You are on page 1of 105

INFINITE SOFTCOMM SOLUTIONS

701,UDYOG VIHAR, PHASE -V GURGAON, INDIA TEL NO. 0124- 4005655, 4362150-52 FAX NO. 0124-4362151

How Did We Reach This Point?

Telegraphy

Telephony .

Radio Milestones .

The SYMPHONY! “CHAOS” “Time Division” “Frequency Division!” “Shalom” “Guten Tag” “Buenos Dias” “Bonjour” “Hello”  .

CDMA .GSM Vs.

Frequency Reuse.GSM f7 7 cell re-use pattern f6 f1 f5 f3 f2 f6 f1 f5 f4 f7 f2 f4 f3 .

FREQUENCY REUSE IN CDMA f1 f1 f1 f1 f1 f1 f1 f1 f1 f1 f1 f1 f1 f1 f1 f1 f1 f1 .

GSM Vs CDMA FREQUENCY REUSE IN CDMA & TDMA F5 F6 F1 F7 F2 F4 F1 F1 F1 F1 F3 F1 F1 F1 TYPICAL TDMA SYSTEM EACH CELL USES DIFFERENT FREQUENCY THE PATTERN IS REPEATED FOR THE NEXT SET OF CELL SITES TYPICAL CDMA SYSTEM EACH CELL USES SAME FREQUENCY .

CODE DIVISION MULTIPLE ACCESS (CDMA) .

Military Jammer (Use first by DOD) • Inadvertent .Co-channel users .CDMA .  Goal of spread spectrum – Interference mitigation Spread spectrum helps mitigate the harmful effects of interference • Deliberate .Code Division Multiple Access  CDMA is a "spread spectrum" technology – Spreads the information contained in a particular signal of interest over a much greater bandwidth than the original signal.

thus requiring a trade-off between the two parameters. It allows some simple conclusions to be drawn. However. C = capacity W = Bandwidth S/N = Signal to Noise Ratio According to the theorem. which brings about a corresponding reduction in the SNR This reduction is countered by the utilization of an efficient error correction code. an increase in the bandwidth causes a decrease in the signal to noise ratio. CDMA operates by maximizing the bandwidth. which is given as follows: C = W log2 (1 + S/N) Where. In a bandwidth limited system the only way to increase capacity (or data rate) is to do one or both of the following: • Increase the Signal Power • Decrease the Noise Power . which ensures optimum performance even in low SNR conditions. consider the Shannon-Hartley theorem. Spread Spectrum Principles • Shannon’s work relates capacity to both bandwidth and signal to noise ratio.Shanon – Hartley Theorem To consider the technology used in CDMA.

.

.

Forward & Reverse Links 824 MHz 849 MH z 869 MHz 894 MHz Reverse link Uplink Forward link Downlink .

Physical Channel The 3 dB bandwidth of a channel is the frequency range where the signal at the edges is 3 dB lower than the peak value at the center frequency. fc .

CDMA Technology Benefits  Capacity increase  Improved call quality  Simplified system planning – use of the same frequency in every sector of every cell  Enhanced privacy  Improved coverage characteristics – possibility of fewer cell sites – better performance in fading/interference prone environment  Increased talk time for portables  Bandwidth on demand .

the capacity can be dynamically adjusted (Capacity in CDMA systems is soft)  .  By controlling power.Capacity in CDMA Capacity of the system depends on interference (Total power received in the Receiving Antenna) in the system  Power Control Techniques are employed to reduce the total interference in the system.

CDMA is altering the face of Telecomm           Dramatically improving the telephone traffic (Erlang) capacity Dramatically improving the voice quality and eliminating the audible effects of Multipath fading Reducing the incidence of dropped calls due to handoff failures Providing reliable transport mechanism for data communications. such as facsimile and internet traffic Reducing the number of sites needed to support any given amount of traffic Simplifying site selection Reducing deployment and operating costs because fewer cell sites are needed Reducing average transmitted power Reducing interference to other electronic devices Reducing potential health risks .

CDMA interference comes mainly from nearby users    Each user is a small voice in a roaring crowd --but with a uniquely recoverable code .CDMA: Using A New Dimension  All CDMA users occupy the same frequency at the same time! Frequency and time are not used as discriminators CDMA operates by using CODING to discriminate between users.

TYPES of CDMA Technology Frequency-Hopping  Each user’s narrowband signal hops among discrete frequencies. applies user’s code. • Broadband signal is received. although used by the military Direct Sequence • Narrowband input from a user is coded (“spread”) by a user-unique broadband code. recovers users’ data . receiver knows. then transmitted. and the receiver follows in sequence  Spectrum (FHSS) CDMA is NOT currently used in wireless systems.

2288 Mcps  Output: User’s Data @19.200bps just as originally sent .2288 Mcps  Output: Spread Signal Spectrum At Receiver Site:  Input A: Received spread spectrum signal  Input B: Walsh Code #23 @ 1.DSSS Spreading: Time-Domain View At Originating Site:  Input A: User’s Data @ 19.200bps  Input B: Walsh Code #23 @ 1.

Spreading from a Frequency-Domain View CDMA uses larger bandwidth but uses resulting processing gain to increase capacity .

uses same spreading sequence to extract original data. .Spreading: What we do. we can undo   Sender combines data with a fast spreading sequence. transmits spread data stream. Receiver intercepts the stream.

“Shipping and Receiving” via CDMA
   

Whether in shipping and receiving, or in CDMA, packaging is extremely important! Cargo is placed inside “nested” containers for protection and to allow addressing The shipper packs in a certain order, and the receiver unpacks in the reverse order CDMA “containers” are spreading codes

CDMA’s Nested Spreading Sequences
 

CDMA combines three different spreading sequences to create unique, robust channels. The sequences are easy to generate on both sending and receiving ends of each link.

DSSS Spreading/ Despreading
C1*C1 = 1, C2*C2 = 1…. Cn*Cn = 1 BUT C1*C2 = 0…C1*Cn = 0
U1C1 ( 100110………………………00000) C1 ( 100110….10110010)

*

=
U1 = 0110010101001000 C1 ( 100110….10110010) U1 = 0110010101001000

*

=
U1C1 ( 100110………………………0000) U2C2*C1 = 0, U2*C2*C2 = U2 U2C2 U3C3 U4C4 UnCn U3C3*C1 = 0, U3C3*C3 = U3 U4C4*C1 = 0, U4C4*C4 = U4 UnCn*C1 = 0, UnCn*Cn = Un

End to end overview .

Types of Code .

Forward & Reverse Link .

The Three CDMA Spreading Techniques .

Orthogonal Sequences • Definition: Orthogonal functions have zero correlation. Two binary sequences are orthogonal if the process of “XORing” them results in an equal number of 1’s and 0’s.Repeat: right & below .Invert: diagonally 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 . Example: 0000 (XOR) 0101 -----0101 0 0 .

Walsh Codes   64 “Magic” Sequences. or • they’re small enough to use from ROM . each 64 chips long Each Walsh Code is precisely Orthogonal with respect to all other Walsh Codes • it’s simple to generate the codes.

Short code .

Usage of code .

Need for Synchronisation .

Functions of the CDMA Forward Channels .

WALSH CODES ARE USED TO SEPARATE INDIVIDUAL USERS WHILE THEY SIMULTANEOUSLY OCCUPY THE SAME RF BANDWIDTH THE SEQUENCE ARE ORTHOGONAL TO EACH OTHER AND ARE GENERATED USING THE HADAMARD MATRIX WALSH-0 IS NOT USED TO TRANSMIT ANY BASEBAND DATA .WALSH CODE contd.

PN CODE PN SEQUENCES    USED TO SPREAD THE BANDWIDTH OF THE MODULATED SIGNAL TO LARGER TRANSMISSION BANDWIDTHS DISTINGUISH BETWEEN DIFFERENT USER SIGNALS MULTIPLICATION BY A SHORT PN SEQUENCE IS DONE TO PROVIDE ANOTHER LAYER OF ISOLATION ON THE FORWARD LINK WE CAN HAVE A MAXIMUM OF 512 DIFFERENT PN SEQUENCES EACH WITH A SEPARATION OF 64 CHIPS FROM EACH OTHER .

Security .

CHANNELS .

CDMA IS-2000 HIGH LEVEL ARCHITECTURE • FORWARD CHANNELS PILOT CHANNEL (1) SYNC CHANNEL (32) FORWARD TRAFFIC PAGING CHANNELS ( 1-7) • REVERSE CHANNELS REVERSE TRAFFIC CHANNELS ACCESS CHANNELS .

Summary Forward Short PN Different offset.Each Sector 64 Channel Reverse Zero offsetUsed by MS 64 Ary modulation Walsh code Long code Use to Identify TCH scramble TCH for each MS .

One of the codes used in conjunction with the Walsh Code is the PN (pseudo-random noise) short code. The Walsh code provides each user or channel with a unique identifier and. may spread the frame across the bandwidth. The PN short code on the forward link is used to provide the base station with a unique identification that the mobile station uses to identify the serving base station. and helps provide separation from other base stations.   Information about the long code is broadcast to the mobile station by the Sync Channel (or Control Channel) to help the mobile lock onto the base station. . The user signal (or control channel) is multiplied by the Walsh code. in DS spreading.

and the spectrum of the signal is unchanged b(t) is said to be encrypted or scrambled • Spreading: – If c(t) has a higher rate than b(t). y(t) has the faster rate and its correspondingly wider spectrum . .In addition to being scrambled. b(t) is said to have had its spectrum spread • CDMA codes are used to perform scrambling and spreading.Main process: – y(t) = b(t) c(t) • Scrambling: – If b(t) and c(t) have the same rate then y(t) has the same rate.

instead.Rayleigh Fading In addition to delay spread. there is no fading. FEC encoding and bit interleaving are used. Note that if the mobile speed is zero. the same multipath environment causes severe local variations in signal strength as these multipath signals are added constructively and destructively at the receiving antenna. except if signals are reflected frommoving objects. such as a line-of-sight signal. For slow fading. CDMA uses power control to adjust the transmitted power in order to overcome the fades. the fading is more appropriately modeled using the Rician model. This type of variation is called Rayleigh fading This can cause large blocks of information to be lost. Power control is too slow for the fast Rayleigh fading.If the set of reflected signals have one dominant component. .

Channel Contd. .

Forward channel .

PILOT CHANNEL • PILOT SIGNALS ARE TRANSMITTED BY EACH CELL SITE TO ASSIST MOBILE RADIO IN ACQUIRING AND TRACKING THE CELL SITE DOWNLINK SIGNAL • PILOT CHANNEL IS ASSIGNED CODE CHANNEL NUMBER ZERO • THE SIGNAL STRENGTH = Ec/Io • Ec/Io IS THE ENERGY PER CHIP PER INTERFERENCE DENSITY MEASURED ON THE PILOT CHANNEL • Ec/Io EFFECTIVELY DETERMINES THE FORWARD COVERAGE AREA OF A CELL OR A SECTOR .

FIXED DATA RATE 1200 KBPS • ALLOWS RECIEVER TO OBTAIN FRAME SYNCHRONIZATION ON SIGNAL • MESSAGES SENT ON SYNCH CHANNEL ARE SYSTEM TIME CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SYSTEM .SYNC CHANNEL • SYNC CHANNEL IS GIVEN THE CODE CHANNEL NUMBER 32.

8 KBPS) • RATE SET 1 IS REQUIRED FOR IS-95 WHEREAS RATE SET 2 IS OPTIONAL • SPEECH IS ENCODED WITH VARIABLE RATE VOCODER TO GENERATE FORWARD TRAFFIC CHANNEL DATA DEPENDING ON VOICE ACTIVITY .2 KBPS) AND RATE SET 2 (14.4 or 1.4. 3.2. 2.FORWARD TRAFFIC CHANNELS • PAGING CHANNELS ARE GIVEN THE CODE CHANNEL NUMBER 1 THRU 7 • FORWARD TRAFFIC CHANNELS GROUPED INTO RATE SET 1( 9. 7.8.6 or 1.6. 4.

Reverse Channel .

MODULATED BY MEANS OF 64-ary ORTHOGONAL MODULATION. AND DIRECT SEQUENCE SPREAD PRIOR TO TRANSMISSION • DATA RATE IS 9.2 KBPS . 2. 4. BLOCK INTERLEAVED.REVERSE TRAFFIC CHANNELS • IDENTIFIED BY LONG USER CODE OFFSET • DATA TRANSMITTED ON REVERSE CHANNEL IS CONVOLUTIONALLY ENCODED.4 OR 1.6.8.

8 KBPS • IDENTIFIED BY A DISTINCT ACCESS CHANNEL LONG-CODE SEQUENCE OFFSET • A PAGING CHANNEL NUMBER IS ASSOCIATED WITH ACCESS CHANNEL .ACCESS CHANNELS • ENABLES THE MOBILE TO COMMUNICATE NONTRAFFIC INFORMATION • DATA RATE IS FIXED AT 4.

.

Forward Link .

.

Putting it All Together: CDMA Channels .

How a BTS Builds the Forward Code Channels .

Code Channels in the Reverse Direction .

Functions of the CDMA Reverse Channels .

Variable rate vocoder .

reduce bit rate. and user secondary data may be mixed in CDMA frames.Variable Rate Vocoding & Multiplexing    Vocoders compress speech. signaling. . greatly increasing capacity CDMA uses a superior Variable Rate Vocoder • full rate during speech • low rates in speech pauses • increased capacity • more natural sound Voice.

Messages in CDMA  In CDMA. most of the time is filled with traffic and messages are sent only when there is something to do . most call processing events are driven by messages Some CDMA channels exist for the sole purpose of carrying messages. they never carry user’s voice traffic • Sync Channel (a forward channel) • Paging Channel (a forward channel) • Access Channel (a reverse channel)   Some CDMA channels exist just to carry user traffic • Forward Traffic Channel • Reverse Traffic Channel • On these channels.

.

.

Rake Receiver

What’s In a Handset? How does it work?

The Rake Receiver
   

Handset uses combined outputs of the three traffic correlates (“rake fingers”). Each finger can independently recover a particular PN offset and Walsh code. Fingers can be targeted on delayed Multipath Reflections, or on different BTSs. Searcher continuously checks pilots.

The Pilot Searching Process .

Handoff Signaling .

Power Control Is Required ?    Near-far Problem Path Loss Fading  Performance Objectives .

.

Power Control in CDMA  Open Loop power control – Purely mobile unit function – Done during initial stage when mobile is turned on  Closed Loop power control – Involves both base station and mobile unit .

it requests more energy  The complainer’s chip stream gets a quick boost.Forward Power Control The BTS continually reduces the strength of each user’s forward base band chip stream  When a particular handset sees errors on the forward link.continues to diminish  . afterward .

Reverse Power Control • Reverse Open Loop: Handset adjusts power up or down based on received BTS signal (AGC). • Reverse Outer Loop: BSC has FER trouble hearing handset? BSC adjusts BTS set point. . • Reverse Closed Loop: Is handset too strong? BTS tells up or down 1 dB 800 times/second.

Soft handoff .Two Sector of same BTS HARD HANDOFF .3 BTS are involved 3. Softer . Soft Soft .Between different frequency.  .2 BTS are involved 2.Types of Handoff  SOFT HANOFF 1.

Hard & Soft handover .

CDMA Soft Handoff Mechanics      CDMA soft handoff is driven by the handset Handset continuously checks available pilots Handset tells system pilots it currently sees System assigns sectors (up to 6 max. tells handset Handset assigns its fingers accordingly .).

The Complete Rules of Soft Handoff       The Handset considers pilots in set ACTIVE SET: Pilots of sectors in use CANDIDATE SET: Pilots mobile requested. as nearby sectors to check REMAINING SET: Any pilots used by system but not already in the other sets Handset sends Pilot Strength Measurement Message to the system whenever: • It notices a pilot in neighbor or remaining set exceeds T_ADD • An active set pilot drops below T_DROP for T_TDROP time • A candidate pilot exceeds an active by T_COMP . but not yet set up NEIGHBOUR SET: Pilots told to mobile by system.

Softer Handoff     Handset will ask for whatever pilots it wants If multiple sectors of one BTS simultaneously serve a handset. but softer handoff occurs in BTS in a single channel element Handset can even use combination soft-softer handoff on multiple BTS & sectors . this is called Softer Handoff Handset can’t tell the difference.

. ADV.Soft H/O ADV. & DIS.

Reverse link .

Forward link .

The  original signal appears to have gained energy relative the noise. It can also be seen as if the noise  has been suppressed. Processing gain can also be seen as the number of chips per  bit.  By filtering out most of the wideband noise energy the original signal can be extracted. remain spread when the original signal (user 1 in the figure) is despread. provided  sufficient bit energy over noise ratio. or noise-like  components. It can be seen that the “signal to noise” ratio after  despreading will favor user 1 by a factor of G = BW/bw (or Fc/Fb or Tb/Tc).Processing Gain  Spreading gain or processing gain is achieved when noise components. . Eb/NT. G is then called  spreading gain or processing gain.

Processing Gain .

Processing Gain .

•Ec/I0 is pilot channel chip (bit) energy over interference. .Energy per Bit •Eb/NT is traffic channel bit energy over noise.

Capacity Enhancement .

Capacity Factor .

the mobile continues on the current paging channel until the end of the current superframe. NBC. always enjoying the best available signal The mobile’s pilot searcher is constantly checking neighbor pilots If the searcher notices a better signal. and CNN TV news programs aren’t in word-sync for simultaneous viewing Since a mobile can’t combine signals.the paging channel information stream is different on each sector. it isn’t possible to do soft handoff and listen to multiple sectors or base stations at the same time -. CBS. the mobile must switch quickly.Idle Mode Handoff        An idle mobile always demodulates the best available signal In idle mode.just like ABC. then instantly switches to the paging channel of the new signal The system doesn’t know the mobile did this! (Does NBC’s Tom Brokaw know you just switched your TV to CNN?) On the new paging channel. not synchronous -. if the mobile learns that registration is required. it re-registers on the new sector .

Signal processing .

This step is only used if speech information is transmitted. . Data transmission omits this step. •Quality indicator •Forward Error Correction (FEC) encoding •Interleaving •Scrambling •Spreading •Digital modulation •RF modulation •Amplification of RF signal.•Speech encoding.

The product of Nyquist sampling is a digital waveform called PCM (pulse code modulation). During these “lulls” in the conversation. or Rate Set 2 (RS2) with an output of 13 kbps. the vocoder can reduce its bandwidth requirements. which compresses the digitized voice signal into either Rate Set 1 (RS1) with an output of 8 kbps. in which the analog input is typically sampled 8.000 times per second. before the FEC encoder.Speech encoding In order to transmit speech over a digital system. The analog signal is converted into a digital signal using a process called Nyquist sampling. and the channel interference is reduced. or 1/8 rate (1200 bps for EVRC). Since the transmitter only transmits the lowest bit rate required. it must be digitized and encoded using a vocoder. 1/4 rate. depending on the type of vocoder. variable rate vocoders are used.The PCM output is transferred to a vocoder (voice coder). In CDMA. from full rate (9600 bps for EVRC) to 1/2 rate. the required transmit power is minimized. Normal speech is received as an analog signal. . Variable Rate Vocoder The variable rate vocoder employs a codec (coder/decoder) that compresses digitized speech from the analog-to-digital (A/D) converter and produces an output that complies with the data rate to be transmitted.

Frame Information bits are grouped into frames.g. Frame Error Rate (FER). Traffic Channel). and what air-interface standard is used Error Measurements There are a number of error measurements available in CDMA transmission: Bit Error Rate (BER).g. . what type of information transmitted in the frame (e.. The frame quality indicator is a Cyclic Redundancy Code (CRC). The length of a frame depends on what channel on which it is transmitted (e. and Packet Error Rate (PER). traffic information). overhead messages. Sync Channel.. A frame is the basic timing interval in the system.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

End of presentation .