No.

12-144
IN THE
Supreme Court of the United States
DENNIS HOLLINGSWORTH, ET AL.,
Petitioners,
—v.—
KRISTIN M. PERRY, ET AL.,
Respondents.
ON WRIT OF CERTIORARI TO THE UNITED STATES
COURT OF APPEALS FOR THE NINTH CIRCUIT
BRIEF FOR AMICI CURIAE
CALIFORNIA COUNCIL OF CHURCHES;
CALIFORNIA FAITH FOR EQUALITY; UNITARIAN UNIVERSALIST
LEGISLATIVE MINISTRY CALIFORNIA; NORTHERN CALIFORNIA
NEVADA CONFERENCE, UNITED CHURCH OF CHRIST;
SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA NEVADA CONFERENCE, UNITED
CHURCH OF CHRIST; PACIFIC ASSOCIATION OF REFORM
RABBIS; CALIFORNIA NETWORK OF METROPOLITAN
COMMUNITY CHURCHES — IN SUPPORT OF
RESPONDENTS AND URGING AFFIRMANCE
d
STACEY MARIE KAPLAN
KESSLER TOPAZ MELTZER
& CHECK, LLP
One Sansome Street, Suite 1850
San Francisco, California 94104
(415) 400-3000
Attorneys for Amici Curiae
February 28, 2013
ERIC ALAN ISAACSON
Counsel of Record
655 West Broadway, Suite 1900
San Diego, California 92101
(619) 231-1058
eisaacson@rgrdlaw.com
I
Q!ISTIOÞ I!ISIÞTIÐ
Whofhor IroµosIfIon 8`s wIfhdrnwnI, from gny
nnd IosbInn snmo·sox couµIos nIono, of fho rIghf fo
mnrry donIos fhom oqunI µrofocfIon of fho Inws
wIfh rosµocf fo fhIs fundnmonfnI rIghf.
ii
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page

QUESTION PRESENTED ....................................... i
IDENTITY AND INTEREST OF AMICI ................ 1
SUMMARY OF ARGUMENT ................................. 6
ARGUMENT .......................................................... 10
A. This Court Held in Turner v. Safley
that Although Civil Marriage Is a
Secular Institution, Its Arbitrary
Restriction Improperly Abridges
the Free Exercise of Religion ................... 10
B. The Seminal Decision Striking Down
California Laws Against Mixed-Race
Marriages Did So on Religious-Liberty
Grounds .................................................... 12
C. Catholic Bishops Endorsed Perez v.
Sharp’s Religious-Liberty Rationale
When this Court Considered a
Baptist Couple’s Appeal in
Loving v. Virginia .................................... 19
D. Perez and Turner Remain Good Law
that this Court Should Reaffirm
and Follow ................................................ 23
E. The Becket Fund and Other Amici
Misstate the Threat to
Religious Liberty ...................................... 30
CONCLUSION ....................................................... 37

iii
TABLE OF AUTHORITIES
Page

CASES
Boddie v. Connecticut,
401 U.S. 371 (1971) ............................................... 28
Bowers v. Hardwick,
478 U.S. 186 (1986) ............................................... 20
Cantwell v. Connecticut,
310 U.S. 296 (1940) ............................................... 27
Church of Lukumi Babalu Aye v. City of Hialeah,
508 U.S. 520 (1993) ............................................... 25
Cleveland Bd. of Educ. v. LaFleur,
414 U.S. 632 (1974) ............................................... 28
Davis v. Beason,
133 U.S. 333 (1890) ......................................... 25, 26
Eisenstadt v. Baird,
405 U.S. 438 (1972) ............................................... 28
Elisa B. v. Superior Court,
37 Cal. 4th 108, 117 P.3d 660 (2005) .................... 31
Employment Division v. Smith,
494 U.S. 872 (1990) ................................... 24, 27, 28
Estate of Lopes,
152 Cal. App. 3d 302, 199 Cal. Rptr. 425 (1984) ...... 18
Follett v. McCormick,
321 U.S. 573 (1944) ............................................... 28
iv
TABLE OF AUTHORITIES—Continued
Page

Green v. State,
58 Ala. 190 (1877) .................................................. 20
Griswold v. Connecticut,
381 U.S. 479 (1965) ............................................... 28
Hodgson v. Minnesota,
497 U.S. 417 (1990) ............................................... 28
In re Marriage Cases,
43 Cal. 4th 757, 183 P.3d 384 (2008) ...... 2, 3, 11, 31
Koebke v. Bernardo Heights Country Club,
36 Cal. 4th 824, 115 P.3d 1212 (2005) .................. 31
Lawrence v. Texas,
539 U.S. 558 (2003) ......................................... 26, 27
Loving v. Virginia,
388 U.S. 1 (1967) ........................................... passim
Marks v. United States,
430 U.S. 188 (1977) ............................................... 18
Maynard v. Hill,
125 U.S. 190 (1888) ........................................... 6, 10
Meyer v. Nebraska,
262 U.S. 390 (1923) ............................................... 28
Murdock v. Pennsylvania,
319 U.S. 105 (1943) ............................................... 28
v
TABLE OF AUTHORITIES—Continued
Page

Naim v. Naim,
197 Va. 80, 87 S.E.2d 749 (1955), vacated,
350 U.S. 891 (1955), reinstated on remand,
197 Va. 734, 90 S.E. 2d 849 (Va. 1956),
motion to recall mandate denied,
350 U.S. 985 (1956) ............................................... 20
Ocean Grove Camp Meeting Ass’n v. Vespa-Papaleo,
339 Fed. Appx. 232 (3d Cir. 2009) ........................ 35
Panetti v. Quarterman,
551 U.S. 930 (2007) ............................................... 18
People v. Greenleaf,
780 N.Y.S.2d 899 (New Paltz Justice Ct. 2004) ...... 20
People v. Harris,
71 Cal. App. 3d 959, 139 Cal. Rptr. 778 (1977) .... 18
Perez v. Sharp,
32 Cal. 2d 711, 198 P.2d 17 (1948) ............... passim
Perry v. Brown,
671 F.3d 1052 (9th Cir. 2012) ........................... 1, 35
Perry v. Schwarzenegger,
704 F. Supp. 2d 921 (N.D. Cal. 2010) ........... 1, 3, 35
Pierce v. Society of Sisters,
268 U.S. 510 (1925) ............................................... 28
Reynolds v. United States,
98 U.S. 145 (1878) ..................................... 16, 24, 25
vi
TABLE OF AUTHORITIES—Continued
Page

Scott v. Georgia,
39 Ga. 321 (1869) ................................................... 20
Sharon S. v. Superior Court,
31 Cal. 4th 417, 73 P.3d 554 (2003) ...................... 31
Skinner v. Oklahoma,
316 U.S. 535 (1942) ................................................. 6
State v. Gibson,
36 Ind. 389 (1871) .................................................. 20
Strauss v. Horton,
46 Cal. 4th 364, 207 P.3d 48 (2009) .................. 1, 30
Turner v. Safley,
482 U.S. 78 (1987) ......................................... passim
Wisconsin v. Yoder,
406 U.S. 205 (1972) ............................................... 28
Zablocki v. Redhail,
434 U.S. 374 (1978) ................................................. 6
CONSTITUTIONAL PROVISIONS
U.S. Constitution
First Amendment ............................................ 27, 29
Fourteenth Amendment .................................. 27, 28
California Constitution
art. I, §7.5 ............................................................... 11
vii
TABLE OF AUTHORITIES—Continued
Page

STATUTES, RULES AND REGULATIONS
California Business & Professions Code
§2063 ...................................................................... 33
California Civil Code
§51(b) ...................................................................... 31
California Education Code
§200 ........................................................................ 31
California Family Code
§297.5(a) ................................................................. 31
§297.5(d) ................................................................. 31
§400 ........................................................................ 33
§420(c) .................................................................... 11
California Government Code
§11135 .................................................................... 31
California Health & Safety Code
§1365.5 ................................................................... 31
California Insurance Code
§1374.58 ................................................................. 31
§10140 ................................................................... 31
California Labor Code
§4600.6(g)(2) .......................................................... 31
California Statutes
2012, ch. 834, §1 .................................................... 33
2012, ch. 835, §2 .................................................... 33
viii
TABLE OF AUTHORITIES—Continued
Page

California Welfare & Instution Code
§16013(a) ................................................................ 31
Supreme Court Rules
Rule 37.6 .................................................................. 1
SECONDARY AUTHORITIES
Fay Botham, Almighty God Created the Races:
Christianity, Interracial Marriage &
American Law (Chapel Hill: University
of North Carolina Press, 2009) ....................... 13, 15
1 William Bradford, History of the Plymouth
Plantation, 1620-1647 (Boston:
Massachusetts Historical Society, 1912) .............. 10
Nancy F. Cott, Public Vows: A History of
Marriage and the Nation 113-14
(Cambridge, Mass. & London:
Harvard University Press, 2000) .......................... 25
David B. Cruz, “Just Don’t Call It Marriage”:
The First Amendment and Marriage
as an Expressive Resource,
74 S. Cal. L. Rev. 925 (2001) ................................. 29
Jeremy Dupertuis Bangs, Strangers and
Pilgrims, Travellers and Sojourners:
Leiden and the Foundations of the
Plymouth Plantation (Plymouth,
Massachusetts: General Society of
Mayflower Descendents, 2009) ............................. 10
ix
TABLE OF AUTHORITIES—Continued
Page

E.J. Graff, What is Marriage For?: The Strange
Social History of Our Most Intimate
Institution (Boston: Beacon Press,
rev. ed. 2004) ................................................... 26, 27
Eric Alan Isaacson, Are Same-Sex Marriages
Really a Threat to Religious Liberty?,
8 Stan. J. Civ. Rts. & Civ. Libs. 123
(2012) ......................................................... 10, 35, 37
Kenneth L. Karst, The Freedom of Intimate
Association, 89 Yale L.J. 624 (1980) ............... 29, 30
Douglas Laycock, Afterword to Same-Sex
Marriage and Religious Liberty (Douglas
Laycock, et al., eds.; The Becket Fund, 2008) ...... 34
Peggy Pascoe, What Comes Naturally:
Miscegenation Law and the Making of Race
in America (Oxford & New York: Oxford
University Press, 2009) ......................................... 13
Marc R. Poirier, Microperformances of Identity:
Visible Same-Sex Couples and the Marriage
Controversy, 15 Wash. & Lee J. Civil Rts.
& Soc. Just. 3 (2008) .............................................. 36
Richard A. Posner, Sex and Reason
(Cambridge: Harvard Univ. Press, 1992) ............. 26
Timothy Samuel Shah, Religious Freedom:
Why Now? Defending an Embattled Human
Right (Witherspoon Institute Task Force on
International Religious Freedom, 2012) ............... 23
x
TABLE OF AUTHORITIES—Continued
Page

David W. Southern, John LaFarge and the
Limits of Catholic Interracialism, 1911-1963
(Baton Rouge & London: Louisiana State
University Press, 1996) ......................................... 18
Mark Philip Strasser, On Same-Sex Marriage,
Civil Unions, and the Rule of Law:
Constitutional Interpretations at the
Crossroads (Westport, Connecticut:
Praeger Publishers, 2002) ..................................... 23
Laurence Tribe, American Constitutional Law
(1978) ..................................................................... 30
Bryan H. Wildenthal, To Say “I Do”: Shahar v.
Bowers, Same-Sex Marriage, and
Public Employee Marriage Rights,
15 Ga. St. U. L. Rev. 381 (1998) ............................ 29
9 B.E. Witkin, California Procedure, Appeal
§809 (5th ed. 2008) .......................................... 18, 19
Yearbook of American & Canadian Churches
2012 (Eileen W. Lindner, ed.; Nashville:
Abington Press for the National Council
of Churches, 2012) ................................................. 32
IÐIÞTITY AÞÐ IÞTI!IST OI AMICI
SµonkIng on bohnIf of CnIIfornIn`s communIfIos of
fnIfh, whoso mombors nro ncfunIIy subjocf fo
IroµosIfIon 8, AmIcI curIno nro roIIgIous
orgnnIznfIons fhnf hnvo for yonrs Inborod on bohnIf
of roIIgIous IIborfy nnd oqunIIfy undor fho Inw for
nII CnIIfornInns.
l
AmIcI ns CnIIfornIn fnIfh orgnnIznfIons hnvo
vIgorousIy oµµosod govornmonfnI dIscrImInnfIon
furnIng on whofhor n commIffod couµIo`s unIon
nccords wIfh IIfurgIcnI docfrInos ovon of fho Sfnfo`s
Inrgosf nnd mosf µoworfuI roIIgIous movomonfs.
ThoIr work hns IncIudod orgnnIzIng offorfs fo fIIo
nmIcus curIno brIofs nffIrmIng nII CnIIfornInns`
rIghf fo mnrry nnd oµµosIng govornmonfnI
dIscrImInnfIon bnsod on soxunI orIonfnfIon, gondor,
nnd roIIgIous docfrIno.
2

l
Iursunnf fo Suµromo Courf !uIo 3?.6, counsoI for
nmIcI sfnfo fhnf fhoy nufhorod fhIs brIof In whoIo, nnd fhnf
no µorson or onfIfy ofhor fhnn nmIcI mndo nny monofnry
confrIbufIon fownrd fho brIof`s µroµnrnfIon or submIssIon.
AII µnrfIos hnvo consonfod fo fho brIof`s fIIIng fhrough
Ioffors of consonf fIIod wIfh fho CIork.
2
Soo, o.g., IrIof of CnIIfornIn CouncII of Churchos, of
nI. ífIIod Jnn. l5, 2009¹, Sfrnuss v. Horfon, 46 CnI. 4fh 364,
3??·?8, 20? I.3d 48 í2009¹ íÞos. Sl6804?, Sl68066,
Sl680?8¹ ínvnIInbIo onIIno nf
hffµ·//www.courfs.cn.gov/documonfs/sl680xx·nmcur·councII·
churchos.µdf¹ ínccossod Iob. 2?, 20l3¹· IrIof of !nIfnrInn
!nIvorsnIIsf !ogIsInfIvo MInIsfry CnIIfornIn, of nI. ífIIod
Iob. 3, 20l0¹, Iorry v. Schwnrzonoggor, ?04 I. Suµµ. 2d 92l
íÞ.Ð. CnI. 20l0¹ íÞo. 09·cv·02292·V!W¹, 20l0 W! 4?49?2·
IrIof of CnIIfornIn InIfh for IqunIIfy, of nI. ífIIod Ocf. 25,
20l0¹, Iorry v. Irown, 6?l I.3d l052 í9fh CIr. 20l2¹ íÞo. l0·
l6696¹, 20l0 W! 46225?8.
2
AmIcI submIf fhnf cIvII mnrrIngo Is n cIvII rIghf
fhnf CnIIfornIn`s cIfIzons shouId bo nbIo fo onjoy,
whnfovor fhoIr roIIgIous IdonfIfy or soxunI
orIonfnfIon. If Is quIfo sImµIy wrong for cIvII Inw
fo Imµoso on nII cIfIzons fho IIfurgIcnI IImIfnfIons
fhnf somo fnIfh communIfIos µInco on fhoIr own
roIIgIous rIfos of mnrrIngo.
Tho IdonfIfIos nnd Inforosf of AmIcI fIIIng fhIs
brIof nro ns foIIows·
l. AmIcus curIno CnIIfornIn CouncII of Churchos
Is nn orgnnIznfIon of ChrIsfInn churchos
roµrosonfIng fho fhooIogIcnI dIvorsIfy of
CnIIfornIn`s mnInsfronm nnd µrogrossIvo
communIfIos of fnIfh. Irom Ifs bogInnIngs In l9l3,
fho CouncII`s momborshIµ fodny hns grown fo
comµrIso moro fhnn 6,000 CnIIfornIn congrognfIons,
wIfh moro fhnn l.5 mIIIIon IndIvIdunI mombors,
drnwn from 2l donomInnfIons fhnf sµnn fho
sµocfrum of CnIIfornIn`s mnInsfronm Irofosfnnf
nnd Orfhodox ChrIsfInn communIfIos.
Somo of Ifs mombor churchos, µnrfIcuInrIy fhoso
congrognfIons nffIIInfod wIfh fho !nIfod Church of
ChrIsf nnd fho !nIvorsnI IoIIowshIµ of
MofroµoIIfnn CommunIfy Churchos, gIndIy
woIcomod snmo·sox couµIos sookIng fo bo IognIIy
mnrrIod In roIIgIous rIfos unfII IroµosIfIon 8 fook
offocf. IroµosIfIon 8 hns n dIrocf Imµncf on fhoso
churchos nnd fhoIr cIorgy, ImµnIrIng fho
µorformnnco of fhoIr roIIgIous mIssIon.
Tho CouncII`s µosIfIon on snmo·sox mnrrIngo Is
unoquIvocnIIy µro·roIIgIous froodom nnd µro·church
nufonomy. In CnIIfornIn`s MnrrIngo Cnsos nnd
subsoquonf IIfIgnfIon, fho CnIIfornIn CouncII of
Churchos hns consIsfonfIy docInrod· ¨Our
commIfmonf fo roIIgIous IIborfy for nII nnd oqunI
3
µrofocfIon undor fho Inw Ionds us fo nssorf fhnf fho
Sfnfo mny nof roIy on fho vIows of µnrfIcuInr
roIIgIous socfs ns n bnsIs for donyIng cIvII mnrrIngo
IIconsos fo snmo·gondor couµIos.¨
3
2. AmIcus curIno CnIIfornIn InIfh for IqunIIfy
Is n muIfI·fnIfh conIIfIon whoso mIssIon Is fo
oducnfo, suµµorf, nnd mobIIIzo CnIIfornIn`s fnIfh
communIfIos fo µromofo oqunIIfy for !CIT µooµIo,
nnd fo snfogunrd roIIgIous froodom. As n muIfI·
fnIfh orgnnIznfIon, If rosµocfs nnd vnIuos fho
wIsdom nnd µorsµocfIvos of nII fnIfh frndIfIons,
IncIudIng bofh fhoso fhnf coIobrnfo snmo·sox
mnrrIngo ns n roIIgIous rIfo, nnd fhoso fhnf do nof.
Iormod In 2005, nnd formnIIy Incorµornfod In
Ocfobor 2009, CnIIfornIn InIfh for IqunIIfy hns
boon InsfrumonfnI In orgnnIzIng CnIIfornIn`s fnIfh
communIfIos fo suµµorf oqunI cIvII rIghfs for nII
CnIIfornInns. If sµonks on bohnIf of CnIIfornIn`s
churchos, cIorgy, nnd snmo·sox couµIos who nro
dIrocfIy subjocf fo IroµosIfIon 8`s dIscrImInnfory
wIfhdrnwnI of snmo·sox couµIos` rIghf fo mnrry.
3. AmIcus CurIno !nIfnrInn !nIvorsnIIsf
!ogIsInfIvo MInIsfry CnIIfornIn Is n sfnfowIdo
jusfIco mInIsfry fhnf cuIfIvnfos nnd connocfs
Iondors nnd communIfIos shnrIng !nIfnrInn
!nIvorsnIIsf vnIuos nnd µrIncIµIos. Tho MInIsfry
ndvocnfos µubIIc µoIIcIos fhnf· uµhoId fho worfh

3
IrIof of fho !nIfnrInn !nIvorsnIIsf AssocInfIon of
CongrognfIons, of nI., nf xv·xvI ífIIod Soµf. 26, 200?¹, In ro
MnrrIngo Cnsos, 43 CnI. 4fh ?5?, l83 I.3d 384 í2008¹
íÞo. Sl4?999¹ ínvnIInbIo onIIno nf
hffµ·//www.courfs.cn.gov/documonfs/unIfnrInnnmIcus.µdf¹
ínccossod Iob. 2?, 20l3¹· IrIof of !nIfnrInn !nIvorsnIIsf
!ogIsInfIvo MInIsfry CnIIfornIn, of nI., nf 6·?, Iorry v.
Schwnrzonoggor, suµrn nofo 2.
4
nnd dIgnIfy of ovory µorson· furfhor jusfIco, oquIfy,
nnd comµnssIon In humnn roInfIons· µromofo
domocrnfIc µrocossos· µrofocf roIIgIous froodom·
nnd ongondor rosµocf for fho Infordoµondonf wob of
nII oxIsfonco. As n mnffor of humnn dIgnIfy,
CnIIfornIn`s !nIfnrInn !nIvorsnIIsf congrognfIons
nnd cIorgy hnvo Iong suµµorfod snmo·sox couµIos`
froodom fo mnrry, bofh In !nIfnrInn !nIvorsnIIsf
roIIgIous rIfos, nnd ns n fundnmonfnI cIvII rIghf.
Hundrods of snmo·sox couµIos woro IognIIy mnrrIod
In coromonIos soIomnIzod by CnIIfornIn`s !nIfnrInn
!nIvorsnIIsf cIorgy from Juno l?, 2008, fo
Þovombor 4, 2008, whon IroµosIfIon 8 fook offocf
dIrocfIy ImµnIrIng !nIfnrInn !nIvorsnIIsf cIorgy`s
nbIIIfy fo sorvo fhoIr CnIIfornIn congrognfIons.
4. AmIcus curIno Þorfhorn CnIIfornIn Þovndn
Conforonco !nIfod Church of ChrIsf í¨ÞCÞC¨¹ Is n
mnnIfosfnfIon of fho church of Josus ChrIsf nnd n
consfIfufIng body of fho !nIfod Church of ChrIsf
í!CC¹. Tho Conforonco`s momborshIµ IncIudos l30
IocnI churchos In fho Sfnfo of CnIIfornIn, from fho
Orogon bordor fo fho soufhorn bordors of Inyo,
TuInro, KIngs, nnd Monforoy counfIos. In 2005 fho
Conforonco co·sµonsorod fho rosoIufIon ndoµfod by
fho ConornI Synod of fho !nIfod Church of ChrIsf,
urgIng ¨IqunI MnrrIngo !Ighfs for AII.¨ Ioforo
IroµosIfIon 8 fook offocf, cIorgy In fho Conforonco`s
CnIIfornIn churchos woro froo fo soIomnIzo IognI
mnrrIngos of commIffod snmo·sox couµIos nnd
mnny dId so. IroµosIfIon 8 dIrocfIy nffocfs fho
Conforonco`s churchos, nbrIdgIng fho froodom of
fhoIr cIorgy nnd mombors.
5. AmIcus curIno Soufhorn CnIIfornIn Þovndn
Conforonco of fho !nIfod Church of ChrIsf
í¨SCÞC¨¹ Is n fnIfh communIfy gnfhorod In ovor
l30 dIvorso congrognfIons, mosf of fhom In
Soufhorn CnIIfornIn. Ifs mIssIon Is fo bo n unIfod
5
nnd unIfIng communIfy of fho µooµIo of Cod,
covonnnfIng fogofhor for mufunI suµµorf nnd
common mIssIon. Ifs donomInnfIon, fho !nIfod
Church of ChrIsf í!CC¹, Is n ¨mnInIIno¨ Irofosfnnf
donomInnfIon In fho !oformod frndIfIon, whoso
hIsfory Is wIfnoss fo n Iong nnd µrofound
commIfmonf fo µonco·sookIng nnd ndvocncy of
jusfIco for nII. In 2004, doIognfos nf fho
Conforonco`s AnnunI CnfhorIng nµµrovod n
rosoIufIon suµµorfIng mnrrIngo oqunIIfy for nII.
Tho noxf yonr, on JuIy 4, 2005, fhoIr
donomInnfIon`s ConornI Synod ndoµfod n rosoIufIon
nffIrmIng oqunI mnrrIngo rIghfs for snmo·sox
couµIos. !nfII IroµosIfIon 8 fook offocf, mnny of
fho Conforonco`s churchos gIndIy woIcomod snmo·
sox couµIos fo InwfuIIy wod In rIfos soIomnIzod by
fhoIr cIorgy. IroµosIfIon 8 dIrocfIy nffocfs fho
Conforonco`s CnIIfornIn churchos, doµrIvIng mnny
of fhoIr mombors of fho rIghf fo mnrry, nnd
ImµnIrIng fhoIr cIorgy`s nbIIIfy fo sorvo fhom.
6. AmIcus curIno IncIfIc AssocInfIon of !oform
!nbbIs í¨IA!!¨¹, roµrosonfs rnbbIs In fho Wosforn
!ogIon of fho ConfrnI Conforonco of AmorIcnn
!nbbIs í¨CCA!¨¹. ÐodIcnfod fo fho µrIncIµIos of
!oform JudnIsm, IA!! Is nn orgnnIznfIon of ovor
350 !oform rnbbIs In CnIIfornIn nnd fwoIvo ofhor
sfnfos, ono CnnndInn µrovInco, nnd Þow ZonInnd.
IA!! oµµosos IroµosIfIon 8 bnsod on !oform
JudnIsm`s boIIofs nnd rosoIufIons. In l996 fho
CCA! ondorsod cIvII mnrrIngo for gny µooµIo nnd
In 2000 If rocognIzod fho rIghf of !oform rnbbIs fo
µorform roIIgIous mnrrIngo coromonIos for gny nnd
IosbInn Jows. IA!! hns n dIrocf Inforosf In fhIs
cnso, ns IroµosIfIon 8 bnrs Ifs mombors from
soIomnIzIng fho IognI mnrrIngos of snmo·sox
couµIos In fhoIr CnIIfornIn congrognfIons.
6
?. AmIcus curIno CnIIfornIn Þofwork of
MofroµoIIfnn CommunIfy Churchos Is n sfnfowIdo
orgnnIznfIon of MofroµoIIfnn CommunIfy Churchos
í¨MCC¨¹. Tho fIrsf MCC worshIµ sorvIco, In n !os
AngoIos suburb In l968, Inunchod nn InfornnfIonnI
movomonf of ChrIsfInn churchos wIfh n µnrfIcuInr,
buf by no monns oxcIusIvo, oufronch fo fho !CIT
communIfy. Tho MCC`s CnIIfornIn churchos`
mInIsfry hns nnfurnIIy IncIudod soIomnIznfIon of
snmo·sox couµIos` InwfuI mnrrIngos. Thnf mInIsfry
hns boon dIrocfIy ImµnIrod by IroµosIfIon 8`s
dIscrImInnfory wIfhdrnwnI of snmo·sox couµIos`
rIghf fo mnrry.
S!MMA!Y OI A!C!MIÞT
Ours Is n µIurnIIsfIc socIofy, of mnny fnIfhs nnd
µorsunsIons, whoso consfIfufIonnI frnmowork musf
onsuro fundnmonfnI IIborfy nnd oqunI rIghfs for nII.
CnIIfornIn`s IroµosIfIon 8 vIoInfod bnsIc µrIncIµIos
whon If fnrgofod gny nnd IosbInn couµIos fo
wIfhdrnw from fhom nIono, nn oxfrnordInnrIIy
Imµorfnnf cIvII rIghf· ¨Tho froodom fo mnrry hns
Iong boon rocognIzod ns ono of fho vIfnI µorsonnI
rIghfs ossonfInI fo fho ordorIy µursuIf of hnµµInoss
by froo mon.¨ !ovIng v. VIrgInIn, 388 !.S. l, l2
íl96?¹.
4
CIvII mnrrIngo unquosfIonnbIy Is n socuInr
InsfIfufIon fhnf ¨doos nof roquIro nny roIIgIous
coromony for Ifs soIomnIznfIon.¨ Mnynnrd v. HIII,
l25 !.S. l90, 2l0 íl888¹. Þor shouId If roquIro
comµIInnco wIfh nny roIIgIous docfrIno or dogmn

4
Soo nIso, o.g., ZnbIockI v. !odhnII, 434 !.S. 3?4, 384
íl9?8¹ í¨fho rIghf fo mnrry Is of fundnmonfnI Imµorfnnco for
nII IndIvIdunIs¨¹ íquofIng SkInnor v. OkInhomn, 3l6 !.S.
535, 54l íl942¹¹.
?
nof In n µIurnIIsfIc socIofy such ns ours fhnf
coIobrnfos froodom nnd dIvorsIfy In roIIgIous boIIof
nnd µrncfIco.
If shouId bo cIonr, howovor, fhnf govornmonfnI
IImIfnfIons on fho rIghf fo mnrry mny sorIousIy
nbrIdgo cIfIzons` roIIgIous IIborfy. AmIcI`s
oxµorIonco domonsfrnfos fhnf IroµosIfIon 8 doos
oxncfIy fhnf by oufInwIng mnrrIngos of snmo·sox
couµIos whIch unfII IroµosIfIon 8 µuf nn ond fo
fhom woro boIng InwfuIIy soIomnIzod In hundrods
of CnIIfornIn`s churchos nnd synngoguos.
WIfh fhIs brIof wo ondonvor fo show fhnf fhIs
Courf hns IfsoIf susfnInod fho rIghf fo mnrry ns ¨nn
oxorcIso of roIIgIous fnIfh,¨ Turnor v. SnfIoy, 482
!.S. ?8, 96 íl98?¹, nnd fhnf fho somInnI docIsIon on
mnrrIngo oqunIIfy Is nf Ifs coro n roIIgIous·IIborfy
µrocodonf. Ior In Ioroz v. Shnrµ,
5
n CnfhoIIc
couµIo µorsundod CnIIfornIn`s Suµromo Courf fo
ovorfurn CnIIfornIn`s Inw ngnInsf mIxod·rnco
mnrrIngos ns n vIoInfIon of fhoIr roIIgIous froodom.
Soo Infrn l0·l9.
Whon fhIs Courf rovIowod fho Issuo nonrIy fwo
docndos Infor In !ovIng, CnfhoIIc IIshoµs fIIod nn
nmIcus curIno brIof urgIng fhIs Courf fo foIIow
Ioroz bocnuso ¨mnrrIngo Is nn oxorcIso of roIIgIon
µrofocfod by fho IIrsf nnd Iourfoonfh
Amondmonfs¨ nnd fhus ¨cnn bo rosfrnInod onIy
uµon n showIng fhnf If consfIfufos n grnvo nnd
ImmodInfo dnngor fo Inforosfs whIch fho sfnfo mny
InwfuIIy µrofocf.¨
6

5
32 CnI. 2d ?ll, l98 I.2d l? íl948¹.
6
IrIof of AmIcus CurIno, !rgIng !ovorsnI, on bohnIf of
John J. !ussoII, IIshoµ of !Ichmond· !nwronco CnrdInnI
8
IronIcnIIy, fho CnfhoIIc IIshoµs nnd Iny
orgnnIznfIons fhnf roconfIy fIIod nmIcus brIofs
suµµorfIng IroµosIfIon 8 hnvo fnIIod fo rocognIzo
fho µrIncIµIo`s unIvorsnIIfy· If CnfhoIIcs In Ioroz
hnd n roIIgIous·IIborfy Inforosf In IognI rocognIfIon
of mIxod·rnco mnrrIngos fo bo soIomnIzod In fhoIr
own churchos, fhon !oform nnd !oconsfrucfIonIsf
Jows, ns woII ns !nIfnrInn !nIvorsnIIsfs, nnd
mombors of fho !nIfod Church of ChrIsf nnd
MofroµoIIfnn CommunIfy Churchos, nII musf hnvo
n sImIInr roIIgIous·IIborfy Inforosf In IognI
rocognIfIon of snmo·sox mnrrIngos fhnf buf for
IroµosIfIon 8 wouId bo soIomnIzod In fhoIr own
churchos nnd synngoguos. Soo Infrn nf l9·23.
AmIcI submIf fhnf roIIgIous IIborfy Is honorod
nof by sfnfo Inws wIfhdrnwIng oqunI rIghfs nnd
ImµosIng socfnrInn IImIfnfIons concornIng who mny
mnrry, buf rnfhor by rocognIzIng mnrrIngo ns n

Shohnn, ArchbIshoµ of InIfImoro· InuI A. HnIIInnn,
ArchbIshoµ of AfInnfn· IhIIIµ M. Hnnnnn, ArchbIshoµ of
Þow OrIonns· !oborf I. !ucoy, ArchbIshoµ of Snn AnfonIo·
Josoµh I. IrunInI, AµosfoIIc AdmInIsfrnfor of Þnfchoz·
Jnckson· !nwronco M. ÐoInIco, IIshoµ of AmnrIIIo· Josoµh
A. ÐIrIck, AµosfoIIc AdmInIsfrnfor of ÞnshvIIIo· Thomns K.
Cormnn, IIshoµ of ÐnIIns·If. Worfh· Josoµh H. Hodgos,
IIshoµ of WhooIIng· John !. Morkovsky, AµosfoIIc
AdmInIsfrnfor of CnIvosfon·Housfon· VIcfor J. !ood, IIshoµ
of OkInhomn CIfy nnd TuIsn· !. J. !oIchor, IIshoµ of AusfIn·
Thomns Tschooµo, IIshoµ of Snn AngoIo· Irnosf !.
!nforkoofIor, IIshoµ of ChnrIosfon· VInconf S. Wnfors,
IIshoµ of !nIoIgh· Tho ÞnfIonnI CnfhoIIc Conforonco for
InforrncInI JusfIco· nnd Tho ÞnfIonnI CnfhoIIc SocInI AcfIon
Conforonco íhoroInnffor ¨CnfhoIIc IIshoµs` !ovIng brIof¨¹ nf
l9 ífIIod Iob. l6, l96?¹, !ovIng v. VIrgInIn, 388 !.S. l íl96?¹
íÞo. 66·395¹, l96? W! ll3926.
9
fundnmonfnI cIvII rIghf shnrod by nII µooµIo, of nII
fnIfhs nnd µorsunsIons, wIfhouf rognrd fo fho
docfrInos nnd dogmn of nny µnrfIcuInr socf or socfs
nof ovon fhoso of fho Sfnfo`s Inrgosf nnd mosf
µoworfuI onos. Ioroz nnd Turnor nro sound
docIsIons fhnf fhIs Courf shouId foIIow. Soo Infrn
nf 23·30.
Thnf somo dofond IroµosIfIon 8`s wIfhdrnwnI of
fhIs rIghf, ns somohow nocossnry fo µrofocf fho
roIIgIous IIborfy of socfnrInns whoso churchos`
IIfurgIcnI docfrInos µrocIudo offorIng roIIgIous rIfos
of mnrrIngo fo snmo·sox couµIos, rofIocfs n
µrofound mIsundorsfnndIng of whnf ronIIy Is nf
sfnko.
Tho Iockof Iund, nnd ofhors, suggosf fhnf
IroµosIfIon 8 hns n rnfIonnI bnsIs In sµocuInfIvo
fonrs fhnf honorIng snmo·sox couµIos` rIghf fo
oqunIIfy undor fho cIvII Inw of mnfrImony somohow
fhronfons fho roIIgIous IIborfy of CnIIfornInns
whoso roIIgIous IIfurgIos do nof oncomµnss snmo·
sox unIons. Tho ImngInod fhronfs como nof from
mnfrImonInI Inw, whIch IroµosIfIon 8 nffocfs, buf
from CnIIfornIn`s nnfI·dIscrImInnfIon Inws, whIch
µrovIdo brond µrofocfIons for snmo·sox couµIos
dosµIfo IroµosIfIon 8`s wIfhdrnwnI of fhoIr IognI
rIghf fo mnrry. IroµosIfIon 8 dId nof chnngo
CnIIfornIn`s Inws bnrrIng dIscrImInnfIon ngnInsf
snmo·sox couµIos In mnffors of housIng,
omµIoymonf, nnd honIfh·cnro covorngo. And If doos
nof, In nny rosµocf, µrofocf nnyono`s roIIgIous
froodom by doµrIvIng snmo·sox couµIos of n bnsIc
cIvII rIghf. Soo Infrn nf 30·3?.
l0
A!C!MIÞT
A. ThIs Courf HoId In Turnor v. SnfIoy fhnf
AIfhough CIvII MnrrIngo Is n SocuInr
InsfIfufIon, Ifs ArbIfrnry !osfrIcfIon
ImµroµorIy AbrIdgos fho Iroo IxorcIso of
!oIIgIon
MnrrIngo In CnIIfornIn, ns In fho !nIfod Sfnfos
moro gonornIIy, hns Iong boon n socuInr cIvII
InsfIfufIon, froo from fho mnny IIfurgIcnI
IImIfnfIons fhnf µnrfIcuInr fnIfh frndIfIons nro
onfIfIod fo foIIow rognrdIng whnf mnrrIngos fhoy
wIII soIomnIzo wIfh fhoIr own roIIgIous rIfos. A
cIvII mnrrIngo, fhIs Courf hns snId, ¨musf bo
foundod uµon fho ngroomonf of fho µnrfIos¨ buf
¨doos nof roquIro nny roIIgIous coromony for Ifs
soIomnIznfIon.¨
?
¨Irom fho sfnfo`s IncoµfIon,

?
Mnynnrd, l25 !.S. nf 2l0. Tho IIIgrIms who snIIod
In fho MnyfIowor, Inndod nf IIymoufh !ock, nnd coIobrnfod
fho IIrsf ThnnksgIvIng In l62l, bognn fho AmorIcnn
frndIfIon fhnf InwfuI mnrrIngo shouId bo ¨n cIvII fhIng,¨
whon In l62l fhoy coIobrnfod fho ¨fIrsf mnrrIngo In fhIs
µInco.¨ l WIIIInm Irndford, HIsfory of fho IIymoufh
IInnfnfIon, l620·l64?, nf 2l6·l8 íIosfon· Mnssnchusoffs
HIsforIcnI SocIofy, l9l2¹ írocounfIng fho ¨fIrsf mnrrIngo In
fhIs µInco, whIch, nccordIng fo fho InudnbIo cusfomo of fho
!owclo¦unfrIos . . . wns fhoughf mosf roquIsIfo fo bo
µorformod by fho mngIsfrnfo, ns boIng n cIvIII fhIng¨¹· soo
IrIc AInn Isnncson, Aro Snmo·Sox MnrrIngos !onIIy n Thronf
fo !oIIgIous !Iborfy`, 8 Sfnn. J. CIv. !fs. & CIv. !Ibs. l23,
l38·39 í20l2¹. Tho IIIgrIms fhus ndoµfod ¨n docfrInnI
µrIncIµIo soµnrnfIng fho rosµonsIbIIIfy of fho church fo
mInIsfor fo Ifs mombors from fho cIvII obIIgnfIon of fho
mngIsfrnfo fo roguInfo nnd µrofocf fho rIghfs of nII.¨ Joromy
ÐuµorfuIs Inngs, Sfrnngors nnd IIIgrIms, TrnvoIIors nnd
Sojournors· !oIdon nnd fho IoundnfIons of fho IIymoufh
IInnfnfIon 640 íIIymoufh, Mnssnchusoffs· ConornI SocIofy
of MnyfIowor Ðoscondonfs, 2009¹.
ll
CnIIfornIn Inw hns fronfod fho IognI InsfIfufIon of
cIvII mnrrIngo ns dIsfIncf from roIIgIous mnrrIngo.¨
8

ThIs Is ns If shouId bo, for In n µIurnIIsfIc socIofy
such ns ours, socfnrInn docfrInos nnd forms oughf
nof confroI fho oxorcIso of n cIvII rIghf.
SfIII If wouId bo n mIsfnko fo fhInk fhnf fho
fundnmonfnI cIvII rIghf of mnrrIngo nnd fho
consfIfufIonnI rIghf fo froo oxorcIso of roIIgIon hnvo
no roInfIon. Ior In nddIfIon fo boIng n socuInr cIvII
rIghf, mnrrIngo nIso hns nn Imµorfnnf µInco In
roIIgIous IIfo for mosf íIf nof nII¹ communIfIos of
fnIfh onch of whIch musf bo froo fo coIobrnfo
mnfrImonInI rIfos on Ifs own forms.
ThIs Courf hoId In Turnor v. SnfIoy, 482 !.S. ?8,
95·96 íl98?¹, fhnf ¨fho docIsIon fo mnrry Is n
fundnmonfnI rIghf¨ fhnf µrIson Inmnfos rofnIn ovon
fhough Incnrcornfod, sInco ¨fho commIfmonf of
mnrrIngo mny bo nn oxorcIso of roIIgIous fnIfh ns
woII ns nn oxµrossIon of µorsonnI dodIcnfIon,¨ nnd
¨fho roIIgIous nnd µorsonnI nsµocfs of fho mnrrIngo
commIfmonf¨ romnIn ¨unnffocfod by fho fncf of
confInomonf or fho µursuIf of IogIfImnfo corrocfIons
gonIs.¨ Id. nf 96. Thoso oIomonfs of froo oxorcIso
nnd froo oxµrossIon nro, fhIs Courf hoId, ¨suffIcIonf
fo form n consfIfufIonnIIy µrofocfod mnrIfnI
roInfIonshIµ In fho µrIson confoxf.¨ Id.

8
In ro MnrrIngo Cnsos, 43 CnI. 4fh nf ?92 n.ll, l83
I.3d 384, 40? n.ll ícIfnfIon omIffod¹, suµorsodod by
CnIIfornIn MnrrIngo IrofocfIon Acf, n.k.n. ¨IroµosIfIon 8,¨
onncfIng CnI. Consf. nrf. I, §?.5· soo nIso CnI. Inm. Codo
§420íc¹ í¨Þo confrncf of mnrrIngo, If ofhorwIso duIy mndo,
shnII bo InvnIIdnfod for wnnf of conformIfy fo fho
roquIromonfs of nny roIIgIous socf.¨¹.
l2
Tho roIIgIous sIgnIfIcnnco of mnrrIngo Is no Ioss
Imµorfnnf oufsIdo of µrIson whon snmo·sox couµIos
sook fo mnrry wIfh fho bIossIngs of cIorgy In
!oform nnd !oconsfrucfIonIsf synngoguos, nnd In
!nIfnrInn !nIvorsnIIsf, !nIfod Church of ChrIsf,
nnd MofroµoIIfnn CommunIfy churchos.
IroµosIfIon 8, by fnrgofIng gny nnd IosbInn couµIos
for wIfhdrnwnI of fho rIghf fo mnrry Is
unconsfIfufIonnI bocnuso If dIrocfIy ImµnIrs ¨nn
oxorcIso of roIIgIous fnIfh ns woII ns nn oxµrossIon
of µorsonnI dodIcnfIon.¨ Turnor, 482 !.S. nf 96.
I. Tho SomInnI ÐocIsIon SfrIkIng
Ðown CnIIfornIn !nws AgnInsf
MIxod·!nco MnrrIngos ÐId So on
!oIIgIous·!Iborfy Crounds
Tho somInnI docIsIon susfnInIng n mIxod·rnco
couµIo`s rIghf fo cIvII mnrrIngo wns nIso n roIIgIous·
IIborfy µrocodonf, ns CnfhoIIcs for fho Common
Cood ncknowIodgo In nn nmIcus brIof oµµosIng
sImIInr rosµocf for fho roIIgIous IIborfy of !oform
nnd !oconsfrucfIonIsf Jows, !nIfnrInn
!nIvorsnIIsfs, nnd mombors of fho !nIfod Church
of ChrIsf nnd MofroµoIIfnn CommunIfy Churchos.
9
In fho CnIIfornIn Suµromo Courf`s l948 docIsIon
roµorfod offIcInIIy ns Ioroz v. Shnrµ, nnd by Wosf
IubIIshIng Co. ns Ioroz v. !IµµoId,
l0
n !omnn

9
Soo AmIcus CurIno IrIof for CnfhoIIcs for fho
Common Cood, of nI. nf 2l, 23·24 ífIIod Jnn. 29, 20l3¹,
HoIIIngsworfh v. Iorry íÞo. l2·l44¹, 20l3 W! 4l6203.
l0
32 CnI. 2d ?ll, l98 I.2d l? íl948¹. Tho dIfforonf
cnµfIons nµµnronfIy rosuIfod from n succossIon In fho OffIco
of Counfy CIork ínnmod In hIs offIcInI cnµncIfy¹, whIch wns
rofIocfod In ono roµorfor, buf nof fho ofhor.
l3
CnfhoIIc couµIo roµrosonfod by nn ncfIvIsf !omnn
CnfhoIIc Inwyor succossfuIIy nrguod fhnf
CnIIfornIn`s bnn on mIxod·rnco mnrrIngo vIoInfod
fhoIr roIIgIous froodom.
ll
On fhIs nf Ionsf fho CnfhoIIcs for fho Common
Cood nmIcus brIof Is nbsoIufoIy corrocf· ¨Tho horo
of Ioroz Is ÐnnIoI MnrshnII, fho IrosIdonf of fho
CnfhoIIc InforrncInI CouncII of !os AngoIos, nnd
fho nffornoy who roµrosonfod SyIvosfor ÐnvIs, nn
AfrIcnn·AmorIcnn mnIo, nnd Andron Ioroz, n
womnn of MoxIcnn dosconf.¨
l2
Ioroz wns doomod ¨whIfo¨ undor CnIIfornIn Inw,
whIch bnrrod hor mnrrIngo fo ÐnvIs, n bInck mnn.
Iofh woro mombors of SnInf InfrIck`s CnfhoIIc
Church In !os AngoIos, whoro MnrshnII Iod ¨n
smnII buf vory doformInod CnfhoIIc InforrncInI
CouncII¨ fhnf ho hnd formod In l944 fo ndvnnco fho
cnuso of rncInI oqunIIfy.
l3
Whon fho !os AngoIos
Counfy CIork rofusod fo Issuo Ioroz nnd ÐnvIs n
mnrrIngo IIconso bocnuso CnIIfornIn sfnfufos
µroscrIbod mIxod·rnco mnrrIngos, MnrshnII fook
fhoIr cnso sfrnIghf fo CnIIfornIn`s Suµromo Courf,
domnndIng n wrIf dIrocfIng fho Counfy CIork fo

ll
Soo gonornIIy Ioggy Inscoo, Whnf Comos ÞnfurnIIy·
MIscogonnfIon !nw nnd fho MnkIng of !nco In AmorIcn 205·
3l íOxford & Þow York· Oxford !nIvorsIfy Iross, 2009¹· Iny
Iofhnm, AImIghfy Cod Cronfod fho !ncos· ChrIsfInnIfy,
InforrncInI MnrrIngo & AmorIcnn !nw ll·5l íChnµoI HIII·
!nIvorsIfy of Þorfh CnroIInn Iross, 2009¹.
l2
AmIcus CurIno IrIof for CnfhoIIcs for fho Common
Cood nf 2l.
l3
Inscoo, suµrn nofo ll, nf 206 & 204.
l4
Issuo n IIconso. MnrshnII dId so ovon fhough hIs
own Church`s ÐIocosnn offIcInIs dIsnµµrovod.
l4
Tho courf µnµors In Ioroz sfnrkIy frnmod fho
mIxod·rnco couµIo`s rIghf fo mnrry In forms of
roIIgIous IIborfy. ¨Thoro Is no ruIo, roguInfIon or
Inw of fho !omnn CnfhoIIc Church whIch forbIds n
whIfo µorson nnd n Þogro µorson from rocoIvIng
conjoInfIy fho sncrnmonf of mnfrImony nnd fhus fo
Informnrry,¨ fho couµIo`s wrIf µofIfIon nvorrod.
l5

Tho Counfy CIork`s rofusnI of n ¨IIconso fo
Informnrry¨ fhus hnd donIod fhom of ¨fho rIghf fo
µnrfIcIµnfo fuIIy In fho sncrnmonfnI IIfo of fho
roIIgIon In whIch fhoy boIIovo,¨ fhoroby ImµIngIng
uµon ¨fho froo oxorcIso nnd onjoymonf . . . of fhoIr

l4
HIsforInn Ioggy Inscoo oxµInIns·
Af fho !os AngoIos ÐIocoso, CnfhoIIc
offIcInIs woro nµµnIIod fhnf MnrshnII hnd µuf
fho CnfhoIIc Church In fho µosIfIon of
soomIng fo ondorso InforrncInI mnrrIngo.
Whon MnrshnII wrofo fo nsk AuxIIInry IIshoµ
Josoµh McCuckon, n onofImo lCnfhoIIc
InforrncInI CouncII¦ suµµorfor, fo fosfIfy In
fho Ioroz cnso, ho rocoIvod nn ImmodInfo, nnd
vIscornI, rofusnI. ¨I cnnnof fhInk of nny µoInf
In oxIsfIng rnco roInfIonshIµs fhnf wIII sfIr uµ
moro µnssIon nnd µrojudIco,¨ McCuckon
fumod. ¨I wnnf fo mnko vory cIonr fhnf I nm
nof nf nII wIIIIng fo bo µuIIod Info n
confrovorsy of fhIs kInd.¨
Inscoo, suµrn nofo ll, nf 2l4 íquofIng Ioffor from AuxIIInry IIshoµ
Josoµh T. McCuckon fo ÐnnIoI C. MnrshnII, AµrII 26, l94?, In Iox
l?, IoIdor 29, John !nInrgo Inµors, Coorgofown !nIvorsIfy
SµocInI CoIIocfIons, WnshIngfon, Ð.C.¹.
l5
IofIfIon for WrIf of Mnndnmus, ¶¶5, 6, nf 3 ífIIod
Aug. 8, l94?¹, Ioroz v. Shnrµ.
l5
roIIgIous µrofossIon nnd worshIµ.¨
l6
An
nccomµnnyIng brIof nrguod fhnf, fhnnks fo fho
mnny sfnfos` Inws fhon µroscrIbIng mIxod·rnco
mnrrIngos, ¨µofIfIonors nro µrohIbIfod from
µnrfIcIµnfIng In fho fuII sncrnmonfnI IIfo of fho
roIIgIon of fhoIr choIco In ovor 60 µor conf of fho
sfnfos of fho !nIon.¨
l?
Tho Counfy of !os AngoIos counforod fhnf whIIo
fho couµIo`s Church mIghf µormIf mIxod·rnco
mnrrIngos, no roIIgIous·IIborfy Inforosf couId bo nf
sfnko, ns fho CnfhoIIc fnIfh dId nof domnnd fhnf
ndhoronfs mnrry oufsIdo fhoIr own rnco·
¨MnrryIng n µorson of nnofhor rnco, ovon Insofnr ns
fho Church foIornfos or µormIfs If, Is corfnInIy nof
roquIrod.¨
l8
¨If Is fruo fhnf fho CnfhoIIc roIIgIon
forbIds IIIIcIf Inforcourso,¨ fho Counfy
ncknowIodgod, ¨buf If Is nof nocossnry fo mnrry ono
of nnofhor rnco fo nvoId such IIIIcIf Inforcourso. A
good CnfhoIIc couId jusf ns woII IIvo uµ fo hIs
roIIgIon by nvoIdIng fho Inforcourso. Tho

l6
Id., ¶l5, nf 4.
l?
Momornndum of IoInfs nnd AufhorIfIos, ¶XXII, nf 5
ífIIod Aug. 8, l94?¹, Ioroz v. Shnrµ. MnrshnII`s ornI
nrgumonf roIfornfod fhnf hIs CnfhoIIc cIIonfs ¨hnvo fho rIghf
fo µnrfIcIµnfo In fho fuII sncrnmonfnI IIfo of fhoIr church . . .
nnd fhnf SocfIon 69 of fho CIvII Codo donIos fhom fho rIghf
fo µnrfIcIµnfo fuIIy In fho sncrnmonfnI IIfo of fhoIr roIIgIon.¨
OrnI Argumonf In Suµµorf of IofIfIon nf 4 íOcf. 6, l94?¹,
Ioroz v. Shnrµ.
l8
!osµondonf`s lSuµµIomonfnI¦ IrIof In OµµosIfIon fo
WrIf of Mnndnfo nf 5l ífIIod Ocf. 6, l94?¹, Ioroz v. Shnrµ.
l6
µofIfIonors wIII nof bo vIoInfIng fhoIr roIIgIon by
fnIIIng fo gof mnrrIod.¨
l9
Throo of fho CnIIfornIn Suµromo Courf`s sovon
jusfIcos found fho Counfy`s nrgumonfs fhoroughIy
µorsunsIvo.
20
JusfIco I. !oy Schnuor nnd JusfIco
Homor !. Sµonco bofh concurrod In JusfIco John
W. Shonk`s oµInIon docInrIng fhnf bocnuso
¨µofIfIonors` nIIogod rIghf fo mnrry Is nof n µnrf of
fhoIr roIIgIon In fho brond sonso fhnf If Is n dufy
onjoInod by fho church,¨ fhoIr cInIms woro wonkor
ovon fhnn fhoso of Mormon µoIygnmIsfs In
!oynoIds v. !nIfod Sfnfos,
2l
whoso fnIfh hnd
nffIrmnfIvoIy roquIrod fhom fo fnko moro fhnn ono
wIfo.
22
In confrnsf wIfh fho Mormon µoIygnmIsfs,
Ioroz nnd ÐnvIs couId nrguo onIy ¨fhnf fhoIr
mnrrIngo Is µormIssIvo undor fho dogmn, boIIofs
nnd fonchIng of fho church fo whIch fhoy cInIm
momborshIµ nnd fhnf fho sncrnmonf of mnfrImony
wIII bo ndmInIsforod fo fhom by n µrIosf of fho
church If nnd whon n IIconso Issuos.¨
23
Yof fho CnfhoIIc couµIo`s roIIgIous·IIborfy
nrgumonf cnrrIod fho dny. Ior fhough no oµInIon

l9
Id. nf 5l·52. Counfy counsoI bognn hIs ornI
nrgumonf· ¨In fho µrosonf cnso, fho µofIfIonors do nof show
fhnf If Is roIIgIon fhnf comµoIs fhom fo mnrry, buf fhnf If Is
fhoIr own worIdIy choIco.¨ TrnnscrIµf of ornI nrgumonf on
bohnIf of !osµondonf, nf 2, Ioroz v. Shnrµ.
20
Ioroz, 32 CnI. 2d nf ?42·63, l98 I.2d nf 35·4? íShonk,
J., joInod by Schnuor nnd Sµonco, J.J., dIssonfIng¹.
2l
98 !.S. l45, l6l íl8?8¹.
22
Ioroz, 32 CnI. 2d nf ?44, l98 I.2d nf 36 íShonk, J.,
dIssonfIng¹.
23
Id.
l?
wns joInod by n mnjorIfy of fho courf, Shonk`s
fhroo·jusfIco oµInIon wns buf n dIssonf.
JusfIco !ogor J. Trnynor, hImsoIf n CnfhoIIc,
fIIod n fhroo·jusfIco µIurnIIfy oµInIon, joInod by
ChIof JusfIco IhII S. CIbson nnd JusfIco Josso W.
Cnrfor. If sof ouf fho mIxod·rnco couµIo`s
nrgumonf,
fhnf fho sfnfufos In quosfIon nro
unconsfIfufIonnI on fho grounds fhnf
fhoy µrohIbIf fho froo oxorcIso of fhoIr
roIIgIon nnd dony fo fhom fho rIghf fo
µnrfIcIµnfo fuIIy In fho sncrnmonfs of
fhnf roIIgIon. Thoy nro mombors of fho
!omnn CnfhoIIc Church. Thoy
mnInfnIn fhnf sInco fho church hns no
ruIo forbIddIng mnrrIngos bofwoon
Þogroos nnd CnucnsInns, fhoy nro
onfIfIod fo rocoIvo fho sncrnmonf of
mnfrImony.
24
WrIfIng for hIs fhroo·jusfIco µIurnIIfy, JusfIco
Trnynor docInrod fhnf If ¨fho Inw Is dIscrImInnfory
nnd IrrnfIonnI, If unconsfIfufIonnIIy rosfrIcfs nof
onIy roIIgIous IIborfy buf fho IIborfy fo mnrry ns
woII.¨
25
JusfIco Idmonds, n ¨ChrIsfInn ScIonfIsf for
whom roIIgIous froodom mnfforod,¨
26
µrovIdod fho
fourfh vofo whIch wns noodod for n µrocodonfInI
mnjorIfy on fho sovon·jusfIco frIbunnI. Ho fIIod n
soµnrnfo concurrIng oµInIon unoquIvocnIIy hoIdIng

24
Ioroz, 32 CnI. 2d nf ?l3, l98 I.2d nf l8 íTrnynor
µIurnIIfy¹.
25
Id., 32 CnI. 2d nf ?l3·l4, l98 I.2d nf l8 íTrnynor
µIurnIIfy¹.
26
Iofhnm, suµrn nofo ll nf 42.
l8
fhnf fho rIghf fo mnrry ¨Is µrofocfod by fho
consfIfufIonnI gunrnnfoo of roIIgIous froodom.¨
2?

Iy donyIng IognI sfnndIng fo fho mnrrIngo of fwo
CnfhoIIcs, whoso Church nIIowod µooµIo of dIfforonf
rncos fo mnrry, fho Sfnfo of CnIIfornIn hnd vIoInfod
fhoIr roIIgIous froodom.
JusfIco Trnynor`s µIurnIIfy oµInIon nddrossod
roIIgIous IIborfy onIy brIofIy, nnd fhon dovofod
gronfor nffonfIon fo oqunI·µrofocfIon concorns nnd
fo fho chnrncfor of cIvII mnrrIngo ns n fundnmonfnI
socuInr rIghf. Iuf JusfIco Idmonds` soµnrnfo
concurronco, groundod on roIIgIous IIborfy,
µrovIdod fho rnfIonnIo on whIch n mnjorIfy of fho
courf`s jusfIcos ngrood· ¨Iy n four·fo·fhroo vofo,
fho courf InvnIIdnfod CnIIfornIn`s
nnfImIscogonnfIon Inw on fho bnsIs of fho
consfIfufIonnI rIghf fo froodom of roIIgIon.¨
28

AµµIyIng fnmIIInr ruIos of sfnro docIsIs, roIIgIous
IIborfy µrovIdod fho docIsIon`s µrocodonfInI rnfIo
docIdondI.
29

2?
Ioroz, 32 CnI. 2d nf ?40, l98 I.2d nf 34 íIdmonds, J.,
concurrIng¹· soo Iofhnm, suµrn nofo ll, nf 42 í¨JusfIco
Idmonds cnsf fho docIdIng vofo fhnf gnvo vIcfory fo Andron
Ioroz nnd SyIvosfor ÐnvIs.¨· ¨whnf Is cIonr Is fhnf Idmond`s
oµInIon shIffod fho onfIro oufcomo of fho cnso¨¹.
28
ÐnvId W. Soufhorn, John !nInrgo nnd fho !ImIfs of
CnfhoIIc InforrncInIIsm, l9ll·l963, nf 2?4 íInfon !ougo &
!ondon· !ouIsInnn Sfnfo !nIvorsIfy Iross, l996¹.
29
Soo, o.g., InnoffI v. Qunrformnn, 55l !.S. 930, 949
í200?¹· Mnrks v. !nIfod Sfnfos, 430 !.S. l88, l93 íl9??¹·
Isfnfo of !oµos, l52 CnI. Aµµ. 3d 302, 306·0?, l99 CnI. !µfr.
425, 428·29 íl984¹· IooµIo v. HnrrIs, ?l CnI. Aµµ. 3d 959,
966, l39 CnI. !µfr. ??8, ?83 íl9??¹· 9 I.I. WIfkIn, CnIIfornIn
Irocoduro, AµµonI §809, nf 8?9 í5fh od. 2008¹ í¨If Is µossIbIo
for n concurrIng oµInIon, nof fho mnIn oµInIon, fo consfIfufo
l9
If Ioroz Is corrocf, fhon IroµosIfIon 8 Is nn
unconsfIfufIonnI nbrIdgmonf of CnIIfornIn snmo·sox
couµIos` roIIgIous IIborfy fo mnrry, nnd of fhoIr
fnIfh communIfIos` nnd cIorgy`s rIghf fo coIobrnfo
nnd soIomnIzo fhoIr mnrrIngos, jusf ns CnIIfornIn`s
Inw donyIng IognI rocognIfIon fo mIxod·rnco unIons
vIoInfod n CnfhoIIc couµIo`s roIIgIous IIborfy.
C. CnfhoIIc IIshoµs Indorsod Ioroz v.
Shnrµ`s !oIIgIous·!Iborfy !nfIonnIo
Whon fhIs Courf ConsIdorod n InµfIsf
CouµIo`s AµµonI In !ovIng v. VIrgInIn
Whon fho consfIfufIonnIIfy of sfnfo Inws
µroscrIbIng mIxod·rnco mnrrIngos gof fo fhIs Courf
In !ovIng, nonrIy fwo docndos nffor Ioroz, CnfhoIIc
bIshoµs woIghod In ns nmIcI curIno fuIIy suµµorfIng
Ioroz`s roIIgIous·IIborfy rnfIonnIo.
30
Tho cnso nroso from VIrgInIn. !ojocfIng n
InµfIsf couµIo`s confonfIon fhnf sfnfufos
µroscrIbIng fhoIr mnrrIngo woro unconsfIfufIonnI,
fho VIrgInIn frInI courf Invokod whnf mnny
AmorIcnns onco fook ns bIndIng ScrIµfurnI Inw
fhnf ¨AImIghfy Cod cronfod fho rncos¨ nnd ¨fhnf Ho
dId nof Infond for fho rncos fo mIx.¨
3l
VIrgInIn`s

fho mnjorIfy µosIfIon of fho courf on n µnrfIcuInr µoInf.¨¹·
soo nIso Id., AµµonI §538, nf 608·l0.
30
Soo suµrn nofo 6.
3l
!ovIng, CIrcuIf Courf oµInIon, roµrInfod In !ovIng,
Þo. 66·395, TrnnscrIµf of !ocord, nf 8, l6. Tho frInI courf
docInrod·
AImIghfy Cod cronfod fho rncos whIfo, bInck,
yoIIow, mnIny nnd rod, nnd ho µIncod fhom on
soµnrnfo confInonfs. And buf for fho
20
Suµromo Courf nffIrmod, foIIowIng Ifs own l955
docIsIon In ÞnIm v. ÞnIm,
32
whIch hnd susfnInod
VIrgInIn`s Inws ngnInsf rncInI mIxIng In ¨n µubIIc
InsfIfufIon osfnbIIshod by Cod hImsoIf.¨
33
Whon !ovIng ronchod fhIs Courf, sIxfoon
CnfhoIIc bIshoµs nnd nµosfoIIc ndmInIsfrnfors fIIod

Inforforonco wIfh hIs nrrnngomonf fhoro
wouId bo no cnuso for such mnrrIngos. Tho
fncf fhnf ho soµnrnfod fho rncos shows fhnf ho
dId nof Infond for fho rncos fo mIx.
Id.· soo Inscoo, suµrn nofo ll, nf 2?5· !ovIng, 388 !.S. nf 3
íquofIng frInI courf¹· soo nIso Iowors v. HnrdwIck, 4?8 !.S. l86,
2l0 n.5 íl986¹ íIInckmnn, J., joInod by Ironnnn, MnrshnII &
Sfovons, J.J., dIssonfIng¹ ísnmo quofo¹· cf. IooµIo v. CroonIonf, ?80
Þ.Y.S.2d 899, 902 íÞow InIfz JusfIco Cf. 2004¹.
32
l9? Vn. 80, 8? S.I.2d ?49 íl955¹, vncnfod nnd
romnndod, 350 !.S. 89l íl955¹, roInsfnfod on romnnd, l9?
Vn. ?34, 90 S.I. 2d 849 íVn. l956¹, mofIon fo rocnII mnndnfo
donIod, 350 !.S. 985 íl956¹.
33
ÞnIm, l9? Vn. nf 84, 8? S.I.2d nf ?52 íquofIng Sfnfo
v. CIbson, 36 Ind. 389, 402·03 íl8?l¹¹. IoIIowIng Sfnfo v.
CIbson, 36 Ind. nf 404, ÞnIm susfnInod VIrgInIn Inw bnrrIng
mnrrIngo bofwoon mombors of dIfforonf rncos, docInrIng
¨fhnf fho nnfurnI Inw whIch forbIds fhoIr InformnrrIngo nnd
fho socInI nmnIgnmnfIon whIch Ionds fo n corruµfIon of rncos
Is ns cIonrIy dIvIno ns fhnf whIch Imµnrfod fo fhom dIfforonf
nnfuros.¨ ÞnIm, l9? Vn. nf 84, 8? S.I. 2d nf ?52. Cod`s Inw
wns n common rofrnIn In fho µrocodonfs susfnInIng such
Inws. Soo, o.g., CIbson, 36 Ind. nf 404· Croon v. Sfnfo, 58
AIn. l90, l95 íl8??¹ í¨SuroIy fhoro cnn nof bo nny fyrnnny or
InjusfIco In roquIrIng bofh nIIko, fo form fhIs unIon wIfh
fhoso of fhoIr own rnco onIy, whom Cod hnfh joInod fogofhor
by IndoIIbIo µocuIInrIfIos, whIch docInro fhnf Ho hns mndo
fho fwo rncos dIsfIncf.¨¹· Scoff v. CoorgIn, 39 Cn. 32l, 326
íl869¹ íhoIdIng fhnf mombors of dIfforonf rncos mny nof
Informnrry bocnuso fho ¨Cod of nnfuro mndo If ofhorwIso¨¹.
2l
nn nmIcus curIno brIof nssorfIng fhnf VIrgInIn`s
Inws donyIng rocognIfIon fo mIxod·rncod mnrrIngos
vIoInfod fho InµfIsf couµIo`s roIIgIous IIborfy.
34

Ivon wIfh rosµocf fo mnrrIngos oufsIdo fhoIr own
Church, fho CnfhoIIc bIshoµs oµµosod µormIffIng
IognI onncfmonfs groundod uµon fho ¨vIows of fhIrd
µorsons fo doformIno ono of fho mosf µorsonnI nnd
sonsIfIvo of humnn docIsIons.¨
35
Thoy urgod fhIs
Courf fo foIIow fho Iond of Ioroz, whoro JusfIco
Trnynor`s fhroo·jusfIco µIurnIIfy oµInIon hnd found
fhnf CnIIfornIn`s nnfI·mIscogonnfIon sfnfufo
¨unconsfIfufIonnIIy rosfrIcfod bofh roIIgIous
froodom nnd fho IIborfy fo mnrry.¨
36
Tho crIfIcnI
fourfh vofo In Ioroz, fho CnfhoIIc bIshoµs
undorscorod, wns µrovIdod by JusfIco Idmonds`
¨soµnrnfo concurrIng oµInIon,¨ cIonrIy hoIdIng fho
rIghf fo mnrry ¨'Is µrofocfod by fho consfIfufIonnI
gunrnnfoo of roIIgIous froodom.`¨
3?
Tho CnfhoIIc bIshoµs concIudod by nssorfIng fhnf
¨mnrrIngo Is nn oxorcIso of roIIgIon µrofocfod by fho
IIrsf nnd Iourfoonfh Amondmonfs¨ nnd fhnf ¨ns
such, mnrrIngo cnn bo rosfrnInod onIy uµon n

34
Soo Iofhnm, suµrn nofo ll, nf 3, l?0·?4.
35
Iofhnm, suµrn nofo ll, nf l?0·?4· CnfhoIIc IIshoµs`
!ovIng brIof nf l?.
36
CnfhoIIc IIshoµs` !ovIng IrIof nf l8. Tho CnfhoIIc
IIshoµ`s brIof fhus ¨roIfornfod CnIIfornIn Suµromo Courf
JusfIco !ogor Trnynor`s nssorfIon fhnf If CnIIfornIn`s nnfI·
mIscogonnfIon sfnfufos woro unconsfIfufIonnI nnd
dIscrImInnfory, fhon fhoy rosfrIcfod fwo fundnmonfnI humnn
IIborfIos· roIIgIous froodom nnd fho froodom fo mnrry.¨
Iofhnm, suµrn nofo ll, nf l?2.
3?
CnfhoIIc IIshoµs` !ovIng IrIof nf l8 íquofIng Ioroz,
32 CnI. 2d nf ?40, l98 I.2d nf 34 íIdmonds, J., concurrIng¹¹.
22
showIng fhnf If consfIfufos n grnvo nnd ImmodInfo
dnngor fo Inforosfs whIch fho sfnfo mny InwfuIIy
µrofocf.¨
38
Thnf vIow nccords wIfh fho rnfIo
docIdondI of Ioroz, nnd wIfh fhIs Courf`s hoIdIng In
Turnor fhnf doµrIvIng µrIson Inmnfos, ns n grouµ,
of fho rIghf fo mnrry frnmµIod fhoIr ¨oxorcIso of
roIIgIous fnIfh.¨ Turnor, 482 !.S. nf 96.
Tho CnfhoIIc bIshoµs boIIovod fhon fhnf roIIgIous
IIborfy µrofocfod fho mnrrIngo rIghf nof onIy of
CnfhoIIcs, buf of non·CnfhoIIcs ns woII. Irom Ifs
nmIcus brIof fIIod In fhIs cnso, howovor, If nµµonrs
fhnf fho !.S. Conforonco of CnfhoIIc IIshoµs hns
sInco concIudod fhnf roIIgIous IIborfy µrofocfs onIy
mnrrIngos fhnf fhoIr own Church nµµrovos, nnd nof
fho mnrrIngos of snmo·sox couµIos fhnf buf for
IroµosIfIon 8 wouId bo soIomnIzod In !oform nnd
!oconsfrucfIonIsf synngoguos, nnd In !nIfnrInn
!nIvorsnIIsf, !nIfod Church of ChrIsf, nnd
MofroµoIIfnn CommunIfy churchos.
Thnf Is nof n fnIr undorsfnndIng of roIIgIous
IIborfy, or of oqunI µrofocfIon of fho Inw. CnfhoIIcs,
nnd fhoIr mnrrIngos, nro nof sµocInIIy µrIvIIogod
ovor fho mnrrIngos of IIbornI Jows, !nIfnrInn
!nIvorsnIIsfs, nnd mombors of fho !nIfod Church
of ChrIsf nnd MofroµoIIfnn CommunIfy churchos.
Tho CnfhoIIc Answors nmIcus brIof nssorfs fhnf
roIIgIous IIborfy ¨monns 'fho froodom fo ongngo
ono`s onfIro soIf` IncIudIng fho soIf In fho confoxf
of communIfy 'In µursuIf of uIfImnfo ronIIfy.`¨
39


38
CnfhoIIc IIshoµs` !ovIng IrIof nf l9.
39
IrIof AmIcus CurIno of CnfhoIIc Answors, ChrIsfInn
!ognI SocIofy, nnd CnfhoIIc Vofo IducnfIon Iund nf 6 ífIIod
Jnn. 29, 20l3¹ íÞo. l2·l44¹, 20l3 W! 390985 íquofIng
23
Yof fho froodom fo ongngo ono`s onfIro soIf In
InwfuI wodIock, In fho confoxf of n roIIgIous
communIfy, Is ono fhnf CnfhoIIc Answors wouId
hnvo fhIs Courf dony fo snmo·sox couµIos who sook
fo mnrry In fhoIr own churchos nnd synngoguos.
If roIIgIous IIborfy nnd oqunI µrofocfIon of fho
Inw monn nnyfhIng, fho rIghf fo mnrry Is ono
µroµorIy onjoyod by nII AmorIcnns, of nII fnIfhs,
nnd of nny soxunI orIonfnfIon. IroµosIfIon 8 Is
unconsfIfufIonnI.
Ð. Ioroz nnd Turnor !omnIn Cood !nw fhnf
fhIs Courf ShouId !onffIrm nnd IoIIow
Though !ovIng cIfod nnd ImµIIcIfIy rojocfod
fho VIrgInIn courfs` roIIgIous rnfIonnIo for
oufInwIng mIxod·rnco mnrrIngos,
40
nnd fhough If
cIfod Ioroz wIfh nµµrovnI,
4l
If dId nof cIonrIy
ondorso Ioroz`s roIIgIous·IIborfy rnfIonnIo. In IIghf
of fhIs Courf`s subsoquonf hoIdIng In Turnor, fhnf
mnrrIngo mosf offon InvoIvos n consfIfufIonnIIy
µrofocfod ¨oxorcIso of roIIgIous fnIfh,¨ 482 !.S. nf
96, fho Courf shouId do so now.
Ior Ioroz`s roIIgIous·IIborfy rnfIonnIo romnIns
sound Inw, fhnf shouId nµµIy ns fuIIy fo n snmo·sox
couµIo who wouId mnrry In n !oform or
!oconsfrucfIonIsf synngoguo, or In n !nIfnrInn

TImofhy SnmuoI Shnh, !oIIgIous Iroodom· Why Þow`
ÐofondIng nn ImbnffIod Humnn !Ighf l6 íWIfhorsµoon
InsfIfufo Tnsk Iorco on InfornnfIonnI !oIIgIous Iroodom,
20l2¹¹.
40
!ovIng, 388 !.S. nf 3.
4l
Id. nf 6 n.5.
24
!nIvorsnIIsf, !nIfod Church of ChrIsf, or
MofroµoIIfnn CommunIfy church, ns If dId In Ioroz
fo n mIxod·rnco couµIo sookIng fo mnrry In n
CnfhoIIc church.
Two objocfIons musf, of courso, bo nnsworod.
Ono Is fhnf fho Ioroz hoIdIng`s roIIgIous·IIborfy
rnfIonnIo confIIcfs wIfh fhIs Courf`s docIsIons
susfnInIng crImInnI µonnIfIos for Mormon
µoIygnmy, ns fho Ioroz dIssonfors InsIsfod.
42
Tho
ofhor Is fhnf Ioroz wns ImµIIodIy ovorruIod by fhIs
Courf`s docIsIon In ImµIoymonf ÐIvIsIon v. SmIfh,
494 !.S. 8?2 íl990¹, whIch hoId fhnf Orogon mny
crImInnIIzo sncrnmonfnI uso of µoyofo.
Ioroz doos nof confIIcf wIfh fhIs Courf`s docIsIons
rojocfIng froo·oxorcIso chnIIongos fo fodornI Inws
crImInnIIzIng Mormon µoIygnmy. Ior ns JusfIco
Idmonds` soµnrnfo concurronco nofod, fhoso
docIsIons woro groundod In whnf fhIs Courf
µorcoIvod ns comµoIIIng jusfIfIcnfIons fhnf sImµIy
fInd no µnrnIIoI horo.
43
In !oynoIds v. !nIfod Sfnfos, 98 !.S. l45 íl8?8¹,
fhIs Courf ombrncod fho vIow of Irofossor IrnncIs
!Iobor, fhnf µoIygnmy µosod n grnvo fhronf fo fho
vory oxIsfonco of domocrnfIc InsfIfufIons· ¨In fncf,
nccordIng ns monognmous or µoIygnmous mnrrIngos
nro nIIowod, do wo fInd fho µrIncIµIos on whIch fho
Covornmonf of fho µooµIo, fo n gronfor or Ioss
oxfonf, rosfs.¨ Id. nf l65·66. Tho Courf groundod
!oynoIds` hoIdIng on fho nssumµfIon fhnf

42
Soo Ioroz, 32 CnI. 2d nf ?44·45, l98 I.2d nf 36
íShonk, J., dIssonfIng¹.
43
Soo Ioroz, 32 CnI. 2d nf ?4l·42, l98 I.2d nf 35
íIdmonds, J., soµnrnfo concurronco¹.
25
¨µoIygnmy Ionds fo fho µnfrInrchnI µrIncIµIo, . . .
whIch, whon nµµIIod fo Inrgo communIfIos, foffors
fho µooµIo In sfnfIonnry dosµofIsm, whIIo fhnf
µrIncIµIo cnnnof Iong oxIsf In connocfIon wIfh
monognmy.¨ Id. nf l66. Congross couId
crImInnIIzo µoIygnmy ¨bocnuso of fho ovII
consoquoncos fhnf woro suµµosod fo fIow from
µIurnI mnrrIngos¨ ns hnrbIngors of dosµofIsm
fhronfonIng domocrnfIc ordor IfsoIf.
44
To fho snmo offocf Is ÐnvIs v. Ionson, l33 !.S.
333 íl890¹, whIch ronffIrmod !oynoIds` hoIdIng nnd
rnfIonnIo for crImInnIIzIng µoIygnmy. ÐnvIs nddod
fhnf n sysfom of µIurnI mnrrIngo wIII ¨fond fo
dosfroy fho µurIfy of fho mnrrIngo roInfIon, fo
dIsfurb fho µonco of fnmIIIos, fo dogrndo womnn,
nnd fo dobnso mnn. Iow crImos nro moro
µornIcIous fo fho bosf Inforosfs of socIofy, nnd
rocoIvo moro gonornI or moro dosorvod µunIshmonf.
To oxfond oxomµfIon from µunIshmonf for such
crImos wouId bo fo shock fho mornI judgmonf of fho
communIfy.¨ Id. nf 34l.
Snmo·sox roInfIonshIµs nro onfIroIy dIfforonf
from fho µnfrInrchnI µoIygnmous sysfoms
condomnod by !oynoIds nnd ÐnvIs. Whoro Mormon
µoIygnmy wns groundod In µnfrInrchnI InoqunIIfy,
nnd fho subjocfIon of womon ns n cInss, fodny`s

44
Id. nf l68. Soo nIso Church of !ukumI InbnIu Ayo v.
CIfy of HInIonh, 508 !.S. 520, 569 íl993¹ íSoufor, J.,
concurrIng¹ ícIfIng !oynoIds` rnfIonnIo¹· Þnncy I. Coff,
IubIIc Vows· A HIsfory of MnrrIngo nnd fho ÞnfIon ll3·l4
íCnmbrIdgo, Mnss. & !ondon· Hnrvnrd !nIvorsIfy Iross,
2000¹· Mnrk IhIIIµ Sfrnssor, On Snmo·Sox MnrrIngo, CIvII
!nIons, nnd fho !uIo of !nw· ConsfIfufIonnI InforµrofnfIons
nf fho Crossronds l24·25 íWosfµorf, ConnocfIcuf· Irnogor
IubIIshors, 2002¹.
26
snmo·sox mnrrIngos nro groundod In rocognIzIng
fho fuII humnnIfy, dIgnIfy, nnd oqunIIfy of nII
cIfIzons. Snmo·sox couµIos` mnrrIngos fhus µoso
nono of fho fhronfs fo our domocrnfIc InsfIfufIons
fhnf woro snId fo fIow from µoIygnmy.
45
ÞoIfhor wIII rocognIzIng fuII cIvIc oqunIIfy for
gny nnd IosbInn cIfIzons ¨dosfroy fho µurIfy of fho
mnrrIngo roInfIon,¨ ¨dIsfurb fho µonco of fnmIIIos,¨
¨dogrndo womon,¨ or ¨dobnso mnn,¨ ns ÐnvIs µuf If.
l33 !.S. nf 34l. CommIffod snmo·sox
roInfIonshIµs cnnnof ovon romofoIy bo
chnrncforIzod ns crImos ¨µornIcIous fo fho bosf
Inforosfs of socIofy,¨ fo ngnIn quofo ÐnvIs. Id.
ÞoIfhor Congross nor fho Sfnfos mny crImInnIIzo
µonconbIo snmo·sox roInfIonshIµs. Soo !nwronco v.
Toxns, 539 !.S. 558, 5?8·?9 í2003¹.
Though nInofoonfh·confury Mormons` socInI
sysfom of µnfrInrchnI µoIygnmy mIghf bo
chnrncforIzod ns ¨n dofInnf sfnnd ngnInsf fho
Wosf`s mosf bnsIc µoIIfIcnI nnd µorsonnI vnIuos,¨ If
shouId bo cIonr fhnf fho movomonf fownrd snmo·
sox mnrrIngo honors ognIIfnrInn µorsonnI nufonomy
nnd fuII humnn dIgnIfy for nII.
46
Þo crodIbIo

45
Soo gonornIIy I.J. Crnff, Whnf Is MnrrIngo Ior`· Tho
Sfrnngo SocInI HIsfory of Our Mosf InfImnfo InsfIfufIon l68·
?? íIosfon· Ioncon Iross, rov. od. 2004¹.
46
I.J. Crnff, Whnf Is MnrrIngo Ior`, suµrn nofo 45, nf
l??. Judgo !Ichnrd A. Iosnor hns suggosfod fhnf
µrohIbIfIng µoIygnmy mny furfhor ognIIfnrInn objocfIvos,
obsorvIng fhnf ¨fho µrohIbIfIon of bIgnmy íµoIygnmy¹ . . .
Incronsos fho soxunI nnd mnrIfnI oµµorfunIfIos of youngor,
µooror mon.¨ !Ichnrd A. Iosnor, Sox nnd !onson 2l5
íCnmbrIdgo· Hnrvnrd !nIv. Iross, l992¹. Ho obsorvos fhnf
¨µoIygnmy Is nnomnIous In n sysfom of comµnnIonnfo
mnrrIngo, bocnuso n mnn Is unIIkoIy fo hnvo fho snmo
2?
nrgumonf cnn bo mndo fhnf rocognIzIng snmo·sox
couµIos` fuII cIfIzonshIµ nnd rIghf fo mnrry mIghf
µroduco fho kInd of socInI µrobIoms fhIs Courf
ImngInod wouId fIow from fho Mormons` sysfom of
µoIygnmy.
ÞoIfhor hns Ioroz boon ImµIIodIy ovorfurnod by
fhIs Courf`s hoIdIng In ImµIoymonf ÐIvIsIon v.
SmIfh, 494 !.S. 8?2, 8?4 íl990¹, fhnf fho Iroo
IxorcIso CInuso ¨µormIfs fho Sfnfo of Orogon fo
IncIudo roIIgIousIy InsµIrod µoyofo uso wIfhIn fho
ronch of Ifs gonornI crImInnI µrohIbIfIon on uso of
fhnf drug.¨
ObvIousIy, no crImInnI µrohIbIfIon Is nf Issuo
horo, nnd !nwronco fInfIy bnrs crImInnI snncfIons
for consonsunI snmo·sox roInfIonshIµs. Iuf moro
fhnn fhnf, SmIfh IfsoIf rocognIzod fhIs Courf`s
mnny hoIdIngs fhnf ¨fho IIrsf Amondmonf bnrs
nµµIIcnfIon¨ ovon of ¨n noufrnI, gonornIIy
nµµIIcnbIo Inw fo roIIgIousIy mofIvnfod ncfIon¨
whon roIIgIous·IIborfy Inforosfs oµornfo ¨In
conjuncfIon wIfh ofhor consfIfufIonnI µrofocfIons,
such ns froodom of sµooch nnd of fho µross,¨
4?
or

rocIµrocnI roInfIonshIµ of Iovo nnd frusf wIfh muIfIµIo wIvos·
ns woII ns wIfh fho fncf nIrondy nofod fhnf If bonofIfs n fow
mon nf fho oxµonso of fho mnny.¨ Id. nf 2l6. Þor hns
µoIygnmy gonornIIy boon nssocInfod wIfh doconf fronfmonf of
womon, for ns Judgo Iosnor obsorvos· ¨If mny nof bo nn
nccIdonf fhnf fho congorIos of µrncfIcos IoosoIy roforrod fo ns
'fomnIo cIrcumcIsIon` µrImnrIIy, fho romovnI of fho cIIforIs
nnd íunfII mnrrIngo¹ fho sowIng uµ of fho onfrnnco fo fho
vngInn íInfIbuInfIon¹ nro found onIy, ns fnr ns I nm nbIo fo
doformIno, In µoIygnmous socIofIos.¨ Id. nf 256·5?.
4?
SmIfh, 494 !.S. nf 88l ícIfIng CnnfwoII v.
ConnocfIcuf, 3l0 !.S. 296, 304·0? íl940¹ íInvnIIdnfIng n
28
¨fho rIghf of µnronfs, ncknowIodgod In IIorco v.
SocIofy of SIsfors, 268 !.S. 5l0 íl925¹, fo dIrocf fho
oducnfIon of fhoIr chIIdron.¨
48
ThIs cnso InvoIvos
such nddIfIonnI Inforosfs.
ThIs Courf hns mnny fImos rocognIzod mnrrIngo
IfsoIf ns n fundnmonfnI IIborfy Inforosf.
49
MnrrIngo
rosfs nf fho honrf of fho Inforosfs µrofocfod by fhIs
Courf`s docIsIons µrofocfIng nufonomy In mnffors of
fnmIIy IIfo such ns IIorco, 268 !.S. nf 534·35,
Moyor v. Þobrnskn, 262 !.S. 390, 399·40l íl923¹,
nnd Yodor, 406 !.S. 205, ns woII ns by fho rIghf fo
µrIvncy rocognIzod In CrIswoId v. ConnocfIcuf, 38l
!.S. 4?9 íl965¹, nnd oxfondod In ofhor docIsIons.
50

IIconsIng sysfom for roIIgIous nnd chnrIfnbIo soIIcIfnfIons
undor whIch fho ndmInIsfrnfor hnd dIscrofIon fo dony n
IIconso fo nny cnuso ho doomod nonroIIgIous¹· Murdock v.
IonnsyIvnnIn, 3l9 !.S. l05 íl943¹ íInvnIIdnfIng n fInf fnx on
soIIcIfnfIon ns nµµIIod fo fho dIssomInnfIon of roIIgIous
Idons¹· IoIIoff v. McCormIck, 32l !.S. 5?3 íl944¹ ísnmo¹¹.
48
SmIfh, 494 !.S. nf 88l ícIfIng WIsconsIn v. Yodor,
406 !.S. 205 íl9?2¹ íInvnIIdnfIng comµuIsory schooI·
nffondnnco Inws ns nµµIIod fo AmIsh µnronfs who rofusod on
roIIgIous grounds fo sond fhoIr chIIdron fo schooI¹¹.
49
Soo, o.g., CIovoInnd Id. of Iduc. v. !nIIour, 4l4 !.S.
632, 639·40 íl9?4¹ í¨ThIs Courf hns Iong rocognIzod fhnf
froodom of choIco In mnffors of mnrrIngo nnd fnmIIy IIfo Is
ono of fho IIborfIos µrofocfod by fho Ðuo Irocoss CInuso of
fho Iourfoonfh Amondmonf.¨¹· !ovIng, 388 !.S. nf l2
í¨lm¦nrrIngo Is ono of fho 'bnsIc cIvII rIghfs of mnn`¨¹
ícIfnfIon omIffod¹.
50
Soo, o.g., IoddIo v. ConnocfIcuf, 40l !.S. 3?l, 3?6
íl9?l¹· IIsonsfndf v. InIrd, 405 !.S. 438 íl9?2¹· Hodgson v.
MInnosofn, 49? !.S. 4l?, 435 íl990¹.
29
Tho oIomonf of froo sµooch nIso Is µrosonf
ImµIIcnfod by whnf mnrrIngo communIcnfos. ThIs
Courf hoId In Turnor, fhnf ovon µrIson Inmnfos
rofnIn fhoIr fundnmonfnI rIghf fo mnrry, bocnuso
¨lm¦nny Imµorfnnf nffrIbufos of mnrrIngo romnIn
. . . nffor fnkIng Info nccounf fho IImIfnfIons
Imµosod by µrIson IIfo.¨ Turnor, 482 !.S. nf 95.
Thoso IncIudo fho fncf fhnf ¨Inmnfo mnrrIngos, IIko
ofhors, nro oxµrossIons of omofIonnI suµµorf nnd
µubIIc commIfmonf,¨ Id., ns woII ns fho fncf fhnf
¨mnny roIIgIons rocognIzo mnrrIngo ns hnvIng
sµIrIfunI sIgnIfIcnnco· for somo Inmnfos nnd fhoIr
sµousos, fhoroforo, fho commIfmonf of mnrrIngo
mny bo nn oxorcIso of roIIgIous fnIfh ns woII ns nn
oxµrossIon of µorsonnI dodIcnfIon.¨ Id. nf 96.
Tho oxµrossIvo oIomonf of mnrrIngo cIonrIy
ImµIIcnfos ¨sµooch In Ifs fuII consfIfufIonnI
sonso.¨
5l
¨Whon fwo µooµIo mnrry . . . fhoy oxµross
fhomsoIvos moro oIoquonfIy, foII us moro nbouf
who fhoy nro nnd who fhoy hoµo fo bo, fhnn fhoy
ovor couId do by wonrIng nrmbnnds or cnrryIng rod
fIngs.¨
52
¨If fho IIrsf Amondmonf dosorvos
InforµrofnfIons fhnf wIII 'µrofocf n rIch vnrIofy of
oxµrossIonnI modos,` fhoro Is no ronson In IogIc for

5l
Irynn H. WIIdonfhnI, To Sny ¨I Ðo¨· Shnhnr v.
Iowors, Snmo·Sox MnrrIngo, nnd IubIIc ImµIoyoo MnrrIngo
!Ighfs, l5 Cn. Sf. !. !. !ov. 38l, 382 íl998¹· soo nIso ÐnvId
I. Cruz, ¨Jusf Ðon`f CnII If MnrrIngo¨· Tho IIrsf
Amondmonf nnd MnrrIngo ns nn IxµrossIvo !osourco, ?4 S.
CnI. !. !ov. 925 í200l¹.
52
Konnofh !. Knrsf, Tho Iroodom of InfImnfo
AssocInfIon, 89 YnIo !.J. 624, 654 íl980¹.
30
oxcIudIng fho oxµrossIon fhnf Is nf fho honrf of
lour¦ mosf InfImnfo nssocInfIons.¨
53
In sum, fho roIIgIous·IIborfy hoIdIngs of Ioroz
nnd Turnor romnIn good Inw, undor whIch
IroµosIfIon 8`s dIfforonfInI fronfmonf of snmo·sox
mnrrIngos cnnnof bo susfnInod.
I. Tho Iockof Iund nnd Ofhor
AmIcI MIssfnfo fho Thronf fo
!oIIgIous !Iborfy
Tho Iockof Iund nnd ofhor nmIcI suµµorfIng
IroµosIfIon 8`s nbrIdgomonf of mnrIfnI rIghfs
µorfrny snmo·sox couµIos` mnrrIngos ns µosIng n
grnvo fhronf fo roIIgIous IIborfy. ThIs, fhoy InsIsf,
µrovIdod n rnfIonnI bnsIs for sfrIµµIng CnIIfornIn`s
snmo·sox couµIos of fho rIghf fo mnrry. Thoy nro
mIsfnkon.
Tho µurµorfod ¨fhronfs¨ fo ¨IIborfy¨ como nof
from snmo·sox mnrrIngos, buf from CnIIfornIn`s
cIvII·rIghfs Inws whIch gonornIIy µrofocf snmo·
sox couµIos ns fhough fhoy woro mnrrIod, nnd
whIch nro rondIIy subjocf fo IogIsInfIvo rovIsIon or
judIcInI IImIfnfIon If nnd whon fruIy nocossnry fo
nccommodnfo roIIgIous·IIborfy concorns.
Though IroµosIfIon 8 romovod fho rIghf fo
mnrry, If Ioff Infncf CnIIfornIn`s consfIfufIonnI
gunrnnfoo fhnf gny nnd IosbInn couµIos mny form
fnmIIIos on fho snmo bnsIs ns ofhor couµIos,
54
nnd

53
Id. nf 654 íquofIng !nuronco TrIbo, AmorIcnn
ConsfIfufIonnI !nw 5?9 íl9?8¹¹· soo gonornIIy Cruz, suµrn
nofo 5l.
54
Sfrnuss v. Horfon, 46 CnI. 4fh 364, 40?·ll, 445·46,
20? I.3d 48, ?4, ??, l02 í2009¹.
3l
dId nofhIng fo chnngo fho mnny CnIIfornIn Inws
roquIrIng oqunI fronfmonf of !CIT µooµIo In
oducnfIon, omµIoymonf, housIng, µubIIc
nccommodnfIons, Insurnnco µoIIcIos, nnd honIfh·
cnro sorvIco µInns.
55
!ndor CnIIfornIn Inw ¨lr¦ogIsforod domosfIc
µnrfnors . . . hnvo fho snmo rIghfs . . . nnd shnII bo
subjocf fo fho snmo rosµonsIbIIIfIos . . . ns nro
grnnfod fo nnd Imµosod uµon sµousos.¨
56
And
snmo·sox couµIos hnvo fho snmo rIghf ns
hoforosoxunI CnIIfornInns fo µrocronfo nnd fo rnIso
chIIdron fogofhor.
5?
Tho oxnmµIos of ¨confIIcf¨ suµµosodIy µosod by
cIvII·rIghfs Inws nII mIss fho µoInf ns CnIIfornIn
cIvII·rIghfs Inws romnIn In µInco. Thnf rovIsIons fo
such Inws mIghf bo rondIIy obfnInod If fruIy
nocossnry fo µrofocf roIIgIous IIborfy Is nµµnronf.

55
Soo, o.g. CnI. CIv. Codo §5líb¹· CnI. Id. Codo §200·
CnI. Cov. Codo §lll35· Id. §§l2920 of soq.· CnI. HonIfh &
Snfofy Codo §l365.5· CnI. Ins. Codo §§l3?4.58, l0l40· CnI.
!nb. Codo §4600.6íg¹í2¹· CnI. Sfnfs. l999, ch. 592· CnI. Codo
!ogs., fIf. l0, §2632.4.
56
CnI. Inm. Codo §29?.5ín¹· MnrrIngo Cnsos, 43 CnI.
4fh nf 806, l83 I.3d nf 4l?· Koobko v. Iornnrdo HoIghfs
Counfry CIub, 36 CnI. 4fh 824, 845, ll5 I.3d l2l2, l223
í2005¹.
5?
Soo IIIsn I. v. SuµorIor Courf, 3? CnI. 4fh l08, ll?
I.3d 660 í2005¹· K.M. v. I.C., 3? CnI. 4fh l30, ll? I.3d 6?3
í2005¹· CnI. Inm. Codo §29?.5íd¹ í¨Tho rIghfs nnd
obIIgnfIons of rogIsforod domosfIc µnrfnors wIfh rosµocf fo n
chIId of oIfhor of fhom shnII bo fho snmo ns fhoso of
sµousos.¨¹· soo nIso CnI. WoIf. & Insf. Codo §l60l3ín¹·
Shnron S. v. SuµorIor Courf, 3l CnI. 4fh 4l?, 440, ?3 I.3d
554, 5?0 í2003¹ í¨nny ofhorwIso qunIIfIod sIngIo nduIf or fwo
nduIfs, mnrrIod or nof, mny ndoµf n chIId¨¹.
32
Tho nmIcI rnIsIng dIro crIos of fhronfonod
µorsocufIon µurµorf fo sµonk nof on bohnIf of
hoIµIoss mInorIfIos buf for AmorIcn`s Inrgosf nnd
mosf µoworfuI roIIgIous movomonfs. Tho CnfhoIIc
Church rnnks fIrsf, wIfh moro fhnn 68 mIIIIon
ndhoronfs In fho !nIfod Sfnfos, nnd fho Soufhorn
InµfIsf ConvonfIon socond, wIfh moro fhnn l6
mIIIIon.
58
Tho Iockof Iund snys ¨nn osfImnfod l60
mIIIIon AmorIcnns 9?.6° of nII roIIgIous
ndhoronfs In fho !nIfod Sfnfos nnd moro fhnn hnIf
of fho onfIro µoµuInfIon boIong fo roIIgIous bodIos
fhnf nffIrm fho frndIfIonnI dofInIfIon of
mnrrIngo.¨
59
Thoso nro grouµs fhnf cnn rondIIy µrofocf fhoIr
IogIfImnfo Inforosfs. Ivon crodIfIng fho Iockof
Iund`s cInIms fhnf ¨robusf µrofocfIons for
conscIonfIous objocfors¨ mIghf bo wnrrnnfod,
60
fhoy
cnn bo obfnInod by ordInnry IogIsInfIvo µrocossos
ns shouId bo nµµnronf from fho fncf fhnf mnny
sfnfo IogIsInfuros, IncIudIng CnIIfornIn`s, hnvo
nIrondy ncfod fo nccommodnfo ¨conscIonfIous

58
Soo Yonrbook of AmorIcnn & CnnndInn Churchos
20l2, nf ll·l4 íIIIoon W. !Indnor, od.· ÞnshvIIIo· AbIngfon
Iross for fho ÞnfIonnI CouncII of Churchos, 20l2¹.
59
IrIof AmIcus CurIno of fho Iockof Iund for !oIIgIous
!Iborfy In Suµµorf of HoIIIngsworfh nnd fho IIµnrfIsnn
!ognI AdvIsory Crouµ AddrossIng fho MorIfs nf 6 ífIIod
Jnn. 28, 20l3¹, HoIIIngsworfh v. Iorry íÞo. l2·l44¹, 20l3
W! 4399?6 ícIfnfIon omIffod¹.
60
Iockof Iund HoIIIngsworfh & WIndsor IrIof nf 22.
33
objocfors¨ fo fuII cIvIc oqunIIfy of gny nnd IosbInn
cIfIzons.
6l
IxnmµIos gIvon of roIIgIous boIIovors suµµosodIy
µorsocufod for fhoIr boIIofs hnvo nofhIng fo do wIfh
mnrrIngo, nnd IIffIo foundnfIon In fncf. Tho
CnfhoIIcs for fho Common Cood nmIcus brIof, for
oxnmµIo, snys fhnf CnIIfornIn ¨roconfIy bnnnod nny
nffomµf fo chnngo n µorson`s soxunI orIonfnfIon.¨
62

Yof fho sfnfufo nf Issuo, CnI. Sfnfs. 20l2, ch. 835,
§2 ífo bo codIfIod nf CnI. Ius. & Irof. Codo §§865,
865.l, 865.2¹, moroIy µrofocfs mInors from n
dIscrodIfod ¨fhornµy¨ fhnf fho CnIIfornIn
!ogIsInfuro doformInod Is InoffocfIvo nnd IIkoIy
hnrmfuI. Tho sfnfufo nµµIIos onIy fo fho
µrofossIonnI conducf of n IIconsod fhornµIsf
¨dosIgnnfod ns n monfnI honIfh µrofossIonnI undor
CnIIfornIn Inw or roguInfIon,¨
63
undor n sfnfufory
schomo fhnf oxµrossIy oxomµfs µnsfornI
counsoIIng.
64
If hns no roInfIon nf nII fo nnyono`s
rIghf fo mnrry.

6l
Soo Iockof Iund HoIIIngsworfh & WIndsor IrIof nf
3l·33 & n.42· CnI. Sfnfs. 20l2, ch. 834, §l ínmondIng CnI.
InmIIy Codo §400¹.
62
AmIcus CurIno IrIof for CnfhoIIcs for fho Common
Cood nf 32.
63
CnI. Sfnfs. 20l2, ch. 835, §2 ífo bo codIfIod nf CnI.
Ius. & Irof. Codo §865ín¹¹.
64
Soo CnI. Ius. & Irof. Codo §2063 í¨ÞofhIng In fhIs
chnµfor shnII bo consfruod so ns fo . . . . roguInfo, µrohIbIf,
or nµµIy fo nny kInd of fronfmonf by µrnyor, nor Inforforo In
nny wny wIfh fho µrncfIco of roIIgIon.¨¹· Id. §4980.0líb¹
í¨lf¦hIs chnµfor shnII nof nµµIy fo nny µrIosf, rnbbI, or
mInIsfor of fho gosµoI of nny roIIgIous donomInnfIon whon
µorformIng counsoIIng sorvIcos ns µnrf of hIs or hor µnsfornI
or µrofossIonnI dufIos¨¹.
34
Tho Iockof Iund hoIds ouf fho frIghfonIng
µrosµocf of ¨'lµ¦rIvnfo churchos IosIng fhoIr fnx
oxomµfIons for fhoIr oµµosIfIon fo homosoxunI
mnrrIngos.`¨
65
Yof fho Iockof Iund`s own
¨fouchsfono¨ µubIIcnfIon on fho subjocf
ncknowIodgos fhnf ¨so Iong ns Inrgo nnd
hIsforIcnIIy Imµorfnnf churchos rofuso fo rocognIzo
gny mnrrIngos,¨ If Is ¨unIIkoIy fhnf fho oxocufIvo
brnnch of nny jurIsdIcfIon wouId fry fo rovoko fnx
oxomµfIons ovor fho Issuo.¨
66
Tho Iockof Iund
offors no ronson fo fhInk fhnf snmo·sox couµIos`
cIvII mnrrIngos sorIousIy fhronfon nny roIIgIous
InsfIfufIons` fnx·oxomµf sfnfus.
Tho CnfhoIIc Answors nmIcus brIof, nonofhoIoss
roµorfs fhnf ¨lI¦n Þow Jorsoy, nn ovnngoIIcnI
mInIsfry wns found fo hnvo vIoInfod sfnfo
nnfIdIscrImInnfIon Inw for rofusIng fo ronf Ifs
fncIIIfIos for n snmo·sox commIfmonf coromony.¨
6?

Tho CnfhoIIcs for fho Common Cood nmIcus brIof
bomonns fhIs ¨donInI of fnx oxomµfIon for rofusnI fo
ronf ln¦ roIIgIousIy ownod µnvIIIon for n cIvII unIon
coromony.¨
68
Tho Iockof Iund`s nmIcus curIno
brIofs boIow In fhIs µrocoodIng docInrod fhnf fho
Sfnfo of Þow Jorsoy hnd Indood ¨wIfhdrnwn fho
µroµorfy fnx oxomµfIon of n bonch·sIdo µnvIIIon
ownod nnd oµornfod by n MofhodIsf Church,

65
Iockof Iund HoIIIngsworfh & WIndsor IrIof nf 26
n.36 ícIfnfIon omIffod¹.
66
ÐougIns !nycock, Afforword fo Snmo·Sox MnrrIngo
nnd !oIIgIous !Iborfy l89, l93 íÐougIns !nycock, of nI., ods.·
Tho Iockof Iund, 2008¹.
6?
IrIof AmIcus CurIno of CnfhoIIc Answors nf l9.
68
AmIcus CurIno IrIof for CnfhoIIcs for fho Common
Cood nf 32.
35
bocnuso fho Church rofusod on roIIgIous grounds fo
hosf n snmo·sox cIvII unIon coromony.¨
69
In fncf, fho Iockof Iund`s nssorfIons woro fnIso.
Tho µroµorfy In quosfIon wns nof ownod by nny
church, buf by n rosIdonfInI communIfy, fho Oconn
Crovo Cnmµ MoofIng AssocInfIon íwhoso frusfoos
musf bo MofhodIsfs¹ nnd whIch ¨owns nII of fho
Innd In fho sonsIdo communIfy of Oconn Crovo,
Þow Jorsoy,¨
?0
whoso µoµuInfIon fho 20l0 Consus
µIncod nf 3,342.
?l
Oconn Crovo Ionsos ouf
rosIdonfInI µroµorfIos In fho rosorf communIfy,
ndvorfIsIng on fho Infornof fhnf If ¨woIcomos
ovoryono fo onjoy fhIs bonufIfuI, sonsIdo
communIfy wIfhouf dIscrImInnfIon bnsod on rnco,
gondor, Incomo IovoI, oducnfIon, roIIgIon, or
counfry of orIgIn.¨
?2
If obfnInod n Þow Jorsoy

69
IrIof AmIcus CurIno of fho Iockof Iund for !oIIgIous
!Iborfy In Suµµorf of Ðofondnnfs·Inforvonors·AµµoIInnfs
nnd In Suµµorf of !ovorsnI nf l4 ífIIod Soµf. 24, 20l0¹, Iorry
v. Irown íf.k.n. Iorry v. Schwnrzonoggor¹, 6?l I.3d l052
í9fh CIr. 20l2¹ íÞo. l0·l6696¹, 20l0 W! 40?5?46· soo nIso
IrIof AmIcus CurIno of Tho Iockof Iund for !oIIgIous
!Iborfy In Suµµorf of Ðofondnnf·Inforvonors nf 9 ífIIod Jnn.
8, 20l0¹, Iorry v. Schwnrzonoggor, ?04 I. Suµµ. 2d 92l
íÞ.Ð. CnI. 20l0¹ íÞo. 09·CV·2292 V!W¹, 20l0 W! 9?69? í¨In
Þow Jorsoy, for oxnmµIo, fho sfnfo hns wIfhdrnwn fho
µroµorfy fnx oxomµfIon of n bonch·sIdo µnvIIIon ownod nnd
oµornfod by n MofhodIsf Church, bocnuso fho Church rofusod
on roIIgIous grounds fo hosf n snmo·sox cIvII unIon
coromony.¨¹.
?0
Oconn Crovo Cnmµ MoofIng Ass`n v. Vosµn·InµnIoo,
339 Iod. Aµµx. 232, 235 í3d CIr. 2009¹.
?l
Soo Isnncson, suµrn nofo ?, nf l50.
?2
ThIs Is from fho ¨IroquonfIy Askod QuosfIons¨ µngo
of fho Oconn Crovo Cnmµ MoofIng AssocInfIon í¨OCCMA¨¹·
36
¨Croon Acros¨ ronI·µroµorfy fnx oxomµfIon for fho
communIfy`s bonchfronf bonrdwnIk nnd µnvIIIon
nof ns roIIgIous µroµorfIos, buf ns µubIIc fncIIIfIos
fo bo hoId oµon for nII fo onjoy on nn oqunI bnsIs.
?3

A IosbInn couµIo, who woro Iong·form mombors of
fho rosIdonfInI communIfy, fhoughf fhnf IncIudod
fhom, so fhoy nµµIIod fo uso fho µnvIIIon for n cIvII·
commIfmonf coromony.
?4
Whon Oconn Crovo donIod Ifs IosbInn rosIdonfs
fho uso of fhoIr own rosIdonfInI communIfy`s
suµµosodIy µubIIc fncIIIfIos, Þow Jorsoy offIcInIs
found µrobnbIo cnuso fo concIudo fhnf If no Iongor

Q. Ðoos fho OCCMA dIscrImInnfo In offorIng
Innd Ionsos`
A. Þo. Tho OCCMA woIcomos ovoryono fo
onjoy fhIs bonufIfuI, sonsIdo communIfy
wIfhouf dIscrImInnfIon bnsod on rnco, gondor,
Incomo IovoI, oducnfIon, roIIgIon, or counfry of
orIgIn.
IroquonfIy Askod QuosfIons, Oconn Crovo Cnmµ MoofIng Ass`n,
nvnIInbIo onIIno nf hffµ·//www.oconngrovo.org/µngos/fnq ínccossod
Iob. 26, 20l3¹. Tho bonch communIfy`s µubIIcIy sfnfod µoIIcy of
nondIscrImInnfIon drow mnny gny nnd IosbInn rosIdonfs· ¨Iy fho
mId·l990s, gny nnd IosbInn couµIos woro movIng In, nnd by fho
fImo fho confrovorsy nroso, nbouf ono·fourfh of fho rosIdonfs woro
osfImnfod fo bo snmo·sox couµIos.¨ Mnrc !. IoIrIor,
MIcroµorformnncos of IdonfIfy· VIsIbIo Snmo·Sox CouµIos nnd fho
MnrrIngo Confrovorsy, l5 Wnsh. & !oo J. CIvII !fs. & Soc. Jusf. 3,
5l·52 í2008¹ lhoroInnffor MIcroµorformnncos of IdonfIfy¦.
?3
Þ.J. OffIco of fho Aff`y Con., Ðoµ`f of !nw & Iub.
Snfofy, ÐIv. on CIv. !fs, Þo. IÞ34XI·03008, IIndIng of
IrobnbIo Cnuso, IornsfoIn v. Inrkor íÐoc. 29, 2008¹.
?4
IoIrIor, MIcroµorformnncos of IdonfIfy, suµrn nofo ?2,
nf ?6.
3?
qunIIfIod for fho ¨Croon Acros¨ fnx oxomµfIon
nccordod fo µroµorfIos mndo nvnIInbIo for
nondIscrImInnfory µubIIc uso.
?5
Þo church`s fnx·
oxomµf sfnfus wns rovokod, or ovon quosfIonod.
Ionrs fhnf snmo·sox couµIos` mnrrIngos µoso
grnvo fhronfs fo roIIgIous IIborfy nro nof groundod
In ronIIfy.
COÞC!!SIOÞ
ConsIsfonf wIfh µrIncIµIos of roIIgIous IIborfy
rocognIzod In Ioroz nnd Turnor, nnd wIfh oqunI
µrofocfIon of fho Inws for nII CnIIfornInns, fho
judgmonf of fho ÞInfh CIrcuIf shouId bo nffIrmod.
!osµocffuIIy submIffod,
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?5
Soo Isnncson, suµrn nofo ?, nf l50·5l.
38
!nIfod Church of ChrIsf·
Soufhorn CnIIfornIn Þovndn
Conforonco, !nIfod Church of
ChrIsf· CnIIfornIn Þofwork of
MofroµoIIfnn CommunIfy
Churchos
ÐATIз Iobrunry 28, 20l3

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