot. on the ground that it is not evident that a straight line can equal a curved one. 96 24.&quot. Next he finds a lower by inscribing in the circle regular polygons of 6. 4. for&quot. of art He declared that &quot. He fir^t finds an upper limit to the TT. or equilateral triangle of To do this. 2. a tangent and the vertex is the centre of the By successively bisecting the angle at the centre.the circumference of a circle ex- . of course. Two books on Floating Bodies.THE GREEKS. The finding of suct^ a line was the next prob lem. 8.every kind which was connected with daily needs was ignoble and Some of his works have been lost.&quot. On Spirals.3^. 12. Two books on the Sphere order : 1. by comparing ratios. his Archimedes was admired by his fellow-citizens chiefly mechanical inventions he himself prized far more highly . Two books on and Cylinder. j In the book on the Measurement of the Circle. Fifteen Lemmas. proves first that the area of a circle is there exists a straight line equal in length to the circumference an assumption objected to by some ancient critics. lie found the tomb buried under rubbish. and the radius for its altitude. the Quadrature of the Parabola. Archimedes equal to that of a right triangle having the length of the circumference for its In this he assumes that b~se. which is. 3. always less than the circumference.

and medes. his genius this Nowhere stead the aBteients. Nowadays. the other geometrical. . equal to a circle whose radius is the straight line drawn from the vertex of the segment to the circumference of its basal circle that the volume and the surface of a sphere are of. respectively. and not. 8 His On . the volume and surface. This approximation is exact enough for most purposes. This was ordered done by Marcellus.&quot. method of exhaustion is used in both. Spirals. 9 . perhaps. of exhaustion was only the ment of discovery. was discovered by Archi some believe.spiral of Archimedes. is less than $ but more than f& of the In its used the method of exhaustion.&quot. that the surface of a sphere is equal to four times a great circle that the surface of a segment of a sphere is in his . The Quadrature of the Parabola contains two solutions to the problem one mechanical. Archimedes studied J~-Of all his discoveries Archimedes prized most highly those In it are proved the new Sphere and Cylinder. is the fertility of method.CThe spiral now called the described in the book &quot. tention. It is believed that he wrote a book on conic sections. theorems. as treatise thereon is.42 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. more grandly displayed than in his masterly use of With Euclid and his predecessors the method : means of proving propositions which must have been seen anf b&litved before they were proved. } &amp. the use of the infinitesimal calculus. The also the ellipse and accomplished its but to the hyperbola he seems to have paid less at quadrature. of the cylinder circum scribed about the sphere. by his friend Conon. the most wonderful of. subjects of this kind are made easy by . Archimedes desired that the figure to the last proposition be inscribed on his tomb. ceeds three times its diameter by a part which.all his works. But in the hands of Arehtoete it lecame art instru .

is word conoid/ in his book on Conoids and meant thQ solid produced by the revolution a hyperbola about its axis. Spheroids the revolution of an ellipse. one in the direction of the tangent and one in the direction of the radius the former motion is.that and ideas. holds its place in text-books to this day. was &quot. the known mechanical truths into a science.THE GKEEKS. Aristotle asserted that when a body at the end of a lever is moving. We Rave now reviewed briefly all etry. These inappropriate notions of natural and unnatural motions. latter contrary 5 to nature. the property of the lever. treatise Archimedes first sound knowledge on this and others attempted to form Archytas. of the true sible.&quot. it may be considered as having two motions . By the 43 Spheroids. Aris the author of the totle its knew true mathematical theory. but failed. but could -not establish The radical and fatal defect in the speculations of the Greeks. The proof of the property of the lever. and are long by according as the ellipse revolves around the major axis. made the per grounds of mechanical properties impos seems strange that even after Archimedes had entered upon the right path. according to nature. given in his Equi- ponderance of Planes. his extant works on geom His arithmetical ered later. Aristotle. the ideas 93 For instance. His estimate of the efficiency of the lever is expressed in the . It nearly two thousand years. the . says though they had in their possession facts Whewell. were not distinct and appropriate to the facts. together with the habits of ^thought which dictated these speculations. he says. We is and problems will be consid shall now notice his works on mechanics. of a parabola or are produced or or flat. this science should have remained a period of absolutely stationary till the time of Galileo ception. subject. minor / The book leads up to the cubature of these solids.

amount of gold and silver in the weighed separately and crown. ! cording to one author. Archimedes wrote on a very wide range of subjects. ? and how an Archimedean proof came to be the synonym for unquestionable certainty. thereby determining their loss of weight in water. the book 011 Floating Bodies treats of hydro His attention was first drawn to the subject of statics. According to another writer. His many-sided activity may be He wrote on Cfood and Evil.&quot. Ac &quot. an Archimedean problem came to mean a problem too deep for ordinary minds to solve.Give rest. naked. eleven years younger than Archimedes. each weighing the same as the crown. He i is the Newton of antiquity/] Eratosthenes. It is possible that Archimedes solved the problem by both and crown respectively. and calculated from that the crown. shouting. was not our philosopher was alloyed with silver.&quot. silver. &amp. one can well understand how. professed by the maker to be pure gold. he determined the volume of water displaced by the gold. He immediately ran home. in ancient times.] The story goes that in a bath when the true method of solution flashed &quot. Chronology.While s the JSquiponderance treats of solids. on his mind. Constel- . I have found it llo solve the problem. He was educated in. specific gravity when King Hieron asked him to test whether a crown. he took a piece of gold and a piece of silver. and displayed great profundity in each. Geography. &quot. he silver.44 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. or the equilib rium of solids. me a fulcrum on which to saying attributed to him. Meas urement of the Earthy Comedy. / &quot. while immersed in water. the gold. was a native of Cyrene. Prom these data he easily found the solution. whom he succeeded as custodian of the Alexandrian Library. Alexandria under Callimachus the poet. and I will move the earth. After examining the writings of Archimedes. inferred from his works.

&quot. The eighth book has never been century. lotions. found. ecliptic Of his geometrical writings we possess only a letter to Ptolemy Euergetes. He was also a a poet. Alexandria under the successors of Euclid. his eyesight.THE GREEKS. whose genius nearly equalled that of his Apollonius of He Ptolemy Philopator.C. 45 and the Duplication of the Cube. The brilliancy of his great work brought him the title of the &quot. where he made the acquaintance of that Eudemus to whom he dedicated the first three books of his Conic Sections. The first four books contain little more than the substance geometers had done. and also. made was discovered. by voluntary starvation. of Pappus. Eutocius tells us that of Heraclides. This is all that is known of his life. who leigned 222-205 B. The next three books were unknown in Europe till the middle of the seventeenth about 1250. giving a history of the duplication prob lem and also the description of a very ingenious mechanical In his old age he lost contrivance of his own to solve it. founded on the introductory lemmas. of which the first four only have come down to us in the original Greek. at He for studied at some time/ Perganmm. He measured the obliquity of the philologian and and invented a device for finding prime numbers. when an Arabic translation. and on that account is said to have committed suicide great prede incontestably occupies the second place in dis tinction among ancient mathematicians. About forty years after Archimedes flourished Perga. Great Geometer. accused Apollonius of what earlier . His Conic Sections were in eight books. Apollonius was born in the reign of Ptolemy Euergetes and died under cessor. of the first four books In 1710 Halley of Oxford published the Greek text and a Latin translation of the remain the ing three. in his life of Archimedes. together with his conjectural restoration of eighth book.

Sections. We remember that Mensechmus. the neighbourhood of Pergamum. curves. mode in which : It reads thus second book cate it my son Apollonius to bring you (Eudemus) the of my Conies.46 A HISTOEY OF MATHEMATICS. in his Conic unpublished It is difficult to discoveries of that great mathematician. and all his suc cessors down to Apollonius. works of and Archimedes. and that the three sections were obtained each from a different cone. and . cones Apollonius introduced an important generalisation. whether right or scalene. He pro duced all the sections from one and the same cone. and by sections perpendicular to sections its sides. Eutocius quotes Geminus as replying that neither Archimedes nor Apollonius claimed to have invented the conic sections.&quot.&quot. considered only sections of right by a plane perpendicular to their sides. While the first three or four books were founded on the Aristseus. of producing the three sections and the conju mode &quot. ones consisted almost entirely of new matter. which may or may not be The old names for the three curves Instead of calling the three * were now no longer applicable. If Philonides. give it to him also. the having appropriated. but that Apollonius had introduced a real improvement. Menaechmus. the I introduced to you at Ephesus. believe that this charge rests upon good foundation. The first three books were sent to Eudemus at intervals. interesting as showing the ? ( published at this time. the other books The preface of the (after Eudemus s death) to one Attalus. parabola. of cone. 12 to such others as are whom The first tains the con book. the^ acute-angled/ right-angled/ and obtuse-angled he called them ellipse. more fully and generally worked out than in the writings of other authors. second book I have sent is Greek books were &quot. the remaining Euclid. Bead it carefully and communi worthy of it. gate hyperbolas and their principal characteristics. comes into geometer. says Apollonius in his preface to it.

comprehended between the diameter and the curve. oblique cone on a circular base. will be equal to the rectangle constructed on the portion of the ordinate comprised between the diameter and the straight . The points in which this plane meets the two sides of this triangle are the vertices of the curve . the cone along two lines and perpendicular determines in the circle a diameter the triangle having this diameter for its base and the two lines. The plane s&quot. way by M.px. 13 the axis of the cone. 2 because y &amp. parab Archimedes. Apollonius called this diameter latus transversum. and ellipse ? in the works of 47 find the ola probably only interpolations. and from the extremity the curve. because y*& and the straight line which joins these two points is a diameter of it.p being the and the term hyperbola & mas says he. draw at right angles an ordinate : the square of this ordinate. Chasles. of a certain length. respectively. At one of the two vertices of the curve erect a perpendicular (latus rectum) . exit . Apollonius supposed the cutting plane to be perpen dicular to the plane of the triangle through the axis. the straight line drawn from its summit to the centre of the circle forming its base is called &quot. through any point whatever of the diameter of .lt. the word parabola was introduced because y 2 =px.Conceive.THE GREEKS.&quot. on a unique property of which is derived directly from the nature of the cone in which these sections are found. the triangle through the axis. In the formation of his conic sections. is called to* its base. but they are The word ellipse was applied we words &amp. jpassing through the axis. The treatise of Apollonius rests property forms the key to the system of the ancients terly is told in a &quot. &amp. hyperbola. as we shall specify later. for its sides. To be sure. to be determined of this per pendicular draw a straight line to the other vertex of the curve the plane of the triangle through the How this conic sections.

fifth book reveals better than any other the giant . almost the same rdle as the equation of the second degree with two variables (abscissa and ordinate) in the system of analytic geometry of Descartes.&quot. with which to establish their theory of conies. or tangents. the moderns changed this name first to that of latus rectum. and The third book treats of the equality or proportionality of triangles. The perpendicular in question was called by them latus erectum. which are frequently subject to a It also touches the subject of great number of conditions. book of the Conic Sections of Apollonius is almost devoted to the generation of the three principal conic wholly first The sections. and afterwards to that of parameter. as we shall see. and the part of the diameter comprised between the first Such is the characteristic property which Apollonius recognises in his conic sections and which he uses for the purpose of inferring from it. foci of the ellipse and hyperbola. they have one two The points of contact with each other. rectangles.It will be observed from this that the diameter of the curve and the perpendicular erected at one of its extremities These are the two elements suffice to construct the curvj|r which the ancients used. Apollonius discusses the harmonic divis ion of straight lines. It plays. The second book diameters. &quot. of which the component parts are determined by portions of transversals. asymptotes. He also examines a system of two and shows that they cannot cut each other in more conies. chords. line. in his hands. treats mainly* of asymptotes. In the fourth book. nearly all the rest. He investigates the various relative possible positions of or two conies. for instance. vertex and the foot of the ordinate. or squares. as. when.4:8 A HISTOBY OF MATHEMATICS. by adroit transformations and deductions. than four points. axes.

which renders the proofs long and cumbrous. and to that portion of geometry which considers only the forms and situations of figures. and gives lemmas . Inclinations. It is worthy of notice that Apollonius nowhere introduces the notion of directrix for a conic. to find the longest and shortest lines that can he drawn from a given point to a conic. few examples are found in earlier works. Difficult questions of maxima and minima. Conspicuous geometry is also the absence of technical terms and symbols. are here treated most exhaustively. he did not discover the focus of a parabola. The seventh book The eighth book. Chasles. Two questions which have occupied geometers of all periods 13 The discoveries of Archimedes may be of these regarded as having originated with them. The sixth book is on the similarity of conies. is on conjugate diameters. Section of an Area. which gave birth to the infinitesimal calculus. as restored by Halley. Plane Loci. continues the sub ject of conjugate diameters. is The first the quadrature of curvilinear figures. though he inciden tally discovered the focus of an ellipse and hyperbola. 6 in his and Apollonius. or. Determinate Section. says M. marked the most brilliant epoch of ancient geometry. The subject investigated is. which was the prelude to the theory of geometrical curves of all degrees. of which. Here are also found the germs of the subject ofevolutes and centres of osculation. ratios and the of rectilineal distances. The second is the theory of conic sections. and uses only the intersection of lines and surfaces These two great divisions of geometry may be designated by the names of Geometry of Measurements and Geometry of Forms and Situa tions. intellect of its 49 author.THE GREEKS. Pappus ascribes to Apollonius the following works: On Contacts. Besides the Conic Sections. and that. Geometry of Archimedes and of Apollonius.

ivy-like&quot.). A briefer sym bolism. an infinitesimal calculus.C. Mcomedes. With conchoid he duplicated the cube. 3 observe. machine by aid of the definite is known of him. from which attempts have been made to restore the lost Two books on De Sectione Rationis have been originals.and Apollonius brought geometry to as. to find a fourth which shall touch the three. a Cartesian geometry.50 A HISTOEY OF MATHEMATICS. He devised a little which the curve could be easily described. : three circles. &quot. a which they paused here and there to look descent. life of Perseus we know lived as little as about that of Nicomedes and Diocles. Instead of a climb to still loftier heights we Greek geometers. but Pappus. during around for details which had been passed by in the hasty ascent.). on the other hand. claims The conchoid was used by Newton in con of structing curves of the third degree. Archimedes. flourished (&quot. earliest successors of Apollonius was Mcomedes. contains the so-called &quot. the inventor of the cissoid This curve he used for straight mean proportionals between two given About the 100 B. Proclus ascribes this mode of trisection to Nicomedes. therefore. About the time finding two lines. also Diodes. Euclid. on the part of later Among the Nothing conchoid (&quot. as restored by Given Apollonian Problem Vieta. except that he invented the mussel-like&quot. The book on Contacts. The Greek mind was not adapted to the invention of general methods. as his own.high a state of perfection as it perhaps could be brought without first introducing some more general and more powerful method than the old method of exhaustion. some time between 200 and Prom Heron and Geminus we learn that he wjtote a He . The curve can also be used for trisecting angles in a way much resembling that* in the eighth it lemma of Archimedes. found in the Arabic. . were needed.

The fourteenth book contains seven elegant theorems on regular solids. &quot.) was supposed to be the author of both the fourteenth and fifteenth books of Euclid. As might be expected. Fourteen propositions are preserved by to yield peculiar curves called spiral sections. the sphere has TfieT^eatest** volume. theory of epicycles and eccentrics. Hypsicles (between 200 and 100 B. Here are a few of them : Of isoperimet- rical. A treatise of Hypsicles on Risings Greek work giving the division of the circumference into 360 degrees after the fash is it is of interest because the first ion of the Babylonians. These curves . Probably somewhat later than Perseus lived Zenodorus. the circle has a greater area than any regular polygon of equal periphery of all isoperimetrical polygons of n sides. The sections of this surface appear be the same as the Hippopede of Eudoxus. and that he calcu lated a table of chords in twelve books. but recent critics are of opinion that the fifteenth book was written by an author who lived several centuries after Christ. he was interested in mathematics.THE GREEKS. according to G-eminus. . the one having the largest number of angles has the greatest area. namely. regular polygons. a sort of anchor-ring surface described by Heron as being produced by the revolution of a circle around one of its chords as an axis. isoperimetncal figures. He wrote an interesting treatise on a new subject. Such calculations are extant. were thought out by Perseus. omer of Hipparchus of Nicsea in Bithynia was the greatest astron He established inductively the famous antiquity. Pappus and Theon. which. but &quot. the regular is the greatest of all solids having surfaces equal in area. . No mathematical writings of his Theon of Alexandria informs us that Hipparchus originated the science of trigonometry. but only as an aid to astronomical inquiry. . 51 work omthe spire.C. not per se.

&quot. &quot. ingenious. of which there exist three manuscript copies. But no reli evidence has been found that there actually existed a much more recent than second mathematician by the name of Herory &quot. of a large number of questions in geometry. Marie the work of Heron the Younger.&quot. such as the hydraulic organ. such as to find the distance between two points. } must have required a ready knowledge of arithm algebraical operations. were instramejrfs which had great resemblance to our modern theodolites. He exhibited talent of the same order as did his master by the invention of the eolipile and a curious mechanism known as &quot. Sal and About 155 B. Marie lays great geometer should have thought to cite stress on this . u thinks that the Dioptra is quite dissimilar. Great uncertainty exists concerning his writings.that It seems to me difficult to believe. But M.silence of the ancient writers. the water-clock. its derivation &quot.52 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. is only a corrupt and defective copy of the former work. It is believed by some that Heron was a son of Ctesibius.Dioptra. and argues from it that the true author writer able must be Heron the Younger or some Heron the Elder. is quite laborious and yet exceedingly says Chasles. says Venturi. contains the important formula for finding the area of a triangle expressed in terms of its sides . and that Geodesy.&quot.&quot. Dioptra. and catapult. ( The book Dioptra is a treatise on geodesy containing solutions. flourished Heron the Elder of Alexandria. He was the pupil of Ctesibius. who lived in the seventh or eighth century after Christ. without that some Greek it. of which one only . who was celebrated for his ingenious mechanical inventions. Most au thorities believe him to be the author of an important Treatise on the Dioptra. with aid of these ^instruments. so beautiful a theorem should be found in a work so ancient as that of Heron the Elder.Heron s fountain. another book supposed to be by Heron.C.

is 53 accessible. besides the above exact formula for the area of a triangle in terms of its sides.THE GEBEKS. Heron gives the for a* a* &quot. to find the difference of between two points to measure the area of a field with it. level which cannot be approached. This may account for the fact that his writings bear so little resemblance to those of Greek authors. moreover. Like Ahmes . There are. he shows. mula mula of Heron s formulas point to an old Egyp Thus. The character of his geom This fact is etry is not Grecian. but decidedly Egyptian. in the Occident during the Middle We Ages.C. points of resemblance between Heron s writings and the ancient Ahmes papyrus. or . like them. now lost. find traces of them in Rome. Thus Ahmes used unit-fractions exclusively Heron uses them ^oftener than other fractions. B. inaccessible line between two points which are visible but both from a given point to draw a perpendicular to a . found in the Edfu inscriptions. a special fondness for the isosceles into trapezoid. on the Arrangement of Mathematics. throughout. tian origin. He . which contained many valuable Geminus of Khodes (about 70 cal work still extant. and the priests at Edfu. which bears a striking likeness 2 to the for- i 2 x -^_ jU for finding the area of a quadrangle. and even in India. Heron divides complicated figures simpler ones by drawing auxiliary lines. the more surprising when we consider that Heron demonstrated his familiarity with Euclid by writing a commentary on the Elements. out entering Heron was a the to practical surveyor.) published an astronomi wrote also a book.i&quot. 21 Some x -. The writings of Heron satisfied a practical wan^ and for that reason were borrowed extensively by other peoples. who considered it degrading the science apply geometry to surveying.

these events were of far-reaching spread of Christianity. their The Second Alexandrian School. in his Sphere and Cylinder. section of a parabola and hyperbola to the solution of a prob lem which Archimedes. however. . The :or close of the of dynasty of the Lagides which ruled Egypt from the time 300 years . It is certain. had left incomplete. Ptolemy Soter. lecturehalls. the absorption of Egypt into the Roman Em the closer commercial relations between peoples of the pire East and of the West the gradual decline of paganism and . and in her magnificent Library. very little is known of geometry between the time of Apollonius and the beginning of the Christian era. that there were no mathematicians of real genius from Apollonius to Ptolemy. In consequence of this interchange of ideas the Greek philosophy became fused with Oriental . but very few of works are now extant. We have now sketched the progress of geometry down to the time of Christ. The problem is &quot. Theodosius of Tripolis is the author of a book of little merit on the geometry of the Dionysodorus of Amisus in Pontus applied the inter sphere. Traders of all nations met in her busy streets. the history of Unfortunately. excepting Hipparchus and perhaps Heron. scholars from the East mingled with those of the intellectual West. Froclus and Eutocius quote it frequently. ff notices of the early history of Greek mathematics. The names of quite a number of geometers have been mentioned. the builder of Alexandria. influence on the progress of the sciences. A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. Greeks began to study older literatures and to com pare them with their cut a sphere so that its seg ments shall be in a given ratio.&quot. which then had their home in Alexandria. museums.54 . Alexandria became a commercial and emporium.

now appended to Euclid VI. divided into 120 divisions each of these into 60 parts. and from the chord of any These theorems he applied to the calcu arc that of its half. each of which is halved. The foundation Hipparchus. lation of his tables of chords.original with Ptolemy s him. regula Upon these propositions he built up his trigonometry. but was contained are the proposi tions in spherical trigonometry. Another chapter of the first book in the Almagest is devoted and to spherical trigonometry in particular. method of calculating chords seems &quot. explains the rather . then shows chords of how to find from the chords of two arcs the their sum and difference. The fundamental theorem of plane trigonome try. was not stated explicitly implicitly in other theorems. to trigonometry. minutes and seconds. by More complete angles opposite the two him. (D). parts secundcB. which In Latin. these are again subdivided into 60 smaller parts. biit to aid astronomical inquiry.the rectangle contained by the diag onals of a quadrilateral figure inscribed in a circle is equal He to both the rectangles contained by its opposite sides. that &quot. .&quot. The proofs of these theorems are very pretty. He first proved the proposition. also the c Ptolemy proved the lemma of Menelaus/ and sex quantitatum. 73 The is sexagesimal method of dividing the circle of Babylonian But origin. The Almagest of this science 57 laid was by the illustrious is in 13 books.THE GKEEKS. were called partes minutes primce and paries mmutce Hence our names. and was known to Geminus and Hipparchus. The fact that trigonometry was cultivated not for its own sake. Chapter 9 of the first book shows how to calculate tables of chords. The circle is divided The diameter is into 360 degrees. that two sides of a triangle are to each other as the chords of double the arcs measuring the sides.

came to exist in a startling fact that spherical trigonometry developed state earlier than plane trigonometry. All these works are lost. Ptolemy has written other works which have little or no bear ing on mathematics. who wrote an unimportant work on geometry applied to the art of war. mathematicians of this time were Nicoma- chus and Theon of Smyrna. Their favourite study was theory The investigations in this science culminated later in the algebra of Diophantus. a Pappus objected right angle is to the statement that an. as he did. Proclus. probably quoting from the Commentary on EiicUd. Pappus. and that first of the long line of geometers from down to our own who toiled in the vain attempt Two prominent of numbers. regard the parallel-axiom of Euclid as self-evident. Extracts from this book.&quot. His genius was inferior to that of Archimedes. but the . was the last great mathematician of the Alexandrian school. The remaining books of the Almagest are on astronomy. &quot. he towered above his contemporaries Atlantic. angle equal to a always of The only work Collections. Euclid. at a period when interest in geometry was declin ing. Pappus still extant itself is his Mathematical firsi This was originally in eight books. a Commentary on the Analemma of Diodorm. The only occupant of this long gap was Sextus Julius Africanus. and But living. says that mentary on the Almagest. probably bora about 340 A.D. a writer of whom nothing is known. eter appeared after entitled Cestes. except one on geometry.. made by Proelus. -who flourished over 500 years earlier. Apollonius. in Alexandria. But no important geom Ptolemy for 150 years. a right angle. indicate that Ptolemy did not Ptolemy was the ancient time to prove it.58 A HISTOKY OF the peak of Teneriffa above the He is the author of a Com Commentary on JSucli& s JSlernents.

He plane point of* the spiral line form the surface of a screw. the orthogonal projection of which upon A. The Mathemat ical Collections seems to have been written by Pappus to supply the geometers of his time with a succinct analysis of the most difficult mathematical works and to facilitate the study of them by explanatory lemmas. cuts the screwthe base surface in a curve. second mode of generation is is the quadratrix. he gives very accurate summaries subject on hand.^ line be drawn upon a right circular cylinder then the spiral perpendiculars to the axis of the cylinder drawn from each . We shall now cite the more important of those theorems in the Mathematical Collections which are supposed to be original with Pappus. sides of In. equals the area of the curve multiplied by the circumference described by Pappus proved the first its centre of gravity. also that the centre of gravity of a triangle is lie that of another triangle whose vertices and divide its three sides in the upon the same ratio. which are now lost.Wifeii quac|ra- curvs^i : Let a generates the quadratrix as follows surfaces. A . of the works of which he treats. over 1000 years later. passed through one of these perpendiculars. First of all ranks the elegant theorem re-dis covered by Guldin. considered it possible to restore lost works from the resume by Pappus alone. But these lemmas are selected very freely. that pie volume the revolution of a plane curve which lies wholly generated by on one side of the axis. 59 and portions of the second are now missing. The Mathematical Collections is invaluable to us on account of the rich information it gives on various treatises by the foremost Greek mathemati Mathematicians of the last century cians.THE GBEBKS. making any con venient angle with the base of the cylinder. and frequently have little or no connection with the However. the fourth book are trix new and brilliant proposition^ on the which indicate *&& intimate -acqnafitai!K^.

* Prom the Mathematical Collections . which claims the more lively admiration.! and pro pounded the theory of the involution of points. suggested the iise of the directrix. three straig% lines wiiich shaft form a triangle inscribed in a given circle. Pappus considers curves of double curvature still further.a He although the entire surface of the sphere was known since Archimedes time.&quot. to find the unsolved 8 problem. such as spher ical triangles. He solved the problem to draw through three points lying in the same straight line. then this cone cuts the cylinder in a curve of double curvature. then finds the area of that portion of the surface of the complanation sphere determined by the spherical spiral. &quot.problem of prominence jby Pappus. ijGriven several straight lines in a plane.60 no A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. A locus of a point such that when perpendiculars (or? more generally. He produces a spherical spiral by a point moving uniformly along the circumference of a great circle of a sphere. The perpendiculars to the axis drawn through every point in this curve form the surface of a screw which Pappus here calls the plectoidal surface. to measure portions thereof.&quot. It is worth noticing that it was Pappus who first found the focus of the parabola. while the great circle itself revolves uniformly around its diameter. the product of certain ones of them shall be in a given ratio to the product of the remaining ones. less admirable : the spiral of Archimedes the base of a right cylinder. and imagine a cone of revolution having for its axis the side of the cylinder passing through If we make the initial point of the spiral. straight lines at given angles) are drawn from it to the given lines. was then and for a long time afterwards an question which was brought into Descartes and Hewton is the &quot. A plane passed through one of the perpendiculars at any con venient angle cuts that surface in a curve whose orthogonal projection upon the plane of the spiral is the required quadratrix. if we consider that.

and others kept up the golden chain of Platonic succession. possess only that on the first book. of Syrianus. the year 529. and that he may have done the same thing in other cases in which we have no data by which to ascertain the real discoverer. It ought to be remarked.&quot.D. Tsidorus. on. His commen tary on the Almagest is valuable for the many historical notices. . century longer. in 415 A. the pupil of believed to be the author of the fifteenth book of Euclid. Justinian. however. Proclus. Her notes on the works of Diophantus and Apollonius have been lost. Another pupil of Isidorus was Eutocius of Ascalon. a woman celebrated for her beauty and modesty. and with it pagan The Neo-Platonic school at Athens struggled on a learning. which he probably used as a text-book in his classes. disapproving heathen learning. Proclus. Paganism disappeared. is now Damascius of Damascus. wrote a commentary on Euclid s Elements. Isidorus. is vividly described in Kingsley s Hypatia. was the last Alexandrian teacher of reputation. We which is valuable for the information it contains on the history of geometry. finally closed by imperial edict the schools at Athens. About the time of Pappus lived Theon of Alexandria. and is said to have been an abler philosopher and mathematician than her father. that he is known in three instances to have copied theorems without giving due credit.THE GREEKS. He brought out an edition of Euclid s Elements with notes. and especially for the specimens of Greek arithmetic which it Theon s daughter Hypatia. In Simplicius wrote a commentary on Aristotle s De Oodo. the commentator of Apollonius and Archimedes. many more equally difficult 61 theorems might be quoted which are original with Pappus as far as we know. the successor &quot. at the Athenian school. Her tragic death contains. in From now Alexandria. mathematics ceased to be cultivated s The leading subject of men thoughts was Christian theology.

than discoverers. and to prove each with equal To devise methods by which the various eases could fulness. from which he then bursts it into pieces with one powerful blast. The A and methods. determination of the tangents to the three conic sections did not furnish any rational assistance for drawing the tangent to 35 any other new curve. the cissoid. In the demonstration of a theorem. such as the conchoid. then the work of the Greek mathematicians appears to us like that of a vigorous stonecutter who. into the interior of which we desire to penetrate.The possessed no general method of drawing tangents. there wore. with chisel and hammer. was beyond the power of the we compare a mathematical problem with a &quot. etc. (2) A complete want of general principles Thus the Greeks Ancient geometry is decidedly special &quot. from without. be disposed of by one stroke.&quot. geometers considered it necessary to treat all possible cases Independently of each other. I6 .62 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. for the ancient geometers.&quot. as many different cases requiring separate proof The greatest as there were different positions for the lines. showed They were commentators rather are : principal characteristics of ancient geometry wonderful clearness and defmiteness of its concepts (1) and an almost perfect logical rigour of its conclusions. all ancients. wlio first bores 5 through the rock some few passages. As a the geometries of the last 500 years a lack of creative power.If huge rock. and brings to light the treasures within. to crumble the rock slowly into fragments the modern mathe matician appears like an excellent minor. rule. begins with indefatigable perseverance.

D.. Later. oldest Grecian numerical symbols were the so-called is The Herodianic signs (after Herodianus. but pronounced calculation a vulgar and childish art. 63 GREEK ARITHMETIC. represented units. the latter of calculation. Among the Sophists -the art of calculation was a favourite study. the pebbles. is still An abacus We employe! by the Chinese under the name of Sivan-pan. In sketching the history of Greek calculation. Like the Egyptians and Eastern nations. those on the second tens. the earliest Greeks counted on their fingers or with pebbles.&quot. The difference between them is as marked as that between theory and practice.were probably ar Pebbles on the first line ranged in parallel vertical lines. which resembled in form the nine Arabic numerals. who describes them). in introduced this valuable instrument into Greece. those on the third hundreds. Plato. possess no specific information as to how the Greek abacus looked or how it was used. gave considerable attention to philosophical arithmetic. The drawing of this distinction between the two was very natural and proper. goreans used with the abacus certain nine signs called apices. logistica. on the other hand. in various stages of perfection. who travelled in Egypt and. first Pythagoras. frames came into use/ in which According to tra strings or wires took the place of lines.THE GREEKS. In case of large numbers. a Byzantine grammarian of about 200 A. India. G-reek mathematicians were in the habit of discriminating between the science of numbers and the art The former they called arithmetical. and so on. perhaps. ais The abacus. existed among different peoples and at different tim$s. dition. Boethius says that the Pytha &quot. These signs occur fre- . it is called. we shall first give a brief account of the Greek mode of counting and of writing numbers. But the correctness of this assertion subject to grave doubts.

bols were afterwards replaced by the alphabetic numerals. the alphabet is begun over placed before the letter and generally somewhat bolow it. are. to prevent confusion. and the symbol M. The coefficient for was sometimes placed is again. then the denominator marked with two accents and written twice. the a and the denominator was written only once. now For some unknown reason these sym quently in Athenian inscriptions and generally called Attic. on that account. of fractions having unity for the numerator. . ^ *s * *)e M. but.000 ft M 30. Thus 43.TTV&amp.64 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. This change was decidedly for the M 20.000 etc. In case |^|. in which the letters of the Greek alphabet were used. Thus. ly tO^nO&quot. was omitted = -$%* Thus /x8&quot. horizontal line drawn over a number served to distinguish it more readily from words.xVrcw 100 ^/a 900 J 2000 /y 3000 etc. a stroke now A M before or behind instead of over the written SM^yx07? for the old Attic numerals were less burdensome on the memory. 200 300 400 v 500 600 700 800 1000 M 10. It will be noticed that at 1000. together with three strange and antique letters & 9 and 5). much as they contained fewer symbols and were to better adapted show forth analogies in numerical operations. inas . The follow ing table shows the Greek alphabetic numerals and their respective values : 1 2 8 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 p&amp.678 was observed that the Greeks had no Fractions were denoted by first writing the numerator marked with an accent.

Thus Archimedes in his Mensuration of He states. of the sixth century after Christ. have used the symbols. What the mode of procedure actually was when sexagesimal were not used. and even multiplication were Expert mathematicians probably performed on the abacus. 12000. a commentator may numerals.and VS which he obtained these approximations. in connection with arithmetical symbolism. Greek writers seldom 65 refer to calculation with alphabetic Addition. an essay addressed by Archifractions . the process is long and 300 25 by the modern numerals append In case of mixed ed. Pappus. It is not im by found the probable that the earlier Greek mathematicians Eutocius say^ that the method of square root by trial only. 1000. &amp. 1000 12000. 17 ject of conjecture on the part of numerous Of interest. lias been the sub modern writers. subtraction. that f -f-f.THE GBEBKS. Theon. large number of square but he gives no clue to the method l^y. the process was Divis still more clumsy. ions are found in Theon of M Alexandria s cr/c e 70225 tary on the Almagest. given by Heron. 3600. the Circle gives a for instance. V3 &amp. 300. It is the same as the one used nowa extracting it wsts in place days. gives a great 6 cations of which the following is a specimen : many multipli 265 265 The operation is ex plained sufficiently MM 8 a 40000. We have seen in geometry that the more advanced mathe maticians frequently had occasion to extract the square root. numbers. except that sexagesimal fractions are employed of our decimals. commen As might be expected. Theon s is the only ancient method known to us. Thus Eutocius. and other commentators on the Almagest. is the Sand-Counter (Arenarius).

the number cannot be expressed He shows that the number of grains in a heap of sand not only as large as the whole earth. once for all. in the second We judge from fragments book of &quot. Assuming that 10.Pappus that Apollonius proposed an improvement in the Greek method o writing numbers. or that if it by arithmetical symbols. It is not known whether he invented some short notation by which to number 1 with 63 ciphers after represent the above number or not. was reserved by tho irony of fate for a namdcBB Indian of an unknown time. Thus we boon of a clear. assuming further. and that the latter be less than 1. even further. and we. king of Syracuse. but its nature wo do not know.000 diameters of the earth. and that the diameter not smaller than part of a finger s ^ breadth. would contain of grains of sancl less than 1000 myriads of tho (I3 eighth octad. but as large as the entire universe. that the diameter of the universe (supposed to extend to the sun) be less than 10.66 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. com The honour of giving suoli to the world. know not whom to thank see that the Greeks never possessed tho for an invention of such importance to the general progress of 6 intelligence.000. having the distance from the centre to the fixed stars for its radius. this number would be 10 or It can hardly be cioubtod that one it. which Archimedes had in view in making this calcula object tion was the improvement of the Greek symbolism.000 stadia. Supposing the universe to reach out to the fixed stars. can be arithmetically expressed.000 grains solid of the of sand suffice to make a little of a poppy-seed be magnitude of a poppy-seed. can be counted. earth a s he finds that the sphere. In our notation. medes to Gelon. . prehensive symbolism. In it Archimedes shows that people are in error who think the sand cannot be counted. Archimedes finds a number which would exceed the number He goes on of grains of sancl in the sphere of the universe.

suggestions of equations. by the method of tentative assumption. and is 75 of the solution of then his Arithmetica extant. Diophantus used but few sym bols. All he knew were differences. the earliest treatise on is algebra now In this work introduced the idea of an algebraic equation expressed in algebraic symbols. that satisfy only one or two of the conditions. that Diophantus had no notion whatever numbers standing by themselves. in which 2 x could not be smaller than 10 without leading to an absurdity. He appears to be the first x(x (a + who could perform such operations as (x 1) Such identities as 2) without reference to geometry. which consists in assigning to some of the unknown quantities preliminary values. His treatment is purely analytical and completely divorced from geometrical methods. as well. of negative remarked. however. the first to a negative number multiplied by a negative num ber gives a positive number. .&quot. most commonly.THE GREEKS. ?. and sometimes ignored even these by describing an oper ation in words when the symbol would have answered just sign for subtraction quantities he i. for equality For unknown had only one symbol. which with Euclid appear in the ele 6) = + + vated rank of geometric theorems. This is applied to the multi It must be plication of differences. such as (x l)(x 2). These values lead to expressions palpably wrong. 2 2 a2 2 ab 6 . such as (2 x 10). He is. but which generally suggest some stratagem by which can be secured satisfying all the conditions of the r^lues &amp. are with Diophantus the simplest consequences of the algebraic laws of managed with only one symbol In the solution of simultaneous equations Diophantus adroitly for the unknown quantities and arrived at answers.roblem. He had no sign for addition except juxtaposition. state that &quot. His was ^/. as far as we know. algebraic notation.

in his wonderful ingenuity to re duce all sorts of equations to particular forms which ho Jiow to solve.books extant treat mainly of indeterminate quadratic equations of the form J. which may arise in these equations. : Ax*-\- (7= f and Ax2 +Bx+ (7= 2 .76 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. 2 The extraordinary ability of Diophantus lies rather in another direction. The remaining. namely. We are ignorant of Ms method. occur only under specially favourable B% + C = 2 ?/ . B$s + d = y*. for he nowhere goes through with the whole process of solution. whence x is found = the result. Very great is knoW The the variety of problems considered! 130 problems found in the great work of Diophantus COB/- . cases (1) Indeterminate equations of the second degree are treated completely only when the quadratic or the absolute term is wanting: his solution of the equations is as follows &quot. even when both roots are positive. rather surprises us.&quot.&quot.?/ is in many respects cramped. His failure to observe that a quadratic equatioti has two roots. how more than one out of the several solutions to which a problem may point is common Another point to be observed to all Greek mathematicians. that this It same inability to perceive must be remembered. is that he never accepts as an answer a quantity which is negative or irrational. as stated by Gow. Diophantus also solved determinate equations of the second degree.&2 +JS& 4-0=?/2 or of two simultaneous equations of the same form. Notice he gives only one root. Diophantus devotes only the first book of his Arithmetica to the solution of determinate equations. He considers several but not all the possible . he solves is not general. &quot. but merely states 84 x2 + 7 x = 7. The opinion of Nesselmann on the method of Diophantus. . More com plicated expressions circumstances. Thus. (2) Eor the double equation of the second degree he has a definite rule only when the quadratic term is wanting in both expressions : even then his solution Thus. ever.

In spite of these defects we cannot fail to admire the work for the wonderful ingenuity exhibited therein in the solution of particular equations. That which robs his work of much his equation of its scientific value is the fact that he always feels satisfied with one solution. Another great defect the absence of general methods. for a modern. though may admit is of an indefinite number of values. poetry. to solve the 101st. The mathematical fruits of Greek which had genius lay before him untasted. and art the Eoman period was an imitator. But in mathematics he did not even rise to the desire for imitation. Mod ern mathematicians. closely related problems. In him a science . after studying 100 Diophantine solutions. had to begin the study of indeterminate analysis anew and received no direct aid from Diophantus in the formulation of methods. In philosophy. THE BOMANS. Gauss. is Each problem has difficult own distinct method. are strung together without any attempt at classification. The sway of the Greek was a a flowering time for mathematics. But multifarious than the problems are the solutions. It is still an open question and one of great difficulty whether Diophantus derived portions of his algebra from Hindoo sources or not. such as Euler. which often useless for the most is. Nowhere is the contrast . La Grange.&quot. but that of the Eoman of sterility.between the Greek and Eoman mind shown forth more distinctly than in their attitude toward the mathematical science. still more its General methods are unknown to Diophantus. 7 &quot.It therefore.THE ROMANS* 77 tain over 50 different classes of problems. which.

was a notation resembling the Roman notation. Of arithmetical different kinds : calculations. its value is . &quot. but from sources. and that the Romans continued this practice. the number of days in Many other passages from Roman authors point out the use of the fingers as aids to calculation. inhabited the district between the Arno and Livy Tiber. a statue of the double-faced Janus. In the designation of large numbers a horizontal bar placed over a letter was made to increase its value one thousand fold. 8 Finger-symbolism was known as early as the time of King Nuina. In fractions the Romans used the duodecimal system. If a be placed before another of greater value. a consequence. the principle of subtraction. as well as the practical geometry of the Romans. a fingersymbolism of practically the same form was in use not only in . It &quot. three Reckoning on the upon the abacus. the Romans cm ploy od fingers. not to be added to. tells us that the Etruscans were in the habit of repre senting the number of years elapsed. at the earliest period to which our knowledge of them extends. it more ancient a matter of originated Exactly where and how seems most probable that the Roman notation. for he had erected. of which the a^ year. fingers indicated 305 (355?). says Pliny. but subtracted from. no As direct bearing on practical life could awake no interest. but even the Elements of Euclid. came from is doubt. that of the greater.&quot. by driving yearly a nail into the sanctuary of Minerva. In fact. What little mathematics the Romans pos sessed did not come from the Greeks. A less primitive mode of designating numbers. the old Etruscans. not only the higher geometry of Archimedes and Apollonius. This system is noteworthy from present the fact that a principle is involved in it which is not met letter with in any other namely.&quot. and by tables prepared for the purpose. were en tirely neglected.78 A HISTOJEtY OF MATHEMATICS. presumably of Etruscan origin. who.

possess no knowledge as to where or when it was invented. but also in Greece and throughout the East. being with -j- child. But the multiplication of large numbers must. certainly as early as the beginning of the Christian era. Victorius is best known for his canon pascJialis. Tables of this kind were prepared by Victorius of Aquitania. which he published in 457 A. whence calculare and calculate ) which served for calculation. and continued to be used in Europe during the Middle Ages. was a subject of elemen instruction in Borne. Addi tions and subtractions could be performed on the abacus quite 3 3 easily. a rtiterftrr finding the correct date for Easter. the arithmetical tables mentioned above were used. Payments of interest and problems in interest were very old among the Bomans. she shall receive $ and It happens that twins are born. his wife -|. To products could be copied at once. Each column was supplied with pebbles (calculi. Doubtless at this point recourse was made tiplication table. 79 Bonie. the his estates . either method. which continued in use through out the Middle Ages. by have been beyond the power of the ordinary obviate this difficulty.THE KOMANS. mental operations and to the mul Possibly finger-multiplication may also have to been used. covered with mode dust and then divided into columns by drawing straight lines. . a boy and a girl. His tables contain a peculiar notation for fractions. Passages in Eoman writers indicate tary that the kind of abacus most commonlyuseiTwas&quot. The Roman laws of inheritance gave rise to numerous arithmetical examples. by the abacus.D. but in multiplication the abacus could be used only for adding the particular products^ and in division for performing the subtractions occurring in the process. if his wife. gives birth to a son. : Especially unique is the following A dying man wills that. of son shall receive f and she but if a daughter is born. The second We of calculation. from which the desired arithmetician.

the first of which was unknown to Heron. theorems. Treatises thereon have come down to us. |a was derived from the Egyptian formula ii-r. simply by measuring their Whatever Egyptian geometry the Romans possessed was transplanted across th Mediterranean at the . 2 tion of the surface of a quadrilateral. the gromatici considered it eveii sufficiently accurate to determine the areas of cities. i2t for the determina- This Egyptian formula was used by the Romans for finding the area. the wife two. but of any quadrilaterals whatever.80 A celebrated HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. axioms. but others are identical with those of Heron. laid circumferences. He who expects to find in Koine a science of geometry. not only of rec tangles. { Among the latter is that &quot. son receives four. consisted only of empirical rules. by the formulas 2 -J-(a +a) and 2 -|a . How The shall the estates be divided so as to satisfy the will? Eoman jurist. which.The total impression is as though the Eoman gromatic ples. the daughter one. -|-| a 2 for the area of equilateral triangles (a being one of the sides) But the latter area was also calculated .. like the old Egyptian. will be disap The only geometry known was a practical geometry. Salvianus Julianus. and as . though a deluge were lying between the two. of which the. This practical geometry was employed in surveying. expect rules to be clearly formulated. called agrimensores or gromatici. decided that the estates shall be divided into seven equal p&its. for finding the area of a triangle from its sides and the approx imate formula. and proofs arranged in logical order. compiled by the Roman sur veyors. Some of their rules were probably inherited from the Etruscans. . pointed. One would naturally But no they are left to be abstracted by the reader from a mass of numerical exam &quot.&quot. Indeed. We next consider Eoman geometry. 2 Probably the expression. with definitions. 7 out irregularly. were thousands of years older than Greek geometry.

He secured the services of the Alexan drian astronomer. 81 empire iso secure . without proofs. . but of Greek authors. Theodoric. chief. Gaul. and the Visigothic falling to pieces. While in prison he wrote On the Consolations of Philosophy. drew from Egyptian learning. for that purpose. and axioms. time of Julius Ccesar. and broke off from the decaying trunk. Ceesar also Three great branches Spain. How can It has been argued by some that Boethius possessed an incomplete Greek copy of .THE KOMANS.reformed Hh e calendar. in addition to definitions. which con postulates. As a mathematician. These compilations are very deficient. he was a great favourite of King being charged by envious courtiers with first At he was imprisoned. In the fifth century. down to . It is remarkable that this very period of political humiliation should be the one during which Greek science was studied in Italy most zeal School-books began to be compiled from the elements ously. but a Liliputian by the side of Greek masters. Italy was conquered by the Ostrogoths under Theodoric. Odoacer.the twelfth century. but later. and. and a Geometry in several books. Soon after. which is essentially a transla tion of the arithmetic of ISTicomachus. Elements. Boethius was a Brobdingnagian among Eoman He scholars. became king. the Western E/oman Empire was fast who ordered a survey of the whole an equitable mode of taxation. the province of Africa In 476. Sosigenes. Eoremost among these writers is BoetMus (died 524). wrote an In stitutis Arithmetica. they were the only sources of mathematical knowledge in the Occident. s The first an extract from Euclid tains. from the fact that. treason. Some of the most beautiful results of Mcobook machus are omitted on geometry is in Boethius arithmetic. the Western Empire passed away. the theorems in the first this omission of proofs be accounted for ? three books. and at last decapitated. are of absorbing interest.

it is This hypothesis has been generally abandoned. that the Indian signs. moreover. which he attributes to the Pythago reans. the mensuration of plane figures after the fashion of the agriniensores. and believed that only the theorems came from Euclid. These figures are obviously the is not parents of our modern &quot. These facts an endless controversy. Some contended India. The second book. that the apices were known to the Greeks. but are added. considerable improvement on the old abacus is Pebbles are discarded. A A there introduced. improbable. from numerical examples. century. by a later hand.Arabic&quot. apparently. or nearly so. second theory is that the Geometry attributed to Boethius . by others. that he had Theon s edition before him. or that numeral It is signs of any sort were used by them with the abacus. where the Pythagoreans used them have given rise to that Pythagoras was in secretly. nor is there any evidence in any Greek author. or possibly the ninth. which are admittedly of Indian origin. numerals. for not certain that Pythagoras or any disciple of his ever was in India. the Elements. and that the apices are derived from the Arabs. teaches. This theory is based on contradictions between pas sages in the AritJimetica and others in the Geometry. These numerals bear striking resemblance to the Gubar-numerals of the WestArabs. Upon each of these apices is drawn a numeral giving it some value below 10. from which the apices are derived. and apices (probably small cones) are used. The mentioned by Boethius in the text. But . while the proofs were supplied by Theon. as also other books on geometry attributed to Boethius. are so old as the time of Pythagoras. celebrated portion in the geometry of Boethius is that pertaining to an abacus. and from there brought the nine numerals to Greece.82 A HISTOBY OF MATHEMATICS. A is a forgery that it is not older than the tenth. The names of these numerals are pure Arabic.

there is 83 570) in are an Encyclopaedia written by Gassiodorius (died about which both the arithmetic and geometry of Boethius mentioned. and to the Western Arabs on the other.D. and gave them to the Romans on the one hand. . / This explanation is the most plausible. about the second century A. is that the Alexandrians either {L third theory (Woepcke s) directly or indirectly obtained the nine numerals from the Hindoos.THE ROMANS.. There appears to be no good reason for doubt ing the trustworthiness of this passage in the Encyclopaedia.

pean. Unlike the Greek. in Greece merely a servant to astronomy. free to be cultivated by all who had a liking for it . while own and was studied Hindoo mathematics always remained Furthermore. . but an Asiatic nation. and the IZshatriyas. Again. not a Euro like them. it was in the hands chiefly of the priests. who attended to war and government. Indian society was fixed into castes. mathematics was a science of the people. and had its seat in far-off India. to the Aryan race. The only castes enjoying the privilege and leisure for advanced study and thinking were the Brahmins. in India. It would seem that Greek mathematics grew up under more favourable conditions than the Hindoo. It was. THE first people who distinguished themselves in mathe matical research. belonged. as in Egypt. Of the development of Hindoo mathematics we know but little. THE HINDOOS. for in Greece for its it attained an independent existence. after the time of the ancient Greeks. however. whose prime business was religion and philosophy. and of clothing them in 84 obscure and mystic language. sake. but their had climbed path of ascent is no longer traceable.MIDDLE AGES. the Indians were in the habit of putting into verse all mathematical results they obtained. A few manuscripts bear testimony that the Indians to a lofty height.

mind was pre-eminently geometrical. does not seem improbable. a more lively commercial intercourse sprang up between Rome and India. we believe that thei^e was little or no geom etry in India of Greece. was often unintelligible to the uninitiated.well adapted to aid the memory of him who already understood the subject. so that the naked theorems and processes of operation are all that have come down to our time. and algebra attained in India far greater On perfection than they had previously reached in Greece. A priori. Very striking was the of the Hindoo and Greek for. the Indian was first of all arithmetical The Hindoo dealt with Numerical symbolism. as which the source may not be traced back to Hindoo trigonometry might possibly be mentioned an exception. the other hand. certain philosophic Teo-Platomsts. by way of Alexandria. yet they were not in the habit of preserving the proofs. quite as much as/fthe theorems themselves.THE HINDOOS. . the Greek with form. difference in the bent of mind while the Greek science of numbers. that with the traffic of merchan dise there should also be an That interchange of ideas. It is well known that more or less trade was carried on be veen Greece and India from early times. An tion the tracing of the rela between Hindoo and Greek mathematics. Gnostics. is evident from the fact that . Although the great Hindoo mathematicians doubtless reasoned out most or all of their discoveries. though &quot. communications of thought from the Hindoos to the Alexan drians actually did take place. After Egypt had become a l Eoman it province. were the Greeks. Very different in these respects Obscurity of language was generally and proofs belonged to ihe stock of knowledge avoided. show unmistakable likeness to . 85 which. BuT it rested on arithmetic more than on interesting but difficult task is geometry. the number. and theologic teachings of the Manicheans.

Most of the geo omy metrical knowledge which they possessed is traceable to Alexandria. The earliest knowledge of algebra in India may possibly have been of Babylonian origin. His celebrity rests the third chapter on a work entitled Aryabhattiyam. and to the writings of Heron in particular. We shall consider the science only in its complete probably. To the fourth or fifth century belongs . About one hundred years later. and to make inductive investigations. tists When we consider that Hindoo scien looked upon arithmetic and algebra merely as tools useful in astronomical research.. to India. to collect facts. a mutual giving and receiving.. At that time flourished Brahraagupta (born 598). ones in which they shall now proceed to enumerate the names of the leading Hindoo mathematicians. On the other hand. mathematicians proper. evidences have been found of Greek algebra among the Brahmins. astronomers.r&amp. at Pataliputra. Aryabhatta is the earliest. and then to review briefly Indian mathematics. In tem 628 he wrote his Brahma-sphutOrSiddhanta (&quot. mathematics in India reached the highest mark. born 476 A.86 Indian tenets. of which the twelfth and eighteenth chapters belong to mathematics. This We suspect that Diophantus got the first glimpses of algebraic knowledge from India. while in their pet science of astronomy they displayed an inaptitude to observe. for India had no mathematicians. A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS.). In algebra there was. there appears deep irony in the fact that these secondary branches were after all the only won real distinction. or rather. for our data are not sufficient to trace the We Of the great Indian history of the development of methods. of which is devoted to mathematics.The Revised Sys of Brahma&quot. was influenced by Greek astronomy. He was on the upper Ganges. Scientific facts is passed also from Alexandria shown plainly by the Greek origin of some Hindoo astron of the technical terms used by the Hindoos.

is the invention of the principle of position in writing numbers. be called the &quot. and in modern times a very deficient Arabic work of the sixteenth century has been held in great authority/ The mathematical chapters of the BraJima-siddhanta and Siddhantaciromani were translated into English by H. 1817. and Padmanabha. called from the Sun&quot.root-extraction&quot.). That the invention of this notation was . r The grandest achievement of the Hindoos and the one which. i. Cridhara.Diadem Astronomical System written by Bhaskara Acarya in &quot.THE HINDOOS. The two most important mathematical ( chapters in this work are the Lilavati the noble science) and Viga-ganita (= = &quot. stands little higher than that of Brahmagupta. New Haven. written over 500 years earlier. London. The following centuries produced only two names of impor tance.the beautiful. but of in merely as furnishing evidence that Greek science influenced Indian science even before the time of Aryabhatta. notation. 1860. science seems to have made but little progress at this time of an entitled Siddhantaciromani (&quot. for the Arabs borrowed it \rom the Hindoos. namely. D.Hindoo&quot. the studying the masterpieces of their predecessors.e. Burgess. Scientific intelligence decreases continually. which by native was ranked second only terest to us to -the Brahma-siddJianta. T. &quot. in the From now Brahmin schools seemed to Hindoos content themselves with on.)..&quot. an anonymous (&quot.Quintes sence of Calculation ). de voted to arithmetic and algebra. for a work 1150. and annotated by W. The Surya-siddhanta was trans by E. the author of an 3 algebra. The . has contributed most to the general progress of intelligence. lated Colebrooke. Generally we of our notation as the Arabic notation. of all mathematical inventions.Knowledge 87 Surya-siddhanta authorities is astronomical work.). Whitney. but it should speak &quot. &quot. who wrote a Ganita-sam (&quot. Conn.

are supposed originally to have been the initial letters of the corre : sponding numeral adjectives. This view receives support from the fact that on the island of Ceylon a notation resembling the Hindoo. not so easy as we might suppose at first thought. 20. nine figures were used for the units. while it made progress on the continent. There is a marked resemblance between the notation of Ceylon and the one used by Aryabhatta in the zero first chapter of his work. These 20 characters enabled them to write all the numbers up Thus. may be inferred from the fact it. of India. and that this culture remained stationary there. to have been introduced earliest. 1000. he gives directions for extracting the square and cube roots. . 100. We inquire. representing the following numbers These Singhalesian signs. to 9999. imperfect numerals In Ceylon. 8725 would have been written with six signs. that the numerals of Ceylon are the old. 5.88 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. 8. and also one for 1000. in the second chapter. -who invented this ideal symbolism. Although the and the principle of position were unknown to the scholars of Ceylon. 7. which seem to indicate a knowledge of them. for. and there only. We know that Buddhism and Indian culture were transplanted to Ceylon about the third century after Christ. but without the zero has been pre served. That our system of notation is of Indian origin is the only point of which we are certain. nine others for the tens. like the old Hindoo numerals. and when? But we know neither the inventor nor the time of invention. It seems highly probable. From the evolution of ideas in general we may safely infer that our notation did not spring into existence a completely armed Minerva from the head of The nine figures for writing the units are supposed Jupiter. they were probably known to Aryabhatta. not even the keen-minded Greeks possessed one. of other nations. and the sign of zero and the principle of position to be of later origin. then. one for 100.

The se are the inventions which give the Hindoo system its its admirable perfection. Thus. which differed. an examination to which Buddha. had to submit. the reformer of the Indian when a youth. illustrates the idea. in order to win the religion. (because it is follows: Vasu (a class of 8 expressed from right to left as two -f mountains (the 7 mountain-chains) eight gods) 9 digits) + seven + mountains + lunar form digits + + + + (the The use of such notations days (half of which equal 15). Brahma. At an early period the Hindoos exhibited great skill in even with large numbers. he was asked whether he could determine the number of primary atoms which. but by generally were not expressed by the particular numbers in question. but merely in the forms of the signs employed. This greatly facilitated the framing of verses con which could taining arithmetical rules or scientific constants. when placed one against the other. after having astonished his examiners by naming all the periods of numbers up to the 53d. divided into four parts) for 4. objects suggesting for 1 were used the words moon. etc. Thus.577. Of interest is also a symbolical system of position^ in which the figures numerical adjectives. The number 1. Buddha found the would form a line one mile in length. In arithmetic.828 is siddJianta. 7 primary atoms make a very required answer in this way minute grain of dust. maiden he loved. 7 of these make a minute grain of dust. to have been several notations There appear in use in different parts of India. they tell us of calculating. taken from the Suryaor ocean.THE HINDOOS. thus be more easily remembered.917. not in principle. great superiority. or form. It 89 would appear that the zero and the accompanying principle of position were introduced about the time of Aryabhatta. a number in several different made it possible to represent ways. the words Feda. The following example. : . Creator.

and replacing them by new ones. 3 from 7 = 4. they would have added 254 and 663 thus 2 + 6 = 8. In the multiplication with each manner other of many-figured numbers. until he finally reached the length of a mile. 7 This problem reminds one of the Sand- Counter of Archimedes. was made much After the numerical symbolism had been perfected. : first. 5 from 12 = 7. which must be increased by changes 25 into 28. 5-5 = 25. The multiplication of all the factors gave for the multitude of primary atoms in a mile a number con sisting of 15 digits. as in writing. and made the 3?or instance. figuring easier. which was written above the multiplicand. Or they would say. say 569 by 5.90 A HISTOBY OF MATHEMATICS. whenever necessary. On multiplying with the next digit of the multiplier. . 4 from 8=4. until finally the whole product was obtained. which changes 8 into 9. 4 from 11 = 7. inclined to follow the motion from left to right. In multiplication of a number by another of only one digit. Thus he proceeded. with the left-hand digit of the multi plier. 8 from 11 = 3. as with us. 4 4. and placed the product above the multiplier. step by step. The product is 2845. Many of the Indian modes of The Hindoos were generally operation differ from ours. 5 + 6 = 11. in the just indicated. Hence the sum 917. 8 from 11*= 3. with a cane-pen upon a small blackboard with a white. In Thus in 821 348 they subtraction they had two methods. 7 of tJiese a grain of dust whirled up by the wind. Thus. the old digits. 5-6 = 30. by erasing. would say. would not be likely to fall in love with this Hindoo method. they added the left-hand columns necessary corrections as they proceeded. and so on. who possess Wo the modern luxuries of pencil and paper.3 = 7. But the Indians wrote &quot. they generally said. as the process continued. the product was not placed in a new row. hence the 4. 5-9 = 45. but the first product obtained was corrected. they first multiplied.

we shall first take up the symbols Addition was indicated simply by juxtaposition as in Diophantine algebra subtraction. by placing a dot over the subtrahend multiplication. meant yj yd &quot. yd. to each a . was not foreign to them. &quot. Passing 93 to algebra. now bha.&quot. constituted the symbol for the respective unknown quantity.But. says he. unlike Diophantus. was this. &quot. The unknown quantity was called by BrahmaWhen several unknown gupta ydvattdvat (quantum tantum) quantities occurred. . from the word Tcarana (irrational). by placing the divisor beneath the dividend squareroot. yellow.. Another important generalisation. as an + and quantities.&quot. x times y . Thus Bhaskara gives x = 50 and &quot.the second value . the abbreviation of the word bhavita. Bhaskara showed how. They brought out the differ ence between positive and negative quantities by attaching to the one the idea of possession/ to the other that of debts/ The conception interpretation of also of opposite directions on a line. &quot. that the Hindoos never confined their arithmetical operations to rational numbers. division.&quot. The rest were by distinct distinguished by names of colours. The first unknown was designated the general term &quot. Com mentators speak of this as if negative roots were seen. for it is inadequate people do not approve of negative roots. They advanced beyond Diophantus in observing that a quad ratic has always two roots. name and symbol. me^nt x. but not x= 5 for the roots of x2 is .the product&quot. in this case not to be taken. he gave.kdla ka^ black) VlO. admitted. by writing Tea. before the quantity. . blue. as the black. (from Tea 15 Tea 103 Ted &quot. The initial syllable of each word red. . says Hankel. or green unknown.&quot.THE HINDOOS.unknown quantity. bha.45 x = 250. For instance. Vl5 The Indians were the first to recognise the existence of absolutely negative quantities. Jed Thus &quot. . by putting after the factors of operation.

. /a - Va (--y the square root of the sum of rational and irrational numbers could be found. They passed from mag nitudes to numbers and from numbers to magnitudes without anticipating that gap exists which to a sharply discriminating between the continuous and discontinuous. s 2 In this connection Aryabhatta speaks of dividing a number From this we infer that into periods of two and three digits.motile Infinite and immutable Deity when worlds are destroyed or created. admits^of. up or brought forth. which. the principle of position and the zero in the numeral notation were already known to him. set up by the Greeks. In extracting the square and cube roots they used the formulas (a + 2 Z&amp. Though in this he apparently taEes&quot.. Cantor . then the learned Brahmins of Hindostan are the real inventors of 7 algebra. alteration. Indeed. In figuring with zeros. A fraction whose denomi says he. yet in other places he jifakes a complete failure in figuring with fractions of zero denominator. no change place &quot. though the product of a scientific spirit. mathematics. greatly re tarded the progress of mathematics. . i by the formula T V a + V5 ==^--1-. . whether rational or irrational numbers or space- magnitudes. application of arithmetical operations to complex magnitudes of all sorts. even though numerous orders of beings be taken..&quot. A HISTOBY OF MATHEMATICS. a state ment nator of Bhaskara is zero. mind Yet by doing so the Indians greatly aided the general progress = a + 2 ab + 5 2 2 and (a + &)*= ^ + 3 a 6 + 3 ab + W. The Hindoos never discerned the dividing line between numbers and magnitudes. is interesting. - 2 c& -2&amp. .gt. .^. Indeed. if one understands by algebra the &quot. Let us now examine more closely the Indian algebra. evinces clear mathematical notions. in the same way. though much be added or subtracted.94 . In the Hindoo solutions of determinate equations.

demanded not necessarily integral. for square. Incomparably greater progress than in the solution of deter minate equations was made by the Hindoos in the treatment of indeterminate equations. Diophantus was content with a single solution the Hindoos possible integral solutions. that the square root of a positive number is positive twofold. they deserve great credit for improving and generalising the solutions of linear and quadratic equations. the Indians succeeded in solving some special cases in which both sides of the equation only could be made perfect powers by the addition of certain terms to each. Some technical terms betray their Greek origin. Aryabhatta gives solutions in integers to linear equations of the form ax by=c. positive. 6. as also of a negative number. 95 thinks he can see traces of Diophantine methods. from the Greek not only in method. We have seen that this very subject was a favourite with Diophantus. Their solution or this. The object of the former was to find all Greek analysis. endeavoured to find all solutions possible. Indeterminate analysis was a which the Hindoo mind showed a happy adaptation. the Indians give is essentially the same as the one of . invented general methods in this most subtle branch having of mathematics belongs to the Indians. and that his ingenuity was almost inexhaustible in subject to But the glory of devising solutions for particular cases.THE HINDOOS. . c are* integers. Even if it be true that the Indians borrowed from the Greeks. Bhaskara advances far beyond the Greeks and even beyond Brahmagupta when he says that &quot.&quot. where a. as for most other rules. The Hindoo indeter minate analysis differs but also in aim. but simply rational answers.the is square of a positive. Of equa of higher degrees. on the other hand. no proof. it is There not a is no square root of a negative tions number. and negative. The rule employed is called the pulveriser.

They were applied. they applied equations. Hankel protests called the Diophantine method. 7 would occur in the heavens. s Euler. consists. b into the product of two integers &quot. = + given or found. in a rule for an indefinite number of solutions of y2 ay? 1 (a be finding ing an integer which is not a square). With great keenness of intellect they 2 l a fundamental a&2 recognised in the special case 2/ in indeterminate quadratics. They solved it by the problem = + says De Morgan. + pq and app* it is + qq are values of a? and y be made to give any number. solution of t/ = ay? + b give a solution of y* ace It = 1 + amounts to the following theorem If p and q be one set of values of x and y in y 2 = ax2 + b and p and q the same or : 1 another in 2 2/ 2 set. by means of one solution cyclic method. and that if. to determine the time when a certain constellation of the planets purely a continued fraction- amounts to the same as the Hindoo process of finding the This is fre greatest common divisor of a and b by division. quently against this name. 2 2 taking b at pleasure. Passing by the subject of linear equations with more than two unknown quantities. for instance. In the solution of xy the method re-invented later by Euler. t/ == aa? + b can be solved so that x and y are divisible by b. &quot. of decomposing (ab c) n and of placing = + + m - + =m+ and y = n + a. Remarkable tion cy 2 2 is = ace + the Hindoo solution of the quadratic equa b. but did not even aim at solutions These equations probably grew out of prob lems in astronomy.96 Euler A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. then one preliminary solution of y* ax* + 1 = ace + 6 = ay? + 1 may 2/ JYom this obvious that one solution of = . 2 then qp 2 .&quot. we come to indeterminate quadratic ax c. on the ground that Diophantus not only never knew the method. ~ process of reducing . It &quot. and of feeling for one solution by making a 2 2 W.

lay half-way between two old situated on centres of scientific thought. Thus science passed from Aryan to Semitic races. The Mohammedans have added but little to the knowledge in mathematics which they received. 101 Astounding as was the grand march of conquest by the Arabs. and then back again of the torch of to the Aryan. These tables. to keep it ablaze the period of confusion and chaos in the Occident.THE ARABS. and assumed the sovereignty over cultivated peoples. and during afterwards to pass it over to the Europeans. which the Hellenes and Hindoos delighted to wander namely. analysis They were less of a speculative. and Greece in the West. India in the East. adopted a higher civilisation. and . The Abbasides the sciences at Bagdad encouraged the introduction of inviting able specialists to their court. the Greek conic sections and the Indian indeterminate were seldom entered upon by the Arabs. Medicine and spective were their favourite sciences. the most distinguished Saracen ruler. Bagdad. and more of a practical turn of mind. Thus Haroun-alastronomy by Baschid. the Euphrates. 3ourt of Caliph ical tables Almansur a Hindoo astronomer with astronom which were ordered to be translated into Arabic. irre of nationality or religious belief. new period in the history of learning. The capital. still more so was the ease with which they put aside their former nomadic life. drew Indian In the year 772 there came to the physicians to Bagdad. in Spain. known by the Arabs as the SindMnd. Arabic was made the written language throughout the conquered With the rule of the Abbasides in the East began a lands. but they were quite incapable of Even the more elevated regions in discovering new fields. They now and then explored a small region to which the path had been previously pointed out. The Arabs were destined Greek and Indian to be the custodians science.

Here the alphabetic notation offered no great disadvantage. The Diwanifound in an Arabic-Persian dictionary. probably taken from the Brahma-sphuta-siddhanta of Brahmagupta. and also by writers on arithmetic. differed and that the Arabs selected from the various forms the most suitable. is of interest. the Greek notation was in Egypt. Before the time of Mohammed the Arabs had no numerals. which quite early was adopted by merchants. They contained the important Hindoo table of sines. He says that tlie shape of tlie in different localities. Gradually it became the practice to adjectives employ the 28 Arabic letters of the alphabet for numerals. Numbers were written out in words. stood in great authority. with the zero and the principle of position. since in the sexagesimal arithmetic. superiority was so universally recognised. says there was An Arabian astronomer among people much difference in the use of . taken from the Almagest. may have been abbreviated in writing. were introduced among the Later. 7 As regards the form of the so-called Arabic numerals. in analogy to the Greek system. the numeral retained. as also of the letters in India. and along with these astronomical tables. numbers of generally only one or two places had to be written.102 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. had no except in astronomy. numerals. were used for a time. numerous computations connected with the financial administration over the conquered lands made a short symbolism indispensable. the Coptic. are supposed numeralSj to be such abbreviations. where the alphabetic notation continued to be used. In some locali ties. the Saracens. who spent many years in India. This notation was in turn superseded by the Hindoo notation. In some cases. tlie statement of the Arabic writer Albiruni (died 1039). Doubtless at this time. the numerals of the more civilised conquered nations Thus in Syria. that it Its rival. the Hindoo numerals.

and assumed 1 the greatly modified forms of the modern Devanagari-numer3 als. the zero. after the notation in India . and that they resemble much more the closely the apices Saracens in the East and those used in the West. There . whether true or not. simply to be contrary to their political enemies of the East. We find material differences between those used by the But most surprising is the fact that the symbols of both the East and of the West Arabs deviate so extraordinarily from the Hindoo Devanagari numerals (= divine numerals) of to-day. 103 symbols. if for no other reason. The most plausible theory is the one of Woepcke: (1) that Eoman writer Boethius. but. the numerals in India underwent further changes. and 8. but retained the old forms of the nine numerals. and were hence called Ghtbar-nuwierdls ( = dust-numerals. had been already much modified and perfected by the invention of the zero. and dissimilarity on the other. the relations apices. before the zero had been invented. 7. 6. The symbols used by the Arabs can be traced back to the tenth century.THE AEABS. (5) that. the Arabs at Bagdad got it from the Hindoos (3) that . from those in the East. This is rather a bold theory. about the second century after Christ. of This strange similarity on the one hand. (4) that the old forms were remembered by the West-Arabs to be of Indian origin. especially of those for 5. in mem ory of the Brahmin practice of reckoning on tablets strewn with dust or sand. the Gubar. it between the explains better than any other yet propounded. is difficult to explain. and Devana It has been gari numerals. the Indian numerals were brought to Alexan dria. brought to mentioned that in 772 the Indian SiddJianta was Bagdad and there translated into Arabic. since the eighth century. the East-Arabic. whence they spread to Eome and also to West Africa (2) that in the eighth century. the Arabs of the West borrowed the Columbus-egg.

or by his son. the flourishing Erom Syria. A large number of Greek manuscripts were secured by Caliph Al Mamun (813-883) from the emperor in Constantinople and were turned over to Syria. This was accomplished the reign of the famous Haroun-al-Easchid. and as tronomical works of the Greeks could all be read in the Arabic works must have was evidently difficult to first. and. Celebrated were the cine. revised during translation of Euclid s Elements was ordered by Al Mamun. mathematical. ex cepting the travels of Albiruni. at the beginning of the tenth century. To the thirteen books of the Elements were added the fourteenth. a new trans lation by the learned Honein ben Ishak. Greek physicians E&quot. soil. schools at Antioch and Emesa. in successive waves.104 is A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. The successors of Al Mamun continued the work so auspic iously begun. But it remained for Tabit . * A As this reyision still contained numerous errors. secure translators who were masters of both the Greek and Arabic and at the same time proficient in mathematics. especially philosophy and medi were cultivated by Greek Christians. and the fifteenth by Damascius. Better informed are we regarding the science. The first Greek authors made to speak in tongue. the more important philosophic. first of all. translations of mathematical as it The been very deficient at Arabic were Euclid and Ptolemasus. no evidence that any intercourse existed between Arabic and Indian astronomers either before or after this time. until. But we should be very slow to deny the probability that more extended communications actually did take place. The translations had to be revised again and again before they were satisfactory. way in which Greek dashed upon and penetrated Arabic In Syria the sciences. and scholars were called to Bagdad. medical. Ishak ben Honein. written by Hypsicles.estorian school at Edessa. either was made. Translations of works from the Greek began to be made.

Believer&quot. As in India. work in mathematics until the next century. This whole Arabic intense love for astronomy and astrology continued during the scientific period. and Diophantus. Having been little accustomed to abstract thought. all their energy was exhausted merely in appropriating No attempts were made at original the foreign material. The Moslem dominions being of such enormous extent. during the ninth cen tury. Archimedes. . on the other hand. must turn during prayer that he may be facing Mecca. Astro nomical tables and instruments were perfected. Among other impor tant translations into Arabic were the works of Apollonius. For these reasons considerable progress was made. The religious observances demanded by Mohammedanism presented to as tronomers several practical problems.THE ABABS. and a connected series of observations instituted. 7 increased interest to the prediction of eclipses. Thus we see that in the course of one century the Arabs gained access to the vast treasures of Greek science. the old Oriental supersti tion that extraordinary occurrences in the heavens in some mysterious way affect the progress of human affairs added of the moon. The prayers and ablutions had to take place at definite hours dur ing the day and night. it remained in some localities for the astronomer to determine which way the &quot. observatories erected. Most of the so-called mathematicians were first of all astronomers. so here. This led to more accurate determina tions of time. feasts it To fix the exact date for the Mohammedan became necessary to observe more closely the motions In addition to all this. great activity research existed as early as the ninth century. ben Korra need. to bring forth 105 Still greater difficulty an Arabic Euclid satisfying every was experienced in securing an intelligible translation of the Almagest. Heron. we hardly ever find a man exclusively devoted to pure mathematics. we need not marvel if. in original In astronomy.

The regula falsa or falsa positio was the assigning of an assumed value to the unknown quantity. x =a and $ = 6. namely. who lived during the reign of Caliph He was engaged by the caliph in mak Al Mamun (814-833) . The first notable author of mathematical books was Moham med ben Musa Hovarezmi. from which comes our &quot. Both these methods were known to the Indians. &quot. which was sometimes called the &quot. by which algebraical examples could be solved without algebra. They explained the operation of casting out the 9 s. has passed into Algoritmi. They contained also the regula falsa and the regula duorum falsorum. in revising the tablets of Ptolemaeus. ing extracts from the SindMnd. The regula duorum falsorum was as follows 7 To solve an equation. in taking observations at Bagdad and Damascus. Arabian arithmetics generally contained the four operations with integers and fractions. was corrected some process like the &quot. &quot. assume. and it was not till 1857 that a Latin translation of it was found. which dif fered from the earlier ones chiefly in the greater variety of methods.Hindoo proof.&quot. if wrong.rule of three. The portion on arith metic-is not extant in the original. two values for x . Let us give deserved praise to God. and exhibits the Hindoo intellect and sagacity in the grandest inventions. and in measuring a degree of the earth s meridian. Diopliantus used a by method almost identical with this.all others in 7 The arithmetic of Hovarezmi. which value. .&quot. Important to us is his work on algebra and arithmetic. /(a?) = F.&quot. signifying the art of computing in any particular way.excels/ says an Arabic writer. modern word algorithm. It begins thus: Spoken has Algoritmi.&quot. being based on the principle of position and the Hindoo method of calculation. : for the moment. This book was followed by a large number of arithmetics by later authors. our leader and defender. modelled after the Indian processes. Hovarezmi.106 A HISTORY Otf MATHEMATICS. brevity and easiness. Here the name of the author.

p The Arabs had already discovered the theorem that the sum of two cubes can never be a cube. in theory of numbers and algebra was done by Fahri des Al Karhi. Abu Mohammed Al Hogendi of Chorassan thought he had proved this. and Al Biruni made a study of the trisection of angles. handling the methods of Diophantus. but whatever to the stock of knowledge already added nothing on hand. solved the by the intersection of a parabola with an equilateral problem hyperbola. Al Ill KuM. Abul Gud. For the solution of quadratic equations he gives both arithmetical and geometric proofs. indeterminate He showed minds. Al Sagani.. In it he appears as a disciple of Diophantus. to construct a segment of a sphere equal in volume to a given segment and having surface equal in area to that of another given seg a curved ment.THE ARABS. was a close student of Archimedes and Apollonius. As a subject for original research. an able geometer. His treatise on algebra is the greatest algebraic work of the Arabs. He. who lived at the beginning of the eleventh century. was too subtle for even the most gifted of Arabian Bather surprising is the fact that Al Karhi s algebra shows no traces whatever of Hindoo indeterminate analysis. He was the first Arabic author to give and prove the theorems on the summation of the series : 33 + . +n 3 Al Karhi also busied himself skill in with indeterminate analysis. He was the first to operate with higher roots and to solve equa tions of the form x2n + axn = b. but we are Creditable work told that the demonstration was defective. He solved the problem. analysis .. the second astronomer at the observatory of the emir at Bagdad.

con structed wholly after Greek pattern. He divides cubics into two classes. the trinomial. find is Hindoo numerals certainly a puzzle. while Abu Gafar Al Hazin was the first Arab to solve the Solutions were given also by equation by conic sections. required the construction of the side from the equation a8 cc2 2 x 1 0. and each class into families and species. the other Indian. wrote an arithmetic in which no place. all He rejected negative roots and often failed to discover the positive ones. Al Hasan ben Al Haitam. Each species is treated separately but according to a general plan. it is. was Omar al Hayyami of Chorassan. to determine the side of a regular hepta gon.and quaclrinomial. about 1079 A. of which one followed almost exclusively Greek mathematics. why the Hindoo numerals were ignored by so eminent authors. Abul Wefa also. It was attempted by many and at last difficult _ _ + = solved by Abul Cud. The one who did most to elevate to a method the solution of algebraic equations by intersecting conies. nor bi-quadratics by geom etry. This practice is the very The question. Cantor suggests that at one time there may have been rival schools. The first to state this problem in form of a cubic equation was Al Mahani of Bagdad. Al Kuhi.D. He believed that cubics could not be solved by calculation. But most astonishing that an arithmetic by the same It is author completely excludes the Hindoo numerals. demand ratic equations. quad Attempts were now made to solve cubic equations geometrically. opposite to that of other Arabian authors. Attempts at bi-quadratic equations . in the second half of the tenth century. 20 Another problem.112 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. and others. The Arabs were familiar with geometric solutions of ing the section of a sphere by a plane so that the two seg ments shall be in a prescribed ratio. They were led to such solutions by the study of questions like the Archimedean problem.

but simply to determine the side a. were made by Abul 4 =& land x + &amp. The Arabs. crusaders were not the only adversaries of the During the first half of the thirteenth century. for it was or Mensechmus who first constructed the roots of cc3 a = or 3 2a 3 = 0. Al Karhi. in 1256. material progress became difficult with their methods but the Hindoos furnished new ideas. show how the Arabs departed further and further -from the Indian methods. The foun dation to this work had been laid by the Greeks. The Arabs. then far superior to their own but the Arabs got no science from the Christians . and. the Arabic solutions of cubics remained unknown until quite recently. and now it begins to Between 1100 and 1300 A. on the other hand. come the crusades with ebb.%%? 113 Wefa. of a cube double another cube of side a. way they barred the road of progress against The Greeks had advanced to a point where . war and bloodshed. Abul Gud. were in return. conquered by them under the leadership of Hulagu. during which European Christians profited much by their contact with Arabian culture. In this themselves. 20 who solved geometrically #4 =a The solution of cubic equations by intersecting conies was the greatest achievement of the Arabs in algebra.D. In the Occident.THE ABABS. It was not his aim to find the number corre sponding to x. had another object in view to find the roots of given : numerical equations. and placed themselves more immediately under Greek influ ences. At the close of the fourteenth century another empire was formed by Timur . mathematics among the Arabs of the East reached flood-mark. The works of Al Hayyami. they had to encounter the wild Mongolian hordes. With Al Karhi and Omar Al Hayyami. caliphate at The Bagdad now ceased still to exist. Descartes and Thomas Baker invented these constructions many of which the Arabs now rejected.

in less than two generations. During these centuries. In consequence of this. Treatises on algebra. they raise themselves from the lowest stages of cultivation to scientific all efforts. Bagdad and Cordova. Even at the court of Tamerlane in A Samarkand. a grandson of Tamerlane. with which upon the wings of the wind they conquer half the world. Between the Arabs of the East and of the West. it is a marvel that it existed at all. of astronomers was drawn to this court. or Tamerlane. it is not surprising that science declined. . there generally existed consider able political animosity. Most prominent at this time was Al Kaschi. during intervals of peace. lived Nasir Eddin (1201-1274). astronomy and mathematics in the Orient greatly excel these sciences in the Occident Thus far we have spoken only of the Arabs in the East. which were under separate governments. but more wonderful the energy with which. His Essence of Arithmetic stands 011 level as the work of Mohammed ben Musa Hovarezmi. several The last Oriental writer was Bella- 1622). there was less scientific intercourse among them than might be expected to exist between peoples having the same religion and written language. Thus the .East for centuries. a man of broad culture and an able astronomer. science continued to be cultivated in the. the author of an arithmetic. and of the enormous distance between the two great centres of learning. &quot.&quot. During the supremacy of Hulagu. the Tartar. were prepared by him. was himself an astronomer. written Eddin (1547about the same nearly 800 years before. Thus.114 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. He persuaded Htilagu to build him and his asso ciates a large observatory at Maraga. arithmetic. Ulug Beg group (1393-1449). s geometry. and a translation of Euclid Elements.Wonderful is the expansive power of Oriental peoples. Indeed. the sciences were by no means neglected. During such sweeping turmoil.



course of science in Spain was quite independent of that in

While wending our way westward to Cordova, we must stop in Egypt long enough to observe that there, too,
scientific activity



was rekindled. ISTot Alexandria, but Cairo and observatory, was now the home of learn

scientists ranked Ben Junus (died a contemporary of Abul Wefa. He solved some difficult 1008), problems in spherical trigonometry. Another Egyptian astron

Foremost among her


omer was Ibn Al Haitam (died 1038), who wrote on geometric Travelling westward, we meet in Morocco Abul Hasan whose treatise on astronomical instruments discloses a All,
thorough knowledge of the Conies of Apollonius. Arriving finally in Spain at the capital, Cordova, we are struck by the
magnificent splendour of her architecture* At this renowned seat of learning, schools and libraries were founded during the tenth century.

known of the progress of mathematics The earliest name that has come down to us is Al
Little is

in Spain.


(died 1007), the author of a mystic paper on amicable num 5 His pupils founded schools at Cordova, Dania, and


But the only great astronomer among the Saracens


Gabir ben Aflah of Sevilla, frequently called Geber.


lived in the second half of the eleventh century.


formerly believed that he was the inventor of algebra, and that He ranks the word algebra came from Gabir or Geber.

among the most eminent astronomers

of this time, but, like so


of his contemporaries,


of mysticism.

His chief work

writings contain a great deal an astronomy in nine books, of

which the

In his treatment devoted to trigonometry. of spherical trigonometry, he exercises great independence of thought. He makes war against the time-honoured procedure
first is

adopted by Ptolemy of applying "the rule of six quantities," and gives a new way of his own, based on the rule of four


and QQi be two arcs of great be arcs of great PQ and drawn perpendicular to QQ^ then we have the propor




circles intersecting in

A, and






PQ = sin APi


iFrom this he derives the formulas for spherical right triangles. To the four fundamental formulas already given by Ptolemy,

he added a


discovered by himself.

If a,

b, c,

be the sides,

JB, 0, the angles of a spherical triangle, right-angled at cos b sin 0. This is frequently called Geber s then cos .4,.

and A,




Eadical and bold

as were


innovations in

spherical trigonometry, in plane trigonometry he followed Not even did he slavishly the old beaten path of the Greeks.

adopt the Indian sine and cosine/ but still used the Greek So painful was the departure chord of double the angle. After the time from old ideas, even to an independent Arab

of Gabir ben Aflah there was no mathematician among the Spanish Saracens of any reputation. In the year in which Columbus discovered America, the Moors lost their last foot hold on Spanish, soil.


the Arabs.

have witnessed a laudable intellectual activity among They had the good fortune to possess rulers

who, by their munificence, furthered scientific research. At the courts of the caliphs, scientists were supplied with libra

and observatories.




of astronomical and

mathematical works were written by Arabic authors. Yet we fail to find a single important principle in mathematics
brought forth by the Arabic mind. Whatever discoveries they made, were iix fields previously traversed by the Greeks
or the Indians, and consisted of objects which tho latter had overlooked in their rapid march. The Arabic mind did not

possess that penetrative insight and invention by which mathe maticians in Europe afterwards revolutionised the science.

The Arabs were


Their chief service learned, but not original. to science consists in this, that they adopted the learning of

Greece and India, and kept what they received with scrupu
lous care.


the love for science began to grow in the

Occident, they transmitted to the Europeans the valuable treasures of antiquity. Thus a Semitic race was, during the Dark Ages, the custodian of the Aryan intellectual possessions.



the third century after Christ begins an era of migra

tion of nations in Europe. The powerful G-oths quit their swamps and forests in the North and sweep onward in steady southwestern current, dislodging the Vandals, Sueves, and

Burgundians, crossing the


only when reaching

territory, and stopping and the shores of the Mediterranean.


the Ural Mountains wild hordes sweep

down on the
and the Dark


The Roman Empire

falls to pieces,

Ages begin. But dark though they seem, they are the germi nating season of the institutions and nations of modern Europe. The Teutonic element, partly pure, partly intermixed with the Celtic and Latin, produces that strong and luxuriant growth,


civilisation of Europe.



the various

nations of Europe

belong to the


As the Greeks

were the great thinkers both Aryan races of antiquity, so the nations north of the Alps became the great

and the Hindoos

intellectual leaders of



Introduction of





the North

these as yet barbaric nations of gradually came in possession of the intellectual






treasures of antiquity.

Witli the spread of Christianity the Latin language was introduced not only in ecclesiastical but

and all important worldly transactions. Nat the science of the Middle Ages was drawn largely from urally Latin sources. In fact, during the earlier of these ages Eoman authors were the only ones read in the Occident. Though
also in scientific

Greek was not wholly unknown, yet before the thirteenth century not a single Greek scientific work had been read or translated into Latin. Meagre indeed was the science which
could be gotten from

Eoman writers, and we must

wait several

centuries before any substantial progress



After the time of Boethins and Cassiodorius mathematical
activity in Italy died out.
tribes that



slender blossom of science

came from the North was an encyclopaedia among entitled Origines, written by Isidorus (died 636 as bishop of This work is modelled after the Eoman encyclopae Seville).
Part of
dias of Martianus Capella of Carthage and of Cassiodorius. it is devoted to the quadrivium, arithmetic, music,

geometry, and astronomy.


gives definitions

and grammat

ical explications of technical terms,

but does not describe the

of computation then, in vogue. After Isidorus there follows a century of darkness which is at last dissipated by the appearance of Bede the Venerable (672-785), the most learned man of his time. He was a native of Ireland, then




of learning in the Occident.

His works contain

treatises on the Computus, or the

computation of Easter-time,

and on finger-reckoning. It appears that a finger-symbolism was then widely used for calculation. The correct determina
tion of the time of Easter

was a problem which in those days greatly agitated the Church. It became desirable to have at

least one


at each

day of religious festivals

monastery who could determine the and could compute the calendar.

school at


and became distinguished for his profound scholarship. By King Otto I. and his successors Gerbert was held in highest esteem. He was elected bishop of Rheims, then of Ravenna, and finally was made Pope under
for ten years




He died

of Sylvester II. by his former pupil Emperor Otho in 1003, after a life intricately involved in many
ecclesiastical quarrels.


Such was the career of

the greatest mathematician of the tenth century in Europe. By his contemporaries his mathematical knowledge was con
sidered wonderful.

Many even


Mm of criminal inter

course with evil


Gerbert enlarged the stock of his knowledge by procuring Thus in Mantua he found the geometr^ copies of rare books.

Though this is of small scientific value, yet it of -great importance in history. It was at that time the only book from which European scholars could learn the ele
of Boethius.

ments of geometry.

Gerbert studied






generally believed himself to be the author of a geometry. H. Weissenborn denies his authorship, and claims that the book in question consists of three parts which cannot come,

This geometry contains from one and the same author. 21 more than the one of Boethius, but the fact that nothing
occasional errors in the latter are herein corrected shows that

the author had mastered the subject. "The first mathemat ical paper of the Middle Ages which deserves this name,"
a letter of Gerbert to Adalbold, bishop of says Hankel, in which is explained the reason why the area of a Utrecht,"

triangle, obtained




by taking the product


the base by half

from the area calculated to the formula ^a (a + 1), used "arithmetically," according by surveyors, where a stands for a side of an equilateral tri
its altitude, differs




gives the correct explanation that in the latter the small squares, in which the triangle is sup-



posed to be divided, are counted in wholly, even though parts


project beyond


Gerbert made a careful study of the arithmetical works of Rule of Com Boethius. He himself published two works, Small Book on the Division of on the Abacus, and putation



They give an insight into the methods of calcu

lation practised

Hindoo numerals.

Europe before the introduction of the Gerbert used the abacus, which was prob
Beraelinus, a pupil

it as





consisting of a

were accustomed to

smooth board upon which geome strew blue sand, and then to draw

For arithmetical purposes the board was divided into 30 columns, of which 3 were reserved for frac tions, while the remaining 27 were divided into groups with
their diagrams.

3 columns in each.

In every group the columns were marked

by the letters C (centum), I) (decem), and Bernelinus gives the nine S (singularis) or (monas). numerals used, which are the apices of Boethius, and then remarks that the Greek letters may bo used in their place. 8



the use of these columns any number can be written

without introducing a zero, and all operations in arithmetic can be performed in the same way as we execute ours without
the columns, but wiJx the symbol for zero.

Indeed, the

methods of adding, subtracting, and multiplying in vogue


the abacists agree substantially with those of to-day.

The early rules is very great difference. for division appear to have been framed to satisfy the following three conditions : (1) The use of tho multiplication table shall
in a division there

be restricted

as far

as possible;

at least, it shall

never be

required to multiply mentally a figure of two digits by another of one digit. (2) Subtractions shall be avoided as much as

and replaced by additions. (3) The operation shall 7 proceed in a purely mechanical way, without requiring trials.




strange to us

should be necessary to make such conditions seems but it must be remembered that the monks of

the Middle

Ages did not attend school during childhood and learn xfche multiplication table while the memory was fresh. Gerbert s rules for division are the oldest extant. They are so brief as to be very obscure to the uninitiated. They were intended simply to aid the memory by calling to probably mind the successive steps in the work. In later manuscripts they are stated more fully. In dividing any number by another of one digit say 668 by 6, the divisor was first increased to 10

by adding








exhibited in the adjoining figure. 8 must imagine the digits

which are crossed

out, to be erased

and then

replaced by the ones beneath. It is as follows 600 -*- 10 60, but, to rectify the error, 4 x 60, or 240, must be added 200 -*- 10 = 20, but 4 x 20,



or 80,

must be added.

We now

write for


+ 40 + 80,



= 10 =

and continue thus the correction necessary is 4 x 10,




which, added to 80, gives 120. 10 10, and the correction 4 x
20, gives


gether with the
before, 60



60. Proceeding as 24. the correction is 4


Now 20 -5- 10 = 2,
or 20.

the correction being 4x2 = In the column of units we have now 8 + 4


+ 8,




= 8,

before, 20-5-10 2; the correction which, is not divisible by 10, but


giving the quotient 1 and the re All the partial quotients taken mainder 2.
only by
together give 60 the remainder 2. Similar but

+ 20 + 10 + 10 +\6+ 2 + 2 + 1 = 111,


divisor contains

more complicated, is two or more digits.

the process when the Were the divisor 27,

tlien tlie

next higher multiple of
10, or 30, would be taken would be required for the 3.

for the divisor, but corrections

He who

to the end, will understand

has the patience to carry such a division through why it has been said of Gerbert
dedit, quse a sudantibus abacistis vix intelli-



will also perceive


the Arabic method of

introduced, was called the dwisio aurea, but the one on the abacus, the divisio ferrea.

book 011 the abacus, Bernelinus devotes a chapter to These are, of course, the duodecimals, first used the Eomans. For want of a suitable notation, calculation by with them was exceedingly difficult. It would be so even to us, were we accustomed, like the early abacists, to express them, not by a numerator or denominator, but by the appli


cation of names, such as uncia for -^, quincunx for




In the tenth century, Gerbert was the central figure among the learned. In his time the Occident came into secure posses
sion of all mathematical knowledge of the Eomans. During it was studied assiduously. Though numerous works were written on arithmetic and geometry,

the eleventh century

mathematical knowledge in the Occident was still very insig nificant. Scanty indeed were the mathematical treasures
obtained from



Translation of Arabic Manuscripts.


his great erudition

and phenomenal





life into

the study not only of mathematics, but

Pupils from France, Germany, and Italy When they gathered at Eheims to enjoy his instruction. themselves became teachers, they taught of course not only
also of philosophy.

the use of the abacus and geometry, but also

what they had

Athelard. the term sinus was introduced into trigonometry.EUROPE BTTEING THE MIDDLE AGES. were great admirers of Peripatetism. Egypt. that he might acquire the language and science of the Mohammedans. 125 learned of the philosophy of Aristotle. Greek texts were wanting. activity is the first quarter of Among travelled extensively in Asia Minor. in the eighth century. flourished Plato of Tivoli or Plato He effected a translation of the astronomy of Al Battani and of the SpJicerica of Theodosius. But the growing enthusiasm for it created a demand for his com plete works. mathe matical works also came to their notice. and that they possessed translations of Aristotle s works and commentaries thereon. they plundered the rich coffers of Greek and Hindoo science. Though some few unimportant works may have been translated earlier. at first. under the . This translation also is very probably due to found in the library at Cambridge. His philosophy was known. and braved a thousand perils. In 1857. scripts He the twelfth century. At about the same time Tiburtinus. But the Latins heard that the Arabs. This led them finally to search for and translate Arabic manuscripts. yet the period of greatest activity The zeal displayed in acquiring the began about 1100. a manuscript was which proved to be the arithmetic by Mohammed ben Musa in Latin. and Spain. when. of Euclid Elements and of the astronomical tables of Mohammed ben Musa Hovarezmi. too. and were translated into Latin. the earliest scholars engaged in translating manu The period of his into Latin was Athelard of Bath. About the middle of the twelfth century there was a group of Christian scholars busily at work at Toledo. Mohammedan treasures of knowledge excelled even that of the Arabs themselves. translations. He made s the earliest from the Arabic. Through the former. only through the writings of Boethius. During this search.

com On comparing works like piled by him from Arabic authors. mathematicians of the tenth and eleventh centuries state an they were never used in Europe In illustrating an example in division. because except on the abacus. then draw an abacus and insert the necessary numbers with the apices. but from the Arabs in Spain. Hence it seems probable that the abacus and apices were borrowed from the example in it same source. as do those of John of Seville. and that part or the whole of the geometry of Boethius is a forgery. Gerbert could not have learned from the Arabs the use of the abacus. He translated works chiefly on Aristotelian philosophy. use the term algorism. independent sources. all it. Among those who worked under his direction. John of Seville was most prominent. not from BoethiuS. consists that. in Roman numerals. argued by some that Ger- bert got his apices and his arithmetical knowledge. in this. the abacists drawing from Arabic works. they teach the sexagesimal frac the Arabs.126 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. But no points of resemblance are found. while the abacists employ the duo by decimals of the Romans. then archbishop of Toledo. leadership of Raymond. which shows that the two parties drew It is from. and the abacists. dating from the time of Gerbert. this with those of the abacists. The former teach the extraction of roots. unlike the latter. Of importance to us is a liber algorLwii. calculate with the zero. of Gerbert would If this were the case. then the writings betray Arabic sources. doos. because evidence ISTor we have employ Arabs the is it goes to show that they did not probable that he borrowed from the apices. the former mention the Hin tions used do not. The contrast between authors like John of Seville. 8 A little later than John of Seville flourished Gerard of Cremona in Lombardy. and do not employ the abacus. we notice at once the most striking difference. Being desirous to gain possession of .

who and compiled astronomical works from Arabic Rabbi Zag and lehuda ben Mose Cohen were the sources. translated this great work of Ptolemy. was in Hindoo The methods of calculation began to supersede the cumbrous meth- . He employed a number of scholars in translating Arabic manuscripts. Foremost among the patrons of science at this time ranked Emperor Frederick II. Astronomical tables prepared by these two Jews spread rapidly in the Occident. and con stituted the basis 7 of all astronomical calculation till the scholars sixteenth century. which drove the earlier ones from the field. a work of Menelaus. he went to Toledo. and others less important* In the thirteenth century. besides the Almagest. the 15 books of Euclid. transplanting Arabic science upon Christian soil was large. treatises. Inspired by the richness of Mohammedan literature. he became familiar with Arabic science. of Castile (died 1284). and which formed the basis of the printed editions. He translated into Latin over 70 Arabic works. in 1175. around Mm translated a number of Jewish and Christian scholars. 127 the Almagest. 7 At the close of the twelfth century.ETJKOPE DURING. of Hohen- hammedan staufen (died 1250). Through frequent contact with Mo scholars. most prominent among them. there Of mathematical were among these. the zeal for the acquisition of Arabic learning continued. the Occident possession of the so-called Arabic notation. But we mention only one mbre. Giovanni Campano of Novara The number of who aided in (about 1260) brought out a new translation of Euclid. the Sphcerica of Theodosius.THE MIDDLE AGES. and there. the astronomy of Dshabir ben AfLah. he gave himself up to its study. the algebra of Mohammed ben Musa Hovarezmi. Another royal head deserving mention as a zealous promoter of Arabic He gathered science was Alfonso X. and it was through him that we came in posses sion of a new translation of the Almagest.

in later years. France and the British Isles have been the head But at the quarters of mathematics in Christian Europe. The First Awakening and its Sequel* Thus far. factories numerous His father was secretary at one of the erected on the south and east coast of the Mediterranean. and other works were now Thus a great amount of new accessible in the Latin tongue. with. or Gerbert. Leonardo of Pisa is the man to whom we owe the first renaissance of a new home in Italy. The geometry of Euclid. learn the use of the abacus.e.128 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. by the enterprising merchants of Pisa. who in the midst of business pursuits found time for scientific study. when a boy. The talent necessary to digest this heterogeneous mass of knowledge was not wanting. but mathematics on Christian i. no work either on mathematics was translated directly from the Greek previous or astronomy It is important to notice that to the fifteenth century. its ods inherited from Borne. . Algebra. made Leonardo. had been made accessible to the Latins. and from the various peoples all the knowl edge he could get on this subject. the Sphwrica of Theodosius the astronomy of Ptolemy. This Alcuin. he found the Hindoo to be unquestionably the Sicily. like Bede. He is also called Fibonacci. The figure of Leonardo of Pisa scientific material adorns the vestibule of the thirteenth century. Greece. talent and activity beginning of the thirteenth century the of one man was sufficient to assign the mathematical science man was not a monk. linear rules for solving and quadratic equations. and. during his extensive business travels in Egypt. collected . a merchant. had come into the hands of the Christians. soil. Of all the methods of calculation. He The boy acquired a strong taste for mathematics. son of Bonaccio. Syria.

other writers of the Middle Ages. in 1202. hence our English word cipher. but. but that he was an original worker of exceptional or. This. This work contains about all the knowledge the Arabs 1228. A possessed in arithmetic and algebra. the Florentine merchants were forbidden the use of the Arabic numerals in book-keeping. together with the other books of Leonardo. a slavish imitator form in which the subject had been previously pre of the sented. years after the publication of In 1299. 3). in the Winter s Tale (iv. of Arabic mathematics earliest adopted by The nilnds of men had been prepared for the reception of this by the use of the abacus and the apices. 129 Eeturning to Pisa. at first. Shakespeare lets the clown be embarrassed by . best. accepted readily by the enlightened masses. the middle of the seventeenth century. and the very word abacus changed its meaning and became a synonym for algorism. The calculation with the zero was the portion the Christians. He was tion of the the &quot.&quot. like power. 22 Thus. the Latins adopted from the Arabic sifr (sifra = empty ). he published. nearly 100 Leonardo s Liber Abaci. In France it was used later. The reckoning with columns was gradually abandoned. and it did not disappear in England and Germany before full. shows that he was not merely a compiler. The new notation was the name zepliirum. the Liber Abaci. his great revised edition of this appeared in work. first Arabic great mathematician to advocate the adop notation. For the zero. and ordered either to employ the Roman numerals or to write the numeral adjectives out in In the fifteenth century the abacus with its counters ceased to be used in Spain and Italy. it as early as the thirteenth century.EUROPE DURING THE MIDDLE AGES. The merchants of Italy used rejected by the learned circles. while the monks in the monasteries adhered to the old forms. and treats the subject in a free and independent way.

that its rules and principles form an essential part of the arithmetical treatises of that day. contains another problem. lago expresses his contempt for Michael Casso. which of because it was given with some variations by Ahmes. 3000 : each woman has 7 old women go to Home years earlier 7 mules. appears to have caster. &quot. indeed. then B 7 s sum : . other Greek masters were The writings of Euclid and of some known to him. calculation with integers and known double position/ and also by real algebra. each sack contains 7 loaves. How much has each ? is The Liber Abaci historical interest. is seven-fold A s. each mule carries 7 sacks. The real fact seems to be that the old methods were used long after the Hindoo numerals were in common and general use. (in Othello. the storehouse from which authors got material for works on arithmetic and algebra. for centuries. are solved by the methods of c single or fractions. a great mathematician. The book con The following was pro posed to Leonardo of Pisa by a magister in Constantinople. the square and cube root are explained equations of the first and second degree leading to problems.&quot. then A s sum is five-fold B s if B gets from A 5 denare. In it are set forth the most perfect methods of at that time. tains a large number of problems. With such dogged persistency does man cling to the old ! The Liber Abaci was.130 A HISTOEY OF MATHEMATICS. Leonardo of Pisa published his l^ractica Geometries. lie a problem which. 8 which contains In 1220.&quot. all the knowledge of geometry and trigonom etry transmitted to him. as a difficult problem If A gets from B 7 denare.256. each knife is put up in 7 sheaths. 1) been the practice of this species of arithmetic. . 137. .counterSo general.forsooth. with each loaf are 7 knives. by calling him a &quot. could not do without counters. says Peacock. either determinate or indeterminate. i. What is the sum total of all named? Ans. either from Arabic .

loss and gain. simple and double rule of and com pound interest. Among the mathematical productions of the Middle Ages. and so on. but their scientific efforts were vitiated The by the method of scholastic thinking. distinct heads. Indistinctness and confusion of ideas characterised the reasoning during this period.ETJBOPE DURING THI MIDDLE AGES. Peacock 22 says The Tuscans generally. of these ages. not few writers on mathematics during this period were in number. Arabic algebra approached much more closely to that of Diophantus. were so necessary for their extensive commerce the Italians were in familiar possession of commercial arithmetic long before the other nations of Europe to them we are indebted for the formal introduction into books of arithmetic. such as &quot. The Hindoo algebra possessed a tolerable symbolic notation. and the Florentines in particular. that Hankel believes it no exaggeration to say that since Fibonacci. Though they possessed the Elements of Euclid. yet the true nature of a mathematical proof was so little understood. which can scarcely . Among the Italians are evidences of an early maturity of arithmetic. the works of Leonardo of Pisa appear to us like jewels among quarryrubbish. of questions in the single three. were celebrated and book-keeping. Frivol6us questions.How many angels can stand on the point of a needle?&quot. discount. In this respect. not a single proof. 133 physics and theology. exchange. under . not borrowed from Euclid. which was. which . whose city was the cradle of the literature and : arts of the thirteenth for their knowledge of arithmetic and fourteenth centuries. can be found in the whole literature &quot. fellowship. however.&quot. completely ignored by the Mo hammedans. is a simplification of numerical operations and a more extended application of them. There was also a slow improvement in the algebraic nota tion. which fulfils all The only noticeable advance necessary conditions. were dis cussed with great interest.

the most complicated relations of quantity. . be said to employ symbols in a systematic way. Nicole Oresme. small series of small improvements. The most trifling numeral properties are treated with nauseating pedantry and prolixity. Thus. died 1256) taught in Paris and made an extract from the Almagest con This taining only the most elementary parts of that work. notation has arisen by almost insensible degrees as conven for cosa ience suggested different marks of abbreviation to different authors itself and that perfect symbolic language which addresses solely to the eye. lie expressed the relations of magnitudes to each other by lines But in the mathematical writings of the monk Luca Pacioli (also called Lucas de Eurgo sepulchri) symbols or in words. modelled after the arithmetic of Boethius. a bishop in Normandy (died 1382). It appears that here and there some of our modern ideas were anticipated by writers of the Middle Ages. and enables us to take in at a glance . afterwards re-dis covered by Stevinus. Italian words. John Halifax (Sacro Boseo. A practical arithmetic based on the Hindoo notation was also written by him. and Roger Bacon in England.). Other prominent writers are Albertus Magnus and George Purbach in Germany. began to appear. who wrote a once famous work on the properties of numbers (1496).D. ^ is the result of a We shall now centuries. first con ceived a notation of fractional powers. mention a few authors who lived during the first thirteenth and fourteenth and the half of the fifteenth A.&quot. and gave rules for operating with them. Like the Arabs.134 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. Leonardo of Pisa possessed no algebraic symbolism. such as p m for meno (less-). About the time of Leonardo of Pisa (1200 lived the German monk Jordanus Wemorarius. extract was for nearly 400 years a work of great popularity and standard authority.Our present (the thing or unknown quantity). co &quot. They consisted merely in abbreviations of for piu (more).

Arabic by Athelard of Bath. Bichard of Wallingford. A writer belonging.EUROPE DURING THE MIDDLE AGES. as we remarked. archbishop of Canterbury. when engraved on silver plate. who lived in Constantinople in the To him appears to be early part of the fifteenth century. Proportione et Proportionalita. and perhaps to the Hindoos. school. It contains little of importance which cannot be . who lived in the first half of the fourteenth century. algebra. Lucas Pacioli. Thomas Brada wardine. contain trigonometry drawn from Arabic sources. both professors at Oxford. and physicians believed them to possess mystical properties and to be a charm against plague. The works of the Greek monk Maximus Planudes. first introduced symbols This contains all the knowledge of his day on arithmetic. first The his school. and of Simon Bredon of Wincheeombe. de Arithmetica. studied star-polygons. His notation was totally different 135 from ours. subject which has recently received renewed attention. are of interest only as showing that the Hindoo numerals were then known in Greece. He wrote a treatise on this subject. and John Maudith. appearance of such polygons was with Pythagoras and We next meet with such polygons in the geom etry of Boethius and also in the translation of Euclid from the &quot. due the introduction into Europe of magic squares. Gfeometria. of writers on trigonometry. and trigonometry. To England the honour of having produced the earliest European The writings of Bradwardine. to the Byzantine was Moschopulus. like Planudes. In 1494 was printed the Summa. Bradwardine s philosophic writings contain discussions on the infinite and the infini tesimal falls subjects never since lost sight of. Magic squares were known to the Mediaeval astrologers Arabs. who. and is the first com prehensive work which appeared after the Liber Abaci of Fibonacci. written by the Tuscan monk in algebra.

In 1336. first six it on the books of Euclid.magister matheseos. as late as the sixteenth century. and Aris was the favourite study. when held book. the daughter of Prague. in the middle of the fifteenth century. For the Baccalaureate degree. applied to the Theorem of Pythagoras. they had attended lectures on these books. At the University of Leipzig. students were required to take lectures on Sacro Boseo s famous work on astronomy. Lectures were given on the Almagest. as is all.&quot. dated 1536. 6 Thus it will be seen that the study of mathematics was .M.136 A HISTOBY OF MATHEMATICS. and from a commentary appears that candidates for the degree of A. so the beginning of the twelfth century under the at teachings of Abelard. had to give an oath that 7 Examinations. and. founded 1384. the same requirements were made at these as at Prague in the fourteenth.M. Pisa. Geometry was neglected. but an additional knowledge of applied mathematics. More^ attention was paid to mathematics at the Univer at of Prague. the last in the first book. published three centuries Perhaps the greatest result of the influx of Arabic learn ing was the establishment of universities. What was their attitude toward mathematics ? The University of Paris. a rule was introduced that no student should take a degree without attending lectures on mathematics. s found in Fibonacci earlier. occupied similar positions to the ones in Germany. were sity required not only the six books of Euclid. paid but little attention to this science famous totle s logic during the Middle Ages. The universities of Bologna. the first two books of Euclid were read. Of candidates for the A. Padua. 1 great work. and at Cologne^ less work was required. probably did not extend beyond the first shown by the nickname &quot. only that purely astrological lectures were given in place of lectures on the Almagest At Oxford.

!N&quot. 137 maintained at the universities only in a half-hearted manner. to inspire The best energies of the schoolmen were expended students.o upon the stupid subtleties of their philosophy. and another ^Renaissance of mathematics was wanted. the great mathematician and teacher appeared. .EUROPE DURING THE MIDDLE AGES. The genius of Leonardo of Pisa left no permanent impress upon the age.

America was discovered. began to be remedied chiefly by the steady cultiva. In 1453. literature. the earth was circumnavigated. Up Greek masters were known only through the often very corrupt Arabic manuscripts. 138 . Men s minds became less servile. 29 About the middle of the fifteenth century. to rise no more. . and. Calamitous as was this event to the East. The indistinctness of they became clearer and stronger. soon after. WE find it convenient to choose the time of the capture of Constantinople by the Turks as the date at which the Middle Ages ended and Modern Times began. assisted by John Dee.MODERN EUKOPE. and finally captured the city $ the Byzantine Empire fell. but now they began to be studied from original sources and in their own language. which was the characteristic feature of mediaeval thought. the Turks battered the walls of this celebrated metropolis with cannon. The first English translation of Euclid was made in 1570 from the Greek by Sir Henry Billing sley. great number of learned Greeks fled into Italy. it acted favourably upon the progress of learning in the West. Near the close of the fifteenth century. learning. printing was in vented books became cheap and plentiful the printing-press transformed Europe into an audience-room. The pulse and pace of the wrld began to quicken. bringing A with them precious manuscripts of Greek to this time. This contributed vastly to the reviving of classic learning.

JRhceticus. against ecclesiastical authority was desire for judging freely nicus. to the commer cial prosperity of Germany. The and independently in matters of religion was preceded and accompanied by a growing spirit Thus it was that. With achieve intellectual activity. there time. &quot. Dogmatism was attacked. The first great and successful revolt freedom. there arose a long struggle with the authority of the Church and the established schools of philosophy. She produced Itegiomontanus. At this Germany had accumulated considerable wealth. its the sixteenth century began a period of increased The human mind made a vast effort to Attempts at its emancipation from had been made before. the minds of men were cut adrift from their old scholastic moorings inquiry. at a period when yet. ITepler. for a time. THE RENAISSANCE. brought forth hardly any This remarkable scientific produc Prance and England had. new made in Germany. tiveness was no doubt due. but they were stifled Church authority and rendered abortive. can be no leisure for higher pursuits. Coper and Tyclio Brake. and resulted in the victory of the new system. to discover and sent forth on the wide sea of scientific new islands and continents of truth. 189 tion of Pure Mathematics and Astronomy.THE RENAISSANCE. Material prosperity is an essential condition for the progress of knowledge. as great scientific thinkers. The . As long as every individual is obliged to collect the necessaries for his subsist ence. Germany of scientific inquiry. led the van in science. The long and eager contest between the two culminated in a crisis at the time of Galileo. to a great extent. Thus. The Copernican System was set up in opposition to the time-hon oured Ptolemaic System. by slow degrees.

centres. literature. was the fatherland of what is termed the Eenaissance. The latter perceived that the existing Latin translations of the Almagest were full of errors. In Italy accessions were made to algebr a. therefore. Chiefly to him we owe the revival of trigonometry. and of the mechanical works of Heron. &quot. who shone forth in fullest splendour.140 A HISTOKY OF MATHEMATICS. of Archi medes. commercial relations existed between Germany and Italy. finish where he remained eight years collecting manuscripts from Greeks who had fled thither from the Turks. look to Italy and Germany. For the first great contributions to the mathematical sciences we brilliant must. Purbach therefore began to make a translation directly from the Greek. with her bankers and her manufacturers of silk and wool. more generally called Regiomontanus (1436-1476).We excelled in commercial activity and enterprise. He studied astronomy and trigonometry at Vienna under the celebrated George Purbach. These two cities became great intellectual Thus. produced men in art. too. need only mention Venice. But he did not live to it. Italy. and that Arabic authors had not remained true to the Greek original. In addition to the translation of and the commentary on the Almagest. His work was continued by Eegiomontanus. Italy science. who went beyond his master. he prepared translations of the Conies of Apollonius. too. Close Italy. whose glory began with the cru sades. The Greeks and afterwards the Arabs divided the radius into 60 equal parts. Eegiomontanus and Purbach adopted the Hindoo sine in place of the Greek chord of double the arc. and each of these again . and Florence. whom he followed to Italy. Hanseatic League commanded the trade of the IsTorth. Eegiomontanus learned the Greek language from Cardinal Bessarion. in Germany to the threshold of this astronomy and trigonometry. On new era we meet in Germany with the figure of John Mueller. and In fact.

first He Europeans to use this function. Begiomontanus left his beloved city of JSTurnberg for Borne.. generally called Rhaeticus. deserves special mention. . that Pope Sixtus IV. So great was his reaching influence throughout Germany. which gave observations of greater precision but these would have been useless without trigonometrical tables of cor Of the several tables calculated. a century earlier to Bradwardine.000.000 emphasised the use of the tangent in trigonom Following out some ideas of his master. a table of tangents. More refined astronomical instruments were . made.000 and from to 10&quot. 141 The Hindoos expressed the length of into 60 smaller ones. it took 3438 to measure the radius. and to John Maudith. and his enthusiasm for them. in its main features. were of farhas ever produced. where he died in the following year.000 parts. German mathematicians were not the divisions. Begiomontanus ranks among the greatest men that Germany His complete mastery of astronomy and mathematics. improve the calendar. called him to Italy to reputation. con structed one table of sines on a radius divided into 600. and another on a radius divided decimally into 10. by Georg Joachim of Feldkirch in Tyrol. sines with the radius =10. the radius by parts of the circumference. The form which he gave to trigonometry has been retained. recta) In England it was known who speaks of tangent (umbra and cotangent (umbra versa).600 equal divisions of the latter. Begioniontanus. to secure greater precision. to the present day. he calculated etry. that responding accuracy. trigonome try German and especially the calculation of tables continued to occupy scholars.000.000. Begiomontanus was the author of an arithmetic and also of a complete treatise on trigonometry. saying that of the 21. He calculated a table of 10&quot.THE RENAISSANCE. containing solutions of both plane and spherical triangles. After the time of Purbach and Begiomontanus.

Valentine a monu This was: indeed a gigantic work. Good work in trigo nometry was done also by Vieta and Komanus.142 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. He calculators. Astronomical tables of so great a degree of accuracy had never been dreamed of by the Greeks. or Arabs. completed by his pupil. radius and.. That Ehseticus was not a ready calculator only. The first comprehensive algebra printed was that of Lucas Pacioli. For twelve years he had htfd in continual employment several and proceeding from 10&quot.000. It and to make them depend was from the right triangle that Ehseticus go this idea of calculating the hypotenuse . solved the equation o? Nothing more is known of his discovery than that he imparted it to his pupil. in 1505.000. Up to his time. later on. a professor of mx n. We now we must quit Germany for Italy. but he died before finishing them.000. Hindoos. began also the con struction of tables of tangents and secants. This remark doubtless stimu lated thought. + = n mx is as impossible at the present state of science as the quadrature of the circle. o&amp. The work Otho. another with the = 1. The first step in the algebraic solution of x? + = cubics was taken by Scipio Ferro (died 1526). To do shall so. who spared no pains to free them of errors. The tables were republished in 1613 by Pitiscus. is indicated by his views on trignoraetrical lines. who + = days and for two centuries afterwards to keep discoveries .000. in 1596. had been considered always with relation first to he was the construct the right triangle directly upon its angles. He closes his book by saying that the solution of the equations 3 mx the trigonometric functions to the arc . It was the practice in those mathematics at Bologna. i.e. to be carried to the same degree of accuracy. he was the first to plan a table of secants. wa*s ment of German diligence and indefatigable perseverance.000. leave the subject of trigonometry to witness the progress in the solution of algebraical equations. to 10&quot. Floridas.

mx*=n. cut by a French soldier that so badly the free use of his tongue. A numberless disputes regarding the priority of second solution of eubics was given by Nicolo When a of Brescia (1506(?)-1557). challenged him to a + ing to take place on the 22d of February. Greek. But this equality. Tartaglia found an imperfect method equation &+px but kept it n. He spoke about his secret for this. His widowed mother being too poor to i. in order rivals tice 143 by that means an advantage over by proposing problems beyond their reach. 1535. used in operating from time quadratic irrationals. stammerer. one leading to the 2 = q. that from a deceased master. appear as teacher one Colla proposed him several problems. old. Tartaglia perceived irrationals. his rival had gotten the method Hearing. boy of six. believ form a? his own knowledge of the him to be a mediocrist and braggart. of mathematics at an early age. industry. and fearing that lie would be beaten and in the contest. and he succeeded in it skill to find the himself modestly ten days before the appointed date. Tartaglia. gives at . Floridas. that the irrationals disappeared from the equation of to = ^-~^. This prac rise to gave inventions. meanwhile. the he learned to read and picked up a pay his tuition in school. xule for the equations. Tartaglia put in all the zeal. Placing # cubic 3 re 4. together with (-|m) = once tu. as he 7 no doubt. last = making 3 n=t u. public discussion. In 1530. the passing from The most difficult step was. knowledge of Latin. and mathematics by he was able to Possessing a mind of extraordinary power.e. says. solving to proclaim in public and thus caused Ferro s pupil.THE RENAISSANCE. to secure secret. himself. Nicolo was he never again gained Hence he was called Tartaglia.

not solve any of Tartaglia s. and after giving the most solemn and sacred promises of secrecy. but he declined to do so. days should be the victor. Tartaglia solved most questions in seven days. Thus Cardan broke most solemn vows. succeeded in obtaining from Tartaglia a knowledge of his rules. cubic equations with a will. solution for the cubic 3 cc From now 2 on. he would publish a large algebra containing his method. fifty = mx + n. for the crown intended for his work had been snatched. At this time Cardan was writing his Ars Magna. Tartaglia became desperate. Tartaglia solved the thirty problems proposed by Floridas in two hours Floridas could . But a scholar from Milan. and published in 1545 in his Ars Magna Tartaglia s solution of cubics. His most cherished hope. n. away. This = On the 13th of The Each contestant proposed thirty problems. but the other party did not send in their solution before the expiration . of giving to the world an immortal his much sought work which should be the monument of his deep learning and power for original he found a similar solution for cc3 February. saying that after his completion of the translation from the Greek of Euclid and Archimedes. The news of Tartaglia s victory spread all over Italy. The one who could solve the greatest number within contest began on the 22d. Tartaglia was entreated to make known his method.14:4 A H13TOBY is OJF MATHEMATICS. after many solicitations. Tartaglia s solution of a? 4. by transforming it into the form a? mx=n. Tartaglia studied In 1541 he discovered a general px = q. was -suddenly destroyed. pletely annihilate his enemies. he challenged Cardan and his pupil Lodovico Ferrari to a contest each party should propose thirty-one questions to be solved by the other within fifteen : days. to com . His first step was to write a history of his invention but. and he knew no better way to crown his work than by inserting the for rules for solving cubics. named Eieronimo Cardano (1501-1576).

Thus the fondest wish of his life remained unfulfilled the man to whom we owe the . A replication and a rejoinder followed. Remarkable is excited throughout Italy. great conquest mathematicians should attack bi-quadratic equa As in the case of cubics. greatest contribution to algebra made in the sixteenth century dis was forgotten. in 1556. particular cases as early as 1539. who met with many other disappointments. proposed for solution the equa 36 60 x. Tar taglia began. the first impulse was given by Colla. in 1540. and to Tartaglia especially. the publication of the work which he had had in his mind for so long. -f 6) Perrari reduced Colla s = 60^ + 6^. all their solutions except one were wrong. After having recovered himself again. To be sure. so here. by adding both sides 3 of and thereby rendering both numbers . of the fifth 145 month. 2 2 equation to the form (o.THE RENAISSANCE. and his method came to be regarded as the covery of Cardan and to be called Cardan s solution. but he died before he reached the consideration of cubic equations. who. Cardan had studied tion #* 6 v? + + = . The dispute produced much chagrin and heart-burnings to the par ties. the right member be a complete square is expressed by the . containing a new unknown quantity y. Thus he solved the equation x4 2 x* 1 by a process similar to that em 2x 13 of = + + + & ployed by Diophantus and the Hindoos namely. complete squares. Endless were the problems proposed and solved on both sides. moreover. it But Cardan failed to find a general solu remained for his pupil Ferrari to prop the reputa tion. In order to give also the right member the form of a complete square he added to both members the expression 2 (y? -f 6) y + y 2. tion of his master by the brilliant discovery of the general solution of bi-quadratic equations. the great interest that the solution of cubics It is but natural that after this tions. This gave him (a? + 6 + y)* = (6 + 2 y) 01? + 60 x + (12 y + y2) The condition that .

But he did not understand its nature. and.&quot. In his ATS Magna he takes notice of negative roots of an equation. nary quantities. Cardan also observed the difficulty in the irre ducible case in the cubics. has since &quot. Ferrari s solution sometimes ascribed to BombelH. to mained only determine x from the resulting quadratic. It re mained for Raphael Bombelli of Bologna. Abel demonstrated that all hopes of finding alge braic solutions to equations of higher than the fourth degree were purely Utopian. he got x + + 2 = Extracting the + + y = x V5~y+~6 it re- + V2 2/4-6 Solving the cubic for y and substituting. to point out the reality of the appar ently imaginary expression which the root assumes. cases where they appear he calls impossible. Ferrari pursued a similar method with other numerical bi 7 Cardan had the pleasure of publishing quadratic equations. this discovery in his is Ars Magna in 1545. there was probably no one who doubted. Since no solution by radicals of equations of higher degrees .146 A HISTOBY OF MATHEMATICS. algebra is much indebted. like the quadrature of the so much tormented the perverse ingenuity of circle. that with aid of irrationals of higher degrees. and thus to lay the foundation of a more intimate knowledge of imagi mathematicians. But all attempts at the algebraic solution of the quintic were fruitless. calling them the positive roots are called real. the solution of equations of any degree whatever could be found. which. who published in 1572 an algebra of great merit. cubic equation (2y y ) 6) (12 y 2 6 square root of the bi-quadratic. but he is no more the dis coverer of it than Cardan is of the solution called by his name. while To Cardan roots he does not consider. Imaginary fictitious. finally. After this brilliant success in solving equations of the third and fourth degrees. 900.

by slow degrees. He observes an advantage in letting a geometric progres- . the greatest German algebraist of the sixteenth century. and Pell in 1668. who brought out a second edition of HudolfFs their adoption of Goss in 1553. irrational the nu numbers. the writer of the first text-book on algebra in the German language (printed in 1525). designated as y^. which we owe the origin Thus.radif guadrata is. Its Arithmetica Integra. He was educated in the monastery of his native place.THE RENAISSANCE. Here the dot in his algorithm with the character This same has grown into a symbol much like our own. for brevity. in Latin. the author of The WJietstone of to Robert Witte (1557). was born in Esslingen. He studied German and Italian entitled works. and published in 1544. He selected this symbol because no two things could be more symbol was used by Micliael first =. a dot manuscript published is made to signify the extraction of a placed before a number This dot is the embryo of our present of that number. became universal. The sign -* for division was equal than two parallel lines used by Johann Heinrich Our sign of equality is due Stifel. There is another short-hand the &quot. &amp. in his algebra. Micliael Stifel (1486?-1567). three parts treat respectively of rational numbers. was introduced in England by John and afterwards became Protestant minister. In a symbol sometime in the fifteenth century. remarks that &quot. to the Germans. which is the first English treatise on algebra. a book Melanchthon wrote a preface to it. His pupil. Recorde (1510-1558). The study of the numbers in Eevelation and in Daniel significance of mystic drew him to mathematics. employs these symbols also. root symbol for the square root./. and died in Jena. Christoff Rudolff.&quot. Stifel gives a table containing merical values of the binomial coefficients for powers below the 18th. So did Stifel. 151 metic of Grammateus. and algebra. in 1659. a teacher at the University of Yienna. a Swiss. Christoff Rudolff.

minus the significance even of Pacioli negative quantities. &quot. absurd and which arise when real numbers zero. We remarked above that Vieta discarded negative roots of Indeed. states the rule that Fibonacci seldom uses them. As regards the recognition of negative roots. and tities.pure minus &quot. On and Bombelli had advanced to about the same point as had the Hindoo Bhaskara. fictitious &quot. and arrives at the designation of integral powers by numbers. but did not approve of them. at last. until the beginning of the seventeenth century. &quot. we find few algebraists before and during equations. is of the Eenaissance. and this subject Cardan without grasping their real significance and importance. Yet even they mentioned these so-called false or fictitious roots only in passing. says Hankel. The first algebraist itself who negative quantity by Harriot in England. tains rules for solving cubic His edition of Kudolffs Goss con equations.&quot. The great German &quot.&quot. (algebraist). speaks of a &quot. was an exceedingly slow and algebra. sion correspond to an arithmetical progression.&quot.but these ideas. above zero are subtracted from zero. Cardan. Stifel. derived from the the writings of Cardan. The generalisation of the con ception of quantity so as to include the negative. but applies it really only to the development of the product of purely negative quantities do not appear in (a &) (c d) his work. times minus gives plus. &quot. Here are the germs of the theory of exponents. . mathematicians dealt exclusively with absolute positive quan sparsely. speaks as early as 1544 of numbers which are or &quot. who saw negative roots.remained &quot. including Vieta.Cossist&quot.&quot. below &quot. Cardan and Bombelli were far in advance of all writers occasionally places a purely on one side of an equation.152 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. Michael . the Renaissance who understood &quot. In 1545 Stifel published an arithmetic in German. difficult process in the development of .

The problem of the quadrature of the circle was revived in . His chief work is his masterly and original treatment of the conic sections. he sixteenth century. Descartes. doubtless. consider the history of geometry during the Unlike algebra. The Prom the notes of Pappus. This mode cone. Maurolycus. John first Werner of Eurnberg published in 1522 the conies work on Unlike the which appeared in Christian Europe. wherein he dis and asymptotes more fully than Apollonius cusses tangents had done. reached the interesting conclusion that the former of all cubics in which the radi problem includes the solutions s formula is real. was Peter Ramus. Bartholomew. but that the latter problem cal in He Tartaglia includes only those leading to the irreducible case. it made hardly any progress. he studied the sections in relation with the geometers and derived their properties directly from it. of who perished in the Prance. and applies them to various physical and astronomi cal problems. The foremost geometrician of Portugal was Nonius. to point out more easily how the construction of abled him the roots of cubics depended upon the celebrated ancient prob lems of the duplication of the cube and the trisection of an with ancient geometry. and others. fifth book of Apollonius attempted to restore the missing of the on maxima and minima.THE RENAISSANCE. massacre of iarity St. the greatest geometer (1494-1575). made translations of geometrical works from the Greek. angle. Commandinus of Urbino in Italy. Xylander of Augsburg. The new form which he gave en by representing general quantities by letters. The greatest gain was a more intimate knowledge of G-reek No essential progress was made before the time of shall We now geometry. Begiomontanus. of old. 158 Renaissance. of Messina of studying the conies was followed by Maurolyctis latter is. Vieta possessed great famil to algebra. Tartaglia. before Yieta.

Adrianus Two Eomanus. Adrianus Romanus and Ludolph van Ceulen. by the intersection of two hyperbolas but this solution did not posed to &quot. the latter to 35 . the 28 cases in triangles then considered to only six. in his turn. mer carried the value TT is TT to 15. Julian calendar. Vieta pro him the Apollonian problem. Joseph Scaliger by Vieta. feasts Mention must here be made of the improvements of the The yearly determination of the movable had for a long time been connected with an untold . that the num bers were cut on his tomb-stone in St. presented a solution which had all the rigour desirable. Eomanus was the one who prppounded for solution that equation of the forty-fifth degree solved by Yieta. On receiving Vieta s solution. The His value of therefore often named &quot.&quot. Peter s church-yard. so in others. Among the first to revive this problem was the German Cardinal Mcolaus Cusanus (died 1464). As in this case . he at once departed for Paris. logician. and Clavius A. and then.&quot. performance was considered so extraordinary. and was zealously studied even by men of eminence and mathematical ability. . to make his acquaintance with so great a master. Quercu by Peter Metius. possess the rigour of the ancient geometry. The army of circle-squarers became most formidable during the seventeenth century. to draw a circle touching Adrianus Eomanus solved the problem three given circles. 25 Eomanus did much toward simplifying spherical trigonometry by reducing. Yieta caused him to see this. mathematicians of Netherlands. every quadrator of : note raised up an opposing mathematician Orontius was met by Buteo and Nonius. occupied themselves with approximating to the The for ratio between the circumference and the diameter.154 this age. A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. at Leyden. places. who had the reputation of being a great full His fallacies were exposed to view by Eegio- montanus. . by means of certain projections.Ludolph s number.

Maurolycus. Pope Gregory XIII. which gave Stifel 22 unspeakable comfort. after misspelling the name. the most acute and original of the early mathematicians of constitutes the number required. and prelates. and among Protestants. He worked with great industry and satisfaction on 666. = 20. who decided to the consideration of this subject. Germany) exercised an equal ingenuity in showing that the a demonstration above number referred to Pope Leo X. . reduced the name of the which & may etc. It is well known that Cardan. Placing a = 1. (100 ) he finds. = 10. The passion for the study of mystical properties of numbers descended from the ancients to the moderns. I (30 ) etc. Bungus covered 700 quarto pages. 18). Regiomontanus. met the objections of the former most ably and effectively the prejudices of the latter passed away with time. Astrology also was still a favourite study. that M A^) K^ T I (9 ) Is (40 ) L (20) v (2 oo) T (100 ) E (5) . 155 of astronomy led and many new calendars were proposed. the ( = 2. which is the number of the beast in Revelation (xiii. for his friend. among who ranked high sition botji scientists as a geometer..THE BBKAISSANCB. astronomers. He impious Martin Luther to a form formidable number. Much was written on numerical mysticism even by such eminent men The Numerorum Hysteria of Peter as Pacioli and Stifel.* it To rectify the errors of the Julian calendar was agreed to write in the new calendar the 15th of October immediately after the 4th of October of the year The Gregorian calendar met with a great deal of oppo 1582. Clavius. convoked a large number of mathematicians. and many other eminent scientists who lived at a period even later than ..E (SO ) A (1) These attacks on the great reformer were not unprovoked. express this Jc symbol of Antichrist. amount of confusion. Michael Stifel.. The rapid progress upon the adoption of the calendar proposed by the Jesuit Lilius Clavius.

which in the ignorant ages was an unmixed benefit. . Hence. Let our judgment not be too harsh. 1 Playfair. demonstrate on one page a theorem on star-polygons. In England. calls him melancholy proof that there is no folly &quot. A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS....&quot..a or weakness too great to be united to high intellectual attain 26 ments. no religious wars were waged. the destruction of which^. says Faust to Mephistopheles. while deep psychological interest to see on the next page. he explains their use as amulets or in conjurations. Being engaged in religious disputes. VIETA TO DESCABTES. Thus.&quot.&quot. people had no leisure for science and for secular literature.. Albrecht Duerer. the ^rench_llhad n. in more enlightened ages became a serious evil. in France.The people were comparatively indifferent about . known squares.oi. were still resting with the other foot upon the scholastic ideas of preceding ages. like the great Kepler. The pentagranima It is of gives you pain. The period under consideration is too near the Middle Ages to admit of complete emancipation from mysticism even among scientists. during the reigns preceding that of Henry IV. with strict geometric rigour. speaking of Cardan as an astrol oger. Bartholo mew.. Scholars like Kepler. on the other hand. while in the van of progress and planting one foot upon the firm ground of truly scientific inquiry. perhaps. but it is not so gen that besides the occult sciences already named. The ecclesiastical power. engaged in deep astrological study . down to the time of IV. the theological spirit predominated.ould now be a loss to Henry Europe..forth a single work. scientists. erally men engaged in the mystic study of star-polygons and magic &quot. Xapier.156 this. This is pain fully shown by the massacres of Vassy and of St. puF &quot.

excepting for the discoveries in cubic equations. in a more advanced state there than elsewhere.France. and which is acquired.VIETA TO DESCARTES. it. religious strifes . 157 they concentrated their ability upon secular matters. trigonometry. the counterpart of which was found great The seventeenth cen in England in the sixteenth century. led Germany to degradation. Com- . The German empire was shattered. the shackles of ecclesiastical authority were thrown off by France. and Pascal. during the reign of Louis XIII. Cardinal Richelieu. in the sixteenth century. tific At pursuits. to the throne was followed in 1598 by the Edict of Nantes. granting freedom of worship to the Huguenots. At the close of the sixteenth cen tury. Descartes. tury was made ticians. a literature immortalised by the genius of Shakespeare and This great literary age in England was followed Spenser* by a great scientific age. Desargues. She had been the leader in astronomy and Algebra also. The great changes which revolutionised the world in the sixteenth century.. pursued the broad policy of not favouring the opinions of any sect. The first effects of the Eeformation there were the close of the fifteenth and during the six teenth century. of proved ruinous. before the time of Vieta. The ascension of Henry IV. when the sun of science began to rise in &quot. but His age was re of promoting the interests of the nation. was. The genius of the French nation now began to blossom. illustrious also More gloomy is the picture in Germany. markable for the progress of knowledge. and which led England to national greatness. It produced that secular literature. Germany had been conspicuous for her scien salutary. and thereby terminating religious wars. But at the beginning the seventeenth century. Fermat. Theologic disputes and The Thirty Years War (1618-1648) religious strife ensued. by the great French mathema Eoberval.set in Germany. and became a mere lax confederation of petty despotisms.

was destroyed national feeling died out. and drew freely his from the works of Pacioli and Eegiomontanus. she brought forth no mathematician comparable with Yieta. and Padua. and that in the interval of 200 years between Kepler and Gauss. Pascal. The instantaneous appreciation of their value is doubtless the result of In Italy. Torricelli. Permat. there arose no great mathematician inerce . in Germany excepting Leibniz. ISTor did Germany recover from this low state for 200 years for in 1756 began another struggle. Stifel. Scotland brought forth Napier. During the sixteenth century. Cambridge. the inventor of logarithms. Eoberval. which tnrned Prussia into a wasted land. began to be studied with Success. Thus it followed that at the beginning of the seven teenth century. the English became conspicuous for numerical skill.158 - A HISTOBY OF MATHEMATICS. and the English Wallis are the great revolutioners of this science. After Recorde the higher branches of mathematics began to be studied. which for a long time had been an almost stationary science. and especially in France. Later. superiority in calculation. improvements made in the art The nations of antiquity experimented thou- . mathematics was cultivated little in Great Britain. or Tartaglia. The first important irithmetical work of English authorship was published in Latin in 1522 by Cuthbert Tonstall (1474-1559). Theoretical mechanics began to be studied. He had studied at Oxford. Descartes. Up but to the seventeenth century. Eeprints of arithmetic appeared in England and Prance. . the great Kepler was the only German mathe matician of eminence. But with the time of Eecorde. geometry. Desargues. and in literature there was only a slavish imitation of French artificiality. the Seven Years War. Art disap peared. The foundations were for the theory 0f by Permat and Pascal numbers and the theory of probability. Galileo. laid We shall first consider the of calculating.

and failed to invent a suitable notation. and takes this numerator of a fraction whose denominator is 1 fol lowed by n ciphers. 159 to strike sands of years upon numeral notations before they happened upon the so-called Arabic notation. the invention of even of one age. expedient of the cipher. But &quot. The same method was followed by Cardan. adds 2n ciphers to the as the number. degrees. but it failed to be generally adopted even by his Italian contemporaries for otherwise it would certainly have been at least mentioned by Oataldi (died 1626) in a work devoted exclusively to the extraction of is curious to think attempted in physical research how much science had and how deeply numbers had been pondered. Cataldi finds . before it was perceived that the all-powerful 5 simplicity of the Arabic notation was as valuable and as manageable in an infinitely descending as in an infinitely ^ ascending progression. and Wil liam Buckley (died about 1550) in England extracted the&quot. Simple as decimal fractions appear to us. then finds the square root. them is not the result of one mind or They came into use by almost imperceptible mathematicians identified with their his The first tory did not perceive their true nature and importance.VIETA TO DESCARTES.&quot. of it. In the simple &quot. It would seem that was once thoroughly understood. mathematics re most powerful impulses.Arabic notation decimal fractions would occur at once as an obvious extension ceived one of the &quot.&quot. which was introduced by the Hindoos about the fifth or sixth century after Christ. s. Thus John of Seville. by means of continued fractions and novel. presumably in imitation of Hindoo rules. but for practical purposes ingenious the square root a method inferior to Orontius Finaeus (died 1555) in--France. . Cardan square rootfin the same way as Cardan and John of Seville. The idea of decimal fractions makes its first appearance in methods for approxi mating to the square roots of numbers. after the &quot.

on the ground that instead of placing the sinus totus7*nT&quot. he published at Frankfurt on the Main a Logistica . not only of decimal fractions. To indeed. had no notion whatever of decimal fractions. a Swiss by birth. this had been done much earlier by Oresme. Thus. -Not even innovations were immediately appreciated or at once accepted.000. equal to a multiple of 60. he and his suc cessors did not apply the idea outside of trigonometry and. designating powers and also of introducing fractional expo nents into algebra. Strictly speaking. he put it = 100. and not in fractions. In &quot. but. To Stevin belongs the honour of inventing our present mode of These indices. but also of the decimal division in systems of weights and measures. After Stevin. . and by Joliann Hartmann Beyer. decimals were used by Joost Biirgi.912 would be 5912 or 59(i)l@2. of decimals is frequently attributed to The invention Regio montanus. In La Disme (1585) he describes in very express terms the advantages. are of interest.160 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. unlike Oresme s. in 0123 his notation. Though he adopted a decimal division of the radius. In 1603.trigonometry. we owe the his first systematic treatment of decimal fractions. Stevin applied the . who assumes the invention as his own. lines were expressed in integers. they remained a secure posses sion. j$imon_Jtevin of Bruges in Belgium (1548-1620). though cumbrous in practice. because they are the germ of an important innovation. the number 5. new 25 fractions What he to all the operations of ordinary lacked was a suitable notation. but s it remained wholly unnoticed. who pre pared a manuscript on arHlmrotic soon after 1592.arithmetic. a man who did a great deal of work in most diverse fields of science. $To improvement was made in the notation of decimals Stevin till the beginning of the seventeenth century. he used a cipher to each place in the fraction was attached the corresponding index. like the But here the trigonometrical Greeks. place of our decimal point.&quot.

&quot. The first logarithms upon the natural base e were published by John Speidell in his New Logarithmes (London. but extensive Briggian logarithms he died in 1631.&quot. The only possible rival of John Napier in the invention of He logarithms was the Swiss Justus Byrgius (Joost Burgi). tables constructed on the old sexagesimal division. superseded by any subsequent calculations. Briggs divided a degree into 100 but owing to the publication by Vlacq of trigonometrical parts. which contains the natural logarithms of sines. Adrian Vlacq in 1628 a table of logarithms from 1 to 100. .of The first publication functions was made of Briggian logarithms trigonometric in 1620 by Gunter. who found the loga rithmic sines and tangents for every minute to seven places. 165 of Gouda in Holland. It was carried on by the English Henry Gellibrand. happiest example of artificial memory that is known. six years after the published a rude table of logarithms it appears that he appearance of the Canon Mirificus. of his life to calculating more Briggs devoted the last years of trigonometric functions.Napier s rule of for the solution of spherical right triangles. Briggs Vlacq. but conceived the idea and constructed that table as early. if not earlier.the It is.circular the various inventions Napier to is assist the of the student or calculator.000. He Napier and Briggs. &quot. of published which 70.000 were calculated by himself. . arid secants. &quot. at his innovation remained unrecognised. parts&quot. and then published by own expense.YIETA TO DESCABTES. than Napier did his. 1619). a colleague of Briggs. the results of which have never been &quot. Briggs and Vlacq published four fundamental works. leaving his work unfinished. Gunter was the inventor of the words cosine and cotangent. perhaps. results published until Napier s logarithms But he neglected to have the were known and of admired throughout Europe. tangents. Among memory .

had observed as early as 1558. tities He spoke of imaginary quan . All attempts at solving algebraically equations of higher the prop degrees remaining fruitless. He was the first to decompose equations into their simple factors but. century had been the solution of cubic and bi-quadratic equa tions. a new line of inquiry was gradually opened up. since he failed to recognise imaginary and even negative roots. a [Frenchman. was Albert Girard (1590-1634). he was the boast of his brought the theory of equations under one comprehensive point of view by grasping that truth in its full extent to which Yieta and Girard only approximated viz. accompanied the first colony sent out by Sir Walter Raleigh to Yirginia. Peletarius. After having surveyed that country he returned As a mathematician. and was the first who understood the use of negative roots in the solution of geometric problems.of the last term. . Harriot made some changes in algebraic nota- . had attained a partial knowledge of have seen that Yieta the relations between roots and coefficients. etc. the coefficient of the second term with its sign changed is equal to the sum of the roots the coefficient of the third is equal to the sum . by induction that every equation has as many roots as there are units in the number expressing its degree . to England. a Flemish mathematician.We and their roots this ingenious author applied algebra to geometry. inferred and first showed how to express the sums of their powers in terms of the coefficients. He that in an equation in its simplest form. failed also to prove that every equation could be thus he decomposed. Another algebraist of considerable He power was the English Thomas Harriot (1560-1621). One who extended the theory of equations somewhat further than Vieta. country. . Like Vieta. that the root of an equation is a divisor. of the products of every two of the roots .166 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS The most brilliant conquest in algebra during the sixteenth. erties of equations &quot.

VIETA TO DESCARTES. William Oughtred (1574-1660) contributed vastly to the propa mathematical knowledge in England by his treatises. of inequality and work. which has been named after him. gation of which were long used in the universities. and him ratio was expressed by only one dot. In the eighteenth century Christian Wolf secured the general adoption of the dot as a symbol of multiplication. The symbols Harriot s were introduced by him. published in his Centrobaryca. ten years after his death. Algebra was now in a state of sufficient perfection to enable Descartes to take that important step which forms one of the the application grand epochs in the history of mathematics. the determination of the areas of curvilinear Paul Guldin figures was diligently studied at this period. of algebraic analysis to define the nature and investigate the properties of algebraic curves. left him but little time for the pursuit of mathematics during daytime. though first found in the Mathematical Collections of solid of revolution is Pappus : The volume of a equal to the area -of the generating the circumference described by the centre figure. Artis Analytical &amp. multiplied by of gravity. as : : He introduced x as that of proportion. We shall see that this method excels that of Kepler and Cavalieri in following a more exact and natural course but it has the disadvantage of necessitating the deter mination of the centre of gravity. more difficult the problem than the original one of finding . & which in itself may be a . In geometry. a Swiss mathematician of considerable note. and evenings his economical wife denied him the use of a light. rediscovered the following theorem. was published in 1631. 167 adopting small letters of the alphabet in place of the capitals used by Vieta. and the sign for ratio was Oughtred s ministerial duties thereupon changed to two dots. tion. By symbol of multiplication. (1577-1643).

Tycho Brahe. in the observatory near Prague. At one time. for &quot. march of the planets in extended use of loga Kepler made also rithms and decimal fractions. results more worthy of as well as astronomy. pecuniary embarrassments. Kepler s publications are voluminous. and was enthusiastic in diffusing a knowledge of he was struck by the inaccuracy of the ordinary modes of deter mining the contents of kegs. Aristseus their intellectual and Apollonius studied them merely to satisfy cravings after the ideal. In 1600 he quent became for one year assistant to the Danish astronomer. Maturer reflection and intercourse with Tycho Brahe The and Galileo led him to investigations and his genius &quot. of this pseudo-discovery brought him much publication fame. A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS.Kepler s laws.if which had done him so much the Greeks had not cultivated conic sections. Guldin made some attempts to prove his theorem. . His pursuit of science was repeatedly interrupted by war. and family troubles. fre changes of residence. It is enriched pure mathematics not strange that he was interested He in the mathematical science service. This led him to the study of the volumes of solids of revolution and to the publication of the Stereometric Doliorum in 1615.&quot. 11 The Greeks Kepler never dreamed that these curves would ever be of practical use . religious persecution. when he thought he had discovered a curious relation between the five regular solids and the number and distance of the planets.168 volume. but Cavalieri pointed out the weakness of his demonstration. Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) was a native of Wurtemberg and imbibed Copernican principles while at the University of Tubingen. while purchasing wine. The relation between the two great astronomers was not always of an agreeable character.&quot. could not have superseded Ptolemy. yet the conic sections assisted Kepler in tracing the their elliptic orbits. His first attempt to explain the solar system was made in 1596. In it he deals first with the &amp.

The subject of tangents received special attention also from Permat. He broke off from the ancient in definition of a tangent as a straight line having only one point common with a curve. nor apt even in curves of the second degree to bring out the properties of tangents and the parts they may be made to play in the generation of the curves. Permat and Descartes defined tangents as secants intersection with the curve coincide. Eoberval is best known for his method = = . If at any point of the curve the resultant be resolved into its components. yet his new idea was a great step in advance. whose two points of Barrow considered a curve a polygon. and Barrow. . E. may be generated by a point acted upon by two forces.then the diagonal of the par allelogram determined by them is the tangent to the curve at that point. and called one of its sides produced a tangent. and in 1631 was made . His method is Newton s principle of fluxions. profound scholar in all branches of learning and a mathe A matician of exceptional powers was Pierre de Fennat (16011665). allied to He was the first to apply motion to the resolution of this important problem. and are the resultant of two motions. We of drawing tangents. a definition not valid for curves of higher degrees.VIETA TO DESCARTES. He effected the quad ~~ rature of a parabola of any degree y m am lx. and reached its highest development after the invention of the differential calculus. Archimedes con ceived his spiral to be generated by a double motion. This idea Hoberval extended to all curves. Plane curves. Descartes. areas. 173 and centres of gravity. volumes. He studied law at Toulouse. and also of a m m ~ nxn a have already mentioned his quadra parabola y ture of the cycloid.oberval did not always succeed in doing this. The greatest difficulty connected with this ingenious method consisted in resolving the resultant into components having the proper lengths and directions. as for instance the conic sections.

councillor for the parliament of Toulouse. was severely attacked by his great contemporary. Hardy supported Descartes. and Fourier. is evanescent for values very near a maximum or a minimum x+ value of the variable. Fermat obtained his rule for maxima and minima. then the roots of this equation are the values of x. This point is not well taken. was maintained by Lagrange. If e be taken 0. A great contribution to geometry was his De maximis et minimis. About twenty years earlier. In the ensuing dispute. that Fermat may be regarded as the first inventor of the differ it rived at the principle for finding the ential calculus. Fermat made it the basis for his method of drawing tangents.174 A HISTOEY OF MATHEMATICS. the ordinate of a curve. making the function a maximum or a minimum. Fermat found two zealous defenders in Eoberval and Pascal. and of tangents. calculus is that Owing to a want of explicitness in statement. as. differences while Midorge. who could never be brought to render due justice to his merit. Fermat has left the impress of quiet his genius upon all branches of mathematics then known. Desargues. he led a and unaggressive life. His leisure time was mostly devoted to mathematics. The main difference it between it and the rule of the differential introduces the indefinite quantity e instead of the infinitely small dx. as will be seen . Fermat s method of maxima and minima. Unlike Descartes and Pascal. Laplace. He substituted e for x in the given function of x and then equated to each other the two consecutive values of the function and divided the equation by e. which. for instance. Descartes. and Since Fermat introduced the conception of infinitely small between consecutive values of a function and ar maxima and minima. Developing this idea. the father. Kepler had first observed that the increment of a variable. he studied with irresistible passion. Fermat was in possession of this rule in 1629.

175 from the words of Poisson.YIETA TO DESCABTES. in short. came to make perfect demonstrations. who rightly rules says that the differential calculus &quot. or ever to think of it. In this way he arrived unaided at the theo of the three angles of a triangle is equal to two right angles. in general. and. he employed his thoughts about it and with a piece of charcoal drew figures upon the tiles of the pavement.consists in a system of proper for finding the differentials of all functions. and was answered. was Blaise Pascal (1623-1662). himself a Frenchman. for he would not trust his education to others. rather than in the use which may be made of these infinitely small variations in the solution of one or two isolated prob 3 lems. In 1626 his father retired to Paris. He gave names of his own to these figures and then formed axioms. rem that the sum . for example.that it was the method of making figures with exactness. contemporary mathematician. whose genius excelled even that of the great Fermat. But his genius could not submit to be confined within these bounds. and of finding out what proportions they relatively had to one another.&quot. wish his son to study it until he was perfectly acquainted with Latin and Greek. A where he devoted himself to teaching his son. &quot. but did not old. an exact circle or equi lateral triangle. treated of. He was at the same time forbidden to talk any more about it. His father caught him in the act of study ing this theorem. All mathematical books were hidden out of The boy once asked his father what mathematics his sight. He was born at Clermont in Auvergne. and was so astonished at the sublimity and The father now gave force of his genius as to weep for joy. Starting with the bare fact that mathematics taught the means of making figures infalli bly exact. Blaise Pascal s genius for geometry showed itself when he was but twelve years His father was well skilled in mathematics. trying the methods of drawing.

This treatise it now of all lost. without assistance.was its contents. that it was said nothing equal to it in strength had been produced since the time of Archimedes. By him Method of Indivisibles the answer to the objection to Cavalieri s was put in the clearest form. and at nineteen invented his famous machine for performing arithmetical operations mechanically.&quot. he explained sum of infinitely small the sum of right lines &quot. some thoughts undesignedly came into his head concerning the roulette or and he thus discovered cycloid one idea followed another . Being kept awake one night by a toothache. This continued strain from overwork resulted in a k permanent indisposition. the rectangles. The precocious youth made vast progress in the sciences. Yet he continued working. . s Elements. mastered His regular studies being languages. Leibniz saw never published. Pascal s illness increased. and he would sometimes say that from the* time he was eighteen. the boy employed only his hours of amusement on the study of geometry. But at times he returned to the favourite study of his youth. Like &quot. and is in Paris and reported on a portion &quot. he wrote a treatise upon conies. Descartes refused to believe that it was written by one so young as Pascal. but the constant application at so tender an age greatly impaired his health.176 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. and he died at Paris at the early age of thirty-nine 30 years. Pascal greatly advanced . properties of this curve even to demonstration. which. at the age of six teen. yet he had so ready and lively a penetration that. he never passed a day free from pain. he. which passed for such a surprising effort of genius. A corre spondence between him and Fermat on certain problems was the beginning of the theory of probability. His Pro vincial Letters against the Jesuits are celebrated. Boberval. &quot. Mm Euclid easily. to mean. At the age of twenty-four he resolved to lay aside the study of the human sciences and to consecrate his talents to religion.

: the former. he sent. to leave the beaten track and cut out fresh paths. The chief discoveries of Christopher Wren (1632-1723). La Louere com was quite unequal to the task. published his. to all mathematicians that famous challenge offering prizes for the first two solu tions of these problems. Two important and beautiful theorems were given by Desargues The one is on : the &quot. but who succeeded in greatly simplifying many prolix proofs of Apollonius. Paul s Cathedral in London. which produced a great sensation among lis. section produced it 177 He determined the area of a . made numerous mistakes neither got a prize. being pressed for time. the celebrated architect of Si. in 1658. and also of half these volumes cut by planes of symmetry. The latter Only Wallis and A. Pascal then published his own solutions. Wren. the centres of gravity of these volumes. Fermat found the area generated by an arc of the cycloid. were the rectification of a cycloidal arc and the determination of its centre of gravity. and Fermat solved some of the questions. The beginning of the seventeenth century witnessed also a revival of synthetic geometry. Wal too. was Claude Mydorge in Paris (1585-1647). Huygens. with the errors corrected. generated by and. by any line parallel to the base its the volume .&quot. They intro duced the important method of Perspective. and for Pascal. But it remained for Girard Desargues (1593-1662) of Lyons. All conies on a cone with circular base appear circular to an eye at the apex. a friend of Descartes. One who treated conies still by ancient methods. Though not competing for the prizes. finally. Huygens invented the cycloidal pendulum. the knowledge of the cycloid. in which a transversal .involution of the six points. revolving around base or around the axis peted for them. Before publishing his results. Hence Desargues and Pascal conceived the treatment of the conic sections as projections of circles.YIETA TO DESCARTES. scientific men.

&quot. laries.178 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. Pascal greatly wish to his Essais pour les Coniques). at the age of sixteen and PascaTsTnd Desargues writ writings. This meet in three points lying. . lie on three lines meeting in a point. saying (in &quot. in recent times Poncelet of his beautiful theory of hoinoligical and of transversals Desargues the theory of involution by Branchion. then their sides a plane. the subject was almost entirely neglected until the present In the theory of numbers no new results of scientific value had been reached for over 1000 years. but owing to the absorbing interest taken in the analytical of Descartes and later in the differential calculus. made it the basis We owe to figures. either in space or in situated if the vertices of two triangles. on Hnej &amp. also the beautiful conception that the two extremities of a straight line may be considered as meeting at infinity. Gergonne. last theorem has been employed Sturm. embracing the conies of Apollonius &nd many other Thus the genius of Desargues and Pascal uncovered results. and Poncelet.&quot. . extending from the . He linear.I acknowledge that I owe the this known as that the opposite sides of a hexagon in a conic intersect in three points which are colinscribed This theorem formed the keystone to his theory. and also that on the mystic hexagon. geometry century.Pascal ratio. were given the theorem on the anharmonic celebrated &quot. first found in Pappus. and that paral lels differ having their points admired Desargues of intersection at infinity. from other pairs of lines only in results. the fundamental ideas of modern synthetic contained In Pascal s wonderful work on conies. meets a conic and an inscribed quadrangle the other is that. written now lost. and conversely. viz. several of the rich treasures of modern synthetic geometry. to his little that I have discovered on 3 ings geometry. himself said that from this alone he deduced over 400 corol proposition s theorem.

heavier . to his time &quot. Among his contemporaries it was chiefly the novelties he detected in Galileo is the sky that made him celebrated. first law of motion determined the laws of falling bodies and. and afterwards more fully by Galileo. was able to prove that projectiles it move in parabolic curves. which we see constantly and of which the true explanation escaped all earlier philosophers. The first contributor to the science of mechanics after Galileo was Descartes. who employed their mental powers toward the destruction of old ideas and the up-building of new ones. having obtained a clear notion of acceleration and of the independence of different motions. centrifugal forces. 183 .fell known as the parallelogram of forces. while it took an extraordinary genius to dis cover laws from phenomena. yet he did not fully recognise its scope. in faith all his life. Though he professed orthodoxy He yet in science he was a profound sceptic. The principle of virtual velocities was partly conceived by Guido Ubaldo (died 1607).DESCARTES TO NEWTOH. was believed that a cannon-ball moved Up forward at first in a straight line and then suddenly Galileo had an understanding of vertically to the ground. yet they had discovered nothing . and gave a correct definition of momentum. ranks Rene Descartes (1596-1650). but Lagrange claims that his astronomical discoveries required only a telescope and perseverance. the founder of the science of dynamics. found that the world s brightest thinkers had been long exercised in metaphysics. DESCABTES TO NEWTOK Among the earliest thinkers of the seventeenth and eigh teenth centuries. he established the . Though he formulated the fundamental principle of statics.

Sir William. Thus he up a system of philosophy called Cartesianism. &quot. but of subjecting everything to scrutinous exam The certainty ination.&quot. is but I have resolved to quit only abstract geometry. nay. which he had time At that time mathematics was his favourite But in 1625 he ceased to devote himself to pure mathematics. in order to study another kind of geometry. had even flatly contradicted each other. At the age of twenty-one. . Hamilton is in error when he states that Descartes considered mathematical studies absolutely pernicious as a means of internal culture. A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS.object the explanation of the exercise the phenomena of nature. were years of studies. that to say. he dared to hope that the secrets of both could. Descartes enlisted in the army of Prince Maurice of Orange.184 certain. in that he shows that he is sorry that I do not wish to study more in geom &quot. and this. but the ana lytical geometry of Descartes will remain a valuable possession by posterity forever. according to new methods of inquiry. His philosophy has long since been superseded by other systems. Descartes M. leisure. Desargues puts me under obligations on account of says the pains that it has pleased him to have in me. In a letter to Mersenne. . : etry. 77 nothing else than geometry. He thereupon attempted to apply mathe-* matical reasoning to all sciences. in His years of soldiering to pursue his science. which has for its . Comparing the mysteries of nature with the laws of mathematics. This led him to the gigantic resolution of taking nothing whatever on authority. Great as was Descartes celebrity as a metaphysician. be unlocked with the same key. You know that all my physics is The years between 1629 and .built as a mathematician is not greater. the consideration of questions which serve only to mind. of the conclusions in geometry and arithmetic brought out in his mind the contrast between the true and false ways of seeking the truth. . it may be fairly questioned whether his claim to be remembered &quot.

is inaccurate. It is frequently stated that Descartes was the first to apply algebra to geometry. written by Stefano degli 3 Angeli (1623-1697). principally. which were intended to remove the dif an essay of 106 pages on geometry. 185 1649 were passed by him in Holland in the study. a professor of mathematics in Rome.. but with Descartes it became a very fruitful conception.&quot.analytical geometry/ partly . By him a point on a plane was determined in position by its distances from two fixed right lines or axes. In 1637 he published his Discours de la Methode&amp. was wanting. These distances varied with every change of position in This geometric idea of co-ordinate representation. Descartes geometry was called 3 employed by Eoman sur The term abscissa occurs for the &quot. during the most brilliant days of the Dutch state. together with the algebraic idea of two variables in one equa tion having an indefinite number of simultaneous values. the point. which is admirable for Thus the entire conic sections wrapped up and contained in a single equa tion of the second degree. containing among others His Geometry is not easy An edition appeared subsequently with notes by his reading. veyors for parallel lines. for Yieta Even the Arabs some times used algebra in connection with geometry. used by Descartes comes ordinatce. His residence in Holland was of physics and metaphysics.ordite&amp. loci. This statement this before him.DESCARTES TO NEWTON& ficulties. the idea of motion braic equations. The Latin term for from the expression linece & The new step that Descartes did take was the introduction into geom and others had done etry of an analytical method based on the notion of variables and constants. which enabled him to represent curves by alge In the Greek geometry. first time in a Latin work of 1659. friend De Beaune. fur nished a method for the study of the generality of of Apollonius is its solutions.

and. The essays of Descartes on dioptrics and geometry were &quot. because. shall satisfy the condition that the product of certain of them shall be in a given ratio to the product of the rest. Descartes gave a third method. drawn from the point to the given lines. inferior to It is profound but operose. in the sense that the word is used in logic . the Greeks solved only the special case when the of given lines is four. Descartes thereupon made an attack on Fermat s method of tangents. By Descartes it was solved completely. Of this celebrated number problem. in which case the locus of the point turns out to be a conic section. or more generally. viz. by Fermat. of designating and partly because the practice had then already by the term analysis the calculus with important example solved by Descartes in his the &quot. and sent to show that there were omissions in the geometry. on that account. sharply criticised former. &quot. unlike the synthetic geometry of tie ancients. none gave him as great pleasure as his mode of constructing tangents. Given several straight lines in a plane.&quot. . arisen. The methods of drawing tangents invented by Boberval and Fermat were noticed earlier. Of all the problems which he solved by his geometry. who wrote objections to the his own treatise on maxima and minima . general quantities.186 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. &quot. Another solution was given later by Newton in the Principia. straight lines at given angles. The first is geometry problem of Pappus &quot. it is actually analytical. of which he bears the honour of invention. also in solving bi-quadratic equations. His solution rests on the method of Indeterminate coefficients were employed by him Indeterminate Coefficients. to find the locus of a point such that the perpendiculars. and it afforded an excellent example of the use which can be made of his analytical method in the study of loci. Fermat s.

particularly his mode of generating equations but there seems to be no good ground for the charge. same.DESCARTES TO NEWTON. and many roots as there are permanencies of signs. 187 Descartes was in the wrong in tins attack. s intimating that he had been assisted by a of the solution. Des which were intended by him to serve in the con cartes. As an abstract science. struction of converging lenses. on account of its beautiful proper ties and the controversies which their discovery occasioned. cycloid. Celebrated is his &quot. viz.&quot. Descartes also established some theorems on the theory of for determining rule of signs equations.&quot. availing himself. Wallis also claimed that Descartes failed to observe that the above rule of signs is not true whenever the . He of practical value. He had a controversy also with B-oberval on the the &quot. now called ovals of. &quot. but which yielded no results studied some &quot. ITermat accomplished but Eoberval never succeeded in solving this problem. without acknowl theory of equations. He then sent a short demonstration of his own. but Descartes commented on it by saying that any one moderately well versed in geometry might have done this. of Harriot s . the number of positive and negative roots . Descartes was charged by Wallis with edgment. Descartes improved it by the systematic use of exponents and by the full interpretation and construction of negative quanti ties. which had cost the genius of Des cartes but a moderate degree of attention. Descartes constructed the tangent knowledge On Boberval to the curve. an equation may have as many as + roots as there are variations of signs. new curves. and challenged Roberval and Fermat to do the it. The reacted application of algebra to the doctrine of curved lines favourably upon algebra. This curve has been called Helen of geometers. yet he continued the controversy with obstinacy. Its quadrature by Eoberval was generally considered a brill iant achievement.

analytical geometry to the solution of the &quot. erroneously given by Descartes. The latter had overthrown the ideas of Aristotle on this subject. &quot. upon the enemy His statement of the first and second laws of motion was an improvement in form but his third law is false in substance. the daughter of Gustavus Adolphus. He died at Stockholm one year later. evidence being able to Geometry he gives handle this case In mechanics. but further on in of * his incontestable also. His life had been one long warfare against the prejudices of men. She urged upon Des After much hesitation cartes to come to the Swedish court. &quot.188 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. The indiscreet by his temper of Descartes alienated the great contemporary French mathema ticians. problem. They continued in investi and on some points strongly opposed Descartes. It is true that Descartes does not consider the case of irnaginaries directly. he accepted the invitation in 1649. Roberval. equation has imaginary roots but Descartes does not say that the equation always has. Pascal. The motions of bodies in their direct impact was imperfectly &quot. and Huygens.&quot. Ferrnat. . and Descartes simply threw himself that had already been put to the rout.Wallis. Descartes can hardly be said to have advanced beyond Galileo. but that it may have so many roots. &quot. It was in the youthful universities of gations of their own. The universities of France were under strict ecclesiastical control and did nothing to introduce his mathe matics and philosophy. daughter of Frederick Y. . most devoted pupils of Descartes was the learned She applied the Princess Elizabeth. correctly stated of the One new Apollonian His second royal follower was Queen Christina. . than by foreigners. understood by Galileo. It is most remarkable that the mathematics and philosophy of Descartes should at first have been appreciated less countrymen.&quot. and first by Wren.

This of inquiry has been called the inverse method of tangents. y Witt van Heuraet.^ = 3. He was one of the first to point out that the properties of a in the footsteps of the great master mode curve can be deduced from the properties of its tangent. 2. contributed to the theory of equations by considering for the first time the upper and lower limits of the roots of He numerical equations. brought out an edition of Descartes geometry. The only prominent Frenchman who immediately followed was De Beaune (1601-1652). and on the theory of maxima and With Hudde. as 2 8# -}- We illustrate it by the equation.DESCARTES TO NEWTON. was an. He is the author of an ingenious rule minima. we find the first use of three variables in analytical geometry. for finding cc 3 . Holland that the effect 189 most of Cartesian teachings was immediate and strongest. of which the highest term is equal to the degree of . 0. Foremost among these are van Schooten. Rene Francois de Sluze (1622-1685) and Johann Hudde (16331704) made some improvements on Descartes and Fermat s methods of drawing tangents. not synthetically. Van Schooten (died 1660). John de and Hudde. which he applies the analytical geometry to the solution of many interesting and difficult problems. grand-pensioner of Holland. In the Netherlands a large number of distinguished mathema ticians were at once struck with admiration for the Cartesian geometry. 1. celebrated as a statesman and for his tragical end.ardent geometrician. together with the notes thereon by chief work is his Hxercitationes Mathematics. The noble-hearted in De Beaune. which essentially the same as -that by protective pencils of He treated the subject rays in modern synthetic geometry. but with aid of the Cartesian analysis. Sluze. professor of mathematics at Leyden. equal roots. His Johann de &quot. 12 Taking an arithmetical progression 0.Witt. He conceived a is new and ingenious way of generating conies.

Had there been no common divisor. Eminent as a Huygens (1629-1695). Heinrich van Heuraet must be mentioned as one of the earli est geometers who occupied themselves with success in the. and that the one can be reduced to the other. we get 3^-2^-8^ = 0. the cycloid According to Wallis the priority belongs to ISfeil. Hudde 24 gave a demonstration for this rule. This last equation one degree lower than the original one. was rectified by &quot. y = This appears to have been accomplished independently by Van Heuraet in Holland and by William Neil (1637-1670) in Eng land.190 A HISTOEY OF MATHEMATICS. and multiplying each term of the equation respec tively by the corresponding term of the progression. member of the French . 3a2 = equal roots. This is x or . 8 2 ao? was the first curve that was ever rectified absolutely. He The studied at Ley den under the younger Van some of his earliest ScJwoten. is 2x 8 0. In 1666 he was appointed by Louis XIV. Soon The and one of the seventeenth century. physicist and astronomer. he was greatest scientists of the a worthy predecessor of Sir Isaac Newton. Vincent (1584-1667) on the subject of quadratures. [Find the G. He observed in a general way that the two problems of quadrature and of rectification are identical. was Christian a native of the Hague. really Thus he carried the rectification of the hyperbola back to the The semi-cubical parabola quadrature of the hyperbola. He himself gave a remarkably future greatness.C. perusal of theorems led Descartes to predict his In 1651 Huygens wrote a treatise in which he pointed out the fallacies of Gregory St. and convenient approximation to the length of a circular In 1660 and 1663 he went to Paris and to London. then the original equation would not have possessed equal roots. prince of philosophers in Holland. close arc. by 2 hence 2 is one of the two of the two equations. rectification of carves. as well as mathematician.D. the equation.Wren and Fermat. after.

of After explaining that the tangent of the eyolute is normal to the involute. though at times he used the geometry of Descartes or of Cavalieri and Fermat. 191 He induced to remain in Paris from that time until 1681. Newton and Huygens were kindred minds. The majority of his profound discoveries were made with aid of the ancient geometry. of and cycloid) previously the cissoid. when he returned to his native city. and had the greatest admiration for each partiality for the other. This subject had been proposed for centre of oscillation. or sliding on inclined planes. In Huygens assumption that the common centre . or on given curves. of which Huygens Then follows a treatment of accelerated is the inventor.&quot. Huygens De Jwrologio osdllatorio (Paris.&quot.evolutes. culminating in the brilliant discovery that the cycloid is the tautochronous curve. motion of bodies falling free. like his illustrious friend. curves he added the important theory of To the theory &quot. and showed by simple reasoning that the evolute of this curve is an equal Then comes the complete general discussion of the cycloid. he applied the theory to the cycloid. investigation by Mersenne and discussed by Descartes and Eoberval. Sir Isaac Newton. &quot. partly for consideration of his health and partly on Academy of Sciences. 1673) is a work that ranks second only to the Principia of Newton and constitutes 13 The book opens historically a necessary introduction to it. determined the surface of and discovered the proper ties of the logarithmic curve and the solids generated by it.Summus Hugenius.was account of the revocation of the Edict of Nantes. To the two curves rectified (cubical parabola he added a third. parabolic and hyperbolic with a description of pendulum clocks. Thus. He solved the the problem the catenary.DESCARTES TO NEWTON. Newton always speaks of him as the &quot. conoid. he always showed Greek geometry.

192 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. but as curves of the second degree. of gravity of a group of bodies. by the Cartesian method of co-or In this work Wallis speaks of Descartes in the terms. he was appointed He was one of the original members of the Eoyal Society. oscillating about a horizontal but no higher. .without good reason. In 1649 Savilian professor of geometry at Oxford. and entered Holy Orders. But his genius was employed chiefly in the study of mathematics. geometry Huygens wrote the but was revived and successfully worked out by Young and Fresnel a century later. With more efficient the nature of Saturn s appendage and solved other astro way of grinding and polish instruments he determined nomical questions. Newton first centrifugal force in circular motion. to its development. afterwards called 2 The thirteen theorems at the close of the work of vis viva* relate to the theory of This theory aided tion. Huygens and his brother improved the telescope by devising a better ing lenses. highest We have accuses Descartes of plagiarising from Harriot. Huygens Opuscula posthuma appeared Passing now from Holland to England. in discovering the law of gravita formal treatise on probability. but in his Algebra he. which was founded in 1663. we meet there one of the most original mathematicians of his day John Wallis He was educated for the Church at Cambridge (1616-1703). rises to its original height. He and with great skill applied proposed the wave-theory of light This theory was long neglected. . is expressed axis. Wallis thoroughly grasped the mathematical methods both of Cavalieri and Descartes. and work in are treated analytically dinates. His Conic Sections is the which these curves are no longer considered earliest as sections of a cone. in 1703. for the first time one of the most beautiful principles of the principle of the conservation dynamics.

power of the human mind.KEWTOK TO But a : ETJLER. 2 Vpx = Vp# sub-tangent. it . We . according to Buckle. was accompanied by intense intellectual Extraordinary confidence came to be placed in the activity. Louis XIV. may be due to the simple fact that no great minds were born but.^this method dif giving 2 x for the value of 31 fers from that of the differential calculus only in notation. Fermat. to Germany. lack of great scientific thinkers during the reign of Louis XIV. During the early part the sunset splendour of this glorious of Louis XIV. The toleration which marked the reign of Henry IV. NEWTON TO EULEE. from Italy. that work belongs no more to France coveries of Descartes belong to Holland. the sub-tangent. They were in possession of a brilliant reputation before going to Paris. This period. Simply because they performed scientific work in than the dis Paris. was due to the paternalism. It has been seen that in France prodigious scientific progress was made during the beginning and middle of the seventeenth century. In the absence of great French thinkers. which marked the policy of Louis XIV. and Pascal enriched mathematics with of the reign imperishable treasures. we behold Then followed a night of mental effeminacy. The bold intellectual conquests of Descartes. Dominic Cassini were the mathematicians and astronomers adorning Ms court. Huygens from Holland. and to the lack the spirit of toleration. 199 hence / e = the ordinate p : : the sub-tangent : . and Louis XIII. to of dependence and subordination. mark. or those of Lagrange or those of Euler and Poncelet to Eussia. sur Bonier from Den rounded himself by eminent foreigners.

to be the true inventor of it. The Thirty Years War had dismembered the empire and Yet this darkest period of Germany s brutalised the people. &quot. The age of poetry was soon followed by an age of science and philosophy. and navigation. and from which radiate the advances of the future. The dif ferential calculus.France must look to other countries than tific for the great scien men of the latter part of the seventeenth century. In two successive centuries England produced Shakespeare and Newton ! Germany still continued in a state of national degradation. Fermat. Wallis. During fifty years preceding this era several of the brightest and acutest mathematicians bent the force of their genius in a direction which finally led to the discovery of the infinitesimal calculus by Newton and Leibniz. Indeed. Fermat. Cavalieri. and others had each contributed to the new So great was the advance made. About the time when Louis XIV.200 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. assumed the direction of the French government Charles II. and so near geometry. and advancing considerably in material pros A strong intellectual movement took place. was unwittingly supported by the king. There are certain focal points in history toward which the lines of past progress converge. no great discovery ever flashed at once. Such was the age of Newton and Leibniz in the history of mathematics. 5 history produced Leibniz. one of the greatest geniuses of modern times. Des cartes. became king of Eng At this time England was extending her commerce land. that both by discovery as the grand result of a succession of discoveries different minds. was not so much an individual analysis. therefore. Roberval. which perity. upon the mind and though those of Newton will . was their approach toward the invention of the infinitesimal Lagrange and Laplace pronounced their countryman.

When he had attained his fifteenth year his mother took him home to assist her in the management of the farm. the same year in which Galileo died. but when. yet &quot. the little Isaac received a severe kick &quot. induced her to send him back to Grantham. 33 At Grantham. without any prelimi nary study. genius. He afterwards regarded this neglect of elementary geometry a mistake in his mathematical studies. to rise until he was the head boy. Let Newton be. but his great dislike for farmwork and his irresistible passion for study. and that. Pemberton his regret that &quot. Cambridge (1660). he made himself master of Descartes Geometry. He con structed a water-clock. one day. God said.HEWTON TO EULBR. when he entered Trinity College. c Newton (1642-1727) was born at Woolsthorpe. Isaac His mother sent him at an early age to a village school. where he remained till his eighteenth year. a wind-mill. and other toys. and he expressed to Dr. birth he was so small and weak that his life was despaired of. first and At he seems to have been very inattentive to his studies and very low in the school. he laboured hard till he ranked higher From that time he continued in school than his antagonist. in At his Lincolnshire. mankind to the s end of the world. and all was light. must be : admitted that Pope &quot. a carriage moved by the person who sat in it. lines are only a poetic fancy Nature and Nature s laws lay hid in night .he had applied himself to the works of Descartes and other algebraic writers before he had .upon Ms stomach from a boy who was above him. influence 201 it &quot. Cambridge was the real birthplace of Newton s Some drawn from the idea of his strong intuitive powers may be fact that he regarded the theorems of ancient geometry as self-evident truths. in his twelfth year to the public school at G-rantham. Isaac showed a decided taste for mechanical inventions.&quot.

Newton s study of quadratures soon led him &quot. the binomial could at once of curves than did the be expanded into a series. Newton did not com municate the invention to any of his friends till 1669. and discovered the Binomial Theorem. particularly delighted with Wallis a treatise fraught with rich and varied Newton had the good fortune of having for a teacher and fast friend the celebrated Dr. how Newton method of interpolation.&quot. for even the binomial expression for the ordinate be raised though to a fractional or negative power. effected the interpolation. and the works of Wallis. He himself says that in 1665 and 1666 he conceived the method of fluxions and applied them to the quadrature of curves. to another and most profound invention. when lie placed in the hands of Barrow a tract. with a higher power than his masters matics 3 . considered the Elements of Euclid with. We have seen how integral and positive power of (1 Wallis attempted but failed to interpolate between the areas thus calculated. Barrow.202 A HISTOBY O^ MATHEMATICS. He was Arithmetic of Infinites. the areas of other curves. which was sent . he studied Oughtred Vieta. entitled De Analyst per ^Equationes Numero Terminorum Infinitas. suggestions. Barrow Lectures.&quot. Wallis had effected the quadrature of curves whose ordinates are expressed by any #2 ). of Barrow and of Wallis were the starting-points from which Newton. which afforded a much easier and direct access to the quadrature the circle. s Optics. of Wallis. such as that of attacked the problem. moved onward into wider fields. and was made The mathe Lucasian professor of mathematics in 1663. who had been elected professor of Greek in 1660. s Clams. and the quadrature of each separate term of that series could be effected by the method. the works of s Schooten s Miscellanies. Newton introduced the system of literal indices. that attention which so excellent a writer deserves. Kepler Besides Descartes Geometry.

This method I have inter of woven with that other them to infinite series. if not but the modesty of the author. by reducing treatise words relate to a he composed in the year 1671. was certainly in the present &quot. instance very unfortunate. he looked upon the area of a curve as a nascent quantity increasing by continued fluxion in the proportion of the length of the ordinate.NEWTON TO by Barrow to Collins. : is which extends one particular. In a letter to Collins. or rather corollary. and then says This &quot. not lines. to increase uniformly in proportion to the time. it. in which he aimed to represent Ms method as an independent calculus and as .. These last working in equations. to publish this treatise 5 which the excess. 203 In this treatise who greatly admired the principle of fluxions. of cxilpable. is only Supposing the abscissa partially developed and explained.&quot. though distinctly pointed out. ex cept to his friends and their correspondents. 26 Had this tract been published then. prevented his compliance. without any troublesome calculation. there would probably have been no occasion for that long and deplorable controversy between Newton and Leibniz. but also to the resolving other abstruser areas. Barrow urged Newton to which Wallis rule was applicable. entitled Method of Fluxions. itself. or or other whether anyhow respecting r right lines lengths.&quot. 1672. ETJLER. only to the drawing of tangents to any curve geometrical or mechanical. etc. of a general method. The expression which was obtained for the fluxion he expanded into a finite or infinite series of monomial terms. Newton states the fact of his invention with one example. ITor a long time Newton s method remained unknown. dated December 10th. kinds of problems about the crookedness. curves. nor is (as Hudden s method are free of Maximis and Minimis) limited to equations which from surd quantities. instead of forty-two years later. it centres of gravity of curves.

In it he explains. or sixty-five years after it was written. : = then 2 xx will represent the celerity by which the space y. 34 His re searches on light were severely criticised. &quot. Colson from New s Latin. first years of study. which constitute the pillars. The length any time proposed. was first published in 1736. so lowing to speak.&quot. translated by J. Preparatory to the solution. of the abstract calculus &quot.&quot.e. &quot.I theory of light that I blamed my own imprudence for parting with so substantial a blessing as my quiet to run after a shadow. and he wrote in was so persecuted with discussions arising out of 1675: &quot. a stibject ton which. or to have the sole advantage of employing it in his physical researches. a complete system. if y represents the length of the space at any equation y time described. induced him to aban don this design. all of his works appear to have been published only after the most pressing solicita tions of his friends and against his own wishes. Newton says Thus. which he had But the fear of being involved in undertaken to publish. II. in the x2. first the expansion into series of fractional and irrational quantities. of the space described being continually at all times) given to find the velocity of the motion at . disputes about this new discovery. This tract was intended as an introduc tion to an edition of Kinckhuysen s Algebra. He : (i. my The Method of Fluxions. in his attention. received the most careful then proceeds to the solution of the two fol mechanical problems.I. which (time) another space x.&quot. or perhaps the wish to render it more complete. Excepting two papers on optics.204 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. by increasing with an uniform celerity x. . . The velocity of the motion being continually given to find the length of the space described at any time proposed. measures and exhibits as described: &quot.

are infinitely small quantities. but I shall suppose some one of the quantities proposed. is what we now an independent variable. x. ther than . . and also their velocities of increase and decrease therefore. That is. v. to which the rest may be referred. . any far it is expounded and measured by an equable local and besides. It must here be observed that New ton does not take the fluxions themselves infinitely small. and z. moments.NEWTON TO at the EtJLEB. A call Newton fluents. continues &quot. and shall represent them by the and the veloci and z . y. . The moments of fluxions. y. quantity thus increasing by uniform fluxion.&quot. contrarywise. respectively. In this statement of Newton there is contained a satisfactory answer that to the objection it which has been raised against his method. therefore. by way of analogy. ties flowing quantities. being of the same kind. kind can be compared together.&quot. and so for the celerities of the other quantities x. I shall hereafter call final letters of the alphabet. thus. These &quot. 57 z. for the celerity of the quantity v I shall put v. and &quot. to be increased by an equable fluxion. may not improperly receive the name of time. and. x. are substantially the differen tials of Leibniz.&quot. De Morgan points out that no small amount of confusion has arisen from the use of the word fluxion and the . But whereas we need not consider the time here. or by its generating motion (which I may simply velocities.&quot. z. as it it were to time . y. v. by which every fluent is increased call fluxions. to be described 205 and same moment of time. as defined and used in the Method of Fluxions. I shall put x. a term introduced further on. y. I shall represent by the same letters pointed. proceeds . in what follows I shall have &quot. or : Now those quantities which I consider as gradually and indefinitely increasing. introduces into analysis the foreign idea of motion. or celerities). whereas only quantities of the same motion. no regard to time formally considered.

except ing Newton and Cheyne.The the velocities of their flowing or increasing. After showing by examples how to solve the first problem Newton proceeds to the demonstration of his solution . in the sense of an infinitely small in crement. 35 Strange to say. a? 3 there will arise + 3a. will as well express the relation between x + xO and xO and y -j. xQ. as between x and y so that x y be substituted in the same equation for those quantities. by which those quantities are increased through the several indefinitely little intervals of time. by xty. become + 2/0. y. and therefore the equation. and zO are to each other $0. x and x -4- y. as xQ and the indefinitely little accessions of the flowing quantities x and y. 0. by all the English writers previous to 1704. Thus let any equation Xs ax2 + axy yB = and substitute x + xO for x. Wherefore. 0. will be repre (i.206 notation x A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. and y. if the moment of any one (as x) be represented by the product of its celerity x into an infinitely small quantity the moments of the others. which at all times indifferently expresses the relation of the flowing quan tities. in . . &quot. z. their indefi small parts.e. sented by as v. even in the Gommercium Eplstolicum the words moment and fluent appear to be used as synonymous. V. $0. a. they are continually increased) are as &quot. by the accession of which. it follows that those quantities. : moments of flowing quantities (that is. zO-j because i)0.0 + SxxQxQ + 2 3 3 ax* 2 axxO axOxO + axy + ayxQ + a0#0 = 0. Now since the moments. are and z.$0 may $0. y. after xO and y any indefinitely small interval of time. and y + yQ for y. &quot. x. in infinitely nitely small portions of time. + + stead of x and be given.

efforts were afterwards needed for the complete exploration less manded nothing of this field in analysis. and there remains 2 axx + ayx I. The second case de than the general solution of a dif Those who know what ferential equation of the first order.&quot. is applicable. 3x2x as above in + axy 3y y = 0.multiplied by it supposed to be infinitely little. Newton assumed homogeneity with respect to the fluxions and then considered three cases : (1) when the equation contains two (2) fluxions of quantities and but one of the fluents. that it quantities.special solution&quot. to which ax &quot. inverse operations which have been taxing the skill Much of the best analysts since his time. will not depreciate Newton s work . $ ax? + axy = 0. 3x2x 2 axx 3 yyyQ + ayx -f axy 3y*y + 3 #&cO + 3()0 ^00 = 0.). Newton gives first a solution to the second problem in which he resorts special to a rule for which he has given no proof. ions of three or since his it more quantities. In the general solution of his second problem. by supposition. 2 Example Newton here uses infinitesimals. when the equation involves both the fluents as well as both the flux ions (3) when the equation contains the fluents and the flux . involving. which there being expunged and the remaining terms being divided by 0. greater than in the first problem were the difficulties encountered in the solution of the second problem. EtJLEJB. as it does. there will remain fore.NEWTON TO &quot. The first case is the easiest requires simply the integration of -^=/(a. there fore I reject them. 207 y 5 Now. the terms that are will be nothing in respect of the rest (termini moments of in earn ducti pro niliilo possunt liaberi cum aliis collati) . is axdto + a&#0 But whereas zero may represent the .

Thus.Wallis Algebra in 1693. (1687) the description of fluxions is likewise &quot. In Book II. that in the first. moments are infinitely small quantities. What else they are in the second is not clear.founded on infinitesimals. as well as on the Continent. Lemma II. In the second edition the two italics are replaced by the non sunt momenta sed quantifollowing: tates ipsse ex momentis genitse.&quot.&quot. Through the difficulty of sentences which we print in &quot. but in the second (1713) the foundation is somewhat altered. of the first edition we read &quot. and other geometrical applications of his fluxionary calculus. The fundamental principles of the fluxionary calculus were first given to the world in the Principia.208 A HISTOEY OF MATHEMATICS. 85 In the . and in substance It like that of Leibniz. z -f xy = and succeeded in finding a particular integral of is The rest of the treatise maxima and minima.Particulae finitse the phrases in both extracts. but its peculiar notation did not appear until published in the second volume of &quot. calculus in England. this much distinctly appears. Intelligenda sunt principia jamjam nascentia finitorum magnitudinum. The exposition given in the Algebra was substantially a contribution of Newton. All this was done previous to the year 1672. he resorted to solutions in form of infinite series. He took the equation 2 a* it. as in his must be observed that in the Method of Fluxions (as well De Analysi and all earlier papers) the method employed by Newton is strictly infinitesimal. the devoted to the determination of radius of curvature of curves. the original conception of the was based on infinitesimals. it In the first edition of the Principia rests on infinitesimals. s third case comes now under the solution of partial differential equations. Newton even though. Momenta quam primum sunt magnitudiniSj desinunt esse momenta. Finiri enim repugned aliquatenus perpetuo eorum incremento vel decremento. : Cave tamen intellexeris particulas finitce finitas.

while with Leibniz the relation of the infinitely small increments is itself the object of determination. (errores quam minimi in rebus mathematicis non sunt contemnendi) The early distinction between the system of Newton and Leibniz lies in this. solids by angles by the rotation of the sides portions of time by continual flux and so on in other quantities. It lias been shown that in the Method of Fluxions Newton rejected terms involving the quantity 0. ematics the minutest errors are not to be neglected&quot. : (quam proxime). because they are infinitely small compared with other terms. they are in the prime ratio of nascent increments . . but by the continued motion of points the motion of superficies by the motion of lines. holding to the conception of velocity or fluxion. the infinitely small quantity is completely abandoned. the apposition of parts. for in the Quadrature of Curves he remarked that &quot. by any lines whatever. equal and as small as possible. Newton seems to have felt this. as given in the introduction to his Quadrature of Curves.NEWTON TO EULEB. as near as we please . daily seen in the motion of bodies. This reasoning for as long as is a evidently erroneous ever so small. consisting of very small parts. in math . but as described by a continued Lines are described. and are superficies . yet they can be expressed them. 35 give Newton s statement of the method of fluxions or rates. &quot. . this rejection cannot be made quantity.I mode of generating quantities. used the infinitely small increment as a means of determining it. . The difference between the two rests mainly upon a difference in the We &quot. and thereby generated. and to speak accurately.Eluxions are. not by . as the increments of fluents generated in times. is . These geneses really take place in the nature of things. which are proportional to . that Newton. consider mathematical quantities in this place not as motion. though without affecting the result. 209 Quadrature of Curves of 1704.&quot.

and the mixtilinear evanescent triangle triangle CEc its is. ET. the line similar thereunto. EC. are follows that the fluxions of the lines AB. will stand apart by a small angle from the tangent CH. the first is evidently the smallest. or.210 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. exemplifies this last assertion Newton tangency : by the problem of be the abscissa. being all one. EC. Of these. similar to the } GET. the rectilinear GEc. and the lines GE. BO the ordinate. EC the increment of the ordinate. As long as from each other by an interval. and the last the greatest. the it evanescent sides GE. is coincident with the OH. and CT.&quot. which pro duced meets FjETat T. Now suppose the ordinate be to move. and therefore the curve Cc. there are formed three small triangles. This The is plainly a rejection of the doctrine of infinitely small quan- . and Oc the increment of the curve. Newton then adds that are not to be postulates of Leibniz. which ia VBO OJt&quot. in the last form. Let AB VCH The right line Oc being produced to K. cG reach their ultimate ratios. AO. the tangent. the mixtilinear CEc. Cc will be sides of the triangle GET. and the rectilinear GET. of proportional the triangle in the last ratio of their evanescent increments. BG. EC is tangent abso lutely equal to E T. OK.into the place BO. to the sides of the triangle GET. then the points G and c accurately coincide and are one and the same. But when CK coincides with GH. the points G and c are distant however small. et in mathematics the minutest errors neglected. Hence and proportional to CE. so that the T X* 3 incides point c exactly co with the point (7.

+ ^-^ O n~ ~~ n 2 o xn ~* + etc. nascent or evanescent. + etc. the analysis of infinite and ultimate ratios of finite quantities. in the method of fluxions. and I have same manner by the method But to establish in this way quantities. becomes x + 0. that three dissimilar triangles become similar . titles is 211 to suppose that here renounced in a manner which. fluxion of lines. angles. straight or curved. and the increments and nQ xn ~ l + are to one another as O 2 xn ~2 + etc. in all cases what ever. and to investigate prime endeavoured to show that. in the above reasoning.- + ^=2 xn ~ 2 the increments vanish. 1 to 1 nx&quot. the by the method of infinite series 2 xn + nQ 1 x&quot. n powers becomes (#+0) i..NEWTON TO EULER. In the introduction to the Quadrature of Curves the fluxion n of x &quot. is determined as follows x. infinitesimals is safely avoided. can be obtained in the of prime and ultimate ratios. 71 : In the same time that . and equal when they have reached their ultimate form in one and the same point. it is not . the dangers of a Scylla stare are required to believe that a We point may be considered a triangle. The quantities. is in harmony with the geometry of the ancients . and their last proportion hence the fluxion of the quantity x is to the fluxion of the quantity xn as 1 nxn ~~l &quot. and other &quot. by flowing.e. or that a triangle can be inscribed in a point nay. Newton s doctrine was different in different Though. would lead one Newton had never held it himself. the Charybdis of us in the face.&quot.. Thus it appears that periods.Let now will be 1 to nxn ~ l : : . as also the fluxions of superficies.

method of limits&quot. and before the end of that time approach nearer the one to the other than by any given difference. When becomes ~l nxn which needs further nothing. the subject. prime and &quot. but which he used for a different purpose. as his method of constructing the calculus.&quot. elucidation. as well as in the lemmas following this.&quot. Among of &quot. and at the expense. necessary to introduce into geometry infinitely small quanti This mode of differentiating does not remove all the connected with. A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. the method the ablest admirers of Newton. become ultimately equal.212.&quot. In this. and accompanied by a preface from . It was printed in 1687 under Principia the direction. ties. himself. there are obscurities and difficulties. is Newton. is frequently attributed but the pure method of limits was never adopted Newton. as delivered by encumbered with difficulties and objections. The first lemma of the first book has been foundation of the method of limits : made the &quot. then we get the ratio difficulties = . though the variable may lis approach it as near as we please. there have been obstinate dis putes respecting his explanation of his method of ultimate ratios.Quantities and the ratios of quantities. Edmund Halley. statements which have been made of the theory of limits. Newton appears to teach that a variable quantity and its limit will ultimately coincide and be But it is now generally agreed that in the clearest equal. is Philosophic NaturaMathematica. All he by The so-called to Mm did was to establish in his Principia certain principles which are applicable to that method. which in any finite time converge continually to equality. Indeed. the variable does not actually reach its limit. of Dr. second edition was brought out in 1713 with many altera The full title of Newton s Principia A tions and improvements.

if thethe distance of the R moon from law is true. Its discovery envelops the name of Newton in a halo of perpetual The current version of the discovery is as follows it glory. was completed on April After the remarkably short period of three months. treat of the mathe matical principles of natural philosophy. if Kepler s third law was true (its absolute accuracy was doubted at that time). 34 The third and last edition which appeared in England during Newton s lifetime was published in 1726 by Henry Pemberton. In the third book is drawn up the constitution of the universe as deduced from the fore able The great principle underlying this memor going principles. work is that of universal gravitation. of which the first two. The law of gravitation enunciated in the first book. but a pirated edition published in Amsterdam supplied the demand. constituting the great bulk of the work. The third book is the result of the next nine or ten months labours. Cotes. Halley. on the surface of the earth. The Principia consists of three books. Huygens. r be the earth s the earth. then. Mr. but which was never is brought to completion. T the time of lunar revolution. in substance. : was conjectured by Hooke. and others. the second book was finished. that if g represent the acceler ation of gravity radius. then the attraction between the earth and other members of the solar system varied inversely as the square of the distance. and a a degree at the equator. the laws and conditions of motions and forces. It is only a sketch of a tion of the subject much more extended elabora which he had planned. But the proof of the truth or falsity of the guess was wanting. In 1666 Newton reasoned. It 218 was sold out in a few months. 1686.NEWTON TO EULEB. Newton. Wren. . The first book 28. namely. that.

His letters to Halley show that he did not suppose the earth to attract as though all its mass were concentrated into a point at the centre. verified. and Newton laid the calculation aside: In 1684 he casu ally ascertained at a meeting of the Royal Society that Jean Picard had measured an arc of the meridian. According to fairly Adams. s The data Newton command gave E = 60. and replied at once that it .4 T = 2. He could not have asserted. This value of a rendered the calculated value of g smaller wrong than its true value. as known from actual measurement. Newton had solved a similar problem for Hooke in 1679. Taking the cor rected value for a. though for long distances he might have claimed that Halley visited When yielded close approximations. therefore. he found a figure for g which corresponded Thus the law of inverse squares was to the known value. but Newton had not been able to determine what the attraction of a spherical shell upon an external point would be. that the assumed law of gravity was verified by the figures. Newton acknowl edged his indebtedness to Huygens for the laws on centrifugal force employed in his calculation. In a scholium in the Prmcipm.628 r. Newton s verification was complete in 1666. a only 60 instead of 69 J English. in 1684.360. when its owner placed it in the hands of the University of Cambridge) seems to indicate that the difficul ties encountered by Newton in the above calculation were of a numerical different nature. The perusal by the astronomer Adams of a great mass letters of and manuscripts of Newton forming the unpublished Portsmouth collection (which -remained private property until 1872. he requested Newton to deter mine what the orbit of a planet would be if the law of attrac it Newton tion were that of inverse squares. miles. It seconds.214 A at HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. and obtained a more accurate value for the earth s radius. but looked as though the law of inverse squares were not the true law.

The imperfection of the infinitesimal calcu not allow him completely to lus. of Oxford.NEWTON TO EULER. It is chiefly rests. for the earth s radius. higher degree of approxima was unable The papers in that col lection throw light upon the mode by which Newton arrived at some of the results in the Principia. did resolve the difficult problems which the theory of the universe offers . by means of fluxions and Newton s fluents. for instance. Newton. but the development of its consequences and advantages has been the work of the successors of this great mathematician.the of Newton Brewster reason. which . which is unproved in the Principia. human brightest page in the records of Let us listen. 215 After Halley to s visit.Newton has well estab lished the existence of the principle which he had the merit : of discovering. for a moment. Prop. but is demonstrated by him twice in a draft 34 of a letter to David Gregory. with Picard s new value tion. the famous construction in Book II. was an ellipse.. when first discovered. his lunar calculations to a tion than that given in the Principiay but that he to interpret his results geometrically.&quot. to the comments of Laplace. reviewed his early calcula and was able show that if the distances between the bodies in the solar system were so great that the bodies might be considered as points. as. upon the Principia that the fame calls it &quot. his discovery In 1685 he completed by showing that a sphere whose density at any attracts point depends only on the distance from the centre an external point as though its whole mass were concentrated at the centre. then their motions were in accordance with the assumed law of gravitation. the foremost among those followers of Newton who of planets grappled with the subtle problems of the motions under the influence of gravitation &quot. 34 unpublished manuscripts in the Portsmouth col lection show that he had worked out. 25. and he was oftentimes forced to give mere hints.

and the superior limits for the number of positive and negative roots. imaginary roots always occur in pairs.&quot. the great number of profound and original views. Whiston came in possession of it. which have been the origin of the most brilliant discoveries of the mathematicians of the last century. were published in 1707. the importance and the generality of his discoveries respecting the system of the universe. Newton did not prove his rule. closer. limits to the number of positive It and generally and negative roots. or more than This work was pub thirty years after they were written. His inventive genius is grandly displayed in his rule for determining the inferior limit of the number of imaginary roots. Newton s rule always gives as close. will insure to the Principia a last ing pre-eminence over all other productions of the human mind. were always uncertain till confirmed by rigorous analysis. The treatise on Method of Fluxions contains Newton s method . Newton showed that in equations with real coefficients.216 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. His theorem on the sums of powers of roots is well known. Thoxigh less expeditious than Descartes 7 . and the most interesting points of natural phi losophy. which were all pre sented with much elegance. We are not accurately informed how Mr. Sylvester established a remarkable general theorem which includes Newton s rule as a special case. Notwithstanding these unavoidable defects. consisting of algebraical by him during the first nine years he was professor at Cambridge. until. Arithmetica Uhiversalis. at last. s Newton lectures delivered lished by Mr. Whiston. awaited demonstration for a century and a half. The results AritJimetica Uhiversalis contains new and important on the theory of equations. but according to some authorities its publication was a breach of confidence on his part.

pp. 217 This of approximating to the roots of numerical equations. gave no proof for it. then the the method of indeterminate expansion could be effected by The rule is still used in determining the infinite coefficients. branches to curves. It is Newton begins Ms research on interesting to observe how the classification of cubic . W. which contains theorems on the theory of curves. in the Transactions of (vol. and a few additional theorems have been discovered among the Portsmouth papers. Newton as to how he discovered it. great utility of this rule lay in its deter law was of the series for. of classification. or their figure at multiple points. which his com names genera and classes. for &quot. and afterwards added by Stirling. five species He enunciates the remarkable theorem that the &quot. give by cubic curve whatever. and Cramer. &quot. independently.divergent parabolas&quot.&quot. since deduced his much Eecently we have of the analysis used by Newton results. in an Newton s contains 5 &quot. Eouse on this subject uscripts the Ball. As a rule. London Mathematical Society xx. mentators have supplied the former and seven (or four) of the recognising fourteen of the He overlooked six species demanded by his principles latter. which he names conjecture how Newton gotten at the facts. The same treatise is simply which enabled Mm. arranged in larger groups.NEWTON TO EULER. &quot. An account of the four holograph man has been published by W. Newton divides cubics into seventy- two species. by Kaestner and Cramer. the tertii ordinis. nor any clue The proof was supplied half a century 37 later. The parallelogram/ to find a series in powers of x equal to mining the form known by which the exponents . f(x y) the variable y. Murdoch.. the their projection every It has been the subject of frequent tract contains no proofs. } = 0. the method of Vieta improved. 104-143). Enumeratio linearum In 1704 was published. as an appendix to the OpticTcs. equation. as soon as the in the series vary.

Newton suffered from insomnia and nervous irritability.Westminster Abbey. engaged in experiments on chemistry.Sibi also engraved on it. He conducted a long series of experiments in optics and is the The last of a author of the corpuscular theory of light. of papers number on optics. and afterwards returns 36 again to analysis. curves by the algebraic method. but no longer did he by his own accord . enter upon new fields of research. elasticity. and the law of cooling. which office he held until his death. the astronomer royal. 1687.&quot. We pass to Leibniz. fits. reflecting telescope and the sextant (afterwards re-discovered by Thomas Godfrey He of Philadelphia 2 deduced a theoretical expression for the velocity of sound in air. He explained Society. magnetism. By him were invented the and by John Hadley) .218 A HISTOEY OF MATHEMATICS. It is not true that the Binomial Theorem is &quot. Though he recovered his tranquillity and strength of mind. finding it laborious. elaborates the theory of the decomposition of light and the theory of the rainbow. Some thought that he laboured under temporary mental aberration. During the two years following the close of 1692. the second and independent inventor . Space does not permit us to do more than merely mention Newton s prolonged researches in other departments of science. but. gratulentur mortales tale tantumque exstitisse humani generis decus. gation after his sickness The most noted investi was the testing of his lunar theory by the observations of Flamsteed. of the mint. bearing an inscription ending with. which he contributed to the Boyal &quot.&quot. where in 1731 a magnificent monument was erected. the time of great discoveries was over he would study out questions propounded to him. In 1695 he was appointed warden. attacks the problem geometrically. His body was interred in &quot. and in 1699 master. and entered upon geological speculations.

he applied himself with great diligence to every branch of knowledge. He was brought early in contact with the best of the culture then existing. who presented a copy of his work on the oscillation of the pendulum to Leibniz. In 1666 Leibniz published a treatise. went He there became incidentally acquainted with the mathematician Pell. in which he does not pass beyond the rudiments of mathematics. The higher mathematics was not taught at all. In 1672 he was sent by Baron Boineburg on a political mission to Paris.a method he had found on the summation of told series of numbers by their differences. In his fifteenth year he entered the University Though law was Ms principal study. Among these was Huygens. No period in the history of any civilised nation could have been less favourable for literary and scientific pursuits than the middle of the seventeenth century in Ger to Yet circumstances seem to have happily combined many. Erhard Weigel. Instruction in German universities was then very low. A distinguished men of the age. born in Leipzig. We are told that a certain John Kuhn lectured on Euclid s Elements. Pell him that a similar formula had been published by Mouton . for a half-year. the lectures of Later on. at Jena. to London. of Leipzig. De Arte Combinatoria. a philosopher and mathematician of local reputation. but that his lectures were so obscure that none except Leibniz could understand them. Leibniz attended. to whom he explained.NEWTON TO BULEB. bestow on the youthful genius an education hardly other wise obtainable during this darkest period of German history. He there formed the acquaintance of the most character. 219 Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646-1716) was of the calculus. and remained there from January till March. and first led the gifted young German In 1673 Leibniz to the study of higher mathematics. Other theses written by him at this time were metaphysical and juristical in fortunate circumstance led Leibniz abroad.

while the inverse had completely transcended the power of his analysis. work on the rectification of the parabola. Leibniz exhibited to the Koyal Society his arithmetical ma chine. was his principal master. The more important parts of were embodied in articles published later in the Acta Eruditorum. Huygens was highly pleased with it and urged him on to new investigations. A careful study of infinite series led him to the discovery of the following expression for the ratio of the circumference to the diameter of the circle : way as Mercator s on the hyperbola. Honorarius Fabri. Leibniz entered into a detailed study of the quadrature of curves and thereby became intimately acquainted with the higher mathematics. He studied the geometric Huygens works of Descartes. but more efficient and perfect. With indomitable energy set about removing his ignorance of higher mathematics. Leibniz investigated both problems for any curve he constructed what he called .* which was similar to Pascal s. In the study of Cartesian geometry the attention of Leibniz was drawn early to the direct and inverse problems of tan The direct problem had been solved by Descartes for gents. as early as 1670. the simplest curves only. but which was it never printed by him.220 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. he and Pascal. and the differences of the ordinates and abscissas. . he had the leisure to study mathematics more systematically. tne triangulum characteristicum an infinitely small triangle between the infinitely small part of the curve coinciding with the tangent. written before This elegant series was found in the same he left Paris in 1676. and then called his attention to Mercator s While in London. Among the papers of Leibniz is still found a manuscript on quadra tures. Gregory St. Vincent. After his return to Paris.

is liere characteristicum considered to be a polygon. all) . 2 Z This equation Leibniz first is especially interesting. pa. . pa = omn. he then writes the equation thus a. hence I omn. The trianyulum is similar to the triangle formed by the tan the ordinate of the point of contact. I He be useful to write for omn. I a = omn. He saw could be carried back to the quadrature of 1673. normal. infinitely small part of the abscissa) is : equal to the rectangle formed by the ordinate y and the ele ment I of that ordinate. using Cavalieri s notation. [From it Leibniz observed the connection existing between the direct and inverse problems of tangents.NEWTON TO EULER. Thus. and the subtangent. as well as to that between the ordinate.. written in as follows One mode used by him in effecting quadratures was The rectangle formed by a sub-tangent p and an element a (i. All these results are contained in a manuscript of Leibniz. but appears to have been reinvented by Leibniz. : sum of the Z s &quot. 221 A curve gent. such as . says: &quot. meaning omnia. and sub-normal. as f for omn. Erom.It will that is. also that the latter curves.=*yL But the summation of these rectangles from zero on gives a right triangle equal to half the square of the ordinate.2 Jj (omn. yl = &7. I . since it is here that introduces a \ new notation. It was first employed by Barrow in Eng land. But y = omn. or in symbols. the I. he gets omn. omn. this he deduced the simplest integrals.e.

mously to the rapid a notation which contributed enor growth and perfect development of the calculus. Leibniz proceeded to apply his new calculus to the solution of certain problems then grouped together under the name of the Inverse Problems of Tangents.Idem est E&quot.or proximas. except at one place in a marginal et note: &quot. always Not till in the Acta change an expression undergoes when the symbol f or d is placed before it. of tangents In the solution of the third problem he changes his notation from d now usual notation dx. Thus. The manuscript d. then. It is worthy of remark explains the that in these investigations. He found the cubical parabola to be the solution to the following: To find the curve in which the sub-normal is reciprocally proportional to the ordinate. J d d was at first placed by Leibniz in the denominator. This. The calculus came to be. or that of differences TO. 1675. did he give further explanations of these sym bols. 39 giving the above is dated October 29th. Eruditorum. It may be a consolation to students wres tling with the elements of the differential calculus to know that it required Leibniz considerable thought and atten- . What he aimed at principally was to determine the difference.222 A HISTOKY OF MATHEMATICS.&quot. he J concluded that the opposite calculus. does d he -. raises the Since tlie symbol of summation dimensions. symbol because the lowering of the power of a term was brought about in ordinary calculation by division. if \ I = then I = ^. differentia inter duas x use the ten term differential. Leibniz nowhere significance of dx and dx dy. but years later. id est. The correctness of his solution was tested by him by applying to the result Sluze s method and reasoning backwards to the to the original supposition. was the memorable day on which the notation of the new would lower them.

From Paris. which had been left unsolved by Descartes. way by which the problems at least of the inverse methods of tangents are solved. though he could not give the true value for each. yielded to the power of his new calculus. a differential equation. viz. 1676. the progress in the evolution of the new by Leibniz during his stay in Paris. He succeeded in solving all the special problems of this kind. Ten days later.Behold. Such was. in October. 1675. y After considering these questions at the close of one of his manuscripts. he found the equation ydx^dHcy xdy. Leibniz returned to Hanover by way of London and Amsterdam. a most elegant &quot. who showed him . TO ETJLEK. by the integral calculus. &quot. In course of a or. giving an expression for d(xy^). Before his depasture. and the same as dy d~. and thereby led to the solution of the problem under considera tion. to Descartes Of these we mention only the celebrated problem proposed by De Beaune. In London he met Collins. which he observed to be true He succeeded also in eliminating dx from for all curves. dxdy is 223 tion 39 to determine whether the same as d(xy}. so that it contained only dy. in calculus made brief. half-year he discovered that the direct problem of tangents. and that thereby a more general solution than that of Descartes could be obtained. he concluded that the expressions were not the same. or ! Thus he saw clearly that the are reduced to quadratures inverse problems of tangents could be solved by quadratures.KEWTCXN&quot. in a manuscript dated November 21. too. in other words. to find the curve whose sub-tangent as a given line is to that part of the ordinate which lies between the curve and a line drawn ordinate is to its from the vertex of the curve at a given inclination to the axis. he found himself in possession of the most elementary rules and formulae of the infinitesimal calculus.

published in the Acta Eroditorum a paper on quad ratures. by which tangent planes to surfaces could be found. . a few lines lower is -. Of this we shall speak In Amsterdam he discussed mathematics with Sluze. Ms scientific correspondence. a It journal usually known by the name of Leipzig Acts. In a paper of July 11. and nineteen years after Newton first worked at fluxions. its correct value. since it could be extended to three variables. He had given the differentials of a few negative and fractional powers. as early as some mistakes. at last. while 3 given j ^ . since neither irrationals nor fractions prevented the immediate application of his method. products. Leibniz. Fearing that Tschirnhaus might claim as his own and publish the notation and rules of the differential calculus. V November. or nine years after the new calculus first dawned upon the mind of Leibniz. In 1682 was founded in Berlin the Acta jEruditorum. and especially. -r.224 a part of A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. 1676. and became satisfied that his own method of constructing tangents not only accomplished all that Sluze s did. but had made For d Vcc he had given the erroneous value : and in another place the value 4ar^ for d-z occurs in 2 one place the wrong value. which consists principally of subject-matter com Tschirnhaus. 1677. later. and roots. In 1684. powers. and the literary and scientific review published in Germany. but even more. Leibniz decided. was a partial imitation of the French Journal des JSavans (founded in 1665). who had studied mathematics in Paris with and who was familiar with the new analysis of Leibniz. Leibniz was a frequent contributor. to make public the fruits of his inventions. Leibniz gave correct rules for the differentiation of sums. municated by Leibniz to Tschirnhaus during a controversy which they had had on this subject. quotients.

: dx as y ?/.. can travel easiest from one point to another . and three years before the publication of Newton Leibniz published. 88 characterises the cycloid. In Germany no one comprehended . Are dy and dx finite or and settled ideas been taken as selected at At first they appear. now made public by his articles in the Leipzig Acts. a paper containing the rudiments of The quantities dx and dy are there the integral calculus. but chose those parts of his least perspicuous. and then closes his article by giving his solution. of De Beaune s problem. in what way a ray of light passing through two differently refracting media. to have when he says We now call any line random dx. by dy. f( : work which were most abstruse and This epoch-making paper of only six pages bears the title et minimis. differential calculus. indeed. great invention of Leibniz. proof. 225 s Principia. the properties of curves could be fully expressed by equations. which is the difference of Leibniz then ascertains. made little impression upon the The mass of mathematicians. quae nee fraetas nee irra- tionales 5 quantitates moratur.HEWTON TO ETJLEB. ISTova methodus pro maxiinis itemque tangentibus. is to the sub-tangent. Thus the equation y * = -V2x . The rules of calculation are briefly stated without been inferred from this that Leibniz himself infinitesimal quantities ? and the meaning of dx and dy is not made clear. treated as infinitely small. He showed that by the use of his notation. Two years later (1686) Leibniz published in the Acta Eruditorwm. It has had no definite on this subject. in a few words.&quot. then we designate the line which is to &quot. by his calculus. -all He paper on the was unwilling to give to the world first Ms his treasures. x* r &B + J V205 \ . in the Leipzig Acts. et singulars pro illis calculi genus. finite.

The latter wrote Leibniz a the Swiss James Bernoulli. sum of . Thus he made use of variable parameters. He and his brother of exceptional power. singular solution. The writings of Leibniz contain many innovations.&quot. wishing to be initiated into the mysteries of the new analysis. that the integral calculus be improved by reducing integrals back to certain fundamental irreducible forms. introduced the first notion of determinants in his effort to simplify the expression arising in the elimination of the unknown the He quantities from a set of linear equations. till 1^)0. who remained indif The author s statements were too short and suc cinct to make the calculus generally understood. Leibniz carried on an extensive correspondence with them. it. The first to recognise its importance and to take up the study of it the Scotchman TJiomas Craige. In a letter to John Bernoulli he suggests. among other things. first instance of a &quot. and laid the foundation to the theory of envelopes in two papers. and were two foreigners.226 the A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. and anticipations of since prominent methods. in un covering the secrets of the differential calculus without assist so that this letter remained unanswered ance. Leibniz was then travelling abroad. by close application. meanwhile. He wrote on osculating curves. James Bernoulli succeeded. one of which contains for the first time the terms co-ordinate and axes of co-ordinates. as well as with other mathematicians. ferent to letter in 1687. new calculus except Tschirnhaus. laid the foundation of analysis in situ. resorted to the device of breaking up certain fractions into he other fractions for the purpose of easier integration he gave the explicitly assumed the principle of continuity . but his paper contained the . science with a success declare that it was as John proved to be mathematicians They applied themselves to the new and to an extent which made Leibniz much theirs as his. The integration of logarithmic expressions was then studied.

40 during this journey. metrica he says only this &quot. Anatomica. The question was. The first visit of Leibniz to London extended from the llth of January until March. Medica. Miscellanea. Evidently Leibniz did not obtain a knowledge of fluxions during this visit to London. He was in the habit of com mitting to writing important scientific communications received In 1890 Gerhardt discovered in the royal library at Hanover a sheet of manuscript with notes taken by Leibniz from others. The sheet The sections given to Chymica.&quot. Newton is referred to only under Optica. Observata Philoso1673. while others contain grave errors. 1673.&quot. Botaniea. De Analysi per Equationes. error (pointed out by 227 John Bernoulli.NEWTON TO EULEB. or was he a plagiarist ? We must begin with the early correspondence between the Fewfcon had begun using parties appearing in this dispute. coefficient of the product of two functions of a Of his many papers on mechanics. Mechanica. Figurarum geometricarum explicatio per motum puncti in moto lati. Magnetica. Well known is his theorem on the nth differential variable. contain extensive memoranda. but not admitted by that an osculating circle will Mm) necessarily cut a curve in four consecutive points. They are headed &quot. while those devoted to mathematics have very few notes. We suspect from this that Leibniz had read Barrow s lectures. . did Leibniz invent it independently of JSTewton. 41 In 1669 Barrow sent Collins Newton s tract. his notation of fluxions in 1666. some are valuable. phica in itinere Anglicano sub initium anni is divided by horizontal lines into sections. Before tracing the further development of the calculus we shall sketch the history of that long and bitter controversy between English and Continental mathematicians on the inven tion of the calculus. etc. Under G-eo- : Tangentes omnium figurarum. nor is it claimed that he did by his opponents.

and also communicates his method of fluxions and fluents in form of an anagram in which all the letters in the sentence communicated were placed in alphabetical order. anagram afforded no The death of Oldenburg brought this correspondence to a . Collins.Data sequatione quotcunque fluentes involvente fluxiones invenire. Leibniz announced in 1674 to Oldenburg. state that Newton invented a method by which tangents could be drawn without the necessity of freeing their equations from irrational terms.Having &quot. notation. then secretary of the Eoyal Society. et vice versa. The sentence was. any given equation involving never so many flowing Surely this quantities.) Leibniz wrote a reply to Collins. but nothing on the method of fluxions. that he possessed very general analytical methods. he explained the principle. -letters of Newton. at the request of Oldenburg and Collins.&quot. up to the beginning of 1676.228 Various A HISTOBY OF MATHEMATICS. quantitates (&quot. Newton and James Gregory had also discovered methods of quadratures. Leibniz in reply speaks directly in the highest terms of what Newton had done. and requests ters relating to infinite series further explanation. Thus Newton says that his method of drawing tangents was Gaccdce IBejf 7i 31 9n 40 4qrr 4s 9t 12vx.&quot. to find the fluxions. and the use of the differential calculus. by which he had found theorems of great importance on the quadrature of the In answer. without any desire of concealment. and vice versa. tioned explains the Newton in his second letter just men way in which he found the Binomial Theorem. Oldenburg stated circle by means of series. wrote to the former the celebrated letters of June 13 and October 24. Leibniz desired to have these methods communicated to him. 1676. in which. and others. hint. which extended to the circle. and Newton. The first contained the Binomial Theorem and a variety of other mat- and quadratures.

as between the illustrious scientists. etc. and when I in transposed letters involving this sentence (Data concealed gequatione. scholium) : In letters which went between me and that most excellent geometer. Book II.^ On the Continent. : plain and obvious meaning. as De Morgan says First. close. communicated only to a few friends. 1687. when I signified that I was in the knowledge of a method of determining maxima and minima. to deny the &quot. and letter that Marquis de PHospital. known to him through the above correspondence with Oldenburg. and the it like. when Leibniz published his first paper on the differential calculus in the Leipzig Acts. which hardly differed from mine. of drawing tangents. As regards this passage. so that while Newton s claim to the priority of invention must be admitted by all. except in his forms of words and symbols. in Holland with great applause by the &quot. and secondly. ten years ago.. first edition. while Newton s invention remained a secret. name of Leibniz s Calculus Differentialis.. 229 Nothing material happened till 1684. Accordingly Wallis stated in the preface to a volume of his works that the calculus differen- . and communicated his method. we shall see that Newton was after wards weak enough. hostility existed. yet. the brothers James and John Bernoulli. that most distinguished man wrote back that he had also fallen upon a method of the same kind. Leibniz. Thus. &quot. Newton expressed a very favourable opinion of Leibniz s inventions. In 1695 Wallis informed Newton by he had heard that his notions of fluxions passed &quot. to omit it entirely from the third edition of the Principia.&quot.NEWTO2ST TO EULEB. G. in the following celebrated scholium (Prmcipia. G-. Prop. above cited). great progress was made in the calculus by Leibniz and his coadjutors. 7. it must also be granted that Leibniz was the first to give the full benefit of the calcu lus to the world. the calculus of No rivalry or Leibniz was spreading over the Continent.

to Leibniz in the Oldenburg A years Leibniz had enjoyed unchallenged the honour of being the inventor of his calculus. the other parts did not particularly him. etc. long prevailed that Leibniz. presented to the Royal Society. This was It would seem that the English mathematicians had for some time been cherishing suspicions unfavourable to Leibniz. reminded the reader of Newton s own admission in the scholium above cited. This part was evidently new to him. By the previous intro- . him among the letters and papers of Collins. in the Leipzig Acts for 1696. the second inventor. had been communicated of Wallis review works. during his second visit to London in 1676. His memoranda discovered by Gerhardt in 1849 in the Hanover library fill two sheets.230 tialis A HISTOKY OF MATHEMATICS. but no systematic develop ment or explanation of it. But in 1699 Fato For fifteen de Duillier. From it he seems to have impress gained nothing per taining to the infinitesimal calculus.Excerpta ex tractatu Newtoni Msc. had borrowed anything from the other. During the week spent in Newton s Analysis per London.&quot. his con Newton was the first inventor. stated in a mathematical paper. whether Leibniz. A feeling had doubtless had seen the the letters first distinct insinuation of plagiarism. The note of whatever interested notes are very brief. of which there is an almost complete copy. excepting those De Resolutions cequationum qffectarum. If he examined Newton s entire tract. Leibniz certainly did see at least he took part of this tract. a Swiss. 40 The one bearing on our question is headed &quot. he would leave to the judgment of those who viction that and manuscripts of Newton. was Newton s method of fluxions which letters. had or might have seen among the papers of Collins cequationes. which contained appli cations of the fluxionary method. de Analysi per sequationes numero terminorum infinitas. who had settled in England.. adding that.

Duillier s insinuations lighted up a name of discord which a whole century was hardly sufficient to extinguish. under took with more zeal than judgment the defence of Newton. stating that Newton uses and always has used fluxions for the differences of Leibniz. on the contrary. Here the affair rested for some time. In 1T05 appeared an unfavourable review of this in the Leipzig Acts. professor of astronomy at Oxford. the the name and mode of notation being changed. for the first time. who had never contested the priority of Newton s discovery. controversy. Leibniz. now appears for the first time in the He made an animated reply in the Leipzig Acts. but this interpretation was always strenuously resisted ELeill. Nothing mathematical that he had received engaged his thoughts in the immediate future.HEWTON TO EULEB. Keill was not made to retract his accusation. a formal exposition of the method and notation of fluxions was made public. Leibniz complained to the secretary of the Royal Society of bad treat ment and requested the interference of that body to induce Keill to disavow the intention of imputing fraud. In a paper inserted in the Philosophical Transactions of 1708. for on his way back to Holland he com posed a lengthy dialogue on mechanical subjects. This he did in a long letter. Leibniz thereupon complained that the charge was now more open than . he claimed that Newton was the &quot. 231 duction of his own algorithm he had made greater progress than by what eaine to his knowledge in London. and complained to the Royal Society of the injustice done him. ]by Leibniz. In the Quadrature of Curves. This was considered by New ton s friends an imputation of plagiarism on the part of their chief. was authorised by Newton and the Eoyal Society to explain and defend his statement. first inventor of fluxions and that the same calculus was afterward published by Leibniz.&quot. and who appeared to be quite satisfied with Newton s admis sion in his scholium. published 1704.

which he was now disavowing. Leibniz. thus appealed to as a a committee which collected and reported judge. declaring Bernoulli. and additional notes by Keill. it was desirous of natural that he (Leibniz) should begin to doubt. with a Eecensio prefixed. The inventor. Yet there runs throughout the document a desire of proving Leibniz guilty of more than Leibniz protested only in they meant positively to affirm. and appealed for justice to the Eoyal Society and to Newton himself. the proceeding of the Eoyal Society.He [Leibniz] pretends that in my Newton . but that.232 before. November 14. is as decidedly unfair towards John Newton as the friends of the latter had been towards Leibniz. Keill replied. in the year 1712 and again Commerdum Hpistolicum. In a letter to Conti. called the etc. but circulated some remarks among his which he published immediately after hearing This paper of the death of Leibniz. 1716. friends of to the gives the following explanation pertaining scholium in question: &quot. which was published later in an anonymous tract. 1716. stolen the method. but whether Leibniz had committee had not formally ventured to assert their belief that Leibniz was a plagiarist. Wallis. appeared in 1725. Leibniz also states that he him connive at always believed Newton. private letters against that he would not answer an argument so weak. A HISTOEY OF MATHEMATICS. The that final conclusion in the Commerdum Epistolicum was Newton was the first inventor. Newton did not reply to this letter. Collins. Newton. and then Newton and Leibniz appear as mutual accusers in several letters addressed to third parties. appointed a large mass of documents mostly letters from and to upon This report. in a letter to Leibniz. But this was not to the The question was not whether Newton was the first point. The Eoyal Society. seeing accusations which he must have known to be false. April 9. Leibniz again reminded Newton of the admission he had made in the scholium.

that Leibniz was an independent inventor. to have furthered the progress of mathematics. in six volumes. in most cases. Perhaps the most tell evidence to show that Leibniz was an independent inven ing tor is found in the study of his mathematical papers really (collected and edited by C. until about 1820. ignorant of the brilliant mathematical discoveries that were being made on the Continent. 1725. . lus of fluxions or differentials that is. which point out a gradual and natural evolution of the rules of the calculus in his There was through a confusion between dispute. a digested method with general rules. But in the paragraph there referred unto I do not find one word to this purpose. but now it is generally ad mitted by nearly all familiar with the matter. The only way in which this dispute may be said. s The English adhered closely to Newton methods and. remained. in Principm. Newton omitted the scholium and substituted which the name of Leibniz does not appear. Gerhardt. In the third edition of the . is through the challenge problems by which each side attempted to annoy its adversaries. De Morgan. I. 233 book of principles I allowed him the invention of the calculus differentialis.&quot. The loss in point of scientific advantage was almost entirely on the side of Britain. says the knowledge of fluxions or differentials and that of a calcu &quot. . this invention to myself is contrary to in its place another. out the whole own mind. National pride and party feeling long prevented the adoption of impartial opinions in England. independently of my own and that to attribute . 18491860). in a small measure. This controversy is to be regretted it and all bitter alienation which on account of the long produced between English and It stopped almost completely Continental mathematicians. &quot.&quot. Berlin.NEWTON TO BTJLBE. interchange of ideas on scientific subjects. my knowledge there avowpd.&quot.

tanquam. although he was much fatigued by the day s work at the mint. the two Bernoullis gave solutions. Leibniz Newton. but it John Bernoulli he says. &quot. but ended by using very reprehensible language. criticised by fessedly aimed at the English. James Ber noulli proposed in the Leipzig Journal the question to find the curve (the catenary) formed by a chain of uniform weight It was resolved by ends. himself. been long proposed in the Acta Eruditorum. ungne The problem of orthogonal trajectories (a system of curves described by a known law being given. was a general plan of an investigation rather than an actual solution.284 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. and himself. His solution. de PHospital.&quot.ex recognised in his powerful mind. Brook Taylor undertook the defence of it. to describe a curve which shall cut them all at right angles) had leonein. In 1697 John Bernoulli challenged the best mathematicians in Europe to solve the difficult problem. problem pro it the same evening on which it was delivered to him. to find the curve (the cycloid) along which a body falls from suspended freely from its Leibniz. one point solved it to the day he received it. This may be considered as the first defiance Newton solved Bernoulli as being of no value. to feel the pulse of the English mathema ticians. proposed by him to the Cartesians in 1687. &quot. The recurring practice of issuing challenge problems was inaugurated at this time by Leibniz. and Newton s appeared anony mously in the Philosophical Transactions. as published. on that account. and John Bernoulli. another in the shortest possible time.&quot. but merely as exercises in the new cal culus. and solved by James Bernoulli. and was. find the curve along Such was the problem of the isochronous curve (to which a body falls with uniform velocity). not intended as defiances. It was again proposed in 1716 by Leibniz. Huygens. They were. but failed at first to receive much attention. . at first.

In 1694 Bernard Nieuwentyt of Holland denied These In his the existence of differentials of higher orders and objected to the practice of neglecting infinitely small quantities. At interpretation of dx one time they appear in his In the writings as finite lines then they are called infinitely small . 235 Bernonlli was not to be outdone in incivility. peatedly offered to send his solution to a confidential person Keill never in London. lacked clearness and For that reason it met with opposition from several rigour. fiance to Continental mathematicians of a problem on the integration of a fluxion of complicated form which was known to very few geometers in England and supposed to be beyond the power of their adversaries. quarters. problem was to find the path of a projectile in which resists proportionally to the square of the velocity. The explanations of the fundamental principles of the cal culus. . he re velocity. made a reply. The The a medium Keill boldly challenged Bernoulli to produce a solution. and most unskilful challenge was by John Keill. It served only to display the skill last and augment the triumph of the followers of Leibniz. and dy Leibniz vacillated. as given by Newton and Leibniz. -^ in geometry could be expressed reply he said the value of as the ratio of finite quantities. provided Keill would do the same. The latter resolved the question in very short time.NEWTON TO ETJLEB. but to any power of the Suspecting the weakness of the adversary. for Bernoulli had long before explained the method of this and similar integrations. Without first making sure that he himself could solve it. not only for a resistance proportional to the square. The selection was injudicious. objections Leibniz was not able to meet satisfactorily. and made a Not long afterwards Taylor sent an open de bitter reply. and Bernoulli abused him and cruelly exulted 26 over him.

1710-1790 Daniel Johann. Berkeley s attack was the immediate cause of the work on fluxions by Maclaurin. A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. In France Michel Rolle rejected the differential calculus and had a controversy with Varignon on the subject.the between terms absolutely evanescent ghosts of de was absurd and unin as he called them parted quantities. the son of. 1654-1705 Nicolaus Nicolaus. that correct answers were telligible. the eminent metaphysician. 1695-1726 Daniel. that the fundamental idea of supposing a finite ratio to exist &quot. quantitates inassignabiles. 1687-1759 Johann. errors.&quot. who argued which spring In this Newton. from quantitates assignabiles by the law of continuity. John. 1758-1789 Most celebrated were the two brothers Jacob (James) and Johann (John). it the most vigorous promoters of the calculus on the Continent were the Bernoullis. contending. 1700-1782 Johann. with great acuteness. reached by a compensation of was not devoid of good results. 1744-1807 Jacob. the Father Jacob. for &quot. among other things. and Daniel. James and . again shown later by Lazare Garnet.&quot. The reply made by Jurin failed to remove all the Berkeley was the first to point out what was objections. last presentation Leibniz approached nearest to In England the principles of fluxions were boldly attacked by Bishop Berkeley. 1667-1748 Nicolaus. They and Euler made Basel Among in Switzerland famous as the cradle of great mathematicians. and again. The family of Bernoullis furnished in course of a century eight members who distinguished themselves in mathematics.236 quantities. following genealogical table : We subjoin the Nicolaus Bernoulli.

published in the Acta Eruditorum. and solved the more complicated problems. James ness of Leibniz proposed the problem of the catenary. He &quot. he mastered it From 1687 until his death he occupied the mathematical chair at the University of Basel. He studied the loxodromic and logarithmic spirals.&quot.&quot. imetrical figures. wrote a work on Ars Conjectandi. then proved the correct s construction of this curve. Of these problems he John gave of the &quot. while his brother in addition their theory.&quot. formed by an elastic plate or rod fixed . supposing the string to be (1) of variable density. at one end and bent by a weight applied to the other end of the &quot. interested in the calculus. 237 John were staunch friends of Leibniz and worked hand in hand with him. in the last of which the ({ volaria.NEWTON TO BULEB. Following the example of Archimedes. James Bernoulli (1654-1705) was born in Basel. of a rectangular sail filled with wind. he willed that the curve be en graved upon his tombstone with the inscription eadem mutata In 1696 he proposed the famous problem of isoperresurgo. (3) acted upon at each point by a force directed to a fixed centre.numbers .Bernoulli s theorem and the so-called &quot. filled with a liquid . which &quot. we meet for the first time with the word Leibniz had called the integral calculus calculus integral. is a development of the calculus of probabilities and contains the investigation now called &quot. Becoming without aid from a teacher. he took particular delight from its remarkable property of reproducing itself under a variety of conditions. and in 1701 published his own solution. summatoriuS) but in 1696 the term calculus integralis was agreed upon between Leibniz and John Bernoulli. In his solution. published answers without explanations. a flexible rectangular plate with two sides fixed horizontally at the same height.lintearia. He was the first to give a solution to Leibniz s problem of the isochronous curve. He determined the shape elastic curve &quot. (2) extensible. 1690.

De Lahire. one was printed in 1713. Several times he was given Academy of Science in Paris. unfair. A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. where he met Malebranche. He was one of the most enthusiastic teachers and most successful original inves tigators of his time. John admired the merits of Leibniz and Euler. Yarignon. the line swiftest descent. James convicted s him of several paralogisms. but was blind to those of Newton. in three volumes. He was a member of almost every learned society in Europe. the other two in 1744. Of of and Daniel were appointed professors mathematics at the same time in the Academy of St. but mean. his sons. After his brother death he attempted to substitute a disguised solution of the former for an incorrect one of his own. latter returned to Basel in 1733. He immensely enriched the integral calculus by his labours. He afterwards visited France.238 of Bernoulli. and its beautiful relation to the path described by a ray passing through strata of variable density. His controversies were almost as numerous He was ardent in his friendships. He had a bitter dispute with James on the isoperimetrical problem. The former soon died in the prime of life. For ten years he occupied the mathematical chair at Groningen and then succeeded his brother at Basel. which are in fact (though not so considered by nl x in the expansion of (e Mm) the coefficients of I)- 1 . as his discoveries. and violent toward all who incurred his dislike even his own brother and son. Among of his discoveries are the exponential calculus. Cassini. Nicholas Petersburg. studied caustic curves prizes by the and trajectories. John Bernoulli (1667-1748) was initiated into mathematics by his brother. the where he assumed the chair His first of experimental philosophy. of his collected works.&quot. mathematical publi- . He treated trigonometry by the analytical method. and de PHospital.

a pupil . and the of GuiUaume Francois Antoine 1 Hospital (1661-1704). He applies the theory of probability to determine the mortality caused by small-pox various stages of life to determine the number of survivors at . Johami Bernoulli was appointed astronomer (born 1744) at the age of nineteen afterwards director . to insurance one ever makes use of it. and took upon department of the Academy. to determine how much inoculation lengthens the average duration of life. His brother Jacob himself the duties of the chair of experimental physics at and later Basel. He and Euler enjoyed the honour of having gained or shared no less than ten prizes from the Academy of Sciences in Paris. at a given age from a given number of births . He captured three of Bernoulli (born 1687) held for a time the mathematical chair at Padua which Galileo had once filled. He which he thought would give &quot. Micolaus magnet) in the Jofcann Bernoulli (born 1710) succeeded his father mathematics at Basel. previously performed by his uncle Jacob. He showed how the differential calculus could be used in the theory of probability. and the prizes (on the capstan. Brief mention will at St. results more in accordance with our ordinary notions than the theory of mathematical prob His moral expectation has become classic. some other mathemati Newton. cation 239 solution of a differential equation proposed by wrote a work on hydrodynamics. now be made cians belonging to the period of elder Bernoullis. professorship the propagation of light. tlie was Baccati.of the mathematical royal at Berlin. but no ability. . was appointed mathematical professor in the Academy Petersburg. from the Academy of Sciences at Paris. His investiga tions on probability are remarkable for their boldness and He proposed the theory of moral expectation. &quot.TO EULEB. originality. Leibniz.

and their rectification. This skilful work on analytical geometry. His innovations stand in close relation with modern synthetic geometry. He helped powerfully in making the calculus of Leibniz better John known to the treatise thereon in 1696. on . mass of mathematicians by the publication of a This contains for the first time the method of finding the limiting value of a fraction . delicate problem of how Joseph Saurin (1659-1737) solved the to determine the tangents at the Francois Nicole (1683multiple points of algebraic curves.240 of A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. Also particularly spherical epicycloids. asymptotes. Bernoulli. a pupil of His work on conic sections is purely synthetic. has already been mentioned as taking part in the challenges issued by Leibniz and the Bernoullis. and proved by perspective that several of these points can be at infinity. the first systematic treatise on finite 1758) in 1717 issued differences. His chief writings. but differs from ancient treatises in deducing the properties of conies from those of the circle in the same manner as did was Philippe de Lahire (1640-1718). and various singular points of curves of degrees. in which he finds the interesting series. on the theory of probabil ity. A mathematician who clung to the methods of the ancients Desargues. interested in finite differences was Pierre Raymond de Montmort number of He (1678-1719). of Descartes rule of signs. Desargues and Pascal. geometer wrote in 1740 a object of Jean Paul de Gua (1713-1785) gave the demonstration now given in books. He wrote on roulettes. served to stimulate his more distinguished successor. De Moivre. the which was to show that most investigations on curves could be carried on with the analysis of Descartes quite as easily as with the calculus. sums of a considerable wrote also on roulettes. whose two terms tend toward zero at the same time Another zealous French advocate of the calculus was Pierre Varignon (1654-1722). He shows how to find the tan all gents.

He showed. After the death of Leibniz there was in Germany not a Christian Wolf (1679-1754). In Germany the only noted contemporary of Leibniz is Ehrenfried Walter TscMrnhausen (1631-1708). and on magic is the author of a theorem named after him. Michel Rolle (1652-1719) conchoids. Believing that the most methods (like those of the ancients) are the most simple correct. pedantic scholasticism. His studies and hyperbola are the start ing-points of the theory of elliptic functions. that two arcs of an ellipse can be found in an in definite number of ways. who discovered the caustic of reflection. remain unmentioned. was ambitious to figure as successor of forced the ingenious ideas of Leibniz into a Leibniz. and . 1754) is Eiccati s ? Eiccati and Fagnano must not Jacopo Francesco. Count Riccati (1676best known in connection with his problem. and gave us a method of transform named after him. he concluded that in the researches relating to the ing equations properties of curves the calculus might as well be dispensed with. He discovered the fol He A lowing formula. whose difference is expressible by a right line. 7r =2nog^_^ 1 -j- in which he anticipated Euler on the in the use of imaginary exponents rectification of the ellipse and logarithms. and had the unenviable reputation of having presented the elements of the arithmetic. Of Italian mathematicians. experimented on metallic reflectors and large burning-glasses. graphical squares.NEWTON TO EULER. algebra. but he &quot. single mathematician of note. epicycloids. called equation. for instance. Count de Fagnano (1682-1766). professor at Halle. geometrician of remarkable power was Giulio Carlo. succeeded in integrating this differential equation for some special cases. 241 methods. published in the Acta Eruditorum in 1724.

such that the reciprocal of the arithmetic mean of the reciprocals of OE^ 2} will be a straight line.&quot. for into the of them he was quite unable to penetrate. there be taken a point It. and &quot.&quot. undertook the publication of the second edition of Newton s Principia. 1715-1717. was suggested by the following theorem contained in it If on each radius vector. death by Eobert Smith. his successor in the Plunibian pro The title of the work. We are told that at the death of Roger Cotes (1682-1716).&quot. Newton exclaimed. Be Moivre. religious many branches and in the latter part of his and philosophic speculations. The quarrel between English and Continental mathematicians caused them to work quite independently of their great contemporaries across the Channel. we owe&quot. London. &quot. life engaged mainly in His principal work. a theorem in trigonometry which depends on the work logarithms and the n 1. We have refer ence to Cotes. He made many important applications of it. now called finite differ ences. Methodus incrementorum directa et inversa. His mathematical papers were published after his fessorship at Trinity College. Bentley that Cotes thing. Brook Taylor (1685-1731) was interested in of learning. through a fixed point : 0. of course only in outward form. I6 spirit The contemporaries and immediate successors of Newton in Great Britain were men of no mean merit.24-2 A HISTOBY OF MATHEMATICS. then the locus of In this OE OR be OEn . added a new branch to mathematics. If Cotes had lived. Maclaurin. we might have known some It was at the request of Dr. Taylor. analysis developed since the time of the Renaissance in the form of Euclid. Har- monia Mensumrum. Chief among the admirers of forming of factors of x Newton were Taylor and Maclaurin. par ticularly to the study of the form of movement of vibrating . R progress was made in the application of To Cotes properties of the circle to the calculus of fluents.

A second tract. until Lagrange pointed out its power. published in 1714. he published in 1719 his Geometria Organica. spective. containing a new and remarkable mode of generating conies. a treatise which.. culminating in the remarkable theorem that if a quadrangle has its vertices and the two points of intersection of its opposite sides upon a curve of the . and at these points tangents be drawn. He s and. At the age of twenty-three he gave a remarkable solution of the problem of the centre of oscillation. Taylor s work contains the first correct explanation of astro He wrote also a work on linear per nomical refraction. like his other writings. His claim to was unjustly disputed by John Bernoulli. is remarkable It is for the elegance of its demonstrations. was elected professor of mathe matics at Aberdeen at the age of nineteen by competitive examination. first 243 reduced to mechanical principles by Mm.FBWTON TO EULER. known by his name. discoveries. and is quite worthless. and in 1725 succeeded James Gregory at the Uni priority Colin Maclaurin (1698-1746) versity of Edinburgh. Maclaurin uses these in his treatment of curves of the second and third degree. The first rigorous proof was given a century later by Cauchy. This work contains also &quot. 1720. cut the curve in JS13 R% etc. then S -=S OM OT theorem are generalisations of theorems of Newton. etc.. inspired by Newton enjoyed the friendship of Newton. a line be drawn meeting the curve in n points. strings.Taylor s theorem/ the importance of which was not recognised by analysts for over fifty years. and if any other line through Maclaurin If through any point and the system of n tangents in r1? r2 This and Cotes . De Linearum geometricarum theorems : Proprietatibus. suffers for want of fulness and clearness of expression. His proof of it does not consider the question of convergency. the s : first is the theorem of Cotes based upon two the second is .

Maclaurin s theorem&quot. he induced his countrymen to neglect analysis and to be indifferent to the . then the free summit moves on a : which reduces to mnp when curve of the degree 2 mnp . by rigorous exposition. Maclaurin in vestigated the attraction of the ellipsoid of revolution. by his example. and astronomical problems. Pascal The following is his ex s theorem on the hexagram. was pre viously given by James Stirling. contained for the first time the correct way of distinguishing between maxima and minima. third degree. mechanical.. n. the solution of a number of beautiful geometric. p. his influence on the progress of mathematics in Great Britain was unfortunate. The object of pedal curves. the tangents drawn at two opposite vertices He deduced independently cut each other on the curve. etc.244 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. respectively. 1735) that each of its sides passes through a fixed point. If a polygon tension of this theorem (Phil Trans. Not withstanding the genius of Mac laurin.. Taylor s theorem. answer such attacks as Berke The Fluxions ley s that the doctrine rested on fals$ reasoning. for. the fixed points all lie on a straight line.&quot. Newton had given this theorem without proof. and thus. manded the liveliest admiration of Lagrange. and showed that a homogeneous liquid mass revolving uniformly around an axis under the action of gravity must assume the form of an ellipsoid of revolution. He is the author of his treatise on Fluxions was to found the doctrine of fluxions on geometric demonstrations after the manner of the ancients. move so and if all its summits except one describe curves of the degrees m. and explained their use in the theory of multiple points. in which he employs ancient but a particular case Appended to the treatise on Fluxions is methods with such consummate skill as to induce Clairaut to abandon analytic methods and to attack the problem of the His solutions com figure of the earth by pure geometry. &quot. Maclaurin wrote on an Algebra. and of is &quot. then.

1716. but was compelled to leave France at the age of eighteen. The day after he had reached the total of over twenty-three hours. the Miscellanea Analytica. Shortly before his death he was necessary for him to sleep ten or twenty minutes longer every day. tlie ETJLER. declared that it ematician lay in analytic rather than geometric investigation. on the Revocation of the Edict of Kantes. and his extension of the value of Bernoulli s theorem by the aid 42 His chief works are the Doctrine of of Stirling s theorem. He lived to the advanced age of eighty-seven and sank into a It remains for us to of state of almost total lethargy. His subsistence was latterly on the solution of questions on games of chance and dependent of giving problems on probabilities. Erench descent. in the Philosophical Transactions. where he gave lessons in mathematics. his Theory of Recurring Series.NEWTON TO wonderful progress in tinent. He revolutionised higher trigonometry by the discovery of the theorem known by his name and by extending the theorems on the multiplication and division of sectors from the circle to the of probability surpasses hyperbola. tlie 245 Mglier analysis made on Con who was speak of Abraham de Moivre (1667-1754). and Ms papers . 1730. which he was in the habit at a tavern in Martin s Lane. His work on the theory anything done by any other mathematician except Laplace. he slept exactly twenty-four hours and then passed away in his sleep. His power as a math St. De Moivre enjoyed the friendship of ISTewton and Halley. He settled in London. his investigations respecting principal contributions are the Duration of Play. His Chances.

could now boast of no great mathematician. but. Lagrange. erected . AND LAPLACE. her . even on the conti nent. to some extent. ]STo previous period had shown such an array of illustrious names. and Laplace lay in higher . was now followed by one of the. was ill-chosen. At this time Switzerland had her Euler France. France now waved the mathematical sceptre. and this they developed to a wonderful degree. and Monge. Laplace. analysis. from geometry and established it as an Lagrange and Laplace scrupulously Building on the broad fertility of foun dation laid for higher analysis and mechanics by jSTewton and Leibniz. Lagrange.246 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. the direction of original research The former adhered with excessive partiality Among them to ancient geometrical binatorial school. had been directed toward the solution of problems of clothed in geometric garb. LAGKANGE. analytical calculus independent adhered to this separation. on the other hand. with matchless mind. Euler brought about an emancipation of the science. Euler. very brightest periods of all England and Germany. The mediocrity of French mathematics which marked the time of Louis XIV. during the unproductive period in France had their JSTewton and Leibniz. which history. By analysis came to be completely severed from geometry. EULEB. Euler. Mathematical studies among the English and German people had sunk to the lowest ebb. Legendre. During the preceding period the effort of mathematicians not only in England. and the results were usually reduced to geometric form. During the epoch of ninety years from 1730 to 1820 the French and Swiss cultivated mathematics with most brilliant success. The them labours of methods the latter produced the com which brought forth nothing of value. calculation A change now took place.

brought about by the master Indeed. But in recent times there has been added to the dexterity in the formal treatment of problems. and of Lagrange in his earlier works. largely ex tending and supplementing the labours of ISTewton. and recent mathe maticians. and Elliptic Integrals by Legendre. La place applied the calculus and mechanics to the elaboration of the theory of universal gravitation. good example of this increased rigour is seen in A the present use of infinite series as compared to that of Euler. Cauchy. He also wrote an Among the analytical branches created during this period are the calculus of Varia tions by Euler and Lagrange. 247 There are few great ideas pursued by succeeding analysts which were not suggested by Euler. mathematicians did not always pause to discover rigorous proofs. perhaps. . some of which have since been found cases. in Germany carried this tendency to the greatest extreme they worshipped formalism and paid no attention to the actual contents of formulae.EULER. Lagrange developed the infinitesimal calculus and placed analytical mechanics into the form in which we now know it. gave a full analytical discussion of the solar system. ence to form. an elaborate structure. a this period. to be true in only special The Combinatorial School . epoch-marking work on Probability. and were thus led to general propositions. a much-needed rigour of demon stration. With. Spherical Harmonics by La place and Legendre. During the former period we witness mainly a development with refer Placing almost implicit confidence in results of calculation. less exuberance of invention. Comparing the growth of analysis at this time with the growth during the time of Gauss. The ostracism minds of of geometry. could not last permanently. or of which he did not share the honour of invention. we observe an important difference. LAGRA3TG-E. AND LAPLACE. but with more comprehensive genius and profounder reasoning. and thus.

in 1733. In 1735 the solving of an astrono mical problem. Daniel and Nicolaus. who received him kindly. Monge published his epoch-making Leonhard Euler (1707-1783) was bom in Basel. until the . caused the gentle Euler to shrink from public affairs and to ! devote all his time to science. because I come from a country where. it is is speaks.&quot. a minister. &quot. proposed by the Academy. one Euler naively replied.. Madam. was assigned to the chair of mathematics. to St. wondered how so distinguished a scholar should be so timid and reticent. When John Bernoulli s two sons. appear in his M&canique analytique. the queen of Prussia. a dissertation on the masting of ships. in 1727. went to Russia. But the effort threw him into a fever and deprived him of the use of his right eye. With still superior methods this same problem was solved later by the 47 illustrious Gauss in one hour The despotism of Anne I. when one In 1766 he with difficulty obtained hanged. which continued for seventeen years. was achieved in three days by Euler with aid of improved methods of his own. After his call to Berlin by Frederick the Great in 1747. Petersburg. His father. school sprang into existence in France before Lagrange would not permit a single new geometric diagram to the close of this period.248 A HISTOBY OF MATHEMATICS. they induced Catharine I. permission to depart from Berlin to accept a call by Catha rine II. Soon after his return to Eussia he became blind. gave him his first instruction in mathematics and then sent him to the University of Basel. but thirteen years before his death. where he became a In his nineteenth year he favourite pupil of John Bernoulli. Petersburg. to invite their friend Euler to St. Gr&ometrie descriptive. for which several eminent mathematicians had demanded some months time. which re composed ceived the second prize from the French Academy of Sciences. where Daniel. but this did not stop his wonderful literary productiveness.

TJieoria motuum ct 1772. chief of which Introductio in analysin injtnitorum. 1770. 1744. the brachistochrone in a resisting medium.ETJLER. are the following : a work that caused a revolution in analytical mathematics. the Theoria motuum plane. contained his researches on the calculus of variations to the invention (a subject afterwards improved by Lagrange). which. which. lunce. 45 basis. displaying an amount of mathematical genius seldom rivalled. AND LAPLACE. 1744. 249 He dictated to Ms servant Ms Anleitung zur Algebra. 1770. LAGRANGE. tarum lettres et cometarum. Methodus inveniendi lineas curvas maximi minimive proprietate gaudentes. introduced (simultaneously with Thomas Simpson in England) the now current abbreviations for trigonometric functions. and contained not only a full summary of everything then . of which Euler was led by the study of isoperimetrical curves. mention the principal innovations and inven He treated trigonometry as a branch of analysis. though purely elementary. a subject which had hitherto never been presented in so general and systematic manner Institutiones calculi differentialis. processes on a sound Euler wrote an immense number of works. and Institutiones calculi integraliSj 1768-1770. and the theory of geodesies (subjects which had previously engaged the attention * of the elder Bernoullis and others) . 1755. known on this subject. which were the most complete and accurate works on the calculus of that time. 1748. was a to work which enjoyed great popularity. We proceed tions of Euler. are his chief works on astronomy Ses de une princesse d Allemagne et sur quelques sujets Physique de Philosophic. is meri torious as one of the earliest attempts to put the fundamental day of Ms death. B. C. 1753. but also the Beta and Gamma Func tions and other original investigations . and simplified formulae by the simple expedient of designating the angles of a triangle by A. TJieoria motus lunfje. and the .

He by the development of the so-called Eulerian warns his readers occasionally against the use of divergent series. He then explained how not (a) 2 might equal log(+a) and yet log (a) equal log (+a). He was the first to discuss the equation of the second degree in three variables. No clear notions existed as to what constitutes a convergent series. but is nevertheless very careless himself. researches on series we owe the creation of the theory of definite integrals integrals. The rigid treatment to which infinite series are subjected now was then undreamed of. and to classify the surfaces represented by it. when a = log(+a) and log ( a) = log (+ a). Far reaching are Euler s researches on logarithms. 14159 -. &. Neither Leibniz nor Jacob . gave a methodic analytic treatment of plane curves and of surfaces of the second order.solving bi obtained five species. By criteria analogous to those used in the classification of conies he He devised a method of. 21 Euler laid down the rules for the transformation of co-ordinates in space. In a paper of 1737 we first meet the symbol IT to denote 3. 2 . with the quadratic equations by assuming x that it would lead him to a general solution of algebraic hope The method of elimination by solving a series of equations. The To his subject of infinite series received new life from Mm. are due to him. all of which are imaginary when a is negative. and all except one log is positive. 2 2 a) Euler proved that a has really an infinite number of loga rithms. a. opposite sides by respectively. Leibniz and John Bernoulli once argued the question whether a negative number has a logarithm.250 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. since 2 Bernoulli claimed that ( a) a) = (+&) 2 . He pointed out tlie relation between trigonometric and exponential functions. c. Vp V# Vr. linear equations (invented independently = + + by Bezout) and the method of elimination by symmetric 20 functions. we have log( and finally 21og( = 2 log(+ a).

and no one objected to such results 3 1 excepting Nicolaus Bernoulli..EULER. 251 and John Bernoulli had entertained any serious doubt of the correctness of the expression | = 1 1 + 1 Guido !-{-. + Strange to say. known.-fIn the treatment of series Leibniz advanced a meta + . A remarkable development.j&amp. 5 7 -\---. the nephew of John and Jacob.j&amp.of 1 of certain parts of analysis at that time. such examples afford striking illustrations of the want. the binomial formula for negative and proof fractional exponents.n + n + n 2 is Euler developed the calculus of finite differences in the first . this series represented nearly all functions then. but &amp. but dependent upon the integration of a linear differential equa it remained for Gauss to point out that for special values of its letters.=0. Grandi went so far as to conclude from this that ^ = -}. At the present time it is difficult to believe that written sin &amp. + 3 sin 3 Euler should have confidently 4 sin 4 -)---. which has been reproduced in elemen scientific s basis Euler of tary text-books of even recent years. AND LAPLACE.+ 1 4. The looseness of treatment can best be seen The very paper in which Euler cautions divergent series contains the proof that against from 0.f&amp.. and even of Euler. 46 The tendency of that reasoning was to justify results which seem to us now highly absurd. n2 + .lt. is what he named the hypergeometric series. &amp... 2 sin 2 &amp. Euler finally succeeded in converting Mcolaus Bernoulli to his own erroneous views. LAGEAISTGE. due to Euler. physical method of proof which held sway over the minds of the elder Bernoullis. = n2 as follows : 1 % n n1 Euler has no hesitation to write these added give the summation of which he observed to be tion of the second order.

Clairaut. well-known theorem. . . By giving the factors of established = &quot. Euler discovered four theorems which taken together make greater than out the great law of quadratic reciprocity. a law independently discovered by Legendre. which he employed in the solution of c. He first supplied the proof to &quot.Fermat s theorem. but Euler in addition showed how to employ The principles on the criteria rested involved some degree of obscurity. 48 Euler enunciated and proved a of vertices. which prime of the that xn form 4n +l is expressible as the sum of two squares in one and only one way. and then deduced the differential calculus from it. which The celebrated addition-theorem for elliptic integrals was first them to determine integrating factors. he pointed out that this ex pression did not always represent primes. He invented a new algorithm for by Euler. The however. powers of Euler were directed also towards the fascinating subject of the theory of probability. and edges of certain polyhedra. + yn = zn 2. and the Bernoullis. in which he solved difficult some problems. appears to have been known to Descartes. which. giving the relation between the number faces. known by his name. Leibniz. but was still undeveloped.1 the number 2 2 +1 when n = 5. continued fractions.& the same solution of this equation was given substantially 1000 years earlier. as was supposed by states that every Fermat. a subject which had received the attention of Newton. has no integral solution for values of n was proved by Euler to be correct when n = 3. and Euler about the same time observed criteria of integrability. A third theorem of Fermat. We now know that the indeterminate equation ace 4. He established a theorem on homogeneous functions. chapters of his Institutiones calculi differentialis.252 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. by the Hindoos. and to a second theorem of Fermat. Fontaine. and contributed largely to the theory of differential equations.

the secular vari ations of eccentricities. out the theory of the rotation of a body around a fixed point. which arose in his mind on all occasions. Thus. Of no little 253 importance are Eider &quot.The s mechanics. He laid a sound basis for the calculation of tables of the moon. LAGRANGE.The anchor drops. the rushing keel he could not help inquiring what would be the is staid/ 5 ship s motion in such a case. Says Whewell: person labours in analytical who did most to its give to analysis the generality and symmetry which are now pride. was also the person who made mechanics analytical . ical He solved an immense number and variety of mechan problems. About the same time as paniel Bernoulli he published the Principle of the Conservation of Areas and defended the principle of &quot. nodes. motion. By it he attacked the problem of per turbations. which captured two blind. He had engaged memoirs years in. giving approximate solutions to the problem of three bodies. Astronomy owes to Euler the method of the variation of arbitrary constants. established the general equations of motion of a free body. to furnish the Petersburg Academy with twenty sufficient number to enrich its acts for a promise more than fulfilled. in case of two planets. with the assistance in the transactions of of his sons Most of the memoirs are contained the Academy Academy of Sciences at St.&quot. and in those of Erom 1728 to 1783 a large portion at Berlin.least action. It has . mean n He worked namics. for down to 1818 the volumes usually contained one or more papers of his. explaining. advanced by Maupertius. and the general equation of hydrody I Euler. on reading Virgil s lines. Petersburg. of the Petropolitan transactions were filled by his writings. &quot.&quot. AKB LAPLACE.EULER.&quot. He wrote also on tides and on sound. etc. s were carried on while he was and two of his his pupils. to take He was one of the first up with success the theory of the moon s motion by &quot. These researches on the moon prizes.

near the Notre-Dame in Paris. He was It is said that brought up by the wife when he began to show signs of great talent. like His writings are con Euler.would fill 16. his reply. The great French man delighted in the general and abstract. when an infant. but such was his At the age of twenty-four his reputation as a mathematician secured In 1743 for him admission to the Academy of Sciences. 3 been said that an edition of Euler s complete works &quot. His mode of working was. the glazier s wife is His father provided him with a yearly income.ewton. and in some measure by John Bernoulli and !N&quot. Alembert (1717-1783) was exposed. by his mother in a market by the church of St. . his great successor.000 quarto pages. that law was soon abandoned. : The impressed forces are D Alembert s principle seems to have been recognised before him by Fontaine. &quot. of a poor glazier. densed and give in a nutshell what Euler narrates at great length. first to con centrate Ms powers upon a special problem. appeared his Traitt de dynamique. from which he Jean-le-Rond D derived his Christian name. founded upon the important general principle bearing his name equivalent to the effective forces. The material would soon grow to such enormous proportions as to be unmanageable. step-mother. D Alembert gave it cations of a clear mathematical form and made numerous appli It enabled the laws of motion and the reasonit. in the special and concrete. It is easy to see that mathematicians could not long continue in Euler s habit of writing and publishing. study of law.You mother sent for him. Jean-le-Rond. We are not surprised to see almost the opposite in Lagrange. excelled him in dexterity of accommodating methods to special problems. rather than.254 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. then to solve ISTo one separately all problems growing out of the first. but received the are only my mother. my D Alembert entered upon the love for mathematics.&quot.

in a treatise on the equilibrium and motion of fluids. 255 ings depending on them to be represented in the most general Alembert applied it in 1744 form. and showed that there is supposed to vanish for x= only one arbitrary function. Daniel Bernoulli. as also in one of 1747. which obtained a prize from the Berlin Academy.+ 0sin i If -cos V + --^ solution. starting with a particular integral given showed that this differential by Brook Taylor. he gave as the general solution. if true. on the same day with Clairaut. but D Alembert rightly objected to his process. equation is satisfied by the trigonometric series .cos. most general Euler denied on the ground that. he was led to a leader among the He was partial differential equations. in analytical language. the doubtful conclusion would follow that the above series repre sents any arbitrary function of a variable. AND LAPLACE. . 46 most beautiful result reached by Alembert. pioneers in the study of such equations. a2 To the equation ^f = ^3 arising in the problem of vibrat ing chords. which had baffled the talents of the best minds. This had become a question of universal interof his principle. and claimed this expression to be the its generality. These doubts were dispelled by Fourier. LAGRANGE. a solution of the problem of three bodies. if y be and x = I. In both these treatises.ETJLBB. with aid ground that it D was the complete solution of the problem of the precession of the equinoxes. He sent to the French Academy in 1747. Lagrange proceeded to find the sum of the above series. in 1746 D to a treatise on the general causes of winds. on the A involved divergent series. discussing the famous problem of vibrating chords.

to undertake the education of her son. versely proportional to the square of the distance between them.the moon around the earth. or where a planet moves under the influence of the sun and another planet. the Great pressed him to go to Berlin. differential equations of motion were but the dimculty arises in their integration. asks for the motion of three bodies attracting each other according to the law of gravitation.256 A HISTORY OJF MATHEMATICS. The problem of three bodies &quot. requiring the determination of attract each other with forces in &quot. The problem their motion of when they two bodies. but He Alexis Claude Clairaut (1713-1765) was a youthful prodigy. which was begun by Diderot of mathematics. In the discussion of the meaning of negative quantities. In 1731 he gave a proof of . read PHospitaPs works on the infinitesimal calculus and on conic sections at the age of ten. disturbing the motion of. of the fundamental processes of the calculus. Catharine D Alembert The &quot. in 1762. in which. vied to outdo all others. est to mathematicians. an invitation of Frederick II. had been completely solved by Newton. Thus far. It was a work of remark able elegance and secured his admission to the Academy of Sciences when still under legal age. In 1754 he was made permanent secretary of the French Academy. and of the theory of Alembert paid some attention to the philosophy probability. declined a permanent residence there. In 1731 was published his Hecherches sur les courbes & double courbure. He made a visit. and himself. D His criticisms were not always happy. During the last years of his life he was mainly occupied with the great French encyclopaedia. each. hitherto given are merely convenient methods The general stated of approximation in special cases when one body is the sun. the complete solution of this has transcended the power of analysis. by Laplace. which he had ready for the press when he was sixteen.

adorned but did not really alter the theory which started from the creative hands of Clairaut. and the subject remains at accomplished different. AND LAPLACE. his measurements were renewed. though the form is &quot. that every cubic is a pro of one of five divergent parabolas. Maupertius earned by &quot. 1743. Maclaurin on homogeneous It contains a remarkable theorem. named after results of Clairaut. TMorie de la figure de la Terre. At 1713 Dominico Cassini measured an arc extending from Dunkirk to is Perpignan and arrived at the startling result that the earth elongated at the poles. of the earth no other person has the figure says that so much as Clairaut. substantially as he left it. Clairaut published a work. from theory that the earth was flattened at the poles. To decide between the conflicting opinions. earth flattener in Lapland by disprov the Cassinian tenet that the earth was elongated at the ing and showing that Newton was right. In 1752 he gained a prize of the St. in which for the first time This contained is applied to lunar motion. About meridian.times the fraction expressing the centrifugal force at the equator.EULEB. earth. which was based on the ellipsoids. dition to whom he Lapland to measure the length of accompanied on an expe a degree of the that time the shape of the earth was a subject Newton and Huygens had concluded of serious disagreement. LAGRANGE. respect to the This theorem is by the force of gravity at the independent of any hypothesis with law of densities of the successive strata of the Todhunter It embodies most of Clairaut s researches. that the fractions expressing the ellipticity and the increase of gravity at the pole is equal to 2J. the sum of the unit of force being represented equator. modern analysis . Glairaut formed the acquaintance of Maupertius. On his return. 257 jection the theorem enunciated by Newton. in work present The splendid analysis which Laplace supplied.&quot. the title of &quot. Petersburg Academy for his paper on Thforie de la Lune.

The grow ing ambition of Clairaut to shine in society. s Comet. In his Oosmological Letters he made some remarkable prophe cies regarding the stellar system. Johann Heinrich Lambert (1728-1777). His many-sided scholarship reminds one of Leibniz. when. a date which tion. hindered his scientific work in the latter part life. and enjoyed the society of Euler and Lagrange. While working at his father s trade. He was the first to detect singular solutions in differential equations of the order but of higher degree than the first. became acquainted with the leading mathematicians. he reached results agreeing with observa The motion of the moon was studied about the same Clairaut predicted that time by Euler and D Alembert. and he was on the point of advancing a new hypothesis regarding gravitation. seemed to Mm inexplicable by Newton s law.258 A HISTOEY OF MATHEMATICS. left unexplained by Newton. where he was a great favourite. At the age of thirty he became tutor iii a Swiss family and secured leisure to continue In his travels with his pupils through Europe he his studies. first In their scientific labours there was between Clairaut and D Alembert great of his rivalry. and later became editor of the Berlin JSphem- em. tak to a higher degree ing the precaution to carry his calculation of approximation. which were extended and overshadowed by His first research on pure mathe- . 1759. In mathematics he made several discoveries his great contemporaries. where he became member of the Academy. often far from friendly. was the son of a poor tailor. he acquired through his own unaided efforts a knowledge of elementary mathematics. turned out to be one month too late.&quot. He received a small pension.Halley its nearest point to the sun on April 13. born at Muhlhausen in Alsace. In 1764 he settled in Berlin. This at first the explanation of the motion of the lunar apsides. then expected to return. motion. would arrive at &quot.

In his &quot. cometary orbits. Lagrange s Oalcul . John Landen (1719-1790) was an English mathematician whose writings served as the starting-point of investigations by Euler.EULER. m in two ways.f&amp. 1759 and 1773. was that every arc of the ery. Lagrange. he to some remarkable theorems on conies. : that also the sums of the radii vectores. who extended the method to an equation of four terms. This proof is given in Note IV. where it is extended to ?r 2 . In 1761 Lambert communicated to the Berlin Academy a memoir. contains researches on descriptive geometry. who found that a function of a root s results to give a value of x. = + = + = and stimulated Euler. and honour of being the forerunner of Monge. etc. are equal to each other.residual analysis&quot. in which he proves that TT is irrational. To the genius duction into trigonometry of Lambert we owe the intro hyperbolic functions. 259 matics developed in an infinite series the root x of the equation 8 boo d Since each equation of the form aaf # j^px of Legendre s Gfeometrie. then the sectors formed in each ellipse by the arc and the two radii vectores are to each other as the square roots of the parameters of the B ellipses. and entitle him to the In his effort to simplify the calculation of &quot. was led geometrically If in two ellipses having a common major for instance this axis we take two such arcs that their chords are equal. LAGRANGE. one or the other of can be reduced to x px g the two resulting series was always found to be convergent. which he of designated by sinli x. Landen s capital discov of cosh x. drawn respectively from the foci to the extremities of these arcs. Lambert a_x + &amp. AND LAPLACE. he attempted to obviate the metaphysical difficulties of fluxions by adopting a purely des Fonctions is based algebraic method. and of particularly Lagrange.&quot. His Freye Perspective. (x) = can be expressed by the series bearing his name. contained in a memoir is immediately rectified by means of two arcs of an hyperbola ellipse. and Legendre.

1779. filled the mathe matical chair at the University of Bologna during her father s in which he uses published by . Derivations^ 1800^ gives the method known by his name. A beautiful theorem his determinants. The notation D y for ~ is due to x him. as to the degree of the resultant goes by name. who hac . &quot.witch of Agnesi or versiera is a plane curve containing a straight line. Etienne Bezout (1730-1783. His father. linear equations (invented also first he gave the method of elimination by This method was by Euler) him in a memoir of 1764. Maria Gaetana Agnesi (1718-1799) of Milan. De is differentiation coefficients of a Morgan has pointed out that the true nature of derivation In this book accompanied by integration. &quot. this idea. The &quot. entering upon their theory.) was a French writer of popular mathematical school-books. &quot. cc = 0. the Calcul des mathematics at Strasburg. In 1748 she published her Instituzioni Analiticlie&amp. one of the greatesl mathematicians of all times. which was translated into English in 1801. the expression is complicated. time of this suggestive writer was spent in the pursuits of active life. mathematician. ) Joseph Louis Lagrange (1736-1813). was born at Turin and died a1 Paris. from for the first time are the symbols of operation separated those of quantity. distinguished as a linguist. and philosopher. and a cubic f ^ +1=-. however. In his TMorie gn6rale des Equa tions Algflbriqu&s. He was of French extraction. Louis Arbogaste ^1759-1803) of Alsace was professor of His chief work. upon Landen showed how the algebraic expression for the roots of a cubic equation could be derived by applica Most of the tion of the differential and integral calculus.260 A HISTOBY OF MATHEMATICS. by which the successive development are derived from one another when. without.

Lagrange considered this loss his ematics the pursuit of his his genius did not at once good fortune.e. the determined. for otherwise he might not have made math life. LAGRANGE. While at the college in Turin talfe its true bent. in the development of which he was des tined to reap undying glory. AND LAPLACE. Cicero and Vir gil at first attracted him more than Archimedes and Newton. In the first five volumes of its transactions greatest of his contemporaries. Without assistance or guidance he entered upon a course of study which in two years placed him on a level with the With aid of his pupils he established a society which subsequently developed into the Turin Academy. Euler introduced in 1766 the curve to extremities of the curve to be vary . known now* s as the Calculus of This commanded Euler lively admiration. and he courteously withheld for a time from publication some researches of his own on this subject. Euler had assumed as fixed the limits of the integral.&quot. but lost all he had in speculation. so that the youthful Lagrange might complete his investigations and claim the invention. He now applied himself to mathematics.EULEK. Lagrange did quite as much as Euler towards the creation of the Calculus of Variations. but Lagrange removed this restriction and allowed all co-ordinates of the at tlie same time. appear most of his earlier papers. At the age of nineteen he communicated to Euler a general method of dealing with &quot. and this Lagrange supplied. was once wealthy. i. He soon came to admire the geometry of the ancients. problems. isoperimetrical Variations. As it came from Euler it He lacked an analytic foundation. and in his seventeenth year he became professor of mathematics in the royal military academy at Turin. separated the principles of this calculus from geometric considerations by which his predecessor had derived them. but the perusal of a tract of Halley roused his enthusiasm for the analytical method. 261 charge of the Sardinian military chest.

to improve marked out by Lagrange. In his papers on this subject in the Miscellanea Taurinensia. D whether an arbitrary function Alembert maintained the negative and finally Lagrange. he reduced the problem to the same partial differential equation that represents the motions of vibrating strings. D Alembert. age of twenty-six. tone. with but slight variations. that in order to determine the position of a point of the ing chord at a time t. and the arbiter between Euler and D Alembert. on the principle of universal gravitation. why the moon always turns. the young mathemati cian appears as the critic of Newton. at the fame. name calculus of variations/ science along the lines and did much. and though his physicians induced him to take rest and exercise. By considering only the particles which are in a straight line. more than the one of three bodies previously solved by Clairaut. &quot. his nervous system never fully recovered its of melancholy. of the four satellites of Jupiter. an explanation. Lagrange. not permit difficult . constant application during nine years. Daniel Bernoulli. argu against Euler. the initial position of the chord must be continuous. stood at the summit of European But his intense studies had seriously weakened a constitution never robust. The general integral of this was found by D Alembert to contain two arbitrary functions. Lagrange secured the prize.262 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. this Another subject engaging the attention of Lagrange at Turin was the propagation of sound. and he was thenceforth subject to fits In 1764 the Trench Academy proposed as the subject of It demanded a prize the theory of the libration of the moon. and Euler. but the shortness of time did. Lagrange overcame the him to difficulties. By Lagrange settled the question in the affirmative. the same phase to the earth. and the ques tion now came to be discussed may be discontinuous. This suc cess encouraged the Academy to propose as a prize the theory a problem of six bodies.

Aleinbert. expressing the wish of &quot. During the twenty years in Berlin he crowded the transac tions of the Berlin Academy with memoirs. where he enjoyed the stimulating delight of conversing with Clairaut. Lagrange visited Paris. on s problem. - assured by their wives that the marital state alone is happy. the Abbe Marie. Finding all his colleagues married. soon died. 263 Twenty-four years afterwards it was completed by Laplace. In 1766 Euler left Berlin for St. There are two methods of solving directly algebraic equa The that of substitution and that of combination. He worked no longer each day than experience taught habits. Frederick the Great held him in high esteem. D mended him at the same time. The union was not a happy one. He enriched algebra by researches on the solution of equations. AND LAPLACE.the greatest king of Europe to have the greatest mathemati cian at his court. fully thought out before he began writing. LAGEANGE. Petersburg. and staid there twenty years. Later astronomical investigations of Lagrange are on coinetary perturbations (1778 and 1783). &quot. tions. Kepler of leading mathematicians. His papers were care and wfren he wrote he did so without a single correction. Frederick the Great there upon sent a message to Turin. and being &quot. and wrote called the also the epoch-making work M6canique Analytique. and others. him he could without breaking down. but he fell dangerously ill after a dinner in Paris. He had planned a visit to London. and was compelled to return to Turin. and he pointed out Lagrange as Alembert recom the only man capable of filling the place. Lagrange went to Berlin. His wife he married.EULEE. Being anxious to make the personal acquaintance D Condor cet. and on a new method of solving the prob lem of three Bodies. . exhaust the subject. &quot. and frequently conversed with him on the advantages of per This led Lagrange to cultivate regular fect regularity of life.

Among other things. Euler. &quot. Algebraicce . Bezout. Tchirnhausen. Lagrange traced all known algebraic solutions of equa tions to the uniform principle consisting in the formation and solution of equations of lower degree whose roots are linear functions of the required roots. are so transformed that the determination of the roots to In the method of substitution the original forms is made depend upon simpler functions (resolvents).) of the unknown roots of the equation.types&quot. it contains a theorem also a proof that every equation must have a root. and auxiliary equations (resolvents) are obtained for these quantities with aid of the coefficients of the given equa tion. enunciated by an Englishman. While in Berlin Lagrange published several papers on the theory of numbers. and Lagrange the latter by Vandermonde and . and first published by Waring in his Meditationes . Other proofs of this were given by Argand. In the Resolution des equations num6riques (1798) he gave a method of approximating to the real roots of numerical equa tions by continued fractions. which resembles the Hindoo cyclic method he was the first to prove. in 1771. its resolvent being of the sixth degree. 20 Lagrange. Vieta. He showed that the quintic cannot be reduced in this way.264 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. and of the roots of unity. and Cauchy. Gauss. which appears before this to have been considered self-evident. In 1769 he gave a solution in integers of indeterminate equations of the second degree. In a note to the above work Lagrange uses Fermat s theorem and certain suggestions of Gauss in effecting a complete alge braic solution of any binomial equation.Wilson s theorem. His researches on the theory of equations were continued after he left Berlin. former method was developed by Ferrari. In the method of combination auxiliary quantities are substituted for certain simple combinations (&quot. John Wilson. 2 and 5 he investigated in 1775 under what conditions and 3 having been discussed by Euler) (1 .&quot.

He was the first to point out the geometrical significance of such solutions. Lagrange established criteria for singular solutions (Calcul des Fonctions. He never. LAGRANGE. He generalised Euler s researches on total differential equa . Clairaut. yet more than other branches of mathematics did they resist the sys tematic application of fixed methods and principles. the whole system of mechanics so elegantly and . AND LAPLACE. with aid of the calculus of variations. if a 5 = e then ab is not a . Lessons 14-17). Fermat s theorem + yn = zn for the case n = 4. or non-residues of odd prime numbers. and of the ninth order he gave a solu tion of partial differential equations of the first order (Berlin Memoirs. 1788). Lagrange wrote the t M&cJianiqueAncdytique&quot. Though the subject of contemplation by the greatest mathematicians (Euler. the greatest of his works (Paris. 265 are quadratic residues. In his memoir on Pyramids. 1773. 1772 and 1774). of squares. however. Euler. and demonstrated that the square of a determinant is itself a determinant. and spoke of their singular solutions. carried on by D Alembert. proved Ferinat also s theorem on xn that. tions of extending their solution in Memoirs of 1779 and 1785 to equa any number of variables. has already been referred to in our account of D Alembert. Laplace). The discussion on partial differential equations of the second order. He . and Lagrange. he simply obtained accidentally identities which are now recognised as relations between determinants. dealt explicitly and directly with determi nants. From the principle of virtual velocities he deduced. Lagrange wrote much on differential equations. Lagrange made consider able use of determinants of the third order. 2 2 2 -j- . however. erroneous. While in Berlin.EULER. q he proved in 1770 Meziriac s theorem that every integer is equal to the sum of four. D Alembert. Lagrange. tions of two variables. which are. or a less number. square.

. But x. are the partial differential coefficients of one and the same function V. or A. z. . dt __ dg . z. &amp. least action. (Preface).. fa whatever. A d d The latter is par excellence the tions of motion. 49 Lagrange was anxious to have his Mfoanique Analytique published in Paris. fitly be called. and then only with the condition that after a few years he would pur chase all the unsold copies. of the system. Kowan Hamilton s words. and Lagrange introduced in place of them any variables are in general not independent.. The two divisions of mechanics dans cet ouvrage&quot. &amp. in 1786. . . involve the co-ordinates of the different particles m .266 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS.. &quot. Geometrical On ne trouvera point de figures figures are nowhere allowed. when H. in Sir William poem. These may be taken to be independent. with respect to then the form ^. or dm &amp. y. The work was edited by Legendre. . The equations of motion may now assume the form ddT dT. . and each prefaced by a historic sketch of principles. it harmoniously that may &quot. the equations of motion x. The work was ready for print. statics and dynamics are in the first is four sections of each carried out analogously. the honour of the introduction of the potential into dynamics. determining the position of the point at the but not till 1788 could he find a publisher. Lagrange formulated the principle of In their original form.. With Lagrange Lagrangian form of the equa originated the remark that mechanics may be To him falls regarded as a geometry of four dimensions. a kind of scientific It is a most consummate example of analytic generality. \l/..

267 After the death of Frederick the Great. lay unopened on his desk. Her devotion to him constituted the one tie to life which at the approach of death he found it hard to break.EULEB. Ecole Polytechnique was founded. The earliest triumph of this institution was . to migrate to Paris. Laplace. but at the establishment of the Ecole Normale in 1795 in Paris. and planned to return to Berlin. The French queen treated him with regard. men of science were no longer respected in Germany. and such the universal respect for him. fresh from the the work of a quarter of a press. and insisted upon marrying him. had been purified by the Jacobins by striking out the names of Lavoisier. The disastrous &quot. AND LAPLACE. Scarcely had he time to elucidate the foundations of arithmetic and algebra to young pupils. London. young and accomplished daughter of the astronomer Lemonnier took compassion on the sad.. istry. with Lagrange as one of the professors. For two years his printed copy of the Mtcanique. Such was the moderation of Lagrange s character. when the school was closed.&quot. About this time the crisis of the French Kevolution aroused He was made one of the commissioners to establish weights and measures having units founded on nature. But he was seized with a long attack of melancholy which destroyed his taste for mathematics. weights and measures even after it him again to activity. LAGBANGE. and lodging was procured for him in the Louvre. that he was retained as presi dent of the commission on. century. and others. and Lagrange accepted an invitation of Louis XVI. Through Lavoisier he became interested in chem which he found easy as algebra. Lagrange took alarm at the fate of Lavoisier. Lagrange strongly favoured the decimal subdivision. lonely Lagrange. His additions to the In 1797 the algebra of Euler were prepared at this time. the general idea of which was obtained from a work of Thomas Williams. he was induced to accept a professorship.

but began he died before its completion. but when they &quot. The chord and arc were not taken by Newton as equal before In Newton s That vanish. that ratio offers to the . Legons a treatise on the same lines as the preceding (1801). for at the moment when they should be caught and equated. The TJieorie memoir of his calculus difficult des fonctions. there is neither arc nor chord. When Lagrange that a variable actually reached its limit. well con we can always speak. as long as they remain as soon as its terms mind no clear and precise idea. for though &quot. fonctions analytiques (1797). and then to develop the entire calculus from that theorem. become both nothing at the same time. so to sidering quantities in the state in which they cease. to be quantities . nor after vanishing. the germ by of which is found in a of 1772.has the great inconvenience of con method. sur le calcul des fonctions. the restoration of Lagrange to analysis. limiting ratio. His mathematical He brought forth the Theorie des activity burst out anew. professing a similar object. a thorough revision of his Mecanique analytique. philosophic In the of Leibniz had no satisfactory metaphysical basis.&quot. residual calculus. of Euler they were treated as absolute differential calculus zeros. him. the magnitudes of which it is the ratio cannot be found. said Lagrange. two quantities. and the In 1810 he Resolution des equations numeriques (1798).268 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. The principles of the calculus were in his day involved in The infinitesimals difficulties of a serious nature. ceive the ratios of finite. Lagrange attempted to prove Taylor mind of the John Landen s was unknown to s theorem (the power of which he was the first to point out) by simple algebra.&quot. D Alembert s method of limits was much the same as the D Alembert taught method of prime and ultimate ratios. vanishing. aimed to place the principles of the upon a sound foundation relieving the conception of a limit or infinitesimal.

but its secondary results were far-reaching. But he used infinite series without ascertaining that they were con vergent. endeavoured to free the calculus of its 269 difficulties. Eiemann.EULEB. apart from geometrical or mechanical considerations. Lagrange s mathematical rigour. AND LAPLACE. Though Lagrange s method of developing the calculus was at greatly applauded.method of derivatives. It was a purely it edition of his Mecanique. He introduced a notation of his erally own. and others. its defects were fatal. but first was inconvenient. and his proof that f(x h) can always be expanded in a series of ascending powers of h. In the treatment of infinite series of higher analysis a function Lagrange displayed in his earlier writings that laxity common to all mathematicians of his time. labours under serious + defects. in the Gakul de fonctions he gives his theorem on the limits of Taylor s theorem. Weierstrass. and work may be regarded as the starting-point of the Lagrange theory of functions as developed by Cauchy. and thus to avoid all reference to limits. researches extended to subjects which have not been men- . D But his later articles mark the beginning of a period of greater Thus. and was abandoned by him in the second The primary object of the Theorie des fonctions was not attained. In the further development s became the leading idea.&quot. was founded on a false view of infinity. LAGRANGE. excepting Mcolaus Bernoulli II. as it was called. ISTo correct theory of infinite series had then been established. has been gen abandoned. he avoided the whirlpool of Charybdis only to suffer wreck against the rocks of Scylla. and to-day his &quot. and Alembert. in which he used infinitesimals. Lagrange proposed to define the differential coefficient of /(a?) with respect to x The algebra as the coefficient of h in the expansion of f(x + Ji) by Taylor s theorem. as handed down to him by Euler. abstract mode of regarding functions. of his day. metaphysical by resorting to common algebra.

Je ne sais pas. armed with letters of recommendation to letters who was then at the height of his fame. You needed no .270 tioned liere A HISTOKY OF MATHEMATICS. As an extern he attended the military school in Beaumont.&quot. which brought the following enthusiastic response: &quot. and the only ones that were secured were sketched without his knowledge Institute. his general results to others. life. &quot. Some rich neighbours who recognised the boy s at the height of his When talent assisted him in securing an -education. ascend Everywhere his ing continued fractions. was an extremely modest man. D Alembert secured him a position at the Ecole Militaire of Paris as professor of matheself my . surpassed him in practical sagacity. elliptic integrals. and even timid in conversation. by persons attending the meetings of the Pierre Simon Laplace (1749-1827) was born at Beaumontis en-Auge in Normandy. introduction . undaunted. where at an At eighteen early age he became teacher of mathematics.&quot. you have recommended your support is your due. eager to avoid Lagrange He spoke in controversy. wonderful powers of generalisation and abstraction are made manifest. he went to Paris. spent in poverty. and his first words generally were. His father was a small farmer. such as probabilities. tones of doubt. In that respect he stood without a peer. D Alembert. wrote the great geometer a letter on the principles of me chanics. Laplace. The remained -unnoticed. He would never allow his portrait to be taken. but young Laplace. but his great contemporary. Yery little known of his early fame he was loath to speak of his boyhood. Lagrange was content to leave the application of and some of the most important researches of Laplace (particularly those on the velocity of sound and on the secular acceleration of the moon) are im plicitly contained in Lagrange s works. finite differences.

but. of the earth s orbit had been perpendicular to the equinoctial line. 271 His future was now assured. During the succeeding fifteen years appeared most of his original contri butions to astronomy. and made the start of the new era coincide with the beginning of the glorious French 50 Eepublic. With wonderful mastery of analysis. LAGRANGE. and taught. AND LAPLACE. mathematics in the Ecole Normale. but also after political honours. for by this meridian the beginning of his proposed era fell at midnight. In 1784 he succeeded Bezout as examiner to the royal artillery. His career was one of almost uninter rupted prosperity. matics. The of this political career eminent and suppleness. j He was made president of the Bureau of Longitude he aided in the introduction of the decimal system. Laplace attacked the pending problems in the application of the law of gravitation to celestial motions. the day when Napoleon was made emperor. Napoleon rewarded this minister of the interior. devotion by giving him the post of . 18th was stained by servility Laplace s ardour for republican principles suddenly gave way to a great devotion to the emperor. When. during the Bevolution. there arose a cry for the reform of everything. even of the calendar. and the following year he became mem ber of the Academy of Sciences.&quot.EULEB. But the to be located east of Paris revolutionists rejected this scheme. The year was was to begin with the vernal equinox. Laplace suggested the adoption of an era beginning with the the major axis year 1250. when. After the of Brumaire. and he entered those profound researches which brought him the title of upon &quot.30 degrees of the centesimal division of the quadrant. and the zero meridian by 185. unhappily he strove not only after greatness in science. as a most Laplace was justly admired throughout Europe for his repu sagacious and profound scientist. with Lagrange. according to his calculation.the Newton of France. scientist tation.

il cherchait des subtilites veritable point de vue partout. the Exposition to the scientific world. thereby earning the title of marquis.aucune question sous son Napoleon. Desirous Napoleon elevated Mm to the Senate and bestowed various other honours upon him. We first pass in brief review his astronomical researches. After we are surprised to find in the editions of the Theorie analytique des probability which appeared after the Restoration. he cheerfully gave his voice in 1814 to the dethronement of his patron and hastened to tender his services to the Bourbons.272 but dismissed &quot. Said Laplace ne saisissait . Besides these he contributed important memoirs to the Prench Academy.&quot. In 1773 he brought out a paper in which he proved that the mean motions or mean distances of planets are invariable or merely subject to small periodic changes. that most precious to the author was the declaration he thus made of this outburst of affection. A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. Mm n avait que des idees problematiques. that the original dedication to the emperor is suppressed. To the third volume of the M6canique Celeste is prefixed a note that of all the truths contained in the book. after six months for incapacity. Syst&me du monde was dedicated to the Council of Mve Hun dred. Nevertheless. Though supple and servile in politics. to retain Ms allegiance. Three great works did he give the Mecanique Celeste. gratitude and devotion to the peace-maker of Europe. This pettiness of his The first edition of the character is seen in his writings. and the Theorie anatytique des probabili ties. du systeme du monde. In mathematics and astronomy his genius shines with a lustre excelled by few. This was the first . it must be said that in religion and science Laplace never misrepresented or con cealed his own convictions however distasteful they might be to others. et portait enfin Pesprit des infiniinent petits jusgue dans P administration. .

could be a capable of maintaining permanently condition of equilibrium. as those in the solar system. these bodies was completed in papers of 1788 and 1789. Laplace was enabled to determine the masses of the moons. so different in intensity. Newton was of the opinion that a powerful hand must inter vene from time to time to repair the derangements occa This sioned by the mutual action of the different bodies. and the moon upon the earth. as well as the other papers here mentioned. while Jupiter would fall into the Laplace finally succeeded sun. doubtful whether forces so numerous.EULEJEt. paper was the beginning of a series of profound researches by Lagrange and Laplace on the limits of variation of the various elements of planetary orbits. depending upon the law of was found in The cause of so influential a perturbation tion. so variable in position. He also discovered cer tain very remarkable. AHD LAPLACE. that these variations inequality&quot.) belonged to the class of ordi attrac nary periodic perturbations. Laplace s first paper really grew out of researches on the of Jupiter and Saturn. leave the planetary system. in showing.great the commensurability of the mean motion of the two planets. known as &quot. In the study of the Jovian system. (called the &quot. LAGRANGE. His theory of of those bodies.and Lagrange without receiving satisfactory explanation. lished in the Memoirs prfaentis par divers . in which the two great mathema ticians alternately surpassed and supplemented each other.&quot. simple relations between the movements Laws of Laplace. Observation revealed the existence of a steady acceleration of the mean motions of our moon and of Jupiter and an equally strange diminution of the mean mo It looked as though Saturn might eventually tion of Saturn. were pub These. in a paper of 1784-1786. The behaviour of these planets theory had been studied by Euler &quot. The year savans. 273 and most important step in establishing the stability of the 51 To Newton and also to Euler it had seemed solar system.

Books XIII. on celestial mechanics. Lagrange. a non-mathematical popular treatise on astronomy. was at last found to be a complete machine.274 A HISTOKY OF MATHEMATICS. A appear to have been aware of this. Of the volume. In this for the first time his celebrated nebular similar theory had been previously proposed hypothesis. the fourth in 1805. XV. Laplace conceived the idea of writing a work which should contain a complete analytical solution of the mechanical prob lem presented by the solar system. and so complete. treating particu larly of motions of comets. and by Swedenborg but Laplace does not . The first and figure of celestial bodies. in 1825. were published in 1823. and Book XVI. volume opens with a brief history of celestial then gives in appendices the results of the mechanics. motion That system. and of other satel lites. a then known. s 1787 was made memorable by Laplace announcement that the lunar acceleration depended upon the secular changes in the eccentricity of the earth s orbit. without deriving from observation any but indispensable data. The result was the Mtcaniq ue C&leste. and author s later researches. Clairaut. versal validity of the law of gravitation to explain in the solar system The uni all was established. that Laplace s successors have . two volumes contain the general theory of the motions The third and fourth volumes give special theories of celestial motions. XIV. This removed all doubt then existing as to the stability of the solar system. in 1824. The first and second volumes of this work were published in 1799 fifth .. by Kant in 1755. Books XI. of our moon. which is a systematic presentation embrac ing all the discoveries of Newton. the third appeared in 1802.. In 1796 Laplace published his Exposition du syst&me du monde. and XII. Euler. work he enunciates ending with a sketch of the history of the science. The Mcanique C&leste was such a fifth The master-piece. and of Laplace himself. D Alembert.

but may it not have been intended ? to convey a meaning somewhat different from its literal one was not able to explain by his law of gravitation all Newton heavens. as A assisted Laplace in revising the work for that he once asked Laplace some explanation the press. n avais pas besoin de cette hypothese-la. LAGBANGE. Karl Burkhardt. questions solar system was stable. are told that We copy of the &quot. with an extensive com The M6canique C6leste is not mentary. in Boston. Nathaniel Bowditch brought out an edition in English.&quot. and that Laplace spent an hour endeavouring to recover ever. the organised result of a century of But Laplace frequently neglects to properly patient toil. AND LAPLACE. Biot. Thus. 275 the The general part of been able to add comparatively little.Je This assertion. work was translated into German by Joh. they tell me you have and have never even mentioned the system of the universe. arising in the mechanics of the Creator. a rule. and being unable to show that the Newton expressed the suspecting in fact that it was unstable. cated chain of reasoning receives often no explanation what The difficulties lie. when Laplace presented Napoleon with a Mcamque Ctteste. the latter made the remark. &quot. it naturally contains a great deal that is drawn from his pred ecessors.ETJLEB. its Laplace is said to have replied bluntly. 1800-1802. Notwithstanding the impor remark. written this large book on Laplace. and appeared in Berlin.&quot. acknowledge the source from which he draws.M. . not so much in the compli subject itself as in the want of verbal explanation. which are due to Laplace himself. It is. &quot. easy reading. 1829-1839. is impious. taken literally. of a passage in the book which had been written not long before. in fact. who tells the reasoning which had been carelessly suppressed with the est facile de voir.&quot.II tant researches in the work. and lets the reader infer that theorems and formulae due to a predecessor are really his own.

which belong more properly Of these the most conspicuous are on Laplace has done more towards than any one other investigator. but did not publish it until 1809. of a powerful hand was necessary to preserve order. this subject third edition (1820) consists of an introduction and two books. Ivory. 3STow Laplace was able to prove by the law of gravitation that the solar system is stable. He advancing published a series of papers. but all proofs contain some . Gauss had used it still earlier. without demonstration. probability his Laplace gives in his work on method of approximation to the values of definite integrals. The introduction was published separately under the title.276 A HISTOBY OF MATHEMATICS. The solu tion of linear differential equations was reduced by him to work One of the most important parts of the the application of probability to the method of least squares. The first appeared in print Analyst. Herschel. felt We now proceed to researches to pure mathematics. Proofs of this law have since been given by G-auss. and others. and in that sense may be said to have no necessity for reference to the Almighty. from time to time. The first book contains the theory of generating functions. opinion that tlie special intervention. The the theory of probability. is The first printed statement of the principle of least squares was made in 1806 by Legendre. 1812. Hagen. Essai philosopliique sur les probability and is an admirable and masterly exposition without the aid of analytical formulee of the principles and applications of the science. the main results of which were collected in his TMorie anatytique des probabiliUs. definite integrals. in the second book. deduction of the law of probability of error that was given in 1808 by Eobert Adrain in the 2 a journal published by himself in Philadelphia. which is shown to give the most probable as well as the most convenient results. which are applied. to the theory of probability.

and Among his memoir on singular solutions of differential equations. factory. point of difficulty. Laplace failed to make due acknowledgment of this. not introduced into analysis by Laplace.&quot. Of Laplace important is papers on the attraction of ellipsoids.&quot. The ticularly Laplace analytical processes are free of giving the result of analytical processes correctly.EULER. &quot. solving equations of the second. The theory of spherical harmonics for two dimensions had been previously given by Legendre. 277 Laplace s proof is perhaps the most satis s work on probability is very difficult reading. V. of potential was. 5i dx? + + _.= 0. and to a great extent s reprinted in the third volume of the M6canique Celeste. however. is shown by him to satisfy the partial dy -112 feeling more much used by differential equation equation.No from by no means clearly one was more sure established or so little care to point out the various small considerations on which correctness depends&quot. par the part on the method of least squares. and magnetism. Ms . It gives an exhaustive treatment of the general problem of attraction of or any ellipsoid upon a particle situated outside upon its surface.a in con than Laplace. dz* This is known as Laplace s and was first given by him in the more complicated The notion form which it assumes in polar co-ordinates. &quot. and is The potential function. third. The honour of that achievement belongs to La- grange.Laplace in the theory of attraction. between the two great men. the most the one published in 1785. AND LAPLACE. coldness. and no one ever took error. (Be Morgan). &quot. and there sequence. or the so-called constitute a powerful analytic engine s coefficients. existed. LAGRANOE. in electricity. 49 the minor discoveries of Laplace are his method of fourth degrees. Spherical harmonics.

&quot. the estab lishment of the expansion theorem in determinants which had been previously given by Vanderrnonde for a special case. c est notre maitre a tous. of functions in series s ment known as Laplace s theorem. He and Lagrange originated the method of combinations in solving equations. his mathematical theory of capillarity . almost be regarded as the founder of that theory. Laplace We tion investigations in physics were quite extensive.278 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. his formulae for measuring heights by the barometer. Adrien Marie Legendre (1752-1833) was educated at the . he spent cal problems. He was the Abnit-TfceopMle t first to give a connected and logical exposition of the theory of determinants. Laplace Lagrange looked upon mathematics as the tool for the solution of physi Laplace little The true result being once reached. and would often say. mention here his correction of Newton s formula on the velocity of sound in gases by taking into account the changes of elasticity due to the heat of compression and cold of rarefac . The last years of his life were spent mostly at Arcueil in peaceful retirement on a country-place. researches in finite differences and in determinants. lisez Euler. where he pursued his studies with his usual vigour until his death. 20 . his researches on the theory of tides . time in explaining the various steps of his analysis. Vandermonde (1735-1796) studied music his youth in Paris and advocated the theory that all during art rested upon one general law. his explanation of astronomical refrac tion .&quot. He was a great admirer of Euler.Lisez Euler. and may. the determination of the complete integral of the linear differen tial In the Mecaniqite Celeste he made a generalisation of Lagrange s theorem on the develop equation of the second order. through which any one could become a composer with the aid of mathematics. s writings stand out in bold contrast to those of in their lack of elegance and symmetry. therefore. or in polishing his work.

Owing to his timidity and to Laplace s unfriendliness toward him. wliere lie began the study of mathe matics under Abbe Marie. He also undertook the prodigious task of calculating tables of arcs of the ellipse for different degrees of amplitude and eccentricity. second only to Laplace and Lagrange. but few important public offices commensurate with his ability were tendered to him. In 1795 he was elected professor at the E&quot. attraction of ellip soids. ^sin2 ^. . In 1780 he resigned his position in order for the stiidy of higher mathematics. . designated by ). While there he prepared an essay on tary the curve described by projectiles thrown into resisting media (ballistic curve) . until at last Jacobi and Abel stepped in with admirable new discoveries. he showed that such integrals can be brought back to three canonical forms. 279 College Mazarin in Paris. and is least squares. more time He was later then made member of several public commissions. mainly on elliptic integrals. issued in two volumes in 1825 and 1826.ormal School and was appointed to some minor government&quot. LAGRANGE.).F(&amp. to cultivate this He took up left it. Legendre enriched mathematics by important contributions. and Lagrange had the subject where As an analyst. AND LAPLACE. The most important of Legendre s works his Fonctions His mathematical genius secured for position of professor of mathematics at the mili school of Paris. Starting with an of integral depending upon the square root of a polynomial the fourth degree in x. and for forty years was the only one new branch of analysis. 52 Legendre imparted to the subject that connection and arrangement which belongs to an independent science. which supply the means of integrating a large number of differentials. Landen. him the Academy -of to reserve which captured a prize offered by the Eoyal Berlin. and =Vi the radical being expressed in the form !!(&amp. theory of numbers. positions.

contained part of his on was his Oalcul integral in three volumes elliptic functions in which he treats also at length of the (1811. by applying . His memoir was presented to the Academy P of Sciences in 1783. the theorem of quadratic reciprocity. The two household gods to which Legendre sacrificed with ever-renewed pleasure in the silence of his closet were the His researches elliptic functions and the theory of numbers. work Legendre had issued Its at divers times preliminary articles. researches An earlier publication which. He tabulated the values of log T(p) for values of p between 1 and 2. 1817). together with the numerous scattered fragments on the theory of numbers due to his predecessors in this line. and published in two large quarto volumes. on the latter subject. 1830. but Legendre showed that in order to determine the attraction of a spheroid on any external point to cause the surface of another spheroid described the same foci to pass through that point. on the treatment of the spherical triangle as if it were a plane triangle. which suggested to Legendre the function n) named after him.280 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. Legendre calculated the tri This furnished the occasion of establishing angles in France. previously indistinctly given by Euler without proof. One of the earliest subjects of research was the attraction of spheroids. but for the crowning pinnacle is first time clearly enunciated and partly proved by Legendre. entitled Before the publication of this TIi6orie des nombres. were arranged as far as possible into a systematic whole. While acting as one of the commissioners to connect Green all 48 wich and Paris geodetically. formulae and theorems on geodesies. Other memoirs upon it suffices on ellipsoids appeared later. 1816. The suppose the point attracted researches of Maclaurin and Lagrange by a spheroid to be at the surface or within the spheroid. two classes of definite integrals named by him Eulerian.

281 certain corrections to the angles. particularly mathematics. is cannot be less than two right angles. whose angles of all and that if there be any triangle the sum of two right angles. Mark. This great modern rival of Euclid passed through numerous editions the later ones containing the elements of trigonom 2 Much etry and a proof of the irrationality of ir and . being of low birth (the son of a tailor). to show that this sum triangles. he made direct to the senses for the correctness of the parallel-axiom. he proved satisfactorily that it is impossible for the sum of the three angles of a triangle to exceed two right angles. angles always equal to two right angles. He wished to enter the artillery. then the theory of parallels could be strictly deduced. AND LAPLACE. then the same must be true But in the next step. in central is France. but his &quot. appeal He then attempted to demonstrate that &quot. but.EULER. then conducted by the Benedictines of the Convent of St. Memoirs of the Institute is a paper by Legendre. Joseph Fourier (1768-1830) was born at Auxerre. -jr . LAGRANGE. XII. and on the method of least squares. He became an orphan in his eighth year.axiom. In Vol. was given by Legendre to the subject of parallel In the earlier editions of the Elements. with surprising success. not . published for the first time by him without demon stration in 1806. his demonstration neces If it could be granted that the sum of the three sarily failed. being generally adopted on the Continent and in the United States as a substitute for Euclid. which enjoyed great popularity. 1794. Legendre wrote an Elements de G-eometrie. He there prosecuted his studies. Through the influence of friends he was admitted into the military school in his native place.&quot. of the proofs did not satisfy even himself. containing his last attempt at a solution of the problem.&quot. his application was answered thus: f Fourier. attention lines. Assuming space to be infinite.

At the age of twentyone he went to Paris to read before the Academy of Sciences a memoir on the resolution of numerical equations. but there is evidence to before Budan had published this result as early show that Fourier had estab Sudan s publication. along with which he afterwards Monge and accompany Napoleon on his campaign to Egypt. In Egypt he engaged not only in scientific After work.282 A HISTOBY OF MATHEMATICS. Fourier s theorem&quot. which was This* work contained in press when death overtook him. This work marks an epoch in the history of . His brilliant him a chair in the Polytechnic School. of which Fourier became secretary. Berthollet. published in 1835.&quot. two chosen lished it limits. 53 He was soon appointed to the mathe matical chair in the military school. the quitted. This investigation of his early youth he never lost sight of. Fourier became at success secured duties of first pupil. published in 1822 in his work entitled La Theorie Analytique de la Ohaleur. The reformation of the weights and measures was planned with grandeur of con The Normal School was created in 1795. These brilliant results were eclipsed by the theorem of Sturm. of which ception. could not enter the artillery. being noble. which was an improvement on Newton s method of approximation. He lectured upon it in the Polytechnic School he developed it constituted a part of a work it on the banks of the Nile . but discharged important political functions. to his return to France he held for fourteen years the prefecture of Grenoble. as 1807. During this period he carried on his elaborate investigations on the propagation of heat in solid bodies. Fourier took a prominent part at his home in promoting the Eevolution. . Under the French Eevolution the arts -and sciences seemed for a time to flourish. on the number of real roots between &quot. although he were a second Newton. Napoleon founded the Institute of Egypt. then lecturer. entitled Analyse des equationes determines (1831).

John Herschel. + b n cos nx) represents the function (#) for every value of x. not on account of any great of the Leibnizian over the Newtonian notation. In 1827 Fourier succeeded Laplace as president of the council of the Polytechnic School. This dx was a great step in superiority but because the adoption of the former opened up to English students the vast storehouses of continental discoveries. before the French series ft=0 = eo S (an sin nx Academy. tury.Analytical Cambridge. Sir William Thomson. This was a small club in established bage. 283 its physics. was humorously expressed. was formed at England as compared with its In 1813 the &quot. to deplore the very small progress racing progress on the Continent. Fourier s analysis lies in his failure to prove generally that series actually converges to the value of the and trigonometric the function. if the coefficients an =- I /*7T \ &amp. Charles Baband a few other Cambridge students. can be represented by a trigonometric The first announcement of this great discovery was made by Fourier in 1807. by George close. modern writers find . 7T*x JT The weak point in &n be equal to a similar integral. &quot.&quot. The British began that science was making Society&quot. mathematical gem. ^.(V) Tait. and some other&quot. AND LAPLACE. constitutes By this research a long controversy was brought to a and the fact established that any arbitrary function series. to the exclusion of the fluxional notation y. the principles of pure that of is. to promote. This struggle ended in the introduction into Cambridge of the notation &quot. The trigonometric &amp. as it &quot. the Leibniziau notation in the calculus against those or of the Newtonian notation.EULER. Before proceeding to the origin of modern geometry we shall speak briefly of the introduction of higher analysis into Great This took place during the first quarter of this cen Britain.Fourier s series&quot.

was never astronomer. and later.&quot. Lacroix s was one of the best and most extensive works on the calculus of that time. notations. the eminent secure funds. It assumes that the rules applying to the symbols of arithmetical algebra apply also in symbolical algebra.principle and to He of the advances. in 1816.&quot. became Lowndean professor there. These laws had been noticed years before by the inventors of symbolic methods in the calculus. added in 1820 two volumes of examples.Analytical Society.284 it A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. &quot. on meteorology.&quot. Babbage became famous for engine superior to his It invention of a calculating to a misunderstanding quent failure to finished. George Peacock (1791-1858) was educated at Trinity College. and Babbage translated. the permanence of equivalent forms. It was Servois who introduced the names commutative and distributive in 1813. and frequently convenient to use both. owing with the government. His chief publications are his Algebra. dean of Ely.on the real nature of symbolical algebra. Cambridge. Pascal s. Gregory wrote a paper &quot. 1830 and 1842. Peacock. which was the first of several valuable summaries of scientific progress printed in the volumes of the British Association. and in articles contributed to cyclopaedias on light. which brought out clearly the commutative and distributive laws. F. though somewhat imperfectly. He was one of the first to study seriously the fundamental principles of algebra. Peacock afterwards did most work in pure mathematics. and on the history of mathematics. Hersehel. Lacroix s treatise on the differential and integral calculus. fully recognise its purely symbolic character. . displayed his mastery over higher analysis in memoirs communicated to the Koyal Society on new applica tions of mathematical analysis. and his Report on Recent Progress in Analysis. and a conse John Herschel. About this time D. Of the three founders of the &quot. from the French.

almost the only one in Great Britain previous to the organisa tion of the Analytical Society who was well versed in conti He was nental mathematics.&quot. It was reserved for the genius of Monge to bring synthetic geometry in the foreground. Peacock 285 s investigations on the foundation of algebra were considerably advanced by De Morgan and Hankel. the analytical treatment of retained almost undisputed supremacy. De Lahire.EULER.. AND LAPLACE. ISTewton. Of importance is his memoir (Phil. The Origin of Modern Geometry. LAG-BANGE. the analytical culus.Ivory interior to it. geometry was brought into Notwithstanding the great prominence methods made by Desargues. His wonderful descriptive marks the beginning of a modern geometry. mathematician who for twelve years. This is known as with undue severity Laplace s solution of the method of least squares. James Ivory (1765-1845) was a Scotch. By the researches of Descartes and the invention of the cal for over a century. Pas efforts to revive synthetic method cal. and Maclaurin. He criticised of the principle without recourse to probability . and to open up new avenues of progress. and gave three proofs s theorem. and hurst). 1809) in which the problem of the attraction of a homogeneous ellipsoid upon an external point is reduced to the simpler problem of the attraction of a related ellipsoid upon a corresponding point &quot. beginning in 1804. held the mathematical chair in the Eoyal Military College at Marlow (now at Sand essentially a self-trained mathematician. development of Gom6trie Of the two leading problems of descriptive geometry. Trans. the was one to represent by drawings geometrical magnitudes of brought to a high degree of perfection before the time . but they are far from being satisfactory.

he sub stituted a geometrical method. Being of low birth. Lacroix to say. where surveying and drawing were taught. he could not receive a commission in the army. He introduced the line of intersection of the horizontal and the vertical plane as the axis of projection. when conversing with two of his &quot. was the time in which it it was received with Monge developed descriptive these methods further and thus created his Owing to the rivalry between the French military schools of that time. Monge (1746-1818) was born at Beaune. he was obliged All that I have here done by calculation. By revolving one plane into the other around this axis or ground-line. Monge. Observing that all the operations connected with the construction of plans of fortifi cation were conducted by long arithmetical processes. In 1780. when once examined. . so short could be practised avidity. All problems previously treated in a special and uncertain manner were referred geometry as a - back to a few general principles. which the commandant at first refused even to look at. I could have . geometry. many advantages were 54 gained. F. distinct branch of science by imparting to it geometric generality and elegance. ics at In 1768 he was made professor of mathemat Mezi&res. and G-ayvernon in Paris. but he was permitted to enter the annex of the school. The con town brought the boy under the notice of a colonel of engineers. His most noteworthy predecessor in descriptive geometry was the Frenchman Frezier (1682But it remained for Monge to create descriptive 1773).286 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. tlie other to solve problems on figures in space had received considerable at by constructions in a plane tention before Ms time. pupils. who procured for him an G-aspard struction of a plan of his native appointment in the college of engineers at Mezieres. he was not permitted to divulge his new methods to any one outside of this institution. S.

a hidden relation which threw new light upon both subjects.&quot. and applied it to the He found that the validity of solutions was not ellipsoid. He did scriptive geometry. The method was published by Monge published himself in the same year. where he had been elected professor. 1805 . but I am not allowed to you. for that reason. impaired when imaginaries are involved among subsidiary Mxmge published the following books: Statics. He gave the differential of curves of curvature. first in the form in which the short hand writers took down his lessons given at the Normal School. deprived of all partisan his honours by Louis XVIII. LAGRANGE. 1786 i Applications de I alg&bre a la g6om6trie. Applica- . the ruler AND LAPLACE. But Lacroix set himself be. He was the first president of the Institute of Egypt. and then again. Monge was a zealous of Napoleon and was. 287 to to reveal these secrets and compass. Mongers numerous papers were by no means confined to de His analytical discoveries are hardly less He introduced into analytic geometry the me thodic use of the equation of a line. in the estab lishing of which Monge took active part. same year the Polytechnic School was opened. in revised examine what the secret could form. discovered the processes. This and the destruction of the Polytechnic School preyed heavily upon his mind. The next edition After an ephemeral existence of only four months the Normal School was closed in 1795. He made important contributions to surfaces of the second degree (previously remarkable. established a general theory of curvature. quantities. and them in 1795.EULER. In the occurred in 1798-1799. studied by Wren and Euler) and discovered between the theory of surfaces and the integration of partial differential equations. He taught there descriptive geometry until his departure from France to accom pany Napoleon on the Egyptian campaign. in the Journal des 6coles normdles. not long survive this insult. done with.

With the advent of the Eevolution he threw himself into politics. but continued his mathematical studies. 1834). launched against France a million soldiers. who became Descriptive geometry. among which were Dupin. was the first to introduced in 1816 at the Military Academy in West Point by Claude Crozet.288 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. (1784-1873). containing the earliest proof that kinetic energy is lost in collisions of bodies. Schreiber. as we have seen. spread Monge s geometry in Germany by the publication of a work thereon in 1828-1829. in technical schools in France. in which is introduced the conception of conjugate 55 It tangents of a point of a surface. professor in G. Charles Bupin puhlished in 1813 an important work on Developpements de gfometrie. The last two contain most of his miscellaneous papers.Dupin s theorem. for many years professor of mechanics in the Conservatoire des Arts et Metiers in Paris. and educated in his native province.&quot. successfully studied Surfaces of the second degree and descriptive geometry were by Jean Nicolas Pierre Hachette (1769- professor of descriptive geometry at the School after the departure of Monge for Rome and Polytechnic Egypt. which arose. Brianchion. 54 In the United States descriptive geometry was Karlsruhe. a la tion de Vanalyse g6omtrie. Servois. the gigantic task of organising fourteen . was transferred to Germany at the foundation of technical schools there. In 1822 he published his Traite de geometrie descriptive. and wrote in 1784 a work on machines. and he gathered around him a large circle of pupils. once a pupil at the Polytechnic School in Paris. Biot. in 1793. ISTolay in Lazare Nicholas Marguerite Carnot (1753-1823) was born at Burgundy. and Poncelet. and of the indicatrix. Hachette. and when coalesced Europe. contains also the theorem known as &quot. Crozet wrote the first 2 English work on the subject. He entered the army. Monge was an inspiring teacher.

Reflexions sur la Metaphysique He declared himself as an &quot. took part in the Eussian campaign.&quot. which have since been pushed to great extent by Poncelet. and others. of to-day. LAGBANGE. and his Essay on Transversals. a work still du Oalcul cilable frequently quoted. is different from the &quot. he investigated the properties of figures which remain un- .Geometric der Lage&quot. Prance in 1814. Chasles. which. Jean Victor Poncelet (1788-1867). he began to study its elements. was abandoned as dead on the bloody field of Krasnoi. He returned to work in question. and taken prisoner to Saratoff. though not for the empire. 289 armies to meet the enemy was achieved by him. On the restoration he was exiled. He was banished in 1T96 for opposing Napoleon s coup d etat. He died in Magdeburg. in 1797. He invented a class &quot. De prived there of all books. and reduced to the remembrance of what he had learned at the Lyceum at Metz and the Poly technic School. enemy of kings. produced a much-read work. are important contributions to modern geometry. AKD LAPLACE. His Geom6trie de position. entitled. He entered upon original which afterwards made him illustrious. Carnot. and in 1822 published the entitled.irrecon Infinitesimal. By his effort to explain s the meaning of the negative sign in geometry he established a geometry of position. After the Eussian campaign he offered to fight for France. Carnot confined himself to that of two. 1806. where he issued. a native of Metz. In it Traiti des Proprietes projectives des figures. While Monge revelled mainly in three-dimensional geometry. and Brianchion. however.ETJLEB. The refugee went to Geneva. While in prison he did for mathematics what Bunyan did for literature. 1803. of general theorems on projective properties of figures. which has remained mathematics from researches of great value down to the present time. where he had studied with predilection the works of Monge.&quot.

in General Theorems. and Lam bert. It gives many interesting new results on the circle and the straight line. it is As an independent Poncelet wrote much on While in France the school of Monge was creating modern geometry. Stewart was a pupil of Simson and Maclaurin. as and Gergonne into a regular method polars. enlarged by Ms election to the chair of mechanics. Newton. He published. metries more veterum demonstrator. principle due to G-ergonne. he applied geometry to the solution of difficult matical. Stewart extended some theorems on transversals due to Giovanni Ceva (1648-1737). of which only five are accompanied by demonstrations. Pascal. Thus perspective projec tion. During the eighteenth century he and Maclaurin were the only promi nent mathematicians in Great Britain. efforts were made in England to revive Greek geometry by Robert Simson (1687-1768) and Matthew Stewart (1717-1785).reciprocal To him we owe the Law as a consequence of reciprocal polars. which on the Continent were ap proached analytically with greater success. used before him by Desargues. In 1838 the Faculty of Sciences was applied mechanics. 1761. his Propositions geo 1746. effected here by parallel rays of prescribed direction. was elevated by him into a fruitful geometric method. figures. the method of Duality of &quot. In the same way he elaborated some ideas of De Lahire. The former work con tains sixty-nine theorems. astronomical problems. and in 1763. an Italian.290 altered A HISTOEY OF MATHEMATICS.&quot. His genius was illdirected by the fashion then prevalent in England to ignore In his Four Tracts. but by central projection. Physical and Mathe higher analysis. by projection of the The projection is not with Monge. and succeeded the latter in the chair at Edinburgh. Servois. . who published in 1678 at Mediolani a work con taining the theorem now known by his name.

stream. Dirichlet. modern writers has been enormous. have continued to develop mathematics with great success. Norway with Abel. with Benjamin Peirce. The productiveness of 56 It is difficult. the achievements of 291 . Italy with Cremona Hungary with her two Bolyais . the vast extent &quot. and flower. &quot. the United States . Nor has progress.While armies of enthusiastic workers have wheeled into the front rank. Hamilton.RECENT TIMES. been confined to one or two countries. to give an idea of This word extent I mean extent crowded witjj.&quot. Jacobi. as in no other science. Germany awoke from her lethargy by G-auss. J : but of a tract of beautiful country seen at first in the distance. studied in every detail of hillside and valley. Eussia entered the living. who are still Boolq. who alone during the preceding epoch carried the torch of progress. from other countries whole &quot. wood.&quot. as in previous periods. the French and Swiss. of modern mathematics. but which will bear to be rambled through and less plain. bringing for . says Professor Cayley. more zealously and successfully lias mathematics been cultivated than in this century. rock. ward and hosts of more recent men Great Britain produced her besides champions De Morgan. arena with her Lobatchewsky. It is pleasant to the mathematician to think that in his. beautiful is not the right one not an extent of mere uniformity such as an object detail.

was made &quot. for instance. . is this. even when there is n^ promise of practical application. has its use in astronomy. would have supposed that the calculus of forms or the theory of substitu tions would have thrown much light upon ordinary equations . so useful to the practical engineer. example. and music. In the first place. 57 &quot. the whole subject of graphical statics. that math own ematics. The utility of such grals. new except as affording hints of an unsuspected sphere of thought. new discoveries seldom disprove older tenets . or even imagined beforehand. deserves cultivation for its The great characteristic of modern mathematics little is its gln- eralising tendency. or that Abelian functions and hyperelliptic transcendents . to rest upon von Staudt s Geometrie der Lags. Who. A in favour of the pursuit of advanced mathematics. Nowadays weight is given to iso lated theorems. If it be asked wherein the utility of some sions of mathematics lies.can in no case be discounted. &quot. like poetry sake. it at present difficult to see modern exten must be acknowledged that it is how they are ever to become appli life cable to questions of common or physical science. like meteorites detached from some &quot. svery age remai-i possessions forever . or in other branches of mathematics. complex quantities. we know neither the day nor the hour when these abstract developments will find application in the mechanic arts. in For physical science.292 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. But our inability to do this should not be urged as an argument against the pursuit of such studies. Hamilton s principle of varying action&quot. seldom is anything lost or wasted. would have told us anything about the properties of curves or that the calculus of operations would have helped us in second reason any way towards the figure of the earth ? &quot. general inte and general theorems in integration offer advantages in the study of electricity and magnetism. researches/ says Spottiswoode.

porisms. out victorious. but in the friendly rivalry between the two. The greatest strength is found to lie. Carnot. SYNTHETIC GEOMETRY. The development of the notion of continuity plays a leading part in modern research. and in the recognition of the value of homogeneity and symmetry. and problems. Continuity asserts itself in a most striking way in relation to the circular In algebra the modern idea finds points at infinity in a plane. of. synthetic geometry was_created by several investi about the same time. and Poncelet in France. speculation. 293 In mathematics. but always as related to. no subject is considered in itself alone. and in the stimulating influence of the one upon the Lagrange prided himself that in his Mecanique Anahe had succeeded in avoiding all figures but since his lytique time mechanics has received much help from geometry. other things. It seemed to be the outgrowth gators of a desire for general^methods which should serve as threads of Ariadne to guide the student through the labyrinth of theo Modern Synthetic geometry rems. . the idea of correspondence. other. and the theory of projec tion constitute the fundamental modern notions.SYNTHETIC GEOMETRY. undiscovered planetary orb of as in all true sciences. not in the suppression of either. wa^ first cultivated by Monge.&quot. and was finally developed . In geometry the principle of con tinuity. The conflict between geometry and analysis which arose near the close of the last century and the beginning of the Neither side has come present has now come to an end. or an outgrowth. in the theory of linear transformations and invari expression ants. corollaries. it then bore rich fruits at the hands of Mobius and Steiner in to still Germany. and Switzerland.

perfection Mgher by Chasles Italy. is expressed by the equation (a + & + c + d) S = aA + IB + cO + dD. also at Leipzig and Halle. 1827. and that of a line by to a co-ordinates. are on geometry. statics spherical trigonometry He generalised the sides or angles of tri by letting and astronomy. the next year extraordinary professor of astronomy. yon Staudt in Ger many. and con s marvellous system. BA. y that any fourth point 9 J3. c. in France. /3. Similarly for triangles and tetrahedra. Leipzig. The most important They appeared in Crelle Der of his researches s Journal. and Cremona in Augustus Ferdinand Mobius (1790-1868) was a native of Schulpforta in Prussia. led Mobius A M new system of co-ordinates in which the position of a point was indicated by an equation. In desig His calculus tains the is germs of Grassmann first nating segments of lines we find throughout this work for the time consistency in the distinction of positive and nega tive by the order of letters AB. . Mobius wrote also on angles exceed 180. at Gottingen under In Leipzig he became. that the point a. C 9 D respectively. geometric for example. the beginning of a quadruple\lgebra. He studied Gauss. S is the centre of gravity of weights d placed at the points A. This position he held till his death. in their plane will become a centre of mass. By this algorithm he found by algebra many theorems expressing mainly invariantal properties. the theorems on the anharmonic relation. in 1815. this calculus is based upon 58 properties of the centre of gravity. and in 1844 ordinary professor. b. privat-docent. The remark that it is always possible to give three points such weights a. and in his celebrated -work entitled BarycentriscJie Calcul. B.294 A HISTOEY OF MATHEMATICS. Thus. As the name indicates.

covered synthetically the two prominent properties of a sur face of the third order. New discoveries followed each other so rapidly that he often did not take time to record their demonstrations. which occurred after years of bad health.the greatest geometrician since 3 the time of Euclid/ was born in Utzendorf in the Canton of Bern. Berlin in 1834. for the first time. did not -learn to write till he was fourteen.&quot. In 1832 Steiner published his Systematische Entwickelung der AWiangigkeit geometrischer He which is uncovered the organism which the most diverse phenomena (Erscheinungeri) in by the world of space are united to each other. In his hands synthetic geometry made prodigious progress. article in Orelle^s Journal In an braischer Curven he gives without proof theorems on Allgemeine Eigenschaften Algewhich were declared by Hesse to be &quot. that it contains twenty-seven straight lines for its vertices and a pentahedron which has the double points and the lines of tlie Hessian of the given sur- . is the principle of duality introduced at the outset.& Fermat s theorems. mathematical journal bearing his name.SYNTHETIC GEOMETRY. the chair of geometry was founded for him Li. Analytical proofs of some of them have been given since by others. Steiner and celebrated Abel became leading contributors. & his Systematische Entwickelung en. Later he studied eighteen When Orelle started. At he became a pupil of Pestalozzi. riddles to the present and future generations. 295 Jacob Steiner (1796-1863) . viz. the at Heidelberg and* Berlin. but he made great advances in the theory of those of higher degrees. Through the influence of Jaeobi and others. Not only did he fairly complete the theory of curves and surfaces of the second degree. This position he occupied In until his death. This book and von Staudt s lay the foundation on which synthetic geometry in its present form rests. but Cremona Steiner dis finally proved them all by a synthetic method. &quot. in 1826. Qestalten von einander.

H. 60 Steiner s researches are confined to synthetic geometry. The first face for its edges.of the calculus of varia tions. in 1803. He generalised the Jiexagrammum mysticum and also MalfattPs problem. He hated analysis as thoroughly as Lagrange disliked geometry. 59 Malfatti. 55 lytically property was discovered ana England by Cayley and Salmon. entered the Polytechnic School of Paris in 1812. engaged afterwards in business. Steiner s work on this subject was the starting-point of important researches by H. . generalised the problem by to the other circles. geodesy and mechanics at the Polytechnic School.but Steiner gave without proof a construction. In 1841 he became professor of later. to cut three cylindrical holes out of a three-sided prism in such a way that the cylinders and the prism have the same altitude and that the volume of the cylinders be a maximum. August^ L. and R.296 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. as Malfatti 7 now generally known problem: to inscribe three circles in a triangle that each circle will be tangent to two sides of a triangle and s Malfatti gave an analytical solution. two replacing the three lines by three circles. Schroter. Steiner s Gesammelte WerTce were published in Berlin in 1881 and 1882. Sturm. This general prob lem was solved analytically by C. Steiner made investi on maxima and minima. and solved the analogous problem for three dimensions. theorem of elliptic functions. Michel Chasles (1793-1880) was bom at Epernon. and -the second by Sylvester. which he later gave up that he might devote all his time to scientific pursuits. Cremona. and by Clebsch with the aid of the addition. If. Schellbach (1809-1892) and Cayley. This problem was reduced to another. proposed the problem. and gations by synthetic methods earlier in somewhat arrived at the solution of problems which at that time alto gether surpassed the analytic power . remarked that there were thirty-two solutions.

He gave lished later in the Journal a reduction of cubics.sur deux principes generaux de la Science. viz. different from Newton s in this. and the respondence&quot. H. Chasles and Steiner elaborated independently the modern synthetic or projective memoirs of Chasles were pub geometry.SYNTHETIC GEOMETRY. in 1879. an immense number principle of cor of problems. Schwarz. sur Vorigine et le the appendix historique is still a standard historical work. number of intersections of two curves The method of characteristics contains the basis of enumerative geometry. H. H. contains the general theory of Homography (Collineation) and The name duality is due to Joseph Diaz Gergonne (1771-1859). developpement des metliodes en geometric. G. G. method of characteristics &quot. that the others can be projected are sym metrical with respect to a centre. Mltniss and to Clifford s cross-ratio. He was a voluminous writer on geometrical sub In 1837 lie published Ms admirable Apergu historique jects. then. Chasles introduced the term corresponding to the German Doppelveraxih^^ of duality (Reciprocity). The of application of the principle A. and others. mined. the in a plane. con a treatise taining a history of geometry and. The Apergu &quot. extended Ms enumerative geometry to n-dimensional Schubert 55 space. He deter &quot. A. as an appendix. of the Kalkul der AbzahlThis enden Geometrie by Hermann Schubert of Hamburg. Halphen (1844-1889). The full value of these principles of Chasles was not brought out until the appearance. for instance. In 1864 he began the pub in the Comptes rendus. Numerous original de VEcole Polytechnique. 297 Professeur de Geometric suprieure & la Faculte des Sciences de Paris. discussion of the problem of enumer work contains a masterly ative geometry. Brill. . of articles in which he solves five curves from which all lication.&quot. Zeucorrespondence was extended by Cayley.&quot. by his &quot. to determine how many geometric figures of given definition satisfy a sufficient number of conditions.

&quot. The author cut loose from algebraic formulae and from in Erlangen. and then created a geometry of position. at his death. An independent attempt lias been made recently (1893) by P. however. 1847. This accomplished analytically by Poisson in difficult &quot. To Chasles we owe the introduction into projective geometry of non-pro jective properties of figures by means of the infi 61 Eemarkable is his nitely distant imaginary sphere-circle. was professor His great works are the Geometric der Lage. and can be estab is any mention of them. in 1846. IT. In his theory of what he calls &quot.Wurfe. While purely projective. general theory of imaginary points. Eepresentation of an imaginary point is sought in the combination of an involution with a determi nate direction. Karl Georg Christian von Staudt (1798-1867) was born in Eothenburg on the Tauber. independent of all measure ments. lines. Loud of Colorado . and planes in pro lished without jective geometry. on entirely different lines. He shows that projective properties of figures have no dependence whatever on measurements. particularly the anharmonic ratio of Steiner and Chasles. he even gives a geometrical definition of a number in its relation to geometry as determining the posi The Beitrdge contains the first complete and tion of a point. and his Beitrdge zur Geometric der Lage. 18561860. which a complete science in itself. tematically undertaken by C. both on the real line through the point. and.298 A HISTOliY Olf MATHEMATICS. metrical relations. H. of the question of the attraction of an ellipsoid on an exter nal point. complete solution. von Staudt s method is intimately related to the problem of representing by actual points and This was sys lines the imaginaries of analytical geometry. by synthetic geometry.was 1835. who worked. Nurnberg. Maximilien Marie. The labours of Chasles and Steiner raised synthetic geometry to an honoured and respected position by the side of analysis.

Staudt s geometry of position was for a long mainly. Kuled surfaces. mann is the first to undertake to present the graphical calculus as a symmetrical whole. An interpreter of von Staudt was at last found in Theodor Eeye of Strassburg. Karl Culmann.SYNTHETIC GEOMETRY. published an epoch-making work on Die grapMsche Statik. 1864. surfaces of the second order. B. German by M. holding the same relation to the new geometry that analytical mechanics does to higher analysis. An impulse to the study of this subject was given by Culmann. He deduces this relation without leaving of the two figures. who wrote a Geometric der Lage in 1868. 299 Yon time disregarded. no doubt. E. who rests his graphical statics upon the work of von Staudt. But if the polygons be regarded as pro treated as reciprojections of lines in space. professor at the Polytechnicum in Zurich. his Introduzione ad una teoria geometrica dette curve plane he developed by a uniform method many new results and proved synthetically all important results reached before that His writings have been translated into time by analysis. Synthetic geometry has been studied with much success by In Luigi Cremona. professor at the gymnasium in Thorn. space-curves of the third order. and the general theory of surfaces have received much attention at his hands. The theory of the transformation of curves and of the corre spondence of points on curves was extended by him to three dimensions. but he made use of perspective. Curtze. Gousinery had turned his attention to the graphical calculus. College. He makes use of the polar theory of reciprocal figures as the relation between the force and the funicular expressing the plane polygons. which has rendered graphical statics a great Before Culmann. because Ms book is extremely condensed. professor in the University of Borne. and not of modern geometry. these lines may be . 62 Cul Zurich. rival of analytical statics.

to the theory of surfaces the Germans and Swiss. 27) that if a straight &quot. Descriptive geometry (reduced to a science by Monge in France. was issued by A Maurice Levy of Paris. and in Germany treated most 62 exhaustively by Burmester. and elaborated further by Cremona.&quot. Euclid proved (I. During the present century very remarkable generalisations have been made. other case the two lines are not parallel. The try. which reach to the very root of two of the of mathematics. he assumed this to be true in what is generally called the 12th axiom. MoTir of Dresden graphical to the elastic line for continuoiis spans. &quot. the two straight lines shall be parallel to one another. of the Eose Polytechnic Institute. Eddy. interwove projective and descriptive geome Bellavitis in Italy worked along the same line. This was done by Clerk Maxwell in 1S64. standard work. The French directed their attention mainly . J.&quot. and elaborated further by his successors. Dupin. 1874.* The calculus has been applied by 0. Being unable to prove that in every &quot. with aid of what he calls &quot. gives graphical solutions of problems on the maximum stresses in bridges under concen trated loads. La Statique grapliique. by some . in geometry the axioms have been searched to the oldest branches bottom. Pohlke.&quot. and the conclusion has been reached that the space defined by Euclid s axioms is not the only possible noncontradictory space. tended. de la Gournerie) was soon studied also in other countries.&quot.reaction polygons. Schlessinger. through Schreiber. and their curvature theory of shades and shadows was first investigated by the French writers just quoted.300 A HISTOBY OF MATHEMATICS. line falling on two other straight lines make the alternate angles equal to one another. Henry T. and par ticularly Fiedler. Hachette. elementary algebra and In algebra the laws of operation have been ex geometry. Olivier. cal elements of a Nullsystem.

as he called it. . field of Mcholaus Ivanovitch Lobatchewsky (1793-1856) was born at Makarief. in Mschni-lSFowgorod. Wolfgang Bolyai de Bolya (1775-1856) was born in SzeklerAfter studying at Jena. which has been described by Clifford as &quot.&quot.quite simple. Lobatchewsky constructed an &quot. first made Tew Elements Geometry. who called it &quot.&quot. and which was the first of a series of articles destined to clear up obscurities in the proof. with a complete theory of Parallels.absolute geometry.imaginary geometry. studied at Kasan. Transylvania. Universitdt Jasan. of foreigners. fundamental concepts. and first printed in the Kasan Messenger for 1829. he went to Land. But 301 this so-called axiom is far from After centuries of desperate but fruitless attempts to prove Euclid s assumption. the bold idea dawned upon the minds of several mathematicians that a geometry might axiomatic.&quot. In 1840 he published a brief statement of his researches in Berlin. under the title. none of which cut a given line in the same plane. merely Euclid without the vicious assumption.SYNTHETIC GEOMETBY.&quot. While Legendre still endeavoured to establish the axiom by rigid Lobatchewsky brought out a publication which assumed the contradictory of that axiom. Being in the Baissian language. the work remained unknown to &quot. A remarkable part of this geometry is this. and from 1827 to 1846 was professor and rector of the University His views on the foundation of geometry were public in a discourse before the physical and mathe matical faculty at Kasan. be built up without assuming the parallel-axiom. Kussia. and to greatly extend the geometry. but even at home it attracted no notice. A similar system of geometry was deduced independently by the Bolyais in Hungary. and then in the Gelelirte Schriften der of Kasan. 1836-1838. that through a point an indefinite number of lines can be drawn in a plane.

Johann Bolyai (1802-1860). Gottingen. was educated for the army. where lie became intimate with. Johann Bolyai immortal. The chief mathematical work of Wolfgang Bolyai appeared two volumes. where for forty-seven years he had lege for his pupils most of the present professors of Transylvania. as also Lobatchewsky remained in almost entire oblivion. then nine teen years old. 1832-1833. and an expert fencer. 64 His son. Its twenty-six pages make the .302 A HISTOBY OF MATHEMATICS. said he. which made hell out original in his private life as well as in his He was . called attention to the wonderful researches. and he vanquished in them all. Gauss used to say that Bolyai was the only man who fully understood his views on the metaphysics of Bolyai became professor at the Reformed Col of Maros-V^sarhely. It followed by an appendix composed by his son Johann on The Science Absolute of /Space. mathematics. in memory of the three apples the two of Eve and Paris. of earth. an impassioned violin- He once accepted the challenge player. Gauss. but he left behind one thousand pages of manuscript which have never been read by a competent mathematician His of ! name father seems to have been the only person in Hungary who For thirtyreally appreciated the merits of his son s work. and that of Newton. mode of thinking. which elevated the earth again into the circle of heavenly bodies. is studiosam in elementa matJieseos puree introducendi. modest. He published nothing else. . in 1867. of thirteen officers on condition that after each duel he might play a piece on his violin. Johann Bolyai s Science Absolute of . entitled Tentamen juventutem . The first publications of this remarkable genius and poetry. No monument. five years this appendix. Finally Eichard Baltzer of the University of Giessen. and distinguished himself as a profound mathematician. Clad in old-time planter s were dramas he was truly garb. should extremely stand over his grave. only an apple-tree. s researches.

prove a priori within the next thirty years he arrived at the conclusion reached by Lobatchewsky and Bolyai. published in the Leipziger Magazin fur reine und angle. mind. a Jesuit father of Milan. (pseudo-sphere). stating that his &quot. copy of the Tentamen reached Gauss. G.&quot. As early character. It has recently been brought to notice that Geronimo and this Nestor of German mathematicians A was surprised to discover in it worked out what he himself had begun long before. in 1733 anticipated Lobatchewsky s doctrine of the parallel Moreover.&quot. the elder Bolyai s former room mate at Gottingen. His . still number is merely a product of our and that firmer. only to leave it after him in his as 1792 he had started on researches of that papers. B.SYNTHETIC GEOMETRY. space has also a reality beyond our mind of which we cannot fully foreordain the laws a &quot. 2 right angles we need the aid a geometry with angle-sum of an &quot.imaginary sphere&quot. 1786.&quot. there is &amp. of angewandte MathematiJc. (3) In a space with the angle-sum differing from 2 right angles.conviction that we cannot found geometry completely a priori has become. (2) In order to make intuitive angle-sum &amp. if possible. The term non&quot. in which: (1) The failure the parallel-axiom in surface-spherics gives a geometry with 2 right angles . Halsted has pointed out that in 1766 Lambert wrote a paper Zur Theorie der Parallellinien.if Euclidean geometry is due to Gauss. . Space 303 Geometrical Researches on the Theory of Parallels (1840) were rendered easily accessible to American readers by translations into English made in 1891 by George Bruce Halsted of the University of Texas. In 1829 he wrote to show that in 1799 he was trying to the reality of Euclid s system but some time letters Bessel. an absolute measure (Bolyai s natural unit for length). and Lobatchewsky s The Kussian and Hungarian mathematicians were not the only ones to whom pangeometry suggested itself.

but we learn by experience i. which is analytical (and. About the same time with Biemann s paper. Euclidean space. and contained many of the ideas of Biemann. a notion of non-Euclidean space &quot. These contributed pow of erfully to the victory of logic over excessive empiricism. Riemann. a marvellous cussion one step further by developing the notion of n-ply extended magnitude. or diseased outgrowths of mathe matics. and now professor at Borne. di Matem. G-auss heard from his dissertation carrying the dis pupil. if not exactly. wrote the classical paper Saggio di interpretazione della geometria non-eudidea (Giorn. born at Cremona. for example were able to see in non-Euclidean geometry and n-dimensional space noth ing but huge caricatures. welche der Geometrie m Grunde liegen. when it appeared in the Gfottingen AbJiandlungen. lectures. Plucker. nearly twenty years later. Helmholtz s article was entitled Tliatsacken. 6). that our physical space is. should be mentioned elsewhere &quot. . Some writers Bellavitis. According to him we have in our mind a more general notion of space. on the assumption that every line may be measured by space.e. others were published from the pens of HelmJioltz and Beltrami.&quot.were we to adhere to a between synthesis and analysis). Biernann taught us to distinguish between unboundedness . Italy. 1868. This period marks the beginning of lively discussions upon this sub ject.? and &quot. Grassmann. and H. Helmholtz popularised the subject in and in articles for various magazines. found dissertation was not published until 1867. at least to high Biemann s pro degree of approximation. Before this the idea n dimensions had suggested itself under various aspects to Lagrange. like several other papers.. Eugenio Beltrami. and the measure-relations of which a manifoldness of n dimensions is capable. in 1835.infinite extent. applied his ideas to He every other. He strict separation reached the brilliant . In 1854.304 A HISTOBY OF MATHEMATICS.

His classification of loci. Clifford of hyper-space were brilliantly England by William Kingdon (1845-1879) was born at Exeter. researches on non-Euclidean geometry were fol of Felix Klein. expounded and popularised in Clifford. being a was an introduction to the study general study of curves. and the Euclidean geometry on a surface of zero curva ture. Veronese of Turin. are The three geometries do not contradict each other. Helinholtz. Del C. He studied. surfaces was generalised by theory of polars of curves and him and by Eeye. on Biguaternions. educated at Trinity College. but The ideas a geometrical trinity. This study has been continued since chiefly by G. Pezzo of Naples. and ended with the interesting theorem that the space of constant positive curvature is contained in the space of constant negative curvature. of n-dimensional space in a direction mainly projective. lowed. Cambridge. Bertini. members of a system. by important investigations Beltrami ? s . These researches of Beltrami. E. curvature. F. and Eiemann culminated in the conclusion that on surfaces of constant curvature we may have three geome the non-Euclidean on a surface of constant negative tries. of Segre Padua. and from 1871 until his death professor of applied mathematics in University Col His premature death left incomplete several brilliant researches which he had entered upon. Dissection an of a Riemann s Surface. the spherical on a surface of constant positive cur vature. 305 and surprising conclnsion that the theorems of non-Euclidean geometry rind their realisation upon surfaces of constant nega tive curvature.SYNTHETIC GBOMETEY. London. also. surfaces of constant positive curvature. and The incomplete work on the Elements of Dynamic. Among these are his paper On Classification of Loci and his Theory of He wrote articles On the Canonical Form and lege. Aschieri. 1878. Graphs. in 1871. P.

Craig of the Bonn. Cayley. of the University of Nebraska. but it remained for Cayley to give a general solution by denn an arbitrary constant ing the distance between two points as ratio in which multiplied by the logarithm of the anharmonic the line joining the two points is divided by the fundamental Enlarging upon this notion. F. Yoss of Wiirzburg. E. The not possible to so express the metrical of figures that they will not vary by projection (or properties question whether it is linear transformation) had been solved for special projections by Chasles. Ellery W. W. particularly by G. gestive investigation was followed up by E. E. Davis &quot. and E. E. Stringham of the University of California. Buchheim. Schlafli of Bern. Schering of Gottingen. S. Euclidean. These are . upon Cayley s Sixth Memoir on Quantics. E. of Munich.306 resting A HISTOBY OF MATHEMATICS. A. and by properly choosing the law of the measurement of distance deduced from projective geometry the spherical. Hoppe of Berlin. A. d? Ovidio of Turin. parabolic. F. A. Johns Hopkins. others. Aschieri. Stahl of Tubingen. L. 1859. and hyperbolic geometries. Battaglini of Naples. Story of Clark University. pendence of projective geometry from the parallel-axiom. Killing of Minister. among whom may be mentioned Simon Newcomb of the Johns Hopkins University. W. and Stringham gave pictures of projections upon our space of regular solids in four dimensions. H. I. Homersham Cox. Klein showed the inde quadric. de Paolis of Pisa. T. Lindemann R. and Schlegel at Hagen constructed models of such projections. Poncelet. W. Eegular solids in n-dimensional space were studied by Stringham. This sug numerous writers. and pseudospherical geometries. Laguerre (1834-1886) of Paris. 55 The geometry of n dimen sions was studied along a line mainly metrical by a host of writers. named by him respectively the elliptic. Lipschitz of Heath and Killing investigated the kinematics and mechanics of such a space.

losing one of its dimensions. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY. While in Germany Steiner and von Staudt developed synthetic geome try. After studying at Bonn. Pliicker laid the foundation of modern analytic geometry. Berlin. he spent a short time in Paris attending lectures of Monge and his pupils.ANALYTIC GEOMETRY. In connection with hyperspace we also mentioned analytical Modern synthetic and modern analytical geome treatises. In the preceding chapter we endeavoured to give a flash light view of the rapid advance of synthetic geometry. Between 1826 and 1836 he held positions successively He then became professor of at Bonn. . Each has advantages over the other. that a well-established routine in a certain degree may outrun thought itself. Julius Pliicker (1801-1868) was born at Elberfeld. Brill in Darmstadt. S. certain motions could take place which we hold to be impossible. have much in common. among the most 307 L. and thereby aid original research. Thus INewcomb showed the possibility of turning a closed material shell inside out by sim ple flexure without either stretching or tearing . but the latter has the advantage in this.protective geometry.&quot. Peirce proved that a body in four-fold space either rotates about two axes at once. and may be grouped together try under the common name &quot. Berlin. or cannot rotate without . and Heidelberg. and Halle. The continual direct viewing of figures as existing in space adds exceptional charm to the study of the former. curious of a series of models published by It has been pointed out that if a fourth dimension existed. in Prus sia. Klein pointed out that knots could not be tied 5 Veronese showed that a body could be removed from a closed room without breaking the walls C.

in a more adopted the abbreviated notation (used before restricted way by Bobillier). comparison His Plucker s researches met with no favour. as &quot. besides an enumeration of curves of the fourth order.Plucker s equations. Until 1846 his original researches were on In 1828 and in 1831 he published his AnatytischTherein he GeometriscJie Untersuchungen in two volumes. But in the entire subject of modern geometry. many nals. tains a complete classification of plane curves of the third order. geometry. The homogenous or already tri-linear system used by him is much the same as the co-or With him In the identity of analytical operation and geometric construction Pliicker looked for the source of Ms proofs. A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. &quot. This induced him to relin- .&quot. 1839. contains. The Theorie der Algebraischen Curven. the analytic rela tions between the ordinary singularities of plane curves known. is formulated analyti duality and homogeneity found expression in his system of co-ordinates. also work came were published in foreign jour to be better known in France The charge was of physics.&quot. The System der Analytischen Geometrie. based on the nature of the points at infinity.&quot. 1835.308 . con dinates of Mobius. though occupying the chair was no physicist.the The discovery of these rela most important one beyond all is. physics at Bonn. of Plucker s researches and that his and England than in his native country.Poncelet s paradox. in Germany method was declared to be unproductive as compared with His rela the synthetic method of Steiner and Poncelet! Steiner once tions with Jacobi were not altogether friendly. he brought against Plucker that. declared that he would stop writing for Crelle s Journal if 66 The result was that Pliicker continued to contribute to it. In the Mm second volume the principle of duality cally. says Cayley. by which he was able to explain tions &quot. and avoided the tedious process of algebraic elimination by a geometric consideration.

relation. discovery increased his zeal researches were on surfaces of the second order. His first researches on this subject were laid before the Eoyal &quot. in 1868 in a posthumous work entitled Neue Geometric des Maumes gegrundet auf die Betrachtung der geraden Linie als Eaumelement. new geometry system of lines he got a complex by connecting them with a twofold relation. edited by Felix Klein. Neumann. Eegarding a right line as a curve involving four arbitrary parameters. &quot. &quot. Every new berg period was one of great activity for still greater achievement. Having taken Jacobi. The theory original. The Konigs for Hesse. Important discoveries on Fresnel s wave-surface. the doctor s Eichelot. mathematics. left by Plucker. His further investigations thereon appeared Society in 1865. 309 Ms quish mathematics. was continued by Felix Klein. much that was fresh and of complexes of the second degree.&quot. who the ideas of his master. already received more general treatment on in his last work had The work contained. at Konigsberg. Jacobi. a considering space as made up of lines he created of space. he got a congruency of lines. eries. greatly extended and supplemented and Ludwig Otto Hesse (1811-1874) was born at Konigsberg. and for nearly twenty years to devote energies to physics. Among were Durege. By connecting them by a single By &quot. spectrum-analysis were made by Mm. and Clebsch. His earliest . one has the whole of lines in space.ANALYTIC GEOMETRY. Hesse. &quot. But towards the close of his life he returned to his and enriched it with new discov first love. Clebsch. Kirchhoff. and F. . unfinished nevertheless. and in 1845 degree in 1840. Carl Neumann. magnetism. so that many investigations the part of others. he became decent his pupils at that time extraordinary professor there. Pliicker s analysis lacks the elegance found in Lagrange. studied at the university of his native place under Bessel. For many years he had not kept up with the progress of geometry.

plays a leading part in the theory of invari Hesse showed that ants. 55 The &quot. and was led to an important determinant involving the second differential coeffi cient of a form of the third degree. Hesse s income at Konigsberg had not kept pace with his growing reputation.Hessian. In 1855 he accepted a more lucrative position at Halle. the most first are points on the second. Pliicker had seen that the main advantage tion. He solved the problem to construct any tenth point of such a surface when nine points are given. By form of the third degree in three variables to one of only four terms. of elimination in 1840. The analogous problem for a conic had been solved by Pascal by means of the hexagram. 1844). and in 1856 one at Heidelberg. He determined the curve of the 14th order. Munich. showed how by determinants to make In his earlier results he was algebraic elimination easy.Hessian. of his special method in analytic geometry lay in the avoidance of algebraic elimina Hesse. called the &quot. A difficult problem confronting mathematicians of this time was that of elimination. anticipated by Sylvester. Hardly was he able to support himself and family. such that the double points of the &quot. or for surfaces (Crelle. which passes through the 56 points of contact of the 28 bitangents of a curve of the fourth order. 67 when he accepted a position at a technic school in At Heidelberg he revised and enlarged upon his . 1855) was published at the same time as was a paper by Steiner treating of the same subject. however.&quot. and were partly synthetic. he reduced a applied to the analytic study of curves of the third order.310 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. Similarly Many of theorems on curves of the third order are important due to Hesse. his determinant gives for every curve another curve. His great memoir on this subject (Crelle. Hessian &quot. a subject first studied by Cayley. Here he remained until 1868. who published his dialytic method These advances in algebra Hesse linear substitutions.

.ANALYTIC GEOMETRY. The researches of Plucker and Hesse were continued in England by Cay ley. It may be premised here that early writers on analytical geometry in England Booth (1806-1878). and Steiner published researches which had been given by Cayley. and James among the MacCullagh (1809-1846). the node. Polytechnic School in Paris. . While in Heidelberg he elaborated a principle.&quot. Halphen (1844-1889) of the of Paris. Ordnung. H. Cayley and Salmon in 1849 determined the straight lines in a cubic surface. and Salmon nearly five years earlier. and published in 1861 Ms Vorlesungen uber die Analytiscke Geometrie des Itaumes. the ordinary cusp. A. his Uebertra- According to this. Nother of Erlangen. followed. In further illustra tion of this. of own investigations. The influence of these men on the progress of geometry was insignificant. and made some valuable discoveries on the theory of quadrics. De La Gournerie Brill of Tubingen. More elementary works soon &quot. and Sylvester. for the interchange of scientific results between different nations was not so complete at that time as might have been desired. we mention that Chasles in France elaborated subjects which had previously been disposed of by Steiner in Germany. while Sylvester in 1851 discovered the pentahedron of such a surface. lead to the conclusion that each higher sin a certain number of simple gularity of a curve is equivalent to singularities. insbesondere uber Flclclien 2. 311 previous researches. Cayley extended Plueker Cayley s s higher singularities. G. points in a line. Salmon. and the projective point geometry of the plane can be carried back to the geometry of gungsprincip. there corresponds to every in a plane a pair of points in a line. and studied its principal properties. the double tangent. who was professor of natural philos ophy at Dublin. whose chief results are embodied was James in his Treatise on Some New Geometrical Methods. equations to curves of and those M. Sylvester.

&quot. inflection. The next great worker in the field of analytic geometry was Clebsch. Neumann. the theory of He proved theorems invariants. with additions. of higher transcendentals in the study of geometry. The idea involved viz.312 and the A HISTOBY OF MATHEMATICS. At the beginning of his career. studied at the university of that place under Hesse. Abelian functions and their use in geometry. Geometry of Three Dimensions). Salmon helped powerfully a curve of the fourth order. successively at the following subjects the calculus of variations and partial differential equations of : the first order. &quot. (Geschlecht) as a funda mental principle in the classification of algebraic curves. made systematic use of mann. From 1858 to 1863 he held the chair of theoretical mechanics at the Polytechnicum The study of Salmon s works led him into and geometry. and Flachenabbildung. Modern Higher Algebra. In 1863 he accepted a position at the algebra University of Giesen. Rudolf Friedrich Alfred Clebsch (1833-1872) was born at Konigsberg in Prussia. In 1868 Clebsch went to Gottingen. on the pentahedron enunciated by Sylvester and Steiner he &quot.&quot. led him to his greatest discoveries. Kichelot. Higher Plane Curves.deficiency&quot. He worked Mathematical physics. the general theory of curves and surfaces. F. the use . made by Wilhelm Fiedler of the Polytechnicurn in Zurich. and remained there until his death. towards the spreading of a knowledge of the new algebraic and geometric methods by the publication of an excellent series of text-books (Conic Sections. where he worked in conjunction with in Carlsruhe. The notion of deficiency was known before him to Abel and Eie&quot. Sylvester studied the twisted Cartesian. Not only did he apply Abelian elliptic functions could be advantageously applied to Malfatti s problem. . Paul Gordan (now of Erlangen). which have been placed within easy reach of German readers by a free translation. Clebsch had shown how therein.

way by Armenante. representation of one surface upon another (Fldchenabwas bildung). Other surfaces have been studied in the same cubic surfaces. 1) correspondence. Caporali. John Casey of Dublin (died 1891). Clebsch made liberal use of determinants. Scliroter (1829-1892) . H. Lambert. W. Jean Gaston Darboux of Paris. Korndorfer. recent writers. 1) correspondence upon This and the analogous question for curves was studied by have been Higher correspondences between surfaces and ISTother. His study of curves and surfaces began with the determination of the points of contact of lines which meet a surface in four consecutive Salmon had proved that these points lie on the inter points. a plane the Plucker. The theory of surfaces investigated by Cayley Clebsch. A fundamental question which has as yet received only a partial answer is this What surfaces can be . Felix Klein. Mother of Erlangen. Zeuthen of Copenhagen. Roberts of Dub Surfaces of the of Breslau. section of the surface with a derived surface of the degree H w _24. Clebsch s but his solution was given in inconvenient form. Gerard Mercator. investigation thereon is a most beautiful piece of analysis. so that they have a (1. Cayley. he drew geometry into the service of Abelian functions. G. but conversely. that of geometry of quadrie surfaces Clebsch and Cremona. particularly M.ANALYTIC GEOMETRY. lin. Chasles. Lagrange. thus represented on obvious. W. pro fessor at the Sorbonne in Paris. has been studied also by Joseph Alfred Serret (1819-1885). is Its importance in the construction of maps Gauss was the first to represent a surface upon another with a view of more easily arriving at its properties. H. The thoroughly studied for the first time by Clebsch. The repre sentation of a sphere on a plane is an old problem which drew the attention of Ptolemaeus. : a given surface ? represented by a (1. R. 313 functions to geometry. Gauss.

69 Gauss obtained an interesting theorem that if one surface be developed (abgewickelt) upon another.314 fourth. by Lagrange. and Meunier (1754-1793) of Paris. studied by Kummer. who disposed of this difficult subject in a way that opened new vistas to geometricians. Then followed the researches of Monge and Dupin. professor in Greifswald). Liouville (1806-1882) of the Poly technic School in Paris. one upon the other. formula of curvature was simplified through the use of deter minants by Heinrich Ricliard Baltzer (1818-1887) of Giessen. He defined the measure of curvature at a point to be the reciprocal of the product From of the two principal radii of curvature at that point. but they were eclipsed by the work of Gauss. the measure of curva The question whether ture remains unaltered at each point. two surfaces having the same curvature in corresponding points can be unwound. with sixteen canonical points sixteen singular tangent planes. J. that the arithmetical mean of the radii of curvature of all normal sections through a point is the radius of a sphere which has the same measure of curvature Gauss s deduction of the as has the surface at that point. this flows the theorem of Johann August Grunert (1797-1872 . is a particular case of and Kummer s quartic surface. A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. order were investigated wave-surface. and EresnePs by Hamilton. and was studied by Minding. His treat ment is embodied in the Disquisitiones generales circa super ficies Jidheren Geodasie of curvas (1827) and Vhtersuchungen uber gegenstdnde der 1843 and 1846. expressed a$ a function of cur vilinear co-ordinates. Gauss s measure of curvature. Ossian Bonnet of Paris (died 1892). gave an impetus to the study of differ- . was answered by F. The case of variable curvature is difficult.Minding in the affirmative only when the curvature is constant. 56 The infinitesimal calculus was first applied to the determi nation of the measure of curvature of surfaces Euler.

Durege s Ebene Ourven dritter Ordnung. Eiemann the analysis situs had for its object the deter mination of what remains unchanged under transformations of brought about by a combination of infinitesimal distortions. Listing. Halphen. Beltrami showed also the connection S. have already spoken of George Peacock and D.Walter Dyck of Munich wrote on the analysis situs of three-dimensional spaces. Sir James Cockle. E. and elaborated into a general theory by Beltrami. and the development of what is called modern higher algebra. ALGEBBA. and was subject was first investigated by treated by Gauss. and others in their &quot. of algebra.topo- Tait was led to the study of knots by Sir logic Thomson s theory of vortex atoms. 315 which have been investigated by Jaeobi. Gregory in connection with the fundamental laws We Much was done in this line by De Morgan. Dingeldey. Simony. the growth of the theory of equations. In continuation of his work. whose theory of knots (VerschUngungen) has been employed recently by J. studies. In the hands William. The later Leibniz.&quot. ential-invariants. Various researches have been brought under the head of &quot. Solid Geometry. &quot. reference should be made to Alfred Clebsch trie. The progress of algebra in recent times : may be considered under three principal heads the study of fundamental laws and the birth of new algebras.&quot. now of Munich Frost s s . Vorlesungen uber Geomeedited by Ferdinand Lindemann. B. Lie. C. . Neumann. F. and others. 0. between the measure of curvature and the geometric axioms.analysis situs. or differential-parameters. Of geometrical text-books not yet mentioned.ALGEBRA.

the logical sect puts out the it can see better with one eye than with De Morgan saw with both eyes. 1842.Cocker s Arithmetic&quot. from 1831-1835. The two eyes of exact science are the mathematical sect puts out the mathematical eye. was The value of his original work lies not so much in increasing our stock of mathematical knowledge as in putting it all upon a He felt keenly the lack of close thoroughly logical basis. Cambridge. and from sitting for a fellowship. and operations of mathematics . except for five years. and studied the logical analysis of the laws.A. and taught there until 1867. In 1828 he became professor at the newly established University of London. No subject was too insignificant to receive Ms attention. ples about the doctrines of the established church prevented him from. Numerous arti cles of his lie scattered in the volumes of the Penny and Eng lish Cydopcedias. He analysed logic mathematically. His Differential Calculus. mathematics and logic each believing that two. and educated at Trinity College. logical eye. Augustus De Morgan (1806-1871) was bom at Madura (Ma His scru dras). The authorship of &quot. and the work of circle-squarers was investigated as minutely as was the history of the invention of the calculus.316 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. he wrote a Formal Logic as well as a Double Algebra^ and corresponded both with Sir William Hamilton. were as profoundly read in the history of mathematics as Rowan was De Morgan. calculus of functions (giving principles of symbolic reasoning) . De Morgan a unique. and Sir William Few contemporaries Hamilton. reasoning in mathematics as he received it. He said once : &quot. is still a standard work. and contains much that is original with the For the Encyclopaedia Metropolitans he wrote on the author. the mathematician. We know that mathematicians : care no more for logic than logicians for mathematics. the metaphysician. manly character. symbols. proceeding to the M. and pre-eminent as a teacher. degree.&quot.

but. 1 and between the mean proportional was developed further.?) of Geneva. like non-Euclidean of them were slow in finding recognition. The writings of Kuhn and i Argand were little noticed. geometry. interpretation Newton. V regarded as an algebraic ric picture. 817 and on the theory of probability. but Hamilton s quaternions These algebras offer a geometrical appreciation in England. and 1847). 1872. so as to give a geometric interpretation of a-f by Jean-Robert Argand (1768. nary. The notion of to aid it. and Peirce s dis met with immediate coveries. He represented 1 as line a. ft&amp. by a line perpendicular 1750-1751. though artificial. of Algebra&quot. . 1841. in a publication of negative. Phil Soc. remained for Gauss to break He introduced &quot. and a between complex numbers and The connection number. in a remarkable Essai (1806) 70 . and construed to the This same idea 1. of imaginaries. The first to give it a geomet the analogous to the geometric interpretation of a teacher in Danzig. required a visual representation what we now call vectors was growing upon mathematicians. of Gam. During the times of Descartes. and it down the last opposition to the imaginary. (Trans. 1842. fiction. who wrote a System der Mathematik in 1822. some This is true of Grassmann s. and Euler. The ideas of Peacock and Be Morgan recognise the possibility of algebras Such algebras were which differ from ordinary algebra. Bellavitis s..ALGEBRA. The mind aid in the further study of symbolic algebra. indeed not slow in Kuhn. was H. and equal to a in length. In Germany symbolical algebra was studied by Martin Ohm. aV^l V + V^. 1844. He published memoirs On the Foundation &quot.&quot. + constituted a powerful points on a plane. as as a complex an independent unit co-ordinate to 1. we have seen the negative and the imagi but the latter was still 1. Celebrated is his Budget of Paradoxes. accepted as numbers.

hodograph. a discovery matics which with the by aid of mathe discovery of Neptune by Le Yerrier and Adams. At the age of thirteen he is said to have been familiar with as many languages as he had lived years. is fluctuating functions. . Dublin. G-rassmann. he took up succes Celeste. equations the fifth He wrote also on the solution of the degree. the calculus. ciple of Varying Action of Then followed papers on the Prin (1827) and a general method of dynamics (1834-1835). in In 1835 he published his Academy &quot. carried on at home.&quot. Laplace s Mecanique Newton s Principia.&quot. His early papers were on ranks optics. he was appointed to the chair of astronomy. nor language. the numerical solution of differential equations. and others. on the 16th of October. geometric addition of vectors in space was discovered independently by Hamilton. but rather as the science of order of progression. while he was still an undergraduate. His early education. Time appeared to him as the picture of such a progression. The capital discovery of Hamilton which his study of algebra culminated. nor primarily a science of quantity. Theory of as being no mere Algebraic Couples. William Rowan Hamilton (1805-1865) was born of Scotch parents in Dublin.the Hence his defini tion of algebra as subject of years science of pure time.318 and tlie A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. and in 1827. At the age of eighteen he published a paper correcting a mistake in Laplace s work. He regarded algebra art. pendicular directed lines. After reading that. In 1832 he predicted conical refraction. was mainly in languages. sively analytical geometry. &quot. in the Transactions of the Royal Irish his quaternions. In 1824 he entered Trinity College. It was the meditation for him to determine what he should regard as the product of each pair of a system of per At last. About this time he caine across a copy of Newton s Universal Arithmetic. about the same time.

helped powerfully Cay ley. admired in England from the received less attenttion. tility in their development. Tait s Elementary Treatise to spread a knowledge of them in England. have each suggested an algebra of vectors with a new notation. the discovery of quaternions flashed upon him. G. and Tait advanced the subject somewhat by But there has been little progress in original contributions.ALGEBRA. His Elements of Quaternions were greatly Quaternions appeared in 1866. 319 1843. and he then engraved with his knife on a stone in 2 Brougham Bridge the fundamental formula i =/ = If = ijJc = At the general meeting of the Irish Academy. along the Koyal Canal in Dublin. Each of two gives a definition of his own for the product is vectors. The change in notation made in France by Houel and by Laisant has been to physics considered in England as a wrong step. he made the first communication on quaternions. nor has the application of quaternions been as extended as was predicted. J. but on the Continent they P. delivered in Dublin. account of the discovery was given the following year in the Hamilton displayed wonderful fer Philosophical Magazine. Macfarlane of the University of Texas. were printed in 1852. while walking witii Ms wife one evening. meet more adequately their wants. except that made by Sylvester in tjjp solution of quaternion equations. His Lectures on Quaternions. recent years. a month 1. . but the true cause for the lack of progress is perhaps more deep-seated. An later. There is indeed great doubt as to whether the quaternionic product can claim a necessary and fundamental place in a system of vector Physicists claim that there is a loss of naturalness analysis. Clifford. start. In order to in taking the square of a vector to be negative. Wl Gfibbs of Yale Uni versity and A. but in such a way that the square of a vector positive. A third system of vector analysis has been used by Oliver Heaviside in his electrical researches.

Baumlehre&quot. praised it. and so general. and out of fashion in its mode of exposition. An article in Crelle s Journal. He In 1840 he had to a new geometric analysis. and of religion in a school there. In 1844 appeared his great classical work. attended a gymnasium at Ms native place (where his father was teacher of mathematics and physics) . the sciences. the Lineale Ausdehnungslelire. But now he made his acquaintance with the works of Lacroix.320 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. and to apply it in the study of tides. He noticed that Laplace s results Lagrange. Up to this time his knowledge of mathematics was pretty much confined to what he had learned from his father. decided to devote himself to it. and years. and Laplace. and stndied theology in Berlin for three years. made consic|jrable progress in its development.&quot. but in this he never succeeded. In 1834 he succeeded Steiner as teacher of mathematics in an industrial school in Berlin.&quot. It now became his ambition to secure a mathematical chair at a university. and he proceeded to elaborate this &quot. In 1842 he resumed mathematical research. but complained of the strange terminology and its philosophische Allgemeinheit. but returned to Stettin in 1836 to assume the duties of teacher of 71 mathematics. but a new book of Schleiermacher drew him again to theology. Mobius glanced over it. Eight years afterwards. was thus led abridged method. in which Grassmann eclipsed the geometers of that . and Grossenlehre. abstract. who had written two books on &quot. could be reached in a shorter way by some new ideas advanced in his father s books. the only man who had read it through. that it could hardly have had less influence on European mathematics during its first twenty had it been published in China. which was full of new and strange matter. Hermann Grassmann (1809-1877) was bora at Stettin. Gauss. and becoming thor oughly convinced of the importance of his new analysis. Grunert. Bretschneider of Gotha was said to be &quot.

Hyde of the University of Cin cinnati wrote the first text-book on Grassmann s calculus in the English language. and resembling Mobius s Barycentrische is the fundamental element. gave up mathematics. His Ausdehnungslehre has very great extension. S. Need we mar vel if G-rassinann turned Schleiermacher articles by him attention to other subjects. pMlosophy. having no limitation to any particular number of dimen sions. a matrix. The quaternion is peculiar to Hamilton.&quot. infinite series. Peirce gave a representation of Grassmann s system in the his discoveries logical notation.&quot. Only in recent years has the wonderful richness of begun to be appreciated. 321 time by constructing. It was intended to show better than the first part the broad scope of the Ausdehnungslehre. A second edition of C.external product. with heavy heart. and E.inter and the open product. this wonderful man. the function of two vectors represented in qua ternions by Saft and Fa/3. but by treating also of algebraic functions. while with Grassmann we find in addition to the algebra of vectors a geometrical algebra of wide application.&quot. with. continued to appear in Crelle s Journal. . W. to philology ? Still. the Ausdehnungslehre of 1844 was printed in 1877. and in s Ms 1862 came out the second part of Ms Ausdehnungslehre.ALGEBRA. and krit. and which vie in splendour with those in mathematics. and the linear vector functions. At the age of fifty-three. aid of Ms method. mann nal developed the idea of the the &quot. to to polities. Grass &quot. But the second part was no more appreciated than the first. The last we now call product. Calculj in which the point &quot. directed his energies to the study of Sans achieving in philology results which were better appreci ated. by considering not only geo metric applications. geometrically any algebraic curve. and the differential and integral calculus. remained again unnoticed. Common to the Ausdehnungslehre and to quaternions are geo metric addition.

had been in correspondence with The &quot. Discoveries of less value. which in part covered those of Grassmann and Hamilton. years professor at Padua.alternate numbers&quot. Clebsch. that he might give his time to science. matical history. &quot. by Justus Bellavitis (1803-1880).clefs algebriques were units subject to combinatorial mul tiplication. who described the multiplication of vectors. Before his death he was professor at Tubingen. as are those of Hamilton and Grass- . In consider ing the foundations of algebra Hankel affirms the principle of the permanence of formal laws previously enunciated incom Hankel was a close student of mathe behind an unfinished work thereon. Schlegel was at one time a as the successful interpreter of Grass young colleague of Grass- maun by at the Marienstifts-Gyrrmasiuin in Stettin. and the addition of vectors and oriented areas. and were applied by the author to the theory of elimination in the same way as had been done earlier by Grassmann. who in his thirty-eighth year laid down a city office in his native place. for many was a self-taught mathematician of much power. and left Victor ScMegel of Hagen mann. whose theory is not geometrical. ject to his law of combinatorial multiplication. The first impression of G-rassmann s ideas is marked in the writings of Hermann Hankel (1839-1873). who published in 1835 and 1837 in the Annali delle Scienze his calculus of sequipollences. Schlegel wrote a System der Encouraged Baumlehre which explained the essential conceptions and operations of the Ausdehnungslehre. whose &quot. Hankel. by Cauchy.322 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. and we must turn to pletely by Peacock. His Complexe Zahlen was at first little read. Bellavitis. Multiple algebra was powerfully advanced by Peirce. who published in 1867 his Vorlesungen uber die Complexen Zahlen.Venant (17971886). 65 Bassano. of Hankel are sub Grassraann. then decent in Leipzig. were made by Saint.

Eor some years he was in charge of the Nautical Almanac and superintendent of the United States Coast He Walker of Washington. ji. then of double algebras. He was made professor at Harvard in 1833. several papers thereon was read at the first The first of meeting of the in 1864. j. showed that these algebras were all defective forms of quadrate algebras which he had previously discovered by logical analysis. Survey. I.. American Association for the Advancement of Science Lithographed copies of a memoir were distributed among friends in 1870.y Vol. Peirce works out the multiplication tables. the letters i. the orbit of Neptune. ij. which are linear functions of a determinate number of letters or units i. Charles S. Jc. is equal to a linear function of the letters. with coefficients which are ordinary ana lytical magnitudes. undergraduate young helped in reading the proof-sheets.. etc. etc. having as carried the study of mathematics far beyond the limits of the 2 When Bowditch was preparing his transla college course. which he shows to be possible on the consideration of symbols A. notation. a son of Benjamin Peirce. real or imaginary. an Analytical Mechanics. mann. Benjamin Peirce (1809-1880) was born at Salem. Mass. and so on up to sextuple. a position which he retained until his death. Profound are his researches on Linear Associative Algebra. j. but so small seemed to be the interest taken in this subject that the memoir Matli. and for which he had devised a simple Of these quadrate algebras quaternions is a simple .. was not printed until 1881 (Am. Eo. IV. 2). and one of the foremost writers on mathe matical logic.ALGEBBA. etc. together with Sears C. tion and commentary of the Mecanique Peirce Ctteste. but under the restriction of 56 satisfying the associative law. etc.. B. 1855. first of single algebras. and calculated. making in all 162 algebras. Jour. being such that every binary combination ft... Peirce. and graduated at Harvard College. published a series of college text-books on mathematics.

is less general than that The latter makes no reference to Hamilton.. and he gave brilliant proof of its power. In 1841 he wrote extended memoirs on determinants in Qrelle s Journal. from which the ordinary imaginary scalar is excluded. double algebra. which rendered the theory In England the study of linear transforma easily accessible.. tions of quantics gave a powerful impulse. nonions is another. In 1826 Jacobi began using this calculus. originated by Cauchy. and quaternions. H. have been developed by Jacobi. in the opinion of Sylvester. and introduced the use of determinant brackets. Lectures on multiple algebra were delivered by J. a term theorems. ushered in the Clifford. the great master of this subject. pub lished in his Lectures on Quaternions. &quot. Cauchy. and published in various journals.&quot. or the familiar pair of upright lines. Trudi. . Nagelbach. previously used by Gauss in the functions considered by him.. and G. Garbieri axisymmetric determinants/ N&quot. Taber. The C.Continuants&quot. A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. . are due to Sylvester. was developed as early as 1858 by Cayley in an important memoir which. H. -unambiguous. Sylvester at the Johns Hopkins They treat University. The theory of determinants 73 was studied by Hoene Wronski in Italy and J. He showed that his father s algebras are operational and matricular. S. In a paper (Jour. J. reign of Algebra the Second. . &quot. H. forms.alternants. Sylvester. de Vecole Polyt. originator of matrices is really Hamilton. 16) Cauchy developed several general He introduced the name determinant. Chapman. Peirce linear associative algebras there are only three in showed that of all whieh divis These are ordinary single algebra. Binet in Prance but they were forestalled by of Cayley. but his theory. The theory of matrices largely of the algebra of matrices. Cayley developed skew-determinants and Pfafftans. C. More recent researches on determinants appertain to special &quot. IX. carried the investigations much further.324 example ion is .

Lebesgue. and E. B. &quot. Giinther. that invariance is a property of discrimi- . in 1841. pointed out relations between determinants and con tinued fractions Scott uses HankePs alternate numbers in his . he accepted the offer of that chair. &quot. Text-books on determinants were written by Spot tiswoode (1851). On the foundation of the Sadlerian pro fessorship at Cambridge. but most important is his creation of a new branch Germs ings of analysis by his theory of invariants. for centre-symmetric determinants&quot. W. who . Brioschi (1854). Spottiswoode (1825-1883).&quot. in Surrey. first used by WronskL V. have been studied by V. Baltzer (1857). . we are indebted to G. Muir (1882). There is hardly any subject in pure mathematics which the genius of Cayley has not enriched. Gunther (1875). Frobenius discovered the properties of Wronskians. thus giving up a profession promising wealth for a very modest provision. Arthur Cayley. Scott (1880). Catalan of Sylvester. Modern higher algebra is especially occupied with the theory of linear transformations. in 1821^ was educated at Trinity College.ALGEBBA. Scott. L. Gauss. of the principle of invariants are found in the writ of Lagrange. Hanus (1886). treatise. F. Nachreiner and S. first 325 used by Jacobi. W. A. Some of his most brilliant discoveries were made during the time of his legal practice. Its development is mainly the work of Cayley and Sylvester.showed. but which would enable him to give all his time to mathematics. J. Christoffel of Strassburg and Liege. Cayley began his mathematical publi cations in the Cambridge Mathematical Journal while he still was an undergraduate. and particularly of Boole. Cambridge. both of Munich. Dostor (1877). 74 He came out Senior Wrangler in 1842. Glaisher. born at Eichmond. He then devoted some years to the study and practice of law. G. and Hesse &quot. E. Zehfuss. eirculants are due to E.

since 1883. To Sylvester is ascribed the general statement of the theory of contravariants. professor Then printed paper was on followed his researches on invariants. Johns College. successively. University of Virginia. at the Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore. &quot. It has often been difficult to determine how much really belongs discoveries followed in rapid succession. multiple algebra. Fresnel s optic theory. and found. that the so-called hyper-determinants possessed it. of additional discoveries. Capitaine du Genie & Nice (published in Nouvelles Annales. originated by the beautiful discovery of A. Cayley set himself the problem to determine a priori what functions of the coefficients of a given equation possess this property of invariance. and other subjects mentioned elsewhere. to each. He came out Second Wrangler in 1837.326 A H1STOBY OF MATHEMATICS. theory of partitions. and who applied it to the theory of orthogonal substitution. His Jewish origin incapacitated him from taking a degree. His About 1874 he took part in the development of the geometrical theory of linkwork movements. nants generally. Peaucellier. professor of mathematics at the . the theory of equations. 1837. James Joseph Sylvester was born in London in 1814. the theory of numbers. Cambridge. and made the subject by A. of geometry at Oxford. and educated at St. 1864 and 1873). B. In 1846 he became a student at the Inner Temple. at the Eoyal Military Academy in Woolwich. After this. to begin with. London then. &quot. the disof close study . and was called to the bar in 1850. and they ley stimulated each other by frequent oral communications. He became professor of natural philosophy at University College. Boole made a number Then Syl vester began his papers in the Cambridge and Dublin Mathe matical Journal on the Calculus of Forms. in 1845. At that time Cayand Sylvester were both residents of London. and first is. Kempe.

One of the earliest in the field was Siegfried Heinrich Aronhold The (1819-1884). are his. and Italy. S and T. Hammond of Oxford. now professor at the Johns Hopkins University. Brioschi of Milan to the and Fa& de Bruno invariants. Chris- . 327 covery of the partial differential equations satisfied by the invariants and oo variants of binary qualities. (1825-1888) contributed theory of the latter writing a text-book on binary forms. E. Sylvester has opened up a its differ new subject. with the aid of symbolic methods. which ranks by the side of Salmon s treatise and those of Clebsch and Gordan. that the number of distinct forms for a binary quantic Clebsch proved this to be true for is finite. Among other writers on invariants are E. of the ternary cubic. discriminant. F. great theory of invariants. Jacobian. Franklin. and has been developed further by J. the interchange of x and y. the theory of reciprocals. In the American Journal of Mathe matics are memoirs on binary and ternary quantics. A very much simpler quantics proof of this was given in 1891. and the subject of mixed concomitants. with any number of variables.ALGEBBA. treating of the func tions of a dependent variable y ential coefficients in regard to and the functions of x. Hermite discovered evectants and the theorem of reciprocity named after him. developed in England mainly by Cayley and Sylvester. Thus the terms invariant. McMahon of which remain unaltered by This theory is more general than Woolwich. E. Hessian. A. for the many names he has introduced into mathematics. one on differential invariants by Halphen (1878). came to be studied earnestly in Ger many. elaborated partly with aid of F. who demonstrated the existence of invariants. and others. Paul Gordan showed. In Italy. Forsyth of Cambridge. by David Hilbert of Konigsberg. France. At Oxford. Syl vester playfully lays claim to the appellation of the Mathe matical Adam.

Clebsch. Emory McClintock of covered that the theory of semi-invariants is a part of that of symmetric functions. Buffings papers are remarkable as containing anticipations of Cauchy s theory of groups. had printed proofs of the insolvability. fication of Abel s proof was given by Wantzel. Kronecker. In 1836 Wil liam B. Though inconclusive. as early as 1786 This important reduction had been effected by E. Klein. A HISTOBY OF MATHEMATICS. Jerrard. 8. Bring. a Swede. like Tschirnhausen. Clebsch extended the theory of binary forms to ternary. Paolo Euffini (1765-1822). After Hermite s first publication. and Bianchi have used the theory of invariants in hyperelliptic and Abelian functions. believed that his method furnished a general algebraic solution of equations of any degree. Abel proved rigorously that the general algebraic equation of the fifth or of higher modi degrees cannot be solved by radicals (Crelle. Wilhelm Eiedler. and applied the results to geometry. . 1858. 1858. L. McMalion dis Cambridge. G-laisher of ew York. and brought out in a publication of the University of Lund. J. Argand. 76 transcendental solution of the quintic involving A elliptic integrals 1865. in in was obtained a simple resolvent of the sixth degree. In the theory of equations Lagrange. 1826). Burckhardt. Jerrard. in a letter to Hermite. A an Italian physician. Weierstrass. 1866). reduced the quintic to the trinomial form by an extension of the method of Tschirnhausen. P.328 toffel. I. N geometry calculus of variations. The modern higher algebra has reached out and indissolubly connected itself with several other branches of mathematics mechanics. McMahon. which were criticised by his countryman Malfatti. Hamilton made a report on the validity of Jerrard s . gave a second solution in which was given by Hermite (Compt Rend.. and Gauss furnished proof to the important theorem that every algebraic equation has a real or a complex root.. his Mathematical Researches (1832-1835). Before Abel. W. A.

I. Jordan in Paris. due also some valuable results in relation to another equations. Ham ilton denned the limits of its applicability to higher equations. killed in a duel.Hamilton s A transformation of equal importance to Jerrard s who expressed The the quintic as the sum of covariants and invariants of higher is that of Sylvester. if. Such equations discussed by Gauss in considering the division of the ones Abel advanced one step further by proving that an circle. three fifth-powers. of Paris. A. equations have been studied much in recent years. provided that the degree if it is not prime. 1811. J. this question. He carried the investigation as far as i 8. G-alois s labours gave which has been birth to the important theory of substitutions. set of in the theory of elliptic presenting themselves the modular equations. functions. and showed that by his process the quintic could be transformed to any one of the four trinomial forms. then the solution depends upon that of equations of lower degree. The subject was powerfully advanced in Paris by the youthful who Evariste Galois (born.ALGEBKA. of the prime . siderations. Kronecker (1823-1891) of 1885) of the Sorbonne . of the equation is other. 1832). of the one can be expressed rationally in terms two of its roots. Through geometrical con Hesse came upon algebraically solvable equations of the ninth degree. not included in the previous groups. series of numbers which he named &quot. viz.&quot. What is the lowest degree Sylvester investigated can have in order that it may admit of being an equation deprived of i consecutive terms by aid of equations not higher than fth degree. 329 method. Serret (1819greatly advanced by G. Abel s proof that higher equations cannot always be solved as to what equations of a given algebraically led to the inquiry are the degree can be solved by radicals. = and was led to a numbers. irreducible equation can always be solved in radicals. To him are introduced the notion of a group of substitutions.

Cole of the University of Michigan. Sylow of FriedEetto s book. and Gordan. Netto of Giessen.380 Berlin. Capelli of Naples. was greatly advanced by Sylves Hesse. M. was considered &quot. Since Fourier and Budan. Brioschi. Switzerland. tions. the solution of numerical equa tions has been advanced by W. Sturm us that his theorem stared him in the face in the midst tells of of a some mechanical investigations connected with the motion 77 This theorem. A simple group of 504 substitutions of nine letters. Salmon. and Homer s compound pendulum. studied by Newton and Waring. &quot. L. native of Geneva. and ready means of finding the real roots of a numerical equation. H. has been shown by E. A. and the successor of Poisson in the chair of mechanics at the Sorbonne. The theory ter. has been translated into English by F. Homer of Bath. Arithmetischen Theorie der Algebraischen his Gf-rundzuge einer theory of differential equations. who contributed to the theory. in 1882. Moor of the University of Chicago to belong to a doubly-infinite system of simple groups. Sylvester. discovered Cole. tionstheorie. The symmetric functions of the sums of powers of the roots of an equation. &quot. a tions. N. who gave an improved method of approximation (Philosophical Transac Jacques Charles Francois Sturm (1803-1855). Gfrossen. 1819). Mother of Erlangen. E. offer together sure method. of elimination Cayley. published -in 1829 his celebrated theorem determining the number and situation of roots of an equation comprised between given limits. Klein of Gottingen. Herniite of Paris. more recently by Gauss. 0. Jacobi. Sylvester gave the dialytic method (Philosophical . the Substiturichshald. A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. BrioschL Cayley of symmetric func gives rules for the weight and order &quot. Cauchy. Gr. Cayley. by The theory of substitutions has important applications in the Kronecker published.

Cauchy left for years later the studies.ANALYSIS. 331 Magazine. Cauchy. with whom the father came in frequent contact. found him unable to take the oath demanded of him. Under this head we find it convenient to consider the sub jects of the differential and integral calculus. in the capacity of engineer. being exceedingly conscientious. and . in he went into volun consequence. Considerations of health induced him to return to Paris after three years. At the classical Cent rale du Pantheon he excelled in ancient In 1805 he entered the Polytechnic School. self tary exile. (1789-1857) was born in Paris. 1852 established a theorem relating to the expression of an eliminant as a determinant. he renounced engi find him next holding neering in favour of pure science. and the accession to the throne of Louis Philippe in 1830. variations. . Being. and differential equa Prominent in the development of these subjects was Cauchy. C&leste and Lagrange s Fonctions Analytiques were M&camque 7 among his book companions there. Cauchy resumed his and in 1831 was induced by the king of Piedmont to At TMbourg in Switzerland. studies. the calculus of tions. Laplace s Cherbourg in 1810. On the expulsion of Charles X. We a professorship at the Polytechnic School. and two cole des Ponts et Chaussees. Yielding to the persuasions of Lagrange and Laplace. Augtistin-Louis Cauchy 78 foretold the future greatness ICcole of the young boy. and received his early education from his father. probability.. 1840). Cayley made a new statement of Bezout s method of elimination and established a general theory of elimination (1852). deprived of his positions. Lagrange and Laplace. infinite series.

light. differential equations. a chair in the College de France was offered to him. etc. tions. Jesuits. and Cauchy at last became On the establishment of professor at the Polytechnic School. Encouraged by Laplace and Poisson. undertake the education This gave Cauchy an opportunity to visit various parts of Europe. the Duke of Bordeaux. of imaginaries. Charles X.. elasticity. In 1833 he obeyed the call of his exiled king. Charles X. the second empire. especially created him at the university of Turin. bestowed upon him the title of Earon. a work of great merit. covering pretty much the whole realm of mathematics. to of a grandson. determinants. theory of numbers. he -exercised a more immediate and beneficial influence upon the great mass of mathematicians than any contemporary writer. theory of substitutions. many a lax and loose method of analysis hardly as yet eradicated . During the political events of 1848 the oath was suspended. but declared ineligible by the ruling power. He was one of the leaders His researches extended in infusing rigour into analysis. theory of func mathematical astronomy. Had it been studied more diligently by } writers of text-books in England and the United States. nominated member of the Bureau of Longitude. and in two of his publications staunchly defended the piety. and to learn how extensively his works were being read. the oath was re-instated. On his return to Paris in 1838. over the field of series. but Cauchy and Cauchy was a man of great Arago were exempt from it.. for accept the chair of mathematical physics. and the preparation of standard text-books.332 A HISTOEY OF MATHEMATICS. Cauchy published in 1821 his Cours d Analyse de VEcole Royale Polytecfmique. but the He was oath demanded of him prevented his acceptance. By a prompt publication of his results. Cauchy was a prolific and profound mathematician. pure and applied.

and Ostrogradsky of St. Eecent studies pertain to the variation of a double integral when the limits are also variable. E. without. Cauchy made some researches on the calculus of variations. Eisenlohr. Lebesgue. are included in the integrations of the fluous. was awarded a . S. A. variation. In calculus England special attention to the clear exposition of funda mental principles was given by De Morgan. Recent American treatises on the calculus introduce time as an independent vari able. This subject is now in its essential principles the same as when it came from the hands of Lagrange. the exposition of fundamental principles of the differential by his mode of considering limits and his new theory the continuity of functions.ANALYSIS. and to variations of multiple integrals in Memoirs were published by Gauss in 1829. An important memoir by Sarrus on the question of determining the limiting equations which must be combined with the indefinite equations in order to determine completely the maxima and minima of multiple integrals. Spitzer. The method of Cauehy and on Duhamel was accepted with favour by Houel and others. was elucidated and extended by V. thus virtually returning to the method of fluxions. showing that the difficult integrations demanded by the discussion of the second variation. in 1831. Hesse. Petersburg in 1834. presented with great brevity by Jacobi. Cauchy was the first to publish a He greatly improved rigorous proof of Taylor s theorem. and the allied notions of velocity and acceleration. by which the existence of a maximum or minimum can be first ascertained. and Clebsch. determining in a general manner the number and form of the equations which must subsist at the limits in case of a double or triple integral. Delaunay. Poisson general. 383 from elementary text-books would have been discarded over half a century ago. and thus are super This important theorem. C. however. In 1837 Jacobi published a memoir.

excepting the test advanced first by Leibniz for alternating series. . W. Mainardi and F. 1810 . Woodhouse. simplified by new method of discriminating maxima and minima. 1849 Moigno and Lindelof. Jellett (1817-1888). of inquiring into the convergence of infinite series. published work on the History of the Progress of the Calculus of Variations. In 1852 G. Brioschi showed the value of determinants in exhibit ing the terms of the second variation. developing the theory of discontinuous solutions (discussed in particular cases by Legendre). which contains researches of his own. Cam Richard Abbatt in London. The subject has been treated most exhaustively by D. In 1861 Isaac Todexhibit a his valuable hunter (1820-1884) of St. Dublin. In 1866 he published a most important research. Strauch in Zurich. Fellow of Caius College. Cambridge. once Provost of Trinity College. Meyer. honourable mention Sarrus s method was being made of a paper by Delaunay. The treatises following are the more important authors of systematic on the calculus of variations. history of infinite series illustrates vividly the salient feature of the new era which analysis entered upon during the The Newton and Leibniz felt the quarter of this century. By Euler and his contem poraries the formal treatment of series was greatly extended. G. necessity but they had no proper criteria. John s College. by the French Academy in 1845. and doing for this subject what Sarrus had done for multiple integrals. 1837 John Hewitt . 1850 5 . 1861. F. Mainardi attempted to Cauchy. 1862. and extended Jacobi s theorem to double integrals. delivered by Dirichlet in have been elaborated into a standard work by G. and the dates of publi cation: Eobert bridge. 1858. lectures on definite integrals. Bierens de Haan of Leiden in his Hxposd de la theorie des integrals d&finieSj The Amsterdam. 1881. Lewis Buffett Carll of Flushing in New York.334 prize A HISTOKY OF MATHEMATICS.

and then series. Like Gauss. or the ratio or not. Owing to the strangeness of treatment and unusual rigour. the doubtful. Their actual contents came to be the primary. these expressions become ultimately unity and fail. More as the number of terms increases indefinitely are called diver gent. Gauss s paper excited little interest among the mathematicians of that time. fortunate in reaching the public was Cauchy. ative + l)th He showed Leibniz s that series with neg terms converge when the deduces of absolute values of the terms test converge. form a secondary. or plainly absurd.ANALYSIS. whose Analyse Algebrique of 1821 contains a rigorous treatment of All series whose sum does not approach a fixed limit series. according as the wth root of of the (n term and the nth term. results obtained from infinite series lated prof ounder inquiries into the validity of operations with them. The faults of Ms time found their culmination in the Combinatorial School in Ger infinite series. Cauchy established two other tests. The first important and striptly rigorous investigation of series was made by Gauss in con nection with the hypergeometric series. now quite forgotten. and thus bears the stamp of generality so characteristic of Gauss s writings. now many. for alternating The product two convergent series was not found to be necessarily convergent. At the stimu now under consideration. while tlie 335 necessity for determining the convergence was gen erally lost sight of. he institutes comparisons with geometric terms are convergent series. is ultimately less To reach some of the cases where or greater than unity. Euler reached some very pretty results on well known. and also some very absurd results. which has now passed beginning of the period into deserved oblivion. Cauchy s theorem that the . and finds that series with positive the nth term. consideration. The criterion devel oped by him settles the question of convergence in every case which it is intended to cover.

386 A HISTOBY OF MATHEMATICS. convergent series to be multiplied together. In his demonstration of the binomial theo rem he established the theorem that if two series and their product series are all convergent. but a semi-convergent series. the new views were generally accepted only after a . of two semi-convergent series can never converge absolutely. The most outspoken critic of the old methods in series was Abel. multi plied The by an absolutely convergent series. Since we do not possess such a criterion. Laplace hastened home and remained there in seclusion until he had examined the series in Ms M&oanique C&leste. It is very interesting reading. that the new ideas at once displaced the old. reaches the following interesting conclusions: Pringsheim product. stir. or even a divergent series. only one is abso lutely convergent. then the product series will converge towards the product of the sums of the two given This remarkable result would dispose of the whole series. On the contrary. Pringsheim of Munich and A. Mertens of G-raz to be still true if of the two . His letter to Ms friend Holmboe (1826) contains severe criticisms. Luckily. every one was found to be convergent! We must not conclude. problem of multiplication of practical criterion of series if we had a universal convergency for semi-convergent series. product of two absolutely convergent series converges to the product of the sums of the two series was shown half a cen tury later by F. may yield an abso lutely convergent product. Voss of Wiirzburg which remove in certain cases the necessity of applying tests of convergency to the product series by the application of tests to easier related expressions. even to modern students. theorems have been recently established by A. however. The researches of Abel and Cauchy caused a considerable We are told that after a scientific meeting in which Cauchy had presented his first researches on series.

and Pringsheim. The study of general criteria was continued by U. as given by as given in his calculus. etc. that he had anticipated the above-named writers in estab It was the opinion of Bonnet lishing logarithmic criteria. Vol. or the ratio of the (?i l)th term and + . Dini of Pisa. He established a theorem still yielding a test consisting of two parts. that the logarithmic criteria never fail mond and Pringsheim have each the Bois-Reydiscovered series demon. special criteria. are more convenient than De Morgan s. IX. Du Bois-Reymond divides criteria into two classes criteria : of the first kind and criteria of the second kind. but Du strably convergent in which these criteria fail to determine The criteria thus far alluded to have convergence.&quot. Kohn of Minden. a paper on I believe it will divergent series in this style be generally admitted that the heading of this paper describes the only subject yet remaining. Bertrand and by Ossian Bonnet. 337 1844 : As &quot. culminating in a regular mathematical theory. of an elementary character.ANALYSIS. been called by Fringsheim because they all depend upon a comparison of the nfh. late as De Morgan began &quot. and to consider the subject from a wider point of view. as to the absolute correctness or incorrectness of First in time in the evolution of more delicate criteria of convergence and divergence come the researches of Josef Ludwig Eaabe (Crelle. then follow those of De Morgan De Morgan established the loga rithmic criteria which were discovered in part independently by J. nx.). Paul Du Bois-Beyrnond. according as the general nth term. was Kummer. the first part of which was afterwards found to be superfluous. term of the series with special functions an. ^(logn)*. The forms of these criteria. Among the first to suggest general criteria. on &quot. It appears from Abel s posthumous papers&quot. severe and long struggle. Gr. Bertrand. which a serious schism exists among mathematicians results.

two criteria previously given apart. proved that Fourier tion series still represents the func when the number of discontinuities is infinite. however. which were. is made the basis of research. but the ratio of Difficult questions arose in the study of Fourier s series. and .). theory of Pringsheim is very complete. 79 Cauchy was the its by first who felt the necessity of inquiring into But his mode of proceeding was found convergence. criterion of the second kind.338 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. in addition to the criteria of the first kind and second kind. Those of the third kind rest mainly on the consideration of the limit of the difference either of consecu In the generalised criteria of the second kind he does not consider the ratio of two con tive terms or of their reciprocals. not well founded. are sufficient. Schlafli of Bern and Du Boisdoubts as to the correctness of the mean Eeymond expressed value. then Fourier the two boundary values. except points of discontinuity. s Lipschitz. which apply. does not have an infinite continuities. thorough researches on this subject (Crelle. of Bonn. among others. secutive terms. They culminate in the result that whenever the function does not become infinite. entirely new criteria of a third Mud. any two terms however far and deduces. the nth. and offers. term. analogous A heim general criteria established by Du Bois-Beyrnond and Prings The respectively. however. by Kohn and Ermakoff respectively. all the special criteria can be derived. and also generalised criteria of the second kind. Dirichlet made the first Dirichlet to be unsatisfactory. Dirichlet s conditions but not necessary. only to series with never increasing terms. Vol. From the to this. was invented by Pringsheim. IV. and does not possess number of dis an infinite number of s series converges toward the value of that function at all places. Kummer s is a criterion of the first kind. and there it converges toward the mean of maxima and minima.

Bdernann inquired what properties a function must have. Stokes (1847). The sub sum of ject of wig Seidel (1848) and uniform convergence was investigated by Philipp LudGr. made by Weierstrass. A. G-. it 339 represents a function having an infinite number of maxima and minima. to exclude which was shown by Weierstrass to was not found necessarily them from being represented by Fourier s series. and has assumed became necessary It great importance in Weierstrass theory of functions. whenever convergent. belong to large classes of functions. whether such a series actually repre sents the function or not. He found necessary and sufficient conditions for this. Doubts on some of the conclusions about Fourier s series were thrown by the observation. They do not decide. of Halle. however. But this property.ANALYSIS. Hankel. established a condition on which. Eiemann rejected Cauchy s defini tion of a definite integral on account of its arbitrariness. and then inquired when a function has an His researches brought to light the fact that con tinuous functions need not always have a differential coeffi integral. converges toward the value of the function. As compared with the vast development of other mathe- . Cantor and Du Bois-Beymond. but was proved to be false by Du Bois-Keymond and H. cient. This was done by Heinrich Eduard Heine (1821-1881). so that there it is continuous functions can be represented series at all points was shared by Eiemann and may be a trigonometric series which. Dirich- let s belief that all by Fourier s H. gave a new definition. that the integral of an infinite series can be shown to be equal to the the integrals of the separate terms only when the series converges uniformly within the region in question. Schwarz. Later researches on Fourier s series were made by G. to prove that a trigonometric series repre senting a continuous function converges uniformly.

The earliest local problem on this subject dates back to the time of Buffon. Jevons in his Principles of Science founds induction bility.. made by . Czuber). The only noteworthy recent addition subject of &quot. ments and sirnplications in the G-. probability. made very Improve have been E. if a man. or that of all theories proposed for inves tigation one-half are true. A. J. Meyer (edited by Cournot and Westergaard treatment of insurance and the theory of life-tables are classical. the naturalist. says Quetelet. This branch of probability had been worked out by Thomas Bayes (died 1761) and by Laplace By it some (Bk. of the tides. logicians have explained induction. J.&quot. A. by Lexis Harald Westergaard. Ch. Y. he would be entitled there was a probability equal to that the sea would rise = 0. of Copenhagen and Dusing. upon the theory of inverse proba and F. were to go to the shore of the Atlantic Ocean and witness on m successive days the rise of the to conclude that then. Bertrand. developed by several English and a few American and French mathematicians. Boole. who has never heard sea. Worthy of note is the rejection of inverse probability by the best authorities of our time. cations of the calculus to statistics have been Appli L. s matical branclies . mode s of exposition made by A.340 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. W. to thrown at random upon a determine the probability that a short needle. De Morgan. who proposed the problem. solved by himself and Laplace. For example. Edgeworth also accepts it in his Mathematical to probability is the Psychics. Putting the unwarrantable assumption that the probability of a totally m unknown event is $. it is seen that this view rests upon next day. Quetelet (1796-1874). of his TMorie Analytique). . the theory of probability has insignificant progress since the time of Laplace. director of the observatory at Brussels. floor ruled with equidistant parallel . S. VI. II.

Petersburg. and others. Sophus Lie. Clebsch. Jordan. G-. It was pursued in America by E. The keen of Gand. A. A. S. four-point problem: to find the probability at random within a given boundary. This remark is especially The first full scientific true of partial differential equations. name &quot. lines. Seitz in France by C. E&quot. Crofton of the entrant quadrilateral. Then came Sylvester s that four points. Pfaff. shall form a re taken Local probability has been studied in England by A. A. The latter were investi iSmile Bour gated in more recent time by Monge. partial differential equations of differ assuming. Cauchy. Watson. by Paul Mansion. Through considerations of local probability. J. By a found the general integration of par peculiar method. Starting from the theory of ordinary differential of the first order in n variables. on partial differential were presented in text-book form equations of the first order. military school at Woolwich. treatment of differential equations was given by Lagrange and Laplace.Pfaffian prob From the connection.ANALYSIS. Lemoine. and others. B. Meyer. Jacobi. between . he gives first their equations considers the integration of the general integration. (1831-1866) of Paris. His order between of ential any equations researches led Jacobi to introduce the lem. H. as known. then at Halle. however. E. Afterwards he was with the astronomer Bode. Serret. In 1873 their reseaches. and then as a particular case of the former. Clarke. Pfaff tial differential equations of the first order for any number of variables. Wolstenholme. He was an intimate friend of young G-auss at Gottingen. Boole. but with greatest success by M. Crofton was led to the evaluation of certain definite integrals. Korkine of St. Later he became professor at Helmstadt. the general integration two variables. of the University researches of Johann Friedrich Pfatf (1795-1825) marked a decided advance. . R. Barbier. E. will fall 341 on one of the lines. W. McColl. observed by Hamilton..&quot. Weiler.

established independently of each other without any integra Jacobi materially advanced the theory of differential equations of the first order. and Imschenetzky in Eussia. while Clebsch on the second variation. the integration of was perfected by Hesse. (in a system of ordinary differential equations analytical mechanics) and a partial differential equation. the second variation must be examined. was ingeniously deduced by Jacobi from the integration of the differential equations of the first varia tion. Bonnet in France. which was corrected and extended by Serret. which can be tion. in the first place. Clebsch considered Pfaff s problem from a new point of view. the vanishing of the first variation of the integral. differential equations. shall reach a maximum or minimum value. BerJacobi s solution extended to the general case Jacobi s results trand. difficult This leads to new and which. Allied to the point of view indicated by this theorem is that of Riemann. and reduced it to systems of simul taneous linear partial differential equations. in a pre scribed manner. known functions in such a The problem to determine un way that an integral containing these functions and their differential coefficients. Jacobi drew the conclusion that. and is developable by Taylor s theorem. J. who regards a function of a single variable as . for the simpler cases. is Fundamental the proposition of Cauchy that every ordinary differential equation admits in the vicinity of any non-singular point of an integral. the integration of which determines the functions.342 A HISTOKY OF MATHEMATICS. 0. all but the first system were entirely superfluous. demands. This condition leads to differential equations. of the series of systems whose successive integration PfafPs method demanded. which of is synectic within a certain circle convergence. Cauchy gave a method of solving partial differ ential equations of the first order having any number of variables. To ascer tain whether the value is a maximum or a minimum.

which is satisfied by the hyperequation geometric series. Darboux. Tannery. at one time professor in Queen s University. This study has been standard text-book on Differential Equations. His treatise on and his Laws of Thought (1854) are Finite Differences (1860) works of high merit. and others. Before this. by the position and nature of and who has applied this conception to that linear differential of the second order. has been considered imposed upon by J. Henri Poincare of Paris The study of 1854). Ireland. This equation was studied also by Gauss . Cork. who employed Fuchs method of linear differential equations and found all of Hummer s twenty-four integrals of this equation. Fuchs began the study from the more general standpoint of the linear differential equations whose coefficients are not constant. was prepared in 1859 by George Boole (1815-1864). and a self-educated mathematician of great power. linear equations with constant co efficients of integration were almost the only ones for which general methods were known. continued by JMouard Goursat of Paris. singular solutions. and Kummer. and Jordan. . While the general theory of these equations has recently been presented in a new light by Herniite. his attention mainly to those He directed whose integrals are all regular. linear differential equations entered a new (bom period with the publication of Fuchs memoirs of 1866 and 1868. and especially A on symbolical methods. including original matter on integrating factors. He was a native of Lincoln.ANALYSIS. of Paris. Felix Klein of G-ottingen (born 1849). The fertility of the conceptions of with regard to differential equations Cauchy and Rlemann is attested by the researches to which they have given rise on the part of Lazarus Fuchs of Berlin (born 1835). defined 343 its singularities. Its general theory when no restriction is the yalue of the variable.

near a singular point. W. Konigsberger. and Jem Claude Bouquet (1819-1885). and not from any analytical expression of the function. Instead of studying the properties of the integrals of a differential equation for all the values of the variable. studied the case when. Endeavours have thus been made to determine the nature of the function defined by a differential equation from the differential equation itself. Fuchs . Thome of G-reifswald (born 1841). but the resulting theory of irregular integrals is The theory as yet in very incomplete form. Frobenius of Berlin. investigators at first contented them selves with the study of the properties in the vicinity of a given point. we ing have a certain substitution corresponding to each of the If the variable be paths. both of (1817-1882) at Paris. obtained first by solving the differential equation. and Fuchs and Frobenius investigated the conditions methods. Forsyth.344 A HISTOBY OF MATHEMATICS. not all of whose integrals are regular. under which no logarithms shall appear. Frobenius by independent Logarithms generally appear in the integrals of a group. of invariants associated with linear differential equations has been developed by Halphen and by A. Through the study of groups the reducibility or irreducibility of linear differ ential equations has been examined by Frobenius and Leo The subject of linear differential equations. The forms of integrals of such equations were examined by Fuchs and by G-. the dif ferential equations take the form (a? a? ) = dx JC(oy) . The researches above referred to are closely connected with the theory of functions and of groups. the aggregate of all these substitutions being called a group. The nature of the integrals at singular points and Albert Briot ordinary points is entirely different. made to describe all possible paths enclos one or more of the critical points of the equation. B. and Poinear6. has been attacked by G.

imaginary coefficients be used. Erobenius. The extension to non linear equations of the tions has been method thus applied to linear equa begun by Euchs and Poincare. great analogy to elliptic functions while the region of the latter may be divided into parallelograms. Klein. The new transcendents have a . Schwarz. arrives at what he calls ratio of two transcendents (theta-fuchsians) in the same way If. having linear equations. If the of such an equation be subjected to a certain trans integral formation. 81 them by the use of functions named by him Fuch&quot. that elliptic functions can be. each representing a . been studied in the vicinity of given points by Euehs. He found. then discontinuous groups are obtained. The developments for ordinary points were given by Cauchy and Madarae Kowalevsky. divided these equations into families. the result will be the integral of an equation He belonging to the same family.&quot. which were then the best known. moreover. as also for partial differential equations of the first order. tions with real instead of linear substitu coefficients. was able to integrate sians. the former may be divided into curvilinear polygons. Poincare did the same for the case when the equations are not linear. Poincare&quot. which he called Kleinians. Confining himself to those with rational algebraical coefficients. group. as employed in the above groups. 345 gave the development in series of the integrals for the partic ular case of linear equations.ANALYSIS. The attempt to express the integrals hy developments that are always convergent and not limited to particular points in a plane necessitates the introduction of new transcendents. Thome*. Fuchsian groups. . so that the knowledge of the function inside of one polygon Thus carries with it the knowledge of it inside the others. for the old functions permit the integration of only a small num Poincare* tried this plan with ber of differential equations. and Halphen. that Euchsian functions can be expressed as the Poincare&quot.

or Abelian. does not suffice in the application of differential equations to questions of mechanics. and of integration above referred to. Poincare. H. which since the time of Galois have become the leading concept in the theory of algebraic equations. been studied by Poincare. and by Poincar& 81 The subject of singular solutions of differential equations has been materially advanced since the time of Boole by G. often desirable to construct investigation. We have of &quot. such as algebraic. and applied by him to the integration of ordinary linear partial differential equations. now of Leipzig. it is. among the earliest of the several kinds groups the theory of substitution). Much interest differential attaches to the determination of those linear equations which can be integrated C. which makes the properties of equations from the standpoint of the theory of functions. however. the curves defined by differential equations. by simpler This has functions. Appel of Paris (born 1858). seen that &quot. P. or at least of : general occurrence.346 A HISTOEY OF MATHEMATICS. Jordan. elliptic. a very special and . on the other hand. the subject of general research in 1873 by Sophus Lie. from the point of view of the integrated equation. ought to be a phenomenon of universal. then the general form of the curve does not appear from the above mode of It is. and others have applied the theory of finite and infinite discontin uous groups to the theory of functions and of differential are the finite discontinuous groups (groups in The finite continuous groups were first made equations. Darboux and Cayley. If we con The mode known sider the function as defining a plane curve. The papers prepared by these mathe maticians point out a difficulty as yet unsurmounted whereas a singular solution. Studies having this end in view have been carried on by Briot and Bouquet. that since 1876 Felix Klein.

instead of the geometric method preferred by Klein and Schwarz. our sketch of the vast progress in the theory of functions by considering the special class called elliptic func tions. Traite A notable work. An advanced Treatise on Linear Differential Equations (1889) was brought out by Thomas Craig of the Johns Hop kins University. versity Legendre were closely studied by him. He chose the algebraic method of presenta tion followed by Hermite and Poincare. and was prepared for the university at the cathedral He exhibited no interest in mathe school in Christiania. when B. His extraor of a dinary Success in mathematical study led to the offer his studies stipend by the government. Mels Henrick Abel (1802-1829) was born at Findoe in Nor way. and aroused Abel to the class. Holmboe became lecturer there. that he might continue . is now being published by is Paris. exceptional 847 phenomenon from the point 89 of view of the differ ential equation. W. We begin These were richly developed by Abel and Jacobi. s interest by assigning original problems other young men who became eminent mathematicians. and in Christiania. A geometrical theory of singular solutions resembling the one used by Cayley was previously employed by W. matics until 1818. the interest of which differential equations. The works of Euler. Johnson of Annapolis. The idea of the inver equation of the sion of elliptic functions dates back to this time. the mile Picard of $ Analyse. Lagrange. Abel found the first exercise of his talent in the attempt to solve by algebra the general Like Jacobi and many In 1821 he entered the Uni fifth degree. made to centre in the subject of THEORY OF FUNCTIONS.THEORY OF FUNCTIONS.

but by the French this new periodical was little as yet hardly speak of his him to known to exist. . and met Steiner. He entered also detail.348 in A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. This slight. Crelle started his journal in 1826. Schumacher. prevented the genial Abel from going to Gottingen. He had appreciated. He met but was there Birichlet. out having met Gauss Abel had sent to Gauss his proof of ! 1824 of the impossibility of solving equations of the fifth degree. A similar Abel feeling was entertained by him later against Cauchy. of which he gave in Grelle s Journal a rigid general investigation). of the impossibility of solving the general equation of the fifth first printed in 1824 in a very concise was elaborated in greater form. and published in the first volume. the study of functions. and others . 1826. where he became intimate with August Leopold Crelle (1780-1855). ited the astronomer. in Abel and Steiner. Abel began to put some of his work in shape for print. and it was there that he made researches on hyperelliptic and Abelian In July. and a haughtiness of spirit which he associated with Gauss. where he had fewer interruptions to work. . Pecuniary embarrassments induced return home after a second short stay in Berlin. to which Gauss never paid any attention. and of the integral The obscurities everywhere encountered by him calculus. and difficult of apprehension. and Abel was too modest to own work. already published several important memoirs in Crelle s Journal. Abel left Germany for Paris with functions. remained ten months in Paris. His proof degree by radicals. Tor a short time he left Berlin for Preiberg. Legendre. and spent six months in Berlin. upon the subject of infinite series (particularly the binomial theorem. to the prevailing loose methods of analysis he endeav owing oured to clear up. Encouraged by Germany and Prance. At and served Christiania he for some time gave private lessons. Leaving Norway in 1825 Abel vis Hamburg. Cauchy.

These two discoveries were the foundations upon which Abel and Jaeobi. as decent. arrival in Paris. was discoveries. but said nothing about it until after Abel s death. The his few months after his tory of this memoir is interesting. elliptic Abel func developed the curious expressions representing tions quotients of infinite products. articles neglected. Abel submitted it to the French Academy. 349 Berlin .THEORY OF FUNCTIONS. by infinite series or they were eclipsed by his researches on what are now called Abel s theorem on these functions was Abelian functions. Legendre long be enriched by some extraordinary The advantage to be derived by inverting the at last to s favourite subject. published by Abel in Crette s This led Journal. reference is made to that memoir. Jacobi published on elliptic functions. Great as were the achievements of Abel in elliptic functions. also arrived at independently by both. In a brief statement of the discoveries in question. is the introduction of imaginaries leading to the observation that the new functions simulated at once trigonometric and expo nential functions. the most general of these being that in his M6moire sur une propriety gen&rale d une classe tr&s-6tendue de fonctions transcendentes (1826). so elliptic integral of the first kind and treating later also it as a function (now by Abel. elliptic functions had both sorts of periods. erected beautiful new structures. but the news of Crelle secured at last an appointment for at it did not reach Norway until after Mm the death of Abel at Proland. given by him in several forms. and a few months of its amplitude called elliptic function) was recognised by Jacobi. 82 At nearly the same time with Abel. Jacobi to inquire of Legendre whafr had become of it. each in his own way. A second fruitful idea. A Cauchy and Legendre were appointed to examine it . For it was shown that while trigonometric functions had only a real period. Le- . and exponential only an imag inary. 1829.

the development of which has kept mathematicians busy for over half a century. Konigsberger. elliptic integrals are deducible from Abel s theorem. The hyperelliptic integrals introduced by Abel. and 0. The reduction of Abelian to has been studied mainly by Jacobi. By a singular mis hap. the manuscript was lost before the proof-sheets were .gt. Brioschi. function y which tion Abelian integrals depend upon an irrational is connected with x by an algebraic equa F(x } y) = 0. It was shown later that p is the defi The addition theorems of ciency of the curve F(x. Abel s theorem asserts that a sum of such integrals can be expressed integrals. which he neglected to do. gendre says that the manuscript was so badly written as to be illegible. read. editions of Abel by Holmboe in 1839. In its form.&quot. E. y) = 0. Hermite. by a definite number p of similar where p depends merely on the properties of the equation F(x. allotted to the Some by Gauss. It was not published until 1841. elliptic integrals Two 1881. 3. Goursat. s genius.mon- umentum During the few years of work young Norwegian. Legendre. called it &quot. and proved by him to possess multiple periodicity. y) = 0. The memoir remained in Canchy s hands. Picard. Bolza of the University of Chicago. the contents of the memoir belongs to the inte gral calculus. and that Abel was asked to hand in a better copy. are special cases of Abelian integrals whenever _p= or &amp.350 A HISTOEY OF MATHEMATICS. who aere greatly admired Abel perennius. works have been published the first and the second by Sylow and Lie in s : Abel s theorem was pronounced by Jacobi the greatest dis The aged covery of our century on the integral calculus. of the discoveries of Abel and Jacobi were anticipated In the Disqidsitiones Arithmeticce he observed . he penetrated new fields of research.

7 His early researches were on Gauss approximation to the value of definite integrals.THEOEY OF FUNCTIONS. After giving lectures in Berlin for two years. At the Univer where he pursued his mathematical studies independently of the lecture courses. In 1829. and cubic residues. made the acquaintance of English mathematicians. he took the degree of Ph. 351 that the principles which he used in the division of the circle were applicable to many other functions. and two After the years later to the ordinary professorship there. Jacobi communicated his first researches to Crelle s Journal. where they travel. He read Legendre s Exercises. Poisson. in 1825. of his Fimdamenta Nova he spent some time in publication meeting Gauss in Gottingen. Though slow at first.D. The papers clusion. of elliptic integrals. but that this time he had not been led to a him new single origi nal thought. besides the circular. mathematics by reading Euler. his ideas flowed all the richer afterwards. Legendre s coefficients. in the collected works of Gauss confirm this con Carl Gustav Jacob Jacob! M (1804-1851) was born of parents at Potsdam. he was elected extraordinary professor at Konigsberg. at the age . and Legendre. which give an account he returned the book to the library. at tended the meetings of the British Association. Courier. In 1842 he and his colleague. and particularly to the transcendents dependent on the integral _^__. When he was depressed in spirits in and said that important books generally excited ideas. Like many other mathematicians Jewish he was initiated into sity of Berlin. Many of his discoveries in elliptic func tions were made independently by Abel. in Paris. /dx Erom this Jacobi 83 concluded that Gauss had thirty years earlier considered the nature and properties of elliptic functions and had discovered their double periodicity. partial differential equations. Bessel.

it is shown that Abel theorem has reference to two functions X(u. X(u . v). en. Mm a pension. X^u u yV v ) algebraically in terms of the functions X(u. such as the elliptic sn. but functions of 56 Thus in the case p 2. \i(u. dn. . which Jacobi especially p variables. and the theory of numbers is mentioned elsewhere. v) } each of two variables. Jacobi s work on dynamics. a transcendental function of the modulus. Xi(u. defined by the equation q /*. Madame Kowalevski. He developed a theory of transformation which led him to a mul titude of formulae containing g.v ). He then made a closer study of theta-functions and lectured to his pupils on a new theory of elliptic functions based on the theta-functions. . In a short but very important memoir of 1S32. Xi(u . . By the memoirs of Abel and Jacobi it may be considered that the r + . where the last years of his life were spent. Picard. v). He was also = e&quot. and he moved to Berlin. In 1842 Jacobi visited Italy for a few months to recuperate his health. he published secured for him a wide reputation. for the hyperelliptic integral of to which Abel s any class the direct functions theorem has reference are not functions of a single variable.v ). which contains in condensed form the main results in elliptic functions. v). and in effect an addition-theorem for the expression of the gives functions X(u u v v ).352 A HISTORY OP MATHEMATICS. Ms Fundaments Nova Theories Functionum Ellipticarum. = s considers. At this time the Prussian government gave differential equations. determinants.** two new functions and which by with two different arguments are the taken each separately 56 four (single) theta-functions designated by the 1? 2 4 3. he shows that led it to consider the H . + + + r r r notion of the Abelian function of p variables was established and the addition-theorem for these functions given. E. and Poincare*. Eecent studies touching Abelian functions have been made by Weierstrass. This work at once of twenty-five.

lt. 56 Henry Smith regarded a theta-function with the argument equal to This he called an omega-function.(&amp. the theory of algebraic equations. Cleve.). so that &amp. most impor tant of which are those of Eichelot and of Weierstrass of Berlin. In 1858 Charles Hennite of Paris (born 1822). Joubert of Angers. zero.(o&amp. A of Jena.*&amp. and imaginary arguments have been made by Meissel of Kiel. called by him &quot. Konigsberger. by an algebraic xW? are n^ s modular Researches on theta-functions with respect to real &amp. Bern (bom 1818) * method of reducing an The algebraic transformations of a relation elliptic functions involve between the old modulus and the new one which Jacobi expressed by a differential equation of the third order. general formula for the product of two theta-functions was given in 1854 by H. The 353 researches on functions mentioned thus far have been greatly extended. S. while the three functions functions. L.THEOBY OF FUNCTIONS. Gtitzlaff. E. as a function of co. Schlani. Schroter of Breslau (1829-1892). Konigsberger of Heidelberg (born 1837).gt.& and have been studied by and also Sohnke. Mathieu. = xWo&amp.o).o = was led to consider the functions &amp. Francesco Brioschi of Milan. and connected with it by the equation q e*. These Thomae functions have been studied also by Cauchy. introduced in place of the variable q of Jacobi a new variable ik /k. ij/ (& 0. L. E. Alfred Enneper of Gdttingen (1830-1885). but the development of this subject devolved upon later Abel. Schroter. Schlani of Legendre s elliptic differential to its normal form has called forth many investigations. Hermite of Paris. Betti of Pisa (died 1892). Johann Georg Eosenhain of Konigsberg (1816-1887).modular The notion of modular equations was familiar to equation. J.). Eichelot of Konigsberg (18081875). These equations have become of importance in investigators. ML Gudermann of . ^(w).

1884. Felix Klein of G-ottingen has made an extensive study of modular functions. H. elliptic functions have been published by Briot and Bouquet (1859). which he made the basis of the whole theory of elliptic functions. Generalisations analogous to those of Weierstrass on elliptic functions have been made by Felix Klein on hyper elliptic Standard works on functions. into the convergency of the products. Heinricli Durtye of Prague (1821-1893). Cayley. due to Weierstrass. and found for them a complete theory. G. was published in 1886 by TMorie des fonctions elliptiques et des Applications of these functions have been his given also by A. product has been called by Weierstrass the sigma-function. Klein s theory las been presented in book-form by his pupil. In 1845 rigorously Cayley studied these products. Halphen in leurs applications. His researches embrace the theory of mod ular functions as a specific class of elliptic functions. and others. based in part upon geometrical interpretation. by Konigsberger. and arrived at results which have been greatly simplified in form by the theory of primary A certain function involving a factors. inquire of doubly infinite products. Greenhill. Eobert Fricke. dealing with. a type of operations lying between the two extreme types.354 A HISTOEY OF MATHEMATICS. Eisenstein discussed by purely analytical methods the general doubly infinite product. known as the theory of substi tutions and the theory of invariants and covariants. The first systematic presentation of Weier doubly infinite strass theory of elliptic functions G. The elliptic functions were expressed by Abel as quotients He did not. however. and is the basis of his beautiful theory of elliptic functions. the statement of a more general problem as based on the doctrine of groups of operations. The bolder features of it were first published in his Ikosaeder. and the further development of the subject in connection with a class of Bieniann s surfaces. .

called double theta-functions. The theta-relations established by G-opel and Bosenhain re ceived for thirty years no further development. 1847) and Rosenhain in several memoirs established each independently. Weber of Marburg. Starting with the integrals of the most general form and considering the inverse functions corresponding to these in tegrals (the Abelian functions of defined the theta-functions of p p variables). W. were extended to quadruple theta-functions by Thomas Craig of the Johns Hopkins University.THEOBY OF FUNCTIONS. professor in a gym nasium near Potsdam. Borchardt of Berlin (1817-1880). Adolf Krazer. 35. and Martin Krause of Dresden led to broader views. . Hiemann pending functions are algebraically connected with theta-functions of the proper arguments. geometrical. Finally. the functions of two variables. H. Eesearches on double theta-functions. and mechanical prob lems. treating of the representation of Kummer s surface by Gopel s biquadratic relation between four theta-functions of two variables. on the analogy of the single theta-functions. the general shows that the Abelian on p variables. 56 complex variable. and that Hermite and Konigsberger had considered the subject of transformation. Pryin of Wtirzburg. made by Cayley. Gopel in Ms Theories transcendentium primi ordmis admnbratio levis (Crelle. and researches of H. and presents the theory in the broadest He rests the theory of the multiple theta-functions the general principles of the theory of functions of a upon form. and worked out in connection with them the theory of the Abelian functions of two variables. F. notwithstand ing the fact that the double theta series came to be of increasing importance in analytical. and Johann Georg Rosenhain of Konigsberg (1816-1887). the investigations of C. Jacobins 355 work on Abelian and theta-functions was greatly extended by Adolpk Gopel (1812-1847). variables as the Eiemann sum of a term de p-tuply infinite series of exponentials.

J. and it becomes necessary to look for possible discontinuities. much a The history of the general theory of functions begins with the adoption of new definitions of a function. M. Through the researches of A.856 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. in a function as defined by Dirichlet. which was theory of functions as a theory of the solution of functional equations by means of known functions or symbols. With the Bernoullis and Leibniz. Herschel. and when he extended the notion of a definite integral by letting the variable pass from one limit to the other by a succession of imaginary values along arbitrary paths. . C. y was called a function of #. But more profound investigations were made in Germany by Blemann. studied chiefly of the &quot. and De Morgan. Nother of Erlangen. In functions thus defined. His researches were continued in France by Puiseux and Liouville. A great revolution in the ideas of a function was brought about by Cauchy when. there has grown out of the theory of Abelian functions a theory of algebraic functions and point-groups on algebraic curves. Babbage. and Ferdinand Lindemann of Munich. W. make mention by not so Before proceeding to the general theory of functions.&quot. and gave the first great impulse to the study of the general theory of functions. F. Brill of Tubingen. if there existed an equation between these variables which made it possible to calculate y for any given value of x lying any oo. he gave the variables imaginary values. if y possess one or new definition : y is called a function more definite values for each of certain values that x is assumed to take in an interval x to %. made in connection with Biemann-Roch s theorem and the theory of residuation. The study of Fourier s theory oo and where between + of heat led Dirichlet to a of x. there need be no -analytical connection between y and x. Cauchy established several fundamental theorems. we calculus of functions.

The delicate state of his health induced him to go to Italy three times. 357 Georg Friedricli Berahard Riemann (1826-1866) was born at His father wished him to study Breselenz in Hanover. where he made the acquaintance of French mathematicians. liegen. Later he lectured on Abelian functions to a class of three Schering. and he accordingly entered upon philological and theological studies at Gottingen. and of his jubilation over the unexpectedly large audience of eight students at his first lecture on differential equations. He attended also some lec Such was his predilection for this tures on mathematics. and obtained the doctorate the following year. that he abandoned theology. Steiner. B/iemann was made ordinary professor. Gauss died in 1855. in 1847. The thesis presented on that occasion. by a galaxy of mathematicians. and Dedekind. and Eisenstein. Like all of Biemann s researches. He laid the . those on functions were foundation for a profound and far-reaching. He died on his last trip at Selasca. Bjerknes. as did also Biemann s trial Ueber die Hypotliesen welche der Geometrie zu Grunde was on the Bepresenmeans of a Trigonometric Series. and was buried at Biganzolo. Returning to Gottingen in 1850. and was succeeded by Dirichlet. in 1859. In 1860 he only. Jacobi. in which shone Dirichlet. he studied physics under Weber. visited Paris. Gauss to a very unusual degree. After studying for a science time under G-auss and Stern. Our hearts are drawn to this extraordinarily gifted but s Biemann Habilitationsschrift tation of a Function shy genius when we read of the timidity and nervousness displayed when he began to lecture at Gottingen.THEORY OF FUNCTIONS. Grundlagen fur eine allgemeine Theorie der Funktionen einer verdnderlichen complexen Grosse. On the death of the latter. in by which he advanced materially beyond the position of Dirich let. to Berlin theology. he was drawn. excited the admiration of lecture.

which can be dissected by cross-cuts into a singly-connected surface. and which has for points on the 86 Eiemann boundary of the area arbitrarily given values. known as &quot. Eiemann invented the cele brated surfaces. such that the passage from one made at the branch-points.Eiemann s surfaces. p holes. Liiroth of Ereiburg and of Clebsch. A. stated for all points on the curve. 3L Clifford brought Eiemann s surface for algebraic functions to a canonical form. He accordingly based his theory of functions on the f\2 partial differential equation. and only one. Dirichlet s principle.&quot. and which. together with its differential quotients of the first two orders. but the same theorem was by Green and proved analytically by Sir William Thomson. whilst v is given for one point within the curve. in which only the two last of the n leaves are multiply-connected. function of x and y. and then transformed the surface into sheet to another is the surface of a solid with discussed the question. W. consisting of n coincident planes or sheets. general theory of functions of a complex variable. is for all values of x and y within a given area = = + one-valued and continuous. Hurwitz of Zurich is how far a Eiemann s surface deter- . which satisfies Aw = 0. r dx ^ -j. which must u + iv of z x hold for the analytical function w It iy. which up to that time had been used only in mathematical physics. and that the n sheets form together a multiply-connected surface.358 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. had been proved by Dirichlet that (for a plane) there is always one. and to observe the conditions about continuity.&quot. if u is arbitrarily given called this &quot. Aided by researches of J. was applied by him in pure mathe matics. The theory of potential. The 7i-valued function w becomes thus a one-valued function. It follows then that w is uniquely determined for all points within a closed surface. In order to treat the more complicated case where w has n values for one value of z.-^ = Aw = 2 2 dy f\2 0.

it not necessary to transform one into the other. The latter developed a theory of functions by start of potential. and others. as based on Dirichlet s principle theorem). its branch Eiemann s theory ascertains the criteria which will deter mine an analytical function by aid of its discontinuities and boundary conditions. Abelian functions. merely in certain critical points. attempts have been made to graft Eiemann s rooted methods of Weier speculations on the more strongly strass.THEOBY OF FUNCTIONS. In order to show that is two different expressions are identical. In con sequence of this. methods of the infinitesimal calculus and the calculus of variations (by which Dirichlet s principle is established) can be applied to an unknown analytical function in its generality. by the assignment of and branch-lines. Weierstrass. and that a function may be integrable It is not known how far the without being differentiable. and Poincare of Paris. 86 of functions of one complex variable has been studied since Eiemann s time mainly by Karl Weierstrass of Berlin (born 1815). but it is sufficient to prove the agreement to a far less extent. 62 points ruinate its 359 number of sheets. Eiemann son s theory. but there Eiemann s work is more gen eral. and thus defines a function indepen dently of a mathematical expression. The theory . and his it has become doubtful whether most important theorems are actually proved. not with the theory Both applied their theories to expressions and operations. Hence the use of these methods will endow the functions with of this properties which themselves require proof. but with analytical ing. is not free from objections. It has s (Thom become evident that the existence of a derived function is not a con sequence of continuity. Gustaf Mittag-Leffler of Stockholm (born Of the three classes of such 1846). Objections kind to Eiemann s theory have been raised by Kronecker.

existing throughout the whole extent. gave Uniform functions of two variables. but no singular lines. A HISTOBY OF MATHEMATICS. Poincar has shown how to generate functions of this class. functions uniform throughout. and the Kleinian functions do not generally exist. and are therefore examples of functions of the second class. uniform only in lacunary were first pointed out by Weierstrass. the product (1 V nomial of the wfch degree. 81 first functions. These are Fuchsian Poincare an example of such a function. and though Non-uniform functions are much . P (x y being an entire polyis A function of the species n n. and non-uniform functions) Weierstrass showed that those functions of the first class which can he developed according to ascending powers of x into converging series. Important is his proof that there is no way of generalising them so as to get rid of the lacunae. and by Poincare. even though their properties in the vicinity of a given point have been diligently studied. among others. functions uni form only in lacunary spaces. species is n e p (x aJ j ). less developed than the preceding classes. except in Functions of the second the interior of a circle or of a domain otherwise bounded. one. Picard of Paris. unaltered by certain linear substitutions. class. can be decomposed into a product of an A primary factor of the infinite number of primary factors. all the primary factors of which are of species This classi fication gave rise to many interesting problems studied also by The Poincare. and has studied them along the lines marked out by Weier strass. functions having an number of singular points. The Fuchsian spaces. have been studied by E. first of the three classes of functions of a complex infinite variable embraces.860 functions (viz. and at the same time no isolated singular points. called hyperfuchsian functions.

literature. a pupil of Weierstrass. such that the series formed by the integrals of the terms is always convergent. . A. differential equation \f. his work on hypergeometric conditions. substitutions a polygon bounded also by circular arcs into another bounded by circular arcs. one can always find a variable z. 361 much. but the demonstration (1806) In treating of discontinuous functions. Ampere was the first who attempted to prove analytically the existence of a derivative. uniform transcendents. he was led to a remarkable t).Schwarzian derivative. The H. has given the conform representation (Abbildung) of various In transforming by aid of certain surfaces on a circle. 87 general theory of functions of two variables has been investigated to some extent by Weierstrass and Poincare.&quot. his inquiries tions to important on the existence of solu under prescribed partial differential equations have secured a prominent place in mathematical .(u = \l/(u. He gave fresh evidence of the care that must be exercised in the use of series by giving an example of a always convergent and continuous. Schwarz s developments on minimum surfaces. established rigorously the necessary and sufficient condition that a continuous or discontinuous function be susceptible of integration. f) where $ (u. t) is the expression which Cayley calls the &quot. and which led Sylvester to the theory of reciprocants. Weierstrass and Darboux have each given examples of con tinuous functions having no derivatives. Poincare proved that if y is any analytical non-uniform function of x. and series yet does not represent the integral of the first series. series. light has been thrown on them by the use of Bdemann s With the view of reducing their study to thai of surfaces. Formerly it had been generally assumed that every function had a derivative. Darboux is not valid. Schwarz of Berlin (born 1845).THEORY OF FUNCTIONS. such that x and y are uniform functions of z.

Hankel.Pfaff is is by far the giuatest mathematician in Germany . Thoniae. the queen of the sciences. Gauss. 83 Gauss is one of the three greatest masters of modern analysis.&quot. who was destined fc. When asked who was the greatest mathematician in Ger many. Laplace replied. R. Of these three contemporaries he was the youngest. While the first two belong to the period in mathematical his tory preceding the one now under consideration. by Weierstrass. definitions of and Darboux along the by the such integrals given by Cauchy. Such was the dictum of Gauss. Dedekind. Dini wrote a text-book on functions of a real variable (1873). Dedekind and Cantor gave definitions for irrational numbers . and Theory of Functions of a Complex Variable by A. first of functions of one real variable was worked out by H. principally. the queen of mathematics. and Eiemann. and then carried further. Du Bois-Reymond. Dirichlet. &quot. Tannery s TMorie des Fonctions d une variable seule. and Heine. but Gauss the greatest in all Europe. &quot.&quot. olutionise the theory of numbers. Dini.Mathematics. which was translated into German. Laplace answered. definite integrals were studied by Thomae. Laplace. with additions. lines indicated Du Bois-Reymond. Cantor. PfafF. Schepp. When the questioner said he should have thought Gauss was.362 A HISTOEY OF MATHEMATICS. Forsytli. THEORY OF NUMBERS. A Treatise on the Theory of Functions by James Harlcness and Frank Morley. Lagrange. Hermite. by J. Liiroth and A. Hankel established the principle of the condensation of singularities . and arithmetic. The modern theory Schwarz. G. Important works on the theory of functions are the GOUTS de M. and Darboux. Gauss is the one whose writings may truly be said to mark the beginning .

The duke undertook to educate the boy. Unlike Laplace. In that abundant fertility of inven displayed by mathematicians of the preceding period. combined with an absolute rigorousness in demonstration is Mm which too often wanting in their writings. afterwards professor of mathematics at Dorpat. of a bricklayer. brought him under the notice of Charles &quot. Brunswick. Gauss strove in his writings after perfection of form. Carl Friedricli Gauss 47 (1777-1855). and to He invented the heliotrope and.Wonderful was his richness of ideas one thought fol 5 lowed another so quickly that he had hardly time to write down even the most meagre outline.THEORY OF NUMBERS. and which the ancient Greeks might have envied. is 363 own epoch. imaginaries. the son. He reconstructed the whole of magnetic science. was born at Brunswick. He was series. In 1795 he went. and surpasses this great Frenchman in rigour.William. for calculation of the young boy The marvellous aptitude attracted the attention of Bartels. the first to observe the double periodicity of elliptic functions. He rivals Lagrange in elegance. He used to say. Gauss had overturned old theories and old methods in all but little pains did he take . of our tion. then pro fessor of mathematics there. and thereby to establish his priority. &quot. the first to first the observe rigour in the treatment of infinite to fully recognise and emphasise the impor tance. Abraham Gotthelf Kastner. and now chiefly remembered for . jokingly. At the age of twenty branches of higher mathematics to publish his results. the bifilar magnetometer and the declination instrument. His progress in languages there was quite equal to that in mathematics. to Gottingen. together with Weber. make systematic use of determinants and of the first to arrive at the method of least squares. and sent who Duke of him to the Collegium Carolinum. as yet undecided whether to pursue philol ogy or mathematics. that he could reckon before he could talk.

1801. but by the advice of the astronomer Olbers. and at times a railroad a strong morose. and while a student at Gottingen made several of his greatest discoveries. Geschichte der Mathematik (1796). who had gone deeply into the subject before he became acquainted with the writ The Disquisitiones Arithmetics ings of his great predecessors. Higher arithmetic was his favourite study. but were reached independently by Gauss. In 1828 he went to Berlin to attend a meeting of scientists. who desired to secure him as director of a proposed new observatory at Gottingeni he declined the Gauss had a offer. . except in 1854. He spent his life in Gottingen in the midst of continuous work. a mathematician of much power. A new epoch in the theory of numbers results dates from the publi cation of his Disquisitiones Arithmeticce. that he might give all his time to science. Petersburg. and this success encouraged him to pursue mathematics. and his character showed mixture of self-conscious dignity and child-like He was little communicative. and accepted the place at Gottingen. a curious simplicity.364 his A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. chair in the Academy at St. repaired to and there made the acquaintance of Pfaff. The of this work dates back as far as 1795. when Hanover. In 1807 the Emperor of Eussia offered Gauss a was Wolfgang Bolyai. was not an inspiring At the age of nineteen Gauss discovered a method of teacher. and preferred the post of astronomer. He worked quite independently of his teachers. After completing In 1798 and 1799 he the university at Helmstadt to consult the library. Leipzig. Among his small circle of intimate friends his course he returned to Brunswick. marked objection to a mathematical chair. but after this he never again left Gottingen. inscribing in a circle a regular polygon of seventeen sides. Some of its beginning had been previously given by Lagrange and Euler. He had was opened between Gottingen and will.

E. treating of quadratic great achievements of Gauss. Liouville. Chr. The fourth section of the Disquisitiones AritJimeticce. also given by Jacobi. Pepin. in 1817. His papers on the theory of numbers were not all included in his great treatise. M. and the fifth section.THEORY OF NUMBERS. Kronecker. treating of congruences of the second degree. Schering. He wrote two memoirs on . J. Afterwards he learned that Euler had imperfectly enunciated that theorem. a fifth and sixth. Voigt. developing the theory of the division of the circle. induction before he was eighteen. ISTo wonder that Proofs were he felt a personal attachment to this theorem. The great law of quadratic reciprocity. A. and was proved by him one year later. He forms. passed over with universal neglect. was received series of from the start repeatedly elaborated with deserved enthusiasm. Lebesgue. In the fifth section but met with apparently insuperable difficulties. then of Breslau. and Th. Stern. In 1808 followed a third and fourth demonstration. were. 48 The solution of the problem of the repre sentation of numbers by binary quadratic forms is one of the created a new algorithm by introducing the theory of congruences. given in the fourth section of Gauss work. Gauss gave a second proof of this gem &quot. Genocchi. was discovered him by &quot. Gauss had planned an eighth section. The seventh or last section. Bouniakowsky. Some of them were published for the first time after his death in his collected works (1863-1871). 365 was already in print when Legendre s Theorie des Nombres appeared. until the time of Jacobi. A. which was omitted to lessen the expense of publication. Petersen. and has since been for students. of higher arithmetic. &quot. Eisenstein. and that Legendre had attempted to prove it. a law which involves the whole theory of quadratic residues. Zeller. but they have since been the starting-point of a long important researches. Kummer. standard work on A Kreistheilung was published in 1872 by Paul Bachmann. Busche.

Gauss Analogies. German Magnetic Union. 1833. He took part in geodetic observations. Georg Gauss researches on the theory of numbers were the start Christian Gerling. The latter contributed to Crelle s Journal an article on cubic residues. Ueber He wrote on the attrac ellipsoids. are found four formulae in spherical trigonometry. 1813. Mobius.366 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. His determination of the elements of its orbit with sufficient accuracy to enable Olbers to redis Gauss generally known. with Gegenstdnde der hoheren Geodesie. Johann Frantz Encke. the limits of integration being also variable example of the solution of such a problem. among the earliest of whom was Jacobi. and earlier (1749-1822) astronomical and . After the . the second of which contains a theorem of biquadratic reciprocity. tion of and in 1843 and 1846 wrote two memoirs. but which were published some what earlier by Karl Brandon Mollweide of Leipzig (1774- 1825). Among Gauss pupils were Christian Heinrich Schumacher. In 1809 he published the Theoria motus corporum coelestium. . which cover it. made the name of contains a discussion of the problems arising in the deter mination of the movements of planets and comets from In it observations made on them under any circumstances. now usually called &quot. he solves a problem in the calculus of variations involving the variation of a certain double integral. Gauss was led to astronomy by the discovery of the planet Ceres at Palermo in 1801. ing-point for a school of writers. M by Jean Baptiste Joseph Delambre Many years of hard work were spent in the still magnetic observatory. giving theorems without proofs. Friedrich Mcolai. He founded the the object of securing con tinuous observations at fixed times. August Ferdinand Wilhelm Struve. homogeneous In a memoir on capil lary attraction. the theory of biquadratic residues (1825 and 1831).&quot. it is the earliest He discussed the problem of rays of light passing through a system of lenses.

Some parts of the analysis are. Next come the researches of Dirichlet. Dirichlet s acquaint ance with Fourier led him to investigate Fourier s series. Mertens of Graz has determined the asymptotic mung values of several numerical functions. By the theory of elliptical functions. 4. within easier reach of mathematicians. Legendre. attended the He was read in Paris Gauss Disquisitiones Arith- a work which he never ceased to admire and study. xn z . Dirichlet gave some . Fourier. where Gauss was the only great figure. Euler and Lagrange had proved this when n is 3 and 4. In 1828 he accepted a position in Berlin.THEOBY OF NUMBEES. He in Breslau in 1827. + = Legendre s. giving the law of biquadratic reciprocity. simplified Much in it by Dirichlet. In 1822 he was attracted to Paris by the names of Laplace. however. and then the Jesuit gymnasium in Cologne. and finally succeeded Gauss at Gottingen became decent in 1855. He showed when .ft = n n that Fermat s equation. meticce. Ueber die Bestim- der mittleren Werthe in der Zahlentheorie.&amp. and 8 squares. and his treatment of com plex numbers. 367 3 publication of Gauss paper on biquadratic residues. and a contributor of rich results of his own. The general principles on which depends the aver number of classes of binary quadratic forms of positive age and negative determinant (a subject first investigated by Gauss) were given by Dirichlet in a memoir. and Lame proved it when n = 7. Jacobi found a similar law for cubic residues. 6. Cauchy. he was led to beautiful theorems on the representation of numbers by 2. The facilities for a mathematical education there were far better than in Germany. More recently F. His and thereby placed first memoir on the impossibility of certain indeterminate equations of the fifth degree was presented to the French Academy in 1825. Peter Gustav Lejeune Dirichlet 88 (1805-1859) was born in gymnasium in Bonn. the expounder of Gauss. Poisson. cannot exist y 5. Duren.

1850. and England contributed. which have the same modulus.000. established. given. Poincare s papers. for instance. but it remained attention to prime numbers. the preparation of factor-tables. how to find all the infinite solutions of a homogeneous indeterminate equation of the second degree in three variables when one solution is made by Cauchy. Ueber die Anzakl der Primzahlen unter einer gegebenen Gfrosse. The enumeration of prime numbers has been undertaken by various mathematicians. Sylvester s con traction of Tchebycheff s limits. admit of a common solution. to the preparation of which Germany. under the direction of J. The printing. are among the latest researches in this line. . G-auss and Legendre had given denoting approximately the asymptotic value of expressions the number of primes inferior to a given limit. and which enable us to resolve into prime factors every composite 9. with reference to the distri bution of primes. Patnutij Tchebyclieffy formerly professor in the University of St. and researches of J. in a celebrated memoir. G-laisher.368 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. France. at different times In 1877 the British Association began. Hadamard (awarded the Grand prix of 1892). 1859. W. of tables for the sixth million marked the completion of tables. Ap proaching the problem from a different direction. in that respect. the existence of limits within which the logarithms of the primes P. must be comprised. inferior to a given number a?. Sur les Nombres Premiers. which involves abstruse theorems of the integral calculus. He established the theorem that if two congruences.000. for Bdemann in his memoir. number less than Miscellaneous contributions to the theory of numbers were He showed. by the Association. 89 This paper depends on very elementary considerations. contrasts sum of the strongly with Riemann s. L. to give an investigation of the asymptotic frequency of primes which is rigorous. and. Peters burg (born 1821).

But he did not publish demonstrations of his re In inspecting the theory of binary cubic forms. at the College de France. Oxford. but the chief results of his own discoveries . relating to analysis. who was one of the few Englishmen who devoted themselves to the study of higher arithmetic. by Ferdinand Gotthold Eisenstein (1823-1852). don. geometry. in case of definite forms. but after that year he was never absent from Oxford for a single term. in his memoir. and mainly questions Profound researches were of a greater number of variables. investigated (1809-1882). defined the ordinal and generic instituted characters of ternary quadratic forms of uneven determinant. and educated at Eugby and at Before 1847 he travelled much in Europe for his health. but the extension from two to three indeterminates was the work of Eisenstein who. professor on the theory of quadratic forms of two. of Berlin. and. he was led to the discovery of the first covariant ever considered in He showed that the series of theorems. sults. and at one time attended lectures of Arago in Paris. the presentation of numbers by sums of squares. of form. in 1855. Ternary quadratic forms had been studied somewhat by Gauss.THEORY OF NUMBERS. the modulus is 369 Joseph Liouville a divisor of their resultant. Neue Tkeoreme der liolieren Arithmetik. ceases when the number of squares surpasses eight. assigned the weight of any order or genus. In 1861 he was elected Savilian professor of His first paper on the theory of numbers appeared The results of ten years study of everything pub on the theory of numbers are contained in his Eeports lished which appeared in the British Association volumes from 1859 These reports are a model of clear and precise to 1865. Many of the proofs omitted by Eisenstein were supplied by Henry Smith. They contain much orig exposition and perfection were inal matter. 90 Henry John Stephen Smith (1826-1883) was born in Lon Balliol College.

J. He established the principles on which the extension to the gen eral case of n indeterminates of quadratic forms depends. a month after his death. Sylvester. The solu tion of the cases of 2. the Academy offered a prize for the demonstration tion of Eisenstein s theorems for 5 squares. in the second of which he remarks that the theorems of Jacobi. He contributed also two memoirs to the Proceedings of the Royal Society of 1864 and 1868. but when the number of squares is odd. and other simple quadratic forms are dedueible by a uniform method from the principles indicated in his paper. the roots of which yield Gauss units. the prize was awarded to him. relating to the representation of numbers by 4. He sent in a dissertation in 1882. elliptic functions. Erench and comple This Smith had and next year. 8 squares. another prize being also awarded to H. it involves processes peculiar to the theory of numbers.870 A HISTOBY OF MATHEMATICS. accomplished fifteen years earlier. This class of theorems group. (1810-1893). introduced by Gauss. and of the orders and genera of ternary quadratic forms. He wrote also on modern geome J. professor in the closely identified with the theory of of the Uni num Dirichlet work on complex numbers form a-M&. 6. is limited to 8 squares. by Eisenstein. and Dedekind. was extended by him. 6 squares may be obtained by elliptic functions. Instead of the equation x* 1 0. Minkowsky of Bonn. The theory of numbers led Smith to the study of try. His successor is at Oxford was Ernst Eduard Kummer s versity of Berlin. They treat of linear indeterminate equations and congruences. and added the corresponding theorems for 7 squares. Eisenstein used the equation = . bers. Theorems relating to the case of 5 squares were given by Eisenstein. and Smith completed the s In ignorance of Smith investigations. and Liouville. 4. but Smith completed the enunciation of them. Eisenstein. printed in the Philosophical Transactions for 1861 and 1867.

morphics of such forms. by Eisenstein. complex numbers of the form a = a 1A1 + a2A2 + asAs -\ . in which he to some extent Kummer. Attracted by Kummer s investigations. efforts have been made to the theory of numbers the results of the modern higher algebra. In the effort to overcome this equation. and their prime factors cannot be defined in the same as prime factors of way common integers are denned. difficulty. where a are whole real numbers. Julius Wttlielm Richard Dedekind of Braunschweig (born 1831) has given in the second edition of Dirichlet s Vorlesungen uber ZahlentJieorie a new theory of of the integral calculus. Petersburg to the solution of a problem numbers. On quadratic . Seeber and that of the arithmetical auto. Paul Bachmann of Munster investigated the arithmetical formula which gives the auto89 The problem -of the morphics of a ternary quadratic form. These ideal numbers have been applied by Zolotareff of St. the theory of which resembles that of Gauss num Kummer passed to the general case xn 1 = and got Second Series. and avoids the use of Dedekind has taken the roots of any irreduci ble equation with integral coefficients as the units for his com plex numbers.). Leopold utilise in he applied to algebraic equations. &quot.ideal 59 Kummer was led to introduce the conception of Gr.THEORY OF NUMBERS.&quot. Vol. On the other hand. and A+ roots of the above 6/&amp. 1864. by Abel (LiouviHe s Journal. o3 1 371 and complex numbers a + (p being a cube root of unity). = t is Euclid s theory of the greatest common divisor not applicable to such complex numbers. The more difficult prob lem of the equivalence for indefinite ternary forms has been investigated by Edward Selling of Wtirzburg. complex numbers. IX. Following up researches of Hermite. left unfinished deviates from the course of ideal numbers. of two positive or definite ternary quadratic forms equivalence was solved by L. his Kronecker (1823-1891) made researches which pupil.



little lias

forms of four or more indeterminates

yet been done.

Hermite snowed that the number

of non-equivalent classes of

and a given dis quadratic forms having integral coefficients criminant is finite, while Zolotareif and A. HT. Korkine, both
of St. Petersburg, investigated the

minima of

positive quadratic

In connection with binary quadratic forms, Smith forms. established the theorem that if the joint invariant of two the determinant of either properly primitive forms vanishes,



represented primitively by the duplicate of the


The interchange of theorems between arithmetic and algebra

of J. displayed in the recent researches


L. G-laisher

of Trinity College (born 1848) and Sylvester. Sylvester gave a Constructive Theory of Partitions, which received additions


his pupils,


Eranklin and G.



The conception of number" has been much extended in With the (keeks it included only the ordinary our time.
positive whole
to the

Diophantus added rational fractions domain of numbers. Later negative numbers and


imaginaries came gradually to be recognised. Descartes fully grasped the notion of the negative Gauss, that of the imagi



Euclid, a ratio, whether rational or irrational,


not a number.


recognition of ratios and irrationals as

numbers took place in the sixteenth century, and found expres sion with Kewton. By the ratio method, the continuity of the real number system has been based on the continuity of space,
but in recent time three theories of irrationals have been advanced by Weierstrass, J. W. B. Dedekind, G. Cantor, and
Heine, which prove the continuity of numbers without borrow

from space.


are based on the definition of


by regular

sequences, the use of series and limits,

and some

new mathematical



Notwithstanding the beautiful developments of celestial mechanics reached by Laplace at the close of the eighteenth century, there was made a discovery on the first day of the
present century which presented a problem seemingly beyond the power of that analysis. We refer to the discovery of Ceres by Piazzi in Italy, which became known in Germany just after

the philosopher Hegel had published a dissertation proving a From the priori that such a discovery could not be made.

not positions of the planet observed by Piazzi its orbit could remained be satisfactorily calculated by the old methods, and it
for the genius of G-auss to devise a
elliptic orbits

which was





method of calculating from the assumption of a small Gauss method was developed

further in his Theoria Motus.

The new planet was


covered with aid of Gauss

data by Olbers, an astronomer

who promoted


studies, but also

not only by Ms own astronomical by discerning and directing towards astro

nomical pursuits the genius of Bess el. 91 of Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel (1784-1846) was a native Fondness for figures, and a distaste Minden in Westphalia.
for Latin

grammar led him
fifteenth year

to the choice of a mercantile

he became an apprenticed clerk in Bremen, and for nearly seven years he devoted his days to to mastering the details of his business, and part of his nights some day to become a supercargo on trading Hoping

In his


became interested in observations at sea. With a sextant constructed by him and an ordinary clock he deter mined the latitude of Bremen. His success in this inspired One work after another was him for astronomical
expeditions, he

mastered by him, unaided, during the hours snatched from




old observations he calculated the orbit

Bessel introduced himself to Gibers, and Halley s comet. submitted to him the calculation, which Olbers immediately sent for publication. Encouraged by Olbers, Bessel turned his back to the prospect of affluence, chose poverty and the

and became assistant in J. H. Schroter s observatory at Four years later he was chosen to superintend Lilienthal.
the construction of the

92 la observatory at Konigsberg. the absence of an adequate mathematical teaching force, Bessel


was obliged

to lecture

on mathematics

to prepare students for

He was

relieved of this


in 1825

arrival of Jacobi.


shall not recount the labours

by the by which

Bessel earned the

title of founder of modern practical astron As an observer he towered far above geodesy. G-auss, but as a mathematician he reverently bowed before the genius of his great contemporary. Of BessePs papers, the one

omy and

of greatest mathematical interest is an UntersucJiung des TJieils der planetarischen Sffirungen, welcher aus der Bewegung

der Sonne ensteht" (1824), in which he introduces a class of transcendental functions, n (#), much used in applied mathe

He gave their matics, and known as "BessePs functions." and constructed tables for their eval principal properties, uation. Recently it has been observed that BessePs func






literature. 98

Such functions of the zero order occur in papers of Daniel
Bernoulli (1732) and Euler on vibration of heavy strings sus pended from one end. All of BessePs functions of the first

kind and of integral orders occur in

the vibration of a stretched elastic membrane.

paper by Euler (1764) on In 1878 Lord
L. G-laisher illustrates

Rayleigh proved that BessePs functions are merely particular
cases of Laplace




by BessePs functions
growing out

his assertion that

mathematical branches

of, physical

inquiries as a rule

the easy flow



or homogeneity of form which is characteristic of a mathemati cal theory properly so called." These functions have been

studied by C. Th. Anger of Danzig, 0. Schlomilch of Dresden, Ku Lipschitz of Bonn (born 1832), Carl Neumann of Leipzig

(born 1832), Eugen


of Leipzig,


Todhunter of




College, Cambridge.

Prominent among the successors of Laplace are the follow ing: Simeon Denis Poisson (1781-1840), who wrote in 1808 a classic M6moire sur les inegalites sfoulaires des moyens mouvements des plan&tes.
1864) of Turin, a

Giovanni Antonio Amadeo Plana (1781nephew of Lagrange, who published in 1811

a Memoria sulla teoria

attrazione degli sferoidi



contributed to the theory of the moon. Peter Andreas Hansen (1795-1874) of G-otha, at one time a clockmaker in Tondern,

then Schumacher s assistant at Altona, and finally director of the observatory at Grotha, wrote on various astronomical sub jects, but mainly on the lunar theory, which he elaborated in

work Fundamenta nova

investigationes orbitcB verce



George Biddel Airy (1801astronomer at Greenwich, published in 1826 his 1892), royal Mathematical Tracts on the Lunar and Planetary Theories.

(1838), and in extensive lunar tables. embracing



These researches have since been greatly extended by him.
August Ferdinand Mobius (1790-1868) of Leipzig wrote, in 1842, Elemente der Mechanik des Himmels. Urbain Jean Joseph Le
Verrier (1811-1877) of Paris wrote, the Eecherches AstronomiqueSj constituting in part a new elaboration of celestial

mechanics, and


famous for his theoretical discovery of

Adams (1819-1892) of Cambridge John Neptune. divided with Le Verrier the honour of the mathematical dis

covery of Neptune, and pointed out in 1853 that Laplace s explanation of the secular acceleration of the moon s mean

motion accounted for only half the observed acceleration.




Delaimay (born 1816, and drowned off Cher bourg in 1872), professor of mechanics at the Sorbonne in Paris, explained most of the remaining acceleration of the
Charles Eugene

moon, unaccounted for by Laplace


Adams, by tracing

the effect of


theory as corrected by friction, a theory

previously suggested independently by Kant, Eobert Mayer, and William Ferrel of Kentucky. George Howard Darwin of


(born 1845)

made some very remarkable


tigations in 1879 on tidal friction, which trace with great He has certainty the history of the moon from its origin.


studied also the effects of tidal friction

upon other

bodies in the solar system.

Criticisms on some parts of his researches have been made by James Nolan of Victoria. Simon

Newcomb (born 1835), superintendent of the Nautical Almanac at Washington, and professor of mathematics at the Johns
Hopkins University, investigated the errors in Haiisen s tables of the moon. Eor the last twelve years the main work of the 17. &. Nautical Almanac office has been to collect and discuss data for new tables of the planets which will supplant the

Le Verrier. G. W. Hill of that office has contributed an elegant paper on certain possible abbreviations in the com putation of the long-period of the moon s motion, due to the
tables of
direct action of the planets,

and has made the most elaborate

determination yet undertaken of the inequalities of the moon s motion due to the figure of the earth. He has also computed

due to the action of Jupiter. certajpHkunar inequalities Fhe mathematical discussion of Saturn s rings was taken x

up by Laplace, who demonstrated that a homogeneous solid ring could not be in equilibrium, and in 1851 by B. Peirce, who proved their non-solidity by showing that even an irregu
lar solid ring could not be in equilibrium about Saturn.


was investigated by James Clerk Maxwell in an essay to which the Adams prize was awarded.
of these rings





concluded that they consisted of an aggregate of uncon

nected particles.

The problem of three bodies has been treated in various ways since the time of Lagrange, but no decided advance
towards a more .complete algebraic solution has been made, and the problem stands substantially where it was left by him.

He had made
seventh order.

a reduction in the differential equations to the This was elegantly accomplished in a different

way by Jacobi

in 1843. J3. Radau (Comptes Rendus, LXVIL, and AlUgret (Journal de MatMmatiques, 1875, 1868, p. 841) p. 277) showed that the reduction can be performed on the

equations in their original form. Noteworthy transformations and discussions of the problem have been given by J. L. IT.
Bertrand, by Emile Bour (1831-1866) of the Polytechnic School in Paris, by Mathieu, Hesse, J. A. Serret. H. Bruns of Leipzig

has shown that no advance in the problem of three or of n bodies may be expected by algebraic integrals, and that we

must look

to the

modern theory of functions

for a complete

solution (Acta Math., XL, p. 43)." Among valuable text-books on mathematical astronomy rank the following works Manual of Spherical and Practical Astron

omy by Chauvenet (1863), Practical and Spherical Astronomy by Robert Main of Cambridge, TJieoretical Astronomy by James
(1868), Traite tlementaire de M&canique Celeste of H. Eesal of the Polytechnic School in Paris, Cours d Astronomie de VEcole PolytecJimque by Faye, Trait6

Watson of

Ann Arbor

de M6canique Celeste by Tisserandj Lehrbuch der JBahnbestimmung by T. Oppolzer, Mathematische Theorien der Planeten-

bewegung by 0.

DziobeJc, translated into

English by M.


Harrington and




During the present century we have come to recognise the advantages frequently arising from a geometrical treatment of
mechanical problems.


Poinsot, Chasles, and

Mobius we



in geometrical a graduate of the

owe the most important developments made
Louis Poinsot

(1777-1859) ,

Polytechnic School in Paris,, and for many years member of the superior council of public instruction, published in 1804

EUments de


This work


remarkable not only

as being the earliest introduction to synthetic mechanics, but also as containing for the first time the idea of couples, which

was applied by Poinsot
of rotation.

in a publication of

1834 to the theory



conception of

the nature of rotary

motion was conveyed by Poinsot s elegant geometrical repre sentation by means of an ellipsoid rolling on a certain fixed

This construction was extended by Sylvester so as measure the rate of .rotation of the ellipsoid on the plane. A particular class of dynamical problems has recently been

treated geometrically^ by Sir Robert Stawell Ball, formerly astronomer royal of Ireland, now Lowndean Professor of

Astronomy and Geometry at Cambridge. His method is given in a work entitled Theory of Screws, Dublin, 1876, and in subsequent articles. Modern geometry is here drawn upon, as was done also by Clifford in the related subject of Biquaternions. Arthur Buchheim of Manchester (1859-1888), showed that G-rassmann s Ausdehnungslehre supplies all the
necessary materials for a simple calculus of screws in elliptic space. Horace Lamb applied the theory of screws to the ques

on the in and the alteration in form of dynamical equations, tegration were made since Lagrange by Poisson, William Eowan Hamil

tion of the steady motion of any solid in a fluid. Advances in theoretical mechanics, bearing


Madame Kowalevski, and


Lagrange had


equations of given a theory of the variation of the arbitrary constants which, however, turned out to be less fruitful in results than a theory advanced by Poisson." Poismotion.



He had



s theory of the variation of the arbitrary constants and the method of integration thereby afforded marked the first

onward step since Lagrange. Then came the researches of His discovery that the inte Sir William Kowan Hamilton. of the dynamic differential equations is connected with gration
the integration of a certain partial differential equation of the first order and second degree, grew out of an attempt to deduce,

by the undulatory theory,

results in geometrical optics previ

ously based on the conceptions of the emission theory. The Philosophical Transactions of 1833 and 1834 contain Hamil


papers, in which appear the first applications to me chanics of the principle of varying action and the characteristic function, established by him some years previously. The

object which Hamilton proposed to himself is indicated by the title of his first paper, viz. the discovery of a function by means of which all integral equations can be actually

represented. The new form obtained by him for the equation of motion is a result of no less importance than that which

was the professed

object of the memoir.

Hamilton s method

of integration was freed by Jacobi of an unnecessary complica tion, and was then applied by him to the determination of a

geodetic line on the general ellipsoid. With aid of elliptic co ordinates Jacobi integrated the partial differential equation and expressed the equation of the geodetic in form of a
relation between

Jacobi applied to differential equations of dynamics the theory of the ultimate The differential equations of dynamics are only multiplier. one of the classes of differential equations considered by

two Abelian




investigations along the lines of Lagrange,

Hamilton, and Jacobi were made by Liouville, A. Desboves, Serret, J. C. F. Sturm, Ostrogradsky, J. Bertrand, Donkin,
of a Brioschi, leading up to the development of the theory system of canonical integrals.

.&quot. in the second form. Basset. certain velocities s equations in are omitted. Bk. is of importance in hydro&quot. first enunciated by Newton principle was (Principia. There are in vogue three forms for the expression of the kinetic energy of a dynamical system: the Lagrangian. as a homo geneous quadratic function of the momenta of the system. II. and was derived by Bertrand from the principle of virtual velocities. By the use of theta-functions of two independent variables she furnished a remarkable example of how the modern theory of functions may become useful in mechanical problems. VIII. The kinetic energy is expressed in the first form as a homogeneous quadratic function of the velocities. applied in ship-build. obtained the doctor s degree at Gottingen. and by A. corollary to it. Sec. An important addition to the theory of the motion of a solid body about a fixed point was made by Madame SopMe de Kowalevski 96 (1853-1891). By it one can determine from the performance of a model the action of the machine constructed on a larger scale. 32). studied under Weierstrass. in connection with his theory of ignoration of co-ordinates. the third form. She was a native of Moscow. B. who discovered a new case in which the differential equations of motion can be integrated. and in other branches of physics. which are the time-variations of the co-ordinates of the system.. In recent time great practical importance has come to be attached to the principle of mechanical similitude. The Prop.380 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. which was doubled on account of the exceptional merit of the paper. and a modified form of Lagrange which. the Hamiltonian. Bordin prize of the French Academy in 1888. and from 1884 until her death was professor of higher mathematics at the University The research above mentioned received the of Stockholm. elaborated recently by Edward John Eouth of Cambridge.% A . dynamical problems relating to the motion of perforated solids in a liquid.



goes by the

ciated also

name by Heech.


William Ifroude


law, but was enun

The present problems of dynamics differ materially from those of the last century. The explanation of the orbital and axial motions of the heavenly bodies by the law of universal

D Alembert,
the aid

was the great problem solved by Clairaut, Euler, Lagrange, and Laplace. It did not involve the consideration of frictional resistances. In the present time

dynamics has been invoked

by the physical

there arising are often complicated the presence of friction. Unlike astronomical problems of by a century ago, they refer to phenomena of matter and motion

The problems

that are usually concealed from direct observation. The great pioneer in such problems is Lord Kelvin. While yet an

undergraduate at Cainb ridge, during holidays spent at the seaside, he entered upon researches of this kind by working
out the theory of spinning tops, which previously had been

only partially explained by Jellet in his Treatise on the Tlieory of Friction (1872), and by Archibald Smith.


standard works on mechanics are Jacobi

s Vorlesun-

gen uber Dynamite, edited by Clebseh, 1866 KirchliolFs VorleBenjamin Peirce s sungen uber mathematische PhysiJc, 1876

MechaniJc, Analytic Mechanics, 1855; Tait and Steele s Dynamics of a Particle, 1856; Minchin s 1879; Treatise on Statics; Routh s Dynamics of a System of Rigid



Bodies; Sturm


The equations which

Cours de M&canique de VEcole Polytechnique. constitute the foundation of the theory

of fluid motion were fully laid down at the time of Lagrange, but the solutions actually worked out were few and mainly of the irrotational type. powerful method of attacking in fluid motion is that of images, introduced in 1843 problems


by George Gabriel Stokes



College, Cambridge.
s dis-

Tt received little attention until Sir

William Thomson



covery of electrical images, whereupon the theory was extended by Stokes, Hicks, and Lewis. In 1849, Thomson gave the maximum and minimum theorem peculiar to hydrodynamics, which was afterwards extended to dynamical problems in

A new epoch in the progress
in 1856,

of hydrodynamics



by Helmholtz, who worked out remarkable properties

of rotational motion in a homogeneous, incompressible fluid, devoid of viscosity. He showed that the vortex filaments in

such a medium may possess any number of knottings and twistings, but are either endless or the ends are in the free surface
they are indivisible. These results suggested to Sir William Thomson the possibility of founding on them a
of the


new form

of the atomic theory, according to which every atom a vortex ring in a non-frictional ether, and as such must be The vortexabsolutely permanent in substance and duration.

atom theory

discussed by J. J.




(born 1856) in his classical treatise on the Motion of Vortex Rings, to which the Adams Prize was awarded in 1882.

Papers on vortex motion have been published also by Horace Lamb, Thomas Craig, Henry A. Eowland, and Charles Chree.

was investigated by Helmholtz, ELirchand Rayleigh the motion of fluids in a fluid by hoff, Plateau, Stokes, Sir W. Thomson, Kopcke, G-reenhill, and Lamb the
subject of jets



theory of viscous


by Navier, Poisson,


Stokes, 0. E. Meyer, Stefano, Maxwell, Lipschitz, Craig, Viscous fluids present great Helmholtz, and A. B. Basset. difficulties, because the equations of motion have riot the same degree of certainty as in perfect fluids, on account of a defi
cient theory of friction,


of the difficulty of connecting
differentials of the

oblique pressures on a small area with the


in liquids have been a favourite subject with




mathematicians. The early inquiries of Poisson and Cauchy were directed to the investigation of waves produced by disturbing causes acting arbitrarily on a small portion of the fluid. The velocity of the long wave was given

approximately by Lagrange in 1786 in case of a channel of rectangular cross-section, by Green in 1839 for a channel of
triangular section, and by P. Kelland for a channel of any uniform section. Sir George B. Airy, in his treatise on Tides

and Waves, discarded mere approximations, and gave the exact equation on which the theory of the long wave in a channel of
uniform rectangular section depends.

But he gave no general


of University College at


discusses this topic more fully, and arrives at exact and The most important complete solutions for certain cases.

application of the theory of the long wave is to the explana tion of tidal phenomena in rivers and estuaries.

The mathematical treatment of solitary waves was taken up by S. Earnshaw in 1845, then by Stokes but the



sound approximate theory was given by J. Boussinesq in 1871, obtained an equation for their form, and a value for the Other methods of velocity in agreement with experiment. were given by Eayleigh and J. McCowan. In approximation


connection with deep-water waves, Osborne Reynolds gave in 1877 the dynamical explanation for the fact that a group of such waves advances with only half the rapidity of the
individual waves.
solution of the problem of the general motion of an ellipsoid in a fluid is due to the successive labours of Green


The free (1856), and Bjerknes (1873). motion of a solid in a liquid has been investigated by W.


Thomson, Kirchhoff, and Horace Lamb. By these labours, the motion of a single solid in a fluid has come to be pretty well understood, but the case of two solids in a fluid is not devel-

oped so

The problem has been attacked by W. M.

of the period of oscillation of a rotating has important bearings on the question of the liquid spheroid G-. H. Darwin s investigations thereon, origin of the moon. viewed in the light of Eiemann s and Poincare s researches,

The determination

seem to disprove Laplace
from the earth
great for stability


hypothesis that the



as a ring, because the angular velocity






The explanation of the contracted vein has been a point of much controversy, but has been put in a much better light by the application of the principle of momentum, originated by
Eroude and Eayleigh.
Eayleigh considered also the reflection
of waves, not at the surface of separation of two uniform media, where the transition is abrupt, but at the confines of two media between which the transition is gradual.


first serious


was instituted

study of the circulation of winds on the at the beginning of the second

quarter of this century by H. W. Dov William (7. JZedJield, and James P. Espy, followed by researches of W. Reid, Piddington, and JSlias Loomis. But the deepest insight into the wonder

among the varied motions of the atmosphere was obtained by William Ferrel (1817-1891). He was born in Fulton County, Pa., and brought up on a farm. Though in unfavourable surroundings, a burning thirst for
ful correlations that exist

knowledge spurred the boy to the mastery of one branch after He attended Marshall College, Pa., and graduated another. in 1844 from Bethany College. While teaching school he

became interested in meteorology and in the subject of tides. In 1856 he wrote an article on the winds and currents of the ocean." The following year he became connected with the Nautical Almanac. A mathematical paper followed in 1858



motion of



solids relative to the

earth s




subject was

extended afterwards so as to

embrace the mathematical theory of cyclones, tornadoes, water-spouts, etc. In 1885 appeared his Recent Advances in
ologist (Julius

In the opinion of a leading European meteor

of Vienna), Ferrel has "contributed more to the advance of the physics of the atmosphere than any


other living physicist or meteorologist." Ferrel teaches that the air flows in great spirals toward the poles, both in the upper strata of the atmosphere and on the
earth s surface beyond the 30th degree of latitude; while the return current blows at nearly right angles to the above spirals, in the middle strata as well as on the earth s surface,
in a zone comprised between the parallels 30 IsT. and 30 S. The idea of three superposed currents blowing spirals was first

advanced by James Thomson, but was published in very



FerrePs views have given a strong impulse to theoretical Several objec research in America, Austria, and Germany.
tions raised against his

have been answered by

argument have been abandoned, or M. Davis of Harvard. The mathe matical analysis of F. Waldo of Washington, and of others, has further confirmed the accuracy of the* theory. The trans port of Krakatoa dust and observations made on clouds point

toward the existence of an upper east current on the equator, and Pernter has mathematically deduced from FerrePs theory
the existence of such a current.

Another theory of the general circulation of the atmosphere was propounded by Werner Siemens of Berlin, in which an attempt is made to apply thermodynamics to aerial currents.
Important new points of view have been introduced recently by Helmholtz, who concludes that when two air currents blow
one above the other in different directions, a system of air waves must arise in the same way as waves are formed on the


He and
A. Oberbeck showed that

when the waves on the

sea attain lengths of from 16 to 33 feet, the air waves must attain lengths of from 10 to 20 miles, and proportional depths. Superposed strata would thus mix more thoroughly, and their

energy would be partly dissipated.

From hydrodynainical

equations of rotation Helrnholtz established the reason why the observed velocity from equatorial regions is much less in a latitude of, say, 20 or 30, than it would be were the move

ments unchecked.

About 1860 acoustics began to be studied with renewed The mathematical theory of pipes and vibrating strings had been elaborated in the eighteenth century by Daniel Ber

noulli, Alembert, Euler, and Lagrange. In the first part of the present century Laplace corrected Newton s theory on the velocity of sound in gases, Poisson gave a mathematical dis


cussion of torsional vibrations


Poisson, Sophie Germain, and

Wheatstone studied Chladni s

Thomas Young and the Weber developed the wave-theory of sound. Sir J.


Herschel wrote on the mathematical theory of

sound for

the Encydopc&dia, Metropolitana, 1845.




Epoch-making were and mathematical researches. In experimental and Rayleigh s, Fourier s series received due


difference tones,

Helmholtz gave the mathematical theory of beats, and summation tones. Lord Rayleigh (John

William Strutt) of Cambridge (born 1842) made extensive mathematical researches in acoustics as a part of the theory of vibration in general. Particular mention may be made of his
discussion of the disturbance produced by a spherical obstacle on the waves of sound, and of phenomena, such as sensitive flames, connected with the instability of jets of fluid. In 1877 and 1878 he published in two volumes a treatise on TJie Theory of Sound. Other mathematical researches on this subject have been made in England by Donkin and Stokes.

The theory
of elasticity 42 belongs to this century.


Before 1800 no attempt had been made to form general equations for the motion or equilibrium of an elastic solid. Particular prob lems had been solved by special hypotheses. Thus, James
Bernoulli considered elastic laminae; Daniel Bernoulli and Euler investigated vibrating rods; Lagrange and Euler, the

The earliest investiga tions of this century, by Thomas Young Young s modulus of in England, J. Binet in France, and Gr. A. A. Plana elasticity
equilibrium of springs and columns.

in Italy, were chiefly occupied in extending and correcting the earlier labours. Between 1830 and 1840 the broad outline of the

modern theory

of elasticity was established.

This was accom

plished almost exclusively by French writers,

(1785-1836), Poisson, Cauchy, Mademoiselle Sophie Germain (1776-1831), Felix Savart (1791-1841). Simeon Denis Poisson 94 (1781-1840) was born at Pithiviers.
to a nurse,

his father (a

and he used to tell that when came to see him one day, the soldier) nurse had gone out and left him suspended by a thin cord to a nail in the wall in order to protect him from perishing under the teeth of the carnivorous and unclean animals that roamed on the floor. Poisson used to add that his gymnastic efforts when thus siispended caused him to swing back and forth, and

The boy was put out


thus to gain an early familiarity with the pendulum, the study His father of which occupied him much in his maturer life.
this to

him for the medical profession, but so repugnant was him that he was permitted to enter the Polytechnic

est of

His talents excited the inter and Laplace. At eighteen he wrote a memoir Lagrange on finite differences which was printed on the recommendation He soon became a lecturer at the school, and of Legendre.
School at the age of seventeen.

continued through

life to

posts and professorships.

hold various government scientific He prepared some 400 publications,



mainly on applied mathematics. His Traite de Mfaanique, 2 vols., 1811 and 1833, was long a standard work. He wrote on the mathematical theory of heat, capillary action, proba
judgment, the mathematical theory of electricity and magnetism, physical astronomy, the attraction of ellipsoids, definite integrals, series, and the theory of elasticity. He was considered one of the leading analysts of his time.
bility of

His work on

elasticity is hardly excelled

and second only
problem in

to that of Saint-Venant.

by that of Cauchy, There is hardly a


which he has not contributed, while The equilibrium and motion of a circular plate was first successfully treated by him. Instead of the definite integrals of earlier writers, he used
elasticity to

of his inquiries were new.

preferably finite summations.



contour conditions

for elastic plates were objected to by Gustav Kirehhoff of But Thomson and Berlin, who established new conditions.

Tait in their Treatise on Natural Philosophy have explained the discrepancy between Poisson s and KirchhofPs boundary conditions, and established a reconciliation between them.

Important contributions to the theory of elasticity were made by Cauchy. To him we owe the origin of the theory
of stress, and the transition from the consideration of the

upon a molecule exerted by its neighbours to the con upon a small plane at a point. He anticipated Green and Stokes in giving the equations of isoThe theory of elasticity tropic elasticity with two constants. was presented by Gabrio Piola of Italy according to the prin
sideration of the stress
ciples of

Lagrange s Mtcanique Analytique, but the superiority method over that of Poisson and Cauchy is far from evident. The influence of temperature on stress was first
of this

investigated experimentally by Wilhelm Weber of Gottingen, and afterwards mathematically by Duhamel, who,




theory of elasticity, examined the alterations of

&quot. at Tours.APPLIED MATHEMATICS. Subsequently he held various engineering posts and professorships in Paris. A problem in elasticity called by Lame s name. Sur les coordonnees curvilignes et leurs diverses Sur la theorle analytique de la clialeur. he was elected bridges and roads. Weber was also the first to experiment on elastic after-strain. in 1832. and known by the name of Lame s func &quot. . tMorie math&matique de V elasticity des corps solides (1852) in various . Set was investigated by Gerstner (1756-1832) and Eaton different scientists. As resilience and cohesion. tions. Hodgkinson. active part in the construction of the Lame devoted his fine mathemati cal talents mainly to mathematical physics. a truer theory of flexure was soon pro pounded by Saint-Venant. As engineer he took an first railroads in Prance. Poncelet advanced the theories of ment. flexure because they failed to consider shear and the time-ele a result. Other important experiments were made by of phenomena^ which disclosed a wider range and demanded a more comprehensive theory. applications. considering the temperature in the interior of an ellipsoid under certain conditions. and memoirs he displays fine analytical powers but a certain want of physical touch sometimes reduces the value of In his contributions to elasticity and other physical subjects. He was called to Russia with Clapeyron and others to superintend the construction of Gabriel Lame 94 (1795-1870) was born On his return. 389 form which the formulae undergo when we allow for changes of temperature. and gradu ated at the Polytechnic School. professor of physics at the Polytechnic School. les In four works : Legons sur fonctions inverses des transcendantes et Us sur faces isothermes. he employed functions analogous to Laplace s functions. Sur la . viz. while the latter physicist in England and Yicat (1786-1861) in Prance experimented extensively on absolute Vicat boldly attacked the mathematical theories of strength.

His results on torsion abound in beautiful graphic illustrations. Stokes. E. in his Lehrbuch der Elasticitat. like Vicat. and for his application of them to double refraction. to investigate the conditions for equilibrium of a spherical elastic envelope subject to a given distribution of load on the bounding spherical surfaces. The field of photo-elasticity was entered upon by Lame. Neumann. and was now severely criticised by Green and Stokes. Jellett. Wertheim. threw new light upon the subject of &quot.&quot. Clebsch. the theory of elastic rods of double curvature by the introduction of the third moment. In case of a rod. upon the side surfaces of which no forces act. E. showed that this problem is .390 A HISTOEY OF MATHEMATICS. He elasticity deserves much credit for his derivation and transformation of the general elastic equations. 1862. which has long divided elasticians into two opposing factions. Clerk Maxwell. if the end-forces are distributed over the end-surfaces by a definite law. he showed that the problems of flexure and torsion can be solved. E. and &quot. ingenieur des ponts et made it his life-work to render the theory of chaussees. Numerous errors true place as a guide to the practical committed by his predecessors were removed. against the theorists led Saint-Venant to place the theory in its man. Clausius. The charge brought by practical elasticity of practical value. engineers. Barre de Saint-Venant (1797-1886). and the theory of tor sion by the discovery of the distortion of the primitively plane section. The uni-constant isotropy of Navier and Poisson had been ques tioned by Cauchy. and the determination of the is the only completely general problem on which can be said to be completely solved. He corrected the theory of flexure by the considera tion of slide.raii-constancy&quot. Rectangular and triangular mem resulting shifts branes were shown by him to be connected with questions in the theory of numbers.multi-constancy.

and has not been generally adopted. Darwin. Boussinesq of Paris.&quot. them which was popular ised by Rankine. The mathematical theory of elasticity is still in an unsettled Not only are scientists still divided into two &quot. superintendent of the Kew Ob servatory. but differ ence of opinion exists on other vital questions. which is an important element gation If the earth is a solid. Maurice Levy of Paris. Basset. reversible to 391 side-forces without end-forces. Charles Chree. professor in University College. professor at Besaneon. Sir William Thomson applied the laws of elasticity of solids to the investi of the earth s elasticity. J. this notation is cum brous. Sir William Thomson (Lord Kelvin) of Glasgow. Thomson. computed that the resistance of the earth to . and compared them with the G-. and afterwards H. Laplace had elasticity co-operates shown how the earth would behave if it resisted deformation only by gravity. extended the research to very thin rods and to very thin plates. and others. he 4 develops extensively a double-suffix notation for strain and stresses. with gravity in opposing deformation due to the attraction of the sun and moon. Among the numerous modern writers on elasticity may be mentioned Entile Mathieu (1835-1891). B. and his solution of differs considerably from Lame s solution. London. has recently exam ined mathematically the permissible limits of the application of the ordinary theory of flexure of a beam. Saint-Yenant considered problems arising in the the case of Clebsch 68 scientific design of built-up artillery. multi-constancy. actual deformation. Karl Pearson. condition. A. schools of rari-constancy and &quot. Sir William Thomson combined the two results. Though often advantageous. and much used by gun-designers.. &quot.APPLIED MATHEMATICS. then its in the theory of ocean-tides. In SaintVenant s translation into French of Clebsch s Elasticitat. Lam6 had investigated how a solid sphere would change if its elasticity only came into play.

Ibbetson. F. attracted little notice. the observed on elasticity period being 430 days.392 A HISTOKY OF MATHEMATICS. owes much to the power of mathematics by mathematical analysis its assumptions were worked out matical physics. may be mentioned the works W. edited by 0. Some of Fresnel s mathe matical assumptions were not satisfactory. and it was not until Augustin Fresnel (1788-1827) applied mathematical analysis to a much greater extent than Young had done. was the first great convert made by Fresnel. days. from Fresnel s formulae the seemingly paradoxical deduction that a small circular disc. Beer. Thomas Young 95 (1773-1829) was principle of interference. illuminated by a luminous point. Clebsch. J. By their Arago opposition Fresnel was spurred to greater exertion. : to their last consequences. When polarisa tion and double refraction were explained by Young and Poisson drew Fresnel. This conclusion has been confirmed recently by Simon NQWcomb. at first disdained to consider the theory. but if as For an ideally rigid earth the period would be 360 rigid as steel. both of first the first to explain the light and sound. then Laplace was at last won over. that the undulatory theory began to carry conviction. not being verified by him by extensive numerical calcu lations. Meyer. Among text-books of Lame. and s opinion that a science of physics only exists since invention of differential equations finds corroboration even the in this brief and fragmentary outline of the progress of mathe Riemann The undulatory theory of light. and others belonging to the strictly mathematical school. B. though it tidal deformation is nearly as great as were of steel. Poisson. from the study of the observed periodic changes in latitude. Mathieu. it would be 441. and the to bring forward the idea of transverse vibrations in light waves. Winkler. first ad vanced by Huygens. . Neumann. hence Laplace. Young s explana tions.

Sir William Thomson in his lectures delivered at the and . and like an elastic solid in case of the infinitesimal disturbances in light propagation. that Fresnel s formulae are correct. while C. and not On perpendicular to it. Sellmeyer. such an elastic solid would transmit a longitudinal disturbance with infinite velocity. found to be in accordance with But The theory was taken up by another great mathematician. Hamilton.APPLIED MATHEMATICS. Biot. W. Green. that the ether might act like a fluid in case of finite disturbances. These predictions do not prove. While the above writers endeavoured to explain of a all optical that they arise supposition properties of the ether in entirely from difference in rigidity or density there is another school advancing theories in the medium. however. C. Helrnholtz. a bright spot in the centre. Elrchhoff. Lommel. dispersion. and Sir William Thom In the wave-theory. Presnel postulated the density of ether to be different in different media. Boussinesq. medium on the which the mutual action between the molecules of the body and the ether is considered the main cause of refraction and 100 The chief workers in this field are J. Voigt. fact. McCullagh. Saint-Venant. Sarrau. Lorenz. who from his formulae predicted conical refraction. Stokes. verified experi mentally by Lloyd. Ketteler. W. E. as taught by Green and others. for son. for these prophecies might have been made by other forms of the wave-theory. The theory was placed on a sounder dynamical basis by the writ ings of Cauchy. but the elasticity the same. But. Neumann. as in the theory of Eresnel. according to Green. the luminiferous ether was an incompressible elastic solid. Neumann elasticity and McCullagh assume the density uniform and the different in all substances.was shadow with. must this 398 cast a &quot. direction of vibration lies the latter assumption the in the plane of polarisation. however. E. the reason that fluids could not propagate transverse vibra tions. Stokes remarked.

nor in a plane perpen a magnetic dicular to it. Weber s. became the foundations for a system of measurement. until in 1881 a general agreement was reached at an electrical congress in Paris. A. to consider the unit of electrical resistance. . Of recent mathematical and experimental contributions to optics. but something occurs in both planes vibration in one. The first complete method of measure ment was the system of absolute measurements of terrestrial magnetism introduced by Gauss and Wilhelm Weber (18041891) and afterwards extended by Wilhelm Weber and F. but greater a factor of 10 7 101 The discussions and labours . the direction of vibration does not lie exclusively in the plane of polarisation. and his application of interference methods to astro nomical measurements.394 A. mention must be made of H. and in magnetism the measurements of Charles Augustin Coulomb (1736-1806). He proposed the electro-magnetic theory. Michelson s work on interfer ence. According to Maxwell s theory. Kohlrausch to electro-magnetism and electro-statics. Neither this nor the first-named school succeeded in explaining all the phenomena. In 1861 the British Association and the Royal Society appointed a special commission with Sir William Thomson at the head. Johns Hopkins University in 1884. The commission recommended a unit in than Weber s by principle like W. A. In electricity the mathematical theory and the measure ments of Henry Cavendish (1731-1810). It will be mentioned again later. A third school was founded by Maxwell. which has received extensive develop ment recently. Rowland s theory of concave gratings. For electro-magnetism the same thing was done by Andre Marie Ampere (1775-1836). an this subject continued for twenty years. Fitzgerald and Trouton in Dublin verified this conclusion of Maxwell by experiments on electro-magnetic waves. and of A. and an electric in the other. HISTORY OE MATHEMATICS.

called simply potential made by and magnetism have been Large contributions to electricity William Thomson. Green all of s theorem s &quot. vols. . Chasles. coverecl by Sir William Thomson. . and xlv. applies not only to a point external to whatever.&quot. and Gauss. xliv. Cambridge. Prom was graduated as Second Wrangler there he entered Cambridge. He was born in 1824 at Belfast. so that it the attracting mass. It &quot. Caius College. who about 1840 secured it the general adoption of the function. tional attractions in 1773. It contained It escaped the notice known as &quot. to the magne even of English mathematicians until 1846. is Ireland. for the treatment of potential. William Thorn- . He introduced it into the of electricity and magnetism. Green was a self-educated man and at his death was fellow of In 1828 he published by subscrip theory of electricity and tion at Nottingham a paper entitled Essay on the application of mathematical analysis tism. Laplace gave the celebrated differential equation. Hamilton used The term function is due to Green.APPLIED MATHEMATICS. who started out as a baker. and in 1845. Green potential the word force-function. 395 A function was first theories of electricity of fundamental importance in the mathematical and magnetism is the potential. The first to apply the potential but to any point function to other than gravitation problems was George Green mathematical theory (1793-1841). when Sir William Thomson had it reprinted in what is now Crelle s Journal. da? dy 2 =0 dz* 4?rfc which was extended by Poisson by writing in place of zero in the right-hand member of the equation. used by Lagrange in the determination of gravita Soon after. He and his brother James studied in Glasgow. but of Scotch descent. while Gauss. Meanwhile re-disgeneral theorems had been Sturm.

For his brilliant mathematical men who were Second Wranglers at Cambridge. In 1845 F. At of twenty-two W. a problem previously considered insolvable. a position which he has held ever* since. E. of the course of induced currents in various cases. This experimentally by Joseph Henry of William Thomson worked out the electro-static Washington. and J. viz. Weber s chief researches were on electro effect against induction. was worked out mathematically by Horace Lamb and also by Charles Niven.896 son. somewhat earlier than by Dirichlet. We owe to Sir William Thomson new synthetical methods of great elegance. The subject of the screening first was established due to sheets of different metals. Maxwell. induction in submarine cables. Helmholtz in 1851 gave the mathematical theory Gustav Robert Zirchlioff w (1824-1887) investigated the distribution of a current over a flat conductor. The distribution of static electricity on conductors had been studied before this mainly by Poisson and Plana. Neumann of Konigsberg developed from the experimental laws of Lenz the mathematical theory of magneto-electric induction. The entire subject of electro-magnetism was revolutionised . Clifford. Thomson are a group of great the age natural philosophy in the University of Glasgow. and also the strength of current in each branch of a network of linear conductors. Thomson was elected professor of and physical achievements he was knighted. dynamics. In 1855 W. By them he determined the distribution of electricity on a bowl. His researches on the theory of potential are epoch-making.Dirichlet s principle&quot. and in 1892 was made Lord Kelvin. What is called &quot. was discovered by him in 1848. J. Sylvester. the theory of electric images and the method of electric inversion founded thereon. W. Thomson predicted by mathematical analysis that the dis charge of a Leyden jar through a linear conductor would in certain cases consist of a series of decaying oscillations. A HISTOBY OF MATHEMATICS.

T. Thomson. attention to this part of the subject in 1871. but established the electro-magnetic theory of light. London. A. and which determine the state of the electric field. Hermann von Helmlioltz turned his Poynting. E. by James Clerk Maxwell 397 near (1831-1879). L. when he became professor of physics Maxwell not only translated into mathematical language the experimental results of Faraday. In 1871 appeared his great Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism. at Heidelberg he produced his work on Tonempfindwng. in 1864. In 1850 he went to Trinity College. 0. Helmholtz. He constructed the electro-magnetic theory from general equations. Eouth Maxwell then became lecturer at Cambridge. in 1856 professor at Aberdeen. and in 1860 professor at King s College. entered the University of Edinburgh.Academy He was elected professor of physiology of Art in at Konigs- It was in 1858. and der Kraft. Boltzmann. and came out Second Wrangler. Eowland. In 1865 he retired to private life until 1871. and others. at Bonn in 1855. H. which are established upon purely dynamical principles. He was bom Edinburgh. Cambridge. E. Helmholtz aimed inquiries in electricity and hydrodynamics. J. at Cambridge. published in 1847 his pamphlet Ueber die Erhaltung He Berlin. studied at the University of Berlin. berg in 1849. at Heidelberg that In 1871 he accepted the chair of physics at the University of From this time on he has been engaged chiefly on Berlin. since verified experimen His first researches thereon were published tally by Hertz. and became a pupil of Kelland and Forbes. H. to to determine in what direction experiments should be made . He was born in 1821 at Potsdam. H. It is a mathematical discussion of the stresses and strains in a dielectric forces. medium subjected to electro-magnetic The electro-magnetic theory has received developments from Lord Eayleigh. became teacher of anatomy in the &quot. being Senior Wrangler. J. J. Heaviside.APPLIED MATHEMATICS. Glazebrook.



decide between the theories of W. Weber, E. E. Neumann, Riemann, and Clausius, who had attempted to explain electro-

dynamic phenomena by the assumption of forces acting at a dis tance between two portions of the hypothetical electrical fluid, the intensity being dependent not only on the distance, but also
and the theory of Faraday on the velocity and acceleration, and Maxwell, which discarded action at a distance and assumed
stresses and strains in the dielectric. His experiments favoured the British theory. He wrote on abnormal dispersion, and created analogies between electro-dynamics and hydrody


Lord Eayleigh compared electro-magnetic problems with their mechanical analogues, gave a dynamical theory of diffraction, and applied Laplace s coefficients to the theory of radiation. Eowland made some emendations on Stokes paper
on diffraction and considered the propagation of an arbitrary electro-magnetic disturbance and spherical waves of light.
Electro-magnetic induction has been investigated mathemati cally by Oliver Heaviside, and he showed that in a cable it is

an actual

benefit. Heaviside and Poynting have reached remarkable mathematical results in their interpretation and

development of Maxwell s theory. Most of Heaviside s papers have been published since 1882 they cover a wide field.

One part

of the theory of capillary attraction, left defective

by Laplace, namely, the action of a solid upon a liquid, and the mutual action between two liquids, was made dynamically

by Gauss.


stated the rule for


of contact

between liquids and solids. A similar rule for liquids was established by Ernst Eranz Neumann. Chief among recent workers on the mathematical theory of capillarity are Lord
Hayleigh and E. Mathieu.

energy was by Robert Mayer (1814-1878), a physician in Heilbronn, and again independently by Colding of Copengreat principle of the conservation of


hagen, Joule, and Helmholtz.


James Prescott Joule (18181889) determined experimentally the mechanical equivalent of heat. Helmholtz in 1847 applied the conceptions of the

transformation and conservation of energy to the various branches of physics, and thereby linked together many well-

known phenomena.

These labours led to the abandonment

of the corpuscular theory of heat.

The mathematical treat ment of thermic problems was demanded by practical con siderations. Thermodynamics grew out of the attempt to determine mathematically how much work can be gotten out
of a steam engine.

an adherent of the corpuscular

theory, gave the



of his

impulse to this. The principle known name was published in 1824. Though the importance work was emphasised by B. P. E. Clapeyron, it did not

meet with general recognition until it was brought forward by William Thomson. The latter pointed out the necessity
of modifying Carnot s reasoning so as to bring it into accord with the new theory of heat. William Thomson showed in

1848 that Carnot

s principle led to the conception of an absolute scale of temperature. In 1849 he published "an account of Carnot s theory of the motive power of heat, with

numerical results deduced from B-egnault

s experiments."


February, 1850, Rudolph Clausius (1822-1888), then in Zurich, (afterwards professor in Bonn), communicated to the Berlin
a paper on the same subject which contains the Protean second law of thermodynamics. In the same month


William John M. Rankine (1820-1872), professor of engineer ing and mechanics at Glasgow, read before the Eoyal Society
of Edinburgh a paper in which he declares the nature of heat to consist in the rotational motion of molecules, and
arrives at


some of the results reached previously by Clausius. does not mention the second law of thermodynamics, but

in a subsequent paper he declares that

could be derived



from equations contained in Ms first paper. His proof of the second law is not free from objections. In March, 1851, appeared a paper of William Thomson which contained a

He obtained it perfectly rigorous proof of the second law. before he had seen the researches of Clausius.- The state
given by Clausius,, has been much by Eankine, Theodor Wand, P. G-. Tait, and Tolver Preston. Eepeated efforts to deduce it from mechanical principles have remained fruitless. The general
of this



was developed with great suc and Eankine. As early as 1852 by Thomson, Clausius, Thomson discovered the law of the dissipation of energy,
science of thermodynamics

deduced at a later period also by Clausius.


latter desig

nated the non-transformable energy by the name entropy, and then stated that the entropy of the universe tends toward a maximum.. ITor entropy Eankine used the term

thermodynamic function. Thermodynamic investigations have been carried on also by G. Ad. Him of Colmar, and Helmholtz (monocyclic and polycyclic systems). Valuable graphic methods for the study of thermodynamic relations were de
vised in 1873-1878 by J. Willard Gibbs of Yale

an account of the advantages of using various pairs of the five fundamental thermodynamic quanti ties for graphical representation, then discusses the entropyand entropy-volume diagrams, and the volumetemperature



energy-entropy surface (described in Maxwell s Theory of Gibbs formulated the Heat). energy-entropy criterion of equilibrium and stability, and expressed it in a form appli

Important works on thermodynamics have been prepared by Clausius in 1875, by E. Euhlmann in 1875, and by Poincare in 1892. In the study of the law of dissipation of energy and the principle of least action, mathematics and metaphysics met

cable to complicated problems of dissociation.







doctrine of least action was


pounded by Maupertius in 1744. Two years later he pro claimed it to be a universal law of nature, and the first
It was weakly proof of the existence of God. sup attacked by Konig of Leipzig, and ported by him, violently

keenly defended by Euler.

Lagrange s conception of the prin ciple of least action became the mother of analytic mechanics, but his statement of it was inaccurate, as has been remarked by Josef Bertrand in the third edition of the Mcanique Analytique.

The form of the principle of least action, as it now was given by Hamilton, and was extended to electro exists, dynamics by F. E. Neumann, Clausius, Maxwell, and Helrn-


To subordinate the

principle to all reversible processes,

Helmholtz introduced

into it the conception of the



form the principle has universal



offshoot of the mechanical theory of heat is the


kinetic theory of gases, developed mathematically by Clausius, The first Maxwell) Ludivig Boltzmann of Munich, and others.

suggestions of a kinetic theory of matter go back as far as the time of the Greeks. The earliest work to be mentioned here is
that of Daniel Bernoulli, 1738.

He attributed to gas-molecules the pressure of a gas by molecular great velocity, explained bombardment, and deduced Boyle s law as a consequence of Over a century later his ideas were taken his assumptions. and Clausius up by Joule (in 1846), A. K. Kronig (in 1856),
(in 1857).

Joule dropped his speculations on this subject

when he began

Kronig experimental work the kinetic theory the fact determined experi explained by of a gas is not mentally by Joule that the internal energy when no external work is done. Clausius altered by expansion took an important step in supposing that molecules may have in a molecule may move rela rotary motion, and that atoms He assumed that the force acting to each other.

on heat.



between molecules

a function of their distances, that tem

perature depends solely upon the kinetic energy of molecular motions, and that the number of molecules which at any


ence each other

are so near to each other that they perceptibly influ is comparatively so small that it may be

and by Buy s-Ballot and by Jochniann, were satisfactorily answered by Clausius and Maxwell, except in one case where an addi tional hypothesis had to be made. Maxwell proposed to him self the problem to determine the average number of molecules,
the velocities of which

calculated the average velocities of molecules, explained evaporation. Objections to his theory, raised


between given limits. His expres sion therefor constitutes the important law of distribution of



after him.



law the distribution of

molecules according to their velocities is determined by the same formula (given in the theory of probability) as the dis
tribution of empirical observations according to the magnitude of their errors. The average molecular velocity as deduced

by Maxwell differs from that of Clausius by a constant factor. Maxwell s first deduction of this average from his law of dis
0. E.

was not



in 1866.



is true,

A sound derivation was given by Maxwell predicted that so long as the coefficient of viscosity and the coeffi

cient of thermal conductivity remain independent of the press ure. His deduction that the coefficient of viscosity should

be proportional to the square root of the absolute temperature appeared to be at variance with results obtained from pendu


experiments. This induced him to alter the very foun dation of his kinetic theory of gases by assuming between the molecules a repelling force varying inversely as the fifth

power of their distances. The founders of the kinetic theory had assumed the molecules of a gas to be hard elastic spheres;
but Maxwell, in his second presentation of the theory in 1866,



went on the assumption that the molecules behave like cen He demonstrated anew the law of distribution tres of forces. of velocities but the proof had a flaw in argument, pointed out by Boltzmann, and recognised by Maxwell, who adopted a somewhat different form of the distributive function in a

paper of 1879, intended to explain mathematically the effects observed in Crookes radiometer. Boltzmann gave a rigorous
general proof of Maxwell s law of the distribution of velocities. None of the fundamental assumptions in the kinetic theory
of gases leads by the laws of probability to results in very Boltzmann tried to estab close agreement with observation.
lish kinetic theories of gases

by assuming the

forces between

molecules to act according to different laws from those pre viously assumed. Clausius, Maxwell, and their predecessors

took the mutual action of molecules in collision as repulsive, Ex but Boltzmann assumed that they may be attractive.

periment of Joule and Lord Kelvin seem to support the latter
is Lord theorem of Maxwell and Boltzmann, asserting that the average kinetic energy of two given portions of a system must be in the ratio of the number of degrees of freedom of those portions.

assumption. Among the latest researches on the kinetic theory
s disproof of a- general



Abacists, 126.


8, 13, 63, 79, 82, 119, 122, 126,

Abbatt, 334. Abel, 347, 348;

ref. to, 146, 279, 291,

312, 328, 336, 337, 350, 353, 371.

Abelian functions, 292, 312, 328, 346,
348, 349, 352, 355-357, 359.

Algebra: Beginnings in Egypt, 15; early Greek, 73; Diophantus, 74-77 p Hindoo, 93-96 Arabic, 107, 111, 115 ; Middle Ages, 133, 135 Eenaissance, 140, 142-150, 152; seventeenth cen tury, 166, 187, 192; Lagrange, 267; Peacock, 284; recent, 315-331; ori gin of terms, 107, 115. See Nota



Abelian integrals, 350, 379. s theorem, 352. Absolute geometry, 301. Absolutely convergent series, 335,


Algebraic functions, 346;



Abul Gud, 111 ref. to, 113. Abul Hasan, 115. Abul Wefa, 110 ref. to, 112, 113. Achilles and tortoise, paradox of,

Algorithm, origin of term, 106 dle Ages, 126, 129. Al Haitam, 115 ref. to, 112. Al Hayyami, 112 ref. to, 113.
; ;


Acoustics, 262, 270, 278, Action, least, 253, 366,
292, 318, 379.

Al Hazin, 112. 27. Al Hogendi, 111. Al Karhi, 111, 113. 386. 401; varying, Al Kaschi, 114. Al Kuhi, 111; ref.
Allegret, 377. Allman, IX., 36.

to, 112.

Adams, 375


ref. to, 214.
elliptic integrals,

Addition theorem of
252, 350, 396. Adrain, 276.

Al Madshriti,

ref. to, 105, 109, 127,

Almagest, 56-58;
134, 136, 140. Al Mahani, 112.

j3Equipollences, 322. Agnesi, 260.


ref. to, 17, 18, 53, 74.

Ahmes, 10-15


Airy, 375 ; ref. to, 383. Al Battani, 109; ref. to, 110, 125. Albertus Magnus, 134. Albiruni, 111; ref. to, 102, 104. Alcuin, 119.

Alphonso s tables, 127. Al Sagani, 111. Alternate numbers, 322. Ampere, 394; ref. to, 361. Amyclas, 33.
Analysis (in synthetic geometry), 30, 39; Descartes , 186; modern, 331334.

Alembert, D Alexandrian School


See D Alembert.




ond), 54-62. Alfonso s tables, 127.

Analysis situs, 226, 315. Analytic geometry, 185-189, 191, 193,
240, 287, 307-315.


29. 18. Arbogaste. Arithmetic: Pythagoreans. XI. 306. 269. Middle Ages. ref. 105. Bachmann. 115. 108. 305. Bernoulli. XI. X. W. 103. 221. Baltzer. Aristotle. ref. 124-128. El Apollonian Problem. to. 61. 29 . ref. 18.. tentative. Assumption. 70 Greek. 283. 325. Nicolaus (born 1695). 65. Bamngart. Attraction. Arago. 87. Areas. 304. Barbier. Beha Bddin. 26 ref. 9. Armemante. 238. Nicolaus (born 1687). 37. 198. ref. ref. 106. Basset. 115. 129. 40-45 . 300. Ball. the Venerable. 27. to. 92. 140. 300. 332. Hin doo. 382. 356. See De Beanne. 28. Beaune. Arenarins. 73. 35. See Bernoulli. Beer. Apollonius. 8. 30. 182. S. 119. 306. 158161. Society (in . Anthology. to. August.. XII. to. Mechanics. 173. 130. ref. 327. 105. 346. Arabic manuscripts. Beltrami. Beaumont. 133. 98. 134. 373-3TT. to. more recent researches. 382. to. 54. 322. 90. to. Bayes. to. B. 378. ratio. lipsoid. Argand. 373-403. to. 73. 392. 153. Berkeley. Anaximenes. 43. 239. 112. Bauer. 365. Bachet de Meziriac. . 113. Applied mathematics.. 50. 255. Arabic. 313. Bellavitis. 126. 314. Bacon. 43. 115. 86. 296. 375. 203. 51. W. 150. Sir B. Ben Junus. 45-50 . 264. 67-70 . chanics. 178. Euclid. Egyptian. to. 251. Greek. 302. 101. ref. 51. 127-129. XI. 47. ref. Daniel. . 125 Athensens. Middle Ages. 88. 17. 68. 34. 49. 260. 277. Palatine. Battaglini. 369. Anaxagoras. 304. 220. Arithmetical triangle. INDEX. Bede. 262. Attains. 66. . 151. 31. 32. De. to. 78. See Gravitation. to. to. 317. ref. 294. Baker. ref. to. 281. Archytas. 378. X. to. Astronomy. 134. 126. 279. Barrow. 227. Notation. 122. 39. Archimedes. 32. 173. 91.305. ref. Babylonians. 63. Arabic. 63-77. 82. 86 . 2. 18 ref Anaximander. 39. Ballistic curve. Appel. 35. .. 18. Bernelinus. 50. Bernoulli. 253. 188. See Babbage.. Arithmetical machine. to. 40. 401. See Numbers. 125. 144. 257. Hindoo. ref. Platonists. 119. 61. 32. R. 315. 3. Astrology. 306. Cambridge). 75. Anharmonie Athelard of Bath. 46. 185. Renaissance. Apices of Boethius. 253. Newton. 196. 100. 135. ref. Astronomy: Babylonian. ref. 120. 108. 90-92. 105. 297. 341. 54. 386. 37. 202. 23. 100-117. 217. 73.. 238. 10. 321. 78. 127.406 Analytical 283. 392. Th. . Atomic theory. 38. 317. 56 . 118. 34. 154. 320. 212-216. 114. 154. 366. 46. conservation of. Arabic numerals and notation. 122. to. 271-274.. 61. Angeli. 284. 262. 380. 24. 5-9. 123. 140. Aschieri. Antiphon. 371. ref. 38. Aristsens. 159. 236. 315. Axioms (of geometry). 19. 37. 340. 45. Arabs. 155. R. See Me Anger. Ausdehnungslehre. ref . Arneth. Aryabhatta. Eegula falsa. Ball. 20. to. 102. Aronhold. See Meziriac. 65. 27.

340. 260 ref. 9. genealogical table of. ref. 373-375. 226. ref.. to. Bhaskara. 238 ref to. 152. 324. 297. 328. 378. 1710). Biquadratic residues. 135. 366.. 249. Bertini. 402. 79. Boole. See Biirgi. 364. Beyer. 377. 323. Calculating machines. J. ref.. 239. 354.. Bessy. Bombelli. to. 97. ref. du. Borchardt. 282. Brahmagupta. ref. 139. Bolza. 196. 377. 146. 264. Bredon. 378 ref. 288. 95. 87. Beta function. 383. 89. to. to. 341. 141. 251 Biot. Bernoullis. Byrgius. Boyle s law. 344. 350. 333-334. 138. Booth. 159. 403. Brans. 229. 79. John (born John (born Bowditch. 377. 275. to. 163. Bungus. 97. IX. 72. 195. 236. See Differential Calculus. Buddha. ref. Brachistochrone (line of swiftest de scent). 112. 154. 330. 247. Bjerknes. Bernoulli. Burmester. 346. 81. 81 . 308. origin of word. to.238. to. 135. 337-339. ref. to. 380.. Burkhardt. 302. 197. 301. 393. 1744). 134. ref. Brill. Bradwardine. Burkhardt. 307.INDEX. 343. K. ref. 314. ref. Bertrand. 391. 291. Calendar. 250 Bernoulli. 342. Buteo. 327 . 397. 249. Bezout 331. 288. 289. 234. Bessel. 325. Briot. 63. 103. 342. Biquaternions. 357. 302. 328. Bessel s functions. 309. . P. 229. 238. 275. 334. 81. 374. 27. 92-95. 328. ref. Faa de. 239. 393. 356. 311. 355. Budan.. Tycho. A. Brianchion. 118. 346. Bode. ref. 237. 306. 237. Bernoulli. Bolyai. . 353. 284. 261. Buy s-Ballot. 146. Binomial formula. Brioschi. Calculation. to. 275. Bonnet. Johann. to. 344. 328. 401. . Biirgi. Bolyai. 387. 110. 337. Bernoulli. Bryson of Heraclea. 296. Bobillier. ref. 291. 351. 350. Brahe. XIV. 121. Bernoulli s theorem. Bouquet. Binet. Brouncker.. Bour. 9. 340. s method of elimination. 135 . 92. 265. 356. Calculus. 379. James (born 1654) . to. ref. 354. 327. Billingsley. 251. 383. 234. 346. 243. XII. Julius. 401. Bretschneider. 226. Briggs. Buffon. Bianchi. Calculus of operations. 220. XIII. 348. to. 232. 362. Bouniakowsky. Bois-Reymond. Callisthenes. L. 98. 311. 239. Canon paschalis. Buchheim. of varia tions. A. 165. Boethius. 202. 353. Biquadratic equation. Bruno. C. 325. 152. 40T 365.. 341. to. 292. 182. 291. 303. 379. to. 181. Buckley. 337. 387. Boussinesq. to. 168. 250. 271. Bocher. to. 102. 154. 340. James (born John (born 1758). 341. 320. Wolfgang. 356. 260. 141. Boltzmann.. 86. Bezout. Busche. ref. Bernoulli. Betti. 149. 251. Caesar. 160. Brill. H. 365. 366. XIIL. 305. 160. to. 356 1667). Bring. 300. 155. 0. 237. 178.

330. 214. XIV. 341. of oscilla tion. Computus. 348. 362. 155. Carnot. 397. 297. 359. 324. 387. 326. 191 . 7. 112. 311.408 Cantor. 345. 191. Continued fractions.. 170. 42. Chree. 306. 341. 390-392. ref. 243. 293. 313. Catalan. 381. Ceva. 183. 382. Casey. Jlausius. 396. 296. 4. Capelli. Caporali. 402. Combinatorial School. ref. 234. 192. 193. G. &quot. See Chess. 39. 221. to. Chladni s figures. Sadi. 292. X. 312. 257. 294. 356. 313. Cantor. 398. Caustics. E. )lebsch. ref. 342. 331-333. Capillarity. ChristotM. 358. Chinese. . 19. 326. 338. 335. 297. ref.. X. 193. 278. folding. 119. 169. Congruencies. 339.. Continuity. 296. to. Colebrooke. 330. 32. to. Geometry. 333. . Conform representation of surfaces. 101. ref. 118. 194 Circle.. 289. 154. 384. 308. Carnot. 313 . Condensation of singularities. 328. /Circle-sguareri Cissoid. 143. 305. to. 203. 159. Cataldi. 159 144. Conservation of areas. 393.larke. 236. 308. 112. to. 325. 319. Cockle. 306. Lazare. 339. Cheyne. 353. 206. 400- Cardan. 399. 379. 154. 180. 290. 152. X. Contravariants. Jollins. ref. 377. 56. to. 176-178. 322. 206. Greek. 145. to. 311.. of. division of. 355. ref. Jomplex quantities. 333. 390. 264. 390.* 334. 362. method of. Conon. 293. 391. 24-28. 313. 350. to. 271 &amp. 153. 319. 228. .. 330. 230. ref. cent researches. 19. 156. 317. 398 . Arabs. 291. 232. 226. 241. 394. aginaries. theory of. 47 377 49. 314. 306. 237. Centre of gravity. 52. 197. XII. 342. 296-298. 398. 399. 388. Cavendish. 192. Cassiodorius. to. 87. 398. ref. 192. 383. 73. 155 Carll. 52. W. 256-258. D. 324. 191. 313. t ^ Chapman.50. 383. Centrifugal force. more re-. 335. Ceulen. 2. M. 399. 185. Cassini. of vis viva. 226. XII. Cattle-problem. 253 of energy. to. Characteristics.. 227. 361. 247.. 262. 289. 365. J^J4. 31. 324. ref. Complex of lines. Chasles. 358. ref. 334-339.Jomte. 1 Co-ordinates. lapeyron. . 309. 55. first use of term. 386. 172. 372. Centres of osculation. 159. 294. 168. 49. 329 &quot. 255. 83. Convergence of series. Casting out the 9 s. 41. See Ludolph.. 50. lairaut.jtf. 270. 388. 372. 232. Ulavius. 252. Z.. 238. 325. See Im- Cavalieri. 354. 288. degrees . van. 167. ref. Cole.~ Contracted vein. 223. Commandinus. 309. olson. Cayley. 327. Congruency of lines. 349. Kepler. 346. 315. Conic sections. 91. INDEX. 368. 327. 204. 325. 362. Chauvenet. . 378. 247. to. Colla. 153. 118. 315. 243.. to. 328. Cauchy. 252. Catenary. 177. 92. Colburn. Jlifford. Concentric spheres of Eudoxus. 341. Commercium epistolicum. 324. Renais 45-49. 106. IX.40. 297. 244. 309. 149. 322. 366. sance. 330.

j . ref . 234. Cox. I Darwin. 240. duplication of the cube. finite. 103. term for algebra. 361. 339. Davis. 112. Democritus. 366. 265. Curve of swiftest descent. 96. to. 294-296. 394. 223. 87. 312. 28 De Moivre. 341. Crelle.. of.W. 355. 189. 299. 223. De Paolis. Decimal fractions. 305. 176. 189. Deinostratus. 313. 333. philosophy of . Cousinery. 190. Delambre. 357. curves. Cyclic method. 321. 366. 161. 379. 1. De Lahire. See Duplication--^ . osculating. 174. ref. 258. 254-256 Darnascius. 285. Cube. Cremona. Culmann. etry. Copernicus. 376 ref. 139. 290. 363. Definite integrals. 313. 341-347. 372. etc. 152. 299. 306. 288. Delian problem. ref. Coss. Cubic curves. 190. Curves. 268-270. 167. ref. . 277. 316 . Craig. 299. of. 177. 192. 257. 385. 327. 111. 317 . 205. 38. See Dinostratus. ref. 333. 252. 141. Cramer.. 384. to. 327. Differential equations. 153. 340. 242 ref to. 240. 193. 340. 295. ref. Cubic Cubic equations. 291. 334. Dee. 314. 240. 369. 306. 142-145. Determinants. 97. Cubic residues. 174. Conic sections. 289. theory See of. 334. M. La(see Bernoullis. Craige. 185. W. 333. 269. 349. Cotes. to. 290. 356. Davis. 362. Dedekind. 187. grange. Devanagari-numerals. See Duplication 70. 330. 152. to. Descartes. 200. 265. 376. Coulomb. 325. rule of signs. 173. 2. . to. 60. to. 227alleged invention by Pascal. 324. 334. . E. ref. Dialytic method of elimination. 52.-236. 382. 386. 297. 254. D Alembert s principle. 285. 138. 109. 191. Crozet. Differential invariants. 362. 278. 348. 174. to. 341. Cridhara. Curvature. to. 318.221-227. 96. 159-161. 321.. D Alembert. 300. ref. 187. . Crofton. 293. De Baune. to. X. Curtze. 262. controversy Cyzicenus. 177. Desargues. 347. 225. to. 216. . 346. Rectification. De Morgan. Delaunay. 234. M. Cournot. 161. to. 340. XL. 240. Covariants. 154. 351. 238. 229. 243. 42. 242. 306. 239. 113. method of. Laplace. 300. 226. 184. 354. Desboves. 233. Cusanus. 173. 225. Differential calculus. 191. between Newton and Leibniz. 171. 72. 299. 180. Correspondence. 39.. 16. 278. 183-189.. 139. 193. 265. 56. 217. 236242 Euler. the cube. 371 ref. Czuber. 314.) 233. Data (Euclid s). 243. to. 333. 286-288. ref. 285. Derivatives. Ctesibius. 165. 337. Cube numbers. ref. 334-339. 291. 149. 300. See Finite dif Differences. Copernican System. 49. principle Cosine. 104. 226. 217. ferences. Deficiency of curves. 226 quadrature of. &quot. 48. ! 409 Darbous:. 4. 220. 256. 259. 292. Descriptive geometry. 343. 254. Geom Cycloid. Decimal point. 260. 61 . See Algebra. 33. 202. 240. Del Pezzo. XIII. 362. of. measure 113. 165. . 313. Crelle s Journal.INDEX. 391. Cotangent. 268. 226. 306. 297. 220. Criteria of convergence.

XIII. Egyptians. 162. 124. 127. 21. 337. Elliptic integrals. D Ovidio. 35-40. . 241. 257. 378-381. 250. Energy. 334. ref. 19. Dynamics. 277. Dove. 279. 296. Dubamel. 354. to. 300. 179. 9. See . 315. 290. 46. to. 104. Theory of numbers. 354. A. . Ellipsoid (attraction of). 136. IX. X. 128. 108. 394. 136. 71. motion of. 282. 247. 26. 93. 31. 35. 28. Duodecimals. 379. 263. 394-398. 81. 17. Euclidean space. ref. 264. 50. 315. 397. 240. See Cubic equations. 110. 106. See Groups. 250. 308. Directrix. 393. 138. 104. to. Elliptic geometry. 383. 53. 105. Dziobek. 337. Edgeworth. Dyck.72. 33. Algebra. 357. Eratosthenes. 16. 125. 309. 367-369. 186. 367. Dirichlet. Eddy. 215. ref. Eisenstein. 306. See Least squares.. * of. 308. 111. Divergent series. 257. 32. 277. theory . 280. 9-16. 215. Errors. Princess. 377. 350. See Non-Euclidean 17. 96. XHL. 300. theory of. Diophantus. 285. Division of the circle. Eudemian Summary. 315. 70. 297. 339. 356. 362. 42. 61. 126. 55. 58. . 357. to. 51. Dissipation of energy. Elizabeth. 291.~45. Durege. 34.. Electricity. 73. 17. 156. 36-39. 40. 71. Eisenlohr. 378. 35. 179. 153. Duality. 372. size of 214. 365 370. 44. 230. ref. Equations. 69. Ether. XI. 346. Diirer. 369. 46. 289 ref. figure of. to. Espy. 348. rigidity of 391.. 40. Dositheus. ref. . 384.. Eudemus.410 Dingeldey. XIII. 53. 345.. 40. 330. 33. ref. 32. 36. 188. E. Elements (Euclid s). 366.153. Dronke. 288. 340. 340. 35. Edfu. 127. 383. 237. 252. of. 114. 15. 333. 303. Inneper. 349. 32. 49. Divergent parabolas. 338. 102. to. 329. 298. 260. 33. Elimination. 114. 97. Earnshaw. 61. 388. 318. 362. . Dini. ilastic curve. 58. Sly. to. 365. ~ -~-&quot. 241. Elliptic functions. 347-354. 22. 281. 32. to. 32. Dionysodorus. 23-25. 370. 398. luminiferous. llasticity. 147. 333. Enumerative geometry. 30. 348. 396. Earth. Diwani-numerals. 379. 7. Entropy. 325. 328. 74^77 17. 314. ref. ref. Diihring. 371. Dinostratus. 331. to. 25. Duillier. 86. 359. 280. Euclid. to. solution of. geometry. See 125. / &quot. 329. 45. 12. 400. Donkin. 135. 31. 217. 107. 353 . 31. Epicycles. Eudoxus. 21. 54. Dupin. Diocles. 138. 50. 75. 22. 30. 144. Duplication of tne cube. 297. 250. 149. ref. 371. Equations. Encke. ref. 166. XII. Dostor. . numerical. 51. Dusing. Elliptic co-ordinates. 310. 133. 271. 278. Electro-magnetic theory of light. 366. 60. conservation Enestrom. Diodorus. 387-392. 10. 379.. 25. 372. 32. 384. Diogenes Laertius. 328-331.50. INDEX. 292. to. 57. See Non-Euclidean geometry. 95. Epping. 216. Euclid. 189. 78. 363. 400. 193. 255.

200. See Gabir ben Aflah. 282. Egyptian. 127. 180. Franklin. 257. 268. 264. Flachenabbildung. Gauss Analogies. 279. Eutocius. . 94. decimal. ref. 239. 343. 198*252. Middle Ages. 147. Garbieri. 262. 45. 374. 315. 241. 206. Factor-tables. Kinetic theory Gauss. 294. definition of. 158. Galois. Gellibrand. 139. ref. Ferro. Four-point problem. Genocchi. s theorem. Frezier. 357. 61 ref. Galileo. 389. Fink. 49. 325. Finseus. 173. 313. 333. 398. 398. 161. 241. Fitzgerald. 49. 168. 159. ref. 172. 26. Babylonian. XIII. 377. 314. 142. Hindoo. 46. arbitrary. 124. 356. 372. Fermat 177. Exhaustion. 312. 65.ISTDEX. See Arithmetic. 397. 292. 303. Funicular polygons. 240. Fine. 362. 227-233. Faye. 159. 367. to. Fricke. 174. 382. 366. to. 249. 278. . Fahri des Al Karhi. 269. Scipio. 384. 202. sexagesimal. 335. 145 Ferrel. ISO. Friction. Favaro. 351. 170. Gamma function. Fluxions. Fourier. Hyperelliptic Theta functions. Fourier s theorem. 401. 202-213. ref. 43. 392. Euler. 386. 262. 344. 341. to. 367. Floridas. continued. 247. 381. 327. 344. to. Ferrari. 343. 338. . XII. 67. 317. 165. Fluxional controversy. 111. Gamma Flexure. Abelian functions. 28. See Leonardo of Pisa. 386. 46. 246. 264. 302. 411 283. 345. 313. to. 53 ref. 314. 126. to. 365. XII. 401-403. 373. ref. Omega function. Forbes. Fagnano. 144. 367. 218. 169. 205. 344. 278. Focus. function. 65. 63. Functions. 144. 250. 171. 124. 333. 364. ref. 299. Geminus. ref. Beta functions. 42. 360. ^ Bessel s function. 345. 329. of. 209. 77. 179-182. 252. Gases. 356. duodecimal. 118. 251. 7. 265. to. Eoman. theory of. 261. 343. 345. 191. 120. 281-284. Greek. 345. 395. 334. 325. 170. 376. 367. 248. Fractions. 280. 64. 57. 330. theory of. 280. Exponents. 339. Fuchsian functions. 252. Eulerian integrals. 77.. Fuchsian groups. Gabir ben Aflah. Fermat. 159. theory 356-362. Froude. 267. 54. 270. 26. 126. See Finger-reckoning. 241.96. 273. Fresnel s wave-surface. 350. 248-254. 286. Geber s theorem. 362. 287. Faraday. 324. 255. 384. 276. 36. Finite differences. 394. Fluents. See Potential. 188. 187. 7. 197. to. Geber. 291. 252. 115. Force-function. 182. 365. 300. 160. Fiedler. 345. function. Figure of the earth. Falsa positio. 60. 315. . 13. 57. Fresnel. Elliptic functions. 264. Fuchs. 179. 242. 327. 50. XII. Evolutes. 92. 265. 354. 363-367. Fontaine. to. Sigma function. 258. 152. 78. 259. 160. 142. 254. Potential. 268. ref. to. Forsyth. to. XII. 304. 33. Frobenius. 348. 317. Frantz. 270. 283. 173. 387. Fourier s series. Flamsteed. 264. Fibonacci. 320. 328. 162. of. 324. method of. 314. 368. 169. 134. 116. 351. ref. Frost. 251. 65.

Gunter. to. 325. 113. 158. to. 33. Gibbs. 233. 261. Ann. Gobar numerals. 373. 285-290. Grassmann. 334. 103. theory Heath. Grunert. 266. 387 ref. 130. 82. 249. 103. 55. 127. 98. ref. 131. 398. Halifax. fieaviside. XIII.. Hebrews. 343 ref. 366. 1G7. 292. Goursat. 299. Halley. 314. Gerstner. Gutzlaff. 138. 382. theory 275. to. 16-77. 325. 393. Hann. Rectification. 251. 276. 227. 327. 353. Halphen. Giovanni Campano. 319. 240. Holder (Math. 330. Hadley. to. theory Papers by W. . IX. 383. . 110. 162. Golden section. 321. Hankel. 186-189. Hanus. 307-315. . 178. 152. to. 258. 192. 287. 354. 108. 93. 230. 34) should have been men tioned on p. 385. ref. 399-401. 316. 300. 218. 147. Glazebrook. Surfaces. Guderniann. ? 28. Middle Ages. 20 Roman. modern syn Gua. Saroun-al-Raschid. Arabic. XII. Hammond. X. Geometry. 388. 69. 327. Renaissance. Gerling.. 300. de.. Gopel. 330. ref. Hindoo. 215. Greek. 374. 171. 400. See Curves. 354. 166. 126. Gournerie. to. Hachette. 317. Hagen. ref. 17-62. 320. David F. Hansen. . 191. XI. Gubar-numerals. 80. 374. 345. 153. Hamilton s numbers. 375. 292. . 306: of. 328. ref. 114. 134. 154. ref. to. 318. 362. 393.. 319. 104. to. 294. 128. ref.. 328-330. 104. 271. 315. 184. X. 187. Greeks. 284. ref. S. Hamilton. of. Sophie. to. Curvature. Hadamard. 174. 80. to. Gravitation. 350. 161. 397. Geodesy. 362. ref. Gerhardt.291. X. to.. 243. 386. Girard. 286-288. 10-13.. Quadrature. 96. 379. 193. Gromatici. 285. Groups. IX. 165. 368. 319. 258. 213. 353. 59.. 325. 293-307. 127. XII. Glaisher. 8. XI. Haas. 318. Heat. Hegel. Circle.412 Geodesies. 31(5. to. 325. Greenhill. 397. Graham. INDEX. Gerard of Cremona. 358. 366. E. 304. 329. Harmonics. 290. Dyck (Math. 213. 303. ref. IX. 127.. Egyptian. 297. 368. Green. ref. Gow.. Guldinus. 297 ref to.. 377. 327. R. 97. 395. 322. 311. 45. 379. 401. Grandi. 167. Giinther. W. Harkness. 378. 395. Gordan.. Gergonne. 300. 154. 320-321 317. Gregorian Calendar. 315. 228.. XL. Ann. Halsted. to. 218. 372. 151. 166.. 378. ref. James. Germain. 82. analytic. Hardy. 311. 328. 312. 389. Harriot. ref. of. 214. 314 . thetic. Babylonian. 240. 344. Godfrey.. and 22) and by O. W. 121. 34^-346. 339. to. J. . 35. XII. to. German Magnetic Union. Gregory. 324. Guldm. de scriptive. 19. 120-124. Hamilton. Halley s Comet. 390.. Grammateus. See Guldin. Haan. 288. Hathaway. Gregory. 355. 136. 366. Graphical statics. Harrington. 125. Gerbert. 341. XIV.

. 347. 213. ref. 104. 169. to. 372. 186. 211. Hypergeonaetric series. 340. ref. 284. symbol for. Insurance. See Hindoos.. 241. 125. See Non-Eucli Henry. 84-100 ref. 189. Herschel. 104. ref. Hyperelliptie integrals. 381-384. Helmholtz. 396. 203. Hippasus. ref. lamblichus. 295. See Arabic numer als. 51. 51 . Houel. 114. 276. 348. 45. 305. 178. Helicon. 51: ref. Heron the Elder. to. 397. 396. 193. 32. Huygens. ref. Hippias of Elis. 386. 348. 27. Hoppe. Heuraet. Hicks. 255. 293. . 349. 54. 352. See Theory of numbers. Heine. 22. Henrici. 380. 347. W. to. 106. XIII. 335. Imaginary geometry. 7. 330. Ignoration of co-ordinates. 178. 339. 101. 372. 371. Ideler. 363. to. 295. 70. Infinity. 187. See Differen Hudde. 111. to. 350. tial calculus. 127. 178. etc. 247. 177. J. ref. 329. . 385. 292. 305. Infinite series. Hesse. 382. 354. Indices. 98. . 166. Indeterminate coefficients. See Theory of numbers. 350. 147. 269. 44. Honein ben Ishak. 95. Hermite. theory of. 393. dean geometry. 392. 63. 304. 353. Hurwitz. 111. 38. 193. value. 239. 259. 371 origin of term. 334r-339. 293. Hippocrates of CMos. See Mechanics. ref. 309.INDEX. 65. 135. 333. 355. Infinite products. lehuda ben Mose Cohen. 22. Hypsicles. 328. ref. 336. Indeterminate equations. 310. 50. 380. 3. 10. 361. 171. Ibbetson. 193. 1-4. 146. Infinitesimal calculus. 250. 239. Hindoos. Hydrodynamics. 208. 400.. Infinitesimals. 398. 348. 342. 72. 234. Hyperspace. 107. Hussey. Hessian. ref. 255. 340. 220. Incommensurables. 213. 343. 306. See Exponents. 0. Indeterminate analysis. 219. Him. 197. Imschenetzky. lines. 36. to. Heliotrope. 368. Hospital. to. Hyde. Hermotimus. Hippopede. 330. 239. Heraclid. 349. 283. 400. to. 296. 327. 127. 386. 298. 361. 190-192. 188. 287. X. Indian mathematics. 237.. 69. to. F. 354. ref. Herodianic signs. 190. 392. 32. See Groups. Hipparclras. Hyperelliptie functions. 308. Induction. 54. Hydrostatics. 33. 401. Integral calculus. See Mechanics. 170-173. 325. 169. Hilbert. 207. 382. Indian numerals. 255. Indivisibles. 356. Imaginary quantities. its History of mathematics. to. 71. 358. Imaginary points. 362. 214. Holmboe. 328. 240. . 381. HodgMnson. 321. 110. 301. Hooke. 330. 95. Hovarezmi. 38. 384. 362. 257. 376. 372. 377. 105. Irrationals. 350. 37. 309-311. 25. 135. 208. 360. 363. to. 131. 308 . Ideal numbers. ref. 377. 342. Holder. XIII. Hypatia. 349. P. Homological figures. 30. 182. 80. 269. Images. 176. Hill. 283. 56. to. 312. 140. to. Hyperbolic geometry. 389. 101. 363. Homogeneity. 304. Homer. Hexagrammum mysticum. 203. 304. to. See 25. 327. 61 ref. 413 Helen of geometers. 28. 52 . 223.

377. Ionic School. 384. Inverse tangents (problem of). 362. 344. 403. 380 rause. 306. 22. Kopcke. ref. 363. ref. 293. BLohlrausch. 390. 401. 240. Latitude. 351-352. to. 346. 261. 315 394 358. 367. 104. 365. 354. Invariant. to. 268. 247. Isochronous curve. 353. 386. XII. 398. 287. 330. Ivory theorem. 374. 365. Jordan. ref. to. 324. 347. 313. Kepler s laws. 309. 304. 290. Jordanus Nemorarius.. 355. 4. Involution of points. 328. 396. 81. H. 270-278. Laguerre. inckhuysen. Lahire. s lorkine. 381. Latus rectum. 307. 378. ref. 397. to . de. Korndorfer.414 INDEX. to. See Incommensurables. 263. Jellet. 296. 337. 395. 273. Kant. 338. 386. 159. 310. Laertius. 320. Jerrard. La Louere. ref. 365. Sirchhoff. 388. Kerbedz. 362. 306. 325. Kelvin. 10. 313 177. 174. 345. Laisant. . Kuhn. 254. 156. ref. 372 . N. to. 139. 347. 276. 386. to. 328. 279. 167. 26. \V 158 Laplace. to. ref. to.. Lacroix. 328. 401-403. 295. 346. Kaffl. 363. ref. 194. Lame s functions. J. See Mercator. XIII. 223. John of Seville. 403. 401. 341. 308. Ivory. Isoperimetrical figures. 376. . 202. 69. 376. 329. Killing. 391. 375. Konig. 256. 378. ref. 285. periodic changes in. to. 259. 382. 320. ref. 259. 343. Jevons. 370. Kempe. 340. Interpolation. 399. to. Lambert. 393. 345. 337. Joachim. 217. ref. 389. 378. 353. 387. 329 . 17-19. 388.. 2*44. 336. 392. 363. 359. 237. ref. ref. ref. 382. to. 389. to. 306. 174. 134. 343. Landen. 313. 333. Lagrange. 371. 309. 354. 379. 350. Kowalevsky. 394. Jacohi. 279. 61. 51. llein. Inverse probability. 232. 219. iGeinian groups. Kinetic theory of gases. 396. ref. to. 328. Julian calendar. 161. 215.213. to. 220. 245. 286. 383. ref. Irregular integrals. 354. 344. Kautimann. 362. 235. 285.. Heinian functions. 315. 314. 382. 326. Kuramer. 249. 223. 171. 168-170. 383. 309. 169. Isidores of Seville. ohn. 373. 355. Irrationals. See Calculus of variations. 343. 277. 388. 352. 353. to. 248. 381. 179. Ishak ben Honein. See Rhseticus. 395. 317. Krazer. Jurin. 291. 341. 246. 334. 389. 383. Lord. 77. 183. to. 179. 330. 341. 274. 360. 349. 392. 278. Johnson. to. 402. Ketteler. ref. 357. Joubert. Kepler. Lamb. to. 177. 355. 401. ref. 213. Kaestner. 393. 255. 381. 246. 325. 392. to. to. 277. 367. Lame. 319.283. 279. 383. 174. 360. 314. Konigsberger. 382. 284. 263. 367. 313. 344. . 293. 370. 345. Kronecker. 382. 305. 107. 347. 231. 279. 280. Kelland. Kuhn. 399. 2. 400. 204. 340. 118. 364. 340. 236. 355. 330. 168. 372. 381. Laplace s coefficients. Jochmann. 395-396. 189. Joule. 60. ref. 393. 401. XIII. See Thomson. 234. Jets. 303. 94. 258-259. 126. Kronig. 378. ref . 309. ref. 48. 285. 396. 260-270.

32. 133. 200. ref. 396. 337. ref. 266. 208. 334. 341. Marie. 370. 346. 401. Legendre. Matrices. 349. 266. 382. 243. Hydrodynamics. . Manrolycus. 237. 4. 306. 376. 37. 351. As Graphic statics. 319. squaring of. 393. Long wave. Limits. ref. 343. 353. 128 Leslie. 377. Laws of motion. 192. Magister matheseos. of motion. 280. ref. 252. 401. Abbe. 333. D Alembert s principle. 191. Leonardo of Pisa. 382. 267. 340. Linear associative algebra. Malfatti Levy. to. Lindelof 334. 285. 247. 376. s problem. 315. Galileo. . 375. 240. 153 ref. Leibniz. 375. 316. 350. McColl. 137. Maudith. 113. 303. to. 393. 393. more 328. Descartes. 2. . X. 365. 276. 311 ref. 251. Lobatchewsky. . ref . Matthiessen.. 154. 23. 158. 242. 236. 398. 394. Marie. 253. Listing. 384. X. ref. 341. 301. 237.F. . See Pacioli. Marie. 220. ref. 218. 415 Least action. Leodamas. Mainardi. 212-216. 315. Meissel. 92. 363. ics. XL 298. 280. 278-281. 250. 229. Leyden jar. 49. Main. 241. 392. 197. Lewis. 390. 298. 353. to. 377. 315 . theory of. McClintock. 327. Legendre s function. 346. ref. to. 290. 43 . Bernoullis. 382. and Mechanics: Greek. to. 279. 365. Mensechmus. 376. 268. to. 367. 276.INDEX. 257.M. 333. 238. Lebesgue. 136. 342. Lindemann. Lemoine. 253. Logic. 301 ref. 358. ref. Leibniz. 33. 300. 250. 311. 237. Lorenz. 403. Loomis. 161-165. Mathieu. Stevin 182. McCowan. Maxwell. 324. Liouville. ref. Macfarlane. to. 325. Malfatti. . 356. Hydrostatics. Lloyd. McCullagh. to. 396. Lexis. ref. Local probability. See Dynam ~^ 188. M. 213. 208. Light. 155. 296. 334. 219-235. C. 273.. Leon. to. 268. Lommel. Lucas de Burgo. L Hospital. arithmetical. 158. 390. to. La recent work. Lie. Lemonnier. 383. 391. ref. Taylor. 323. 34. 46. 314. 188. 174. Maxima and minima. 210. Macmahon. 290. 252. Lagrange. 141. Maupertius. ref . 291. McMahon. 168. 154. 323. 253. /udolph s number. 34. 186. 306. Machine. Lipschitz. 383. 296. . 259. 25. Laws Laws of Laplace. to. 31. ref. 209. to. 400. 176. 52. 328. \Iaclaurin. 312. X. Lintearia. 33. 398. 350. 401. 328. 183. 379. 401. 284. Le Verrier. Mayer. to. 135 ref. 2M. ***? Magic squares. 365. Logarithmic Logarithms. 239. Newton. 369. 241. 341. 377-381. 393. 353. Euler. 402. 328. 300. 158. to. 172. 234. Rudolph. 391 . 393. to. Loria. series. 375 . 227. MacCullagh. Mansion. 135. 398. place. 341. 356.. tronomy. 362. 397.iiroth. ref. 189. 212. 321. 334. Huygens. 243. to. 266. 285. 244. 197. 281. 338. to. 339. 356. Least squares. Logarithmic criteria of convergence. 274. J Loud. . T Wallis Wren. to. to. jUne. method of. 340.

252. Mersenne. . 220. 391. 190 . 376 . 213. 135. 392. ref. Modular equations. ref. 258. 125. 314. ref. 262. 205. Neumann. Neptune. 300. X. 362. 297. Niven. to. 375. 314. Montmort. 256. 309. ref. Nicomedes.416 Menelaus. F. s discovery of universal grav Montucla. 370. 76. 390. 93. Nicolai. Napier s rule of circular parts. 50. A. Michelson. . to. orem. F. 390. 179. 235. 108. Mouton. 166. N. 334. 238. 353. Moon. 381. 294. 188. 321. 396. See Tartaglia. 297. Neocleides. Motion. 186. 195.. 191. Newcomb. 382. 307. 42. Miiller. to. Modern Europe. to. . 114. 259. Mercator. Monge. 33. 8. 162. to. Nieuwentyt. 36. 375. 0. . J. ref. to. 334. 257. j I Multiplication of series. INDEX. Mydorge. Minkowsky. 254. 244. 366. Nicolo of Brescia. 300. 240. Nebular hypothesis. 33. Moschopulus. 219. Midorge. Moigno. Moors. de. 192. 93. Morley. 57. See Algebra. 182. 115. 274. Mittag-Leffler. 58. 285. to. to. 330. E. 28. 290. 402. 390. Neumann. 227-233. Moivre. Mobius. laws of. 116. Newton. Netto. 112. 325. 375 ref. 325. 329. 354. 107. 191. 197 ref. 173. 106. casting out the. Navier. Nautical almanac. Musical proportion. C. 340. Nicole. 330. Mohammed ben Musa Hovarezmi. 50. 229. ref. 309. 172. Nines. Meyer. See Regiomontanus. 146. See Algebra. 212-215. 55 ref to. 180. 242. Nicomachus. 366. 314. 330. Negative quantities. 4. .. 293. Mohr. 156. 152. Mertens. de. 302. 183.. See Astronomy. Napier. 174. 312. 157.. 324. to. Middle Ages. G. Napier. M. of exhaustion. 106 ref. Newton. XII. discovery Nesselmann. 217. 387 . Moments 206. 320. 341. binomial the 293. 163. 149.. Newton Newton s discovery of 196. 359. Meyer. 201-218. to. Meteorology. X.. Muir. 164. 198. 334. Mere. Moore. Mollweide. 384r-386. United States. in fLuxionary calculus. 372. Negative roots. 317. Meyer. 245. 392. Moral expectation.. 336. 380. 367.. . 376. 233. MincMn. 165. E. of. 336. 398. 282. Nasir Eddin. Mercator. 200. 161. 195. Vusa ben Sakir. 152. 147. to. 138 et seq. X. 315. . Neil. 341. 208. Multi-constancy. 377. 392. Method Method of characteristics. 154. 393. to. controversy with Leibniz. 240. ref. 366. 265. 239. 306. Metius. 396. 313. 60. 165. 169. 286-288. ref.. Minding. ref. Meunier. 127. to. Newton s parallelogram. itation. Modular functions. G. 372. 110. 177. 114. 401. 394. Nachreiner. to. 335. 282. Meziriac. Newton s Principia. 382. 72 ref.. 248. 117-137. . 187. 213. 81. ref. J. MuTLer. 268.. 191. Nagelbach. 243. 125. 386.

300. 317. Pascal. Egyptian. See Geometry. 220. . 250. Olivier. 78 decimal fractions. 194. 37. Pemter. 342. 291. 95. 377. 310. Wallis . 187. ref. 196. 41. Picard. calculus Oppolzer. M. . Pfaffian problem. Non-Euclidean geometry. 75. 273. 219. 150. 183. Physics. to. proved to be transcendental. 166. 153. Oughtred. 372. 330. 135. 284. 281. Pacioli. 379. triangular. differential Parallelogram of forces. 202. Picard. to. Brouncker Leibniz s. ref. 11. 301. 15. 333. 55. 313. Babylonian. Nonius. J. Parabolic geometry. 342. 228. 161. 315. notation. 191. 241. 365. proved to be irrational. 178. Peletarius. Perier. 284. 290. ref. 155. 158. 35. 133. ?r: Perseus. to. 87. Algebra. 120. 58-61 . 300-307. 353. mathematical. Padmanabha. 68. Perspective. 68. 197. Madame. 196. ref.. to. 167. 167. 87. ory of numbers. Babylonian and He brew. 68. 222. Hindoo. 134. ref. Arabic. 376. ref. Omega-function. Periodicity of functions. 102. 45. 38. Otho.HSDEX. 240. 131. Numerals: Egyptian. Neither. 20. 280. bers. 391. 160. Numbers of Bernoulli. . definitions of numbers. 64 Arabic Parabola. Baby Pappus. Oscillation. 181. 178. Parameter. 112. 386. 161. See Non-Euclid 159 Koman. 5-7. 65. to. 39. 13. 303. 306. 311. ref. 119. 249. 307. Gibers. 323. 175-177. 347. 147. 317. values for. 33. 198. 178. to. Ostrogradsky. 182.. 160. 260. 97. Arabic. 341. Greek numbers. 5-7 Egyptian num 50. 362. Optics. 360. Philippus. 127-129.. ref. 22. X. ref. Piazzi. 46. 115 ex Partial differential equations. ref. 66. 385. Pepin. 201. Greek. 300. 93. 108. 362-372. 103. 112. defective. to. 285. 8. 154. Oresme. 68. to. 73. Partition of numbers. 341 et seq. Peacock. ean geometry. X. 190. 39. M. 98.. 283. 48. 152. calculus. 153 ref. 326. of. . OEnopides. 350. . 264. X. to. 178-182. 55. 68. 376. . 214. per fect. : . 341. Pfaff. 384. Orontius. 323. 134. 255. Pendulum. See Geometry. Pascal s theorem. 292. 321. 5 Ludolph s. to. 38. 356. 87. Notation: in algebra. 417 Nolan. Philolaus. E. 281 . Archime dean. 64. 133. 147. to. 19. 373. heteromecic. Peirce. B. 73. 68. 373. Piddington. 177. 42.. 259. 186. S. 252. 381. See Applied mathematics. Philonides. 76. 28. 49. Ovals of Descartes. 238. Palatine anthology. 349. Oldenburg. 195. 372 the cessive. J. 151. 16. trigonometry. Peirce. 350. . 154. Pemberton. Fagnano s. Perturbations. 287. 220 . selection of letter TT. 180. 2 s. 215. 181. 151. Oberbeck. 154. Numbers amicable.. 208. 108. to. Parallels. 269. 365. See Exponents. Peaucellier. 243. 364. Pell. Petersen. Pherecydes. 102. 142. 149. 108. 191. 142. centre of. Operations. Pearson. lonian numbers. 13. 205. 283. 130. See Apices.. Ohm. 134 ref. - . 70. Ohrtmann. 160. C.. 379. 3. Pell s problem. 50. semi-cubical. 221.

386 384. 158. 21. 175. to. Quadrature of the circle. 35. 377. Propositiones 119. 38. 290. theory Ramus. 178. 49. 384. Regula aurea. to. 135. 355. appearance of arith 149. 387. Recorde. . 109. 340. 39. 39. 383. 106. See Curves. 106. Probability. X to. 82. Proclus. Ptolemseus. 359. Poincare. 55. 60. 365. Reciprocants. 22. 76. 220. 270. Principia (Newton s). Pythagoras. 55. 304. 354. 3. 192. 51. 58. Quadratrix. 151. 347. 390. to. Pulveriser. 252. 378. 125. 139. 23. ? . 313. first Eeductio ad absurdum. 276. Poynting. 399 Ratios. Problem of Pappus. Pohlfce. Planudes. Quadrature of curves. 341.110. 107. 104. 288. Weierstrass of. INDEX. 308. 16. 56. 32. 356. Prime numbers. 45. Projective geometry. ref. 317. 35. 153. Raclau. 106. 277. Progressions. 300. TT. . 18. 352. 300. 67. See Circle. 169. 54. 306. Plectoidal surface. 343. 397. Plato. 330. 384. Raabe. Reech.. 191. Redfield. ref. Pitiscus. 150. Reaction polygons. 212. 395.135. 115. 36. ref. 387. to. 68. Rahn. 23. 111. 318. 345. 358. 212- 215. 71. Plus and minus. 158. 8. M. to. 139. Platonic School. 198. 154. 368. ratios. 34. 182. to. 177. 25. #ee Algebra. Quaternions. 396. 155. Pythagorean School. Poisson. ref. Ptolemaic System. 177. 28. 154. 319 Quercu. signs for. 390. Regiomontanus. 42. 307. Reciprocal polars. ref. 383. 398. 56-58. 374. 33. 289. 19. 237. 120. Lord. 19-23. Regular solids. Plato Tiburtinus. 403. 256. 67-70. Quadratic reciprocity. 351. Regula duorum falsormn. . Rayleigh. Poinsot. 29-34. metical and geometrical. 360. Primary factors. Radiometer. 39. 7. 54. 198. 395. 158. ref. Quadratic equations. 32. 293. 290. Prym. 208. 29. XIII. 9. 16. 19-23.418 Piola. Prime and ultimate 268. 98. 33. . . 375. 336-338. 327. to. 387. Rectification of curves. 142. 242. Platonic figures. Regula falsa. Ptolemy. 193. . 38. 308. M 156. ref. 388. 307-309 ref. 134 ref. 29-31 ref. 377. 141 ref. 313. 368. 389. Quetelet. . 26. to. Pringsbeim. 180. 151. Proportion. to. 61 ref. Playfair. Plana. 34. 337. 10. 377. Poncelet. Rankine. 97. 298. 31. 382. 240. 109. 398. 140. to. Princess Elizabeth. 190. 382. 3. 378. 108. 285. 233. 153. 60. 400.. Poncelet s paradox. ref. 95. 396. 190. 280. 239. Preston. 333. 63. 36. Equations. 375. to. 392. 400. 188. 168. Rari-constancy. Problem of three bodies. 50. 361. 38. 17. 112. ref. also see Circle-squarers. 60. 140. X. a. . 346. 222. See Ptolemy. 253. 340 . 68. 59. 245. ref. Puiseux. 33. 63. to. . 179. ad acuendos iuvenes. Plato of Tivoli. 381. 308. 17. 160. 400. Plateau. to. 252. 229. 24. 93. 397. Potential. 386. Pliicker. See Falsa positio. to. See Plato of Tivoli. to. Porisms. Purbach. 372. Porphyrius. 38. ref.

382. Sectio aurea. 172 Rolle. Ruffini. 296. 139. Similitude (mechanical). 142. rule of. 154. Sehlegel. 65. 189 . 303. Simplicius. Saint-Venant. 241 124. 300. Saurin. 353. 387. 366. Schwarz. 380. 362. 381. to. 187. Sextant. to. 357-359. the golden. Sand-counter. 154. 368. Schepp. Reynolds. 116. to. Schreiber. 187. . 309. 306. . 356. Schlafli. 202. Rhind papyrus. 355 . 361. J. 336. Servois. 190. 361. Rhseticus. Sehroter. ref. to. to. 65. Romanus. Simony. 67. 32. 375. ref. 126. ref. to. 315. Semi-convergent series. ref. 325. 218. Roberts. Sarrus. 57. 328. 338. Section. Rheticus.. 312. ref. 305. Sine. 347. Roman mathematics in Occident. Rosenhain. to. origin of term. 345. Semi-convergent series. Simson. 241 . 148. Sachse. Scott. 328. Savart. Schroter. H. 339. 239. Trigonometric series. XIV. 193. Resal. Secants. 305. 312. ref. Semi-invariants. 341. Schubert. 393. 290. 109. Salmon. 313. 135. 322. 377. 313 382. XIL. 125. 397. Rosenberger. XII. 341. 357. 193. Sextus Julius Africanus. Romans. 141 . 342. 191. See Halifax. 390. Richard of TTallingford. Schellbach. 330. 339. 358. 142. 297. 140. to. Reiff. Reye. Schmidt. 384. 385. 249. Riihlmann. 245. 354. ref. van. 311-313. 365. 90. 380. Sarrau. See Rhseticus. 7. 398. ref. Segre. 284. 37. 392. Schering. 354. 190. 295. Seitz. Series. Rule of three. 353. Schuster. Renaissance. 39. 419 XL to. 240. 192. to. Seidel. 92. Schumacher. ref. 290. Uniformly convergent series. Roberval. ref. ref. 300. 106. theory of. 400. Rudolff. 58. ref. 374. ref. Rule of signs. Sellmeyer. 378. ref. 302.. 315. 297. 383. 187. to. 102. to. Semi-cubical parabola. 397. 348. 379. to. 371. Scaliger. 322. Signs. XIL Schooten. Serret. 61. to. 398. 355. 384. Sexagesimal system. ref. 141. to. Rowland. 111. 393. 288. Reid.. 377.INDEX. Saccheri. ref. ref. to. 306. 236. 172. 306. 371. Seeber. 389. Schiaparelli. Absolutely convergent series. Richelot. to. 353. XIII. . Screws. Schlessinger. 154. 33. ref. 333. 393. Sigma-f unction. XIII. 313. 288. 117- 77-83. s surfaces. 339. 305. 10-15. 356. Romer. Serenus. 142. Roulette. Selling. 55. Schlomilch. 342. Fouriet s series. 151. 304. Routh. Riemann Schwarzian derivative. to. 296. Simpson. ref. to. to. . 109. Sacro Bosco. 3(52. Siemens. H. Riemann. 394. 376. See Infinite series. ref. Riccati. 290. Divergent series. 139-156. 33. 171. 199. ref. 99. Saturn s rings. 353. to.

242. 190. 44. 30. 378. Tannery. 370. 92. . 165. to. INDEX. 282. 182. 357..242. 379. Theodosius. Suter. 226. 269. 3S2. 326. 178. Taylor s theorem. 250. F. 169. 269. Spottiswoode. 334. Thesetetus. s theorem. 237. 333. Tautochronous curve. ref. Synthesis. Tartaglia. 131. to. . 274. 344. 250. theory of. 270. 198. Spheroid (liquid) 384. XIIL. 65. 312. Stevin. 216. 280. ref. Strutt. 35. 51. 234. Smith. 383. 143-145. 127. 368. 21. 75. 70 ref. ref. 320. Solitary wave. Stokes. 369. 314. 243. 324. 277. 153. 365. 242. B.. to. Theon of Smyrna. 330. velocity Acoustics. Stef ano.. 223. 342. 155. Tabit ben Korra. Vincent. Theon of Alexandria. 31. 95. ref. Taber. Sylvester. 348. 61 . IX. 295. to. 108 . 33. 33. 189. See Von. Tangents. Stifel.Italy. 370. 224. 381. 381. 330. 38. Theory of numbers. IL. 141. 264. 330. 42. 299. 340. 168. 255. to. to. 298. 55. Tchirnhausen. 151. 353. 156. of. Sturm.420 Singular solutions. Statics. 18 ref. See Mechanics. to. 350. Sosigenes. J. 290. &quot. 381. 22. 08. falsa. Star-polygons. 329. 142. Strassmaier. Steele. 105.. 265. 283. 76. W. 110. 20. ref. Stern. 280. 310. 312. 23-29. 108. to. Stirling. to. . 191. 347-362. 186. 162. Sluze. to. ref. Gregory. Steiner. 328. 182. 60. 224. See Stevin. 189. 152. Somoff. Theodorus. 151 ref. Squaring the circle. Thales. theory of. Synthetic geometry. 120-124. 81. Statistics. of. Spherical trigonometry. 178-182. 345. Solid of least resistance [Prin. to. 382. 341. X. ref. See Quadrature Tangents. Sound. 215. 381. Stereometry. 362-372. 362. H. to. Theory of substitutions. 292. in trigonometry. Smith. 383. of the circle. 55. Sylow. Tentative assumption. 197. to. . ref. 328. 346. 72. 162. Tait. 309. 17. 328. 55. 134. 372. direct problem inverse problem of. 119. 361. 268. 357. 56. von. to. Struve. 386. C. 70. 396. See Rayleigh. Staudt. 388. 310. 296. 311. 159. 37. 400. 108. 160 ref. 306. 58. 325. Staudt. Square root. J. ref. 220. 386. vibrating. 325. See Kegula Stewart. 292. 297. (Gerbert). 390. 293-307. XII. Spirals. 366. 36. 398. ref. 319. 222. Surfaces. to. . 252. 278. See Speidell. 368. Stringhana. Swedenborg. 173. Spitzer. 244. 268. 16. 247. 29. 339. 293. 381. 241. 262. 54. SHI. 125. Sophist School.E.. Taylor. 393. 149. 33JO. Sturm. ref. . Sylvester II.. 115. 333. 255. ref. 330. 296 Tchebycheff. Strauch. 82. 311. Sohnke. 25]. Stevimis. Theory of equations. to. ref. 306. 354. 294. Stabl. Sturm Smith. 343 . 94. See Equations. See Functions. to. Substitutions. to. 287. 264. 324.. 222. . Theory of functions. Symmetric functions. 306. ref. ref. Spherical Harmonics. 226. 388. Strings.. R. 31. 223 . to. St. 296.. 319. 65. 135. 381. to. 62. A. 295. in geometry. ref. 353.

390. 323. ref. 354. Wantzel. 394. 172. Tycho Brahe. 249. 278. See Fourier s series. See Ludolph. Ulug Beg. 318. 382-385. 392-394. 253. 387. Theta-functions. 179. 394. ref. spherical. Vortex rings. Wheatstone. 339. 196. 395. ref. Three bodies. Voigt. 171. H. 359 Ox Weiler. 177. Theta-fuchsians. Thome. Tucker.. Vortex motion. Xm. 421 action. 345. . Von Helmholtz. Westergaard. 73. 240 ref. 395. 190. Vicat. 136. Van Werner. ref. 389. 234. 220. 24. Warring. IX. Paris. 334. Wave theory. to. 152. 219. 358. Weierstrass. Trochoid. 33. S. 400. Tides... 153.. 306. Vincent. 140. 202. 98. 379. Vibrating rods. 382. 393. Universities of Cologne. Thomson. ref. 283. 238. 161. 345. 362. 378. to. to. Valson. 109. 264. Vieta. 139. Watson. Vibrating strings. 393. 50. XIII. 391. to. Weber. 388. to. 399. 34. Trajectories. ford. Thomson s theorem. 217. XIIL. 154. 51. Vandernionde. 52. 328. 330. 383. 377. 264. 352. 294. 362. ref. 165. 141. 171. Theudius.. 262. Thomson. 253. 379. 165. Veronese. 29. 298. to. 189 ref. 280.. 245. Tisserand. 361. 315. J. 385. 192. 150. See Undulatory theory. 236. Variation of arbitrary consonants. Van Ceulen. Leipzig. 142.INDEX. to. to. Voss. / Kelvin (Lord). 382. 99. XI. Varying 379. theory of. See Helmholtz. Widmann. 197. XIII. to. to. 403. Triangulum characteristicum. 43. Wertheim. 187.. 382. 377. Timseus of Locri. Thomae. 264. 57. 237. 202. 56. 283. 336. 341. 397. * 115. 161. 400. 365. to. 229. Waves. 242. 305 ref. 278. . 154. 98-100. 380. Von Staudt. 383. Weber. problem of. Ultimate multiplier. . 312. Whewell. 386. 339. 197.. W. Waltershausen. to. 299. 265. 353. principle of. 167. 114. Trudi. 385. 158. Virtual velocities. 382. 110. Whitney. 188. 339. Trigonometric series. 183. 255. 307. Undulatory theory of light. H. Watson. Todhunter. Ubaldo. Venturi. 388. 353. 147. L. 242. 390. E. Trigonometry. Waldo. 394. 328. 256. 340. ref. Whiston.&quot. 79. 396 . Trouton. . 135. Tonstall. 344 ref. 353. to. J. Gregory St. 372. 359. Schooten. 292. Thomson. Thymaridas. Weigel. Viviani. 398-401. 357. Thermodynamics. 363. and Prague. 355. Trisection of angles. Victorius. Sir William. 153. 324. Varignon. 292. 115. . 357. 31. 396. . 377. 87. Wand. 385. C. 259. Torricelli. 398. Wallis. ref. 278 . 192-195. ref. ref. to. to. 375. 153. 238. Versed sine. ref. 352. Vlacq. 168. 341. 359. 160. 295. 190. 202. 355. .. Walker. Volaria. 50. 110. 216. 396. J. Twisted Cartesian. J. 294. 381.

Winds. Wren.. Zolotareff. to. Zehfuss. Woodhouse. Witch of Agnesi. 213. 371 . 29. to. 264. Wilson s theorem. 341. 1751-3 . INDEX. 334. R. Zeller. 177. 372. Xylander. Zenodorus. 188. Woepcke. ref. 198. 127. Zeuxippus. 267. 392. 387. 287. XII. Zeuthen. 129. Zeno. 313. 384-386. Wolf. 83. Wilson. to. ref. ref. C. 103. to. 365.. origin of term. 153. 297. 325. 40.. XII. 386. Wolstenaolme. to. Xenocrates. ref. 241. ref. Zahn. IX. Winkler. Zero (symbol for).422 Wiener. Zag. 7. Young. Wolf. 324. 260. XI. 51. Wronski. Wittstein. 167. XI. Williams. 88. 27. 264. 392.

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for it is in this department of mathematics that the acuteness of the Greek mind is most conspicuously seen. ROUSE BALL. CAMBRIDGE. . . . Evidently the production of a scholar. While technical and exact enough to be of value to the specialist in mathematics as a handy book of reference. mathematics a most welcome and instructive volume. J.&quot. . it is so clearly and familiarly written.A. Mr. esting to the general mathematical reader. Gow divides his history into three parts.. BY WALTER W. HEATH. BY JAMES GOW. which is in this respect distin It must be to all students of guished from almost all histories of mathematics.. $2. in The Academy.. 8vo. or historical sketch. SCHOLAR OF TRINITY COLLEGE. NEW YORK. The largest part of Mr. _that it is the best work on this subject for the general reader that we know of. BY T. is justly devoted to geometry. and the result of years of laborious research. are fruitful in their applications to the various phases of modern science Science* industry. AVENUE. all of which and modern A HISTORY OF THE STUDY OF MATHEMATICS AT CAMBRIDGE. $1. . the intelligent reader can gain a very complete view of the progress of mathematical science its from beginnings until its contemporary differentiation into numerous specialties. .. S. S. the second and third parts are concerned with Greek arithmetic and geometry. B. $3. A SHORT HISTORY OF CREEK MATHEMATICS.A SHORT ACCOUNT OF THE HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. FELLOW AND TUTOR OF TRINITY COLLEGE. and that which will probably be the most inter .&quot. each of them important and difficult enough to detain for a lifetime a brilliant mind. and that the continuity of mathematical discovery can be more fully traced. Revised.. &quot. $3.00. ROUSE BALL. The inter esting character of the notes is quite a feature of the book. BY WALTER W. CAMBRIDGE. I2mo.. Second Edition. Gow s history. . MACMILLAN & 66 FIFTH CO. MACKAY.. The first treats of the decimal scale and Egyp tian arithmetic.25.00.. 8vo. . From this history.. &quot.90. DIOPHANTOS OF ALEXANDRIA: A STUDY IN THE HISTORY OF GREEK ALGEBRA.






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