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Essential elements of embryology

16th Edition

MBBS (DMC), M Phil (DU)
Editorial Assistant
Dr. Farzana Iqbal
Published by
Afrazul Haque
On behalf of Fetus Publications

First published………. September, 1991.

Second Edition………. September, 1993.
Third Edition………. February, 1995.
Fourth Edition………. September, 995.
Fifth Edition……….January, 1997
Sixth Edition………. May, 1998
Seventh Edition……….March, 2000
Eighth Edition……….August, 2000
Ninth Edition………. May, 2002
Tenth Edition………. October, 2003
Eleventh Edition………. April, 2004
Twelfth Edition………. December, 2004
Thirteenth Edition………. February, 2006
Fourteenth Edition……….October, 2006
Fifteenth edition ……….January, 2008
Sixteenth edition ……….November, 2008


AII rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or
by any means without the written permission of the author.

Cover Design: Abedur Rahman

Price: Taka Three hundred and Twenty (320/-) only.

For all kinds of correspondence:

Phone: +88 01819-050041

Dedicated to
My father
for the uncompromising
principle that guided his life.

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I remember
 Dr. A. Hye Fakir
EX-Head of the department of anatomy, BSMMU.
 Dr. Habibur Rahman.
EX Head of the department of anatomy, SBMC
 Dr. Shahid-UlIah
EX-Head of the department of anatomy, RPMC
 Dr. Kazi Rafiqul Haque
Head of the department of anatomy, USTC. Chittogong
 Late Dr. S.S. Banik.
Ex-Associate Professor of anatomy, SSMC.
 Dr. Motahar Hossain. Ex-Head of the department of anatomy, DMC.
 Dr. Manjar-e-Shamim. Professor & head of the department of anatomy, BSMMU.
 Dr. Shamim Ara
Head of the department of anatomy, DMC
 Dr. Shafiq Haider
Asst prof. of anatomy, CMC.
for their good wishes to this publication

 Dr. Nazrul Islam

Principal, Dinajpur Medical College
 Dr. Rubaiual Morshed
Ex Asst. Professor, Pediatric Surgery, DMCH
for their kind efforts in revising this book.

I am also grateful to Alauddin (SOMC) and other students who made constructive
criticism to make the book more helpful for the students.

I want to acknowledge my students Juthy (K-63, DMC) and Sristi (K-63, DMC) for their
whole hearted co-operation in editing this 16th edition of the book; Ilias (K-62, DMC),
Juwel (K-63, DMC), Pritom (K-63, DMC), Fauzia (NUB) for their constructive criticism for
making necessary correction of in this edition. I am also grateful to the doctors and
students of different institutions and medical colleges who made constructive
criticism to make the book more helpful for the embryology student.

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Excellent one
I have gone through the book and found that the
author has been succeeded in presenting the
essential elements of embryology in an excellent
manner. The elements served here are authentic. I
hope that this humble presentation will serve its
purposes well. My best wishes go to the author.

Prof. Dr. Md. Nazrul Islam

MBBS, M. Phil (DU), MS
(Glasgow). MHPED
Principal, Dinajpur Medical
Ex Vice president, BMA

Really charmed to find the simplicity

I have gone through the book Fetus by Dr. Abedur Rahman
with interest & have been really charmed to find the
simplicity of its presentation & diagrams which depict the
wide subject of embryology into the small space of this
handy volume. Student
can peep into the memory of the whole aspect of
embryology through this book instantaneously and
comfortably even at rest or in leisure like the cow which
enjoys the taste of food by cutting its jaw while at rest.
Dr. Kazi Rafiqul Huq
I wish the promising young author & his book a glorious Head, dept. of
success in the days to come. Anatomy
USTC, Chittogong.

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“The history of man for nine months preceding his birth
would, probably, be far more interesting, and contain

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events of greater moment than all three score and ten

years that follow it.”
--- Samuel Taylor Coleridge

It is now well proved that ‘Fetus’ is the most read embryology book in our country.
The last 15 editions of the book have proven that it is unique in its field. In this
edition, I have tried my best to make it more useful for the students making
necessary changes elsewhere.

New to this edition-

 Development of different organs at a glance
 Answers of all first professional SAQ
 Some new information
 Some figures and information are modified.

All praises for the Almighty. Thanks to all the anatomy teachers and students – past,
present, and future.

November 2008 Dr Md Abedur


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Part-1: Introduction

1. Introduction to embryology 1

2. Reproduction and Development 3

3. Some basic concepts in embryology 8
4. Some historical elements on embryology 12

Part-2: General Embryology

5. Gametogenesis: Conversion of germ cells into male & female 21

6. Female reproductive cycles and ovulation 34
7. Pre-embryonic period – I: Fertilization, cleavage and implantation 68
8. Pre-embryonic period-II: Formation of germ layers (Gastrulation) 90
9. Embryonic period: Derivatives of germ layers 115
10. Fetal period Some facts concerning the fetus 123
11. Fetal membranes and placenta 127
12. Congenital malformations 155
13. Developmental genetics 159

Part-3: Systemic Embryology

14. Cardiovascular system 165

15. Digestive system 190
16. Respiratory system 231
17. Diaphragm and septum transversum- 237
18. Urogenital system 241
19. Head neck and ear 279
20. Nervous system 304
21. Skeletal system 325
22. muscular system 329
23. Integumentary system 332
Glossary 339

Fetus 2 contents
SAQ in Embryology
Development of Different organ at a Glance

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Look for the other books by the same author

1. D”P evW †cÖmvi: cÖwZKvi I cÖwZ‡iva
2. Medical Genetics
3. Research methodology
4. How to Write a thesis
5. Essentials of Biostatistics

Sample chapter
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Questions for written examination

(1) Give the developments of skin
(2.) Give the development of mammary gland
Skin & all its appendages (nail, hair, sebaceous, sweat & mammary gland)
develop from surface ectoderm except dermis & melanocytes.

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Development of Skin
Skin develops as follows—
1. Epidermis with nails and hairs - from surface ectoderm. This is at first
single layered. By proliferation it gives rise to typical stratified sq.
2. Melanocytes-From neural crest
3. Dermis — from underlying mesenchyme which comes from dermatome of
the somites.

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Fig.: Derivation of components of the skin.
Viva Q.; How do you explain the supply of nail beds by palmer and
plantar nerves?
Ans. developmentally nails are thickening of epidermis and are found initially
on the palmar and plantar aspects of the palm & sole. It is their gradual
migration to the dorsal aspect which explains such nerve supply.

Development of mammary gland (breast)

Milk  An ectodermal ridge extending from axilla to the groin on each side
of the body is called milk line. From a small part of this milk line
breast develops through following sequence of events.

1. Thickened masses of epidermal cells project into dermis

2. Branching occurs in it and branches are canalized. Proximal ends of the

branches form lactiferous duct and distal end proliferates to form
secretory elements.
Figure: A and B sections through the (developing mammary) gland at the
third and eight months, respectively. C diagram showing the positions of
accessory nipples (broken line indicates position of mammary line).

Developmental Anomalies of Breast

Common anomalies of breast are
(a) Amastia (absence of breast).
(b) PoIymastia (Multiple breast),
(c) Athelia (absence of one or both nipples).
(d) Polythelia (Supernumerary nipples)
(e) Gynaecomastia (occurrence of female breasts in the male)