Sand casting, the most widely used casting process, utilizes expendable sand molds to form complex metal

parts that can be made of nearly any alloy. Because the sand mold must be destroyed in order to remove the part, called the casting, sand casting typically has a low production rate. The sand casting process involves the use of a furnace, metal, pattern, and sand mold. The metal is melted in the furnace and then ladled and poured into the cavity of the sand mold, which is formed by the pattern. The sand mold separates along a parting line and the solidified casting can be removed. The steps in this process are described in greater detail in the next section.

Sand casting overview

Sand casting is used to produce a wide variety of metal components with complex geometries. These parts can vary greatly in size and weight, ranging from a couple ounces to several tons. Some smaller sand cast parts include components as gears, pulleys, crankshafts, connecting rods, and propellers. Larger applications include housings for large equipment and heavy machine bases. Sand casting is also common in producing automobile components, such as engine blocks, engine manifolds, cylinder heads, and transmission cases.

Capabilities Typical Thin-walled: Complex Solid: Cylindrical Solid: Cubic Solid: Complex Weight: 1 oz - 450 ton Alloy Steel Carbon Steel Cast Iron Stainless Steel Aluminum Copper Magnesium Nickel 300 - 600 in Feasible Flat Thin-walled: Cylindrical Thin-walled: Cubic

Shapes: Part size:

Materials:

Lead Tin Titanium Zinc

Surface finish:

125 - 2000 in

Tolerance: Wall thickness: Production quantity: Lead time:

Advantages:

Disadvantages:

Applications: Process Cycle

± 0.03 in. ± 0.015 in. 0.125 - 5 in. 0.09 - 40 in. 1 - 1000 1 - 1000000 Days Hours Can produce very large parts Can form complex shapes Many material options Low tooling and equipment cost Scrap can be recycled Short lead time possible Poor material strength High porosity possible Poor surface finish and tolerance Seondary machining often required Low production rate High labor cost Engine blocks and manifolds, machine bases, gears, pulleys

The process cycle for sand casting consists of six main stages, which are explained below.

Mold-making - The first step in the sand casting process is to create the mold for the casting. In an expendable mold process, this step must be performed for each casting. A sand mold is formed by packing sand into each half of the mold. The sand is packed around the pattern, which is a replica of the external shape of the casting. When the pattern is removed, the cavity that will form the casting remains. Any internal features of the casting that cannot be formed by the pattern are formed by separate cores which are made of sand prior to the formation of the mold. Further details on mold-making will be described in the next section. The mold-making time includes positioning the pattern, packing the sand, and removing the pattern. The mold-making time is affected by the size of the part, the number of cores, and the type of sand mold. If the mold type requires heating or baking time, the mold-making time is substantially increased. Also, lubrication is often applied to the surfaces of the mold cavity in order to facilitate removal of the casting. The use of a lubricant also improves the flow the metal and can improve the surface finish of the casting. The lubricant that is used is chosen based upon the sand and molten metal temperature. Clamping - Once the mold has been made, it must be prepared for the molten metal to be poured. The surface of the mold cavity is first lubricated to facilitate the removal of the casting. Then, the cores are positioned and the mold halves are closed and securely clamped together. It is essential that the mold halves remain securely closed to prevent the loss of any material. Pouring - The molten metal is maintained at a set temperature in a furnace. After the mold has been clamped, the molten metal can be ladled from its holding container in the furnace and poured into the mold. The pouring can be performed manually or by an automated machine. Enough molten metal must be poured to fill the entire cavity and all channels in the mold. The filling time is very short in order to prevent early solidification of any one part of the metal. Cooling - The molten metal that is poured into the mold will begin to cool and solidify once it enters the cavity. When the entire cavity is filled and the molten metal solidifies, the final shape of the casting is formed. The mold can not be opened until the cooling time has elapsed. The desired cooling time can be estimated based upon the wall thickness of the casting and the temperature of the metal. Most of the possible defects that can occur are a result of the solidification process. If some of the molten metal cools too quickly, the part may exhibit shrinkage, cracks, or incomplete sections. Preventative measures can be taken in designing both the part and the mold and will be explored in later sections. Removal - After the predetermined solidification time has passed, the sand mold can simply be broken, and the casting removed. This step, sometimes called shakeout, is typically performed by a vibrating machine that shakes the sand and casting out of the flask. Once removed, the casting will likely have some sand and oxide layers adhered to the surface. Shot blasting is sometimes used to remove any remaining sand, especially from internal surfaces, and reduce the surface roughness. Trimming - During cooling, the material from the channels in the mold solidifies attached to the part. This excess material must be trimmed from the casting either manually via cutting or sawing, or using a trimming press. The time required to trim the excess

material can be estimated from the size of the casting's envelope. A larger casting will require a longer trimming time. The scrap material that results from this trimming is either discarded or reused in the sand casting process. However, the scrap material may need to be reconditioned to the proper chemical composition before it can be combined with non-recycled metal and reused. Mold In sand casting, the primary piece of equipment is the mold, which contains several components. The mold is divided into two halves the cope (upper half) and the drag (bottom half), which meet along a parting line. Both mold halves are contained inside a box, called a flask, which itself is divided along this parting line. The mold cavity is formed by packing sand around the pattern in each half of the flask. The sand can be packed by hand, but machines that use pressure or impact ensure even packing of the sand and require far less time, thus increasing the production rate. After the sand has been packed and the pattern is removed, a cavity will remain that forms the external shape of the casting. Some internal surfaces of the casting may be formed by cores. Cores are additional pieces that form the internal holes and passages of the casting. Cores are typically made out of sand so that they can be shaken out of the casting, rather than require the necessary geometry to slide out. As a result, sand cores allow for the fabrication of many complex internal features. Each core is positioned in the mold before the molten metal is poured. In order to keep each core in place, the pattern has recesses called core prints where the core can be anchored in place. However, the core may still shift due to buoyancy in the molten metal. Further support is provided to the cores by chaplets. These are small metal pieces that are fastened between the core and the cavity surface. Chaplets must be made of a metal with a higher melting temperature than that of the metal being cast in order to maintain their structure. After solidification, the chaplets will have been cast inside the casting and the excess material of the chaplets that protrudes must be cut off. In addition to the external and internal features of the casting, other features must be incorporated into the mold to accommodate the flow of molten metal. The molten metal is poured into a pouring basin, which is a large depression in the top of the sand mold. The molten metal funnels out of the bottom of this basin and down the main channel, called the sprue. The sprue then connects to a series of channels, called runners, which carries the molten metal into the cavity. At the end of each runner, the molten metal enters the cavity through a gate which controls the flow rate and minimizes turbulence. Often connected to the runner system are risers. Risers are chambers that fill with molten metal, providing an additional source of metal during solidification. When the casting cools, the molten metal will shrink and additional material is needed. A similar feature that aids in reducing shrinkage is an open riser. The first material to enter the cavity is allowed to pass completely through and enter the open riser. This strategy prevents early solidification of the molten metal and provides a source of material to compensate for shrinkage. Lastly, small channels are included that run from the cavity to the exterior of the mold. These channels act as venting holes to allow gases to escape the cavity. The porosity of the sand also allows air to escape, but additional vents are sometimes needed. The molten metal that flows through all of the channels (sprue, runners, and risers) will solidify attached to the casting and must be separated from the part after it is removed.

Sand Mold - Opened

Sand Mold - Closed

Sand The sand that is used to create the molds is typically silica sand (SiO2) that is mixed with a type of binder to help maintain the shape of the mold cavity. Using sand as the mold material offers several benefits to the casting process. Sand is very inexpensive and is resistant to high temperatures, allowing many metals to be cast that have high melting temperatures. There are different preparations of the sand for the mold, which characterize the following four unique types of sand molds.

thus lowering the production rate. the sand is mixed only with an organic binder. and 7% clay or binder. Permeability . Skin-dried mold . Wood also will wear quicker from the sand. Also. Permeability is determined by the size and shape of the sand grains. sometimes called a cold box mold. Metal. high density molds that result in excellent casting quality. but will last longer and has higher tolerances. Doing so also improves the dimensional accuracy and surface finish. as they will be created by separate cores. As mentioned above. The flask moves along a conveyor and has sand blown against the pattern inside. a flask is still used. but will lower the collapsibility. However. uses a controlled explosion to drive and compact the sand into the flask. This automated process greatly increases the production rate and also has many benefits to the castings. The quality of the sand that is used also greatly affects the quality of the casting and is usually described by the following five measures: Strength . but is expensive and results in a lower production rate. several identical patterns may be used to create multiple impressions in the sand mold. A jolt-squeeze machine is a common piece of equipment which rapidly jolts the flask to distribute the sand and then uses hydraulic pressure to compact it in the flask. plastic. then the casting will not be able to shrink freely in the mold and can result in cracking. and a clay or binder. but a lower permeability can result in a better surface finish. the automated process causes little variation between castings. No-bake mold . however it can warp and deform easily. One such machine is called a sandslinger and fills the flask with sand by propelling it under high pressure. Greensand molds are the least expensive and most widely used. However. Typical composition of the mixture is 90% sand. during solidification of the casting. Several different materials can be used to fabricate a pattern. The packing of the sand is also automated in a process known as flask-less molding. a pattern that lasts longer will reduce tooling costs. Despite the name of the process. and metal. such as cracking. If the sand can not compress. the sand can be hand packed into the mold.Greensand molds use a mixture of sand. Packing equipment There exists many ways to pack the sand into the mold. called impact molding. Flask-less molding can produce uniform. A pattern for a part can be made many different ways. there are several types of equipment that provide more effective and efficient packing of the sand. 3% water. water. Also. on the other hand. flask-less molding uses a single master flask in an automated process of creating sand molds.In a dry sand mold. In what can be considered an opposite approach. The pattern is a full size model of the part that makes an impression in the sand mold.The sand in a no-bake mold is mixed with a liquid resin and hardens at room temperature. or more accurately compress. The pattern can be reused to create the cavity for many molds of the same part. is more expensive. which are classified into the following four types: . However. thus creating multiple cavities that will produce as many parts in one casting. Dry sand mold .Ability to resist damage.Ability of the sand to collapse. Tooling The main tooling for sand casting is the pattern that is used to create the mold cavity.A skin-dried mold begins like a greensand mold. Another method. In conventional sand casting. some internal surfaces may not be included in the pattern. The resulting mold has high dimensional accuracy. Collapsibility . from the heat of the molten metal. The mold is strengthened by baking it in an oven. vacuum molding packs the sand by removing the air between the flask and a thin sheet of plastic that covers the pattern. a new flask is used for each mold.Ability to allow venting of trapped gases through the sand. including wood. The pattern is actually made to be slightly larger than the part because the casting will shrink inside the mold cavity. Therefore.Ability of the sand to be reused for future sand molds. Dry skin molds are more expensive and require more time.Ability of the sand to maintain its shape. A higher permeability can reduce the porosity of the mold.Greensand mold . Wood is very common because it is easy to shape and is inexpensive. Thermal stability . but additional bonding materials are added and the cavity surface is dried by a torch or heating lamp to increase mold strength. Reusability .

A split pattern models the part as two separate pieces that meet along the parting line of the mold. Using two separate pieces allows the mold cavities in the cope and drag to be made separately and the parting line is already determined. The parting line and runner system must be determined separately. but can cause some difficulties in making the mold.A solid pattern is a model of the part as a single piece. The plate is usually made from wood or metal. Solid patterns are typically used for geometrically simple parts that are produced in low quantities. This pattern design ensures proper alignment of the mold cavities in the cope and drag and the runner system can be included on the match plate. except that each half of the pattern is attached to opposite sides of a single plate. Split patterns are typically used for parts that are geometrically complex and are produced in moderate quantities. Solid pattern Split pattern . Match-plate pattern .Solid pattern . Split pattern Match-plate pattern . It is the easiest to fabricate.A match-plate pattern is similar to a split pattern. Match-plate patterns are used for larger production quantities and are often used when the process is automated.

The four most common materials that are used in sand casting are shown below. Cope and drag patterns are often desirable for larger castings. Materials Aluminum alloys Brass alloys Cast iron Cast steel Melting temperature 1220 °F (660 °C) 1980 °F (1082 °C) 1990-2300 °F (1088-1260 °C) 2500 °F (1371 °C) Possible Defects Defect Unfilled sections Low pouring temperature Melt temperature is too high Porosity Non-uniform cooling rate Sand has low permeability Causes Insufficient material .A cope and drag pattern is similar to a match plate pattern. Cope and drag pattern Another piece of tooling used in sand casting is a core-box. nickel. including steel. If the casting requires sand cores. which are similar to a die and can be made of wood. the plates ensure proper alignment of the mold cavities in the cope and drag and the runner system can be included on the plates.Cope and drag pattern . and titanium. Just as with a match plate pattern. along with their melting temperatures. except that each half of the pattern is attached to a separate plate and the mold halves are made independently. The core-boxes can also contain multiple cavities to produce several identical cores. An advantage of sand casting is the ability to cast materials with high melting temperatures. They are also used for larger production quantities and are often used when the process is automated. where a match-plate pattern would be too heavy and cumbersome. the cores are formed in these boxes. plastic. Materials Sand casting is able to make use of almost any alloy. or metal just like the pattern.

often referred to as a hot spot. or cracking. causes uneven cooling and can result in shrinkage. porosity. A thick section.Hot tearing Non-uniform cooling rate Erosion of sand mold interior Surface projections A crack in the sand mold Mold halves shift Design Rules Maximum wall thickness Decrease the maximum wall thickness of a part to shorten the cycle time (cooling time specifically) and reduce the part volume INCORRECT CORRECT Part with thick walls Part redesigned with thin walls Uniform wall thickness will ensure uniform cooling and reduce defects. INCORRECT CORRECT Non-uniform wall thickness (t1 t2) Uniform wall thickness (t1 = t2) Corners Round corners to reduce stress concentrations and fracture Inner radius should be at least the thickness of the walls .

pouring.16 . the melting cost in typically insignificant compared to the metal cost. The cost of the metal is determined by the weight of the part. the cost of the core sand is determined by the quantity and size of the cores used to cast the part. mold-making. as some materials are more costly to melt. Lastly.25 in. The pattern cost is primarily controlled by the size of the part (both the envelope and the projected area) as well as the part's complexity. the mold sand.64 mm) to part dimensions to allow for machining to obtain a smooth surface. (0. as well the unit price of the material. It will take longer to pour and to clean a larger and heavier casting. The melting cost will also be greater for a larger part weight and is influenced by the material.0625 . The cost of the core-boxes first depends on their size. The amount of mold sand that is used. However. including core-making. INCORRECT CORRECT No draft angle Draft angle ( ) Machining allowance Add 0.0. The cost of making the cores depends on the volume of the cores and the quantity used to cast the part. melting the metal. Lastly.INCORRECT CORRECT Sharp corner Rounded corner Draft Apply a draft angle of 2° . the inclusion of cores will slightly slow the process and therefore increase the cost. calculated from part volume and material density. and cleaning. The cost of the mold-making is not greatly influenced by the part geometry when automated equipment is being used. However. and the core sand.3° to all walls parallel to the parting direction to facilitate removing the part from the mold. a . Tooling cost The tooling cost has two main components . and hence the cost.the pattern and the core-boxes. the cost of pouring the metal and cleaning the final casting are both driven by the weight of the part.0. is also proportional to the weight of the part. Cost Drivers Material cost The material cost for sand casting includes the cost of the metal. Production cost The production cost includes a variety of operations used to cast the part.

result of the quantity and size of the cores that are used to cast the part. Much like the pattern, the complexity of the cores will affect the time to manufacture this part of the tooling (in addition to the core size), and hence the cost. The quantity of parts that are cast will also impact the tooling cost. A larger production quantity will require the use of a tooling material, for both the pattern and core-boxes, that will not wear under the required number of cycles. The use or a stronger, more durable, tooling material will significantly increase the cost. Blow Molding

Blow molding is a manufacturing process that is used to create hollow plastic parts by inflating a heated plastic tube until it fills a mold and forms the desired shape. The raw material in this process is a thermoplastic in the form of small pellets or granules, which is first melted and formed into a hollow tube, called the parison. There are various ways of forming the parison, as explained below. The parison is then clamped between two mold halves and inflated by pressurized air until it conforms to the inner shape of the mold cavity. Typical pressures are 25 to 150 psi, far less than for injection molding. Lastly, after the part has cooled, the mold halves are separated and the part is ejected. Parts made from blow molding are plastic, hollow, and thin-walled, such as bottles and containers that are available in a variety of shapes and sizes. Small products may include bottles for water, liquid soap, shampoo, motor oil, and milk, while larger containers include plastic drums, tubs, and storage tanks. Blow molded parts can be formed from a variety of thermoplastic materials, including the following:

Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE) High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) Polyethylene Terephtalate (PET) Polypropylene (PP) Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC)

As mentioned above, there are different methods used to form the parison which distinguish the following three forms of blow molding:

Extrusion blow molding - An extruder uses a rotating screw to force the molten plastic through a die head that forms the parison around a blow pin. The parison is extruded vertically between the two open mold halves, so they can close on the parison and blow pin. Pressurized air flows through the blow pin to inflate the parison. This is the most common type of blow molding and is used to manufacture large quantities of relatively simple parts. Injection blow molding - The molten plastic is injection molded around a core inside a parison mold to form the hollow parison. When the parison mold opens, both the parison and core are transferred to the blow mold and securely clamped. The core then opens and allows pressurized air to inflate the parison. This is the least commonly used method because of the lower production rate, but is capable of forming more complicated parts with higher accuracy. Injection blow molding is often preferred for small, complex bottles, such as those in medical applications. Stretch blow molding - The parison is formed in the same way as injection blow molding. However, once transferred to the blow mold, it is heated and stretched downward by the core before being inflated. This stretching provides greater strength to the plastic. Stretch blow molding is typically used to create parts that must withstand some internal pressure or be very durable, such as soda bottles.

Blow Molding Capabilities Typical Feasible Thin-walled: Cylindrical Thin-walled: Cubic Shapes: Thin-walled: Complex Envelope: Up to 105 ft³ Part size: Thermoplastics Materials: 250 - 500 in 250 - 500 in Surface finish: ± 0.04 in. ± 0.01 in. Tolerance: 0.015 - 0.125 in. 0.01 - 0.24 in. Wall thickness: 1000 - 1000000 Production quantity: 100000 - 1000000 Days Days Lead time: Can form complex shapes with uniform wall thickness High production rate Advantages: Low labor cost Little scrap generated Limited to hollow, thin walled parts with low degree of asymmetry Poor control of wall thickness Poor surface finish Disadvantages: Few material options High tooling and equipment cost Bottles, containers, ducting Applications:

Injection molding is the most commonly used manufacturing process for the fabrication of plastic parts. A wide variety of products are manufactured using injection molding, which vary greatly in their size, complexity, and application. The injection molding process requires the use of an injection molding machine, raw plastic material, and a mold. The plastic is melted in the injection molding

machine and then injected into the mold, where it cools and solidifies into the final part. The steps in this process are described in greater detail in the next section.

Injection molding overview

Injection molding is used to produce thin-walled plastic parts for a wide variety of applications, one of the most common being plastic housings. Plastic housing is a thin-walled enclosure, often requiring many ribs and bosses on the interior. These housings are used in a variety of products including household appliances, consumer electronics, power tools, and as automotive dashboards. Other common thin-walled products include different types of open containers, such as buckets. Injection molding is also used to produce several everyday items such as toothbrushes or small plastic toys. Many medical devices, including valves and syringes, are manufactured using injection molding as well. Capabilities Typical Feasible Thin-walled: Cylindrical Thin-walled: Cubic Flat Shapes: Thin-walled: Complex Envelope: 0.01 in³ 80 ft³ Part size: Weight: 0.5 oz - 55 lb Composites Thermoplastics Elastomer Materials: Thermosets 4 - 16 in 1 - 32 in Surface finish: ± 0.008 in. ± 0.002 in. Tolerance: 0.03 - 0.25 in. 0.015 - 0.5 in. Wall thickness: 1000 - 1000000 Production quantity: 10000 - 1000000 Months Weeks Lead time: Can form complex shapes and fine details Advantages:

the scrap material that results from this trimming can be recycled by being placed into a plastic grinder. must be trimmed from the part.After sufficient time has passed. This excess material. However. The time that is required to open the mold and eject the part can be estimated from the dry cycle time of the machine and should include time for the part to fall free of the mold.larger machines (those with greater clamping forces) will require more time. The cooling time can be estimated from several thermodynamic properties of the plastic and the maximum wall thickness of the part. .The molten plastic that is inside the mold begins to cool as soon as it makes contact with the interior mold surfaces. along with any flash that has occurred. For some types of material. Each half of the mold is attached to the injection molding machine and one half is allowed to slide. Force must be applied to eject the part because during cooling the part shrinks and adheres to the mold. typically by using cutters. the material in the channels of the mold will solidify attached to the part. which is attached to the rear half of the mold. typically between 2 seconds and 2 minutes.Prior to the injection of the material into the mold. Injection . During cooling. the material is melted by heat and pressure. The amount of material that is injected is referred to as the shot. The molten plastic is then injected into the mold very quickly and the buildup of pressure packs and holds the material. This time can be estimated from the dry cycle time of the machine. the injection time can be estimated by the shot volume. the mold can be clamped shut for the next shot to be injected. and injection power. it will solidify into the shape of the desired part. The injection time is difficult to calculate accurately due to the complex and changing flow of the molten plastic into the mold. After the injection molding cycle. fittings Process Cycle The process cycle for injection molding is very short. containers. The hydraulically powered clamping unit pushes the mold halves together and exerts sufficient force to keep the mold securely closed while the material is injected.Disadvantages: Applications: Excellent surrface finish Good dimensional accuracy High production rate Low labor cost Scrap can be recycled Limited to thin walled parts High tooling and equipment cost Long lead time possible Housings. and consists of the following four stages: Clamping . also called regrind machines or granulators. The mold can not be opened until the required cooling time has elapsed. which regrinds the scrap material into pellets. the regrind must be mixed with raw material in the proper regrind ratio to be reused in the injection molding process. As the plastic cools. usually in the form of pellets. However. caps. Once the part is ejected. The time required to close and clamp the mold is dependent upon the machine . Due to some degradation of the material properties. During this process. injection pressure. such as thermoplastics. the two halves of the mold must first be securely closed by the clamping unit.The raw plastic material. and advanced towards the mold by the injection unit. is fed into the injection molding machine. Cooling . during cooling some shrinkage of the part may occur. In order to facilitate the ejection of the part. Ejection . some post processing is typically required. a mechanism is used to push the part out of the mold. a mold release agent can be sprayed onto the surfaces of the mold cavity prior to injection of the material. the cooled part may be ejected from the mold by the ejection system. The packing of material in the injection stage allows additional material to flow into the mold and reduce the amount of visible shrinkage. When the mold is opened.

The hopper has an open bottom. A reciprocating screw moves the material forward by both rotating and sliding axially. Injection unit The injection unit is responsible for both heating and injecting the material into the mold. Today. The barrel contains the mechanism for heating and injecting the material into the mold. and clamping unit to perform the four stages of the process cycle. . a large container into which the raw plastic is poured. injection unit. This mechanism is usually a ram injector or a reciprocating screw. The molten plastic is then injected very quickly into the mold through the nozzle at the end of the barrel by the buildup of pressure and the forward action of the screw. Once the material has solidified inside the mold. A ram injector forces the material forward through a heated section with a ram or plunger that is usually hydraulically powered. being powered by either a hydraulic or electric motor. This increasing pressure allows the material to be packed and forcibly held in the mold. which allows the material to feed into the barrel. The material enters the grooves of the screw from the hopper and is advanced towards the mold as the screw rotates. While it is advanced.Injection molded part Equipment Injection molding machines have many components and are available in different configurations. the more common technique is the use of a reciprocating screw. friction. The first part of this unit is the hopper. regardless of their design. the screw can retract and fill with more material for the next shot. the material is melted by pressure. However. mold assembly. including a horizontal configuration and a vertical configuration. all injection molding machines utilize a power source. and additional heaters that surround the reciprocating screw.

called the mold core. The hydraulically powered clamping motor actuates clamping bars that push the moveable platen towards the stationary platen and exert sufficient force to keep the mold securely closed while the material is injected and subsequently cools. is mounted to a stationary platen and aligns with the nozzle of the injection unit. the mold is then opened by the clamping motor. which is attached to the rear half of the mold. which slides along the tie bars. is mounted to a movable platen. is actuated by the ejector bar and pushes the solidified part out of the open cavity. each half is fixed to a large plate. After the required cooling time. .Injection unit Clamping unit Prior to the injection of the molten plastic into the mold.Injection molding machine . called a platen. The rear half of the mold. called the mold cavity. the two halves of the mold must first be securely closed by the clamping unit. The front half of the mold. An ejection system. When the mold is attached to the injection molding machine.

0 x 106. injection molding machines are designed to each accommodate a small range of this larger spectrum of values.9 40. Clamp force (ton) Shot capacity (oz.34 23.6 7. certain materials that require high injection pressures may require higher tonnage machines. Sample specifications are shown below for three different models (Babyplast.33 1.95 x 2. The required clamp force is determined by the projected area of the parts in the mold and the pressure with which the material is injected. clamp stroke.) Min.95 Powerline 330 8 . The size of the part must also comply with other machine specifications.6 0.3 .Injection molding machine . such as shot capacity.55 Maxima 4400 413 . Also. Therefore. mold thickness (in.18 2. As a result.55 x 40.Clamping unit Machine specifications Injection molding machines are typically characterized by the tonnage of the clamp force they provide.0.) Babyplast 6.) Platen size (in.5 122. minimum mold thickness.13 . and Maxima) of injection molding machine that are manufactured by Cincinnati Milacron. and platen size. Powerline.8 31. Injection molded parts can vary greatly in size and therefore require these measures to cover a very large range. a larger part will require a larger clamping force.1054 133.50 4.) Clamp stroke (in.

Mold overview . the space between the mold core and the mold cavity forms the part cavity. The two main components of the mold are the mold core and the mold cavity. as the custom tooling. that will be filled with molten plastic to create the desired part. but can be split into two halves. typically made of steel or aluminum. When the mold is closed. The mold has many components.Injection molding machine Tooling The injection molding process uses molds. in which the two mold halves form several identical part cavities. Each half is attached inside the injection molding machine and the rear half is allowed to slide so that the mold can be opened and closed along the mold's parting line. Multiple-cavity molds are sometimes used.

called runners. Mold base Mold channels In order for the molten plastic to flow into the mold cavities. carry the molten plastic from the sprue to all of the cavities that must be filled. First. The ejector pins push the solidified part out of the open mold cavity. which is then fixed to the platens inside the injection molding machine. allowing the contained material to be melted and detached from the part. Additional channels. the molten plastic enters the cavity through a gate which directs the flow.Mold base The mold core and mold cavity are each mounted to the mold base. to which the mold cavity is attached. in order to align the mold base with the nozzle. These channels allow water to flow through the mold walls. sometimes hot runner systems are used which independently heat the channels. into which the material will flow from the nozzle. the ejector bar actuates the ejection system. to which the mold core is attached. adjacent to the cavity. several channels are integrated into the mold design. The ejector bar pushes the ejector plate forward inside the ejector box. The molten plastic that solidifies inside these runners is attached to the part and must be separated after the part has been ejected from the mold. and a support plate. and a locating ring. . which in turn pushes the ejector pins into the molded part. the molten plastic enters the mold through the sprue. The front half of the mold base includes a support plate. the sprue bushing. The rear half of the mold base includes the ejection system. Another type of channel that is built into the mold is cooling channels. When the clamping unit separates the mold halves. However. and cool the molten plastic. At the end of each runner.

which can form an internal undercut. which will require additional mold pieces. The design of the mold must also accommodate any complex features on the part. which can rotate out of the mold after the threads have been formed. . Firstly. Other devices enter through the end of the mold along the parting direction. such as undercuts or threads. there are many other design issues that must be considered in the design of the molds. the mold must allow the molten plastic to flow easily into all of the cavities.Mold channels Mold design In addition to runners and gates. so a draft angle must be applied to the mold walls. To mold threads into the part. Equally important is the removal of the solidified part from the mold. The most common type of side-action is a side-core which enables an external undercut to be molded. and are therefore known as slides. an unscrewing device is needed. such as internal core lifters. or side-actions. Most of these devices slide into the part cavity through the side of the mold.

Exploded view Materials There are many types of materials that may be used in the injection molding process. colorants may be added in the process to control the color of the final part. Also. Most polymers may be used. and some elastomers. The selection of a material for creating injection molded parts is not solely based upon the desired characteristics of the final part. their raw form is usually small pellets or a fine powder. While each material has different properties that will affect the strength and function of the final part. these properties also dictate the parameters used in processing these materials. including the injection temperature.Mold - Closed Mold . some thermosets. A comparison of some commonly used materials is shown below (Follow the links to search the material library). When these materials are used in the injection molding process. including all thermoplastics. and cycle time. Each material requires a different set of processing parameters in the injection molding process. ejection temperature. injection pressure. . mold temperature.

naturally opaque white. resistance. sensors). panels. Valox housings. low/medium cost Rigid. shrinkage (tight tolerances). chemical resistance. Tough. housings. high cost Setilithe High strength. rigid. Rigid. eyeglass frames. Lucel moisture resistance. low moisture impellers. and containers cost Eraclene. switches. lenses. reflectors. Makrolon transparent. PET Polyether Sulphone PES Polyetheretherketone PEEKEEK Polyetherimide PEI Polyethylene . signs. low cost Noryl. Novex natural waxy appearance. Hostalen. excellent creep Hostaform. transparent. fatigue Kopa. Oroglas. chemical resistance. Ultem resistance. scratch resistant. Delrin. Grilamid low creep. fatigue Akulon. shelves. sheilds. panels. trim. trays Automotive (consoles. very high cost Applications Bearings. knobs. Lucite. boxes. zip ties small Air filters. low/medium cost Dexel. valves Display stands. transparent. plumbing components. handles. bearings. almost opaque to clear. Rynite. rollers. Rilsan. covers. seals absorption Electrical components Heat resistance. temperature consoles). bushings. Celanex. Alkathene. Lexan. thermal stability. Grilon low creep. abrasion electrical connectors. eyeglass frames Bearings. chemical resistance. color) surgical tools Lightweight. almost opaque/white. excellent chemical resistance. gauges. resistance. Very tough. fatigue resistance. resistance. resistance. almost opaque/white. chemical electrical components Lupox. Handles. safety masks Polycarbonate PC Polyester Thermoplastic - PBT.Low LDPE Density Polyethylene . Cellidor. rollers. cams. resistance. safety helmets and shields Automotive (filters. containers. Tough and stiff. cams. gears. Diakon. levers. chemical resistance. very high chemical Victrex. low covers. Kitchenware. heat resistance. boards. Crastin. pump resistance. housings. very high cost Strong. resistance.Material name Acetal Abbreviation Trade names POM Acrylic PMMA Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene ABS Cellulose Acetate CA Polyamide 6 (Nylon) PA6 Polyamide (Nylon) 6/6 PA6/6 Polyamide (Nylon) 11+12 PA11+12 Description Strong. Magnum. . Escorene. excellent Chair seats. brittle. housings. Aircraft components. Ultramid. tough and flexible. Udel Valves resistance.High HDPE Density Polyphenylene Oxide PPO Automotive (panels. heat resistance. housings. chemical resistance. flame (connectors. Radilon low creep. wheels gears. flame Automotive (housings. low mold Cycolac. toys Handles. clear. chemical resistance. vents). Plexiglas low/medium cost Strong. optical clarity. medium/high cost High strength. bottles. rollers. transparent (amber switches). housings. natural and containers Stamylan waxy appearance. Novodur. flexible. low friction. slide guides. Calibre. valves Tough. gears. dimensional stability. rotors. excellent fatigue Celcon. light covers. light housings. medium/high cost (connectors. lenses. electroplating capability. inhalors. Terluran naturally opaque. covers. pumps). Tough. low friction. Zytel. handles. chemical resistance. medium/high cost High strength. low friction. high cost reflectors.

Lacqrene. electroplating capability. washers Sarlink Thermocomp. flexible. Novolen. tough and stiff. housings. Electronic housings. gutters) opaque. Welvic. toys naturally translucent. covers. Vamporan Possible Defects Defect Flash Causes Injection pressure too high Clamp force too low Warping Non-uniform cooling rate Bubbles Injection temperature too high Too much moisture in material Non-uniform cooling rate Insufficient shot volume Flow rate of material too low Unfilled sections Sink marks Injection pressure too low Non-uniform cooling rate . Appryl. fuel system Very high strength. flexible. transparent. Solarene Impact strength. heat resistance. transparent. heat resistance. high chemical resistance. Brittle. syringes Starex hydrolytically stable.General GPPS purpose Polystyrene impact High HIPS Polyvinyl Chloride PVC Plasticised Polyvinyl Chloride UPVC Rigid Styrene Acrylonitrile SAN Thermoplastic Elastomer/Rubber TPE/R resistance. natural waxy trim). brittle. Kostil. bottles. covers. knobs. toughness. resistance. resistance. low cost Stiff. Polystar containers. flame Electrical insulation. caps. components. dimensional stability. low cost Hytrel. rigidity. Bushings. Outdoor applications (drains. resistance. crates. opaque. toys Tough. resistance. low cost Tough. medical tubing. components. high cost Santoprene. Escorene appearance. low handles. housings cost. pens Styron. electrical low water absorption. electrical Tough. flexible. low cost Cosmetics packaging. brown. panels). transparent or Trosiplast fittings. flame Polycol. dimensional stability. seals.Polyphenylene Sulphide PPS Polypropylene PP Polystyrene . chemical Luran. heat Ryton. Arpylene. scratch Automotive (bumpers. high plumbing components cost Bearings. Varlan resistance. transparent or housewares. switches. Fortron components. food Polystyrol. guides. low cost shoe soles. Housewares. very high cost and shields Lightweight.

Design Rules Maximum wall thickness Decrease the maximum wall thickness of a part to shorten the cycle time (injection time and cooling time specifically) and reduce the part volume INCORRECT CORRECT Part with thick walls Part redesigned with thin walls Uniform wall thickness will ensure uniform cooling and reduce defects INCORRECT CORRECT Non-uniform wall thickness (t1 t2) Uniform wall thickness (t1 = t2) Corners Round corners to reduce stress concentrations and fracture Inner radius should be at least the thickness of the walls .Ejector marks Cooling time too short Ejection force too high Many of the above defects are caused by a non-uniform cooling rate. A variation in the cooling rate can be caused by non-uniform wall thickness or non-uniform mold temperature.

INCORRECT CORRECT No draft angle Draft angle ( ) Ribs Add ribs for structural support.2° to all walls parallel to the parting direction to facilitate removing the part from the mold. rather than increasing the wall thickness INCORRECT CORRECT Thick wall of thickness t Thin wall of thickness t with ribs Orient ribs perpendicular to the axis about which bending may occur .INCORRECT CORRECT Sharp corner Rounded corner Draft Apply a draft angle of 1° .

.INCORRECT CORRECT Correct rib direction under load F Incorrect rib direction under load F Thickness of ribs should be 50-60% of the walls to which they are attached Height of ribs should be less than three times the wall thickness Round the corners at the point of attachment Apply a draft angle of at least 0.25° INCORRECT CORRECT Thin rib of thickness t Thick rib of thickness t Close up of ribs Bosses Wall thickness of bosses should be no more than 60% of the main wall thickness Radius at the base should be at least 25% of the main wall thickness Should be supported by ribs that connect to adjacent walls or by gussets at the base.

INCORRECT CORRECT Ribbed boss in corner Boss in corner Undercuts Minimize the number of external undercuts External undercuts require side-cores which add to the tooling cost Some simple external undercuts can be molded by relocating the parting line Simple external undercut Mold cannot separate New parting line allows undercut Redesigning a feature can remove an external undercut .CORRECT INCORRECT Isolated boss Isolated boss with ribs (left) or gussets (right) If a boss must be placed near a corner. it should be isolated using ribs.

Part with hinge Hinge requires side-core New hinge can be molded Redesigned hinge Minimize the number of internal undercuts Internal undercuts often require internal core lifters which add to the tooling cost Designing an opening in the side of a part can allow a side-core to form an internal undercut Internal from the side undercut accessible Redesigning a part can remove an internal undercut .

and hence the amount of material. Cost Drivers Material cost The material cost is determined by the weight of material that is required and the unit price of that material. Threaded features that are parallel to the parting direction will require an unscrewing device. The weight of material is clearly a result of the part volume and material density. which greatly adds to the tooling cost. Therefore. however.Mold cannot separate Part with internal undercut Part redesigned with slot New part can be molded Minimize number of side-action directions Additional side-action directions will limit the number of possible cavities in the mold Threads If possible. The weight of material that is required includes the material that fills the channels of the mold. The size of those channels. The hourly rate is proportional to the size of the injection molding machine being used. features with external threads should be oriented perpendicular to the parting direction. Injection molding machines are typically referred to by the tonnage of the clamping force they provide. The required clamping force is determined by the projected area of the part and the pressure with which the material is injected. is largely determined by the thickness of the part. a larger part will require a . so it is important to understand how the part design affects machine selection. Production cost The production cost is primarily calculated from the hourly rate and the cycle time. the part's maximum wall thickness can also play a role.

parting surface. lifters. because the metal is not melted in the MIM process (unlike metal casting processes). mold base. tolerance. hardness. Lastly. etc. Several thermodynamic properties of the material also affect the cooling time. measured by the projected area of the cavity (equal to the projected area of the part and projected holes) and its depth.the mold base and the machining of the cavities. The cost of the mold base is primarily controlled by the size of the part's envelope. The cycle time can be broken down into the injection time. The cooling time is also decreased for lower wall thicknesses. which can indirectly affect the cost. the production cost will be lowered. In this process.larger clamping force. Metals commonly used for MIM parts include the following: Low alloy steels Stainless steels High-speed steels Irons Cobalt alloys Copper alloys Nickel alloys Tungsten alloys . the number of directions can restrict the number of cavities that can be included in the mold. Also. referred to as the feedstock. side-cores. and hence a more expensive machine. these parts may be geometrically complex and have thin walls and fine details. the mold for a part which requires 3 side-action directions can only contain 2 cavities. The additional cost for side-cores is determined by how many are used. Metal Injection Molding (MIM) is a variation on traditional plastic injection molding that enables the fabrication of solid metal parts utilizing injection molding technology. and resetting time. There is no direct cost added. A larger part requires a larger. certain materials that require high injection pressures may require higher tonnage machines.) to be close to those of wrought metals. Using a standard injection molding machine. the raw material. high temperature alloys can be used without any negative affect on tool life. For this reason. A larger production quantity will require a higher class mold that will not wear as quickly. unscrewing devices. is a powder mixture of metal and polymer. more expensive. The cost of machining the cavities is affected by nearly every aspect of the part's geometry. corrosion resistance. Metal injection molding is best suited for the high-volume production of small metal parts. where it cools and solidifies into the shape of the desired part. the powder is melted and injected into a mold. MIM is sometimes referred to as Powder Injection Molding (PIM). wear resistance. As with injection molding. but it is possible that the use of more cavities could provide further savings. close. cooling time. and eject the part. The quantity of parts also impacts the tooling cost. and shot capacity. By reducing any of these times. such as clamp stroke. The injection time can be decreased by reducing the maximum wall thickness of the part and the part volume. Any other elements that will require additional machining time will add to the cost. and a larger machine requires more time to perform these operations. the resetting time depends on the machine size and the part size. However. One final consideration is the number of side-action directions. including the feature count. Also. The use of metal powders enables a wide variety of ferrous and non ferrous alloys to be used and for the material properties (strength. The stronger mold material results in a higher mold base cost and more machining time. platen size. as they require less time to cool all the way through. For example. The primary cost driver is the size of the cavity that must be machined. The size of the part must also comply with other machine specifications. Subsequent heating processes remove the unwanted polymer and produce a high-density metal part. Tooling cost The tooling cost has two main components . and surface roughness. A larger part will require larger motions from the machine to open.

MIM components can be found in cell phones.Titanium alloys Metal parts manufactured from the MIM process are found in numerous industries. The powder metals used here are much finer (typically under 20 microns) than those used in traditional powder metallurgy processes. the feedstock is melted and injected into the mold cavity. surgical instruments. medical/dental. The molded "green" part is ejected and then cleaned to remove all flash. MIM Injection Molding Debinding . After (on in place of) this step. MIM Feedstock Preparation Injection molding .The first step is to create a powder mixture of metal and polymer. sporting goods. As a result. power tools. In some cases. and telecommunications.The final step is to sinter the "brown" part in a high temperature furnace (up to 2500°F) in order to reduce the empty space to approximately 1-5%. The "green" part is heated in a low temperature oven. the mold cavities are designed approximately 20% larger to account for the part shrinkage during sintering. but is now of much greater density. where it cools and solidifies into the shape of the part. the remaining "brown" metal part will contain approximately 40% empty space by volume. and various electronic and optical devices. The powder metal is mixed with a hot thermoplastic binder. This process removes pores from the material. In the injection molding cycle.The powder feedstock is molded using the same equipment and tooling that are used in plastic injection molding. cooled. However. this shrinkage occurs uniformly and can be accurately predicted. consumer products. solvent debinding is first performed in which the "green" part is placed in a water or chemical bath to dissolve most of the binder. However. resulting in a high-density (95-99%) metal part. The metal injection molding process consists of the following steps: Feedstock preparation . MIM Debinding Sintering . thermal debinding or pre-sintering is performed. and then granulated into a homogenous feedstock in the form of pellets. The resulting part retains the original molded shape with high tolerances. allowing the polymer binder to be removed via evaporation.This step removes the polymer binder from the metal. The resulting feedstock is typically 60% metal and 40% polymer by volume. including aerospace. . causing the part to shrink to 7585% of its molded size. The furnace uses an atmosphere of inert gases and attains temperatures close to 85% of the metal's melting point. automotive.

but also reduces the debinding and sintering times as well. improve material properties. a number of secondary processes can be performed to add features. However. wall thickness should be minimized and kept uniform throughout the part. Also. or welded. more expensive custom supports may be required.Unlike plastic injection molding. such as the following: Wall thickness . just like a cast metal part. a MIM part can be machined. Sintering support .During sintering. Otherwise.MIM Sintering After the sintering process.Just as with plastic injection molding. It is worth noting that in the MIM process. many MIM parts do not require any draft. By designing parts with flat surfaces on the same plane. Draft . no secondary operations are required to improve tolerance or surface finish. heat treated. The polymer binder used in the powder material releases more easily from the mold than most injection molded polymers. Metal Injection Molding (MIM) Design rules When designing parts to be manufactured using MIM. standard flat support trays can be used. MIM parts must be properly supported or they may distort as they shrink. minimizing wall thickness not only reduces material volume and cycle time. For example. . there are some exceptions or additions. or assemble other components. most of the design rules for plastic injection molding still apply. MIM parts are ejected before they fully cool and shrink around the mold features because the metal powder in the mixture takes longer to cool. However.

0. and electronic equipment. or mechanical force.0015 in. but has many applications from plastic toys to aircraft windscreens to cafeteria trays. Excess material can be reground. and holding it in place while it cools and solidifies into the desired shape. A variety of thermoplastic materials can be used in this process.1000000 Weeks Weeks Lead time: Can form complex shapes and fine details Good surface finish Advantages: Good mechanical properties High production rate Limited part size Limited to thin walled parts Disadvantages: High tooling and equipment cost Long lead time possible Metal components in electronics. The thermoplastic sheet is clamped into a holding device and heated by an oven using either convection or radiant heat until it is softened. The softened sheet conforms to the shape of the mold and is held in place until it cools.80 in Surface finish: ± 0. 0. surgical instruments. The excess material is then trimmed away and the formed part is released.120 inches) sheets are typically used for cosmetic permanent surfaces on automobiles. consumer products Applications: Thermoforming Thermoforming describes the process of heating a thermoplastic sheet to its softening point.35 in 16 . including the following: Acrylic (PMMA) Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) Cellulose Acetate Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE) . The sheet is then held horizontally over a mold and pressed into or stretched over the mold using vacuum pressure. and reformed into thermoplastic sheets.25 in. air pressure. while thick-gauge (greater than 0. Thin-gauge (less than 0.Capabilities Typical Thin-walled: Thin-walled: Thin-walled: Complex Feasible Cylindrical Cubic Flat Shapes: Part size: Alloy Steel Carbon Steel Cast Iron Ceramics Stainless Steel Materials: Composites Copper Nickel Titanium 25 .060 inches) sheets are mostly used for rigid or disposable packaging. ± 0.1000000 Production quantity: 10000 .04 .01 .1. Wall thickness: 1000 .005 in.2 in. Tolerance: 0. shower enclosures. mixed with unused plastic. Thermoforming is commonly used for food packaging. stretching it over or into a single-sided mold.

undercuts.In addition to utilizing a vacuum underneath the sheet. This additional force allows the forming of thicker sheets and creating finer details. air pressure (typically 50 psi. . The vacuum pressure (typically 14 psi) forces the sheet to conform to the mold and form the part shape. but up to 100 psi) is applied on the back side of the sheet to help force it onto the mold. These types of thermoforming include the following: Vacuum forming . Vacuum Forming Pressure forming . textures.High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) Polypropylene (PP) Polystyrene (PS) Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) As mentioned above.A vacuum is formed between the mold cavity and the thermoplastic sheet. and sharp corners. there are different methods of forcing the thermoplastic sheet to conform to the mold.

Mechanical Forming Capabilities Typical Feasible Thin-walled: Cylindrical Thin-walled: Cubic Thin-walled: Complex Shapes: . Typically. a core plug will push the sheet into the mold cavity and force it into the desired shape.The thermoplastic sheet is mechanically forced into or around the mold by direct contact.Pressure Forming Mechanical forming .

15 in.015 .0. The metal.002 . panels.Part size: Materials: Surface finish: Tolerance: Wall thickness: Production quantity: Lead time: Advantages: Disadvantages: Applications: Area: 0. called dies. typically a non-ferrous alloy such as aluminum or zinc. called the casting. There are two main types of die casting machines .100000 Days Days Can produce very large parts High production rate Low cost Limited shape complexity Limited to thin walled parts Scrap cannot be recycled Trimming is required Packaging. cups. The die casting process involves the use of a furnace. such as zinc) and cold chamber machines (used for alloys with high melting temperatures. is melted in the furnace and then injected into the dies in the die casting machine.120 in 16 . such as aluminum). metal. Die casting hot chamber machine overview . However.1000 1 . in both machines. and die.300 ft² Thermoplastics 60 .008 in.04 in² . ± 0.04 in. The steps in this process are described in greater detail in the next section.hot chamber machines (used for alloys with low melting temperatures. after the molten metal is injected into the dies. it rapidly cools and solidifies into the final part.0. open containers. The differences between these machines will be detailed in the sections on equipment and tooling. 10 .120 in ± 0. signs Die casting is a manufacturing process that can produce geometrically complex metal parts through the use of reusable molds. 0.25 in. die casting machine. 0.

Metal housings for a variety of appliances and equipment are often die cast. bushings.0. and engine blocks.05 . Several automobile components are also manufactured using die casting. often requiring many ribs and bosses on the interior. 0. ranging from a couple ounces to 100 pounds. Other common die cast parts include propellers. including pistons.5 oz .1.1000000 Production quantity: 10000 . cylinder heads.015 .5 in.1000000 Months Weeks Lead time: Can produce large parts Can form complex shapes High strength parts Advantages: Very good surface finish and accuracy High production rate Low labor cost . Capabilities Typical Feasible Thin-walled: Complex Flat Solid: Cylindrical Thin-walled: Cylindrical Shapes: Solid: Cubic Thin-walled: Cubic Solid: Complex Weight: 0.015 in. One common application of die cast parts are housings . and valves. Tolerance: 0.63 in 16 . Wall thickness: 1000 .5 in.thin-walled enclosures. pumps.Die casting cold chamber machine overview The castings that are created in this process can vary greatly in size and weight.0005 in.500 lb Part size: Aluminum Lead Copper Magnesium Materials: Tin Zinc 32 . gears.125 in Surface finish: ± 0. ± 0.

The molten metal that is injected into the die will begin to cool and solidify once it enters the die cavity. and the complexity of the die.During cooling. the molten metal is injected at high pressures into the die. The injection time is the time required for the molten metal to fill all of the channels and cavities in the die. Each die half is first cleaned from the previous injection and then lubricated to facilitate the ejection of the next part. whether a hot chamber or cold chamber machine is being used. typically less than 0. Trimming . Once the casting is ejected. the two die halves.000 psi. In the case where a cold chamber die casting machine is being used. along with any flash that has occurred.Disadvantages: Applications: Process Cycle Scrap can be recycled Trimming is required High tooling and equipment cost Limited die life Long lead time Engine components. The time required to trim the excess material can be estimated from the size of the casting's envelope. The total cycle time is very short. A greater wall thickness will require a longer cooling time. but after 2 or 3 cycles. The ejection mechanism must apply some force to eject the part because during cooling the part shrinks and adheres to the die. Clamping . as well as the wall thickness of the casting. lubrication may not be required after each cycle. which are attached inside the die casting machine. The method of transferring the molten metal is dependent upon the type of die casting machine. When the entire cavity is filled and the molten metal solidifies.After the predetermined cooling time has passed. Also. the injection time must also include the time to manually ladle the molten metal into the shot chamber. is next transferred into a chamber where it can be injected into the die. as well as the number of cavities and side-cores.1 seconds. which is maintained at a set temperature in the furnace.000 to 20. This time is very short. The lubrication time increases with part size. the maximum wall thickness of the casting.larger machines (those with greater clamping forces) will require more time. The time required to close and clamp the die is dependent upon the machine . Ejection . or using a trimming press. must be trimmed from the casting either manually via cutting or sawing.The molten metal. The time to open the die can be estimated from the dry cycle time of the machine and the ejection time is determined by the size of the casting's envelope and should include time for the casting to fall free of the die. The geometric complexity of the die also requires a longer cooling time because the additional resistance to the flow of heat.The first step is the preparation and clamping of the two halves of the die. This time can be estimated from the dry cycle time of the machine. Cooling . which are explained below. the die can be clamped shut for the next injection. typically between 2 seconds and 1 minute. After lubrication. the material in the channels of the die will solidify attached to the casting. Once transferred. the die halves can be opened and an ejection mechanism can push the casting out of the die cavity. in order to prevent early solidification of any one part of the metal. Sufficient force must be applied to the die to keep it securely closed while the metal is injected. The cooling time can be estimated from several thermodynamic properties of the metal. A greater wall thickness will require a longer injection time. pump components. This pressure holds the molten metal in the dies during solidification. depending upon the material. are closed and securely clamped together. This excess material. The amount of metal that is injected into the die is referred to as the shot. The difference in this equipment will be detailed in the next section. the final shape of the casting is formed. The scrap material that results from this . Typical injection pressure ranges from 1. Injection . appliance housing The process cycle for die casting consists of five main stages. The proper injection time can be determined by the thermodynamic properties of the material. The die can not be opened until the cooling time has elapsed and the casting is solidified.

the hydraulic system retracts the plunger and the part can be ejected by the clamping unit. and lead. this unit closes and clamps the two halves of the die. which is in direct contact with the molten metal. each half is fixed to a large plate. tin. After the molten metal has been injected into the die cavity. forces the molten metal through a gooseneck channel and into the die. The rear half of the die. called a platen. The front half of the die. Hot chamber die casting machine . Typical injection pressures for a hot chamber die casting machine are between 1000 and 5000 psi. which slides along the tie bars. the plunger remains down.Hot chamber machines are used for alloys with low melting temperatures. The metal is contained in an open holding pot which is placed into a furnace. called the ejector die. is mounted to a stationary platen and aligns with the gooseneck channel. Prior to the injection of the molten metal. The hydraulically powered clamping unit actuates clamping bars that push this platen towards the cover die and exert enough pressure to keep it closed while the molten metal is injected. such as zinc. called the cover die. is mounted to a movable platen. Die cast part Equipment The two types of die casting machines are a hot chamber machine and cold chamber machine.trimming is either discarded or can be reused in the die casting process. powered by hydraulic pressure. . Recycled material may need to be reconditioned to the proper chemical composition before it can be combined with non-recycled metal and reused in the die casting process. where it is melted to the necessary temperature. holding the pressure while the casting solidifies. Following the solidification of the metal inside the die cavity. The temperatures required to melt other alloys would damage the pump. The die can then be closed for the next injection. When the die is attached to the die casting machine. the clamping unit releases the die halves and simultaneously causes the ejection system to push the casting out of the open cavity. The molten metal then flows into a shot chamber through an inlet and a plunger. After solidification.

The clamping unit and mounting of the dies is identical to the hot chamber machine. As a result. The injection system in a cold chamber machine functions similarly to that of a hot chamber machine.Hot chamber die casting machine . brass. After solidification. Cold chamber die casting machine . The metal is poured from the ladle into the shot chamber through a pouring hole. Therefore. powered by hydraulic pressure.Opened Cold chamber die casting machine . die casting machines are designed to each accommodate a small range of this larger spectrum of values. rather than being pumped. clamp stroke. minimum mold thickness. However. holding the pressure while the casting solidifies. Sample specifications for several different hot chamber and cold chamber die casting machines are given below. however it is usually oriented horizontally and does not include a gooseneck channel.Closed Cold chamber die casting machine . where it is melted to the necessary temperature. After the molten metal has been injected into the die cavity. The required clamp force is determined by the projected area of the parts in the die and the pressure with which the molten metal is injected. and magnesium. A plunger. The size of the part must also comply with other machine specifications.Cold chamber machines are used for alloys with high melting temperatures that can not be cast in hot chamber machines because they would damage the pumping system. Also. . forces the molten metal through the shot chamber and into the injection sleeve in the die. The molten metal is still contained in an open holding pot which is placed into a furnace. and platen size.Opened Hot chamber die casting machine . See the above paragraph for details. the hydraulic system retracts the plunger and the part can be ejected by the clamping unit. the plunger remains forward. this holding pot is kept separate from the die casting machine and the molten metal is ladled from the pot for each casting. a larger part will require a larger clamping force. such as maximum shot volume.Closed Machine specifications Both hot chamber and cold chamber die casting machines are typically characterized by the tonnage of the clamp force they provide. The typical injection pressures for a cold chamber die casting machine are between 2000 and 20000 psi. Such alloys include aluminum. certain materials that require high injection pressures may require higher tonnage machines. Die cast parts can vary greatly in size and therefore require these measures to cover a very large range.

shot volume Clamp (oz. In a hot chamber machine.6 23 x 23 38 x 38 55 x 55 74 x 79 83 x 83 size Tooling The dies into which the molten metal is injected are the custom tooling used in this process. in which the two die halves form several identical part cavities. After entering the die. These channels act as venting holes to allow air to escape the die cavity. Lastly. The cover die allows the molten metal to flow from the injection system. The ejector die includes a support plate and the ejector box. mold thickness Platen (in.0 39. Die channels The flow of molten metal into the part cavity requires several channels that are integrated into the die and differs slightly for a hot chamber machine and a cold chamber machine.) (in. This design allows the die to open and close along its parting line.2 stroke Min. These channels allow water or oil to flow through the die. the molten metal enters through an injection sleeve. which provide an additional source of molten metal during solidification.) 5. and into the part cavity. through an opening. When the clamping unit separates the die halves.4 51.8 116 15. the molten metal will shrink and additional material is needed.7 25. and the ejector die. Die assembly - Open Die assembly - Closed Die assembly - Exploded view . the cavities will contain extra space called overflow wells. adjacent to the cavity. This cavity is formed by two inserts. which is mounted onto a stationary platen. the cavity insert and the core insert. in either type of machine. and remove heat from the die. Once closed.8 254 21. Often. which is mounted onto a movable platen. the two die halves form an internal part cavity which is filled with the molten metal to form the casting. Multiple-cavity dies are sometimes used. When the casting cools. The molten metal that flows through all of these channels will solidify attached to the casting and must be separated from the part after it is ejected.8 19. The dies are typically composed of two halves . In a cold chamber machine. respectively. The sprue refers to this primary channel of molten metal entering the die. small channels are included that run from the cavity to the exterior of the die. One type of channel that does not fill with material is a cooling channel. the molten metal flows through a series of runners and enters the part cavities through gates. the molten metal enters the die through a piece called a sprue bushing (in the cover die) and flows around the sprue spreader (in the ejector die).9 25 x 24 9. which are inserted into the cover die and ejector die.) 74 11.8 29 x 29 11. which is mounted onto the platen and inside contains the ejection system.7 35 166 395 1058 1517 11. the clamping bar pushes the ejector plate forward inside the ejector box which pushes the ejector pins into the molded part.the cover die.8 21. ejecting it from the core insert.8 38 x 38 5.7 30. which direct the flow.Clamp (ton) Hot chamber 100 Hot chamber 200 Hot chamber 400 Cold 100 chamber Cold 400 chamber Cold 800 chamber Cold 1600 chamber Cold 2000 chamber Type force Max.9 11.) (in.8 15.

(Hot chamber) (Hot chamber) (Hot chamber) Die assembly (Cold chamber) - Opened Die assembly (Cold chamber) - Closed Die assembly (Cold chamber) Exploded view Die Design In addition to these many types of channels. which will require additional die pieces. The four most common alloys that are die cast are shown below. (Follow the links to search the material library). Most of these devices slide into the part cavity through the side of the die. and vanadium. steels with low carbon content are more resistant to cracking and can be used for 1. Firstly. so a draft angle must be applied to the walls of the part cavity. tungsten. The most common type of side-action is a side-core which enables an external undercut to be molded. However. molybdenum. or side-actions. nickel alloys. Another important aspect of designing the dies is selecting the material. there are other design issues that must be considered in the design of the dies. The design of the die must also accommodate any complex features on the part.000 cycles. Any side-cores that are used in the dies can also be made out of these materials.000. Equally important is the removal of the solidified casting from the die. Materials Die casting typically makes use of non-ferrous alloys. Dies can be fabricated out of many different types of metals. such as undercuts. along with brief descriptions of their properties. Other common materials for dies include chromium. and are therefore known as slides. Materials Properties Low density Good corrosion resistance High thermal and electrical conductivity Aluminum alloys High dimensional stability Relatively easy to cast Requires use of a cold chamber machine High strength and toughness Copper alloys High corrosion and wear resistance . High grade tool steel is the most common and is typically used for 100-150. the die must allow the molten metal to flow easily into all of the cavities.000 cycles.

For example. materials with a higher melting temperature. and cost. strength. such as aluminum and copper alloys. require the use of cold chamber machine. Possible Defects Defect Flash Clamp force too low Insufficient shot volume Unfilled sections Slow injection Low pouring temperature Causes Injection pressure too high . However. as a higher temperature will have a greater adverse effect on the life of the dies. The material not only determines the properties of the final casting. The material may also affect the part design. can be die cast in a hot chamber machine. which is a highly ductile metal. Materials with low melting temperatures. melting point.Materials Properties High dimensional stability Highest cost Low die life due to high melting temperature Requires use of a cold chamber machine Very low density High strength-to-weight ratio Magnesium alloys Excellent machinability after casting Use of both hot and cold chamber machines High density High ductility Good impact strength Excellent surface smoothness allowing for painting or plating Zinc alloys Requires such coating due to susceptibility to corrosion Easiest to cast Can form very thin walls Long die life due to low melting point Use of a hot chamber machine The selection of a material for die casting is based upon several factors including the density. but also impacts the machine and tooling. can allow for thinner walls and a better surface finish than many other alloys. corrosion resistance. the use of zinc. such as zinc alloys. The melting temperature also affects the tooling.

A variation in the cooling rate can be caused by non-uniform wall thickness or non-uniform die temperature. Design Rules Maximum wall thickness Decrease the maximum wall thickness of a part to shorten the cycle time (injection time and cooling time specifically) and reduce the part volume INCORRECT CORRECT Part with thick walls Part redesigned with thin walls Uniform wall thickness will ensure uniform cooling and reduce defects INCORRECT CORRECT Non-uniform wall thickness (t1 t2) Uniform wall thickness (t1 = t2) .Defect Bubbles Causes Injection temperature too high Non-uniform cooling rate Hot tearing Non-uniform cooling rate Cooling time too short Ejector marks Ejection force too high Many of the above defects are caused by a non-uniform cooling rate.

1° for inside cores INCORRECT CORRECT No draft angle Draft angle ( ) Undercuts Minimize the number of external undercuts .75° for walls. 2° for inside cores Magnesium: 0.Corners Round corners to reduce stress concentrations and fracture Inner radius should be at least the thickness of the walls INCORRECT CORRECT Sharp corner Rounded corner Draft Apply a draft angle to all walls parallel to the parting direction to facilitate removing the part from the die.5° for walls. 1.5° for inside cores Zinc: 0. Aluminum: 1° for walls.

Jamming of these devices often occurs in die casting Designing an opening in the side of a part can allow a side-core to form an internal undercut .External undercuts require side-cores which add to the tooling cost Some simple external undercuts can be cast by relocating the parting line Simple external undercut Die cannot separate New parting line allows undercut Redesigning a feature can remove an external undercut Part with hinge Hinge requires side-core Redesigned hinge New hinge can be cast Remove all internal undercuts that require lifters .

Internal from the side undercut accessible Redesigning a part can remove an internal undercut Part with internal undercut Die cannot separate Part redesigned with slot New part can be cast Minimize number of side-action directions Additional side-action directions will limit the number of possible cavities in the die Cost Drivers Material cost .

measured by the projected area of the cavity (equal to the projected area of the part and projected holes) and its depth. The cost of machining the cavities is affected by nearly every aspect of the part's geometry. parting surface. cooling time. Centrifugal Casting . certain materials can be injected faster than others. tolerance. and surface roughness. so it is important to understand how the part design affects machine selection. a larger part will require a larger clamping force. The injection time can be decreased by reducing the maximum wall thickness of the part. Any other elements that will require additional machining time will add to the cost. Zinc. which can indirectly affect the cost. A larger part will require larger motions from the machine to open. the use of any side-cores will slow this process. This effect becomes more cost prohibitive with higher production quantities. despite the larger channels. and eject the part. will require cold chamber machines which are typically more expensive.The material cost is determined by the weight of material that is required and the unit price of that material. The required clamping force is determined by the projected area of the part and the pressure with which the molten metal is injected. and hence a more expensive machine. which can be cast at lower temperatures. and a larger machine requires more time to perform these operations. the type of machine (hot chamber vs. The weight of material is clearly a result of the part volume and material density. the die for a part which requires 3 side-core directions can only contain 2 cavities. the part's maximum wall thickness can also play a role. Materials with high casting temperatures. The weight of material that is required includes the material that fills the channels of the die. By reducing any of these times. Several thermodynamic properties of the material also affect the cooling time. and therefore will increase the amount of required material. However. however. The use of materials with high melting temperatures. The size of the part must also comply with other machine specifications. but it is possible that the use of more cavities could provide further savings.the die set and the machining of the cavities. cold chamber) will also affect the cost. A larger part requires a larger. a result of thinner walls. The quantity of parts and material used will affect the tooling life and therefore impact the cost. Lastly. Tooling cost The tooling cost has two main components . The additional cost for side-cores is determined by how many are used. and shot capacity. such as clamp stroke. certain materials that require high injection pressures may require higher tonnage machines. Also. as they require less time to cool all the way through. The cost of the die set is primarily controlled by the size of the part's envelope. This ladling time is dependent upon the shot weight. For example. and resetting time. Production cost The production cost is primarily calculated from the hourly rate and the cycle time. will cause a short tooling life. Therefore. more expensive. this additional material is typically less than the amount of material saved from the reduction in part volume. the production cost will be lowered. such as aluminum. The primary cost driver is the size of the cavity that must be machined. The hourly rate is proportional to the size of the die casting machine being used. including the feature count. One final consideration is the number of side-action directions. but the injection times are so short that the cost saving are negligible. the resetting time depends on the machine size and the part size. platen size. die set. A part with thinner walls will require a larger system of channels to ensure that the entire part fills quickly and evenly. In addition to the size of the machine. allows for a much longer tooling life. such as copper. Also. the number of directions can restrict the number of cavities that can be included in the die. Substantial time can be saved by using a hot chamber machine because in cold chamber machines the molten metal must be ladled into the machine. The cooling time is also decreased for lower wall thicknesses. The cycle time can be broken down into the injection time. Therefore. However. close. Also. side-cores. Die casting machines are typically referred to by the tonnage of the clamping force they provide. There is no direct cost added. using thinner walls will typically lower the material cost.

such as cylinders or disks. Casting removal .The walls of a cylindrical mold are first coated with a refractory ceramic coating. These parts may be cast from ferrous metals such as low alloy steel. cylinder liners. pulleys. without the use of runners or a gating system. stainless steel. nozzles.Centrifugal casting. marine. pressure vessels.With all of the molten metal in the mold. Cooling . cast iron. rings. In centrifugal casting. magnesium. the use of expendable sand molds is also possible. grinding. industrial. including aerospace. which use gravity or pressure to fill the mold. a permanent mold made from steel. are required to clean and smooth the inner diameter of the part. sometimes called rotocasting. This differs from most metal casting processes. However. these parts have a very fine grain on the outer surface and possess mechanical properties approximately 30% greater than parts formed with static casting methods. secondary processes such as machining. Pouring . which are typically hollow. The casting process is usually performed on a horizontal centrifugal casting machine (vertical machines are also available) and includes the following steps: Mold preparation . copper. the mold is rotated about its axis at high speeds (300-3000 RPM). or from non-ferrous alloys such as aluminum. Typical parts include bearings. drying.Molten metal is poured directly into the rotating mold. and nickel. The centrifugal force drives the material towards the mold walls as the mold fills. which involves a few steps (application. bronze. Centrifugal casting is performed in wide variety of industries. pipes/tubes. coils. rotation. Due to the high centrifugal forces. and wheels. and iron. Centrifugal casting is used to produce axi-symmetric parts.After the casting has cooled and solidified. and baking). Finishing . any less dense impurities or bubbles flow to the inner surface of the casting. or sand-blasting. and power transmission. Cooling begins quickly at the mold walls and proceeds inwards. bushings. is a metal casting process that uses centrifugal force to form cylindrical parts. typically around 1000 RPM.While the centrifugal force drives the dense metal to the mold walls. As a result. Once prepared and secured. the rotation is stopped and the casting can be removed. Centrifugal Casting Capabilities . or graphite is typically used. the mold remains spinning as the metal cools.

This process is beneficial for casting metals with high melting temperatures that can not be molded in plaster or metal. cast iron.5.5.0 in. parts with complex geometries and intricate details can be created. The mold is formed by using a wax pattern . Investment casting is often referred to as "lost-wax casting" because the wax pattern is melted out of the mold after it has been formed. High temperature applications are also common.1 . Lox-wax processes are one-to-one (one pattern creates one part). Investment casting requires the use of a metal die. or "invested". since the mold is destroyed during the process. The process steps include the following: Pattern creation . 0.a disposable piece in the shape of the desired part. wheels. or grinding.500 in Surface finish: ± 0. bronze alloys. and tool steel. dating back thousands of years.500 in 32 .10000 Weeks Days Lead time: Can form very large parts Good mechanical properties Good surface finish and accuracy Advantages: Low equipment cost Low labor cost Little scrap generated Limited to cylindrical parts Secondary machining is often required for inner diameter Disadvantages: Long lead time possible Pipes. Wall thickness: 1 . The gating system forms the channels through which the molten metal will flow to the mold cavity. which increases production time and costs relative to other casting processes. . and any machines needed for sandblasting. pulleys.10000 Production quantity: 100 . into ceramic slurry that hardens into the mold.0 in. to form a tree-like assembly. Part size: Weight: Up to 5 tons Alloy Steel Carbon Steel Cast Iron Stainless Steel Materials: Aluminum Copper Nickel 63 . and risers). which includes parts for the automotive. magnesium alloys. nozzles Applications: Investment casting is one of the oldest manufacturing processes. Cores may be used to form any internal features on the pattern. Tolerance: 0. stainless steel. ceramic slurry.1 .002 in. wax. Investment casting can make use of most metals. The pattern is surrounded. most commonly using aluminum alloys. molten metal. aircraft. ± 0. Length: Up to 50 ft.Typical Feasible Thin-walled: Cylindrical Thin-walled: Complex Shapes: Solid: Cylindrical Solid: Complex Diameter: 1 120 in. and military industries.The wax patterns are typically injection molded into a metal die and are formed as one piece. Several of these patterns are attached to a central wax gating system (sprue. cutting. Parts that are typically made by investment casting include those with complex geometry such as turbine blades or firearm components.01 in. in which molten metal is poured into an expendable ceramic mold. runners. furnace. However.

Pouring . hence the name "lost wax" casting. and the material used. This process is repeated until the shell is thick enough to withstand the molten metal it will encounter.02 oz . and then dried to form a ceramic shell around the patterns and gating system. Finishing .After the mold has been filled. the mold can be broken and the casting removed.500 lb Alloy Steel Cast Carbon Steel Lead Stainless Steel Magnesium Shapes: Part size: Materials: Cylindrical Iron . Investment Casting Capabilities Typical Feasible Thin-walled: Complex Flat Solid: Cylindrical Thin-walled: Solid: Cubic Thin-walled: Cubic Solid: Complex Weight: 0. but other methods such as vacuum or pressure are sometimes used. The ceramic mold is typically broken using water jets.The mold is preheated in a furnace to approximately 1000°C (1832°F) and the molten metal is poured from a ladle into the gating system of the mold.Mold creation . thickness of the mold. finishing operations such as grinding or sandblasting are used to smooth the part at the gates. coated with more coarse particles. Pouring is typically achieved manually under the force of gravity. Once removed. The shell is then placed into an oven and the wax is melted out leaving a hollow ceramic shell that acts as a one-piece mold.Often times.After the molten metal has cooled. Casting removal . Heat treatment is also sometimes used to harden the final part.This "pattern tree" is dipped into a slurry of fine ceramic particles. Cooling time depends on the thickness of the part. filling the mold cavity. Cooling . the parts are separated from the gating system by either sawing or cold breaking (using liquid nitrogen). but several other methods exist. the molten metal is allowed to cool and solidify into the shape of the final casting.

005 in.0 in. Mold assembly .the two mold halves and any cores used to form complex features.002 in. 0. permanent mold casting is often referred to as gravity die casting. Then. lock parts. and wheels. impellers. As in sand casting.During cooling. Tolerance: 0.The molten metal is allowed to cool and solidify in the mold. armament parts. pipe fittings. Such cores are typically made from iron or steel. Permanent mold casting is typically used for high-volume production of small. a ceramic coating is applied to the mold cavity surfaces to facilitate part removal and increase the mold lifetime. Cooling . like die casting.0. Permanent mold casting.The mold consists of at least two parts . Mold opening .First. The permanent mold casting process consists of the following steps: Mold preparation . and copper alloys. the metal in the runner system and sprue solidify attached to the casting.5. the mold is pre-heated to around 300-500°F (150-260°C) to allow better metal flow and reduce defects. molten metal is poured into a mold which is clamped shut until the material cools and solidifies into the desired part shape. However. Wall thickness: 1 . but expendable sand cores are sometimes used. the two mold halves are opened and the casting is removed.1000 Weeks Days Lead time: Can form complex shapes and fine details Many material options High strength parts Advantages: Very good surface finish and accuracy Little need for secondary machining Time-consuming process High labor cost Disadvantages: High tooling cost Long lead time possible Turbine blades.The molten metal is poured at a slow rate from a ladle into the mold through a sprue at the top of the mold. such as aluminum alloys. simple metal parts with uniform wall thickness. Common permanent mold parts include gears and gear housings.025 .1000000 Production quantity: 10 . Trimming . uses a metal mold (die) that is typically made from steel or cast iron and can be reused for several thousand cycles. magnesium alloys. and other automotive and aircraft components such as pistons. jewelry Applications: Permanent Mold Casting Permanent mold casting is a metal casting process that shares similarities to both sand casting and die casting. . irons and steels can also be cast using graphite molds.After the metal has solidified. However.06 . sand casting uses an expendable mold which is destroyed after each cycle.125 in 16 . Because the molten metal is poured into the die and not forcibly injected. In this step. This excess material is now cut away. handtools.80 in. Pouring . the cores are inserted and the mold halves are clamped together.Aluminum Tin Copper Titanium Nickel Zinc 50 . ± 0. pipe fittings. Nonferrous metals are typically used in this process. The metal flows through a runner system and enters the mold cavity.300 in Surface finish: ± 0.

the remaining slush (material that has yet to completely solidify) is poured out of the mold. When the amount of solidified material is equal to the desired wall thickness.660 lb Aluminum Copper Magnesium Feasible Flat Thin-walled: Cylindrical Thin-walled: Cubic Alloy Carbon Cast Stainless Lead Steel Steel Iron Steel Shapes: Part size: Materials: . Low Pressure Permanent Mold Casting .Similar to low pressure casting. Vacuum Permanent Mold Casting . other variations on permanent mold casting have been developed to accommodate specific applications. Also. The application of pressure allows the mold to remain filled and reduces shrinkage during cooling.Instead of being poured. slush casting is used to produce hollow parts without the use of cores. the molten metal is poured into the mold and begins to solidify at the cavity surface. finer details and thinner walls can be molded. As a result. As a result. Capabilities Typical Thin-walled: Complex Solid: Cylindrical Solid: Cubic Solid: Complex Weight: 2 oz . Examples of these variations include the following: Slush Casting . but vacuum pressure is used to fill the mold.Permanent Mold Casting Using these basic steps. finer details and thin walls can be molded and the mechanical properties of the castings are improved. the molten metal is forced into the mold by low pressure air (< 1 bar).As in permanent mold casting.

engine components Applications: Shell Mold Casting Shell mold casting is a metal casting process similar to sand casting. If any cores are required. dump box. and molten metal. connecting rods. the molten metal is allowed to cool and solidify into the shape of the final casting. 0.400 in Surface finish: ± 0.01 in.After the mold has been filled. cylinder heads. Mold assembly . in shell mold casting.Nickel Tin Titanium Zinc 125 . ± 0. Next. Shell mold casting allows the use of both ferrous and non-ferrous metals. Cooling . housings. a metal piece in the shape of the desired part. Mold creation . The heated pattern partially cures the mixture. and lever arms. they are inserted prior to closing the mold. Wall thickness: 500 . The shell mold casting process consists of the following steps: Pattern creation .08 . Pouring . typically from iron or steel. alloy steel. in that molten metal is poured into an expendable mold. most commonly using cast iron.First. such as gear housings. Each pattern half and surrounding shell is cured to completion in an oven and then the shell is ejected from the pattern. the heated pattern is clamped to a dump box.2 in. allowing this sand-resin mixture to coat the pattern. while the disposable molds enable complex geometries to be cast. A reusable pattern allows for higher production rates. The shell mold is then placed into a flask and supported by a backing material.The two shell halves are joined together and securely clamped to form the complete shell mold. wheels. oven.100000 Months Weeks Lead time: Can form complex shapes Good mechanical properties Many material options Advantages: Low porosity Low labor cost Scrap can be recycled High tooling cost Disadvantages: Long lead time possible Gears. such as aluminum for low volume production or graphite for casting reactive materials.2 in. The pattern. Tolerance: 0.A two-piece metal pattern is created in the shape of the desired part. each pattern half is heated to 175-370°C (350-700°F) and coated with a lubricant to facilitate removal. sandresin mixture. . stainless steel. Other materials are sometimes used. However.015 in. Shell mold casting requires the use of a metal pattern. carbon steel. The dump box is inverted. which now forms a shell around the pattern. aluminum alloys. is reused to form multiple shell molds. and copper alloys.1000000 Production quantity: 1000 .08 .The mold is securely clamped together while the molten metal is poured from a ladle into the gating system and fills the mold cavity.250 in 32 . Typical parts are small-to-medium in size and require high accuracy. the mold is a thin-walled shell created from applying a sand-resin mixture around a pattern. which contains a mixture of sand and a resin binder.

After the molten metal has cooled.Casting removal .220 lb Part size: Alloy Steel Carbon Steel Cast Iron Stainless Steel Materials: Aluminum Copper Nickel 50 .06 . Shell Mold Casting Capabilities Typical Feasible Thin-walled: Complex Flat Solid: Cylindrical Thin-walled: Cylindrical Shapes: Solid: Cubic Thin-walled: Cubic Solid: Complex Weight: 0. Wall thickness: 100 .2. the mold can be broken and the casting removed.0 in. ± 0.006 in.5 oz .1000000 Weeks Days Lead time: Can form complex shapes and fine details Very good surface finish High production rate Advantages: Low labor cost Low tooling cost Little scrap generated High equipment cost Disadvantages: .2. Trimming and cleaning processes are required to remove any excess metal from the feed system and any sand from the mold. 0.015 in.06 . Tolerance: 0.300 in 32 .0 in.1000000 Production quantity: 1000 .500 in Surface finish: ± 0.

Parts that are fabricated completely through milling often include components that are used in limited quantities. perhaps for prototypes. slots. which can create a variety of features on a part by cutting away the unwanted material.125 in 8 . 0. three-dimensional molds are typically milled. Another application of milling is the fabrication of tooling for other processes. engine components Applications: Typical . Milling is typically used to produce parts that are not axially symmetric and have many features. By feeding the workpiece into the rotating cutter.04 .04 . and even three dimensional surface contours. workpiece.001 in. The cutter is a cutting tool with sharp teeth that is also secured in the milling machine and rotates at high speeds. For example. pockets. The milling process requires a milling machine.1000 Days Hours Lead time: All materials compatible Very good tolerances Advantages: Short lead times Limited shape complexity Part may require several operations and machines High equipment cost Disadvantages: Significant tool wear Large amount of scrap Machine components.0005 in.04 . it is ideal for adding precision features to a part whose basic shape has already been formed. which itself is attached to a platform inside the milling machine.500 in Surface finish: ± 0. fixture. Tolerance: 0. The workpiece is a piece of pre-shaped material that is secured to the fixture.Applications: Cylinder heads.1000000 Production quantity: 1 . Wall thickness: 1 .72 in. such as holes. Capabilities Feasible Flat Thin-walled: Cylindrical Solid: Cubic Thin-walled: Cubic Shapes: Solid: Complex Thin-walled: Complex Solid: Cylindrical Length: 0.04 72 in Part size: Width: 0. and cutter. a material removal process. material is cut away from this workpiece in the form of small chips to create the desired shape.40 in.72 in Ceramics Alloy Steel Composites Carbon Steel Lead Cast Iron Nickel Stainless Steel Tin Materials: Aluminum Titanium Copper Elastomer Magnesium Thermoplastics Zinc Thermosets 32 . ± 0. Due to the high tolerances and surface finishes that milling can offer. Milling is also commonly used as a secondary process to add or refine features on parts that were manufactured using a different process. connecting rods Milling Milling is the most common form of machining. such as custom designed fasteners or brackets.

The distance that the cutting tool or workpiece advances during one revolution of the spindle and tool. Axial depth of cut . tool size.The time required to load the workpiece into the milling machine and secure it to the fixture. and more. multiplied by the number of teeth on the cutting tool. The cycle time can be divided into the following four times: Load/Unload time . . and changing tools. Feed rate . and complexity of the workpiece. adjusting machine settings. Therefore. tool material. is propelled away from the workpiece by the motion of the cutter and the spraying of lubricant. a feature is typically machined in several passes as the tool moves to the specified axial depth of cut for each pass. which can be collected and discarded after the production. as well as the type of fixture. Therefore. Cutting feed . which is the cut time divided by the tool lifetime. this is the time required for any tasks that occur during the process cycle that do not engage the workpiece and therefore remove material. This time is typically not performed in every cycle. The load time can depend on the size. Spindle speed .The speed of the workpiece surface relative to the edge of the cutting tool during a cut. These parameters are selected for each operation based upon the workpiece material. Cutting speed . and install the fixture device into the milling machine. but rather only after the lifetime of the tool has been reached. weight. tool movements between features. no process cycle step is required to remove the scrap material. measured in surface feet per minute (SFM).The time required to replace a tool that has exceeded its lifetime and therefore become to worn to cut effectively. However.The depth of the tool along its axis in the workpiece as it makes a cut. there is no post processing that is required. Tool replacement time . For a multi-point tool.Also referred to as non-productive time. In determining the cycle time. Cut time . measured in inches per tooth (IPT). or else it will result in a high load on the tool and reduce the tool life. A large axial depth of cut will require a low feed rate. plan the tool movements (whether performed manually or by machine). The feed rate is measured in inches per minute (IPM) and is the product of the cutting feed (IPR) and the spindle speed (RPM). This idle time includes the tool approaching and retracting from the workpiece. measured in inches per revolution (IPR). The scrap material. as well as the time to unload the finished part. Idle time . secondary processes may be used to improve the surface finish of the part if it is required.The rotational speed of the spindle and tool in revolutions per minute (RPM). Cutting parameters In milling.Process Cycle The time required to produce a given quantity of parts includes the initial setup time and the cycle time for each part.The time required for the cutter to make all the necessary cuts in the workpiece for each operation. the speed and motion of the cutting tool is specified through several parameters. the tool replacement time is adjusted for the production of a single part by multiplying by the frequency of a tool replacement. The setup time is composed of the time to setup the milling machine. in the form of small material chips cut from the workpiece. which is the speed of the cutter relative to the workpiece. the cutting feed is also equal to the feed per tooth. The spindle speed is equal to the cutting speed divided by the circumference of the tool.The speed of the cutting tool's movement relative to the workpiece as the tool makes a cut. The cut time for any given operation is calculated by dividing the total cut length for that operation by the feed rate. Following the milling process cycle. In some operations the tool feeds into the workpiece and in others the workpiece feeds into the tool.

or else it will result in a high load on the tool and reduce the tool life. If the radial depth of cut is equal to the tool diameter. such as a profile. pocket. Peripheral cut Slot cut Operations During the process cycle. End milling . across the workpiece in order to machine a specified feature. a variety of operations may be performed to the workpiece to yield the desired part shape. determined by the step-over distance.A chamfer end mill makes a peripheral cut along an edge of the workpiece or a feature to create an angled surface. A large radial depth of cut will require a low feed rate. If the radial depth of cut is less than the tool radius. and makes another cut at the radial depth of cut. the tool is only partially engaged and is making a peripheral cut. can be machined on either the exterior or interior of a part and can follow either a straight or curved path. slot. known as a chamfer. or even a complex surface contour.Radial depth of cut . Therefore.An end mill makes either peripheral or slot cuts. This chamfer. typically with a 45 degree angle. The depth of the feature may be machined in a single pass or may be reached by machining at a smaller axial depth of cut and making multiple passes. . The following operations are each defined by the type of cutter used and the path of that cutter to remove material from the workpiece. Chamfer milling .The depth of the tool along its radius in the workpiece as it makes a cut. a feature is often machined in several steps as the tool moves over the stepover distance. the cutting tool is fully engaged and is making a slot cut.

Counterboring . or a through hole. which extends completely through the workpiece. to sit below the surface of a part. Boring is commonly performed after drilling a hole in order to enlarge the diameter or obtain more precise dimensions. such as a bolt.Face milling . Boring . Counterboring is often performed after drilling to provide space for the head of a fastener. The existing hole is typically drilled by the required tap drill size that will accommodate the desired tap. A drilling operation can produce a blind hole. which extends to some depth inside the workpiece. which can be set to cut the desired diameter by using an adjustable boring head. Tapping .A tap enters the workpiece axially and cuts internal threads into an existing hole. Drilling . typically very small. .A drill enters the workpiece axially and cuts a hole with a diameter equal to that of the tool. The depth of the face.A reamer enters the workpiece axially and enlarges an existing hole to the diameter of the tool.A boring tool enters the workpiece axially and cuts along an internal surface to form different features. The counterboring tool has a pilot on the end to guide it straight into the existing hole.A face mill machines a flat surface of the workpiece in order to provide a smooth finish. The boring tool is a singlepoint cutting tool. Threads may be cut to a specified depth inside the hole (bottom tap) or the complete depth of a through hole (through tap). Reaming . may be machined in a single pass or may be reached by machining at a smaller axial depth of cut and making multiple passes. Reaming removes a minimal amount of material and is often performed after drilling to obtain both a more accurate diameter and a smoother internal finish.An counterbore tool enters the workpiece axially and enlarges the top portion of an existing hole to the diameter of the tool.

horizontal milling is sometimes referred to as arbor milling. A vertical milling machine. which typically has "T" shaped slots along its surface. the cutter rotates along a horizontal axis and the side of the cutter removes material from the workpiece. Saddle . The arbor is supported on one side by an overarm. on the other hand. the knee is fixed while the cutter moves vertically in order to cut the workpiece. The saddle is also able to move and provides the horizontal motion of the workpiece in the Y-direction by sliding transversely along another platform called the knee. In most milling machines. A horizontal milling machine uses a cutter that is mounted on a horizontal shaft. the knee provides the vertical motion (Z direction) of the workpiece. For this reason.The workpiece that will be milled is mounted onto a platform called the table. sometimes called column and knee milling machines.The saddle is the platform that supports the table and allows its longitudinal motion.The knee is the platform that supports the saddle and the table. called an arbor. The workpiece may be secured in a fixture called a vise. The cutter is secured inside a piece called a collet. creating two very distinct forms of milling machine. The knee can move vertically along the column. in a fixed bed machine. Knee . called the saddle. A large column is attached to the base and connects to the other components. and on the other side by the spindle. which is . which is secured into the T-slots. The spindle is driven by a motor and therefore rotates the arbor. which is connected to the column. During milling. yet they still possess the same main components that enable the workpiece to be moved in three directions relative to the tool.Equipment Milling machines can be found in a variety of sizes and designs. These components include the following: Base and column . orients the cutter vertically. Table . Manual vertical milling machine The above components of the milling machine can be oriented either vertically or horizontally. The table provides the horizontal motion of the workpiece in the X-direction by sliding along a platform beneath it. thus moving the workpiece vertically while the cutter remains stationary above it. above the workpiece.The base of a milling machine is simply the platform that sits on the ground and supports the machine. However. or the workpiece can be clamped directly into these slots.

The teeth may be straight along the side of the cutter. The interior of the tool will be hollow so that it can be mounted onto the arbor. Also. they also differ based upon their orientation. With this basic form. the cutters take a very different form. A larger number of teeth will provide a better surface finish. Plane (helical) mill Form relieved mill Staggered tooth mill Double angle mill Another operation known as a straddle milling is also possible with a horizontal milling machine. The angle of the spindle and cutter can be changed. Straddle milling can be used to form a complex feature with a single cut. saddle. including those listed below. called the shank. The operator adjusts the position of the cutter by using hand cranks that move the table. thus allowing for the formation of a variety of features. While these cutters differ greatly in diameter. which is attached to the column. Flat end mill Ball end mill Chamfer mill Face mill Twist drill Reamer . The spaces between the teeth are called flutes and allow the material chips to move away from the workpiece. Milling machines are also able to be computer controlled. A cutter that will be used in a horizontal milling machine will have the teeth extend along the entire length of the tool. length. while the remaining length is a smooth surface. Tooling The tooling that is required for milling is a sharp cutter that will be rotated by the spindle. The milling operations performed on a vertical milling machine remove material by using both the bottom and sides of the cutter.then attached to the vertically oriented spindle. The programs that are written are often called G-codes or NC-codes. in which case they are referred to as a computer numerical control (CNC) milling machine. A manual milling machine requires the operator to control the motion of the cutter during the milling operation. Many CNC milling machines also contain another axis of motion besides the standard X-Y-Z motion. Milling machines can also be classified by the type of control that is used. there are still many different types of cutters that can be used in horizontal milling. whether they will be used horizontally or vertically. This form of milling refers to the use of multiple cutters attached to the arbor and used simultaneously. for attachment to the spindle. For vertical milling machines. The spindle is located inside the milling head. but are more commonly arranged in a helix. the number of teeth on a cutter varies. The shank is the section of the cutter that is secured inside the collet. CNC milling machines move the workpiece and cutter based on commands that are preprogrammed and offer very high precision. The helix angle reduces the load on the teeth by distributing the forces. and by the shape of the cut they will form. Also. many vertical cutters are designed to cut using both the sides and the bottom of the cutter. The cutters that can be used for milling operations are highly diverse. The cutter is a cylindrical tool with sharp teeth spaced around the exterior. Listed below are several common vertical cutters. The cutter teeth cover only a portion of the tool. allowing for even more complex shapes to be milled. and knee.

and shaped beams (I-beams. L-beams. cost. but will also require time to change the tool each time it becomes too worn. and resistance to wear.). etc. T-beams. Also. which can get quite hot during milling. Typical cutting fluids include mineral. etc. and reduce the friction at the interface between the cutter and the workpiece.Tap All cutters that are used in milling can be found in a variety of materials. hollow tubes (rectangular. The most common cutter materials that are used include the following: High-speed steel (HSS) Carbide Carbon steel Cobalt high speed steel The material of the cutter is chosen based upon a number of factors. including most metals and plastics. as it greatly affects the manufacturing costs. thus extending the life of the tool. and the material chips can be pushed away. higher feed rates can be used. This stock is available in a variety of shapes such as flat sheets. Tool wear can also be reduced by spraying a lubricant and/or coolant on the cutter and workpiece during milling. These properties include the cutter's hardness. and water soluble oils.). synthetic. Custom extrusions or existing parts such as castings or forgings are also sometimes used.). Common materials that are used in milling include the following: Aluminum . This fluid is used to reduce the temperature of the cutter. etc. toughness. Tool life is an important characteristic that is considered when selecting a cutter. thus increasing the tool life. Materials In milling. A short tool life will not only require additional tools to be purchased. and tool life. cylindrical. hexagonal. the raw form of the material is a piece of stock from which the workpieces are cut. cylindrical. solid bars (rectangular. the surface finish can be improved. which will determine the cutter's properties and the workpiece materials for which it is best suited. by spraying a fluid during milling. The cutters listed above often have the teeth coated with a different material to provide additional wear resistance. including the material of the workpiece. Flat sheet Rectangular bar Rectangular tube I-beam Milling can be performed on workpieces in variety of materials.

Brass Magnesium Nickel Steel Thermoset plastics Titanium Zinc

When selecting a material, several factors must be considered, including the cost, strength, resistance to wear, and machinability. The machinability of a material is difficult to quantify, but can be said to posses the following characteristics:

Results in a good surface finish Promotes long tool life Requires low force and power to mill Provides easy collection of chips Possible Defects Most defects in milling are inaccuracies in a feature's dimensions or surface roughness. There are several possible causes for these defects, including the following: Incorrect cutting parameters - If the cutting parameters such as the feed rate, spindle speed, or axial depth of cut are too high, the surface of the workpiece will be rougher than desired and may contain scratch marks or even burn marks. Also, a large depth of cut may result in vibration of the cutter and cause inaccuracies in the cut. Dull cutter - As a cutter is used, the teeth will wear down and become dull. A dull cutter is less capable of making precision cuts. Unsecured workpiece - If the workpiece is not securely clamped in the fixture, the friction of milling may cause it to shift and alter the desired cuts.

Design Rules Workpiece Select a material that minimizes overall cost. An inexpensive workpiece may result in longer cut times and more tool wear, increasing the total cost Minimize the amount of milling that is required by pre-cutting the workpiece close to the desired size and shape Select the size of the workpiece such that a large enough surface exists for the workpiece to be securely clamped. Also, the clamped surface should allow clearance between the tool and the fixture for any cuts

Features Minimize the number of setups that are required by designing all features on one side of the workpiece, if possible Design features, such as holes and threads, to require tools of standard sizes Minimize the number of tools that are required Ensure that the depth of any feature is less than the tool length and therefore will avoid the collet contacting the workpiece Lower requirements for tolerance and surface roughness, if possible, in order to reduce costs Design internal vertical edges to have a corner radius equal to that of a standard tool. If another component with an external sharp edge must fit, then drill a hole to provide a relief area Avoid very long and thin features Use chamfers rather than a corner radius for outside horizontal edges Avoid undercuts Cost Drivers Material cost The material cost is determined by the quantity of material stock that is required and the unit price of that stock. The amount of stock is determined by the workpiece size, stock size, method of cutting the stock, and the production quantity. The unit price of the material stock is affected by the material and the workpiece shape. Also, any cost attributed to cutting the workpieces from the stock also contributes to the total material cost. Production cost The production cost is a result of the total production time and the hourly rate. The production time includes the setup time, load time, cut time, idle time, and tool replacement time. Decreasing any of these time components will reduce cost. The setup time and load time are dependent upon the skill of the operator. The cut time, however, is dependent upon many factors that affect the cut length and feed rate. The cut length can be shortened by optimizing the number of operations that are required and reducing the feature size if possible. The feed rate is affected by the operation type, workpiece material, tool material, tool size, and various cutting parameters such as the axial depth of cut. Lastly, the tool replacement time is a direct result of the number of tool replacements which is discussed regarding the tooling cost. Tooling cost The tooling cost for machining is determined by the total number of cutting tools required and the unit price for each tool. The quantity of tools depends upon the number of unique tools required by the various operations to be performed and the amount of wear that each of those tools experience. If the tool wear exceeds the lifetime of a tool, then a replacement tool must be purchased. The lifetime of a tool is dependant upon the tool material, cutting parameters such as cutting speed, and the total cut time. The unit price of a tool is affected by the tool type, size, and material. Turning Turning is a form of machining, a material removal process, which is used to create rotational parts by cutting away unwanted material. The turning process requires a turning machine or lathe, workpiece, fixture, and cutting tool. The workpiece is a piece of preshaped material that is secured to the fixture, which itself is attached to the turning machine, and allowed to rotate at high speeds. The cutter is typically a single-point cutting tool that is also secured in the machine, although some operations make use of multi-point tools. The cutting tool feeds into the rotating workpiece and cuts away material in the form of small chips to create the desired shape.

Turning is used to produce rotational, typically axi-symmetric, parts that have many features, such as holes, grooves, threads, tapers, various diameter steps, and even contoured surfaces. Parts that are fabricated completely through turning often include components that are used in limited quantities, perhaps for prototypes, such as custom designed shafts and fasteners. Turning is also commonly used as a secondary process to add or refine features on parts that were manufactured using a different process. Due to the high tolerances and surface finishes that turning can offer, it is ideal for adding precision rotational features to a part whose basic shape has already been formed.

Capabilities Typical Feasible Thin-walled: Cylindrical Shapes: Solid: Cylindrical Diameter: 0.02 - 80 in Part size: Ceramics Alloy Steel Composites Carbon Steel Lead Cast Iron Nickel Stainless Steel Tin Materials: Aluminum Titanium Copper Elastomer Magnesium Thermoplastics Zinc Thermosets 16 - 125 in 2 - 250 in Surface finish: ± 0.001 in. ± 0.0002 in. Tolerance: 0.02 - 2.5 in. 0.02 - 80 in. Wall thickness: 1 - 1000000 Production quantity: 1 - 1000 Days Hours Lead time: All materials compatible Very good tolerances Advantages: Short lead times Limited to rotational parts Part may require several operations and machines High equipment cost Disadvantages: Significant tool wear Large amount of scrap Machine components, shafts, engine components Applications:

Process Cycle The time required to produce a given quantity of parts includes the initial setup time and the cycle time for each part. The setup time is composed of the time to setup the turning machine, plan the tool movements (whether performed manually or by machine), and install the fixture device into the turning machine. The cycle time can be divided into the following four times:

Load/Unload time - The time required to load the workpiece into the turning machine and secure it to the fixture, as well as the time to unload the finished part. The load time can depend on the size, weight, and complexity of the workpiece, as well as the type of fixture. Cut time

Feed rate .The speed of the workpiece surface relative to the edge of the cutting tool during a cut. Cutting feed . This idle time includes the tool approaching and retracting from the workpiece. as in a facing operation. Idle time . multiplied by the number of teeth on the cutting tool.Also referred to as non-productive time. The scrap material.. the spindle speed must vary based on the diameter of the cut. measured in surface feet per minute (SFM). in the form of small material chips cut from the workpiece.The rotational speed of the spindle and the workpiece in revolutions per minute (RPM). which is the cut time divided by the tool lifetime. tool size. or else it will result in a high load on the tool and reduce the tool life. a feature is typically machined in several passes as the tool moves to the specified axial depth of cut for each pass. Therefore.The time required for the cutting tool to make all the necessary cuts in the workpiece for each operation. . and more.The depth of the tool along the axis of the workpiece as it makes a cut. Tool replacement time . The spindle speed is equal to the cutting speed divided by the circumference of the workpiece where the cut is being made. the cutting feed is also equal to the feed per tooth.The distance that the cutting tool or workpiece advances during one revolution of the spindle. there is no post processing that is required. Cutting parameters In turning. Therefore. However. In determining the cycle time. Spindle speed .The speed of the cutting tool's movement relative to the workpiece as the tool makes a cut. These parameters are selected for each operation based upon the workpiece material. This time is typically not performed in every cycle. The feed rate is measured in inches per minute (IPM) and is the product of the cutting feed (IPR) and the spindle speed (RPM). is propelled away from the workpiece by the motion of the cutting tool and the spraying of lubricant. which can be collected and discarded after the production. adjusting machine settings. The cut time for any given operation is calculated by dividing the total cut length for that operation by the feed rate. A large axial depth of cut will require a low feed rate. then the cutting speed will vary. If the spindle speed is held constant. Following the turning process cycle. measured in inches per revolution (IPR). no process cycle step is required to remove the scrap material. and changing tools. In some operations the tool feeds into the workpiece and in others the workpiece feeds into the tool. the tool replacement time is adjusted for the production of a single part by multiplying by the frequency of a tool replacement. tool material. secondary processes may be used to improve the surface finish of the part if it is required. measured in inches per tooth (IPT). tool movements between features. which is the speed of the tool relative to the workpiece. In order to maintain a constant cutting speed. Axial depth of cut . but rather only after the lifetime of the tool has been reached. this is the time required for any tasks that occur during the process cycle that do not engage the workpiece and therefore remove material.The time required to replace a tool that has exceeded its lifetime and therefore become to worn to cut effectively. the speed and motion of the cutting tool is specified through several parameters. For a multipoint tool. Cutting speed .

Radial depth of cut . . or else it will result in a high load on the tool and reduce the tool life. cutting a groove equal in width to the cutting tool. removing material to form different features. External operations Turning . including steps. and contours. as in a turning or boring operation. while internal operations modify the inner diameter. along the side of the workpiece. typically very small. Therefore. chamfers. These features are typically machined at a small radial depth of cut and multiple passes are made until the end diameter is reached. External operations modify the outer diameter of the workpiece. along the end of the workpiece.A single-point turning tool moves radially.A single-point turning tool moves radially. Grooving . removing a thin layer of material to provide a smooth flat surface. tapers. a variety of operations may be performed to the workpiece to yield the desired part shape. may be machined in a single pass or may be reached by machining at a smaller axial depth of cut and making multiple passes. The following operations are each defined by the type of cutter used and the path of that cutter to remove material from the workpiece. into the side of the workpiece. a feature is often machined in several steps as the tool moves over at the radial depth of cut.The depth of the tool along the radius of the workpiece as it makes a cut. Operations During the process cycle. These operations may be classified as external or internal. A large radial depth of cut will require a low feed rate. The depth of the face. Multiple cuts can be made to form grooves larger than the tool width and special form tools can be used to create grooves of varying geometries. Facing .A single-point turning tool moves axially.

a single-point cut-off tool moves radially. cutting threads into the outer surface.Similar to grooving. Internal operations Drilling .Cut-off (parting) . chamfers. such as steps. Boring is commonly performed after drilling a hole in order to enlarge the diameter or obtain more precise dimensions. Boring . The threads can be cut to a specified length and pitch and may require multiple passes to be formed. along the side of the workpiece.A single-point threading tool. Reaming removes a minimal amount of material and is often performed after drilling to obtain both a more accurate diameter and a smoother internal finish. thus parting or cutting off a section of the workpiece. into the side of the workpiece.A drill enters the workpiece axially through the end and cuts a hole with a diameter equal to that of the tool. and contours. Thread cutting .A reamer enters the workpiece axially through the end and enlarges an existing hole to the diameter of the tool. The boring tool is a single-point cutting tool. which can be set to cut the desired diameter by using an adjustable boring head.A boring tool enters the workpiece axially and cuts along an internal surface to form different features. moves axially. Reaming . tapers. . and continues until the center or inner diameter of the workpiece is reached. typically with a 60 degree pointed nose.

While most lathes are horizontal turning machines. typically referred to as lathes. Headstock assembly . A manual lathe requires the operator to control the motion of the cutting tool during the turning operation. Turning machines can also be classified by the type of control that is offered. CNC lathes rotate the workpiece and move the cutting tool based on commands that are preprogrammed and offer very high precision. Equipment Turning machines. Turning machines are also able to be computer controlled.Tapping . Tailstock assembly . The existing hole is typically drilled by the required tap drill size that will accommodate the desired tap. In this variety of turning machines. This assembly contains the motor and drive system which powers the spindle. typically for large diameter workpieces. such as a chuck or collet.A tap enters the workpiece axially through the end and cuts internal threads into an existing hole. vertical machines are sometimes used. which is secured in a workpiece holder or fixture.The bed of the turning machine is simply a large base that sits on the ground or a table and supports the other components of the machine.The headstock assembly is the front section of the machine that is attached to the bed. in which case they are referred to as a computer numerical control (CNC) lathe. The spindle supports and rotates the workpiece. the main components that enable the workpiece to be rotated and the cutting tool to be fed into the workpiece remain the same. These components include the following: Manual lathe Bed . can be found in a variety of sizes and designs.

As with the carriage. live tooling can also be used. Turret . the cross slide is powered by a motor or hand wheel. The cutting tool is secured in a tool post which is fixed to the compound.The cross slide is attached to the top of the carriage and allows the tool to move towards or away from the workpiece. and is advanced by a lead screw powered by a motor or hand wheel.0 degree square nose tools Style D . which can hold multiple cutting tools and rotates the required tool into position to cut the workpiece. drills.0 degree lead-angle turning tools Style B . Cross slide . such as mills. which rotate and cut the workpiece. These inserts can vary in size and shape.The carriage is a platform that slides alongside the workpiece. live tooling can also be used for turning. but are . drills. Tooling The tooling that is required for turning is typically a sharp single-point cutting tool that is either a single piece of metal or a long rectangular tool shank with a sharp insert attached to the end. The carriage rests on tracks that lay on the bed. reamers. which includes the use of mills. While most cutting tools are stationary in the turret. or diamond shaped piece. reamers. allowing the cutting tool to cut away material as it moves. Compound .15 degree lead-angle turning tools Style C . feeding the cutting tool into the material. which indicates in which direction they move along the workpiece while making a cut. and taps. As described in the previous section. Some common types of tools are as follows: Style A . The spaces between the teeth are called flutes and allow the material chips to move away from the workpiece. changing the depth of cut. the workpiece is not supported by the tailstock so that material can be removed from the end.The tailstock assembly is the rear section of the machine that is attached to the bed. Live tooling refers to powered tools. For some turning operations. and taps. The teeth may be straight along the side of the cutter. as it's driven by the spindle.60 degree included angle pointed-nose tools Cutoff tools Form tools The above tools are often specified as being right or left handed. These single point cutting tools are available in a variety of shapes that allow for the formation of different features. These cutting tools are inserted into the turret or a tool holder and fed into the rotating workpiece to cut away material. The turret also moves along the workpiece. These are cylindrical multi-point cutting tools that have sharp teeth spaced around the exterior. triangle.Some machines include a turret. The compound can rotate to alter the angle of the cutting tool relative to the workpiece. called "ways". but are typically a square. Carriage .The compound is attached on top of the cross slide and supports the cutting tool..80 degree included angle pointed-nose tools Style E . The purpose of this assembly is to support the other end of the workpiece and allow it to rotate.

cost. and resistance to wear. while the remaining length is a smooth surface. These properties include the tool's hardness. the number of teeth on a cutter varies. Tool life is an important characteristic that is considered when selecting a tool. as it greatly affects the manufacturing costs. Round bar Round tube Custom extrusions Turning can be performed on a variety of materials. Materials In turning. including most metals and plastics. toughness. and tool life.more commonly arranged in a helix. Common materials that are used in turning include the following: Aluminum Brass Magnesium Nickel . including the material of the workpiece. A larger number of teeth will provide a better surface finish. All cutting tools that are used in turning can be found in a variety of materials. but will also require time to change the tool each time it becomes too worn. which will determine the tool's properties and the workpiece materials for which it is best suited. the raw form of the material is a piece of stock from which the workpieces are cut. The most common tool materials that are used include the following: High-speed steel (HSS) Carbide Carbon steel Cobalt high speed steel The material of the tool is chosen based upon a number of factors. Custom extrusions or existing parts such as castings or forgings are also sometimes used. Also. The cutter teeth cover only a portion of the tool. called the shank. The shank is the section of the cutter that is secured inside the tool holder. The helix angle reduces the load on the teeth by distributing the forces. This stock is available in a variety of shapes such as solid cylindrical bars and hollow tubes. A short tool life will not only require additional tools to be purchased.

the sharp edge will wear down and become dull. Also.Steel Thermoset plastics Titanium Zinc When selecting a material. A dull tool is less capable of making precision cuts. The machinability of a material is difficult to quantify. spindle speed. strength. An inexpensive workpiece may result in longer cut times and more tool wear. including the cost. or depth of cut are too high. a large depth of cut may result in vibration of the tool and cause inaccuracies in the cut. including the following: Incorrect cutting parameters .As a tool is used. the friction of turning may cause it to shift and alter the desired cuts. There are several possible causes for these defects.If the workpiece is not securely clamped in the fixture. Dull cutting tool . Design Rules Workpiece Select a material that minimizes overall cost. increasing the total cost Minimize the amount of turning that is required by pre-cutting the workpiece close to the desired size and shape Select the size of the workpiece such that a large enough surface exists for the workpiece to be securely clamped. but can be said to posses the following characteristics: Results in a good surface finish Promotes long tool life Requires low force and power to turn Provides easy collection of chips Possible Defects Most defects in turning are inaccuracies in a feature's dimensions or surface roughness. the clamped surface should allow clearance between the tool and the fixture for any cuts .If the cutting parameters such as the feed rate. several factors must be considered. Unsecured workpiece . the surface of the workpiece will be rougher than desired and may contain scratch marks or even burn marks. resistance to wear. Also. and machinability.

Features Minimize the number of setups that are required by designing all features to be accessible from one setup Design features. The production time includes the setup time. and material. The cutting tool is a cylindrical tool with sharp teeth that is secured inside a piece called a collet. which rotates the tool at high speeds. load time. The workpiece is a piece of pre-shaped material that is secured to the fixture. to require tools of standard sizes Minimize the number of tools that are required Ensure that the depth of any feature is less than the tool length and therefore will avoid the tool holder contacting the workpiece Lower requirements for tolerance and surface roughness. a material removal process. which itself is attached to a platform inside the machine. creates features on a part by cutting away the unwanted material and requires a machine. Specialized equipment also exists for hole-making. and cutting tool. Lastly. size. fixture. The unit price of a tool is affected by the tool type. the tool replacement time is a direct result of the number of tool replacements which is discussed regarding the tooling cost. However. stock size. workpiece material. If the tool wear exceeds the lifetime of a tool. The amount of stock is determined by the workpiece size. cut time. The unit price of the material stock is affected by the material and the workpiece shape. The cut length can be shortened by optimizing the number of operations that are required and reducing the feature size if possible. The feed rate is affected by the operation type. such as drill presses or tapping machines. tool material. and the total cut time. Machining. which is then attached to the spindle. however. and the production quantity. By feeding the rotating tool into the workpiece. if possible. including general machining equipment such as CNC milling machines or CNC turning machines. Decreasing any of these time components will reduce cost. and various cutting parameters such as the radial depth of cut. The quantity of tools depends upon the number of unique tools required by the various operations to be performed and the amount of wear that each of those tools experience. The lifetime of a tool is dependant upon the tool material. Drilling Hole-making is a class of machining operations that are specifically used to cut a hole into a workpiece. cutting parameters such as cutting speed. then a replacement tool must be purchased. method of cutting the stock. material is cut away in the form of small chips to create the desired feature. The cut time. in order to reduce costs Avoid undercuts Cost Drivers Material cost The material cost is determined by the quantity of material stock that is required and the unit price of that stock. Hole-making can be performed on a variety of machines. tool size. such as holes and threads. Also. workpiece. any cost attributed to cutting the workpieces from the stock also contributes to the total material cost. and tool replacement time. The setup time and load time are dependent upon the skill of the operator. is dependent upon many factors that affect the cut length and feed rate. Hole-making operations are typically performed amongst many other operations in the machining of a part. Production cost The production cost is a result of the total production time and the hourly rate. Tooling cost The tooling cost for machining is determined by the total number of cutting tools required and the unit price for each tool. idle time. hole-making .

and metric sizes. The pitch is a measure of the spacing between threads and may be expressed in the English standard. which may be straight or in a helix. A drill bit is a multi-point tool and typically has a pointed end. letter sizes. Depth . or the build up of chips of material. While all machined holes have the same basic form they can still differ in many ways to best suit a given application. but they require end milling operations not hole-making operations.A reamer enters the workpiece axially and enlarges an existing hole to the diameter of the tool. a hole is a cylindrical feature that is cut from the workpiece by a rotating cutting tool that enters the workpiece axially. A blind hole may have a flat bottom. determined by the selected tool. or in the metric standard. can also be machined. each using a different type of cutting tool and forming a different type of hole. which has a cylindrical recess. such as a center drill. Hole-making operations Several hole-making operations exist. A reamer is a multi-point tool that has many flutes. Machined holes In machining. The total depth of the hole is limited by the length of the cutting tool. Tolerance .A machined hole may extend to a point within the workpiece.In any machining operation. Several standards exist including fractional sizes. When specifying the depth of a hole. A twist drill is the most commonly used. known as a through hole. including the sharpness of the tool. The cutting tools used for holemaking are available in standard sizes that can be as small as 0. but other types of drill bits.A drill bit enters the workpiece axially and cuts a blind hole or a through hole with a diameter equal to that of the tool. as the number of threads per inch (TPI). or tap drill can be used to start a hole that will be completed by another operation Reaming . The specified tolerance of a hole will determine the method of holemaking used. one may reference the depth to the point or the depth to the end of the full diameter portion of the hole. Threads . Diameter . such as a casting or forging. spot drill. as the distance in millimeters (mm) between threads. number sizes. Reaming removes a minimal amount of material and is often performed after drilling to obtain both a more accurate diameter and a smoother internal finish. A custom tool can be created to machine a non-standard diameter. Drilling . known as a blind hole. The hole will have the same diameter of the cutting tool and match the geometry (which may include a pointed end). as some methods are suited for tight-tolerance holes. or it may extend completely through the workpiece. This can be done to add features that were too costly to form during the primary process or to improve the tolerance or surface finish of existing holes. A machined hole can be characterized by several different parameters or features which will determine the hole-making operation and tool that is required. but it is more cost effective to use the closest standard sized tool.Holes can be machined in a wide variety of diameters. Two types of recessed holes are a counterbore.may be performed as a secondary machining process for an existing part. which has a cone-shaped recess. Non-cylindrical features. Recessed top . This is typically done to accommodate the head of a fastener and allow it to sit flush with the workpiece surface.A common feature of machined holes is to recess the top of the hole into the workpiece.0019 inches and as large as 3 inches. and a countersink. the precision of a cut can be affected by several factors. . or pockets.Threaded holes are machined to accommodate a threaded fastener and are typically specified by their outer diameter and pitch. but typically ends in a point due to the pointed end of the tool. any vibration of the tool.

0047 0. Common included angles for a countersink include 60. such as a bolt.1092 0. but larger tools are also commonly used. Fractional sizes are measured in inches. rill Size Chart The drill size chart provides a list of standard size drill bits in several measurement systems.Tapping . while metric sizes are measured in millimeters. which can be set to cut the desired diameter by using an adjustable boring head.0055 0. 100.0686 0. Counterboring .0027 0. and letter.1397 0.0500 0.1499 .0020 0. The counterboring tool has a pilot on the end to guide it straight into the existing hole. Counterboring is often performed after drilling to provide space for the head of a fastener.0051 0. The boring tool is a single-point cutting tool. The decimal equivalents of the diameters are shown in both English and Metric units. Threads may be cut to a specified depth inside the hole (bottom tap) or the complete depth of a through hole (through tap). Download charts: English Metric Drill size standard: Fractional Letter Wire Gauge Metric Drill size #107 0. 82.0991 0. such as a screw.A countersink tool enters the workpiece axially and enlarges the top portion of an existing hole to a cone-shaped opening.A tap enters the workpiece axially and cuts internal threads into an existing hole.5 inches in diameter.1194 0.1 mm #101 #100 #99 #98 #97 Diameter (in) 0.0035 0. The tap is selected based on the major diameter and pitch of the threaded hole.0019 0.1000 0.0043 0. Countersinking .0483 0.A boring tool enters the workpiece axially and cuts along the internal surface of an existing hole to enlarge the diameter or obtain more precise dimensions. metric.0031 0.0023 0. The existing hole is typically drilled by the required tap drill size that will accommodate the desired tap. including fractional.0584 0.0787 0. Countersinking is often performed after drilling to provide space for the head of a fastener. Boring . 90.0889 0.0059 Diameter (mm) 0. The drill size chart contains tools up to 1. to sit flush with the workpiece surface.05 mm #106 #105 #104 #103 #102 0. wire gauge number.0039 0. and 120 degrees.A counterbore tool enters the workpiece axially and enlarges the top portion of an existing hole to the diameter of the tool. 118.0039 0.1295 0. The wire gauge and letter systems refer to tool diameters that increase as the wire gauge decreases from #107 to #1 and then continues from A to Z. to sit flush with the workpiece surface.

0394 0.0380 0.0260 0.0095 0.0200 0.0087 0.7874 0.4 mm #78 #77 0.0240 0.8890 0.0350 0.0310 0.0354 0.0063 0.8382 0.0236 0.0110 0.0330 0.2000 0.1803 0.0360 0.4572 0.1702 0.0067 0.5 mm #76 #75 #74 0.9000 0.0120 0.3048 0.2210 0.0075 0.0130 0.2794 0.2311 0.Drill size #96 #95 #94 #93 0.0313 0.2540 0.3302 0.9652 0.0180 0.2667 0.0320 0.0100 0.3969 0.3000 0.6000 0.4064 0.0156 0.0079 0.6350 0.3680 0.7000 0.7112 0.6604 0.0370 0.0225 0.2 mm #92 #91 #90 #89 #88 #87 #86 #85 #84 0.0145 0.1600 0.7417 0.0091 0.3429 0.0315 0.2921 0.0083 0.2007 0.8000 0.0160 .0292 0.0158 0.0197 0.5000 0.2108 0.0079 0.2413 0.9906 1.5334 0.9144 0.1905 0.0160 0.0280 0.5080 0.9 mm #64 #63 #62 #61 1 mm #60 Diameter (in) 0.0105 0.3175 0.0390 0.0135 0.0400 Diameter (mm) 0.0118 0.0210 0.9398 0.0071 0.5715 0.0115 0.0250 0.7938 0.7 mm #70 #69 #68 1/32 in 0.6 mm #73 #72 #71 0.0000 1.6096 0.0125 0.3 mm #83 #82 #81 #80 #79 1/64 in 0.0276 0.4000 0.8 mm #67 #66 #65 0.8128 0.

5 mm #39 #38 2.1906 1.0625 0.0520 0.9939 2.3000 2.1040 0.4892 2.1844 2.1065 0.0410 0.5781 2.0781 0.0906 0.0828 2.5875 1.0574 2.7780 1.0860 0.5113 1.1811 1.8000 1.9 mm #48 5/64 in #47 2 mm #46 #45 2.2 mm #43 2.0433 0.4 mm 1.0995 0.0512 0.8000 .0984 0.6 mm #37 2.0635 0.4 mm #41 #40 2.0810 0.3970 1.6129 1.0866 0.7 mm #36 7/64 in #35 2.5000 2.0000 2.9000 1.9304 1.0670 0.0938 0.0730 0.0420 0.2000 2.1 mm #44 2.1000 2.7781 2.0945 0.2 mm 1.1063 0.8542 1.0935 0.3813 2.0550 0.2606 2.0709 0.6416 2.1100 0.3 mm #55 #54 1.4000 2.9844 1.0890 0.0820 0.0760 0.4384 2.0472 0.1094 0.1024 0.7018 1.5000 1.8 mm Diameter (in) 0.3000 1.0980 0.Drill size #59 #58 #57 1.7000 1.0591 0.0414 1.0827 0.0551 0.7000 2.3208 1.6000 1.6000 2.5 mm #53 1/16 in 1.8 mm #49 1.4000 1.1 mm #56 3/64 in 1.3 mm #42 3/32 in 2.7 mm #51 #50 1.6 mm #52 1.7940 2.0748 0.1102 Diameter (mm) 1.0595 0.0922 1.2000 1.7051 2.0785 0.1000 1.0630 0.0960 0.5273 2.0465 0.3749 2.0430 0.0669 0.1015 0.0700 0.0787 0.0668 1.0469 0.

1575 0.1732 0.1181 0.3053 4.1496 0.1563 0.1535 0.1417 0.8006 .3000 3.9464 3.6990 4.8702 2.0386 4.5000 3.1378 0.9 mm #23 5/32 in #22 4 mm #21 #20 4.1850 0.4000 3.1875 0.7625 4.4958 4.1614 0.3656 4.4 mm #16 4.1130 0.1160 0.3 mm 3.1770 0.1406 0.1470 0.1570 0.2639 3.5687 3.1850 0.4 mm #29 3.4544 3.9116 3.1299 0.1142 0.1719 0.1693 0.8000 3.0894 4.7000 4.2164 4.1772 0.9 mm #32 3 mm #31 3.1811 0.5720 4.1250 0.2 mm #19 4.1610 0.6000 3.1695 0.1457 0.3000 4.5000 4.6000 4.1800 0.1 mm 4.0000 4.1000 3.8194 2.1110 0.4000 4.1890 0.7000 3.Drill size #34 #33 2.5 mm #15 4.1730 0.2000 4.9000 3.2000 3.1660 0.1360 0.1 mm 1/8 in 3.1654 0.6 mm #14 #13 4.7 mm 3/16 in 4.1339 0.0480 3.1000 4.2 mm #30 3.1820 0.8 mm #12 Diameter (in) 0.1200 0.1260 0.7338 3.1221 0.9000 2.9878 4.7 mm #26 #25 3.1540 0.9688 3.1285 0.1590 0.3 mm #18 11/64 in #17 4.1750 3.7973 3.8 mm #24 3.8000 4.6576 3.1405 0.3942 4.5719 3.1520 0.1890 Diameter (mm) 2.8608 3.1495 0.1440 0.5 mm #28 9/64 in 3.0000 3.6 mm #27 3.6228 4.

9 mm A 15/64 in 6 mm B 6.6294 6.1910 0.7000 5.2055 0.3 mm #4 5.5 mm 7/32 in 5.6134 5.5000 5.1929 0.4000 6.2165 0.2559 0.2500 0.2598 0.5563 5.3500 6.2656 0.0000 6.7912 5.2380 0.6 mm #2 5.4102 5.1 mm C 6.9 mm I 7 mm J Diameter (in) 0.2000 6.4 mm #3 5.3 mm 1/4 in E 6.1594 5.2008 0.2638 0.8514 4.0546 5.2087 0.5278 6.3000 6.9 mm #10 #9 5 mm #8 5.1 mm #7 13/64 in #6 5.6000 6.8000 5.2188 0.2420 0.1960 0.3500 6.1000 5.Drill size #11 4.0358 .2090 0.2717 0.2 mm #5 5.7 mm #1 5.5000 6.4000 5.2126 0.2280 0.2040 0.2677 0.2460 0.2205 0.1816 5.6 mm G 6.2130 0.2770 Diameter (mm) 4.1054 5.9088 7.2210 0.3086 5.8 mm 5.5 mm F 6.9784 5.2756 0.7564 6.8000 6.2344 0.1990 0.2362 0.9531 6.2047 0.6000 5.1468 6.2031 0.2323 0.2197 5.2402 0.2720 0.9436 5.2284 0.2520 0.7 mm 17/64 in H 6.2500 0.7000 6.2244 0.0000 5.2570 0.4 mm 6.1969 0.2340 0.2 mm D 6.1000 6.3000 5.2610 0.9000 4.8 mm 6.0452 6.9000 5.2441 0.2660 0.7469 6.1935 0.9000 6.2010 0.0000 7.9149 4.2480 0.2484 6.2000 5.

3000 9.3860 Diameter (mm) 7.3819 0.9000 9.7313 8.6708 7.2 mm 9.5250 9.4000 9.3000 7.2953 0.2950 0.2900 0.6000 7.2 mm 7.2813 0.6 mm 9.3347 0.3750 0.4 mm 9.0932 9.2913 0.3390 0.3160 0.6 mm R 8.3344 8.5 mm 19/64 in 7.3770 0.3780 0.8392 8.3000 8.6000 8.7 mm 11/32 in 8.2795 0.5758 9.8 mm 7.3281 0.2992 0.3472 9.8000 7.0000 9.2835 0.3543 0.3071 0.2000 7.8000 9.3230 0.7000 7.1000 9.2000 8.3622 0.9 mm 9 mm T 9.2810 0.5 mm 3/8 in V 9.Drill size 7.1281 9.3701 0.1 mm 23/64 in 9.2 mm P 8.3 mm L 7.3594 0.5000 9.5 mm 8.3858 0.1374 7.3110 0.3320 0.4 mm M 7.8 mm S 8.7000 8.8000 8.8 mm W Diameter (in) 0.0000 8.1438 7.3228 0.2000 9.3425 0.1 mm 8.9375 8.3438 0.4000 7.3 mm U 9.2042 8.7000 9.3020 0.3189 0.7 mm 7.3740 0.3583 0.6000 9.2874 0.3661 0.0264 8.1000 7.3480 0.3465 0.4000 8.1 mm K 9/32 in 7.4 mm Q 8.9 mm 5/16 in 8 mm O 8.3504 0.3150 0.3268 0.3125 0.3032 0.9000 7.1000 8.3660 7.7 mm 9.3 mm 21/64 in 8.5000 7.3580 0.4930 7.6106 8.3386 0.6 mm N 7.5000 8.2969 0.3680 0.4328 8.8044 .3307 0.5406 7.

9000 9.8594 18.6250 0.3906 0.5000 11.8750 16.0000 15.0500 19.4938 13.Drill size 9.7344 0.6496 0.0000 12.7156 11.6299 0.5000 .4469 19.6719 0.6102 0.7188 0.5469 0.7480 0.4375 0.5 mm 17 mm 43/64 in 11/16 in 17.4130 0.5000 14.7677 Diameter (mm) 9.4688 0.0000 16.5 mm 47/64 in 19 mm 3/4 in 49/64 in 19.8906 14.4625 17.4902 10.5 mm 29/64 in 15/32 in 12 mm 31/64 in 12.3937 0.5315 0.5 mm 1/2 in 13 mm 33/64 in 17/32 in 13.1125 11.0000 10.0813 15.9 mm 25/64 in 10 mm X Y 13/32 in Z 10.5906 0.0000 18.6890 0.2563 18.5938 0.4531 0.3031 12.0000 13.4724 0.5000 13.0000 14.7284 0.6406 0.5000 0.2875 14.4528 0.3188 10.6875 0.5 mm Diameter (in) 0.5 mm 45/64 in 18 mm 23/32 in 18.5313 0.5156 0.5 mm 37/64 in 15 mm 19/32 in 39/64 in 15.4219 0.5512 0.7500 0.6094 0.6531 19.7656 0.2719 16.5625 0.2616 10.0656 17.5000 17.4040 0.9219 10.5709 0.6693 0.3898 0.5 mm 35/64 in 14 mm 9/16 in 14.4781 15.7000 13.5094 11.0000 19.4063 0.7031 0.5118 0.5 mm 27/64 in 11 mm 7/16 in 11.5 mm 5/8 in 16 mm 41/64 in 16.0969 13.5000 18.7087 0.4134 0.0000 11.4844 0.5781 0.5000 12.5000 15.3970 0.4331 0.6844 15.0838 10.4921 0.9063 12.5000 10.5000 17.0000 17.

1719 30 mm 1.0031 25.5000 28.3844 27.0000 24.5000 22.8438 21.9252 15/16 in 0.1406 29 mm 1.9375 24 mm 0.8594 22 mm 0.9843 63/64 in 0.1781 28.0630 1 5/64 in 1.0000 25.3688 29.5 mm 0.5750 28.7969 20.5 mm 1.1094 28.0344 21.5000 23.0000 27.7813 28.5000 26.4000 25.8750 22.0625 27 mm 1.7813 20 mm 0.5 mm 0.2094 24.5 mm 1.8125 24.1221 1 1/8 in 1.5 mm 0.9719 29.0156 26 mm 1.1024 1 7/64 in 1.5 mm 1.7874 51/64 in 0.7656 30.8465 55/64 in 0.9219 23.1614 1 11/64 in 1.5000 20.1563 29.8281 22.0039 1 1/64 in 1.1417 1 5/32 in 1.9531 24.0000 28.1938 26.0000 29.2406 20.6375 21.5 mm 1.8281 27/32 in 0.6063 25.0000 20.0000 26.9063 21/23 in 0.0313 26.5000 24.9688 25 mm 0.0938 28 mm 1.9844 1 in 1.0000 25.5000 21.0000 .9130 59/64 in 0.1250 1 9/64 in 1.0000 21.0000 23.4313 21.9055 29/32 in 0.9449 61/64 in 0.0469 1 1/16 in 1.0236 1 1/32 in 1.5 mm 0.2250 22.5 mm 0.Drill size Diameter (in) 25/32 in 0.5000 25.5906 26.6219 23.8661 7/8 in 0.8858 57/64 in 0.8438 20.1811 Diameter (mm) 19.0827 1 3/32 in 1.5000 29.5000 27.0433 1 3/64 in 1.8071 13/16 in 0.8268 53/64 in 0.9646 31/32 in 0.0188 23.5 mm 1.8125 21 mm 0.0781 27.0000 22.9875 27.1913 23.4156 23.8906 23 mm 0.7969 26.

and screw sizes.4370 1 7/16 in 1.2813 1 19/64 in 1. For each thread count.7188 36.5 mm 1. the approximate thread count is shown based on the pitch. while metric sizes are listed in millimeters following the letter "M".2031 1 7/32 in 1.4063 36 mm 1.5 mm 1.1469 32. specifying the diameter and thread spacing.2402 1 1/4 in 1.2598 1 17/64 in 1.3906 35.0000 35.3594 1 3/8 in 1. metric.5281 34.4173 1 27/64 in 1.4531 37 mm 1. measured in threads per inch.4375 1 29/64 in 1. A screw size number corresponds to a diameter which is larger for a higher screw size.0000 33.3583 1 23/64 in 1.4688 37.5 mm 1.2188 31 mm 1. the recommended tap drill size is provided for each standard tap size.5000 Diameter (mm) 30.3976 1 13/32 in 1.Drill size Diameter (in) 1 3/16 in 1.5 mm 1.2992 1 5/16 in 1.3780 1 25/64 in 1. In the fractional and screw size systems.3125 33.3063 37.2008 1 13/64 in 1.7031 38.5000 35.4764 1 31/64 in 1.0000 31.2500 32 mm 1.5 mm 1.5 mm 1.5000 34.2656 32.0000 34. measured in millimeters.4844 38 mm 1.5000 31.0000 38.3219 35.3531 31. the equivalent thread pitch is provided and for metric taps.2969 33 mm 1.9563 31. the thread count is used.3281 34 mm 1.2795 1 9/32 in 1.5 mm 1.9406 33.0000 37. which may be coarse or fine.4961 1 1/2 in 1.1000 Tap Size Chart The tap size chart provides a list of standard size taps.3438 34.5000 32.1313 34.0000 36.4567 1 15/32 in 1.5125 36.7344 34. Lastly. The metric system uses the thread pitch.5 mm 1.7500 32.9250 35. The decimal equivalents of the diameters are shown in both English and Metric units.3189 1 21/64 in 1.5000 37.5000 36. for fractional. Download charts: English Metric .1156 36.5000 33.5594 30. which is the distance between threads.1625 30.2205 1 15/64 in 1. This size drill bit should be used for drilling the initial hole that will then be tapped.2344 31.3375 33.3386 1 11/32 in 1.4219 36.3750 35 mm 1.5000 30.9094 37.0000 32.5438 32. is listed after the diameter.1875 30. Fractional sizes are listed in inches. The thread spacing.

95 mm 1.250 0.0787 #2-56 0.1750 3.1844 2.25 0.4000 1.0730 #1-72 0.0860 M2.5146 2.1575 M4x0.794 0.250 0.5x0.0433 #00-90 0.1640 Diameter (mm) 0.5000 3.2 mm 1.5 0.1380 #6-40 0.2x0.200 0.0000 4.5x0.5x0.200 0.1378 M3.8000 1.0984 #3-48 0.35 0.6 mm #50 #50 1.2 0.8x0.200 0.8448 2.5052 3.95 mm 1.1378 #6-32 0.2 0.5052 4.75 mm 1.577 0.2x0.0787 M2x0.350 0.2000 1.635 0.1120 M3x0.5 mm #39 #37 3.8448 3.282 0.4 mm 1.5146 2.1750 3.250 0.0630 M1.0433 M1.2 0.450 0.5 mm 3.0866 M2.35 0.350 0.350 0.3 0.212 0.5334 0.6 mm 1.350 0.2x0.0470 M1.6 mm 3.45 0.0551 M1.200 0.0709 M1.0551 #0-80 0.0340 M1x0.635 0.75 mm 2.250 0.0990 #4-40 0.200 0.8636 1.1250 #5-44 0.5000 3.1181 M3x0.5000 2.6x0.635 0.2000 2.706 Tap drill size 1/64 in #71 0.35 0.85 mm 0.0984 M2.250 0.1656 4.454 0.600 0.3 mm #29 #29 .2000 1.159 0.1x0.200 0.0709 #1-64 0.4000 1.75 mm 0.5000 2.7 0.500 0.25 0.6000 1.0730 M2x0.45 0.450 0.529 0.8x0.1000 1.9 mm #36 #33 3.Tap size standard: Coarse Fine Fractional Screw size Metric Thread type: Tap size Diameter (in) #0000-160 0.8000 1.318 0.8542 1.400 0.1575 #8-32 0.25 0.1120 #4-48 0.0860 #2-64 0.1250 M3.0600 M1.794 0.2000 2.5240 1.5 0.0000 2.0000 4.1000 1.1575 M4x0.350 0.4x0.6 mm 2.2 0.353 0.0000 3.45 mm #52 #53 1.1 mm 3/64 in 1.4 0.2x0.0472 M1.397 0.1844 2.500 0.2 0.0630 M1.454 0.0000 1.6000 1.0000 4.25 0.6x0.8542 2.0000 3.35 0.25 0.8 mm 0.0472 M1.529 0.35 0.35 0.1380 M4x0.1x0.0000 1.1 mm 2.0394 M1.0210 #000-120 0.1 mm 2.9 mm #65 1 mm 0.300 0.700 0.0000 2.4x0.1656 Thread count (TPI) 160 120 ~127 ~102 ~102 ~127 90 ~127 ~102 ~127 ~85 80 ~127 ~73 ~127 ~73 64 72 ~102 ~64 56 64 ~102 ~57 ~73 ~57 48 56 40 48 ~73 ~51 40 44 ~73 ~43 32 40 ~73 ~51 ~37 32 36 Thread pitch (mm) 0.350 0.397 0.0394 M1x0.5x0.1640 #8-36 0.0866 M2.25 mm 1.6 0.2 0.0990 #3-56 0.05 mm #47 #45 #43 #42 2.1938 1.1181 #5-40 0.

250 1.000 1.3937 M11x0.000 1.5 mm 5.814 1.058 0.000 1.5 mm 7.25 0.907 0.2 mm 10 mm 9.500 0.0000 6.5000 4.0000 6.4724 M12x1.411 1.5 0.0000 9.0000 10.0000 14.3150 M8x0.000 1.2 mm 7 mm 6.5 mm 10.3500 7.8 mm 9 mm 10.058 1.3750 M10x0.2 mm 8.1125 12.270 1.750 1.8 mm 29/64 in 27/64 in 12.8 mm #21 #25 4.2362 M6x0.4724 M12x0.5512 9/16-18 0.5512 M14x2 0.500 1.750 1.0000 10.75 0.750 1.3125 5/16-24 0.3543 M9x1.2362 1/4-20 0.1125 11.0000 11.2756 5/16-18 0.2756 M7x1 0.0000 5.3750 3/8-16 0.5 0.3937 M10x1.5 0.1969 #12-24 0.5 0.750 1.75 0.3937 M10x1.5 0.8 mm Q 5/16 in 9.5512 M14x1 0.0000 11.5000 M14x1.0000 6.000 1.1900 #10-24 0.2 mm 5 mm #7 #3 6.4331 M11x1 0.750 0.0000 12.250 1.5250 9.907 0.2362 M6x1 0.25 mm 11 mm 10.0000 8.5 mm 4.2160 #12-28 0.0000 12.500 1.000 0.3150 M8x1 0.9375 7.500 0.4375 M12x1.5000 4.75 0.0000 11.25 0.75 0.2 mm 6 mm F I 7.2 mm 8 mm 7.5625 Diameter (mm) 4.1772 #10-32 0.8260 5.4331 7/16-14 0.5 mm U 25/64 in 10.5512 M14x1.500 0.2 mm #17 #15 5 mm 5.25 0.1900 M5x0.0000 9.4331 M11x1.750 1.800 1.5x0.250 1.0000 5.8 0.75 0.3543 M9x1 0.75 0.5 mm 8.0000 12.7000 12.500 1.270 1.2165 M6x0.2500 1/4-28 0.794 1.4864 5.1772 M4.5 0.75 0.0000 14.0000 7.3150 M8x1.500 0.954 1.750 0.000 1.25 0.3500 6.058 0.5x0.588 0.3937 M10x1 0.9375 8.8260 4.750 1.8 mm 13 mm 12 mm 33/64 in .4724 M12x1.000 2.058 0.75 0.0000 9.411 Tap drill size 4 mm 3.2 mm 11.0000 8.0000 9.0000 12.2875 Thread count (TPI) ~51 ~34 32 24 ~51 ~32 24 28 ~51 ~51 ~34 ~26 20 28 ~34 ~26 18 24 ~51 ~34 ~26 ~21 ~34 ~26 ~21 24 16 ~34 ~17 ~21 ~26 ~34 ~26 ~17 14 20 ~17 ~15 ~34 ~26 ~21 20 13 ~17 ~21 ~26 ~13 18 Thread pitch (mm) 0.4375 7/16-20 0.270 0.0000 8.3150 M9x0.5x0.500 0.4724 1/2-20 0.Tap size Diameter (in) M4.0000 14.5250 10.4724 M12x1 0.0000 11.4864 5.000 1.5000 1/2-13 0.5000 6.0000 7.5 0.5 0.0000 14.500 1.0000 10.2500 M7x0.2160 M5.3543 3/8-24 0.25 0.250 1.250 0.3125 M8x0.7000 14.75 0.0000 12.750 1.5 0.5 mm 12.8 mm 8.1969 M5x0.

0000 25.500 1.5 7/8-9 7/8-14 M24x3 M24x1 M24x1.8661 0.0630 1.814 3.000 1.000 2.5 mm 15/16 in 7/8 in 24.5 mm 26.5 M27x1.000 1.0000 25.6250 0.0000 22.5750 28.1024 1.0000 1.500 2.0000 1.000 1.2250 24.0000 22.0000 28.0000 20.7874 0.000 2.5 M30x2 Diameter (in) 0.117 3.8750 16.000 1.6693 0.5 mm 19 mm 17.Tap size 9/16-12 M15x1 M15x1.000 1.7874 0.0000 30.0000 18.500 2.7087 0.6693 0.5 M30x3.500 1.5 M20x1 M20x2.8750 0.0000 30.0630 1.500 1.9843 0.4000 25.5 mm 22 mm 23 mm 24 mm 23.7500 0.5 M22x1 M22x2.1250 1.000 1.6299 0.500 2.822 1.5 M18x2.0000 25.0000 19.000 2.7087 0.5625 0.000 1.0000 18.0000 27.0630 1.0236 1.117 1.1811 1.5 mm 16 mm 11/16 in 21/32 in 18 mm 18.5 M18x1 M18x1.0000 24.000 1.0000 27.309 2.1250 1.000 2.5 mm 1 3/64 in 63/64 in 28.7874 0.5 M22x2 M22x1.8661 0.500 1.0000 27.1811 1.0000 25.000 1.5 M24x2 M25x2 M25x1 M25x1.5750 30.5906 0.500 2.8661 0.5 M16x1 M17x1 M17x1.7087 0.7874 0.500 1.5 M27x3 M27x1 M27x2 M28x2 M28x1 M28x1.8661 0.0000 17.0000 24.9449 0.0000 16.500 1.7087 0.0000 17.1024 1.2250 22.0500 19.175 1.0000 24.5 M18x2 3/4-16 3/4-10 M20x2 M20x1.0000 15.8750 15.500 2.0630 1.629 1.0000 16.0000 28.588 2.411 2.5 mm 24 mm 26 mm 25 mm 26 mm 27 mm 26.0000 22.9449 0.000 1.5 mm 21 mm 19.5 mm 20 mm 20.6299 0.1024 1.0000 22.500 3.5 mm 15 mm 16 mm 15.000 1.0000 15.500 2.6250 0.6299 0.5 mm 15.5 1-14 1-8 M26x1.2875 15.0000 27.500 1.9449 0.5 mm 17 mm 16.000 1.0500 20.9843 1.4000 26.000 1.5 mm 49/64 in 13/16 in 21 mm 23 mm 22.000 1.5 mm 28 mm .0000 20.500 2.814 3.5906 0.5 mm 37/64 in 17/32 in 14 mm 14.5 5/8-18 5/8-11 M16x2 M16x1.9843 0.000 1.0000 18.0000 Thread count (TPI) 12 ~26 ~17 18 11 ~13 ~17 ~26 ~26 ~17 ~11 ~26 ~17 ~13 16 10 ~13 ~17 ~26 ~11 ~13 ~17 ~26 ~11 9 14 ~9 ~26 ~17 ~13 ~13 ~26 ~17 14 8 ~17 ~17 ~9 ~26 ~13 ~13 ~26 ~17 12 7 ~17 ~8 ~13 Thread pitch (mm) 2.1811 Diameter (mm) 14.540 2.0000 20.0000 28.000 Tap drill size 31/64 in 14 mm 13.0000 28.5 1 1/8-12 1 1/8-7 M30x1.0000 18.7500 0.000 2.500 3.0000 22.8750 0.5 mm 25.9449 0.

However. with exact dimensions that depend on the material.4173 1.0000 44.117 5.2047 2.117 5.000 2.0000 2.5354 1.500 6. A piece of metal much thinner is considered to be "foil" and any thicker is referred to as a "plate".5000 1.0000 60.2500 1.0000 42.1000 39.7500 1.500 5. A higher gauge indicates a thinner piece of sheet metal. which include the following: Aluminum Stainless steel Brass Steel Bronze Tin Copper Titanium Magnesium Zinc Nickel .5 M64x6 M68x6 Diameter (in) 1.0472 2.5000 1.5 1 3/4-12 1 3/4-5 M45x4.000 2.5197 2.000 4. Sheet metal.000 6.644 5. a number typically ranging from 3 to 38.8000 50.6772 Diameter (mm) 31.7500 33.0000 33.4173 1.000 Tap drill size 1 11/64 in 1 7/64 in 31 mm 29.4500 45.5 M36x3 M36x4 1 1/2 -12 1 1/2-6 M39x4 M39x3 M42x4.5 mm 33 mm 32 mm 1 27/64 in 1 11/32 in 35 mm 36 mm 37.5 mm 58 mm 62 mm Sheet Metal Fabrication Sheet metal fabrication is a classification of manufacturing processes that shape a piece of sheet metal into the desired part through material removal and/or material deformation.5 mm 54.0000 68.5 M48x5 2-12 2-4 1/2 M52x5 M56x5.117 3.0000 36.0000 Thread count (TPI) 12 7 ~13 ~8 ~9 ~7 12 6 ~7 ~9 ~6 12 5 ~6 ~6 12 4.5354 1.2500 1.5 M60x5.0000 48.0000 2.000 3.8000 52. which acts as the workpiece in these processes.7500 31.5 mm 1 43/64 in 1 35/64 in 40. sheet metal is generally considered to be a piece of stock between 0.7717 1.500 3. is one of the most common forms of raw material stock.0000 56.233 4.2992 1.000 4.0000 50.0000 39.0000 64.080 4.0000 36.629 2.000 5.5 mm 43 mm 1 59/64 in 1 25/32 in 47 mm 50.1000 38.Tap size 1 1/4-12 1 1/4-7 M33x2 M33x3.117 4.5 ~6 ~5 ~5 ~5 ~5 Thread pitch (mm) 2.4500 44.0000 38.8898 2. Sheet metal stock is available in a wide variety of materials.006 and 0.500 2.25 inches thick.3622 2.000 3.2992 1.7500 1. The material thickness that classifies a workpiece as sheet metal is not clearly defined.500 5.6535 1. The thickness of a piece of sheet metal is often referred to as its gauge.

automotive. The applied force stresses the metal beyond its yield strength. but not to fail. By doing so. to large airplane wings. The size of sheet metal parts can range from a small washer or bracket. Most cutting processes are performed by applying a great enough shearing force to separate the material. the sheet can be bent or stretched into a variety of complex shapes. and are therefore sometimes referred to as shearing processes. instead of shearing forces. Sheet metal forming processes include the following: Bending Roll forming . bent. consumer products. Deformation processes can bend the sheet numerous times to different angles or stretch the sheet to create complex contours. and stretched into a nearly any shape. and furniture. These parts are found in a variety of industries. allowing the material to be cut or removed. construction. Cutting processes are those in which the applied force causes the material to fail and separate. HVAC. Such processes are able to bend or stretch the sheet into the desired shape. Other cutting processes remove material by using heat or abrasion. Forming processes are those in which the applied force causes the material to plastically deform. Material removal processes can create holes and cutouts in any 2D geometric shape. to midsize enclosures for home appliances. but not to fail. Sheet metal fabrication processes can mostly be placed into two categories .forming and cutting. such as aircraft.Sheet metal can be cut. Forming Bending Roll forming Spinning Deep Drawing Stretch forming Cutting with shear Shearing Blanking Punching Cutting without shear Laser beam cutting Plasma cutting Water jet cutting Sheet Metal Forming Sheet metal forming processes are those in which force is applied to a piece of sheet metal to modify its geometry rather than remove any material. causing the material to plastically deform.

The length of either of the two flanges. A bending operation causes deformation along one axis. that defines the end of the level flange and the start of the bend.The straight line on the surface of the sheet.The distance from either end of the sheet to the outside mold line. causing it to bend at an angle and form the desired shape. Bent parts can be quite small. . such as a large enclosure or chassis. were they to continue. such as a bracket. Mold line distance . Flange length . This line defines the edge of a mold that would bound the bent sheet metal. on either side of the bend. but a sequence of several different operations can be performed to create a complex part.Spinning Deep Drawing Stretch forming Bending Bending is a metal forming process in which a force is applied to a piece of sheet metal.The straight line where the outside surfaces of the two flanges would meet. or up to 20 feet in length. shown in the image below. A bend can be characterized by several different parameters. extending from the edge of the sheet to the bend line. Bending diagram Bend line . Outside mold line .

Bevel angle . The changes in length to the outside and inside surfaces can be related to the original flat length by two parameters. which are defined below. The act of bending results in both tension and compression in the sheet metal. The neutral axis is the boundary line inside the sheet metal. measured along the bend axis. Also equal to the difference between the mold line distance and the flange length. measured between the bent flange and its original position. Neutral axis . The outside portion of the sheet will undergo tension and stretch to a greater length.The distance from the bend axis to the inside surface of the material. Bend radius . the length of this axis remains constant. Bend length .The angle of the bend. Bend angle . between the bend lines.The straight line that defines the center around which the sheet metal is bent.The complimentary angle to the bend angle. the bend allowance and bend deduction. The outside bend radius is equal to the inside bend radius plus the sheet thickness. along which no tension or compression forces are present. or as the included angle between perpendicular lines drawn from the bend lines. Sometimes specified as the inside bend radius. while the inside portion experiences compression and shortens.The length of the bend. Bend axis .Setback .The distance from either bend line to the outside mold line. As a result.

the amount a piece of material has been stretched by bending. When bending a piece of sheet metal. which can be manually or automatically operated. the arc length of the bend. bend angle. including the material.The location of the neutral axis in the material. or in other words. For this reason. bending operation. KS. Bend deduction . .The length of the neutral axis between the bend lines. Press brakes are available in a range of sizes (commonly 20-200 tons) in order to best suit the given application. The value equals the difference between the mold line lengths and the total flat length. the residual stresses in the material will cause the sheet to springback slightly after the bending operation. Bend allowance . The K-factor is dependent upon several factors (material. and therefore remains at a constant length. The final bend radius will be greater than initially formed and the final bend angle will be smaller.The location in the sheet that is neither stretched nor compressed. bending operation. The bend allowance added to the flange lengths is equal to the total flat length.50. etc. calculated as the ratio of the distance of the neutral axis (measured from the inside bend surface) to the material thickness. the bending process is sometimes referred to as press brake forming. The amount of springback depends upon several factors. The ratio of the final bend angle to the initial bend angle is defined as the springback factor. A press brake contains an upper tool called the punch and a lower tool called the die.25. Springback Bending is typically performed on a machine called a press brake. and the initial bend angle and bend radius.Also called the bend compensation.) and is typically greater than 0. but cannot exceed 0.Neutral axis . it is necessary to over-bend the sheet a precise amount to achieve the desired bend radius and bend angle. K-factor . Due to this elastic recovery.

The tooling material is chosen based upon the production quantity. harder sheet metal. tool steel. a stronger tool is required to endure larger quantities. low carbon steel. In an automatic machine. and severe bending operations. The sheet is carefully positioned over the die and held in place by the back gauge while the punch lowers and forces the sheet to bend. Custom tooling can be used for specialized bending operations but will add to the cost. This depth is precisely controlled to achieve the desired bend. the punch is forced into the sheet under the power of a hydraulic ram. sheet metal material. Standard tooling is often used for the punch and die.between which the sheet metal is located. and degree of bending. In order of increasing strength. Press Brake (Open) . The bend angle achieved is determined by the depth to which the punch forces the sheet into the die. and carbide steel. allowing a low initial cost and suitability for low volume production. Naturally. some common tooling materials include hardwood.

leaving space or air underneath. is typically 6 to 18 times the sheet thickness. causing it to bend. If the punch forces the sheet to the bottom of the die cavity. . or die opening. This technique allows for more control over the angle because there is less springback. This value is referred to as the die ratio and is equal to the die opening divided by the sheet thickness. If the punch does not force the sheet to the bottom of the die cavity. in which the punch and die are "V" shaped. The most common method is known as V-bending. In both techniques. the V-groove must have a sharper angle than the angle being formed in the sheet. a higher tonnage press is required. However.Press Brake (Closed) While using a press brake and standard die sets. the width of the "V" shaped groove. As a result. The punch pushes the sheet into the "V" shaped groove in the V-die. there are still a variety of techniques that can be used to bend the sheet. it is called "bottoming". it is called "air bending".

The sheet will bend against the radius of the edge of the wipe die. sometimes called edge bending.V Bending In addition to V-bending. another common bending method is wipe bending. The punch then presses against the edge of the sheet that extends beyond the die and pad. Wipe bending requires the sheet to be held against the wipe die by a pressure pad. Wipe Bending .

Spinning is typically performed on a manual or CNC lathe and requires a blank. The roller dies may be above and below the sheet. and radius of each bend. such as those with reentrant surfaces. located too close to a bend may be distorted. The distance of such features from the bend should be equal to at least 3 times the sheet thickness plus the bending radius. rocket nose cones. However wider and thicker sheets can be formed.125 inches.004-0. hubcaps. A sheet metal disc is rotated at high speeds while rollers press the sheet against a tool. cone. at an angle. The roll dies are lubricated to reduce friction between the die and the sheet. This tool is usually a roller wheel attached to a lever. sometimes called spin forming. The roll forming process is capable of producing parts with tolerances as tight as ±0. In the case of manual bending. which will also depend on the material thickness. etc.A bend should be located where enough material is present.25 inches thick. along the sides. While the blank and mandrel rotate. or several identical roller dies may be used in different positions. but a closed tube-like piece can be created as well. and roller. such as punching or shearing. hollow shape. For more complex parts. it plastically deforms and bends. The blank is the disc-shaped piece of sheet metal that is pre-cut from stock material and will be formed into the part. and HVAC applications. An open profile is most common. such as holes or slots. Spinning Spinning. against which the blank will be pressed. The mandrel is a solid form of the internal shape of the part. referred to as a roller die. number of roll stations. Rollers are available in different diameters and thicknesses and are usually made from steel or brass. Because the mandrel does not experience much wear in this process. Spun metal parts have a rotationally symmetric.Design rules Bend location . Typical roll formed parts include panels. high volume production typically utilizes a metal mandrel. Bend radius Use a single bend radius for all bends to eliminate additional tooling or setups Inside bend radius should equal at least the sheet thickness Bend direction . called a mandrel. Each roll station performs one stage in the complete bending of the sheet to form the desired part. Bending perpendicular to the rolling direction is recommended.Bending hard metals parallel to the rolling direction of the sheet may lead to fracture. The mandrel and blank are clamped together and secured in the center of the lathe to be rotated at high speeds. Any features. The width of this flange should be equal to at least 4 times the sheet thickness plus the bend radius. storage units. such as a cylinder. it can be made from wood or plastic. The roll forming line can also include other sheet metal fabrication operations before or after the roll forming. mandrel. to form the shape of the desired part. or hemisphere. Deep Drawing . Because the final form is achieved through a series of bends. is a metal forming process in which sheet metal is progressively shaped through a series of bending operations. tracks. lubricant can allow for a higher production rate. if the design allows. The roll forming process can be used to form a sheet into a wide variety of cross-section profiles. Each station has a roller. thus reducing the tool wear. shelving. for the sheet to be secured without slipping. Roll forming is used to create very long sheet metal parts with typical widths of 1-20 inches and thicknesses of 0. These parts are commonly used in industrial and commercial buildings for roofing. As the sheet is forced through the roller die in a roll station. the part does not require a uniform or symmetric cross-section along its length. The tool may make several passes to complete the shaping of the sheet. The rollers are inexpensive and experience little wear allowing for low volume production of parts. and musical instruments. lighting. The shape and size of the roller die may be unique to that station. is a metal forming process used to form cylindrical parts by rotating a piece of sheet metal while forces are applied to one side. However.005 inches. positioned on both sides of the sheet. The roll forming process is performed on a roll forming line in which the metal stock is fed through a series of roll stations. sometimes spelled rollforming. some up to 5 ft wide and 0. satellite dishes. Roll forming Roll forming. Examples include cookware. multi-piece mandrels can be used. force is applied to the sheet by a tool. Also. causing the sheet to bend and form around the mandrel. and preferably with straight edges. a slot can be cut along the bend line to reduce the manual force required. etc.

cans. which has a cavity in the external shape of the part. Deep drawing is most effective with ductile metals. the punch and blank holder can be raised and the part removed from the die. cups. The tensile forces applied to the sheet cause it to plastically deform into a cup-shaped part. forcing it into a die cavity in the shape of the desired part. Examples of parts formed with deep drawing include automotive bodies and fuel tanks. and die.Deep drawing is a metal forming process in which sheet metal is stretched into the desired part shape. The blank is clamped down by the blank holder over the die. After a part is completely drawn. the material into the die cavity. brass. but cylindrical or rectangular parts are most common. stretching the part to a greater depth each time. typically a disc or rectangle. A tool pushes downward on the sheet metal. such as aluminum. The portion of the sheet metal that was clamped under the blank holder may form a flange around the part that can be trimmed off. punch. A tool called a punch moves downward into the blank and draws. a punch forces the part into a different die. The movement of the punch is usually hydraulically powered to apply enough force to the blank. called draw reductions. kitchen sinks. or stretches. Both the die and punch experience wear from the forces applied to the sheet metal and are therefore made from tool steel or carbon steel. Deep Drawing . The blank is a piece of sheet metal. copper. and pots and pans. In each step. or even curved walls. tapered. Deep drawn parts are characterized by a depth equal to more than half of the diameter of the part. and mild steel. These parts can have a variety of cross sections with straight. The process of drawing the part sometimes occurs in a series of operations. blank holder. The deep drawing process requires a blank. which is pre-cut from stock material and will be formed into the part.

Stretch formed parts are typically large and possess large radius bends. the tool above the sheet delivers a quick downward blow to the sheet metal that rests over the lower tool. the most commonly used being aluminum. This shearing force is applied by two tools. As the tool penetrates the sheet further. the shear stress is too great and the material fractures at an angle with a small burr formed at the edge. Typical stretch formed parts are large curved panels such as door panels in cars or wing panels on aircraft.Deep Drawing Sequence Stretch Forming Stretch forming is a metal forming process in which sheet metal is stretched and bent simultaneously to form large contoured parts. which facilitates the fracture of the material. and are therefore sometimes referred to as shearing processes. When the punch or blade impacts the sheet. which is a solid contoured piece against which the sheet metal will be pressed. material. Other stretch formed parts can be found in window frames and enclosures. As this tool presses against the sheet. which is gripped tightly at its edges. the shear stress in the material will exceed the ultimate shear strength and the material will fail and separate at the cut location. The height of each of these portions of the cut depends on several factors. The most common cutting processes are performed by applying a shearing force. the tensile forces increase and the sheet plastically deforms into a new shape. and sheet thickness. The size of this clearance is typically 2-10% of the material thickness and depends upon several factors. The most common stretch presses are vertical with the form block being raised from below the sheet. the clearance between the tools allows the sheet to plastically deform and "rollover" the edge. Sheet Metal Cutting (Shearing) Cutting processes are those in which a piece of sheet metal is separated by applying a great enough force to caused the material to fail. one above and one below the sheet. The shapes that can be produced vary from a simple curved surface to complex non-uniform cross sections. Stretch forming is capable of shaping parts with very high accuracy and smooth surfaces. in which a piece of sheet metal is securely gripped along its edges. The form block is slowly driven into the sheet by pneumatic or hydraulic force causing it to deform. The tooling used in this process is a stretch form block. and titanium. Stretch forming in performed on a stretch press. such as the specific shearing process. A small clearance is present between the edges of the upper and lower tools. Finally. . Ductile materials are preferable. but other machine configurations involve the form block descending into the sheet or even moving from the side. steel. including the sharpness of the tools and the clearance between the tools. The effects of shearing on the material change as the cut progresses and are visible on the edge of the sheared material. When a great enough shearing force is applied. Whether these tools are a punch and die or upper and lower blades. the shearing results in a vertical burnished zone of material.

Each process is capable of forming a specific type of cut. sheet metal parts can be fabricated with cutouts and profiles of any 2D geometry. Such cutting processes include the following: Shearing .Removing material as scrap Piercing Slotting Perforating Notching Nibbling Lancing Slitting .Separating material into two parts Blanking .Sheared edge A variety of cutting processes that utilize shearing forces exist to separate or remove material from a piece of sheet stock in different ways. some with an open path to separate a portion of material and some with a closed path to cutout and remove that material. By using many of these processes together.Removing material to use for parts Conventional blanking Fine blanking Punching .

Parting Cutoff Trimming Shaving Dinking Shearing As mentioned above, several cutting processes exist that utilize shearing force to cut sheet metal. However, the term "shearing" by itself refers to a specific cutting process that produces straight line cuts to separate a piece of sheet metal. Most commonly, shearing is used to cut a sheet parallel to an existing edge which is held square, but angled cuts can be made as well. For this reason, shearing is primarily used to cut sheet stock into smaller sizes in preparation for other processes. Shearing has the following capabilities: Sheet thickness: 0.005-0.25 inches Tolerance: ±0.1 inches (±0.005 inches feasible) Surface finish: 250-1000 in (125-2000 in feasible)

The shearing process is performed on a shear machine, often called a squaring shear or power shear, that can be operated manually (by hand or foot) or by hydraulic, pneumatic, or electric power. A typical shear machine includes a table with support arms to hold the sheet, stops or guides to secure the sheet, upper and lower straight-edge blades, and a gauging device to precisely position the sheet. The sheet is placed between the upper and lower blade, which are then forced together against the sheet, cutting the material. In most devices, the lower blade remains stationary while the upper blade is forced downward. The upper blade is slightly offset from the lower blade, approximately 5-10% of the sheet thickness. Also, the upper blade is usually angled so that the cut progresses from one end to the other, thus reducing the required force. The blades used in these machines typically have a square edge rather than a knifeedge and are available in different materials, such as low alloy steel and high-carbon steel.

Shearing Blanking Blanking is a cutting process in which a piece of sheet metal is removed from a larger piece of stock by applying a great enough shearing force. In this process, the piece removed, called the blank, is not scrap but rather the desired part. Blanking can be used to cutout parts in almost any 2D shape, but is most commonly used to cut workpieces with simple geometries that will be further shaped in subsequent processes. Often times multiple sheets are blanked in a single operation. Final parts that are produced using blanking include gears, jewelry, and watch or clock components. Blanked parts typically require secondary finishing to smooth out burrs along the bottom edge. The blanking process requires a blanking press, sheet metal stock, blanking punch, and blanking die. The sheet metal stock is placed over the die in the blanking press. The die, instead of having a cavity, has a cutout in the shape of the desired part and must be custom made unless a standard shape is being formed. Above the sheet, resides the blanking punch which is a tool in the shape of the desired part. Both the die and punch are typically made from tool steel or carbide. The hydraulic press drives the punch downward at high speed into the sheet. A small clearance, typically 10-20% of the material thickness, exists between the punch and die. When the punch impacts the sheet, the metal in this clearance quickly bends and then fractures. The blank which has been sheared from the stock now falls freely into the gap in the die. This process is extremely fast, with some blanking presses capable of performing over 1000 strokes per minute.

Blanking

Fine

blanking

Fine blanking is a specialized type of blanking in which the blank is sheared from the sheet stock by applying 3 separate forces. This technique produces a part with better flatness, a smoother edge with minimal burrs, and tolerances as tight as ±0.0003. As a result, high quality parts can be blanked that do not require any secondary operations. However, the additional equipment and tooling does add to the initial cost and makes fine blanking better suited to high volume production. Parts made with fine blanking include automotive parts, electronic components, cutlery, and power tools. Most of the equipment and setup for fine blanking is similar to conventional blanking. The sheet stock is still placed over a blanking die inside a hydraulic press and a blanking punch will impact the sheet to remove the blank. As mentioned above, this is done by the application of 3 forces. The first is a downward holding force applied to the top of the sheet. A clamping system holds a guide plate tightly against the sheet and is held in place with an impingement ring, sometimes called a stinger, that surrounds the perimeter of the blanking location. The second force is applied underneath the sheet, directly opposite the punch, by a "cushion". This cushion provides a counterforce during the blanking process and later ejects the blank. These two forces reduce bending of the sheet and improve the flatness of the blank. The final force is provided by the blanking punch impacting the sheet and shearing the blank into the die opening. In fine blanking, the clearance between the punch and the die is smaller, around 0.001 inches, and the blanking is performed at slower speeds. As a result, instead of the material fracturing to free the blank, the blank flows and is extruded from the sheet, providing a smoother edge.

The most common punched holes are simple geometric shapes (circle. etc.) or combinations thereof. The die. This tooling. and die. Punching can be used to produce holes and cutouts of various shapes and sizes. located underneath the sheet. is usually made from tool steel or carbide. but today computer numerical controlled (CNC) punch presses are most common. the press holds the punch. punch. is scrap and leaves behind the desired internal feature in the sheet. called the slug. The punching process requires a punch press. The punch press drives the punch downward at high speed through the sheet and into the die below. pneumatically. The edges of these punched features will have some burrs from being sheared but are of fairly good quality. whether standard or custom. many CNC punch presses utilize a turret that can hold up to 100 different punches which are rotated into position when needed. This process can be performed on a manual punch press. A CNC punch press can be hydraulically.Fine blanking Punching Punching is a cutting process in which material is removed from a piece of sheet metal by applying a great enough shearing force. The slug that is punched out of the sheet falls freely through the tapered opening in the die. . rectangle. has a cutout in the shape of the desired feature. or electrically powered and deliver around 600 punches per minute. Punches and dies of standard shapes are typically used. which is a tool in the shape of the desired feature. Also. causing the material to quickly bend and fracture. Punching is very similar to blanking except that the removed material. square. Secondary finishing operations are typically performed to attain smoother edges. such as a hole or slot. There is a small clearance between the edge of the punch and the die. sheet metal stock. but custom tooling can be made for punching complex shapes. The sheet metal stock is positioned between the punch and die inside the punch press. Above the sheet.

Slotting . forming a single hole. in which a cylindrical punch pierces a hole into the sheet. a variety of operations are possible to form different features.The typical punching operation.A punching operation that forms rectangular holes in the sheet. These operations include the following: Piercing . However. Sometimes described as piercing despite the different shape.Punching A typical punching operation is one in which a cylindrical punch tool pierces the sheet metal. .

so that no material is removed. by punching away the material between parts.Cutting straight lines in the sheet. This eliminates the need for a custom punch and die but will require secondary operations to improve the accuracy and finish of the feature. or louver.Separating a part from the remaining sheet. Notching .Perforating . No scrap material is produced. forming a notch in the shape of a portion of the punch. Parting . Slitting . . Nibbling . vent.Punching a close arrangement of a large number of holes in a single operation. The material is left attached to be bent and form a shape.Creating a partial cut in the sheet. such as a tab.Punching a series of small overlapping slits or holes along a path to cutout a larger contoured shape. Lancing .Punching the edge of a sheet.

Tolerances of ±0. Dinking . A hollow punch. but most are capable of cutting out any 2D shape. Sheet Metal Cutting Cutting processes are those in which a piece of sheet metal is separated by applying a great enough force to caused the material to fail.001 inches are possible. such thermal energy or abrasion. sharpened edges presses the sheet into a block of wood or soft metal.Shearing away minimal material from the edges of a feature or part. The punch will produce a cut line that may be straight. using a small die clearance. or curved. angled.Punching away excess material from the perimeter of a part. such as trimming the flange from a drawn cup. The geometric possibilities for a cutting process depend on the technology used. The cut being formed may follow an open path to separate a portion of material or a closed path to cutout and remove that material.A specialized form of piercing used for punching soft metals. A description of those processes can be found in the previous section. with beveled. Shaving .Separating a part from the remaining sheet. In this section. without producing any scrap. will be discussed. called a dinking die. Used to improve accuracy or finish.Cutoff . Some of the most common sheet metal cutting processes use shearing forces to separate the material. Some common methods of sheet metal cutting that use such forces include the following: Laser beam cutting Plasma cutting Water jet cutting . Trimming . cutting processes that use other forces.

But highly complex shapes and outer part boundaries are well suited for laser cutting. Capabilities Sheet thickness: 0. As previously mentioned. (±0. creating a smooth edge that may not require any finishing. Simple internal features. Lastly. the most common use is cutting an external profile or complex features. Holes . First. However. A series of mirrors and lenses direct and focus a high-energy beam of light onto the surface of the sheet where it is to be cut. pressurized gas. Secondly. However. the cutting head remains stationary. Any remaining molten metal or vapor is blown away from the cut by a stream of gas. The laser most commonly used for sheet metal cutting is a CO2 based laser with approximately 1000-2000 watts of power. no contaminates will be embedded into the material during cutting.016 in. Laser-cut holes will have a slight natural taper.Minimum hole diameter should be approximately 20% of sheet thickness. stainless steel. (0. Corners . minimal burrs are formed. Cutting speed: 30-500 IPM (1000 IPM feasible) Kerf width: 0.Laser beam cutting Laser cutting uses a high powered laser to cut through sheet metal. stone. and a workpiece table. but can be further reduced by using a thinner sheet stock. no tool contact means only minimal distortion of the sheet will occur. etc. pressurized gas is also used in the process to blow away the molten metal and vapor as the cut is formed. feeds into the cutting head and is blown out the same nozzle as the laser beam.010 inches.02-0. to cut plastics. The fact that laser cutting does not require any physical contact with the material offers many benefits to the quality of the cuts. Laser cutting can also be used beyond sheet metal applications.Rounded corners are preferred to sharp corners. while the table moves underneath it. can still be cut but require a higher power laser. The laser beam is directed by a series of mirrors and through the "cutting head" which contains a lens and nozzle to focus the beam onto the cutting location.006-0.carbon steel. typically oxygen or nitrogen. laser cutting can be used to cut nearly any 2D shape.005 in. As mentioned above.Burrs are minimal. nozzle. it is worth noting that the lack of physical tool wear will reduce costs and make laser cutting cost effective for low volume production. laser system. the cutting head is able to move in the X-Y plane over the workpiece which is clamped to a stationary table below. Interior corners must have a minimum radius equal to the laser beam radius. Nd and Nd-YAG lasers are sometimes used for very high power applications. In some machines. focusing lens. Although not a quality issue. This assist gas.001 in. In other laser cutting machines.008 inches. feasible) Surface finish: 125-250 in Design rules Edges . Laser cutting can be preformed on sheet metals that are both ferrous and non-ferrous. Both systems allow the laser beam to cut out any 2D shape in the workpiece. ceramics. and titanium are most common. The position of the laser beam relative to the sheet is precisely controlled to allow the laser to follow the desired cutting path. Metals that reflect light and conduct heat. wood. The beam diameter at the cutting surface is typically around 0. only a small amount of heat distortion is present in the narrow zone affected by the laser beam. Multiple sheets can be cut at once to reduce cost Plasma cutting . When the beam strikes the surface.004 in.50 in. This process is carried out on laser cutting machines that consist of a power supply. such as holes or slots are usually punched out using other sheet metal processes. Also. the energy of the beam melts and vaporizes the metal underneath. down to 0. feasible) Tolerance: ±0. mirrors. such as aluminum and copper alloys. Materials with low reflectivity and conductivity allow the laser beam to be most effective .

While both processes are able to cut nearly any 2D shape out of sheet metal. Consolidation processes. However. do not require custom tooling or planned tool movements. Applications Additive fabrication refers to a class of manufacturing processes. in which a part is built by adding layers of material upon one another. these processes are becoming increasingly capable of high-volume production manufacturing. The water typically contains abrasive particles to wear the material and travels in a narrow jet at high speeds. or can take a few days depending on the part size and the process. processes that require custom tooling. Subtractive processes. These processes are inherently different from subtractive processes or consolidation processes. the water jet applies very high pressure (around 60. such as a mold. on the other hand. the metal melts into a molten state. Additive processes. plasma cutting cannot achieve the same level of precision and finish. and the surface of the material will have an oxide layer that can be removed with secondary processes. As a result. as will be explored in the section on applications. plasma cutting is capable of cutting through far thicker sheets than laser cutting and is often used for workpieces beyond sheet metal. the flow of plasma is created by first blowing an inert gas at high speed though a nozzle pointed at the cutting surface. The term "rapid" is used because additive processes are performed much faster than conventional manufacturing processes. such as casting or molding. When the plasma contacts the surface below.06 inches and the edges are of good quality. or plasma. . especially with thicker sheets. like laser and plasma cutting. can offer more comparable production times. ionizes the gas into plasma. to cut through sheet metal. Process Cycle 2. The position of the plasma stream relative to the sheet is precisely controlled to follow the desired cutting path. use custom designed tooling to solidify material into the desired shape. but those times can increase substantially for highly complex parts. around 2000 ft/sec. Water jet cutting can be used to cut nearly any 2D shape out of sheet metal. additive fabrication is often referred to as layered manufacturing. Technologies 3. such as milling. The fabrication of a single part may only take a couple hours. The plasma flows at extremely high temperatures and high velocity and is directed toward the cutting location by a nozzle. Additive fabrication offers several advantages. Because no burrs are formed. to be designed and built may require several weeks. Plasma cutting is performed with a plasma torch that may be hand held or. Instead. The position of the water jet is typically computer controlled to follow the desired cutting path. The nozzle then focuses the flow of plasma onto the cut location. use carefully planned tool movements to cut away material from a workpiece to form the desired part. In either type of plasma torch.Plasma cutting uses a focused stream of ionized gas. An electrical arc. computer controlled. The most common term for additive fabrication is rapid prototyping. or solid freeform fabrication.000 psi) to the material at the cut location and quickly erodes the material. Water jet cutting Water jet cutting uses a high velocity stream of water to cut through sheet metal. turning. The width of the cuts is typically between 0. The 3-D CAD model is converted into many thin layers and the manufacturing equipment uses this geometric data to build each layer sequentially until the part is completed. The term "prototyping" is used because these additive processes were initially used solely to fabricate prototypes. CNC (computer numerically controlled) plasma cutting machines enable complex and precision cuts to made. Also. by not using heat to melt the material. more commonly. the part is constructed directly from a digital 3-D model created through Computer Aided Design (CAD) software. Subtractive processes. As with laser cutting. secondary finishing is usually not required. or drilling.002 and 0. listed below. this process does not require any physical tooling which reduces initial costs and allows for cost effective low volume production. Edges may be rough. heat distortion is not a concern. The molten metal is then blown away from the cut by the flow of ionized gas from the nozzle. with the improvement of additive technologies. The capabilities of plasma cutting vary slightly from laser cutting. Additive Fabrication Contents 1. direct digital manufacturing. However. However. such as machining. Due to this approach. formed through the flow of gas.

Speed - As described above, these "rapid" processes have short build times. Also, because no custom tooling must be developed, the lead time in receiving parts is greatly reduced. Part complexity - Because no tooling is required, complex surfaces and internal features can be created directly when building the part. Also, the complexity of a part has little effect on build times, as opposed to other manufacturing processes. In molding and casting processes, part complexity may not affect the cycle times, but can require several weeks to be spent on creating the mold. In machining, complex features directly affect the cycle time and may even require more expensive equipment or fixtures. Material types - Additive fabrication processes are able to produce parts in plastics, metals, ceramics, composites, and even paper with properties similar to wood. Furthermore, some processes can build parts from multiple materials and distribute the material based on the location in the part. Low-volume production - Other more conventional processes are not very cost effective for low-volume productions because of high initial costs due to custom tooling and lengthy setup times. Additive fabrication requires minimal setup and builds a part directly from the CAD model, allowing for low per-part costs for low-volume productions.

With all of these advantages, additive fabrication will still not replace more conventional manufacturing processes for every application. Processes such as machining, molding, and casting are still preferred in specific instances, such as the following:

Large parts - Additive processes are best suited for relatively small parts because build times are largely dependent upon part size. A larger part in the X-Y plane will require more time to build each layer and a taller part (in the Z direction) will require more layers to be built. This limitation on part size is not shared by some of the more common manufacturing methods. The cycle times in molding and casting processes are typically controlled by the part thickness, and machining times are dependent upon the material and part complexity. Manufacturing large parts with additive processes is also not ideal due to the current high prices of material for these processes. High accuracy and surface finish - Currently, additive fabrication processes can not match the precision and finishes offered by machining. As a result, parts produced through additive fabrication may require secondary operations depending on their intended use. High-volume production - While the production capabilities of additive processes are improving with technology, molding and casting are still preferred for high-volume production. At very large quantities, the per-part cost of tooling is insignificant and the cycle times remain shorter than those for additive fabrication. Material properties - While additive fabrication can utilize various material types, individual material options are somewhat limited. As a result, materials that offer certain desirable properties may not be available. Also, due to the fabrication methods, the properties of the final part may not meet certain design requirements. Lastly, the current prices for materials used in additive processes are far greater than more commonly used materials for other processes. Process Cycle Several different additive fabrication processes are commercially available or are currently being developed. Each process may use different materials and different techniques for building the layers of a part. However, each process employs the same basic steps, listed below.

Create CAD model - For all additive processes, the designer must first use Computer-Aided Design (CAD) software to create a 3-D model of the part. Convert CAD model into STL model - Each form of CAD software saves the geometric data representing the 3-D model in different ways. However, the STL format (initially developed for Stereolithography) has become the standard file format for additive processes. Therefore, CAD files must be converted to this file format. The STL format represents the surfaces of the 3-D model as a set of triangles, storing the coordinates for the vertices and normal directions for each triangle.

Slice STL model into layers - Using specialized software, the user prepares the STL file to be built, first designating the location and orientation of the part in the machine. Part orientation impacts several parameters, including build time, part strength, and accuracy. The software then slices the STL model into very thin layers along the X-Y plane. Each layer will be built upon the previous layer, moving upward in the Z direction. Build part one layer at a time - The machine builds the part from the STL model by sequentially forming layers of material on top of previously formed layers. The technique used to build each layer differs greatly amongst the additive process, as does the material being used. Additive processes can use paper, polymers, powdered metals, or metal composites, depending upon the process. Post-processing of part - After being built, the part and any supports are removed from the machine. If the part was fabricated from a photosensitive material, it must be cured to attain full strength. Minor cleaning and surface finishing, such as sanding, coating, or painting, can be performed to improve the part's appearance and durability. Technologies The technologies that can be used to build a part one layer at a time are quite varied and in different stages of development. In order to accommodate different materials, as well as improve build times or part strength, numerous technologies have emerged. Some technologies are commercially available methods of fabricating prototypes, others are quickly becoming viable forms of production manufacturing, and newer technologies are continuously being developed. These different methods of additive fabrication can be classified by the type of material that is employed.

Liquid-based processes - These additive technologies typically use photocurable polymer resins and cure selected portions of the resin to form each part layer. The most common liquid-based additive process is Stereolithography (SLA), which was the first commercially available additive process. Parts produced using this technology offer high accuracy and an appearance similar to molded parts. However, photocurable polymers offer somewhat poor mechanical properties which may worsen over time. Other liquid-based processes include Ink Jet Printing, which may use a single jet or multiple jets. Powder-based processes - In powder-based processes, such as Selective Laser Sintering (SLS), a selected portion of powdered material is melted or sintered to form each part layer. The use of powdered material enables parts to be fabricated using polymers, metals, or ceramics. Also, the mechanical properties of these parts are better and more stable than a photocured polymer part. Other powder-based processes include Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) and Three Dimensional Printing (3DP). Solid-based processes - Solid-based processes use a variety of solid, non-powder, materials and each process differs in how it builds the layers of a part. Most solid-based processes use sheet-stacking methods, in which very thin sheets of material are layered on top of one another and the shape of the layer is cut out. The most common sheet-stacking process is Laminated Object Manufacturing (LOM), which uses thin sheets of paper, but other processes make use of polymer or metal sheets. Other solid-based processes use solid strands of polymer, not sheets, such as Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) which extrudes and deposits the polymer into layers.

Aside from the material type, additive fabrication processes can also be characterized by the number of dimensions of movement that are required to build the part. For example, a process like Stereolithography or Selective Laser Sintering requires movement in the X, Y, and Z directions. In these processes, a laser cures only a small region of a layer at a time. Therefore, the build mechanism (a laser in this case) or the part must move in X and Y direction to allow an entire layer to be formed, and then in the Z direction to allow the next layer to be built. Most additive processes operate in this way, requiring 3 dimensions of movement. However, some processes may only require 2 dimensions of movement. As an example, some ink-jet processes use an array of jets that form a "strip" of a layer at a time. Therefore, movement is only required in the Y direction to form a layer, and then the Z direction to build the next layer. Finally, some emerging technologies are using a two dimensional array of mirrors to form an entire part layer at once, requiring movement in only one direction, the Z direction. Such technologies are appealing because fewer dimensions of movement results in faster build times and lower cost. Applications Additive fabrication processes initially yielded parts with few applications due to limited material options and mechanical properties. However, improvements to the processing technologies and material options have expanded the possibilities for these layered parts. Now, additive fabrication is used in a variety of industries, including the aerospace, architectural, automotive, consumer product, medical product, and military industries. The application of parts in these industries is quite vast. For example, some parts are merely aesthetic such as jewelry, sculptures, or 3D architectural models. Others are customized to meet the user's personal needs such as

specially fitted sports equipment, dental implants, or prosthetic devices. The following three categories are often used to describe the different application of additive fabrication and may be applied to all of the above industries.

Rapid prototyping - Prototypes for visualization, form/fit testing, and functional testing Rapid tooling - Molds and dies fabricated using additive processes Rapid manufacturing - Medium-to-high volume production runs of end-use parts

Rapid

prototyping

Additive processes are primarily used for the fabrication of prototypes. Initially, this was because the production of end-use products demanded better mechanical properties and lower costs. While these layered parts now offer higher quality and lower costs, other reasons still exist for using additive processes for the fabrication of prototypes. Firstly, prototypes are needed during the design stage and must be produced quickly. Additive processes have short build times and do not require any custom tooling to be created. Secondly, additive fabrication is more cost effective for low quantities than other processes. Again, this is primarily because no costly tooling is required. The prototypes created through additive fabrication can serve many purposes. The prototype may simply be used for form testing, which is visually assessing the 3D form and design of the part and being able to communicate redesign or manufacturing requirements to other engineers. Prototypes are also frequently used for fit testing, in which the part's compatibility with other components of an assembly can be evaluated. In such form and fit applications, the material and mechanical properties are usually of little concern. Some additive processes produce prototypes used for functional testing, in which the part is tested under the operating conditions of the final product. For this application, the material and mechanical properties are significant and therefore only some additive fabrication processes are used towards this end. By using additive fabrication to produce prototypes, much time and money can be saved in the product design process. The quick fabrication of a prototype means that more designs can be considered and tested in a shorter period of time. Also, potential manufacturing problems that are caused by the part design can be identified before full production begins. Not only does the design process move quicker, but the quality of the design is likely to improve as well. Rapid tooling

Mold and dies, the custom tooling for molding and casting processes, are geometrically complex parts that require high accuracy, low surface roughness, and strong mechanical properties. Machining these tools using CNC milling or EDM can be the most time consuming and costly step in the molding or casting process. As a result, using additive fabrication to create the tooling offers a fast and cheap alternative known as rapid tooling. As previously explained, additive fabrication excels at producing highly complex parts without great impact on build time. Also, the highly skilled and expensive labor required to machine a mold is not required. As a result, rapid tooling can enable high-volume production of quality parts without the large initial cost and lead time for the tooling. Rapid tooling also offers the potential for many improvements to the mold design, including complex cooling channels that are more efficient, the use of multiple materials, and functionally grading materials to optimize performance. Some limitations still exist in using rapid tooling. First, additive fabrication does not offer the high accuracy or finishes of machining, so secondary operations are typically required. Also, unlike additive fabrication, machining is able to use hard materials that offer great durability. As a result, rapid tooling is typically only used for low-to-medium volume productions. Lastly, as explained earlier, additive fabrication processes have smaller part size limitations and are unable to produce very large tooling. The most common method of rapid tooling uses additive processes to fabricate the tooling indirectly by first creating a pattern. This pattern is then used to form the mold or die. Patterns are already used in manufacturing processes that use non-permanent molds, such as sand casting and investment casting. In these processes, a pattern is traditionally machined from wood, plastic, or soft metal and used to form the mold. Additive fabrication offers a fast alternative for creating these patterns, which can be re-used many times and offer similar properties to wood or plastic patterns. Indirect tooling from additive fabrication can also be used to form re-usable molds for processes like vacuum casting or injection molding. Vacuum casting can use molds formed by pouring silicon rubber or room temperature vulcanizing (RTV) rubber around the rapid tooling pattern and allowing it to harden into the shape of the mold. These rubber molds can be used to form up to 50 plastic parts out of various polymers. Rapid tooling patterns can also be used to form metal/ceramic composite molds for injection molding

Rapid manufacturing Rapid manufacturing. Assuming that the desired part quality can be achieved. using multiple materials. a relatively new application for additive fabrication. highly focused UV laser to trace out successive cross-sections of a three-dimensional object in a vat of liquid photosensitive polymer. relatively small parts.. Firstly. which are of great advantage at large production volumes. these processes weren't considered for large scale production due to limitations in the mechanical properties and surface finishes that they could attain. the cost benefit of not incurring tooling costs becomes less significant at high production volumes. capable of producing hundreds of thousands of parts. sanded or otherwise finished. a leveling blade is moved across the surface to smooth it before depositing the next layer. supports are cut off the part and surfaces are polished. Next. This process of tracing and smoothing is repeated until the build is complete. based on work by inventor Charles Hull. However. the per-part cost of tooling becomes less of an issue. the polymer solidifies and the excess areas are left as liquid. rapid manufacturing can offer many cost benefits over conventional manufacturing. geometrically simple. direct rapid tooling is now possible. It uses a low-power. and a subsequent layer is formed on top of the previously completed layers. Lastly. Inc. and ceramics. or being considered for. When a layer is completed. composites. When manufacturing hundreds of thousands of parts.which can produce up to 1.003-0. the part is elevated above the vat and drained. This approach was initially not viable because of the high accuracy and durability required for molds. It can produce highly accurate and detailed polymer parts. Another type of rapid tooling is direct tooling. In many cases. part build times can not compete with the short cycle times of molding and casting processes. a final cure is given by placing the part in a UV oven. Rapid manufacturing does have its limitations and is best suited for parts that take advantage of the additive process.000 parts are being seen.002 in). Initially. which is the use of additive fabrication to directly produce the mold without the need for a pattern. additive fabrication does not require any tooling which can be very costly and time consuming to produce for molding and casting processes. As explained earlier. metals. However. and functionally grading materials to improve performance. . After the final cure. production volumes of 10. A short time ago. Also. secondary operations are still typically required to improve the finishes and tolerances of the mold. producing end-use products out of plastics. these material prices will drop. First. For example. For parts that are very large. additive manufacturing processes were only cost effective for production volumes of 100-500 parts. is the medium-to-high volume production of end-use products using additive technologies. This cutoff for rapid manufacturing exists for several reasons.000 plastic parts. The platform is lowered by a distance equal to the layer thickness (typically 0. additive processes typically have lower labor costs than conventional processes. However.00015. It was the first rapid prototyping process. However. most additive processes are capable of. Despite the above advantages. The labor costs are mainly attributed to the setup process. rapid manufacturing will become more viable for large scale productions. introduced in 1988 by 3D Systems. Excess polymer is swabbed or rinsed away from the surfaces. with improvements to additive technologies and materials. Stereolithography Stereolithography (SLA) is the most widely used rapid prototyping technology. As additive technologies improve. at a certain production volume conventional processes remain the more cost effective choice. or require high tolerances and surface finishes. Selective Laser Sintering and Electron Beam Melting have been used to directly fabricate metal molds. other more conventional processes are still preferred. Once complete. which becomes less significant with higher volume productions. the material cost for rapid manufacturing can be quite high because additive processes use less widely available materials. as rapid manufacturing becomes more commonplace. Now. As the laser traces the layer. additive technologies excel at producing highly complex geometries. with improvements in additive technologies and materials. This is due to the fact that parts are built directly from the CAD model and the process is highly automated.

polyethylene. Rapid tooling patterns. Presentation models.004 in. Very detailed parts. The build material is usually supplied in filament form. The layer thickness and vertical dimensional accuracy is determined by the extruder die diameter. Functional testing. Snap fits. and the extrusion nozzle deposits another layer. Once a layer is built.001 inch resolution is achievable. 0.0010 in.50 x 19. Smooth Average Form/fit testing. The nozzle contains resistive heaters that keep the plastic at a temperature just above its melting point so that it flows easily through the nozzle and forms the layer.00 x 29. Minnesota. . High heat applications Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) was developed by Stratasys in Eden Prairie. In the X-Y plane. but some setups utilize plastic pellets fed from a hopper instead.0050 in.Stereolithography (SLA) Capabilities Abbreviation: Material type: Materials: Max part size (LxWxH): Min feature size: Min layer thickness: Accuracy: Surface finish: Build speed: Applications: SLA Liquid (Photopolymer) Thermoplastics (Elastomers) 59.013 to 0.005 inches. 0. 0. which ranges from 0. A range of materials are available including ABS.70 in. a plastic or wax material is extruded through a nozzle that traces the part's cross sectional geometry layer by layer. In this process. polypropylene. polycarbonate. the platform lowers. 0. and investment casting wax. The plastic hardens immediately after flowing from the nozzle and bonds to the layer below. polyamide.

0050 in. Functional testing.00 x 36. 0. The technology was patented in 1989 and was originally sold by DTM Corporation. Patient and food applications. the parts are built upon a platform that adjusts in height equal to the thickness of the layer being built. special support structures are not required because the excess powder in each layer acts as a support to the part being built. The powder is maintained at an elevated temperature so that it fuses easily upon exposure to the laser. As in all rapid prototyping processes.00 x 24. This powder is rolled onto the platform from a bin before building the layer. after which secondary machining and finishing is .00 in. Presentation models. Small detailed parts.0050 in.Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) Capabilities Abbreviation: Material type: Materials: Max part size (LxWxH): Min feature size: Min layer thickness: Accuracy: Surface finish: Build speed: Applications: FDM Solid (Filaments) Thermoplastics such as ABS. by Carl Deckard and colleagues. and Polyphenylsulfone. Unlike SLA. forming the part. Elastomers 36. the SLS process solidifies a polymer binder material around steel powder (100 micron diameter) one slice at a time. With the metal composite material. DTM was acquired by 3D Systems in 2001. at temperatures in excess of 900 °C. High heat applications Selective Laser Sintering Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) was developed at the University of Texas in Austin. Additional powder is deposited on top of each solidified layer and sintered. Polycarbonate. 0.005 in. where the polymer binder is burned off and the part is infiltrated with bronze to improve its density. Rough Slow Form/fit testing. The basic concept of SLS is similar to that of SLA. It uses a moving laser beam to trace and selectively sinter powdered polymer and/or metal composite materials into successive cross-sections of a three-dimensional part. 0. Rapid tooling patterns. The part is then placed in a furnace. The burn-off and infiltration procedures typically take about one day.

SOMOS (rubber-like). glass-filled nylon. Elastomers. Composites 22. Functional testing.00 x 30. Less detailed parts. including nylon. and reduction in stair-stepping. Recent improvements in accuracy and resolution. 0. metal powder (20 micron diameter). Eliminating the polymer binder avoids the burn-off and infiltration steps. An additional benefit of the DMLS process . Parts with snap-fits & living hinges.performed. High heat applications Direct Metal Laser Sintering Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) was developed jointly by Rapid Product Innovations (RPI) and EOS GmbH. With DMLS. have minimized the need for secondary machining and finishing. Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) Capabilities Abbreviation: Material type: Materials: Max part size (LxWxH): Min feature size: Min layer thickness: Accuracy: Surface finish: Build speed: Applications: SLS Powder (Polymer) Thermoplastics such as Nylon. starting in 1994.00 in. 0.005 in. Average Fast Form/fit testing. SLS allows for a wide range of materials. Rapid tooling patterns. Truform (investment casting). is completely melted by the scanning of a high power laser beam to build the part with properties of the original material.0040 in. 0.00 x 22. and the previously discussed metal composite. and produces a 95% dense steel part compared to roughly 70% density with Selective Laser Sintering (SLS). free of binder or fluxing agent. Polyamide.0100 in. as the first commercial rapid prototyping method to produce metal parts in a single process. and Polystyrene.

the metal powder is contained in a hopper that melts the powder and deposits a thin layer onto the build platform.compared to SLS is higher detail resolution due to the use of thinner layers. Titanium. In the powder deposition method. after a layer is built the build piston lowers the build platform and the next layer of powder is applied.0100 in.0010 in. Ceramics 10. A laser then sinters the layer of powder metal. Stainless steel. and titanium. The powder bed method is limited to only one material but offers faster build speeds. This capability allows for more intricate part shapes. 0. Aerospace parts . tool steel. DMLS is often used to produce rapid tooling. Tool steel. powder deposition and powder bed. cobalt-chrome. The powder deposition method offers the advantage of using more than one material.70 in. bronze. 0. aluminum. Non-ferrous metals such as Aluminum. In both methods. In addition to functional prototypes. High heat applications. Rapid tooling. each in its own hopper.005 in.00 x 10. 0. the powder dispenser piston raises the powder supply and then a recoater arm distributes a layer of powder onto the powder bed. Material options that are currently offered include alloy steel. Functional testing. Medical implants. In the powder bed method (shown below). which differ in the way each layer of powder is applied. enabled by a smaller powder diameter. Average Fast Form/fit testing. Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) Capabilities Abbreviation: Material type: Materials: Max part size (LxWxH): Min feature size: Min layer thickness: Accuracy: Surface finish: Build speed: Applications: DMLS Powder (Metal) Ferrous metals such as Steel alloys. Bronze. Cobalt-chrome. The DMLS process can be performed by two different methods. medical implants.00 x 8. stainless steel. and aerospace parts for high heat applications.

and part strength are not quite as good as some other additive processes. and the printing repeated. are somewhat limited but are inexpensive relative to other additive processes.00 x 29. typically 2-4 layers per minute. 0. Elastomers. Non-ferrous metals such as Bronze.60 in.0020 in.50 x 27.008 in. The process is similar to the Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) process. 0. These regions of powder are bonded together by the adhesive and form one layer of the part. but instead of using a laser to sinter the material. The remaining free standing powder supports the part during the build. A multi-channel ink-jet print head then deposits a liquid adhesive to targeted regions of the powder bed. 3D printed parts are typically infiltrated with a sealant to improve strength and surface finish.3D Printing Three Dimensional Printing (3DP) technology was developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and licensed to several corporations. 3D Printing offers the advantage of fast build speeds. After the part is completed. Ceramics 59. However. the accuracy. 0. The 3D printing process begins with the powder supply being raised by a piston and a leveling roller distributing a thin layer of powder to the top of the build chamber. 3D Printing is typically used for the rapid prototyping of conceptual models (limited functional testing is possible). the loose supporting powder can be brushed away and the part removed. .0040 in. Three Dimensional Printing (3DP) Capabilities Abbreviation: Material type: Materials: Max part size (LxWxH): Min feature size: Min layer thickness: Accuracy: 3DP Powder Ferrous metals such as Stainless steel. leveled. Composites. the build platform is lowered and a new layer of powder added. surface finish. an ink-jet printing head deposits a liquid adhesive that binds the material. After a layer is built. which include metal or ceramic powders. Material options.

Consumer goods & packaging The additive fabrication technique of inkjet printing is based on the 2D printer technique of using a jet to deposit tiny drops of ink onto paper. After this process is repeated for each layer and the part is complete. Inkjet Printing Capabilities . such as the ModelMaker (MM). use a single jet for the build material and another jet for support material. After a layer has been completed. Architectural & landscape models. and high-precisions products. Other applications include jewelry. For this reason. The particles resulting from this cutting operation are vacuumed away by the particle collector. the process if often referred to as thermal phase change inkjet printing. 3D Systems has implemented their MultiJet Moldeling (MJM) technology into their ThermoJet Modeler machines that utilize several hundred nozzles to enable faster build times. the part can be removed and the wax support material can be melted away. As a result. In the additive process. liquid drops of these materials instantly cool and solidify to form a layer of the part. which are held in a melted state.Surface finish: Build speed: Applications: Inkjet Printing Rough Very Fast Concept models. Limited functional testing. the limitations include slow build speeds. and fragile parts. Color industrial design models. the most common application of inkjet printing is prototypes used for form and fit testing. The inkjet printing process. These materials are each fed to an inkjet print head which moves in the X-Y plane and shoots tiny droplets to the required locations to form one layer of the part. However. Several manufactures have developed different inkjet printing devices that use the basic technique described above. Both the build material and support material instantly cool and solidify. Inkjet printing offers the advantages of excellent accuracy and surface finishes.. The elevator then lowers the build platform and part so that the next layer can be built.. Inkjet printers from Solidscape Inc. the ink is replaced with thermoplastic and wax materials. begins with the build material (thermoplastic) and support material (wax) being held in a melted state inside two heated reservoirs. medical devices. a milling head moves across the layer to smooth the surface. When printed. as implemented by Solidscape Inc. few material options.

MJM Liquid Thermoplastics such as Polyester 12. and 3D Systems. Medical devices Jetted photopolymer is an additive process that combines the techniques used in Inkjet Printing and Stereolithography. and medical devices. the build material is a liquid acrylate-based photopolymer that is cured by a UV lamp after each layer is deposited. 0. The method of building each layer is similar to Inkjet Printing. The equipment designed by both companies deposits the photopolymer build material as described above.0010 in. However. This support material does not cure the same as the build material and can later be washed away with pressurized water. the wax is melted away. an Israeli company. Jewelry and fine items. as in Stereolithography.00 x 6. the most common application of this technology is prototypes used for form and fit testing. the feature detail and material properties are not quite as good as Stereolithography.0005 in. 3D systems commercialized their InVision systems in 2003. 0. 0. In the PolyJet system.00 in. Very Smooth Slow Form/fit testing. in that it uses an array of inkjet print heads to deposit tiny drops of build material and support material to form each layer of a part. but differs in the application of support material. For this reason.Abbreviation: Material type: Materials: Max part size (LxWxH): Min feature size: Min layer thickness: Accuracy: Surface finish: Build speed: Applications: Jetted Photopolymer MM.00 x 6. commercialized their PolyJet technology in 2000.005 in. the support material is also a photopolymer that is deposited from a second print head and cured by the UV lamp. Two companies that have developed jetted photopolymer devices include Objet Geometries Ltd. Objet. Other applications include rapid tooling patterns. Jetted Photopolymer is sometimes referred to as Photopolymer Inkjet Printing. These jetted photopolymer devices use a separate print head to deposit a wax support material. Rapid tooling patterns. Very detailed parts. As with Inkjet Printing. jewelry. After the part is completed. Jetted Photopolymer . The advantages of this process are very good accuracy and surface finishes. However.

LOM was developed by Helisys of Torrance. and another sheet is advanced on top of the previously deposited layers.40 x 7.0006 in. Very detailed parts.30 x 15.006 in. 0. After a layer is cut. The main components of the system are a feed mechanism that advances a sheet over a build platform. A laser cuts the outline of the part into each layer. The platform then rises slightly and the heated roller applies pressure to bond the new layer. Presentation models. The laser cuts the outline and the process is repeated until the part is completed. CA.90 in.0010 in.020 in). Jewelry and fine items Laminated Object Manufacturing (LOM) The first commercial Laminated Object Manufacturing (LOM) system was shipped in 1991. a heated roller to apply pressure to bond the sheet to the layer below. the extra material remains in place to support the part during build.002-0. and cutting layers of adhesive-coated sheet material on top of the previous one.Capabilities Abbreviation: Material type: Materials: Max part size (LxWxH): Min feature size: Min layer thickness: Accuracy: Surface finish: Build speed: Applications: JP Liquid (Photopolymer) Thermoplastics such as Acrylic (Elastomers) 19. Rapid tooling patterns. Smooth Fast Form/fit testing. the platform lowers by a depth equal to the sheet thickness (typically 0. Laminated Object Manufacturing (LOM) . bonding. and a laser to cut the outline of the part in each sheet layer. Parts are produced by stacking. 0. 0. After each cut is completed.

0.0020 in. rivet sets.80% Carbon to .6%-0. Most metals are malleable and ductile and are.2%-0.2% carbon: Chains.8% carbon: Tough and hard steel. tool shanks. 0. and heat-treated machine parts 0. All ferrous metals are magnetic and have poor corrosion resistance while non-ferrous metals are typically non-magnetic and have more corrosion resistance. mandrels. and hardness and wear resistance. gears.8%-0. shear blades. heavier than the other elemental substances. wrenches. LOM Solid (Sheets) Thermoplastics such as PVC. low cost Applications good 0. 0. Paper.0% Low toughness.4%-0. nails. 0.30% Steels Carbon to 0. wire.9%-1. Non-ferrous metals. screwdrivers. fair formability spindles. Medium Carbon 0. An overview of the most common ferrous and non-ferrous metals is shown below.80% A good balance of properties. and arbors.0% carbon: Used for hardness and high tensile strength. set screws.00 x 20.3%-0. and where very soft.Capabilities Abbreviation: Material type: Materials: Max part size (LxWxH): Min feature size: Min layer thickness: Accuracy: Surface finish: Build speed: Applications: Metals Almost 75% of all elements are metals. fair formability 0. gears. plastic steel is needed. formability. 0. All metals can be classified as either ferrous or non-ferrous.00 x 22. and cable wire.3% carbon: Machine and structural parts 0. and machine parts. rock and weld-ability. Anvil faces.00 in.0040 in. Metals are used in electronics for wires and in cookware for pots and pans because they conduct electricity and heat well. cold chisels.1%-0. pipe. axles. in general. hammers. Less detailed parts. shafts. ~2. Ferrous metals contain iron and non-ferrous metals do not.5% carbon: Crankshafts.008 in.8% carbon: "Low carbon tool steel" and is used where shock strength is wanted. Ceramics) 32. Rapid tooling patterns Ferrous Metals Material name Composition Low Carbon Up to 0. stampings. Rough Fast Form/fit testing. 0. many hand tools. high drills. 0.9% carbon: Punches for metal.7%-0. Drop hammer dies.30% Carbon Steels Properties Good formability. weld-ability. rivets.4% carbon: Lead screws. springs. Two or more metals can be alloyed to create materials with properties that do not exist in a pure metal. band saws. cutting tools High Steels Carbon 0. Composites (Ferrous metals. worms.

Martensitic Steels: Good combination of Cutlery. strength. radiator Magnetic with a high and formability.1.3%-1. etc. reamers. Ferritic Steels: Good ductility. mechanical and Kitchen sinks. milling cutters. The high maximum hardness. Stainless Steel Stainless steel is a Good corrosion resistance. The Chromium in the alloy forms a selfhealing protective clear oxide layer. and springs and 0. 11. knives. produced by heat fasteners. Ovens. architectural applications such Austenitic Steels: Good Contains chromium corrosion resisting properties. scissors. Chemical tanks the range of 16% to ductility and are usually non26%. with or without other elements. They properties contain at least 10. chromium. 1. catalytic converters. weld-ability. garbage disposal shredder lugs. architectural chromium and low thermal conductivity. 1. properties. and and domestic appliance trim applications nickel content usually corrosion resistance with a alloyed with other good bright surface elements such as appearance aluminum or titanium. wood working tools.10% to 0. Automotive trim. no nickel. and mechanical resistant steels.0% to 17. cold cutting dies. The typical high hardness and yield windows. This oxide layer gives stainless steels their corrosion resistance. to develop carbon levels.4% carbon: Used where a keen cutting edge is necessary (razors.65% treatment. fuel lines. surgical instruments.2%-1. wear Typically contains corrosion resistance and plates. as roofing. Heat chromium content is in strength as well as excellent exchangers.0% excellent mechanical industrial knives. cladding. family of corrosion appearance. nickel content is magnetic commonly less than 35%.3% carbon: Files. Food processing equipment. reasonable caps. followed by rapid cooling (quenching). taps. saws. by heating to a high temperature. carbon enables the and resistance to abrasion material to be hardened and erosion. cooking utensils. doors and and nickel.) and where wear resistance is important. vanes for steam turbines. tools for cutting wood and brass.2% carbon: Drills.0%-1. knives.5% chromium. gutters. shafts. Non-Ferrous Metals Material name Composition Properties Applications .

zinc. light weight. most machinable metal. easily formed. forgings. pipes. numerous automotive applications other metals. Pipes. fabrication. and other elements Brass Copper Low density. malleable. applications temperature and mechanical include electronic lead wires. zinc. good Rays corrosion resistance Lightest metallic material Automobile. aluminum. and magnesium are useful in die-casting. stiffness. tubing. easily cast Lead Magnesium Magnesium Alloys / Pure metal / Used as an alloy element for aluminum. magnesium. marine other elements corrosion resistance. roofing. 65% to 35% is forms.frequently used as an extend beyond stainless undercoat in decorative chromium plating and steels). good high to improve corrosion resistance. The most widely used alloy of zinc is brass Plastics . 60% of parts. portable electronics. and other nonferrous alloys. and tungsten Very good corrosion The major use of nickel is in the preparation of resistance (can be alloyed to alloys or plating . or cast Alloy of copper and Reasonable hardness. than 50% of metallic zinc goes into galvanizing numerous alloys with reasonable conductor of steel). (density of about 2/3 of that power tools. good toughness Zinc / Zinc Pure metal/ Metal is Excellent corrosion Used principally for galvanizing iron (more Alloys employed to form resistance. thermal Electrical wiring. manganese. kettles. casts. chiefly chromium. of thermal expansion. good electrical Window frames. chromium. chemical and nickel. fairly good components. lead. and melting point. aircraft parts. machined. and malleable. musical instruments the common ratio good electrical conductivity and acoustic properties Pure metal Excellent ductility. good corrosion resistance. Alloys of electricity because of its light weight primarily zinc with small amounts of copper. strong and aerospace equipment tough. sporting goods parts. environments. nonmagnetic. and of aluminum). high strength. silicone. ornaments. molybdenum. noncombustible. batteries. high performance applications. alloyed with aluminum to improve the mechanical. kitchenware copper). and biomaterial applications nontoxic and generally biologically compatible with human tissues and bones. heat exchangers in corrosive conductor of heat and environments electricity Titanium / Pure metal / Easily Low density. appliances. and machines well. valves. and electrical conductivity printed circuit boards Pure metal Heaviest common metal. Parts for electrical fittings. protection against Xductile. automotive conductivity (approx. and welding characteristics Nickel / Nickel Pure metal / Alloys Alloys very well with large amounts of other elements. low coefficient Aerospace structures and other highTitanium Alloys alloys with aluminum. ductile. corrosion resistance. bowls. excellent petrochemical applications. battery performance.Aluminum / Pure metal / Easily Aluminum alloys alloyed with small amounts of copper.

polycarbonate (PC). resistance. If they are subjected to the same conditions of heat and pressure. fatigue resistance. chemical resistance. trim. Diakon. Very tough. These long chains intertwine to form the bulk of the plastic. properly applied. levers. resistance. Plastics are made up of polymers. fatigue Kopa. polyamide (PA. Polymeric materials are characterized by long chains of repeated molecule units known as "mers". Cellidor. the plastic is said to be crystalline. Handles. Plastics. the polymer chain orientations are random and give the plastic an amorphous structure. housings. slide guides. wheels gears. valves Display stands. reflectors. Magnum. Lucite. polyvinyl chloride (PVC). Advances in chemistry have made the distinction between crystalline and amorphous less clear. rigid. inhalors. Plexiglas low/medium cost Strong. low/medium cost Rigid. and typically will have lower elongation and flexibility than amorphous plastics. densely packed arrangement. toys Handles. signs. medium/high cost High strength. polyester (PET. scratch resistant.Plastic is a commercial name for a group of materials that while being processed. chemical resistance. Akulon. Thermoplastic materials can be formed into desired shapes under heat and pressure and become solids on cooling. gauges. Thermosetting materials are like concrete. Rilsan. Examples include acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS). flexible. transparent. since some materials like nylon are formulated both as a crystalline material and as an amorphous material. Delrin. low/medium cost Dexel. PBT). Thermoplastics and Thermosets Material name Acetal Abbreviation Trade names POM Acrylic PMMA Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene ABS Cellulose Acetate CA Polyamide 6 (Nylon) PA6 Polyamide (Nylon) 6/6 PA6/6 Polyamide (Nylon) Polycarbonate 11+12 PA11+12 PC Description Strong. rotors. rollers. If instead the polymer chains take an orderly. they can be reprocessed into new shapes. Novodur. Amorphous plastics have good impact strength and toughness. resistance. panels. Most plastics can be classified as either thermoplastic or thermosetting materials. lenses. molded. handles. optical clarity. vents). will perform functions at a cost that other materials cannot match. transparent. Typically. housings. Today. electroplating capability. bushings. lenses. nylon). The ways in which the chains intertwine determine the plastic's macroscopic properties. Crystalline plastics share many properties with crystals. low friction. low friction. Oroglas. and ceramics and are essential to the needs of virtually the entire spectrum of business. rollers. and better chemical resistance. excellent creep Hostaform. temperature Applications Bearings. light housings. Plastics can be cast. Zytel. chemical resistance. medium/high cost High strength. almost opaque/white. Grilon low creep. wood. Lucel moisture resistance. chemical resistance. Radilon low creep. They are one of the most used materials on a volume basis in industrial and commercial life. shrinkage (tight tolerances). plumbing components. Grilamid low creep. boxes. Terluran naturally opaque. and polystyrene (PS). very high cost Calibre. chemical resistance. or pressed into an unlimited variety of shapes. brittle. eyeglass frames. can be pushed or formed into almost any desired shape and then retain that shape. polypropylene (PP). naturally opaque white. low mold Cycolac. Lexan. Ultramid. knobs. eyeglass frames Bearings. Examples of crystalline plastics include acetal. shelves. Plastics are on par with metals. Tough. cams. they cannot be reshaped. high cost Setilithe High strength. the vast majority of plastics are thermoplastics. zip ties small Air filters. gears. polyethylene (PE). safety masks Automotive (panels. almost opaque/white. once processed and shaped. and polyphenylene sulfide (PPS). low friction. trays Automotive (consoles. panels. . almost opaque to clear. excellent fatigue Celcon. styreneacrylonitrile copolymer (SAN). fatigue resistance.

bottles. Appryl. tough and flexible. toys food Polystyrene . flame Polycol. dimensional stability. high plumbing components cost Bearings. bearings. dimensional stability. pens Electronic housings. and containers cost Tough and stiff. chemical Luran. low covers.General GPPS purpose Polystyrene impact High HIPS Polyvinyl Chloride PVC Plasticised Polyvinyl Chloride UPVC Rigid Styrene Acrylonitrile SAN Thermoplastic Elastomer/Rubber TPE/R Lacqrene. covers. gears. valves Tough. Thermocomp. housewares. Solarene Impact strength. shoe soles. covers. medical tubing. very high cost and shields Lightweight. electroplating capability. syringes Bushings. high chemical resistance. Sarlink Electrical insulation. Vamporan Polyphenylene Oxide PPO Polyphenylene Sulphide PPS Ryton. caps. flame Automotive (housings. seals absorption Electrical components Heat resistance. chemical resistance. chemical electrical components resistance. brittle. Escorene. Rigid. rollers. Arpylene. transparent (amber switches). low cost Tough. Aircraft components. resistance. electrical low water absorption. low cost Styron. reflectors. washers . toughness.High HDPE Density Alkathene. flexible. Cosmetics packaging. very high chemical Valves resistance. resistance. Polystar naturally translucent. excellent chemical resistance. low cost Hytrel. chemical resistance. flexible. transparent. PET Celanex. excellent Chair seats. housings. heat resistance. Valox Polyether Sulphone PES Victrex. high cost Santoprene. medium/high cost (connectors. resistance. covers. resistance. Varlan resistance. sensors). low handles. panels). low cost Tough. components. Fortron Polypropylene PP Novolen. pump resistance. flame Welvic. light covers. appearance. tough and stiff.Low LDPE Density Polyethylene . housings. flexible. fuel system Very high strength. Crastin. Rynite. seals. rigidity. electrical components. consoles). clear. color) surgical tools Lightweight. thermal stability. heat components. natural and containers waxy appearance. resistance. handles. Udel Polyetheretherketone PEEKEEK Polyetherimide PEI Ultem Polyethylene . housings. crates. low moisture impellers. transparent. boards. guides. switches. containers. transparent or Trosiplast opaque. bottles. transparent.Makrolon Polyester Thermoplastic - PBT. heat resistance. sheilds. containers. Escorene resistance. housings. flame (connectors. gutters) Housewares. abrasion electrical connectors. housings cost. toys Outdoor applications (drains. natural waxy appearance. Lupox. Stamylan Noryl. cams. Brittle. transparent or opaque. dimensional stability. very high cost Strong. heat resistance. resistance. heat resistance. natural waxy trim). fittings. knobs. Tough. scratch Automotive (bumpers. brown. Hostalen. Polystyrol. pumps). high cost housings. Kitchenware. low cost Stiff. switches. Starex hydrolytically stable. safety helmets and shields Automotive (filters. Kostil. covers. Novex Eraclene. low cost Tough.

For the last two years. The first three questions are relatively simple and Steve has no trouble answering them. his boss wants to learn about the cost before deciding to switch to the plastic. Steve has a good idea about how the plastic housing will look. Greg shows those new parts to Steve. Steve does not have a detailed engineering design yet. Steve calls the molder. Steve still does not have an answer and grows more frustrated with the project. He tries multiple approaches recommended by his co-workers. Unfortunately. Cost Analysis with CustomPartNet Hearing about Steve's difficulty in acquiring an estimate. To make the matter worse. Greg cannot help him with that question. Traditional Cost Analysis Approach Steve sets out to get an estimate for the injection molded battery housing. Unfortunately. he cannot send them the drawing. Second Attempt: Steve contacts his college roommate John who now works at a very large company and has access to the best-in-class cost estimation software. Greg has no trouble in sharing the cost data with Steve. Steve comes back to his office and talks to the software vendor. Steve starts working through the formulas. Steve has a rough estimate for his injection molded part.950 and the two day training session is only available if he buys the software. Steve's company's main client would like them to explore the possibility of replacing the sheet metal housing with a plastic housing. Steve orders the book from Amazon . The molder says that Steve should send them the engineering drawing of the part and they will provide him a quote within forty eight hours. However. First Attempt: Steve does research on the Internet and finds a molder that looks very promising. Steve locates the website and finds that he can easily browse through an extensive reference part library for injection molded parts. Steve is really excited about this project. but encounters many obstacles. a co-worker informs Steve that he has recently heard about a website called CustomPartNet that he should investigate. it is certainly better than nothing.Introduction Steve works in a small ten person company. his boss would never approve sending drawings of a key product to an unknown molder.it has great reviews. suggests to Steve that he buy a book that only costs $90 and has a very detailed method for calculating cost. So. Steve cannot wait for the book to arrive. he has been designing sheet metal battery housings for a biomedical product designed and marketed by his company. All he wants to do is to run away. . He asks Steve to figure out the cost of making an injection molded plastic housing. Finally. the molder looses interest. but after each attempt. Fortunately. Steve would like to find out how the cost would be different if he changed the part to his exact specifications. Even if Steve had the engineering drawing. Fortunately. He thinks about writing an angry review but it won't help his project. Finally. John invites Steve to visit him and try his cost estimation software. Steve has no idea whether he needs insulated runners or not. So. It turns out that the software costs $24. John suggests that Steve attend a highly informative training session by the software vendor. Fourth Attempt: Steve calls his brother-in-law Greg to discuss his problem. Their website says that they are extremely cost competitive and very experienced with the latest injection molding technology. Steve notices that the book mentions that the data is based on a survey done over 15 years ago. He is very upset. Bill. two days later the book arrives. One of them turns out to be close to Steve's specifications for his part. shown below. Steve visits John's company and starts using the software. So. It is a pain to use them. But. He has seen an example of a plastic housing being used in a competitive product. Greg works in a company that is in a different enough market from Steve's company. However. Steve does not want to ask his boss to spend 25K on this software. Suddenly. once Steve mentions that the project is exploratory and he does not have a detailed drawing. But then the questions start getting increasingly harder and becoming very specific about the molding process. Third Attempt: Another friend. Greg's company has ordered ten new plastic parts in the last three months. They also have great customer testimonials on the web site. He quickly identifies a housing that meets his specifications.

The system produces a detailed cost estimate based on the up-to-date market information. .Steve is even able to change the material and wall thickness for the reference part to exactly match his specifications.

quantity. and material would affect the cost. The system also allows Steve to search for qualified molders. He presents a very detailed cost analysis report to his boss and his boss decides that they should switch to the plastic part. Introduction . based on the part parameters. who can mold the part for Steve. an extensive glossary helps him understand the specialized terminology used in the injection molding community. Steve is able to invite his brother-in-law Bill to add comments and help refine his analysis.Steve also performs several what-if scenarios to see how changing the part size. In addition.

Bill and the other members of a 5-person design team must fully design a new product. For the parameters that he is unfamiliar with.294 for each part. Initial cost analysis Bill and his team have learned about a variety of manufacturing processes in their design course and have decided that the housing will be injection molded. shown below. manufacturing process. Bill tells his team that they can use the tools at CustomPartNet to generate estimates for each of their parts and proceeds to show them how to estimate the cost of the plastic housing for their device. Bill saves his part and is able to view the cost analysis. As shown below. They must specify the material. After completing the form. As part of this course. Bill sees an estimate of $1. . and estimated cost of each component.Bill is a mechanical engineering student that is currently taking the senior design course at his university. Students in this course who produce successful designs often go on to apply for patents and sell their products. Using the custom estimate form on CustomPartNet. the glossary pop-ups explain what information is required. Bill enters the necessary parameters of the housing. Bill and his team have completed their preliminary designs and now must estimate the cost of each component.

polycarbonate. Bill needs to find a way to cut cost. Bill finds several alternative materials that are also commonly used for housings. These materials include nylon. Bill decides to explore the effect of material on the cost. Bill now returns to his saved estimate and enters the new parameters of the redesigned housing. Additionally. the new design has thinner walls. a reduction in cost of 46%. He and his team are amazed to see that their new design will cost $0. with ribs for added strength. Bill also learns that undercuts in the part will substantially add to the tooling cost. Furthermore. As shown below. Bill learns that injection molded parts must have thin walls in order to cool quickly and that adding ribs to flat surfaces will add the necessary strength. which lowers the material cost. His team had initially chosen ABS as the material for the housing because they had learned in class that ABS is a commonly used material for small injection molded housings. Bill is able to immediately see the effect of each of these materials on the cost of his part.Knowledge center and part redesign Bill and his team previously determined that for their product to be affordable. After seeing that this single component contributes to over 40% of the cost. Material selection With the design now complete. but there was not enough time in a single semester to cover the correct design practices for each process. a further 30% reduction in cost. Using this information. Bill is able to view how this reduction in cost is possible. Also. HDPE has a lower density and unit price compared to ABS. the thermodynamic properties of the material allow the production rate to increase from 133 to 277 parts per hour.491 per part. However.00 per part. . Bill clicks on the link to CustomPartNet's knowledge center to look for answers and finds that the information provided on injection molding explains the cost drivers for this process and the proper design guidelines for creating a part. in CustomPartNet's knowledge center. Bill learned about a large number of manufacturing processes. the hinges and latch have been redesigned to remove undercuts. He quickly determines that using High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) will yield a cost of $0. In his design course. Bill and his team redesign the plastic housing for their product. it would need to be manufactured for under $3. Using CustomPartNet's cost analysis page to conduct live cost comparisons.698 per part. At CustomPartNet's knowledge center. polyethylene. and polypropylene.

Bill and his team were able to redesign their part for easy manufacture and dramatically reduce the cost. It's very stiff. Acrylonitrile Styrene Acrylate (ASA) . thermal and chemically resistant. At the end of the semester. AISI Steels Steel designations defined by of the American Iron and Steel Institute. Acetal Acetal resins. and has better flame-retardency and weatherability than ABS. are formed from the polymerization of formaldehyde. view material properties and up-todate pricing. Acetals tend to have a high degree of crystallinity. tough. The AISI system is more comprehensive than the SAE in that letters precede the alloy number indicating the manufacturing method: A represents basic open-hearth alloy steel. giving them superior strength and stiffness compared with other thermoplastics. Acrylates and methacrylates comprise the two main groups of acrylics. Acrylonitrile Chlorinated PE-styrene Like ABS. which enjoy widespread use in aerospace. Acetals are known for their high strength. automotive and optical applications. it is a terpolymer. E electric furnace alloy steel. AISI carbon and alloy steels are essentially the same as those designated by the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE). Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) Introduced in the late 1940s ABS has a wide range of good properties. Bill and his team were able to quickly estimate their own parts. but of acrylinitrile and chlorinated polystyrene. and learn about the DFM guidelines and cost drivers for injection molding. whose chemical name is polyoxymethylene. Bill and his team continue to use CustomPartNet for design tips and cost estimates for the rest of the components. fatigue and corrosion resistance.Using the tools at CustomPartNet. B acid Bessemer carbon steel. lubricity. ASTM The American Society for Testing Materials. it is easy to process and has an excellent surface appearance. Acrylic Acrylic resins are widely known for their superior impact resistance and clarity. ABS is used in many impact-resistant applications from motorcycle fairings to lawn mower housings. AISI The American Iron and Steel Institute. surface hardness. their professor is impressed with their design and recommends that the team apply for a patent and pursue developing their design into a marketable product. and resilience. while retaining good toughness at low temperatures. Using these tools. C basic open-hearth carbon steel. CB either acid Bessemer or basic open-hearth carbon steel.

remove the current tool. Element No. each in its own pocket or tool holder.5%. places it back in the correct pocket. this includes the time to stop and orient the spindle. ASA has superior weatherability compared with ABS and because of an absence of double bonds resists yellowing and embrittlement better than other polymers. and a boiling point of approximately 2270°C (4118 °F). Automatic tool changer A device that stores several tools.or high-carbon steel. In a turning machine. Aluminum is often alloyed with other metals to improve its tensile strength and resistance to acids and alkalis. The additives ratio describes the weight of additives that may be added relative to the weight of raw material. In turning. Aluminum is a white-silver metal with an atomic weight 26. packaging. A large axial depth of cut will require a low feed rate. this device removes the tool from the spindle. Alloys with a total of less than 5% of such elements are considered low alloy steels. or equipment used in a single operation. Aluminum is second only to steel in consumption. malleable. . and conducts electricity with very little resistance. building. Alloys with more than 11% chromium are generally considered stainless steels. Aluminum is light weight. nickel. Most alloy steel is medium. but attacked by both acids and alkalis. a facing operation has an axial depth of cut relative to the workpiece axis.ASA is produced either by a patented. The additional cost per part is equal to these costs per operation amortized over the number of parts per operation. and UV protectants.97. this time describes the turret rotating to a new tool position. tungsten. In a turning machine. a melting point of 660°C (1220 °F).65%. and start the spindle again. a common oxide found in bauxite ore. Aluminum Chemical symbol Al. components. a silicon content greater than 0. insert the new tool. or else it will result in a high load on the tool and reduce the tool life. Pure aluminum is refined from alumina. this device (known as a turret) rotates the required tool into position and continues to hold it during the cut. restricting grain growth (by forming dispersed oxides or nitrides). It is stable against normal atmospheric corrosion. flame retardants. Its principle uses in steel making include: deoxidation. molybdenum. Aluminum is heavily used in the transportation. Automatic tool change time The time required for an automatic tool changer to position a new tool. Additive A substance that is added to the raw material used in a process in order to alter some material property. proprietary process or by graft process. electronics industries. a copper content greater than 0. ductile. and inserts a new tool into the spindle. An alloy steel is defined as meeting one or more of the following conditions: having a manganese content greater than 1. In a milling machine. Therefore. and as an alloying element in nitriding steel. In a milling machine. 13 on the periodic chart. a feature is typically machined in several passes as the tool moves to the specified axial depth of cut for each pass. Additional costs per operation The total cost of any material.6%. Examples of additives include colorants. or vanadium. or specified minimum quantities of chromium. Axial depth of cut The depth of the tool along its axis in the workpiece as it makes a cut. Alloy Steel Steels containing alloying elements and with qualities superior to those of carbon steels. and can automatically move the required tool into position.

rods. The bar load time is the amount of time (in minutes) required to load the bar. which occurs everytime the number of workpieces per bar have been machined. The bend allowance added to the flange lengths is equal to the total flat length. supports. structures. is typically the result of a device holding the bar while the stock is cut. axles. etc) Bend allowance The length of the neutral axis between the bend lines. pedestals. rather than loading a new workpiece. the arc length of the bend. or as the included angle between perpendicular lines drawn from the bend lines. rather than loading a new workpiece. Bases Structures that act as the bottom support for other parts. supports. platforms. or in other words. . The bar end is used in determining how many workpieces a single piece of bar stock will yield. columns. posts. structures. shelves. rigid structures that are attached at one or both ends to a surface to provide support. struts. poles. foundations. bars. shafts. (Includes: arms. spokes. trusses. pillars. The bar advance time is the amount of time (in minutes) required to advance the bar into position for the next part to be machined. Bar end The material at the end of a piece of bar stock that will not be used. etc) Beams Long. The bend angle can be measured between the bent material and its original position. (Includes: feet. or bar remnant. one piece of bar stock is loaded and simply advanced into position before each cycle. Bending diagram Neutral axis Bend angle The angle to which a piece of material has been bent. cylinders. The bar end. trays. Bar stock Bar load time When a bar feeder is used as the fixture.End milling (Milling machine) Facing (Turning machine) Bar advance time When a bar feeder is used as the fixture. rails. one piece of bar stock is loaded and simply advanced into position before each cycle. stands.

In bending. the applied force will cause tension on side of the material and compression on the other. The mold line lengths are the distances measured to the outside mold line and are equal to the flange lengths plus the setback. sometimes called the bend compensation. The value equals the difference between the mold line lengths and the total flat length. . Bending diagram Bend radius The radius of a bend in a piece of material that occurs between the bend lines. allowing the material to plastically deform.Bending diagram Bend deduction The bend deduction. This length is measured along the bend axis. describes the amount a piece of material has been stretched by bending. which is typically a straight line. Bending diagram Bending force The amount of force required to bend a piece of material into a new permanent shape. The bending force must create enough stress in the material to exceed the yield strength. Bending diagram Bend length The length of a bend formed in a piece of sheet metal. The radius is measured from the bend axis to the inside surface of the material and is therefore sometimes specified as the inside bend radius.

For a finish turning operation. such as a rectangle or circle. a variety of features can be formed. The test strength listed here is the bursting strength measured in pounds per square inch. . which can be set to cut the desired diameter by using an adjustable boring head. Blanks are cut from a larger piece of sheet stock in the blanking process and typically have a simple geometric shape. These features are typically machined at a small radial depth of cut and multiple passes are made until the end diameter is reached. Boring (Milling machine) Bored hole Boring (Turning machine) Bored step Bored taper Bored chamfer Boss Bored contour A cylindrical protrusion on a part that is used for aligning or fastening another part by accepting a screw or other insert through a hole in the center. On a turning machine. Boring is commonly performed after drilling a hole in order to enlarge the diameter or obtain more precise dimensions. Corrugated cardboard boxes are characterized by their wall thickness and test strength. Rectangular blanks Round blanks Boring An operation in which a boring tool enters the workpiece axially and cuts along an internal surface to form different features. The boring tool is a single-point cutting tool.V bending Blank Wipe bending A piece of sheet metal that is used as an initial workpiece on which other sheet metal operations will be performed. including steps. Box type The type of box recommended for packing may be a corrugated cardboard box or a wood crate. and contours. which both determine the maximum weight the box can hold. chamfers. tapers. the cutting feed is calculated based on the desired surface roughness and the tool nose radius.

Carbon steel is also called plain or straight carbon steel. they may also have other alloying elements such as chromium. allowing multiple identical parts to be molded in one cycle. sulfur.000 psi. Sometimes the word "cast" is left out.8%) at the eutectic temperature. stoppers. molybdenum.Brackets Structures that can be fastened between two adjacent surfaces to provide support. 2. 2) A generic term for a large family of cast ferrous alloys like gray cast iron. Carbon steel contains up to about 2% carbon. (Includes: braces. Aside from carbon. only residual quantities of other elements (nickel. Bottle with captured cavity (Cross-section shown in red) Carbon Steel Steel made from molten iron or ferrous scrap with carbon. and phosphorous. plus silicon. and phosphorus. The Vickers hardness scale is preferred for steels with a hardness over 500 BHN. or 8.8-4.60% or less silicon. resulting in "gray iron. etc) Captured cavity A pocket in a part which has inward curving surfaces. but are not completely enclosed.65% manganese. and ordinary steel. Cast Irons typically contain 1. . Many manufacturing processes are incapable of producing parts with such a feature. injection pressure. manganese. Cavity pressure The pressure inside the mold cavities caused by the injection of molten material during the mold filling stage.) are present. chromium. lids. The Brinell hardness test for steel involves impressing a 10 mm diameter hardened steel or tungsten carbide ball with a load of 3000 kilograms. silicon. For most polymers. white cast iron. 4. The most common number of cavities are 1." and "ductile iron.000 and 10. nickel. covers. and vanadium. A hardened steel or tungsten carbide ball is pressed into the smooth surface of the material with a specific load. except those added for deoxidization or to counter the deleterious effects of residual sulfur. manganese. etc. hinges. the cavity pressure is between 4. Caps Removable covers that are used to close the opening of a container. Cavity pressure depends on the material. and the geometry of the cavities and runner system. Often times. up to 1. Cavity The enclosed space between two mold halves which forms the shape of the desired part. plugs. tops." respectively." "white iron. etc) Brinell Hardness Test ASTM E10. malleable cast iron and ductile cast iron. Cast Iron 1) Iron with a carbon content that exceeds the solubility limit of carbon in austenite (approximately 1. supports. sulfur. A common standard method of measuring the hardness of metallic materials. Its mechanical properties are primarily determined by the amount of carbon present. and 0. A solid object that fills such a cavity could not be removed. structures. A microscope in used to measure the diameter of the indentation in the material surface and then compared to the corresponding Brinell Hardness Number (BHN) on a chart or calculated from a prescribed formula. the applied load in kilograms divided by the surface area of the resulting impression in square millimeters.5% carbon. molds are designed with more than one cavity. (Includes: closures." "malleable iron.

so that the chamfer width is equal to its height. (Includes: clips.8) + 32 = 212°F. a temperature scale which sets the freezing point of water at 0° and the boiling point at 100°. Also. a chamfer can be machined on either the exterior or interior of a part and can follow either a straight or curved path. vises.g. known as a chamfer. which is the outward force exerted on the mold halves by the injected material. snaps. where as the term 'pottery' is used to refer to ware fabricated by individuals and companies using plastic clays of all types and at all temperature ranges. Chamfer milling An operation in which a chamfer mill makes a peripheral cut along an edge of the workpiece or a feature to create an angled surface. grips.8 and add 32. Ceramic A man-made solid produced by the fusion of inorganic substances. The clamp stroke must be large enough to allow the part to be ejected from the mold. To convert centigrade to Fahrenheit multiply by 1. 2 ends) Clamp force The force that is applied to a mold by the molding machine in order to keep it securely closed while the material is injected. 1 end.Centigrade Also known as the Celsius scale. just one side. It is assumed that the angle of the chamfer is 45 degrees. Clamping force Clamp stroke The distance that the rear mold half must travel in order to be securely clamped to the front mold half. Clamps Removable fasteners that hold a part in place by exerting force on its sides.. clasps. etc) Clarity The measure clearness in a transparent or translucent polymer. e. Coefficient Of Linear Thermal Expansion (CTE) . locks. The clamp force is typically some factor of safety greater than the separating force. (100° x 1. Chamfer milling operation Complete chamfer Side chamfers (0 ends. ties. A more specific definition within the slip casting industry is that the term 'ceramics' has come to signify the use of talc-ball clay slurries to cast ware for firing at low temperatures. or even a part of a side. The chamfer length can be the complete perimeter of a workpiece or feature.

.000 psi. tube. Used in the pure state as sheet.000 . Coefficient of Expansion Abbreviated CTE for Coefficient of Thermal Expansion.94. such as undercuts. The change in length per unit length. Connectors Fasteners that connects two or more parts together by attaching at each end. and cast iron ranges from 60. Conductivity The measure of a materials ability to transmit electricity or heat. couplings. If a material fails in compression by a brittle fracture. electric and electronic products. Used in the pure state or alloyed by other elements to make brasses and bronzes consumed in building construction. and concrete can exhibit great compressive strengths. malleable.. or expressed as millionths of unit length change per unit length per degree (microns/(meter ºC)). the compressive strength has a very definite value. The ASTM test measuring the CTE in polymers is D696. joints. Typical units for linear CTE are cm/cm°C or in/in°F. specific gravity 8. Such arbitrary values are referred to as compressive yield strengths whereas complete compressive failure is termed ultimate compressive strength. The crushing strength of concrete. Copper Chemical symbol Cu.120. is around 6000 psi. and numerous consumer and general products. cast iron. which may include side-cores. atomic weight 63. 29 of the periodic system. melting point 1981 (degrees) F. industrial machinery. so 5 preset configurations are available.57. Complex features Protrusions or depressions occurring in multiple directions on a part. The CTE is not constant. In a custom configuration. etc) Containers and covers Parts whose primary function is to store and/or protect other parts or materials Cooling time In molding and casting processes. or volume per unit volume for each degree change in temperature. Element No. Materials such as clay brick. the cooling time is the time required for the molten material to cool and solidify in the mold before the part is ejected. Core .The change in a unit of length of a material per unit change in temperature. called the cube strength because the test involves crushing a concrete cube. transportation equipment. area per unit area. but brittle failure results in a catastrophic failure. Complexity The complexity of a part is determined by several parameters. Compressive Strength The amount of compressive stress that a material is capable of sustaining before buckling or being crushed. unscrewing devices. but varies with temperature. boiling point 4327 F. highly malleable and ductile and having high electrical and heat conductivity. lifters. including those opposing the tooling direction. the value obtained for compressive strength is an arbitrary value dependent on the degree of distortion that is indicative as failure of the material. but a correction factor is often applied to account for how the mold geometry and cooling lines affect heat flow. so it is often expressed as an average over a temperature range.000 psi. granite is 20. (Includes: adapters. Expressed in in/in-°F or cm/cm-°C. junctions. the user may specify the feature count and the mold requirements. links. and parting surface complexity. The theoretical cooling time can be calculated from material properties. The reciprocal of conductivity is resistivity. rod and wire and also as alloyed by other elements and an alloy with other metals. A characteristically reddish metal of bright luster. or semiviscous materials (which buckle rather than shatter). In the case of ductile.

Depending on the form of speed control. 118. and 120 degrees. that are defective from the core-making or core-setting processes. such as an undercut. 90. 82. Counterboring operation Counterbored hole Countersinking An operation in which a countersink tool enters the workpiece axially and enlarges the top portion of an existing hole to a cone-shaped opening. Cut length . such as a bolt. to sit flush with the workpiece surface. Core-box A box used to form expendable cores. only one of these values will remain constant as the cut proceeds and the diameter changes. Core defect rate The percentage of expendable cores. A core can be placed in the mold cavity or actuated through the side (side-core). such as those made from sand. Corrosion Resistance The intrinsic ability of a material to resist degradation by corrosion. Counterboring An operation in which a counterbore tool enters the workpiece axially and enlarges the top portion of an existing hole to the diameter of the tool. Cut diameter The diameter of the workpiece at the location of a cut in a turning operation. such as a screw. 100. to sit below the surface of a part. Countersinking operation Cut charge The cost of cutting a workpiece from a piece of stock.An additional mold piece that is used to form features that cannot be formed by the two mold halves. Common included angles for a countersink include 60. The counterboring tool has a pilot on the end to guide it straight into the existing hole. Countersinking is often performed after drilling to provide space for the head of a fastener. such as those made from sand. This ability can be enhanced by application of "special" coatings on the surface of the material. The cutting speed and spindle speed can both be calculated for this diameter. Counterboring is often performed after drilling to provide space for the head of a fastener.

the cutting feed is also equal to the cutting feed per tooth. thus parting or cutting off a section of the workpiece. which is required by a machine to perform a cutting operation. While a “Rough & Profile” operation will complete the desired feature. feature dimensions. For some operations. and cutting parameters. Cut-off to center Cutoff width Cut-off to inner diameter The width of the cut when cutting a workpiece from a piece of bar stock. The cut power for all operations must be less than the maximum power available from the machine. The cutoff width is used in determining how many workpieces a single piece of bar stock will yield. Cutting feed The distance that the cutting tool or workpiece advances during one revolution of the spindle. The cut length can be calculated based on the operation type. the required cutterpath will involve not only cutting away all the material (roughing) but also cutting along the perimeter to leave a smooth finish (profiling). into the side of the workpiece. Cut power The amount of power. Bar stock Cutterpath type The cutterpath describes the path of the tool while it travels the cut length in order to complete an operation. For a multi-point tool. This power can be calculated from the material removal rate and the specific cutting energy of the material. it is sometimes preferable to use a “Rough only” operation followed by a “Profile only” operation that uses different cutting parameters. but does not include any distances that are traversed at a rapid travel rate. In some operations the tool feeds into the workpiece and in others the workpiece feeds into the tool.The length that the cutting tool travels at a specified feed rate in order to perform an operation. in which a single-point cut-off tool moves radially. Cutting feed per tooth . and continues until the center or inner diameter of the workpiece is reached. Cut-off A turning operation. measured in inches per revolution (IPR). Cut time The time required for the tool to travel the cut length at a specified feed rate. also known as parting. multiplied by the number of teeth on the cutting tool. The cut length includes the distance to engage and exit the workpiece. typically measured in horsepower (hp) or kilowatts (kW). measured in inches per tooth (IPT). A part catcher is often used to catch the removed part.

also called the chip load per tooth. and drawing ratio. such as zinc. measured in inches per tooth (IPT).The distance that the workpiece feeds into each tooth on a multi-point cutting tool as it rotates. Dielectric Constant Also called the permittivity and denoted DK. Density The ratio of a material's mass to its volume at a given temperature and pressure. or lb/in^3. many processes allow for the production of multiple parts per cycle. Capacitors release charge when a circuit is broken. Hot chamber machines are used for alloys with low melting temperatures. . The feed per tooth. For example. These parts can be discarded or recycled. This distance. or Er. a die can be repaired to slightly extend its lifetime. the cycle time is the time required to produce a single part. Die casting machine type Die casting machines can be classified as one of two types – a hot chamber or a cold chamber machine.00000. additional dies will be needed. The die life is affected by both the material of the die and the material being injected.0 g/cm³ at 25°C and 1 atmosphere of pressure. If the die life is shorter than the number of cycles needed to produce the production quantity of parts. measured in inches per revolution (IPR). multiplied by the number of teeth on the cutting tool is equal to the cutting feed. D Deep drawing force The amount of force required to deep draw a sheet metal blank to a smaller diameter determined by the punch. allowing the material to plastically deform to the new shape. typically measured in kg/m^3. Cold chamber machines are required for alloys with high melting temperatures. However. dry air is 1. The required force will depend upon the material. Capacitance is the ratio of charge absorbed to the potential (voltage applied). sheet thickness. A dielectric constant of 3 means an insulator will absorb 3 times more electrical charge than a vacuum. Water is 1. Deep drawing Defect rate The percentage of the production quantity of parts that are defective. However. describes the size of the material chip that each tooth will cut.00054). Typically. such as aluminum. The drawing force will create enough stress in the material to exceed the tensile yield strength. and have longer cycle times and higher hourly rates. Cycle time The time that is required for one complete cycle of a manufacturing process. Cutting speed The speed of the workpiece surface relative to the edge of the cutting tool during a cut. g/cm^3. Die life The number of cycles performed during the casting process before the wear on the die is too much for it to be used anymore. a mold may contain multiple cavities or machining can be performed on multiple parts at once. measured in surface feet per minute (SFM). The ratio of the capacitance of an insulator to the capacitance of a vacuum or dry air (the dielectric constant of a vacuum is 1.

However. Imperial units are in volts per Mil and Metric units are in kilovolts per mm. On a milling machine. The limiting drawing ratio (LDR) is a measure of a material's deep drawability and is calculated from the largest blank that can be completely deep drawn for a given punch diameter. Drilling An operation in which a drill enters the workpiece axially and cuts a hole with a diameter equal to that of the tool. On a milling machine. some processes do not require a part to have any draft. Deep drawing reduction Drawing ratio A measure of the severity of a deep drawing operation. Draft The offset of the walls of a part by a slight angle. A draft angle is often required on the surfaces of a part that are parallel to the tooling direction in order to facilitate removal from a mold. Drilling (Milling machine) Drilling (Turning machine) Blind hole Dry cycle time Through hole . an end milling operation is required to produce a hole with a tool smaller than the hole diameter. which extends to some depth inside the workpiece. The complete deep drawing of a part is often achieved by a series of draw reductions. calculated as the ratio of the blank diameter to the punch diameter. a hole that extends completely through the workpiece (through hole) can also be drilled. referred to as the draft angle. A drilling operation typically produces a blind hole.Dielectric Strength The maximum voltage an insulating material can withstand before breakdown occurs. measured to the point made by the tool or to the end of the full diameter portion. Draft angle Draw reduction The percent reduction of the diameter of a sheet metal blank to the draw diameter (or punch diameter) through a deep drawing operation.

. Elongation The percent change in length of a specimen under a given load. without the part actually being produced. This time will always be less than the actual cycle time. Profiles and slots can be machined with multiple steps and by following straight or curved paths. and pockets. run through one side. An end milling operation is capable of producing any custom shape. will return with force to its approximate original length. containers. A pocket is a contained feature of any shape that can be machined by either peripheral or slot cuts. cylinder. (Includes: boxes. determined by the step-over distance. that fully encloses other parts and may hold them in place. casings. For a rough operation. shells. the recommended cutting speed and feed are selected for a peripheral or slot cut. E Ejection temperature The temperature of the material at which a part can safely be ejected from the mold. The dry cycle time is typically a measure of machine performance that indicates the time for the machine to perform the actions necessary to manufacture a part. in order to machine a specified feature. pyramid. run through two sides.The cycle time of a process that results from no material or workpiece being used. housings. upon immediate release of the stress. and cone. Enclosures Protective covers. Ejection of the part before it reaches this temperature may cause warping or other defects. Elastomer A material that at room temperature can be stretched repeatedly to at least twice its original length and.) near the point of yield or failure. End milling (Profile) End milling (Slot) End milling (Pocket) End milling features An end milling operation can produce a variety of features. Elongation is usually measured within a fixed distance (50 mm or 2 in. slots. The depth of the feature may be machined in a single pass or may be reached by machining at a smaller axial depth of cut and making multiple passes. or part of such a cover. not over the entire length of the specimen. however the total cut length must be known in order to estimate the cost. Ejector marks A part defect in the form of small indentations that are made where the ejection system pushed the part out of the mold. A profile is a peripheral cut along an external or internal edge of the workpiece with a length equal to the complete perimeter. or be contained. covers. including profiles. Four possible pocket shapes include a cuboid. A slot is a slot cut in the workpiece that can form a complete loop. or even a part of a side. A finish operation will lower the cutting feed according to the finish requirements. just one side. etc) End milling An operation in which an end mill makes either peripheral or slot cuts across the workpiece.

Gears Cylindrical parts with teeth around their perimeter which can mesh with other toothed parts to transmit motion.59) (6. Part with external protrusion Mold cannot separate Part with external hole Mold cannot separate G Gate An opening at the end of a runner. 1 side.38 x 3. sprockets. and height of the part. the Z-axis (describing the part's height) is the parting direction of the mold. Pocket: Cone Envelope Cylinder.12 x 2.09 x 2. etc) .13 x 2. which directs the flow of molten material into the mold cavity. An external undercut can be either a protrusion or a depression (hole or pocket) and requires an additional mold piece called a side-core to form its shape.Profile: Complete Profile: Side (0 ends. In molding processes.75 x 0. 0 Pocket: sides) Pyramid Cuboid. 2 Slot: Complete ends) Slot: Through (2 sides.94) External undercut A feature on the exterior of a part that will not allow a mold that contains it to slide away along the parting direction. pinions. that is able to contain the part. The X-Y-Z dimensions of this box describe the maximum length. width.00) (1. Hot glue gun housing Tongs Trigger (4. 1 ends. sometimes called a bounding box. The smallest box.66 x 0. (Includes: cogs.

The glass transition temperature of a polymer will often appear as a spike on a difference scanning calorimeter (DSC).Glass Transition Temperature (Tg) he approximate midpoint of the brittle to rubbery temperature range of a polymer. The depth of the face. typically very small. For a finish operation. Often called gray iron. Grooving Gusset Grooving (Form tools) A thin triangular support structure that joins the vertical side of a protrusion to the horizontal base from which it protrudes. If the desired groove width is larger than the tool width. The cutting tool moves from the outer diameter to the center or inner diameter of the workpiece or can move in the opposite direction. may be machined in a single pass or may be reached by machining at a smaller axial depth of cut and making multiple passes. along the end of the workpiece. . A finish operation will lower the cutting feed according to the finish requirements. For a rough operation. Gray Cast Iron A cast iron that gives a gray fracture due to the presence of flake graphite. Special form tools can also be used to create grooves of varying geometries. removing a thin layer of material to provide a smooth flat surface. the cutting feed is calculated based on the desired surface roughness and the tool nose radius. cutting a groove equal in width to the cutting tool. A profiling cut can be performed to smooth the surface of multiple grooves. F Face milling An operation in which a face mill machines a flat surface of the workpiece in order to provide a smooth finish. may be machined in a single pass or may be reached by machining at a smaller axial depth of cut and making multiple passes. into the side of the workpiece. The depth of the face. multiple adjacent grooves will be cut. typically very small. Grooving A turning operation in which a single-point tool moves radially. Face milling operation Face Facing A turning operation in which a single-point tool moves radially. the recommended cutting speed and feed for face milling are used.

Any protrusion or depression on the main body of the part can count as a feature. The facing stock is used in determining how many workpieces a single piece of bar stock will yield. including holes. The feature count is the primary indicator of a part's complexity. slots. Bar stock Factor of safety A multiplier that is applied to a calculated force requirement to arrive at a greater amount of force that is deemed safe.Facing to center Facing stock Facing to inner diameter The amount of material that will be removed from the end of a piece of bar stock by a facing or face milling operation. pins. bosses. before the next workpiece is cut. pockets. Knob (<10 features) Toy (<25 features) Brick Carrying Case Stapler Housing Rear Monitor Housing (<50 features) (<100 features) (<200 features) Jewel Case Lid Internet Router Housing (<400 features) (>400 features) Feature quantity The number of features with identical dimensions that are to be manufactured in the same way. ribs. Feature spacing . Fasteners Parts whose primary function is to hold two or more parts together. Feature count An estimate of how many features occur on a part. etc.

disks. rings. (Includes: attachments. If multiple identical features exist at varied spacing. connections. elbows. the feed system describes all of the channels in a mold that allow the molten material to feed into the cavities. . The feed rate is measured in inches per minute (IPM) and is the product of the cutting feed (IPR) and the spindle speed (RPM). a custom fixture must be designed and constructed to accommodate the workpiece. Units of Flexural Strength are psi (English) and MPa (Metric). or at the end of. Fittings Parts that attach to the end of a pipe to redirect the flow of fluid. that is used to fill empty space in the box and protect the packed parts. In some operations the tool feeds into the workpiece and in others the workpiece feeds into the tool. crosses. This time is added to the machine setup time. Sometimes. Feed system Sometimes called the runner system or gating system. etc) Flash The occurrence of molten material seeping out of the mold cavity and solidifying. Also.The distance between two identical features. nozzles. Flanges Flat disks or rings that are fastened around the perimeter. a thin layer of material will have formed attached to the part along the parting line. reducers. (Includes: collars. plates. Filler A lightweight packing material. sprue. then the average distance between two neighboring features should be used. therefore. as well as the operations to be performed. ferrum. a pipe. derived from the Latin. the fixture setup time and workpiece load time may depend on the fixture type. etc. This system may include the pouring basin. couplings. riser. tees. Feature spacing (Milling) Feature spacing (Turning) Feed rate The speed of the cutting tool's movement relative to the workpiece as the tool makes a cut. Once the part is ejected. The type of fixture selected will depend upon the workpiece size and shape. etc) Fixture The device used to secure the workpiece in the machine. gate. runner. such as foam packing peanuts. Flexural Strength The measure of a materials ability to withstand failure due to bending. Fixture setup time The time required to setup the fixture inside the machine. rims. measured from the end of one feature to the start of the next. iron-based metals. Ferrous metals are. Ferrous Related to iron.

(Includes: arms. These grooves may be vertical. Such an operation may include a rapid tool movement. cages. sometimes called hot cracking. which describes cracks that result from shrinkage. levers. (Includes: bodies. moving between features. Hourly rate The burdened hourly cost of manufacturing parts. etc) H Handles Interfaces that are attached to another part and designed to be grasped by the user’s hand. a tool replacement. I Idle operation An operation in which the tool is not engaged in the workpiece. Idle time The time required for any tool movements that occur during an operation that do not engage the workpiece. Frames Structures that surround empty space or non-structural elements and support connecting parts. supports. Each material has a recommended injection pressure. the injection pressure may be adjusted based upon the machine being used and the geometry of the part. Results from tests of the latter type are often useful for fracture control. this property describes the temperature at which molten material is injected into the mold. or performing a secondary operation. etc. Injection temperature Sometimes referred to as the processing temperature or melt temperature. See also stress-intensity factor. Most of these tool movements occur at the rapid travel rate. However. However. This time includes approaching and retracting from the workpiece. as well as profit. etc) Hot tearing A part defect. The term is sometimes restricted to results of fracture mechanics tests. cranks. such as an end mill or drill bit. manufacturing the tooling. Fracture Toughness A generic term for measures of resistance to extension of a crack. the term commonly includes results from simple tests of notched or precracked specimens not based on fracture mechanics analysis. based on either service experience or empirical correlations with fracture mechanics tests. structures. The injection temperature is determined by the material being injected. the solidified material will crack. latches. inspecting the workpiece.Flute A groove on the side of a cutting tool. but typically form a helix to allow the material chips to be pulled away from the workpiece. which are directly applicable in fracture control. grips. Injection pressure The pressure at which molten material is injected into a mold. . overhead costs. that is between the cutting teeth. knobs. If a part is not allowed to shrink freely and encounters an obstruction. This rate may include direct and indirect labor costs. and changing tools. repositioning the workpiece.

nails. However. is notched and held between a pair of jaws. A graduated scale enables a reading to be taken of the energy used to fracture the test piece. Unlike a side-core.Step 2 protrusion . to secure it in place. usually of square crossed section.Internal undercuts Step 3 requiring lifters Internal undercut A feature on the interior of a part that will not allow a mold that contains it to slide away along the parting direction. sometimes by force.Step 2 Molding an internal hole .Inserts Fasteners. When the pendulum of the Izod testing machine is released it swings with a downward movement and when it reaches the vertical the hammer makes contact with the specimen which is broken by the force of the blow. a side-core can be used. Internal core lifter An additional mold piece that is used to form an internal undercut that cannot be accessed from the side of the part. and is actuated by the ejection system. typically cylindrical. etc) Interfaces Parts whose primary function is to act as a point of contact for the user. K . an internal core lifter enters the mold along the parting direction. rivets. keys. To obtain a representative result the average of three tests is used and to ensure that the results conform to those of the steel specification the test specimens should meet the standard dimensions laid down in BS 131.Step 1 protrusion . The hammer continues its upward motion but the energy absorbed in breaking the test piece reduces its momentum. then broken by a swinging or falling weight. Molding an internal Molding an internal Molding an internal Molding an internal hole Molding an internal hole protrusion .Step 3 . that are inserted through a part. An internal undercut can be either a protrusion or a depression (hole or pocket) and requires an additional mold piece to form its shape.Step 1 . not through the side. Contrast with Charpy test. pins. (Includes: anchors. Part with internal protrusion Mold cannot separate Part with internal pocket Mold cannot separate Izod Impact Test To measure impact strength or notch toughness. a test specimen. if the feature can be accessed through an open side of the part. Most internal undercuts require an internal core lifter.

cans. and heat sealing applications. etc) Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE) A low melting point polymer that is tough. beakers. flexibility and relative transparency. cups. buckets. If the number of workers is not specified. the k-factor defines the location of the neutral axis in the material and is dependent upon several factors. tanks. Linear Low Density Polyethylene (LLDPE) A plastic predominantly used for film applications because of its toughness.25 and cannot exceed 0. flexible. typically cylindrical. bottles. such as the setup time or production time. vessels. Liquid containers Containers. (Includes: basins. Applications include flexible films like dry cleaning and grocery bags. bending operation. or overhead. If the number of workers is not specified. machine operation. and has stable electrical properties. The machine rate may include the equipment cost. pitchers. containers. maintenance. tubs. the labor rate is the amount paid to all workers for an hour. jugs. transparent. excluding any labor costs. the labor rate is the amount paid to all workers. A manual labor task will have a usage of 100%. Magnesium . The labor rate does not include any costs associated with material. jars. while a partially automated tasks will have a lower labor usage. pails. garbage bags and landfill liners. or postprocessing. auxiliary costs. etc.K-factor In bending. flasks. such as setup. Typical products include grocery bags. wire and cable applications. plant overhead. flexible lids and bottles. The k-factor is calculated as the ratio of the distance of the neutral axis (measured from the inside bend surface) to the material thickness.50. vials. bend angle. This rate does not include any costs associated with material. where workers are paid at the specified labor rate. pots. bowls. etc. Labor rate per pound The rate that is paid to any workers for a specific task based on the weight of material processed during that task. mugs. that are used for storing liquids. equipment. such as the material. Neutral axis L Labor rate Bending diagram The hourly rate that is paid to any workers for a specific task in the manufacturing process. Labor usage The percentage of time for a task. or overhead. M Machine rate The hourly rate that is charged for running a piece of manufacturing equipment. Values for the k-factor are typically greater than 0. equipment.

this describes the percentage of the shot that fills the part cavities. Trigger (t=0. and light metal. A silvery. In molding processes. the smaller dimension is considered the thickness (Knob). Atomic number 12. remove the current tool. any labor costs in handling or transporting the material. due to light weight. The Maximum Service Temperature is also called the Maximum Operating Temperature." but the term "mechanical properties" is preferred. high strength and low cost. and hence lost. Material removal rate The rate at which material is cut away from the workpiece during a machining operation. or that involve the relationship between stress and strain. insert the new tool. and chemical reduction. the modulus of elasticity. the maximum wall thickness is used to determine the cooling time because that section will require the most time to cool. as well as for replacing a worn tool. moderately hard.50) Mechanical Properties Those properties of a material that reveal the elastic and inelastic reaction when force is applied. Manual tool change time The time required to manually change a tool in the spindle or tool changer. steel desulfurization. Maximum wall thickness The thickest wall or feature of a part.Chemical symbol Mg.19) Stop Watch Button 2 Knob (t=0. These properties have often been designated as "physical properties. When measuring the maximum wall thickness of a given section. measured as a volume per unit time. Used in ductile iron production. The Deflection Temperature measures the maximum temperature a polymer can withstand under load. Melt loss is typically a result of oxidation during the melting and holding of the material. Material yield The percentage of material used that yields finished parts. typically cubic inches per minute. for example. during the melting process. Melt loss The percentage of material that becomes unusable. In one molding cycle. but often several sections should be checked (Button). .312. A manual tool change is performed if the machine does not use an automatic tool changer. strong.06) (t=0. and fatigue limit. the thickest section can be easily identified (Trigger). which includes the time to stop the spindle. tensile strength. as well as profit. In some parts. Growing use as substitute for aluminum and zinc in die castings. atomic weight 24. Maximum Service Temperature The highest recommended temperature that a polymer can withstand under no load and without a degradation of its properties. Material markup A markup to the cost of purchased material that may include overhead costs of storing the material. and start the spindle again.

The motor horsepower required for any operation must be less than the rated horsepower of the machine. Motor horsepower The power required from a machine's motor to rotate the spindle during a machining operation. which may include the material. the modulus obtained in tension or compression is Young's modulus. Class 101 (>1. The tangent modulus and secant modulus are not restricted within the proportional limit. tapping.000 cycles): A moderately priced mold. Moving parts Parts whose primary function requires that it be in motion N Neutral axis . The ratio of stress. A milling machine may be operated manually or by computer numerical control (CNC) to perform a series of operations.000. Milling machine A machine that rotates a cutting tool at high speeds and moves it into a fixed workpiece to cut away chips of material. Class 103 (<=500. Class 102 (<=1.000 cycles): The most expensive and highest quality mold. A measure of the rigidity of metal. and is to be used for prototypes only. or an idle operation. Mold class Mold class refers to an industry standard provided by the Society of Plastics Industry (SPI) for classifying the quality and lifetime of molds. Specifically. The spindle horsepower will typically be less than the machine's motor horsepower due to the machine efficiency being less than 100%.000.000 cycles): A low priced mold with mold cavities typically constructed from aluminum or mild steel. cooling lines inside the mold keep this temperature low and aid in cooling the molten material. also the most common. equipment costs. requiring cavity and cores to be of a hardness of 28 R/C or higher. Mold cost The total cost of a mold or die. end milling. the latter is the slope of a line from the origin to a specified point on the stress-strain curve. to corresponding strain. Modulus of Elasticity Also called elastic modulus and coefficient of elasticity. below the proportional limit. shear modulus or modulus of torsion. Class 105 (<=500 cycles): The least expensive type of mold. Usually. maintenance. machining. auxiliaries. and overhead. which includes direct and indirect labor costs. reaming. the modulus obtained in torsion or shear is modulus of rigidity. counterboring. chamfer milling.Melting price The price per pound of melting raw material in a foundry. boring. drilling. requiring cavities and cores be hardened to at least 48 R/C and all other mold components be made of hardened tool steel. Class 104 (<=100. which can be constructed from cast metal or epoxy. stretch modulus or modulus of extensibility. requiring cavity and cores be hardened to 48 R/C and all other mold components be heat treated. Such operations may include face milling. etc. Mold temperature The temperature of the interior mold surfaces before the molten material is injected.000 cycles): A high priced and high quality mold. the modulus covering the ratio of the mean normal stress to the change in volume per unit is the bulk modulus. the former is the slope of the stress-strain curve at a specified point.

In amounts 0. a larger production quantity or run quantity must be manufactured to yield the desired order quantity. Nickel is a slightly magnetic metal. of many corrosion resistant and stainless austenitic steels. the neutral axis describes the location in the material that is neither stretched nor compressed. together with chromium. Nickel also increases the hardenability.00% its use in alloy steels increases the toughness and tensile strength without detrimental effect on the ductility. and therefore remains at a constant length. Non-ferrous Metals Metals or alloys that are free of iron or comparatively so. silvery-white metal known primarily as an alloy to improve strength and corrosion resistance of other metals. specific gravity 8. About 65% of all nickel is used in the making of stainless steel. In machining. 8. an over-run distance of zero will still allow the full feature to be machined. atomic weight 58. Element No. sheet metal fabrication. notably steel. Hard. where objects must be coated with nickel before they can be plated with chrome. When used as an alloying agent. (2) Toughens pearlitic-ferritic steels (especially at low temperature). this includes both the cut time and idle time.hardened instead of water quenched. with high resistance to chemical and atmospheric corrosion. 28 of the periodic system. Over-run distance When machining a feature that is open on one or more sides.90.50% to 5. In larger quantities. it is of great importance in iron-based alloys in stainless steels and in copper-based alloys such as cupro-nickel as well as in nickel-based alloys such as Monel.).). .00% and upwards. the tool may be allowed to move beyond the edge of the workpiece. Therefore. of medium hardness and high degree of ductility and malleability. Due to the defect rates that are inherent to many manufacturing processes. Order quantity The order quantity or yield quantity is the number of parts required from a manufacturing process to fill a buyer’s total or annual order or to be used in a subsequent process.69. boiling point about 2900ºC (5250ºF. Operation time The total time required to complete an operation. (3) Renders high-chromium iron alloys austenitic. This over-run distance (D) is measured from the edge of the workpiece to the center of the tool. or assembly require a carefully planned sequence of operations. O Operation A specific task or step during the production of parts in a manufacturing process. nickel is the constituent.In bending. Its principal functions as an alloy in steel making: (1) Strengthens unquenched or annealed steels. such as machining. Melting point 1455ºC (2651ºF. Many processes. Neutral axis Nickel Bending diagram Chemical symbol Ni. thus permitting the steel to be oil. Pure nickel is used in galvanic plating.

In a simple mold. as well as the space adjacent to the side walls of the box. the workpiece load time need not be included in the machining cycle. The pack time can reflect the time to manually pack the part or the time required from a machine that automatically performs the packing operations. Parting direction The axis along which the two halves of a mold will separate to allow the part to be ejected. When the part cools. guards. Pallet changer The pallet is the moveable platform in a milling machine to which the fixture and workpiece are attached. more complex molds may have a stepped or curved parting line. (Includes: backings. The part catch time ( a component of the idle time) refers to any additional time required in the use of this device. covers. Parting surface . P Pack time The average time required to pack a single part into a box. including the time to load the parts. Panels Thin. A pallet changer allows another pallet to be loaded with a workpiece and then automatically changed with the pallet supporting a finished part. such as moving in or out of position and catching the part. the molten material will shrink and additional material is needed. The average pack time should be based on the total time to pack the box. Parting line The line along a part where the mold halves separate. However. This space can be used to add filler. This strategy prevents early solidification of the molten metal and provides a source of material to compensate for shrinkage. add filler if needed.Over-run distance (D) Overflow well A chamber which is attached to the mold cavity that fills with molten metal during injection. etc) Part catcher A device that may be used in turning machines to catch a part after it is separated from the workpiece by a cut-off operation. Part spacing The amount of spacing to be left between the parts when packed into a box. Because workpieces are loaded while others are being machined. this line will be straight. The first material to enter the mold is allowed to pass completely through and enter the overflow wells. and seal the box. The pallet change time describes the complete time between the end of a machining cycle and start of the next cycle. flat covers that are fastened to a surface to protect it or to seal an opening.

If a square bar is stressed in a testing machine in the direction of its length so that the length increases. reflectivity. more complex molds may have many stepped or curved surfaces. lattice parameters.28.. Post processing . hollow cylindrical parts that allow the flow of fluid through their interior. electrical conductivity. The "time per part" is equal to the operation time amortized over the parts per operation. Perimeter The outer perimeter of the projected area of a part. A larger machine typically has larger platen dimensions and can therefore accommodate a larger mold. An inspection operation that weighs a single part out of every 10 parts will also "complete" 10 parts per operation. that pertain to the physics of a material and can usually be measured without the application of force. For example. etc) Piping elements Parts whose primary function is to allow the flow of fluid or attach to such a part. carpet and textile yarns. Pattern A pattern is a replica of the desired part. used as tooling in many expendable mold processes. usually applied to elastic conditions. Parts per operation The number of parts completed in a single operation when the operation acts on multiple parts at once or one part representing many. Platen A large plate onto which a mold half is mounted. magnetic susceptibility. while the other is movable. thermal expansion. strapping. which produces a decrease in the thickness of the bar. sheet applications. Pedals Interfaces that are attached to another part and designed to be pushed by the user's foot. one platen is stationary. Pipes Long. However. This term often has been used to describe mechanical properties. PET is used to make blow molded food and non-food containers (soda bottles).The surface where the mold halves meet. this surface will be flat. etc. The pattern is used to form the shape of the cavity in the mold. there is a contraction in each opposite direction. Polyethylene Terephthalate Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET or PETE) has excellent toughness and good gas and moisture barrier properties. The perimeter of any projected holes is not included. conduits. a painting operation that paints 10 parts at once will complete 10 parts per operation. Physical Properties Properties other than mechanical properties. and molding compounds.g. (Includes: channels. Typically. e. Poisson Ratio The absolute value of the ratio of the transverse strain to the corresponding axial strain. hoses. Its value in steel is in the order of 0. tubes. The ratio between the contraction at right angles to a stress and the direct extension is called the Poisson's ratio. but this usage is not recommended. in a body subjected to uniaxial stress. density. In a simple mold.

trimming. which may be used for any costs not covered by the machine and labor rates. In molding processes. Typically. The production time includes time when the machines are running (run time or uptime) and when they are down for maintenance or other tasks (down time). Projected area The area of a part or feature that is projected onto the X-Y plane. The projected area can be approximated by a percentage of the X-Y side of the envelope. this is the area projected onto the mold surface because the Z-axis is the parting direction. The production time does not include any setup time or post processing time. Production time The amount of time required for all machines in use to manufacture the production quantity of parts. Handle Connecting Rod . which may include any incomplete or defective parts. The corner does not need to be 90 degrees. which is typically only the profit. but can be any angle or sharp curve. The number of these corners determine the complexity of the die needed to trim to the part. Production quantity The production quantity or run quantity refers to the total number of parts that are manufactured. Production rate The amount of non-defective parts produced by a manufacturing process within a set time period. cleaning. and any testing or inspection that is required. Connecting Rod Bobbin Small Paint Roller Cylinder Rear Monitor Housing ( 25% of envelope) ( 50% of envelope) ( 75% of envelope) ( 100% of envelope) Projected corner Any corner that occurs on the projected area of a part. developing the program or instructions. This may include inspecting. This time may include performing calculations.Post processing refers to any operations that are performed after the primary process has been completed and before any secondary processes are performed. The defect rate for a given manufacturing process will determine the required production quantity to yield the desired order quantity. or moving the parts. the production rate is given as the number of parts per hour. Programming or layout time The amount of time (hours) required to program (CNC) or manually layout the instructions for a series of machining operations. Production markup A markup to the production cost.

such as FDM or DMLS. For holes that project a larger area (Monitor housing). it can be ignored (Servo lever). the area can be approximated as a percentage of the X-Y side of the envelope. Purchase weight The total weight of material that must be purchased in order to manufacture the production quantity of parts. Servo Lever Front Monitor Housing (Area can be ignored) (54% of envelope) Propellers Cylindrical parts with two or more blades that rotate to cause fluid flow and/or propulsion. R Radial depth of cut The depth of the tool along its radius in the workpiece as it makes a cut. (Includes: blades. fans. the punch has a square edge to shear the material. Milling (Peripheral cut) Milling (Slot cut) Turning Rapid tooling Tooling for molding or casting processes that is quickly manufactured through high speed machining of aluminum or soft steel. the cutting tool is fully engaged and is making a slot cut. the punch has an edge radius. A large radial depth of cut will require a low feed rate. In shearing processes (blanking or punching). Therefore. In turning and boring operations. a single-point tool cuts at a depth relative to the workpiece radius. the tool is only partially engaged and is making a peripheral cut. or else it will result in a high load on the tool and reduce the tool life.Projected holes Projected holes are through-holes that project empty space onto the X-Y plane and therefore appear as gaps in the projected area of the part. impellers. Rapid travel rate . etc) Punch A punch is a tool that is forced into a piece of sheet metal in order to shear or deform the material. In forming processes (bending or deep drawing). where low cost tooling greatly reduces the part cost and a lower tool life is not a factor. Many punches are cylindrical and the punch diameter determines the size of the hole or pocket being formed. and makes another cut at the radial depth of cut. or by using additive fabrication techniques. If the area projected by these holes is very small compared to that of the part. a feature is often machined in several steps as the tool moves over the step-over distance. Rapid tooling is often used in low volume production. Punches are available in many shapes and sizes and can be used for a variety of processes. If the radial depth of cut is equal to the tool diameter. If the radial depth of cut is less than the tool radius.

The scrap allowed to be recycled by this ratio is often less than the available scrap. The cost to regrind this material may include both equipment and labor. Many clays. When the part cools. Regrind ratio Regrind refers to scrap material that is reground into pellets and then mixed with unused material for reuse. but should be less than the cost of raw material. Remelt Remelt refers to scrap material that is remelted and then mixed with unused material for reuse. The scrap used for remelt can be generated from the mold runners and defective parts. The cost to remelt this material may include both equipment and labor. Refractory The ability to withstand heat without deforming or melting. that adds bending stiffness to the part. Reaming An operation in which a reamer enters the workpiece axially and enlarges an existing hole to the diameter of the tool.The speed of the cutting tool. when it is not engaged in the workpiece and rapidly moves from one position to another. resulting is some material waste. minerals. The remelt ratio is the allowable amount of remelt relative to virgin material. The recycle ratio is the amount of scrap allowed to be recycled relative to virgin material. Rib A thin wall protrusion on a flat surface of a part. measured in inches per minute (IPM). The scrap used for regrind can be generated from the mold runners and defective parts. usually found in parallel clusters. Rockwell Hardness . the molten material will shrink and additional material is needed. Recycle ratio In many processes. The rapid travel rate is used to move between features as well as moving to and from the tool changing position. measured as a percentage of the original material cost. A finish reaming operation will use a slower cutting feed and cutting speed to provide an even better finish. Reaming (Milling machine) Reaming (Turning machine) Reamed hole Reconditioning cost The cost of reconditioning scrap material to the proper chemical composition before it is reused. Riser A chamber attached to the runner system that fills with molten metal during injection to provide an additional source of material during cooling. scrap material is generated from mold feed systems or defective parts and can be recycled by mixing it with unused material. but should be less than the cost of raw material. The regrind ratio is the allowable amount of regrind relative to virgin material. Reaming removes a minimal amount of material and is often performed after drilling to obtain both a more accurate diameter and a smoother internal finish. and even some metals are considered refractory materials.

For testing hard steels. Under this condition. a sphero-conical diamond is used with a 150 kg load.Measure of resistance to penetration when material is exposed to a pointed load. the major load is applied (either 60. called a scallop. the result is read from the black scale on the dial and is prefixed with the letter C. The Rockwell Hardness measurement produces hardness numbers related to the depth of residual penetration of a steel ball or diamond cone (brale) after a minor load of 10 kilograms has been applied to hold the penetrator in position. This residual penetration is automatically registered on a dial when the major load is removed from the penetrator but the minor load is still applied. Bending diagram Setup time . the setback refers to the distance from the bend line to the outside mold line. S Scallop In an end milling operation. 100 or 150 kilograms). Various dial readings combined with different major loads. Separating force Setback In bending. Scallop Separating force The outward force exerted on the mold halves caused by the injection of molten material during the mold filling stage. Scallops along vertical walls can be removed through a profiling operation. The separating force is the product of the cavity pressure and the projected area of the shot. a small cusp of material. Scallops on horizontal surfaces result from using a ball end mill and can be minimized by using a smaller step-over distance relative to the tool diameter. five scales designated by letters varying from A to H. sometimes remains between adjacent cuts. A hardened tool steel would typically give a reading of 62Rc. The clamp force applied to the mold must be greater than this separating force in order to keep it securely closed while the material is injected. For softer metals Scale B is used with a 1/16" diameter steel ball and a standard load of 100 kgs. Runner A channel in a mold that delivers the molten material to the mold cavities. the B and C scales are most commonly in use.

such as a side-core. as well as the feed system which delivers the material. . The projected area of the shot describes the projected area of all mold space that fills with material. The amount of material forming the parts relative to the total shot volume is the material yield. The maximum shear stress that a material can withstand before eventually failing is called the ultimate shear strength. The setup time may include the preparation of the material.The amount of time required to setup a process before production begins. measured in units of force per unit area. refers to the space between the edge of a piece of sheet stock and the blanks or parts closest to the edge that will be cut. or stock border. limits the number of possible cavities in the mold. Side-action An additional mold device. This border may be different along the length and width of the sheet. Shear strength The amount of shear stress a material can sustain. Sheet stock (Rectangular blanks) Sheet stock (Round blanks) Shot The amount of material that is injected or poured into a mold. a shrinkage allowance is usually added to the size of the part. Shrinkage When a part is formed from molten material. the part will shrink as the material cools and solidifies. Shearing Sheet border Punching The sheet border. One or more side-actions can act through any of the four sides of the mold. causing the material to fail and separate. referred to as side-action directions. as is done in cutting. The sheet border is used in determining how many parts a single piece of sheet stock will yield. As a result. as well as any testing or calibration that is needed. machine. blanking or punching operations. The shot volume must be less than the shot capacity of the machine being used. that is actuated through one of the four sides of the mold. The shot volume includes the volume of all part cavities. and tooling. Shear strength is commonly expressed as megapascals (MPa) or pounds per square inch (psi) of original cross section. The number of sides with such a device. the sheet border will remain as scrap material. Shearing force The amount of force required to cut or remove a piece of material through shear. After all parts have been cut. The applied force must create enough shear stress in the material to exceed the ultimate shear strength.

washers. is the amount of energy that is required to raise the temperature of a given amount of material by one degree. The remaining material will fill these voids as it continues to cool and shrink. grommets. A side-core slides into the mold along one of its four sides and forms the shape of the undercut. typically measured in J/g-K or BTU/lb-F. the RPM is increased as the diameter decreases. the diameter of the workpiece changes so the spindle speed (RPM) and cutting speed (SFM) can not both remain constant. Speed control In some turning operations. or just specific heat.4 side-actions in 2 directions Side-core An additional mold piece that is used to form features that cannot be formed by the two mold halves. also known as unit power.1 -2. (Includes: bushings. such as an external undercut.0-1. voids can occur if certain sections solidify first. A single side-core can be used to form multiple undercuts if they are accessible along the same side of the mold and are close together. rings. Spacers Components that are placed between a fastener and a part to create a more precise or secure fit. The spindle horsepower is typically less than the machine's motor horsepower due to the machine efficiency being less than 100%.5 hp/in^3/min (most steels have a value of 1. caused by a low injection pressure or non-uniform wall thickness. etc) Specific cutting energy The amount of energy per unit volume to remove material from the workpiece during a machining operation. measured in horsepower per cubic inches per minute. The specific cutting energy. . In order to maintain constant SFM. An internal undercut can be formed by a side-core if it is accessible from the side of the part. collars. Molding an external protrusion Molding an external hole 2 undercuts requiring 1 side-core Internal undercut requiring side-cores Sink marks When molten material is injected into a mold. is a material property but is also affected by the type of machining operation and the material and sharpness of the cutting tool. seals. Constant RPM will cause the cutting speed to decrease as the tool moves towards the center of the workpiece. This shrinkage causes marks on the part where the material sunk into the void. Values for specific cutting energy are typically in the range of 0. sleeves.5 hp/in^3/min). Spindle horsepower The power required from the spindle to rotate a cutting tool (milling machine) or workpiece (turning machine) during a machining operation. Specific heat Specific heat capacity.

Springback In bending. In a turning machine. In a milling machine. residual stresses cause the material to spring back slightly after the bending operation. Ks. of Pittsburgh. Spindle torque The torque produced by the spindle based upon the spindle horsepower and the spindle speed at which it is rotating. In the United States. stainless steel is a trade name. Peripheral cut Stock Slot cut .Spindle speed The rotational speed of the spindle in revolutions per minute (RPM). Step-over distance In order to machine a feature that is wider than the width of a single cut.70% carbon and 9-16% chromium. This step-over distance is equal to the radial depth of cut for each cut and must be less than or equal to the tool diameter. Type 316. containing a maximum of 0. ferritic (low chromium) for high-temperature use. it is necessary to over-bend a precise amount to achieve the desired bend radius and bend angle. weak mineral acids. the tool must make several cuts. Stainless Steel Strictly speaking. and the initial bend angle and bend radius. The final bend radius will be greater than initially formed and the final bend angle will be smaller. a ferritic general-purpose grade with some corrosion resistance. and atmospheric oxidation. stainless steel is a corrosion resistant steel containing at least 10% chromium. and Type 430. The ratio of the final bend angle to the initial bend angle is defined as the springback factor. The sprue often connects to a series of runners that deliver the material into the mold cavities. The size of the step-over distance will determine the scallop height between each step. austenitic with 2%-3% molybdenum. produces a chrome-iron alloy under the "stainless steel" patent which it owns. a steel is considered "Stainless" if it contains 4% or more chromium. PA. Due to this elastic recovery. and their ability to retain their strength at high temperatures. stepping to the side after each one. an alloy originally patented in 1916 by English metallurgist Harry Brearley. austenitic (chromium-nickel). bending operation. Stainless Steels are characterized by their resistance to organic acids. including the material. it describes the rotation of the attached workpiece. Type 409. In more general terms. Springback Sprue The main channel through which molten material enters a mold. the spindle speed describes the rotation of the attached cutting tool. The most common grades of stainless steel in the US are: Type 304. heat-treatable martensitic (medium chromium) with a high strength level. American Stainless Steel Co. Type 410. The amount of springback depends upon several factors. According to the American Iron and Steel Institure (AISI).

receptively. web width. for example. the stock dimensions will equal those of the workpiece. Sheet stock (Rectangular blanks) Bar stock Stock utilization Sheet stock (Round blanks) The percentage of material from a piece of stock that is used as a workpiece/blank or final part. The number of workpieces that can be cut from a piece of stock depend on the workpiece size and other spacing parameters (sheet border. bar end. Conventional stress. receptacles. any material left attached to the stock or lost in the cutting process is considered scrap. However. and the bar end and cutoff width in the case of bar stock. Nominal stress is stress computed by simple elasticity formula. (Includes: baskets. called normal stress and shear stress. . Surface roughness The roughness of a part's surface resulting from a manufacturing process. cases. It can be divided into components. as applied to tension and compression tests. cutoff width. bins. in a notch bend test. where another surface patch begins. is used to determine the modulus of elasticity. crates. When cutting from a piece of stock. is force divided by original area. it is bending moment divided by minimum section modulus. Nominal stress. Storage containers Large containers that are used for storing multiple items. facing stock).The piece of material from which the workpieces or blanks are cut. Stress Strain Curve A graph in which stress (load divided by the original cross sectional area of the test piece) is plotted against strain (the extension divided by the length over which it is measured). Such scrap material includes the sheet border and web width in the case of sheet stock. See also residual stress. The number of surface patches that comprise a part is an indication of the part’s complexity. The boundary of a surface patch is a sharp corner or curve. ignoring stress raisers and disregarding plastic flow. drawers. in the elastic region. Surface area The total area of all surfaces that compose a part. etc) Stress Force per unit area. Structural elements Parts whose primary function is to form the shape of a product and/or support the weight of other parts. normal and parallel to the plane. Surface patch A portion of a part’s surface that is either flat or smoothly curved. a larger piece of bar stock or sheet stock is typically purchased and the workpieces are cut from it. measured in microinches or micrometers. containers. Surface roughness is typically measured as the arithmetic average (Ra) or root mean square (RMS) of the surface variations. A typical primary manufacturing process results in a surface roughness of 32-250 microinches and finishing operations can lower the roughness to 1-32 microinches. If the workpieces are available in the desired size. boxes. The slope of the sress strain curve. True stress denotes stress determined by measuring force and area at the same time.

Thread cutting operation Thread pitch . typically with a 60 degree pointed nose.Switches Small interfaces that are designed to be pushed or rotated by the user’s fingers or hand. along the side of the workpiece. (Includes: buttons. dials. the threads may be cut to a specified depth inside the hole (bottom tap) or the complete depth of a through hole (through tap).78 in^2/hr). Tapping (Milling machine) Tapping (Turning machine) Tapped hole Tensile Strength The amount of longitudinal stress a material can sustain when in tension. moves axially. gradually separating the jaws. The threads can be cut to a specified length and pitch and may require multiple passes to be formed. The amount of stress that a material can withstand before it yields and plastically deforms is referred to as the tensile yield strength. measured in units of force per unit area. cutting threads into the outer surface. The existing hole is typically drilled by the required tap drill size that will accommodate the desired tap. Thermal diffusivity A measure of the rate at which heat flows through a material. knobs. Tensile strength is measured by placing a standard test piece in the jaws of a tensile machine. On a milling machine. Thread cutting A turning operation in which a single-point tool. and measuring the stretching force necessary to break the test piece. Thermal Conductivity The measure of how rapidly heat is conducted through a material. etc) T Tapping An operation in which a tap enters the workpiece axially and cuts internal threads into an existing hole. wheels. Thermal diffusivity. measured in W/m-K or BTU-in/hr-ft2-F. Tensile strength is commonly expressed as megapascals (MPa) or pounds per square inch (psi) of original cross section.14 mm^2/s (0.0. is equal to the thermal conductivity divided by the product of specific heat and density. The thermal diffusivity of most common polymers ranges from 0. The maximum stress that a material can withstand before eventually failing is called the ultimate tensile strength. triggers.09 to 0. typically measured in mm^2/s or in^2/hr.50 .

). and good corrosion resistance. which results from the manufacturing process. etc) Tooth . atomic weight 47. the single-point tool used for finishing has a rounded front corner or "nose".5. will determine the surface roughness formed by the finishing operation. (c) prevents localized depletion of chromium in stainless steel during long heating. Its principal function has been as an alloy in steel making.). tin: (a) reduces martensitic hardness and hardnability in medium chromium steels. but now is being used extensively (especially in aviation and aerospace) because of its high strength. melting point about 1668ºC (3270ºF. boiling point over 3287ºC (5430ºF. Tool diameter The diameter of the cutting portion of a cylindrical cutting tool. a larger nose radius will provide a better finish. This distance depends upon both the workpiece and the tool. instruments. Tolerance Also referred to as dimensional accuracy. Tool change distance The distance that the tool must travel between the workpiece and the location that is required for a tool change. Threaded fasteners Fasteners with either external or internal threads. light weight. As an alloying element in steel. so the average distance should be used. specific gravity 4. (Includes: implements. 22 of the periodic system. (e) acts as a carbide stabilizer in austenitic stainless steels and is used to prevent intercrystalline corrosion. A bright white metal.Pitch is a measure of the spacing between threads. Tool nose radius In some turning operations. very malleable and ductile. tolerance is the amount of deviation in a particular dimension of a part. Titanium Chemical symbol Ti. commonly termed "weld decay". screws. while the Metric standard is the distance in millimeters (mm) between threads. (d) added in small amounts give a finer grain size. nuts. Titanium carbide is also used with tungsten carbide in the manufacture of hard metal tools. (b) prevents formation of austenite in high-chromium steels. The radius of the tool nose. (Includes: bolts. This distance is traversed at the rapid travel rate before and after a tool change. The English standard is to measure pitch as the number or threads per inch (TPI). The cutting portion is the length of the tool containing the flutes or teeth that cut the material. etc) Through-hole A hole that extends completely through a portion of a part and therefore is open at both ends.90. along with the cutting feed. Turning operation Tools Parts that are held in the user's hand and used to perform a task. Element No. For a given cutting feed. utensils.

the ability of a material to withstand shock loading. including steps. Toughness (1) Capacity of a metal to absorb energy and deform plastically before fracturing. External threads on a feature perpendicular to the parting direction can be formed by the two mold halves.5 hp/in^3/min (most steels have a value of 1. also known as specific cutting energy. Step Turning machine Taper Chamfer Contour A machine. such as a side-core or an internal core lifter. tapers. For a finish operation. External operations which modify the outer diameter of the workpiece include facing. and contours. such as an end mill or drill bit. (2) The ability of a metal to rapidly distribute within itself both the stress and strain caused by a suddenly applied load. These features are typically machined at a small radial depth of cut and multiple passes are made until the end diameter is reached.A sharp edge along the circumference of a cutting tool. Unit power. other external threads and all internal threads require an unscrewing device.0-1. which feeds a cutting tool into a rotating workpiece to cut away chips of material. Usually measured in a notch impact test. Turning A turning operation in which a single-point tool moves axially. boring. or more simply expressed. but the area under the stress-strain curve in tensile testing is also a measure of toughness. Unit power The amount of power required to remove one cubic inch of material from the workpiece during a machining operation. the cutting feed is calculated based on the desired surface roughness and the tool nose radius. Unscrewing device An additional mold piece that is used to form threaded features (internal or external). A brittle material has little resistance to failure once the elastic limit has been reached. However. to form its shape. U Undercut A feature on a part that will not allow a mold that contains it to slide away along the parting direction. disregarding any draft angle. It is the exact opposite of "brittleness" which carries the implication of sudden failure. chamfers. but 2 or 4 teeth are the most common.5 hp/in^3/min). Internal operations which modify the inner diameter of a part include drilling. . cut-off. grooving. along the side of the workpiece. removing material to form different features. and tapping. high impact values indicating high toughness. also called a lathe. turning. An undercut requires an additional mold piece. Cutting tools may have one or many teeth. An undercut can be either a protrusion or a depression (hole or pocket) and is described as being either external or internal. A turning machine may be operated manually or by computer numerical control (CNC) to perform a series of operations. The device is inserted into the mold to allow the threaded feature to form and is then unscrewed to be removed. Uniform cross section A part whose cross section does not change along any one axis. that cuts into the workpiece.1-2. measured in horsepower per cubic inches per minute. is a material property but is also affected by the type of machining operation and the material and sharpness of the cutting tool. Values for unit power are typically in the range of 0. reaming. and thread cutting.

Web width . also called the run time. The uptime is often expressed as a percentage of the total production time. Gear Stereo Handle Bracket Dust Collection Turbine Single ( 5% of envelope) ( 15% of envelope) ( 25% envelope) ( 35% envelope) Warping The permanent bending of a part that occurs when certain section of the part shrink faster than others. as result of a non-uniform cooling rate. V bending Volume The amount of space inhabited by a part. The width of this opening divided by the sheet thickness is called the die ratio and typically ranges from 6 to 18.External threads on Y axis Mold can form threads External threads on Z axis Mold cannot separate Internal threads Mold cannot separate Uptime The amount of time that machines are running during the manufacture of parts. which includes the down time. The die opening is a V-shaped groove in the die plate. V V bending A sheet metal bending method in which a V-shaped punch presses a piece of sheet metal into the die opening of a V-die. The volume of a part can be approximated by the percentage of the envelope volume.

Flat sheet Round bar Rectangular bar Hexagonal bar Round tube Rectangular tube I-beam L-beam T-beam U-beam . casters. hollow tube.The space between adjacent blanks or parts that are to be cut from a piece of sheet stock. Wipe bending Workpiece A piece of material that is secured in a fixture and machined into the final part. (Includes: bearings. this web of material remains attached to the sheet border and is scrap material. When all parts are cut. or any prefabricated part such as a casting or forging. Each workpiece shape has certain dimensions that are used in planning the machining operations. etc) Wipe bending Wipe bending. tires. or shaped beam). a standard extruded shape (solid bar. The web width is used in determining how many parts a single piece of sheet stock will yield. disks. The sheet will bend against the radius of the edge of the wipe die. also called edge bending. rollers. and a punch presses against the edge of the sheet. a custom extrusion. cylindrical parts that rotate. cams. rings. The workpiece is often cut from a larger piece of stock material and can be a sheet (blank). Sheet stock (Rectangular blanks) Sheet stock (Round blanks) Wheels Smooth. pulleys. is a sheet metal bending method in which a sheet is held between a wipe die and pressure pad.

specific gravity 7. although new ZA (zincaluminum) alloy is becoming a major force in die casting. etc. Zinc Chemical Symbol Zn.Z-beam Custom extrusions Workpiece clearance The safe distance away from the workpiece at which the cutting tool can switch from the cutting feed rate to a rapid travel rate. Modulus of Elasticity or E =(Stress/Strain).). . Side approach Top approach Workpiece load time The time required to load the workpiece into the machine and secure it to the fixture. especially steel destined for use in construction. Of great importance in die casting. paint. such as dry batteries. Compounds and dusts used by agricultural. Blue-white metal. For steel. is included in the cut length. melting point 419ºC (787ºF. the ratio of the linear stress to the linear strain is termed the modulus of elasticity or Young's Modulus and may be written Young's Modulus. atomic weight 65. The load time can depend on the size. and electrical equipment.000 N/mm^2 or 200 MPa. chemical.14. Its most important alloy is brass. Element No. weight. 30 of the periodic system. when pure. malleable and ductile even at ordinary temperatures. and rubber industries. Sheet zinc finds many outlets. Yield Evidence of plastic deformation in structural materials. as well as exiting from the workpiece.38. and complexity of the workpiece. This distance traveled before engaging the workpiece. Also called plastic flow or creep. as well as the type of fixture. Can be electrodeposited. Young's Modulus is of the order of 200. it is extensively used as a coating for steel. Within the limits of elasticity. It is this property that determines how much a bar will sag under its own weight or under a loading when used as a beam within its limit of proportionality. transportation. Youngs Modulus The coefficient of elasticity of stretching.