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No.

12-144
IN THE
Supreme Court of the United States
DENNIS HOLLINGSWORTH, ET AL.,
Petitioners,
v.
KRISTIN M. PERRY, ET AL.,
Respondents.
ON WRIT OF CERTIORARI TO THE UNITED STATES
COURT OF APPEALS FOR THE NINTH CIRCUIT
BRIEF FOR AMICI CURIAE
CALIFORNIA COUNCIL OF CHURCHES;
CALIFORNIA FAITH FOR EQUALITY; UNITARIAN UNIVERSALIST
LEGISLATIVE MINISTRY CALIFORNIA; NORTHERN CALIFORNIA
NEVADA CONFERENCE, UNITED CHURCH OF CHRIST;
SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA NEVADA CONFERENCE, UNITED
CHURCH OF CHRIST; PACIFIC ASSOCIATION OF REFORM
RABBIS; CALIFORNIA NETWORK OF METROPOLITAN
COMMUNITY CHURCHES IN SUPPORT OF
RESPONDENTS AND URGING AFFIRMANCE
d
STACEY MARIE KAPLAN
KESSLER TOPAZ MELTZER
& CHECK, LLP
One Sansome Street, Suite 1850
San Francisco, California 94104
(415) 400-3000
Attorneys for Amici Curiae
February 28, 2013
ERIC ALAN ISAACSON
Counsel of Record
655 West Broadway, Suite 1900
San Diego, California 92101
(619) 231-1058
eisaacson@rgrdlaw.com
I
Q!ISTIO I!ISITI
Whofhor IroosIfIon 8`s wIfhdrnwnI, from gny
nnd IosbInn snmosox couIos nIono, of fho rIghf fo
mnrry donIos fhom oqunI rofocfIon of fho Inws
wIfh rosocf fo fhIs fundnmonfnI rIghf.
ii
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page

QUESTION PRESENTED ....................................... i
IDENTITY AND INTEREST OF AMICI ................ 1
SUMMARY OF ARGUMENT ................................. 6
ARGUMENT .......................................................... 10
A. This Court Held in Turner v. Safley
that Although Civil Marriage Is a
Secular Institution, Its Arbitrary
Restriction Improperly Abridges
the Free Exercise of Religion ................... 10
B. The Seminal Decision Striking Down
California Laws Against Mixed-Race
Marriages Did So on Religious-Liberty
Grounds .................................................... 12
C. Catholic Bishops Endorsed Perez v.
Sharps Religious-Liberty Rationale
When this Court Considered a
Baptist Couples Appeal in
Loving v. Virginia .................................... 19
D. Perez and Turner Remain Good Law
that this Court Should Reaffirm
and Follow ................................................ 23
E. The Becket Fund and Other Amici
Misstate the Threat to
Religious Liberty ...................................... 30
CONCLUSION ....................................................... 37

iii
TABLE OF AUTHORITIES
Page

CASES
Boddie v. Connecticut,
401 U.S. 371 (1971) ............................................... 28
Bowers v. Hardwick,
478 U.S. 186 (1986) ............................................... 20
Cantwell v. Connecticut,
310 U.S. 296 (1940) ............................................... 27
Church of Lukumi Babalu Aye v. City of Hialeah,
508 U.S. 520 (1993) ............................................... 25
Cleveland Bd. of Educ. v. LaFleur,
414 U.S. 632 (1974) ............................................... 28
Davis v. Beason,
133 U.S. 333 (1890) ......................................... 25, 26
Eisenstadt v. Baird,
405 U.S. 438 (1972) ............................................... 28
Elisa B. v. Superior Court,
37 Cal. 4th 108, 117 P.3d 660 (2005) .................... 31
Employment Division v. Smith,
494 U.S. 872 (1990) ................................... 24, 27, 28
Estate of Lopes,
152 Cal. App. 3d 302, 199 Cal. Rptr. 425 (1984) ...... 18
Follett v. McCormick,
321 U.S. 573 (1944) ............................................... 28
iv
TABLE OF AUTHORITIESContinued
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Green v. State,
58 Ala. 190 (1877) .................................................. 20
Griswold v. Connecticut,
381 U.S. 479 (1965) ............................................... 28
Hodgson v. Minnesota,
497 U.S. 417 (1990) ............................................... 28
In re Marriage Cases,
43 Cal. 4th 757, 183 P.3d 384 (2008) ...... 2, 3, 11, 31
Koebke v. Bernardo Heights Country Club,
36 Cal. 4th 824, 115 P.3d 1212 (2005) .................. 31
Lawrence v. Texas,
539 U.S. 558 (2003) ......................................... 26, 27
Loving v. Virginia,
388 U.S. 1 (1967) ........................................... passim
Marks v. United States,
430 U.S. 188 (1977) ............................................... 18
Maynard v. Hill,
125 U.S. 190 (1888) ........................................... 6, 10
Meyer v. Nebraska,
262 U.S. 390 (1923) ............................................... 28
Murdock v. Pennsylvania,
319 U.S. 105 (1943) ............................................... 28
v
TABLE OF AUTHORITIESContinued
Page

Naim v. Naim,
197 Va. 80, 87 S.E.2d 749 (1955), vacated,
350 U.S. 891 (1955), reinstated on remand,
197 Va. 734, 90 S.E. 2d 849 (Va. 1956),
motion to recall mandate denied,
350 U.S. 985 (1956) ............................................... 20
Ocean Grove Camp Meeting Assn v. Vespa-Papaleo,
339 Fed. Appx. 232 (3d Cir. 2009) ........................ 35
Panetti v. Quarterman,
551 U.S. 930 (2007) ............................................... 18
People v. Greenleaf,
780 N.Y.S.2d 899 (New Paltz Justice Ct. 2004) ...... 20
People v. Harris,
71 Cal. App. 3d 959, 139 Cal. Rptr. 778 (1977) .... 18
Perez v. Sharp,
32 Cal. 2d 711, 198 P.2d 17 (1948) ............... passim
Perry v. Brown,
671 F.3d 1052 (9th Cir. 2012) ........................... 1, 35
Perry v. Schwarzenegger,
704 F. Supp. 2d 921 (N.D. Cal. 2010) ........... 1, 3, 35
Pierce v. Society of Sisters,
268 U.S. 510 (1925) ............................................... 28
Reynolds v. United States,
98 U.S. 145 (1878) ..................................... 16, 24, 25
vi
TABLE OF AUTHORITIESContinued
Page

Scott v. Georgia,
39 Ga. 321 (1869) ................................................... 20
Sharon S. v. Superior Court,
31 Cal. 4th 417, 73 P.3d 554 (2003) ...................... 31
Skinner v. Oklahoma,
316 U.S. 535 (1942) ................................................. 6
State v. Gibson,
36 Ind. 389 (1871) .................................................. 20
Strauss v. Horton,
46 Cal. 4th 364, 207 P.3d 48 (2009) .................. 1, 30
Turner v. Safley,
482 U.S. 78 (1987) ......................................... passim
Wisconsin v. Yoder,
406 U.S. 205 (1972) ............................................... 28
Zablocki v. Redhail,
434 U.S. 374 (1978) ................................................. 6
CONSTITUTIONAL PROVISIONS
U.S. Constitution
First Amendment ............................................ 27, 29
Fourteenth Amendment .................................. 27, 28
California Constitution
art. I, 7.5 ............................................................... 11
vii
TABLE OF AUTHORITIESContinued
Page

STATUTES, RULES AND REGULATIONS
California Business & Professions Code
2063 ...................................................................... 33
California Civil Code
51(b) ...................................................................... 31
California Education Code
200 ........................................................................ 31
California Family Code
297.5(a) ................................................................. 31
297.5(d) ................................................................. 31
400 ........................................................................ 33
420(c) .................................................................... 11
California Government Code
11135 .................................................................... 31
California Health & Safety Code
1365.5 ................................................................... 31
California Insurance Code
1374.58 ................................................................. 31
10140 ................................................................... 31
California Labor Code
4600.6(g)(2) .......................................................... 31
California Statutes
2012, ch. 834, 1 .................................................... 33
2012, ch. 835, 2 .................................................... 33
viii
TABLE OF AUTHORITIESContinued
Page

California Welfare & Instution Code
16013(a) ................................................................ 31
Supreme Court Rules
Rule 37.6 .................................................................. 1
SECONDARY AUTHORITIES
Fay Botham, Almighty God Created the Races:
Christianity, Interracial Marriage &
American Law (Chapel Hill: University
of North Carolina Press, 2009) ....................... 13, 15
1 William Bradford, History of the Plymouth
Plantation, 1620-1647 (Boston:
Massachusetts Historical Society, 1912) .............. 10
Nancy F. Cott, Public Vows: A History of
Marriage and the Nation 113-14
(Cambridge, Mass. & London:
Harvard University Press, 2000) .......................... 25
David B. Cruz, Just Dont Call It Marriage:
The First Amendment and Marriage
as an Expressive Resource,
74 S. Cal. L. Rev. 925 (2001) ................................. 29
Jeremy Dupertuis Bangs, Strangers and
Pilgrims, Travellers and Sojourners:
Leiden and the Foundations of the
Plymouth Plantation (Plymouth,
Massachusetts: General Society of
Mayflower Descendents, 2009) ............................. 10
ix
TABLE OF AUTHORITIESContinued
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E.J. Graff, What is Marriage For?: The Strange
Social History of Our Most Intimate
Institution (Boston: Beacon Press,
rev. ed. 2004) ................................................... 26, 27
Eric Alan Isaacson, Are Same-Sex Marriages
Really a Threat to Religious Liberty?,
8 Stan. J. Civ. Rts. & Civ. Libs. 123
(2012) ......................................................... 10, 35, 37
Kenneth L. Karst, The Freedom of Intimate
Association, 89 Yale L.J. 624 (1980) ............... 29, 30
Douglas Laycock, Afterword to Same-Sex
Marriage and Religious Liberty (Douglas
Laycock, et al., eds.; The Becket Fund, 2008) ...... 34
Peggy Pascoe, What Comes Naturally:
Miscegenation Law and the Making of Race
in America (Oxford & New York: Oxford
University Press, 2009) ......................................... 13
Marc R. Poirier, Microperformances of Identity:
Visible Same-Sex Couples and the Marriage
Controversy, 15 Wash. & Lee J. Civil Rts.
& Soc. Just. 3 (2008) .............................................. 36
Richard A. Posner, Sex and Reason
(Cambridge: Harvard Univ. Press, 1992) ............. 26
Timothy Samuel Shah, Religious Freedom:
Why Now? Defending an Embattled Human
Right (Witherspoon Institute Task Force on
International Religious Freedom, 2012) ............... 23
x
TABLE OF AUTHORITIESContinued
Page

David W. Southern, John LaFarge and the
Limits of Catholic Interracialism, 1911-1963
(Baton Rouge & London: Louisiana State
University Press, 1996) ......................................... 18
Mark Philip Strasser, On Same-Sex Marriage,
Civil Unions, and the Rule of Law:
Constitutional Interpretations at the
Crossroads (Westport, Connecticut:
Praeger Publishers, 2002) ..................................... 23
Laurence Tribe, American Constitutional Law
(1978) ..................................................................... 30
Bryan H. Wildenthal, To Say I Do: Shahar v.
Bowers, Same-Sex Marriage, and
Public Employee Marriage Rights,
15 Ga. St. U. L. Rev. 381 (1998) ............................ 29
9 B.E. Witkin, California Procedure, Appeal
809 (5th ed. 2008) .......................................... 18, 19
Yearbook of American & Canadian Churches
2012 (Eileen W. Lindner, ed.; Nashville:
Abington Press for the National Council
of Churches, 2012) ................................................. 32
IITITY A ITI!IST OI AMICI
SonkIng on bohnIf of CnIIfornIn`s communIfIos of
fnIfh, whoso mombors nro ncfunIIy subjocf fo
IroosIfIon 8, AmIcI curIno nro roIIgIous
orgnnIznfIons fhnf hnvo for yonrs Inborod on bohnIf
of roIIgIous IIborfy nnd oqunIIfy undor fho Inw for
nII CnIIfornInns.
l
AmIcI ns CnIIfornIn fnIfh orgnnIznfIons hnvo
vIgorousIy oosod govornmonfnI dIscrImInnfIon
furnIng on whofhor n commIffod couIo`s unIon
nccords wIfh IIfurgIcnI docfrInos ovon of fho Sfnfo`s
Inrgosf nnd mosf oworfuI roIIgIous movomonfs.
ThoIr work hns IncIudod orgnnIzIng offorfs fo fIIo
nmIcus curIno brIofs nffIrmIng nII CnIIfornInns`
rIghf fo mnrry nnd oosIng govornmonfnI
dIscrImInnfIon bnsod on soxunI orIonfnfIon, gondor,
nnd roIIgIous docfrIno.
2

l
Iursunnf fo Suromo Courf !uIo 3?.6, counsoI for
nmIcI sfnfo fhnf fhoy nufhorod fhIs brIof In whoIo, nnd fhnf
no orson or onfIfy ofhor fhnn nmIcI mndo nny monofnry
confrIbufIon fownrd fho brIof`s ronrnfIon or submIssIon.
AII nrfIos hnvo consonfod fo fho brIof`s fIIIng fhrough
Ioffors of consonf fIIod wIfh fho CIork.
2
Soo, o.g., IrIof of CnIIfornIn CouncII of Churchos, of
nI. fIIod Jnn. l5, 2009, Sfrnuss v. Horfon, 46 CnI. 4fh 364,
3???8, 20? I.3d 48 2009 os. Sl6804?, Sl68066,
Sl680?8 nvnIInbIo onIIno nf
hff//www.courfs.cn.gov/documonfs/sl680xxnmcurcouncII
churchos.df nccossod Iob. 2?, 20l3 IrIof of !nIfnrInn
!nIvorsnIIsf !ogIsInfIvo MInIsfry CnIIfornIn, of nI. fIIod
Iob. 3, 20l0, Iorry v. Schwnrzonoggor, ?04 I. Su. 2d 92l
.. CnI. 20l0 o. 09cv02292V!W, 20l0 W! 4?49?2
IrIof of CnIIfornIn InIfh for IqunIIfy, of nI. fIIod Ocf. 25,
20l0, Iorry v. Irown, 6?l I.3d l052 9fh CIr. 20l2 o. l0
l6696, 20l0 W! 46225?8.
2
AmIcI submIf fhnf cIvII mnrrIngo Is n cIvII rIghf
fhnf CnIIfornIn`s cIfIzons shouId bo nbIo fo onjoy,
whnfovor fhoIr roIIgIous IdonfIfy or soxunI
orIonfnfIon. If Is quIfo sImIy wrong for cIvII Inw
fo Imoso on nII cIfIzons fho IIfurgIcnI IImIfnfIons
fhnf somo fnIfh communIfIos Inco on fhoIr own
roIIgIous rIfos of mnrrIngo.
Tho IdonfIfIos nnd Inforosf of AmIcI fIIIng fhIs
brIof nro ns foIIows
l. AmIcus curIno CnIIfornIn CouncII of Churchos
Is nn orgnnIznfIon of ChrIsfInn churchos
rorosonfIng fho fhooIogIcnI dIvorsIfy of
CnIIfornIn`s mnInsfronm nnd rogrossIvo
communIfIos of fnIfh. Irom Ifs bogInnIngs In l9l3,
fho CouncII`s momborshI fodny hns grown fo
comrIso moro fhnn 6,000 CnIIfornIn congrognfIons,
wIfh moro fhnn l.5 mIIIIon IndIvIdunI mombors,
drnwn from 2l donomInnfIons fhnf snn fho
socfrum of CnIIfornIn`s mnInsfronm Irofosfnnf
nnd Orfhodox ChrIsfInn communIfIos.
Somo of Ifs mombor churchos, nrfIcuInrIy fhoso
congrognfIons nffIIInfod wIfh fho !nIfod Church of
ChrIsf nnd fho !nIvorsnI IoIIowshI of
MofrooIIfnn CommunIfy Churchos, gIndIy
woIcomod snmosox couIos sookIng fo bo IognIIy
mnrrIod In roIIgIous rIfos unfII IroosIfIon 8 fook
offocf. IroosIfIon 8 hns n dIrocf Imncf on fhoso
churchos nnd fhoIr cIorgy, ImnIrIng fho
orformnnco of fhoIr roIIgIous mIssIon.
Tho CouncII`s osIfIon on snmosox mnrrIngo Is
unoquIvocnIIy roroIIgIous froodom nnd rochurch
nufonomy. In CnIIfornIn`s MnrrIngo Cnsos nnd
subsoquonf IIfIgnfIon, fho CnIIfornIn CouncII of
Churchos hns consIsfonfIy docInrod Our
commIfmonf fo roIIgIous IIborfy for nII nnd oqunI
3
rofocfIon undor fho Inw Ionds us fo nssorf fhnf fho
Sfnfo mny nof roIy on fho vIows of nrfIcuInr
roIIgIous socfs ns n bnsIs for donyIng cIvII mnrrIngo
IIconsos fo snmogondor couIos.
3
2. AmIcus curIno CnIIfornIn InIfh for IqunIIfy
Is n muIfIfnIfh conIIfIon whoso mIssIon Is fo
oducnfo, suorf, nnd mobIIIzo CnIIfornIn`s fnIfh
communIfIos fo romofo oqunIIfy for !CIT ooIo,
nnd fo snfogunrd roIIgIous froodom. As n muIfI
fnIfh orgnnIznfIon, If rosocfs nnd vnIuos fho
wIsdom nnd orsocfIvos of nII fnIfh frndIfIons,
IncIudIng bofh fhoso fhnf coIobrnfo snmosox
mnrrIngo ns n roIIgIous rIfo, nnd fhoso fhnf do nof.
Iormod In 2005, nnd formnIIy Incorornfod In
Ocfobor 2009, CnIIfornIn InIfh for IqunIIfy hns
boon InsfrumonfnI In orgnnIzIng CnIIfornIn`s fnIfh
communIfIos fo suorf oqunI cIvII rIghfs for nII
CnIIfornInns. If sonks on bohnIf of CnIIfornIn`s
churchos, cIorgy, nnd snmosox couIos who nro
dIrocfIy subjocf fo IroosIfIon 8`s dIscrImInnfory
wIfhdrnwnI of snmosox couIos` rIghf fo mnrry.
3. AmIcus CurIno !nIfnrInn !nIvorsnIIsf
!ogIsInfIvo MInIsfry CnIIfornIn Is n sfnfowIdo
jusfIco mInIsfry fhnf cuIfIvnfos nnd connocfs
Iondors nnd communIfIos shnrIng !nIfnrInn
!nIvorsnIIsf vnIuos nnd rIncIIos. Tho MInIsfry
ndvocnfos ubIIc oIIcIos fhnf uhoId fho worfh

3
IrIof of fho !nIfnrInn !nIvorsnIIsf AssocInfIon of
CongrognfIons, of nI., nf xvxvI fIIod Sof. 26, 200?, In ro
MnrrIngo Cnsos, 43 CnI. 4fh ?5?, l83 I.3d 384 2008
o. Sl4?999 nvnIInbIo onIIno nf
hff//www.courfs.cn.gov/documonfs/unIfnrInnnmIcus.df
nccossod Iob. 2?, 20l3 IrIof of !nIfnrInn !nIvorsnIIsf
!ogIsInfIvo MInIsfry CnIIfornIn, of nI., nf 6?, Iorry v.
Schwnrzonoggor, surn nofo 2.
4
nnd dIgnIfy of ovory orson furfhor jusfIco, oquIfy,
nnd comnssIon In humnn roInfIons romofo
domocrnfIc rocossos rofocf roIIgIous froodom
nnd ongondor rosocf for fho Infordoondonf wob of
nII oxIsfonco. As n mnffor of humnn dIgnIfy,
CnIIfornIn`s !nIfnrInn !nIvorsnIIsf congrognfIons
nnd cIorgy hnvo Iong suorfod snmosox couIos`
froodom fo mnrry, bofh In !nIfnrInn !nIvorsnIIsf
roIIgIous rIfos, nnd ns n fundnmonfnI cIvII rIghf.
Hundrods of snmosox couIos woro IognIIy mnrrIod
In coromonIos soIomnIzod by CnIIfornIn`s !nIfnrInn
!nIvorsnIIsf cIorgy from Juno l?, 2008, fo
ovombor 4, 2008, whon IroosIfIon 8 fook offocf
dIrocfIy ImnIrIng !nIfnrInn !nIvorsnIIsf cIorgy`s
nbIIIfy fo sorvo fhoIr CnIIfornIn congrognfIons.
4. AmIcus curIno orfhorn CnIIfornIn ovndn
Conforonco !nIfod Church of ChrIsf CC Is n
mnnIfosfnfIon of fho church of Josus ChrIsf nnd n
consfIfufIng body of fho !nIfod Church of ChrIsf
!CC. Tho Conforonco`s momborshI IncIudos l30
IocnI churchos In fho Sfnfo of CnIIfornIn, from fho
Orogon bordor fo fho soufhorn bordors of Inyo,
TuInro, KIngs, nnd Monforoy counfIos. In 2005 fho
Conforonco cosonsorod fho rosoIufIon ndofod by
fho ConornI Synod of fho !nIfod Church of ChrIsf,
urgIng IqunI MnrrIngo !Ighfs for AII. Ioforo
IroosIfIon 8 fook offocf, cIorgy In fho Conforonco`s
CnIIfornIn churchos woro froo fo soIomnIzo IognI
mnrrIngos of commIffod snmosox couIos nnd
mnny dId so. IroosIfIon 8 dIrocfIy nffocfs fho
Conforonco`s churchos, nbrIdgIng fho froodom of
fhoIr cIorgy nnd mombors.
5. AmIcus curIno Soufhorn CnIIfornIn ovndn
Conforonco of fho !nIfod Church of ChrIsf
SCC Is n fnIfh communIfy gnfhorod In ovor
l30 dIvorso congrognfIons, mosf of fhom In
Soufhorn CnIIfornIn. Ifs mIssIon Is fo bo n unIfod
5
nnd unIfIng communIfy of fho ooIo of Cod,
covonnnfIng fogofhor for mufunI suorf nnd
common mIssIon. Ifs donomInnfIon, fho !nIfod
Church of ChrIsf !CC, Is n mnInIIno Irofosfnnf
donomInnfIon In fho !oformod frndIfIon, whoso
hIsfory Is wIfnoss fo n Iong nnd rofound
commIfmonf fo oncosookIng nnd ndvocncy of
jusfIco for nII. In 2004, doIognfos nf fho
Conforonco`s AnnunI CnfhorIng nrovod n
rosoIufIon suorfIng mnrrIngo oqunIIfy for nII.
Tho noxf yonr, on JuIy 4, 2005, fhoIr
donomInnfIon`s ConornI Synod ndofod n rosoIufIon
nffIrmIng oqunI mnrrIngo rIghfs for snmosox
couIos. !nfII IroosIfIon 8 fook offocf, mnny of
fho Conforonco`s churchos gIndIy woIcomod snmo
sox couIos fo InwfuIIy wod In rIfos soIomnIzod by
fhoIr cIorgy. IroosIfIon 8 dIrocfIy nffocfs fho
Conforonco`s CnIIfornIn churchos, dorIvIng mnny
of fhoIr mombors of fho rIghf fo mnrry, nnd
ImnIrIng fhoIr cIorgy`s nbIIIfy fo sorvo fhom.
6. AmIcus curIno IncIfIc AssocInfIon of !oform
!nbbIs IA!!, rorosonfs rnbbIs In fho Wosforn
!ogIon of fho ConfrnI Conforonco of AmorIcnn
!nbbIs CCA!. odIcnfod fo fho rIncIIos of
!oform JudnIsm, IA!! Is nn orgnnIznfIon of ovor
350 !oform rnbbIs In CnIIfornIn nnd fwoIvo ofhor
sfnfos, ono CnnndInn rovInco, nnd ow ZonInnd.
IA!! oosos IroosIfIon 8 bnsod on !oform
JudnIsm`s boIIofs nnd rosoIufIons. In l996 fho
CCA! ondorsod cIvII mnrrIngo for gny ooIo nnd
In 2000 If rocognIzod fho rIghf of !oform rnbbIs fo
orform roIIgIous mnrrIngo coromonIos for gny nnd
IosbInn Jows. IA!! hns n dIrocf Inforosf In fhIs
cnso, ns IroosIfIon 8 bnrs Ifs mombors from
soIomnIzIng fho IognI mnrrIngos of snmosox
couIos In fhoIr CnIIfornIn congrognfIons.
6
?. AmIcus curIno CnIIfornIn ofwork of
MofrooIIfnn CommunIfy Churchos Is n sfnfowIdo
orgnnIznfIon of MofrooIIfnn CommunIfy Churchos
MCC. Tho fIrsf MCC worshI sorvIco, In n !os
AngoIos suburb In l968, Inunchod nn InfornnfIonnI
movomonf of ChrIsfInn churchos wIfh n nrfIcuInr,
buf by no monns oxcIusIvo, oufronch fo fho !CIT
communIfy. Tho MCC`s CnIIfornIn churchos`
mInIsfry hns nnfurnIIy IncIudod soIomnIznfIon of
snmosox couIos` InwfuI mnrrIngos. Thnf mInIsfry
hns boon dIrocfIy ImnIrod by IroosIfIon 8`s
dIscrImInnfory wIfhdrnwnI of snmosox couIos`
rIghf fo mnrry.
S!MMA!Y OI A!C!MIT
Ours Is n IurnIIsfIc socIofy, of mnny fnIfhs nnd
orsunsIons, whoso consfIfufIonnI frnmowork musf
onsuro fundnmonfnI IIborfy nnd oqunI rIghfs for nII.
CnIIfornIn`s IroosIfIon 8 vIoInfod bnsIc rIncIIos
whon If fnrgofod gny nnd IosbInn couIos fo
wIfhdrnw from fhom nIono, nn oxfrnordInnrIIy
Imorfnnf cIvII rIghf Tho froodom fo mnrry hns
Iong boon rocognIzod ns ono of fho vIfnI orsonnI
rIghfs ossonfInI fo fho ordorIy ursuIf of hnInoss
by froo mon. !ovIng v. VIrgInIn, 388 !.S. l, l2
l96?.
4
CIvII mnrrIngo unquosfIonnbIy Is n socuInr
InsfIfufIon fhnf doos nof roquIro nny roIIgIous
coromony for Ifs soIomnIznfIon. Mnynnrd v. HIII,
l25 !.S. l90, 2l0 l888. or shouId If roquIro
comIInnco wIfh nny roIIgIous docfrIno or dogmn

4
Soo nIso, o.g., ZnbIockI v. !odhnII, 434 !.S. 3?4, 384
l9?8 fho rIghf fo mnrry Is of fundnmonfnI Imorfnnco for
nII IndIvIdunIs quofIng SkInnor v. OkInhomn, 3l6 !.S.
535, 54l l942.
?
nof In n IurnIIsfIc socIofy such ns ours fhnf
coIobrnfos froodom nnd dIvorsIfy In roIIgIous boIIof
nnd rncfIco.
If shouId bo cIonr, howovor, fhnf govornmonfnI
IImIfnfIons on fho rIghf fo mnrry mny sorIousIy
nbrIdgo cIfIzons` roIIgIous IIborfy. AmIcI`s
oxorIonco domonsfrnfos fhnf IroosIfIon 8 doos
oxncfIy fhnf by oufInwIng mnrrIngos of snmosox
couIos whIch unfII IroosIfIon 8 uf nn ond fo
fhom woro boIng InwfuIIy soIomnIzod In hundrods
of CnIIfornIn`s churchos nnd synngoguos.
WIfh fhIs brIof wo ondonvor fo show fhnf fhIs
Courf hns IfsoIf susfnInod fho rIghf fo mnrry ns nn
oxorcIso of roIIgIous fnIfh, Turnor v. SnfIoy, 482
!.S. ?8, 96 l98?, nnd fhnf fho somInnI docIsIon on
mnrrIngo oqunIIfy Is nf Ifs coro n roIIgIousIIborfy
rocodonf. Ior In Ioroz v. Shnr,
5
n CnfhoIIc
couIo orsundod CnIIfornIn`s Suromo Courf fo
ovorfurn CnIIfornIn`s Inw ngnInsf mIxodrnco
mnrrIngos ns n vIoInfIon of fhoIr roIIgIous froodom.
Soo Infrn l0l9.
Whon fhIs Courf rovIowod fho Issuo nonrIy fwo
docndos Infor In !ovIng, CnfhoIIc IIshos fIIod nn
nmIcus curIno brIof urgIng fhIs Courf fo foIIow
Ioroz bocnuso mnrrIngo Is nn oxorcIso of roIIgIon
rofocfod by fho IIrsf nnd Iourfoonfh
Amondmonfs nnd fhus cnn bo rosfrnInod onIy
uon n showIng fhnf If consfIfufos n grnvo nnd
ImmodInfo dnngor fo Inforosfs whIch fho sfnfo mny
InwfuIIy rofocf.
6

5
32 CnI. 2d ?ll, l98 I.2d l? l948.
6
IrIof of AmIcus CurIno, !rgIng !ovorsnI, on bohnIf of
John J. !ussoII, IIsho of !Ichmond !nwronco CnrdInnI
8
IronIcnIIy, fho CnfhoIIc IIshos nnd Iny
orgnnIznfIons fhnf roconfIy fIIod nmIcus brIofs
suorfIng IroosIfIon 8 hnvo fnIIod fo rocognIzo
fho rIncIIo`s unIvorsnIIfy If CnfhoIIcs In Ioroz
hnd n roIIgIousIIborfy Inforosf In IognI rocognIfIon
of mIxodrnco mnrrIngos fo bo soIomnIzod In fhoIr
own churchos, fhon !oform nnd !oconsfrucfIonIsf
Jows, ns woII ns !nIfnrInn !nIvorsnIIsfs, nnd
mombors of fho !nIfod Church of ChrIsf nnd
MofrooIIfnn CommunIfy Churchos, nII musf hnvo
n sImIInr roIIgIousIIborfy Inforosf In IognI
rocognIfIon of snmosox mnrrIngos fhnf buf for
IroosIfIon 8 wouId bo soIomnIzod In fhoIr own
churchos nnd synngoguos. Soo Infrn nf l923.
AmIcI submIf fhnf roIIgIous IIborfy Is honorod
nof by sfnfo Inws wIfhdrnwIng oqunI rIghfs nnd
ImosIng socfnrInn IImIfnfIons concornIng who mny
mnrry, buf rnfhor by rocognIzIng mnrrIngo ns n

Shohnn, ArchbIsho of InIfImoro InuI A. HnIIInnn,
ArchbIsho of AfInnfn IhIII M. Hnnnnn, ArchbIsho of
ow OrIonns !oborf I. !ucoy, ArchbIsho of Snn AnfonIo
Josoh I. IrunInI, AosfoIIc AdmInIsfrnfor of nfchoz
Jnckson !nwronco M. oInIco, IIsho of AmnrIIIo Josoh
A. IrIck, AosfoIIc AdmInIsfrnfor of nshvIIIo Thomns K.
Cormnn, IIsho of nIInsIf. Worfh Josoh H. Hodgos,
IIsho of WhooIIng John !. Morkovsky, AosfoIIc
AdmInIsfrnfor of CnIvosfonHousfon VIcfor J. !ood, IIsho
of OkInhomn CIfy nnd TuIsn !. J. !oIchor, IIsho of AusfIn
Thomns Tschooo, IIsho of Snn AngoIo Irnosf !.
!nforkoofIor, IIsho of ChnrIosfon VInconf S. Wnfors,
IIsho of !nIoIgh Tho nfIonnI CnfhoIIc Conforonco for
InforrncInI JusfIco nnd Tho nfIonnI CnfhoIIc SocInI AcfIon
Conforonco horoInnffor CnfhoIIc IIshos` !ovIng brIof nf
l9 fIIod Iob. l6, l96?, !ovIng v. VIrgInIn, 388 !.S. l l96?
o. 66395, l96? W! ll3926.
9
fundnmonfnI cIvII rIghf shnrod by nII ooIo, of nII
fnIfhs nnd orsunsIons, wIfhouf rognrd fo fho
docfrInos nnd dogmn of nny nrfIcuInr socf or socfs
nof ovon fhoso of fho Sfnfo`s Inrgosf nnd mosf
oworfuI onos. Ioroz nnd Turnor nro sound
docIsIons fhnf fhIs Courf shouId foIIow. Soo Infrn
nf 2330.
Thnf somo dofond IroosIfIon 8`s wIfhdrnwnI of
fhIs rIghf, ns somohow nocossnry fo rofocf fho
roIIgIous IIborfy of socfnrInns whoso churchos`
IIfurgIcnI docfrInos rocIudo offorIng roIIgIous rIfos
of mnrrIngo fo snmosox couIos, rofIocfs n
rofound mIsundorsfnndIng of whnf ronIIy Is nf
sfnko.
Tho Iockof Iund, nnd ofhors, suggosf fhnf
IroosIfIon 8 hns n rnfIonnI bnsIs In socuInfIvo
fonrs fhnf honorIng snmosox couIos` rIghf fo
oqunIIfy undor fho cIvII Inw of mnfrImony somohow
fhronfons fho roIIgIous IIborfy of CnIIfornInns
whoso roIIgIous IIfurgIos do nof oncomnss snmo
sox unIons. Tho ImngInod fhronfs como nof from
mnfrImonInI Inw, whIch IroosIfIon 8 nffocfs, buf
from CnIIfornIn`s nnfIdIscrImInnfIon Inws, whIch
rovIdo brond rofocfIons for snmosox couIos
dosIfo IroosIfIon 8`s wIfhdrnwnI of fhoIr IognI
rIghf fo mnrry. IroosIfIon 8 dId nof chnngo
CnIIfornIn`s Inws bnrrIng dIscrImInnfIon ngnInsf
snmosox couIos In mnffors of housIng,
omIoymonf, nnd honIfhcnro covorngo. And If doos
nof, In nny rosocf, rofocf nnyono`s roIIgIous
froodom by dorIvIng snmosox couIos of n bnsIc
cIvII rIghf. Soo Infrn nf 303?.
l0
A!C!MIT
A. ThIs Courf HoId In Turnor v. SnfIoy fhnf
AIfhough CIvII MnrrIngo Is n SocuInr
InsfIfufIon, Ifs ArbIfrnry !osfrIcfIon
ImroorIy AbrIdgos fho Iroo IxorcIso of
!oIIgIon
MnrrIngo In CnIIfornIn, ns In fho !nIfod Sfnfos
moro gonornIIy, hns Iong boon n socuInr cIvII
InsfIfufIon, froo from fho mnny IIfurgIcnI
IImIfnfIons fhnf nrfIcuInr fnIfh frndIfIons nro
onfIfIod fo foIIow rognrdIng whnf mnrrIngos fhoy
wIII soIomnIzo wIfh fhoIr own roIIgIous rIfos. A
cIvII mnrrIngo, fhIs Courf hns snId, musf bo
foundod uon fho ngroomonf of fho nrfIos buf
doos nof roquIro nny roIIgIous coromony for Ifs
soIomnIznfIon.
?
Irom fho sfnfo`s IncofIon,

?
Mnynnrd, l25 !.S. nf 2l0. Tho IIIgrIms who snIIod
In fho MnyfIowor, Inndod nf IIymoufh !ock, nnd coIobrnfod
fho IIrsf ThnnksgIvIng In l62l, bognn fho AmorIcnn
frndIfIon fhnf InwfuI mnrrIngo shouId bo n cIvII fhIng,
whon In l62l fhoy coIobrnfod fho fIrsf mnrrIngo In fhIs
Inco. l WIIIInm Irndford, HIsfory of fho IIymoufh
IInnfnfIon, l620l64?, nf 2l6l8 Iosfon Mnssnchusoffs
HIsforIcnI SocIofy, l9l2 rocounfIng fho fIrsf mnrrIngo In
fhIs Inco, whIch, nccordIng fo fho InudnbIo cusfomo of fho
!owclounfrIos . . . wns fhoughf mosf roquIsIfo fo bo
orformod by fho mngIsfrnfo, ns boIng n cIvIII fhIng soo
IrIc AInn Isnncson, Aro SnmoSox MnrrIngos !onIIy n Thronf
fo !oIIgIous !Iborfy`, 8 Sfnn. J. CIv. !fs. & CIv. !Ibs. l23,
l3839 20l2. Tho IIIgrIms fhus ndofod n docfrInnI
rIncIIo sonrnfIng fho rosonsIbIIIfy of fho church fo
mInIsfor fo Ifs mombors from fho cIvII obIIgnfIon of fho
mngIsfrnfo fo roguInfo nnd rofocf fho rIghfs of nII. Joromy
uorfuIs Inngs, Sfrnngors nnd IIIgrIms, TrnvoIIors nnd
Sojournors !oIdon nnd fho IoundnfIons of fho IIymoufh
IInnfnfIon 640 IIymoufh, Mnssnchusoffs ConornI SocIofy
of MnyfIowor oscondonfs, 2009.
ll
CnIIfornIn Inw hns fronfod fho IognI InsfIfufIon of
cIvII mnrrIngo ns dIsfIncf from roIIgIous mnrrIngo.
8

ThIs Is ns If shouId bo, for In n IurnIIsfIc socIofy
such ns ours, socfnrInn docfrInos nnd forms oughf
nof confroI fho oxorcIso of n cIvII rIghf.
SfIII If wouId bo n mIsfnko fo fhInk fhnf fho
fundnmonfnI cIvII rIghf of mnrrIngo nnd fho
consfIfufIonnI rIghf fo froo oxorcIso of roIIgIon hnvo
no roInfIon. Ior In nddIfIon fo boIng n socuInr cIvII
rIghf, mnrrIngo nIso hns nn Imorfnnf Inco In
roIIgIous IIfo for mosf If nof nII communIfIos of
fnIfh onch of whIch musf bo froo fo coIobrnfo
mnfrImonInI rIfos on Ifs own forms.
ThIs Courf hoId In Turnor v. SnfIoy, 482 !.S. ?8,
9596 l98?, fhnf fho docIsIon fo mnrry Is n
fundnmonfnI rIghf fhnf rIson Inmnfos rofnIn ovon
fhough Incnrcornfod, sInco fho commIfmonf of
mnrrIngo mny bo nn oxorcIso of roIIgIous fnIfh ns
woII ns nn oxrossIon of orsonnI dodIcnfIon, nnd
fho roIIgIous nnd orsonnI nsocfs of fho mnrrIngo
commIfmonf romnIn unnffocfod by fho fncf of
confInomonf or fho ursuIf of IogIfImnfo corrocfIons
gonIs. Id. nf 96. Thoso oIomonfs of froo oxorcIso
nnd froo oxrossIon nro, fhIs Courf hoId, suffIcIonf
fo form n consfIfufIonnIIy rofocfod mnrIfnI
roInfIonshI In fho rIson confoxf. Id.

8
In ro MnrrIngo Cnsos, 43 CnI. 4fh nf ?92 n.ll, l83
I.3d 384, 40? n.ll cIfnfIon omIffod, suorsodod by
CnIIfornIn MnrrIngo IrofocfIon Acf, n.k.n. IroosIfIon 8,
onncfIng CnI. Consf. nrf. I, ?.5 soo nIso CnI. Inm. Codo
420c o confrncf of mnrrIngo, If ofhorwIso duIy mndo,
shnII bo InvnIIdnfod for wnnf of conformIfy fo fho
roquIromonfs of nny roIIgIous socf..
l2
Tho roIIgIous sIgnIfIcnnco of mnrrIngo Is no Ioss
Imorfnnf oufsIdo of rIson whon snmosox couIos
sook fo mnrry wIfh fho bIossIngs of cIorgy In
!oform nnd !oconsfrucfIonIsf synngoguos, nnd In
!nIfnrInn !nIvorsnIIsf, !nIfod Church of ChrIsf,
nnd MofrooIIfnn CommunIfy churchos.
IroosIfIon 8, by fnrgofIng gny nnd IosbInn couIos
for wIfhdrnwnI of fho rIghf fo mnrry Is
unconsfIfufIonnI bocnuso If dIrocfIy ImnIrs nn
oxorcIso of roIIgIous fnIfh ns woII ns nn oxrossIon
of orsonnI dodIcnfIon. Turnor, 482 !.S. nf 96.
I. Tho SomInnI ocIsIon SfrIkIng
own CnIIfornIn !nws AgnInsf
MIxod!nco MnrrIngos Id So on
!oIIgIous!Iborfy Crounds
Tho somInnI docIsIon susfnInIng n mIxodrnco
couIo`s rIghf fo cIvII mnrrIngo wns nIso n roIIgIous
IIborfy rocodonf, ns CnfhoIIcs for fho Common
Cood ncknowIodgo In nn nmIcus brIof oosIng
sImIInr rosocf for fho roIIgIous IIborfy of !oform
nnd !oconsfrucfIonIsf Jows, !nIfnrInn
!nIvorsnIIsfs, nnd mombors of fho !nIfod Church
of ChrIsf nnd MofrooIIfnn CommunIfy Churchos.
9
In fho CnIIfornIn Suromo Courf`s l948 docIsIon
roorfod offIcInIIy ns Ioroz v. Shnr, nnd by Wosf
IubIIshIng Co. ns Ioroz v. !IoId,
l0
n !omnn

9
Soo AmIcus CurIno IrIof for CnfhoIIcs for fho
Common Cood, of nI. nf 2l, 2324 fIIod Jnn. 29, 20l3,
HoIIIngsworfh v. Iorry o. l2l44, 20l3 W! 4l6203.
l0
32 CnI. 2d ?ll, l98 I.2d l? l948. Tho dIfforonf
cnfIons nnronfIy rosuIfod from n succossIon In fho OffIco
of Counfy CIork nnmod In hIs offIcInI cnncIfy, whIch wns
rofIocfod In ono roorfor, buf nof fho ofhor.
l3
CnfhoIIc couIo rorosonfod by nn ncfIvIsf !omnn
CnfhoIIc Inwyor succossfuIIy nrguod fhnf
CnIIfornIn`s bnn on mIxodrnco mnrrIngo vIoInfod
fhoIr roIIgIous froodom.
ll
On fhIs nf Ionsf fho CnfhoIIcs for fho Common
Cood nmIcus brIof Is nbsoIufoIy corrocf Tho horo
of Ioroz Is nnIoI MnrshnII, fho IrosIdonf of fho
CnfhoIIc InforrncInI CouncII of !os AngoIos, nnd
fho nffornoy who rorosonfod SyIvosfor nvIs, nn
AfrIcnnAmorIcnn mnIo, nnd Andron Ioroz, n
womnn of MoxIcnn dosconf.
l2
Ioroz wns doomod whIfo undor CnIIfornIn Inw,
whIch bnrrod hor mnrrIngo fo nvIs, n bInck mnn.
Iofh woro mombors of SnInf InfrIck`s CnfhoIIc
Church In !os AngoIos, whoro MnrshnII Iod n
smnII buf vory doformInod CnfhoIIc InforrncInI
CouncII fhnf ho hnd formod In l944 fo ndvnnco fho
cnuso of rncInI oqunIIfy.
l3
Whon fho !os AngoIos
Counfy CIork rofusod fo Issuo Ioroz nnd nvIs n
mnrrIngo IIconso bocnuso CnIIfornIn sfnfufos
roscrIbod mIxodrnco mnrrIngos, MnrshnII fook
fhoIr cnso sfrnIghf fo CnIIfornIn`s Suromo Courf,
domnndIng n wrIf dIrocfIng fho Counfy CIork fo

ll
Soo gonornIIy Ioggy Inscoo, Whnf Comos nfurnIIy
MIscogonnfIon !nw nnd fho MnkIng of !nco In AmorIcn 205
3l Oxford & ow York Oxford !nIvorsIfy Iross, 2009 Iny
Iofhnm, AImIghfy Cod Cronfod fho !ncos ChrIsfInnIfy,
InforrncInI MnrrIngo & AmorIcnn !nw ll5l ChnoI HIII
!nIvorsIfy of orfh CnroIInn Iross, 2009.
l2
AmIcus CurIno IrIof for CnfhoIIcs for fho Common
Cood nf 2l.
l3
Inscoo, surn nofo ll, nf 206 & 204.
l4
Issuo n IIconso. MnrshnII dId so ovon fhough hIs
own Church`s Iocosnn offIcInIs dIsnrovod.
l4
Tho courf nors In Ioroz sfnrkIy frnmod fho
mIxodrnco couIo`s rIghf fo mnrry In forms of
roIIgIous IIborfy. Thoro Is no ruIo, roguInfIon or
Inw of fho !omnn CnfhoIIc Church whIch forbIds n
whIfo orson nnd n ogro orson from rocoIvIng
conjoInfIy fho sncrnmonf of mnfrImony nnd fhus fo
Informnrry, fho couIo`s wrIf ofIfIon nvorrod.
l5

Tho Counfy CIork`s rofusnI of n IIconso fo
Informnrry fhus hnd donIod fhom of fho rIghf fo
nrfIcInfo fuIIy In fho sncrnmonfnI IIfo of fho
roIIgIon In whIch fhoy boIIovo, fhoroby ImIngIng
uon fho froo oxorcIso nnd onjoymonf . . . of fhoIr

l4
HIsforInn Ioggy Inscoo oxInIns
Af fho !os AngoIos Iocoso, CnfhoIIc
offIcInIs woro nnIIod fhnf MnrshnII hnd uf
fho CnfhoIIc Church In fho osIfIon of
soomIng fo ondorso InforrncInI mnrrIngo.
Whon MnrshnII wrofo fo nsk AuxIIInry IIsho
Josoh McCuckon, n onofImo lCnfhoIIc
InforrncInI CouncII suorfor, fo fosfIfy In
fho Ioroz cnso, ho rocoIvod nn ImmodInfo, nnd
vIscornI, rofusnI. I cnnnof fhInk of nny oInf
In oxIsfIng rnco roInfIonshIs fhnf wIII sfIr u
moro nssIon nnd rojudIco, McCuckon
fumod. I wnnf fo mnko vory cIonr fhnf I nm
nof nf nII wIIIIng fo bo uIIod Info n
confrovorsy of fhIs kInd.
Inscoo, surn nofo ll, nf 2l4 quofIng Ioffor from AuxIIInry IIsho
Josoh T. McCuckon fo nnIoI C. MnrshnII, ArII 26, l94?, In Iox
l?, IoIdor 29, John !nInrgo Inors, Coorgofown !nIvorsIfy
SocInI CoIIocfIons, WnshIngfon, .C..
l5
IofIfIon for WrIf of Mnndnmus, 5, 6, nf 3 fIIod
Aug. 8, l94?, Ioroz v. Shnr.
l5
roIIgIous rofossIon nnd worshI.
l6
An
nccomnnyIng brIof nrguod fhnf, fhnnks fo fho
mnny sfnfos` Inws fhon roscrIbIng mIxodrnco
mnrrIngos, ofIfIonors nro rohIbIfod from
nrfIcInfIng In fho fuII sncrnmonfnI IIfo of fho
roIIgIon of fhoIr choIco In ovor 60 or conf of fho
sfnfos of fho !nIon.
l?
Tho Counfy of !os AngoIos counforod fhnf whIIo
fho couIo`s Church mIghf ormIf mIxodrnco
mnrrIngos, no roIIgIousIIborfy Inforosf couId bo nf
sfnko, ns fho CnfhoIIc fnIfh dId nof domnnd fhnf
ndhoronfs mnrry oufsIdo fhoIr own rnco
MnrryIng n orson of nnofhor rnco, ovon Insofnr ns
fho Church foIornfos or ormIfs If, Is corfnInIy nof
roquIrod.
l8
If Is fruo fhnf fho CnfhoIIc roIIgIon
forbIds IIIIcIf Inforcourso, fho Counfy
ncknowIodgod, buf If Is nof nocossnry fo mnrry ono
of nnofhor rnco fo nvoId such IIIIcIf Inforcourso. A
good CnfhoIIc couId jusf ns woII IIvo u fo hIs
roIIgIon by nvoIdIng fho Inforcourso. Tho

l6
Id., l5, nf 4.
l?
Momornndum of IoInfs nnd AufhorIfIos, XXII, nf 5
fIIod Aug. 8, l94?, Ioroz v. Shnr. MnrshnII`s ornI
nrgumonf roIfornfod fhnf hIs CnfhoIIc cIIonfs hnvo fho rIghf
fo nrfIcInfo In fho fuII sncrnmonfnI IIfo of fhoIr church . . .
nnd fhnf SocfIon 69 of fho CIvII Codo donIos fhom fho rIghf
fo nrfIcInfo fuIIy In fho sncrnmonfnI IIfo of fhoIr roIIgIon.
OrnI Argumonf In Suorf of IofIfIon nf 4 Ocf. 6, l94?,
Ioroz v. Shnr.
l8
!osondonf`s lSuIomonfnI IrIof In OosIfIon fo
WrIf of Mnndnfo nf 5l fIIod Ocf. 6, l94?, Ioroz v. Shnr.
l6
ofIfIonors wIII nof bo vIoInfIng fhoIr roIIgIon by
fnIIIng fo gof mnrrIod.
l9
Throo of fho CnIIfornIn Suromo Courf`s sovon
jusfIcos found fho Counfy`s nrgumonfs fhoroughIy
orsunsIvo.
20
JusfIco I. !oy Schnuor nnd JusfIco
Homor !. Sonco bofh concurrod In JusfIco John
W. Shonk`s oInIon docInrIng fhnf bocnuso
ofIfIonors` nIIogod rIghf fo mnrry Is nof n nrf of
fhoIr roIIgIon In fho brond sonso fhnf If Is n dufy
onjoInod by fho church, fhoIr cInIms woro wonkor
ovon fhnn fhoso of Mormon oIygnmIsfs In
!oynoIds v. !nIfod Sfnfos,
2l
whoso fnIfh hnd
nffIrmnfIvoIy roquIrod fhom fo fnko moro fhnn ono
wIfo.
22
In confrnsf wIfh fho Mormon oIygnmIsfs,
Ioroz nnd nvIs couId nrguo onIy fhnf fhoIr
mnrrIngo Is ormIssIvo undor fho dogmn, boIIofs
nnd fonchIng of fho church fo whIch fhoy cInIm
momborshI nnd fhnf fho sncrnmonf of mnfrImony
wIII bo ndmInIsforod fo fhom by n rIosf of fho
church If nnd whon n IIconso Issuos.
23
Yof fho CnfhoIIc couIo`s roIIgIousIIborfy
nrgumonf cnrrIod fho dny. Ior fhough no oInIon

l9
Id. nf 5l52. Counfy counsoI bognn hIs ornI
nrgumonf In fho rosonf cnso, fho ofIfIonors do nof show
fhnf If Is roIIgIon fhnf comoIs fhom fo mnrry, buf fhnf If Is
fhoIr own worIdIy choIco. TrnnscrIf of ornI nrgumonf on
bohnIf of !osondonf, nf 2, Ioroz v. Shnr.
20
Ioroz, 32 CnI. 2d nf ?4263, l98 I.2d nf 354? Shonk,
J., joInod by Schnuor nnd Sonco, J.J., dIssonfIng.
2l
98 !.S. l45, l6l l8?8.
22
Ioroz, 32 CnI. 2d nf ?44, l98 I.2d nf 36 Shonk, J.,
dIssonfIng.
23
Id.
l?
wns joInod by n mnjorIfy of fho courf, Shonk`s
fhroojusfIco oInIon wns buf n dIssonf.
JusfIco !ogor J. Trnynor, hImsoIf n CnfhoIIc,
fIIod n fhroojusfIco IurnIIfy oInIon, joInod by
ChIof JusfIco IhII S. CIbson nnd JusfIco Josso W.
Cnrfor. If sof ouf fho mIxodrnco couIo`s
nrgumonf,
fhnf fho sfnfufos In quosfIon nro
unconsfIfufIonnI on fho grounds fhnf
fhoy rohIbIf fho froo oxorcIso of fhoIr
roIIgIon nnd dony fo fhom fho rIghf fo
nrfIcInfo fuIIy In fho sncrnmonfs of
fhnf roIIgIon. Thoy nro mombors of fho
!omnn CnfhoIIc Church. Thoy
mnInfnIn fhnf sInco fho church hns no
ruIo forbIddIng mnrrIngos bofwoon
ogroos nnd CnucnsInns, fhoy nro
onfIfIod fo rocoIvo fho sncrnmonf of
mnfrImony.
24
WrIfIng for hIs fhroojusfIco IurnIIfy, JusfIco
Trnynor docInrod fhnf If fho Inw Is dIscrImInnfory
nnd IrrnfIonnI, If unconsfIfufIonnIIy rosfrIcfs nof
onIy roIIgIous IIborfy buf fho IIborfy fo mnrry ns
woII.
25
JusfIco Idmonds, n ChrIsfInn ScIonfIsf for
whom roIIgIous froodom mnfforod,
26
rovIdod fho
fourfh vofo whIch wns noodod for n rocodonfInI
mnjorIfy on fho sovonjusfIco frIbunnI. Ho fIIod n
sonrnfo concurrIng oInIon unoquIvocnIIy hoIdIng

24
Ioroz, 32 CnI. 2d nf ?l3, l98 I.2d nf l8 Trnynor
IurnIIfy.
25
Id., 32 CnI. 2d nf ?l3l4, l98 I.2d nf l8 Trnynor
IurnIIfy.
26
Iofhnm, surn nofo ll nf 42.
l8
fhnf fho rIghf fo mnrry Is rofocfod by fho
consfIfufIonnI gunrnnfoo of roIIgIous froodom.
2?

Iy donyIng IognI sfnndIng fo fho mnrrIngo of fwo
CnfhoIIcs, whoso Church nIIowod ooIo of dIfforonf
rncos fo mnrry, fho Sfnfo of CnIIfornIn hnd vIoInfod
fhoIr roIIgIous froodom.
JusfIco Trnynor`s IurnIIfy oInIon nddrossod
roIIgIous IIborfy onIy brIofIy, nnd fhon dovofod
gronfor nffonfIon fo oqunIrofocfIon concorns nnd
fo fho chnrncfor of cIvII mnrrIngo ns n fundnmonfnI
socuInr rIghf. Iuf JusfIco Idmonds` sonrnfo
concurronco, groundod on roIIgIous IIborfy,
rovIdod fho rnfIonnIo on whIch n mnjorIfy of fho
courf`s jusfIcos ngrood Iy n fourfofhroo vofo,
fho courf InvnIIdnfod CnIIfornIn`s
nnfImIscogonnfIon Inw on fho bnsIs of fho
consfIfufIonnI rIghf fo froodom of roIIgIon.
28

AIyIng fnmIIInr ruIos of sfnro docIsIs, roIIgIous
IIborfy rovIdod fho docIsIon`s rocodonfInI rnfIo
docIdondI.
29

2?
Ioroz, 32 CnI. 2d nf ?40, l98 I.2d nf 34 Idmonds, J.,
concurrIng soo Iofhnm, surn nofo ll, nf 42 JusfIco
Idmonds cnsf fho docIdIng vofo fhnf gnvo vIcfory fo Andron
Ioroz nnd SyIvosfor nvIs. whnf Is cIonr Is fhnf Idmond`s
oInIon shIffod fho onfIro oufcomo of fho cnso.
28
nvId W. Soufhorn, John !nInrgo nnd fho !ImIfs of
CnfhoIIc InforrncInIIsm, l9lll963, nf 2?4 Infon !ougo &
!ondon !ouIsInnn Sfnfo !nIvorsIfy Iross, l996.
29
Soo, o.g., InnoffI v. Qunrformnn, 55l !.S. 930, 949
200? Mnrks v. !nIfod Sfnfos, 430 !.S. l88, l93 l9??
Isfnfo of !oos, l52 CnI. A. 3d 302, 3060?, l99 CnI. !fr.
425, 42829 l984 IooIo v. HnrrIs, ?l CnI. A. 3d 959,
966, l39 CnI. !fr. ??8, ?83 l9?? 9 I.I. WIfkIn, CnIIfornIn
Irocoduro, AonI 809, nf 8?9 5fh od. 2008 If Is ossIbIo
for n concurrIng oInIon, nof fho mnIn oInIon, fo consfIfufo
l9
If Ioroz Is corrocf, fhon IroosIfIon 8 Is nn
unconsfIfufIonnI nbrIdgmonf of CnIIfornIn snmosox
couIos` roIIgIous IIborfy fo mnrry, nnd of fhoIr
fnIfh communIfIos` nnd cIorgy`s rIghf fo coIobrnfo
nnd soIomnIzo fhoIr mnrrIngos, jusf ns CnIIfornIn`s
Inw donyIng IognI rocognIfIon fo mIxodrnco unIons
vIoInfod n CnfhoIIc couIo`s roIIgIous IIborfy.
C. CnfhoIIc IIshos Indorsod Ioroz v.
Shnr`s !oIIgIous!Iborfy !nfIonnIo
Whon fhIs Courf ConsIdorod n InfIsf
CouIo`s AonI In !ovIng v. VIrgInIn
Whon fho consfIfufIonnIIfy of sfnfo Inws
roscrIbIng mIxodrnco mnrrIngos gof fo fhIs Courf
In !ovIng, nonrIy fwo docndos nffor Ioroz, CnfhoIIc
bIshos woIghod In ns nmIcI curIno fuIIy suorfIng
Ioroz`s roIIgIousIIborfy rnfIonnIo.
30
Tho cnso nroso from VIrgInIn. !ojocfIng n
InfIsf couIo`s confonfIon fhnf sfnfufos
roscrIbIng fhoIr mnrrIngo woro unconsfIfufIonnI,
fho VIrgInIn frInI courf Invokod whnf mnny
AmorIcnns onco fook ns bIndIng ScrIfurnI Inw
fhnf AImIghfy Cod cronfod fho rncos nnd fhnf Ho
dId nof Infond for fho rncos fo mIx.
3l
VIrgInIn`s

fho mnjorIfy osIfIon of fho courf on n nrfIcuInr oInf.
soo nIso Id., AonI 538, nf 608l0.
30
Soo surn nofo 6.
3l
!ovIng, CIrcuIf Courf oInIon, rorInfod In !ovIng,
o. 66395, TrnnscrIf of !ocord, nf 8, l6. Tho frInI courf
docInrod
AImIghfy Cod cronfod fho rncos whIfo, bInck,
yoIIow, mnIny nnd rod, nnd ho Incod fhom on
sonrnfo confInonfs. And buf for fho
20
Suromo Courf nffIrmod, foIIowIng Ifs own l955
docIsIon In nIm v. nIm,
32
whIch hnd susfnInod
VIrgInIn`s Inws ngnInsf rncInI mIxIng In n ubIIc
InsfIfufIon osfnbIIshod by Cod hImsoIf.
33
Whon !ovIng ronchod fhIs Courf, sIxfoon
CnfhoIIc bIshos nnd nosfoIIc ndmInIsfrnfors fIIod

Inforforonco wIfh hIs nrrnngomonf fhoro
wouId bo no cnuso for such mnrrIngos. Tho
fncf fhnf ho sonrnfod fho rncos shows fhnf ho
dId nof Infond for fho rncos fo mIx.
Id. soo Inscoo, surn nofo ll, nf 2?5 !ovIng, 388 !.S. nf 3
quofIng frInI courf soo nIso Iowors v. HnrdwIck, 4?8 !.S. l86,
2l0 n.5 l986 IInckmnn, J., joInod by Ironnnn, MnrshnII &
Sfovons, J.J., dIssonfIng snmo quofo cf. IooIo v. CroonIonf, ?80
.Y.S.2d 899, 902 ow InIfz JusfIco Cf. 2004.
32
l9? Vn. 80, 8? S.I.2d ?49 l955, vncnfod nnd
romnndod, 350 !.S. 89l l955, roInsfnfod on romnnd, l9?
Vn. ?34, 90 S.I. 2d 849 Vn. l956, mofIon fo rocnII mnndnfo
donIod, 350 !.S. 985 l956.
33
nIm, l9? Vn. nf 84, 8? S.I.2d nf ?52 quofIng Sfnfo
v. CIbson, 36 Ind. 389, 40203 l8?l. IoIIowIng Sfnfo v.
CIbson, 36 Ind. nf 404, nIm susfnInod VIrgInIn Inw bnrrIng
mnrrIngo bofwoon mombors of dIfforonf rncos, docInrIng
fhnf fho nnfurnI Inw whIch forbIds fhoIr InformnrrIngo nnd
fho socInI nmnIgnmnfIon whIch Ionds fo n corrufIon of rncos
Is ns cIonrIy dIvIno ns fhnf whIch Imnrfod fo fhom dIfforonf
nnfuros. nIm, l9? Vn. nf 84, 8? S.I. 2d nf ?52. Cod`s Inw
wns n common rofrnIn In fho rocodonfs susfnInIng such
Inws. Soo, o.g., CIbson, 36 Ind. nf 404 Croon v. Sfnfo, 58
AIn. l90, l95 l8?? SuroIy fhoro cnn nof bo nny fyrnnny or
InjusfIco In roquIrIng bofh nIIko, fo form fhIs unIon wIfh
fhoso of fhoIr own rnco onIy, whom Cod hnfh joInod fogofhor
by IndoIIbIo ocuIInrIfIos, whIch docInro fhnf Ho hns mndo
fho fwo rncos dIsfIncf. Scoff v. CoorgIn, 39 Cn. 32l, 326
l869 hoIdIng fhnf mombors of dIfforonf rncos mny nof
Informnrry bocnuso fho Cod of nnfuro mndo If ofhorwIso.
2l
nn nmIcus curIno brIof nssorfIng fhnf VIrgInIn`s
Inws donyIng rocognIfIon fo mIxodrncod mnrrIngos
vIoInfod fho InfIsf couIo`s roIIgIous IIborfy.
34

Ivon wIfh rosocf fo mnrrIngos oufsIdo fhoIr own
Church, fho CnfhoIIc bIshos oosod ormIffIng
IognI onncfmonfs groundod uon fho vIows of fhIrd
orsons fo doformIno ono of fho mosf orsonnI nnd
sonsIfIvo of humnn docIsIons.
35
Thoy urgod fhIs
Courf fo foIIow fho Iond of Ioroz, whoro JusfIco
Trnynor`s fhroojusfIco IurnIIfy oInIon hnd found
fhnf CnIIfornIn`s nnfImIscogonnfIon sfnfufo
unconsfIfufIonnIIy rosfrIcfod bofh roIIgIous
froodom nnd fho IIborfy fo mnrry.
36
Tho crIfIcnI
fourfh vofo In Ioroz, fho CnfhoIIc bIshos
undorscorod, wns rovIdod by JusfIco Idmonds`
sonrnfo concurrIng oInIon, cIonrIy hoIdIng fho
rIghf fo mnrry 'Is rofocfod by fho consfIfufIonnI
gunrnnfoo of roIIgIous froodom.`
3?
Tho CnfhoIIc bIshos concIudod by nssorfIng fhnf
mnrrIngo Is nn oxorcIso of roIIgIon rofocfod by fho
IIrsf nnd Iourfoonfh Amondmonfs nnd fhnf ns
such, mnrrIngo cnn bo rosfrnInod onIy uon n

34
Soo Iofhnm, surn nofo ll, nf 3, l?0?4.
35
Iofhnm, surn nofo ll, nf l?0?4 CnfhoIIc IIshos`
!ovIng brIof nf l?.
36
CnfhoIIc IIshos` !ovIng IrIof nf l8. Tho CnfhoIIc
IIsho`s brIof fhus roIfornfod CnIIfornIn Suromo Courf
JusfIco !ogor Trnynor`s nssorfIon fhnf If CnIIfornIn`s nnfI
mIscogonnfIon sfnfufos woro unconsfIfufIonnI nnd
dIscrImInnfory, fhon fhoy rosfrIcfod fwo fundnmonfnI humnn
IIborfIos roIIgIous froodom nnd fho froodom fo mnrry.
Iofhnm, surn nofo ll, nf l?2.
3?
CnfhoIIc IIshos` !ovIng IrIof nf l8 quofIng Ioroz,
32 CnI. 2d nf ?40, l98 I.2d nf 34 Idmonds, J., concurrIng.
22
showIng fhnf If consfIfufos n grnvo nnd ImmodInfo
dnngor fo Inforosfs whIch fho sfnfo mny InwfuIIy
rofocf.
38
Thnf vIow nccords wIfh fho rnfIo
docIdondI of Ioroz, nnd wIfh fhIs Courf`s hoIdIng In
Turnor fhnf dorIvIng rIson Inmnfos, ns n grou,
of fho rIghf fo mnrry frnmIod fhoIr oxorcIso of
roIIgIous fnIfh. Turnor, 482 !.S. nf 96.
Tho CnfhoIIc bIshos boIIovod fhon fhnf roIIgIous
IIborfy rofocfod fho mnrrIngo rIghf nof onIy of
CnfhoIIcs, buf of nonCnfhoIIcs ns woII. Irom Ifs
nmIcus brIof fIIod In fhIs cnso, howovor, If nonrs
fhnf fho !.S. Conforonco of CnfhoIIc IIshos hns
sInco concIudod fhnf roIIgIous IIborfy rofocfs onIy
mnrrIngos fhnf fhoIr own Church nrovos, nnd nof
fho mnrrIngos of snmosox couIos fhnf buf for
IroosIfIon 8 wouId bo soIomnIzod In !oform nnd
!oconsfrucfIonIsf synngoguos, nnd In !nIfnrInn
!nIvorsnIIsf, !nIfod Church of ChrIsf, nnd
MofrooIIfnn CommunIfy churchos.
Thnf Is nof n fnIr undorsfnndIng of roIIgIous
IIborfy, or of oqunI rofocfIon of fho Inw. CnfhoIIcs,
nnd fhoIr mnrrIngos, nro nof socInIIy rIvIIogod
ovor fho mnrrIngos of IIbornI Jows, !nIfnrInn
!nIvorsnIIsfs, nnd mombors of fho !nIfod Church
of ChrIsf nnd MofrooIIfnn CommunIfy churchos.
Tho CnfhoIIc Answors nmIcus brIof nssorfs fhnf
roIIgIous IIborfy monns 'fho froodom fo ongngo
ono`s onfIro soIf` IncIudIng fho soIf In fho confoxf
of communIfy 'In ursuIf of uIfImnfo ronIIfy.`
39


38
CnfhoIIc IIshos` !ovIng IrIof nf l9.
39
IrIof AmIcus CurIno of CnfhoIIc Answors, ChrIsfInn
!ognI SocIofy, nnd CnfhoIIc Vofo IducnfIon Iund nf 6 fIIod
Jnn. 29, 20l3 o. l2l44, 20l3 W! 390985 quofIng
23
Yof fho froodom fo ongngo ono`s onfIro soIf In
InwfuI wodIock, In fho confoxf of n roIIgIous
communIfy, Is ono fhnf CnfhoIIc Answors wouId
hnvo fhIs Courf dony fo snmosox couIos who sook
fo mnrry In fhoIr own churchos nnd synngoguos.
If roIIgIous IIborfy nnd oqunI rofocfIon of fho
Inw monn nnyfhIng, fho rIghf fo mnrry Is ono
roorIy onjoyod by nII AmorIcnns, of nII fnIfhs,
nnd of nny soxunI orIonfnfIon. IroosIfIon 8 Is
unconsfIfufIonnI.
. Ioroz nnd Turnor !omnIn Cood !nw fhnf
fhIs Courf ShouId !onffIrm nnd IoIIow
Though !ovIng cIfod nnd ImIIcIfIy rojocfod
fho VIrgInIn courfs` roIIgIous rnfIonnIo for
oufInwIng mIxodrnco mnrrIngos,
40
nnd fhough If
cIfod Ioroz wIfh nrovnI,
4l
If dId nof cIonrIy
ondorso Ioroz`s roIIgIousIIborfy rnfIonnIo. In IIghf
of fhIs Courf`s subsoquonf hoIdIng In Turnor, fhnf
mnrrIngo mosf offon InvoIvos n consfIfufIonnIIy
rofocfod oxorcIso of roIIgIous fnIfh, 482 !.S. nf
96, fho Courf shouId do so now.
Ior Ioroz`s roIIgIousIIborfy rnfIonnIo romnIns
sound Inw, fhnf shouId nIy ns fuIIy fo n snmosox
couIo who wouId mnrry In n !oform or
!oconsfrucfIonIsf synngoguo, or In n !nIfnrInn

TImofhy SnmuoI Shnh, !oIIgIous Iroodom Why ow`
ofondIng nn ImbnffIod Humnn !Ighf l6 WIfhorsoon
InsfIfufo Tnsk Iorco on InfornnfIonnI !oIIgIous Iroodom,
20l2.
40
!ovIng, 388 !.S. nf 3.
4l
Id. nf 6 n.5.
24
!nIvorsnIIsf, !nIfod Church of ChrIsf, or
MofrooIIfnn CommunIfy church, ns If dId In Ioroz
fo n mIxodrnco couIo sookIng fo mnrry In n
CnfhoIIc church.
Two objocfIons musf, of courso, bo nnsworod.
Ono Is fhnf fho Ioroz hoIdIng`s roIIgIousIIborfy
rnfIonnIo confIIcfs wIfh fhIs Courf`s docIsIons
susfnInIng crImInnI onnIfIos for Mormon
oIygnmy, ns fho Ioroz dIssonfors InsIsfod.
42
Tho
ofhor Is fhnf Ioroz wns ImIIodIy ovorruIod by fhIs
Courf`s docIsIon In ImIoymonf IvIsIon v. SmIfh,
494 !.S. 8?2 l990, whIch hoId fhnf Orogon mny
crImInnIIzo sncrnmonfnI uso of oyofo.
Ioroz doos nof confIIcf wIfh fhIs Courf`s docIsIons
rojocfIng froooxorcIso chnIIongos fo fodornI Inws
crImInnIIzIng Mormon oIygnmy. Ior ns JusfIco
Idmonds` sonrnfo concurronco nofod, fhoso
docIsIons woro groundod In whnf fhIs Courf
orcoIvod ns comoIIIng jusfIfIcnfIons fhnf sImIy
fInd no nrnIIoI horo.
43
In !oynoIds v. !nIfod Sfnfos, 98 !.S. l45 l8?8,
fhIs Courf ombrncod fho vIow of Irofossor IrnncIs
!Iobor, fhnf oIygnmy osod n grnvo fhronf fo fho
vory oxIsfonco of domocrnfIc InsfIfufIons In fncf,
nccordIng ns monognmous or oIygnmous mnrrIngos
nro nIIowod, do wo fInd fho rIncIIos on whIch fho
Covornmonf of fho ooIo, fo n gronfor or Ioss
oxfonf, rosfs. Id. nf l6566. Tho Courf groundod
!oynoIds` hoIdIng on fho nssumfIon fhnf

42
Soo Ioroz, 32 CnI. 2d nf ?4445, l98 I.2d nf 36
Shonk, J., dIssonfIng.
43
Soo Ioroz, 32 CnI. 2d nf ?4l42, l98 I.2d nf 35
Idmonds, J., sonrnfo concurronco.
25
oIygnmy Ionds fo fho nfrInrchnI rIncIIo, . . .
whIch, whon nIIod fo Inrgo communIfIos, foffors
fho ooIo In sfnfIonnry dosofIsm, whIIo fhnf
rIncIIo cnnnof Iong oxIsf In connocfIon wIfh
monognmy. Id. nf l66. Congross couId
crImInnIIzo oIygnmy bocnuso of fho ovII
consoquoncos fhnf woro suosod fo fIow from
IurnI mnrrIngos ns hnrbIngors of dosofIsm
fhronfonIng domocrnfIc ordor IfsoIf.
44
To fho snmo offocf Is nvIs v. Ionson, l33 !.S.
333 l890, whIch ronffIrmod !oynoIds` hoIdIng nnd
rnfIonnIo for crImInnIIzIng oIygnmy. nvIs nddod
fhnf n sysfom of IurnI mnrrIngo wIII fond fo
dosfroy fho urIfy of fho mnrrIngo roInfIon, fo
dIsfurb fho onco of fnmIIIos, fo dogrndo womnn,
nnd fo dobnso mnn. Iow crImos nro moro
ornIcIous fo fho bosf Inforosfs of socIofy, nnd
rocoIvo moro gonornI or moro dosorvod unIshmonf.
To oxfond oxomfIon from unIshmonf for such
crImos wouId bo fo shock fho mornI judgmonf of fho
communIfy. Id. nf 34l.
Snmosox roInfIonshIs nro onfIroIy dIfforonf
from fho nfrInrchnI oIygnmous sysfoms
condomnod by !oynoIds nnd nvIs. Whoro Mormon
oIygnmy wns groundod In nfrInrchnI InoqunIIfy,
nnd fho subjocfIon of womon ns n cInss, fodny`s

44
Id. nf l68. Soo nIso Church of !ukumI InbnIu Ayo v.
CIfy of HInIonh, 508 !.S. 520, 569 l993 Soufor, J.,
concurrIng cIfIng !oynoIds` rnfIonnIo nncy I. Coff,
IubIIc Vows A HIsfory of MnrrIngo nnd fho nfIon ll3l4
CnmbrIdgo, Mnss. & !ondon Hnrvnrd !nIvorsIfy Iross,
2000 Mnrk IhIII Sfrnssor, On SnmoSox MnrrIngo, CIvII
!nIons, nnd fho !uIo of !nw ConsfIfufIonnI InforrofnfIons
nf fho Crossronds l2425 Wosforf, ConnocfIcuf Irnogor
IubIIshors, 2002.
26
snmosox mnrrIngos nro groundod In rocognIzIng
fho fuII humnnIfy, dIgnIfy, nnd oqunIIfy of nII
cIfIzons. Snmosox couIos` mnrrIngos fhus oso
nono of fho fhronfs fo our domocrnfIc InsfIfufIons
fhnf woro snId fo fIow from oIygnmy.
45
oIfhor wIII rocognIzIng fuII cIvIc oqunIIfy for
gny nnd IosbInn cIfIzons dosfroy fho urIfy of fho
mnrrIngo roInfIon, dIsfurb fho onco of fnmIIIos,
dogrndo womon, or dobnso mnn, ns nvIs uf If.
l33 !.S. nf 34l. CommIffod snmosox
roInfIonshIs cnnnof ovon romofoIy bo
chnrncforIzod ns crImos ornIcIous fo fho bosf
Inforosfs of socIofy, fo ngnIn quofo nvIs. Id.
oIfhor Congross nor fho Sfnfos mny crImInnIIzo
onconbIo snmosox roInfIonshIs. Soo !nwronco v.
Toxns, 539 !.S. 558, 5?8?9 2003.
Though nInofoonfhconfury Mormons` socInI
sysfom of nfrInrchnI oIygnmy mIghf bo
chnrncforIzod ns n dofInnf sfnnd ngnInsf fho
Wosf`s mosf bnsIc oIIfIcnI nnd orsonnI vnIuos, If
shouId bo cIonr fhnf fho movomonf fownrd snmo
sox mnrrIngo honors ognIIfnrInn orsonnI nufonomy
nnd fuII humnn dIgnIfy for nII.
46
o crodIbIo

45
Soo gonornIIy I.J. Crnff, Whnf Is MnrrIngo Ior` Tho
Sfrnngo SocInI HIsfory of Our Mosf InfImnfo InsfIfufIon l68
?? Iosfon Ioncon Iross, rov. od. 2004.
46
I.J. Crnff, Whnf Is MnrrIngo Ior`, surn nofo 45, nf
l??. Judgo !Ichnrd A. Iosnor hns suggosfod fhnf
rohIbIfIng oIygnmy mny furfhor ognIIfnrInn objocfIvos,
obsorvIng fhnf fho rohIbIfIon of bIgnmy oIygnmy . . .
Incronsos fho soxunI nnd mnrIfnI oorfunIfIos of youngor,
ooror mon. !Ichnrd A. Iosnor, Sox nnd !onson 2l5
CnmbrIdgo Hnrvnrd !nIv. Iross, l992. Ho obsorvos fhnf
oIygnmy Is nnomnIous In n sysfom of comnnIonnfo
mnrrIngo, bocnuso n mnn Is unIIkoIy fo hnvo fho snmo
2?
nrgumonf cnn bo mndo fhnf rocognIzIng snmosox
couIos` fuII cIfIzonshI nnd rIghf fo mnrry mIghf
roduco fho kInd of socInI robIoms fhIs Courf
ImngInod wouId fIow from fho Mormons` sysfom of
oIygnmy.
oIfhor hns Ioroz boon ImIIodIy ovorfurnod by
fhIs Courf`s hoIdIng In ImIoymonf IvIsIon v.
SmIfh, 494 !.S. 8?2, 8?4 l990, fhnf fho Iroo
IxorcIso CInuso ormIfs fho Sfnfo of Orogon fo
IncIudo roIIgIousIy InsIrod oyofo uso wIfhIn fho
ronch of Ifs gonornI crImInnI rohIbIfIon on uso of
fhnf drug.
ObvIousIy, no crImInnI rohIbIfIon Is nf Issuo
horo, nnd !nwronco fInfIy bnrs crImInnI snncfIons
for consonsunI snmosox roInfIonshIs. Iuf moro
fhnn fhnf, SmIfh IfsoIf rocognIzod fhIs Courf`s
mnny hoIdIngs fhnf fho IIrsf Amondmonf bnrs
nIIcnfIon ovon of n noufrnI, gonornIIy
nIIcnbIo Inw fo roIIgIousIy mofIvnfod ncfIon
whon roIIgIousIIborfy Inforosfs oornfo In
conjuncfIon wIfh ofhor consfIfufIonnI rofocfIons,
such ns froodom of sooch nnd of fho ross,
4?
or

rocIrocnI roInfIonshI of Iovo nnd frusf wIfh muIfIIo wIvos
ns woII ns wIfh fho fncf nIrondy nofod fhnf If bonofIfs n fow
mon nf fho oxonso of fho mnny. Id. nf 2l6. or hns
oIygnmy gonornIIy boon nssocInfod wIfh doconf fronfmonf of
womon, for ns Judgo Iosnor obsorvos If mny nof bo nn
nccIdonf fhnf fho congorIos of rncfIcos IoosoIy roforrod fo ns
'fomnIo cIrcumcIsIon` rImnrIIy, fho romovnI of fho cIIforIs
nnd unfII mnrrIngo fho sowIng u of fho onfrnnco fo fho
vngInn InfIbuInfIon nro found onIy, ns fnr ns I nm nbIo fo
doformIno, In oIygnmous socIofIos. Id. nf 2565?.
4?
SmIfh, 494 !.S. nf 88l cIfIng CnnfwoII v.
ConnocfIcuf, 3l0 !.S. 296, 3040? l940 InvnIIdnfIng n
28
fho rIghf of nronfs, ncknowIodgod In IIorco v.
SocIofy of SIsfors, 268 !.S. 5l0 l925, fo dIrocf fho
oducnfIon of fhoIr chIIdron.
48
ThIs cnso InvoIvos
such nddIfIonnI Inforosfs.
ThIs Courf hns mnny fImos rocognIzod mnrrIngo
IfsoIf ns n fundnmonfnI IIborfy Inforosf.
49
MnrrIngo
rosfs nf fho honrf of fho Inforosfs rofocfod by fhIs
Courf`s docIsIons rofocfIng nufonomy In mnffors of
fnmIIy IIfo such ns IIorco, 268 !.S. nf 53435,
Moyor v. obrnskn, 262 !.S. 390, 39940l l923,
nnd Yodor, 406 !.S. 205, ns woII ns by fho rIghf fo
rIvncy rocognIzod In CrIswoId v. ConnocfIcuf, 38l
!.S. 4?9 l965, nnd oxfondod In ofhor docIsIons.
50

IIconsIng sysfom for roIIgIous nnd chnrIfnbIo soIIcIfnfIons
undor whIch fho ndmInIsfrnfor hnd dIscrofIon fo dony n
IIconso fo nny cnuso ho doomod nonroIIgIous Murdock v.
IonnsyIvnnIn, 3l9 !.S. l05 l943 InvnIIdnfIng n fInf fnx on
soIIcIfnfIon ns nIIod fo fho dIssomInnfIon of roIIgIous
Idons IoIIoff v. McCormIck, 32l !.S. 5?3 l944 snmo.
48
SmIfh, 494 !.S. nf 88l cIfIng WIsconsIn v. Yodor,
406 !.S. 205 l9?2 InvnIIdnfIng comuIsory schooI
nffondnnco Inws ns nIIod fo AmIsh nronfs who rofusod on
roIIgIous grounds fo sond fhoIr chIIdron fo schooI.
49
Soo, o.g., CIovoInnd Id. of Iduc. v. !nIIour, 4l4 !.S.
632, 63940 l9?4 ThIs Courf hns Iong rocognIzod fhnf
froodom of choIco In mnffors of mnrrIngo nnd fnmIIy IIfo Is
ono of fho IIborfIos rofocfod by fho uo Irocoss CInuso of
fho Iourfoonfh Amondmonf. !ovIng, 388 !.S. nf l2
lmnrrIngo Is ono of fho 'bnsIc cIvII rIghfs of mnn`
cIfnfIon omIffod.
50
Soo, o.g., IoddIo v. ConnocfIcuf, 40l !.S. 3?l, 3?6
l9?l IIsonsfndf v. InIrd, 405 !.S. 438 l9?2 Hodgson v.
MInnosofn, 49? !.S. 4l?, 435 l990.
29
Tho oIomonf of froo sooch nIso Is rosonf
ImIIcnfod by whnf mnrrIngo communIcnfos. ThIs
Courf hoId In Turnor, fhnf ovon rIson Inmnfos
rofnIn fhoIr fundnmonfnI rIghf fo mnrry, bocnuso
lmnny Imorfnnf nffrIbufos of mnrrIngo romnIn
. . . nffor fnkIng Info nccounf fho IImIfnfIons
Imosod by rIson IIfo. Turnor, 482 !.S. nf 95.
Thoso IncIudo fho fncf fhnf Inmnfo mnrrIngos, IIko
ofhors, nro oxrossIons of omofIonnI suorf nnd
ubIIc commIfmonf, Id., ns woII ns fho fncf fhnf
mnny roIIgIons rocognIzo mnrrIngo ns hnvIng
sIrIfunI sIgnIfIcnnco for somo Inmnfos nnd fhoIr
sousos, fhoroforo, fho commIfmonf of mnrrIngo
mny bo nn oxorcIso of roIIgIous fnIfh ns woII ns nn
oxrossIon of orsonnI dodIcnfIon. Id. nf 96.
Tho oxrossIvo oIomonf of mnrrIngo cIonrIy
ImIIcnfos sooch In Ifs fuII consfIfufIonnI
sonso.
5l
Whon fwo ooIo mnrry . . . fhoy oxross
fhomsoIvos moro oIoquonfIy, foII us moro nbouf
who fhoy nro nnd who fhoy hoo fo bo, fhnn fhoy
ovor couId do by wonrIng nrmbnnds or cnrryIng rod
fIngs.
52
If fho IIrsf Amondmonf dosorvos
InforrofnfIons fhnf wIII 'rofocf n rIch vnrIofy of
oxrossIonnI modos,` fhoro Is no ronson In IogIc for

5l
Irynn H. WIIdonfhnI, To Sny I o Shnhnr v.
Iowors, SnmoSox MnrrIngo, nnd IubIIc ImIoyoo MnrrIngo
!Ighfs, l5 Cn. Sf. !. !. !ov. 38l, 382 l998 soo nIso nvId
I. Cruz, Jusf on`f CnII If MnrrIngo Tho IIrsf
Amondmonf nnd MnrrIngo ns nn IxrossIvo !osourco, ?4 S.
CnI. !. !ov. 925 200l.
52
Konnofh !. Knrsf, Tho Iroodom of InfImnfo
AssocInfIon, 89 YnIo !.J. 624, 654 l980.
30
oxcIudIng fho oxrossIon fhnf Is nf fho honrf of
lour mosf InfImnfo nssocInfIons.
53
In sum, fho roIIgIousIIborfy hoIdIngs of Ioroz
nnd Turnor romnIn good Inw, undor whIch
IroosIfIon 8`s dIfforonfInI fronfmonf of snmosox
mnrrIngos cnnnof bo susfnInod.
I. Tho Iockof Iund nnd Ofhor
AmIcI MIssfnfo fho Thronf fo
!oIIgIous !Iborfy
Tho Iockof Iund nnd ofhor nmIcI suorfIng
IroosIfIon 8`s nbrIdgomonf of mnrIfnI rIghfs
orfrny snmosox couIos` mnrrIngos ns osIng n
grnvo fhronf fo roIIgIous IIborfy. ThIs, fhoy InsIsf,
rovIdod n rnfIonnI bnsIs for sfrIIng CnIIfornIn`s
snmosox couIos of fho rIghf fo mnrry. Thoy nro
mIsfnkon.
Tho urorfod fhronfs fo IIborfy como nof
from snmosox mnrrIngos, buf from CnIIfornIn`s
cIvIIrIghfs Inws whIch gonornIIy rofocf snmo
sox couIos ns fhough fhoy woro mnrrIod, nnd
whIch nro rondIIy subjocf fo IogIsInfIvo rovIsIon or
judIcInI IImIfnfIon If nnd whon fruIy nocossnry fo
nccommodnfo roIIgIousIIborfy concorns.
Though IroosIfIon 8 romovod fho rIghf fo
mnrry, If Ioff Infncf CnIIfornIn`s consfIfufIonnI
gunrnnfoo fhnf gny nnd IosbInn couIos mny form
fnmIIIos on fho snmo bnsIs ns ofhor couIos,
54
nnd

53
Id. nf 654 quofIng !nuronco TrIbo, AmorIcnn
ConsfIfufIonnI !nw 5?9 l9?8 soo gonornIIy Cruz, surn
nofo 5l.
54
Sfrnuss v. Horfon, 46 CnI. 4fh 364, 40?ll, 44546,
20? I.3d 48, ?4, ??, l02 2009.
3l
dId nofhIng fo chnngo fho mnny CnIIfornIn Inws
roquIrIng oqunI fronfmonf of !CIT ooIo In
oducnfIon, omIoymonf, housIng, ubIIc
nccommodnfIons, Insurnnco oIIcIos, nnd honIfh
cnro sorvIco Inns.
55
!ndor CnIIfornIn Inw lrogIsforod domosfIc
nrfnors . . . hnvo fho snmo rIghfs . . . nnd shnII bo
subjocf fo fho snmo rosonsIbIIIfIos . . . ns nro
grnnfod fo nnd Imosod uon sousos.
56
And
snmosox couIos hnvo fho snmo rIghf ns
hoforosoxunI CnIIfornInns fo rocronfo nnd fo rnIso
chIIdron fogofhor.
5?
Tho oxnmIos of confIIcf suosodIy osod by
cIvIIrIghfs Inws nII mIss fho oInf ns CnIIfornIn
cIvIIrIghfs Inws romnIn In Inco. Thnf rovIsIons fo
such Inws mIghf bo rondIIy obfnInod If fruIy
nocossnry fo rofocf roIIgIous IIborfy Is nnronf.

55
Soo, o.g. CnI. CIv. Codo 5lb CnI. Id. Codo 200
CnI. Cov. Codo lll35 Id. l2920 of soq. CnI. HonIfh &
Snfofy Codo l365.5 CnI. Ins. Codo l3?4.58, l0l40 CnI.
!nb. Codo 4600.6g2 CnI. Sfnfs. l999, ch. 592 CnI. Codo
!ogs., fIf. l0, 2632.4.
56
CnI. Inm. Codo 29?.5n MnrrIngo Cnsos, 43 CnI.
4fh nf 806, l83 I.3d nf 4l? Koobko v. Iornnrdo HoIghfs
Counfry CIub, 36 CnI. 4fh 824, 845, ll5 I.3d l2l2, l223
2005.
5?
Soo IIIsn I. v. SuorIor Courf, 3? CnI. 4fh l08, ll?
I.3d 660 2005 K.M. v. I.C., 3? CnI. 4fh l30, ll? I.3d 6?3
2005 CnI. Inm. Codo 29?.5d Tho rIghfs nnd
obIIgnfIons of rogIsforod domosfIc nrfnors wIfh rosocf fo n
chIId of oIfhor of fhom shnII bo fho snmo ns fhoso of
sousos. soo nIso CnI. WoIf. & Insf. Codo l60l3n
Shnron S. v. SuorIor Courf, 3l CnI. 4fh 4l?, 440, ?3 I.3d
554, 5?0 2003 nny ofhorwIso qunIIfIod sIngIo nduIf or fwo
nduIfs, mnrrIod or nof, mny ndof n chIId.
32
Tho nmIcI rnIsIng dIro crIos of fhronfonod
orsocufIon urorf fo sonk nof on bohnIf of
hoIIoss mInorIfIos buf for AmorIcn`s Inrgosf nnd
mosf oworfuI roIIgIous movomonfs. Tho CnfhoIIc
Church rnnks fIrsf, wIfh moro fhnn 68 mIIIIon
ndhoronfs In fho !nIfod Sfnfos, nnd fho Soufhorn
InfIsf ConvonfIon socond, wIfh moro fhnn l6
mIIIIon.
58
Tho Iockof Iund snys nn osfImnfod l60
mIIIIon AmorIcnns 9?.6 of nII roIIgIous
ndhoronfs In fho !nIfod Sfnfos nnd moro fhnn hnIf
of fho onfIro ouInfIon boIong fo roIIgIous bodIos
fhnf nffIrm fho frndIfIonnI dofInIfIon of
mnrrIngo.
59
Thoso nro grous fhnf cnn rondIIy rofocf fhoIr
IogIfImnfo Inforosfs. Ivon crodIfIng fho Iockof
Iund`s cInIms fhnf robusf rofocfIons for
conscIonfIous objocfors mIghf bo wnrrnnfod,
60
fhoy
cnn bo obfnInod by ordInnry IogIsInfIvo rocossos
ns shouId bo nnronf from fho fncf fhnf mnny
sfnfo IogIsInfuros, IncIudIng CnIIfornIn`s, hnvo
nIrondy ncfod fo nccommodnfo conscIonfIous

58
Soo Yonrbook of AmorIcnn & CnnndInn Churchos
20l2, nf lll4 IIIoon W. !Indnor, od. nshvIIIo AbIngfon
Iross for fho nfIonnI CouncII of Churchos, 20l2.
59
IrIof AmIcus CurIno of fho Iockof Iund for !oIIgIous
!Iborfy In Suorf of HoIIIngsworfh nnd fho IInrfIsnn
!ognI AdvIsory Crou AddrossIng fho MorIfs nf 6 fIIod
Jnn. 28, 20l3, HoIIIngsworfh v. Iorry o. l2l44, 20l3
W! 4399?6 cIfnfIon omIffod.
60
Iockof Iund HoIIIngsworfh & WIndsor IrIof nf 22.
33
objocfors fo fuII cIvIc oqunIIfy of gny nnd IosbInn
cIfIzons.
6l
IxnmIos gIvon of roIIgIous boIIovors suosodIy
orsocufod for fhoIr boIIofs hnvo nofhIng fo do wIfh
mnrrIngo, nnd IIffIo foundnfIon In fncf. Tho
CnfhoIIcs for fho Common Cood nmIcus brIof, for
oxnmIo, snys fhnf CnIIfornIn roconfIy bnnnod nny
nffomf fo chnngo n orson`s soxunI orIonfnfIon.
62

Yof fho sfnfufo nf Issuo, CnI. Sfnfs. 20l2, ch. 835,
2 fo bo codIfIod nf CnI. Ius. & Irof. Codo 865,
865.l, 865.2, moroIy rofocfs mInors from n
dIscrodIfod fhorny fhnf fho CnIIfornIn
!ogIsInfuro doformInod Is InoffocfIvo nnd IIkoIy
hnrmfuI. Tho sfnfufo nIIos onIy fo fho
rofossIonnI conducf of n IIconsod fhornIsf
dosIgnnfod ns n monfnI honIfh rofossIonnI undor
CnIIfornIn Inw or roguInfIon,
63
undor n sfnfufory
schomo fhnf oxrossIy oxomfs nsfornI
counsoIIng.
64
If hns no roInfIon nf nII fo nnyono`s
rIghf fo mnrry.

6l
Soo Iockof Iund HoIIIngsworfh & WIndsor IrIof nf
3l33 & n.42 CnI. Sfnfs. 20l2, ch. 834, l nmondIng CnI.
InmIIy Codo 400.
62
AmIcus CurIno IrIof for CnfhoIIcs for fho Common
Cood nf 32.
63
CnI. Sfnfs. 20l2, ch. 835, 2 fo bo codIfIod nf CnI.
Ius. & Irof. Codo 865n.
64
Soo CnI. Ius. & Irof. Codo 2063 ofhIng In fhIs
chnfor shnII bo consfruod so ns fo . . . . roguInfo, rohIbIf,
or nIy fo nny kInd of fronfmonf by rnyor, nor Inforforo In
nny wny wIfh fho rncfIco of roIIgIon. Id. 4980.0lb
lfhIs chnfor shnII nof nIy fo nny rIosf, rnbbI, or
mInIsfor of fho gosoI of nny roIIgIous donomInnfIon whon
orformIng counsoIIng sorvIcos ns nrf of hIs or hor nsfornI
or rofossIonnI dufIos.
34
Tho Iockof Iund hoIds ouf fho frIghfonIng
rosocf of 'lrIvnfo churchos IosIng fhoIr fnx
oxomfIons for fhoIr oosIfIon fo homosoxunI
mnrrIngos.`
65
Yof fho Iockof Iund`s own
fouchsfono ubIIcnfIon on fho subjocf
ncknowIodgos fhnf so Iong ns Inrgo nnd
hIsforIcnIIy Imorfnnf churchos rofuso fo rocognIzo
gny mnrrIngos, If Is unIIkoIy fhnf fho oxocufIvo
brnnch of nny jurIsdIcfIon wouId fry fo rovoko fnx
oxomfIons ovor fho Issuo.
66
Tho Iockof Iund
offors no ronson fo fhInk fhnf snmosox couIos`
cIvII mnrrIngos sorIousIy fhronfon nny roIIgIous
InsfIfufIons` fnxoxomf sfnfus.
Tho CnfhoIIc Answors nmIcus brIof, nonofhoIoss
roorfs fhnf lIn ow Jorsoy, nn ovnngoIIcnI
mInIsfry wns found fo hnvo vIoInfod sfnfo
nnfIdIscrImInnfIon Inw for rofusIng fo ronf Ifs
fncIIIfIos for n snmosox commIfmonf coromony.
6?

Tho CnfhoIIcs for fho Common Cood nmIcus brIof
bomonns fhIs donInI of fnx oxomfIon for rofusnI fo
ronf ln roIIgIousIy ownod nvIIIon for n cIvII unIon
coromony.
68
Tho Iockof Iund`s nmIcus curIno
brIofs boIow In fhIs rocoodIng docInrod fhnf fho
Sfnfo of ow Jorsoy hnd Indood wIfhdrnwn fho
roorfy fnx oxomfIon of n bonchsIdo nvIIIon
ownod nnd oornfod by n MofhodIsf Church,

65
Iockof Iund HoIIIngsworfh & WIndsor IrIof nf 26
n.36 cIfnfIon omIffod.
66
ougIns !nycock, Afforword fo SnmoSox MnrrIngo
nnd !oIIgIous !Iborfy l89, l93 ougIns !nycock, of nI., ods.
Tho Iockof Iund, 2008.
6?
IrIof AmIcus CurIno of CnfhoIIc Answors nf l9.
68
AmIcus CurIno IrIof for CnfhoIIcs for fho Common
Cood nf 32.
35
bocnuso fho Church rofusod on roIIgIous grounds fo
hosf n snmosox cIvII unIon coromony.
69
In fncf, fho Iockof Iund`s nssorfIons woro fnIso.
Tho roorfy In quosfIon wns nof ownod by nny
church, buf by n rosIdonfInI communIfy, fho Oconn
Crovo Cnm MoofIng AssocInfIon whoso frusfoos
musf bo MofhodIsfs nnd whIch owns nII of fho
Innd In fho sonsIdo communIfy of Oconn Crovo,
ow Jorsoy,
?0
whoso ouInfIon fho 20l0 Consus
Incod nf 3,342.
?l
Oconn Crovo Ionsos ouf
rosIdonfInI roorfIos In fho rosorf communIfy,
ndvorfIsIng on fho Infornof fhnf If woIcomos
ovoryono fo onjoy fhIs bonufIfuI, sonsIdo
communIfy wIfhouf dIscrImInnfIon bnsod on rnco,
gondor, Incomo IovoI, oducnfIon, roIIgIon, or
counfry of orIgIn.
?2
If obfnInod n ow Jorsoy

69
IrIof AmIcus CurIno of fho Iockof Iund for !oIIgIous
!Iborfy In Suorf of ofondnnfsInforvonorsAoIInnfs
nnd In Suorf of !ovorsnI nf l4 fIIod Sof. 24, 20l0, Iorry
v. Irown f.k.n. Iorry v. Schwnrzonoggor, 6?l I.3d l052
9fh CIr. 20l2 o. l0l6696, 20l0 W! 40?5?46 soo nIso
IrIof AmIcus CurIno of Tho Iockof Iund for !oIIgIous
!Iborfy In Suorf of ofondnnfInforvonors nf 9 fIIod Jnn.
8, 20l0, Iorry v. Schwnrzonoggor, ?04 I. Su. 2d 92l
.. CnI. 20l0 o. 09CV2292 V!W, 20l0 W! 9?69? In
ow Jorsoy, for oxnmIo, fho sfnfo hns wIfhdrnwn fho
roorfy fnx oxomfIon of n bonchsIdo nvIIIon ownod nnd
oornfod by n MofhodIsf Church, bocnuso fho Church rofusod
on roIIgIous grounds fo hosf n snmosox cIvII unIon
coromony..
?0
Oconn Crovo Cnm MoofIng Ass`n v. VosnInnIoo,
339 Iod. Ax. 232, 235 3d CIr. 2009.
?l
Soo Isnncson, surn nofo ?, nf l50.
?2
ThIs Is from fho IroquonfIy Askod QuosfIons ngo
of fho Oconn Crovo Cnm MoofIng AssocInfIon OCCMA
36
Croon Acros ronIroorfy fnx oxomfIon for fho
communIfy`s bonchfronf bonrdwnIk nnd nvIIIon
nof ns roIIgIous roorfIos, buf ns ubIIc fncIIIfIos
fo bo hoId oon for nII fo onjoy on nn oqunI bnsIs.
?3

A IosbInn couIo, who woro Iongform mombors of
fho rosIdonfInI communIfy, fhoughf fhnf IncIudod
fhom, so fhoy nIIod fo uso fho nvIIIon for n cIvII
commIfmonf coromony.
?4
Whon Oconn Crovo donIod Ifs IosbInn rosIdonfs
fho uso of fhoIr own rosIdonfInI communIfy`s
suosodIy ubIIc fncIIIfIos, ow Jorsoy offIcInIs
found robnbIo cnuso fo concIudo fhnf If no Iongor

Q. oos fho OCCMA dIscrImInnfo In offorIng
Innd Ionsos`
A. o. Tho OCCMA woIcomos ovoryono fo
onjoy fhIs bonufIfuI, sonsIdo communIfy
wIfhouf dIscrImInnfIon bnsod on rnco, gondor,
Incomo IovoI, oducnfIon, roIIgIon, or counfry of
orIgIn.
IroquonfIy Askod QuosfIons, Oconn Crovo Cnm MoofIng Ass`n,
nvnIInbIo onIIno nf hff//www.oconngrovo.org/ngos/fnq nccossod
Iob. 26, 20l3. Tho bonch communIfy`s ubIIcIy sfnfod oIIcy of
nondIscrImInnfIon drow mnny gny nnd IosbInn rosIdonfs Iy fho
mIdl990s, gny nnd IosbInn couIos woro movIng In, nnd by fho
fImo fho confrovorsy nroso, nbouf onofourfh of fho rosIdonfs woro
osfImnfod fo bo snmosox couIos. Mnrc !. IoIrIor,
MIcroorformnncos of IdonfIfy VIsIbIo SnmoSox CouIos nnd fho
MnrrIngo Confrovorsy, l5 Wnsh. & !oo J. CIvII !fs. & Soc. Jusf. 3,
5l52 2008 lhoroInnffor MIcroorformnncos of IdonfIfy.
?3
.J. OffIco of fho Aff`y Con., o`f of !nw & Iub.
Snfofy, Iv. on CIv. !fs, o. I34XI03008, IIndIng of
IrobnbIo Cnuso, IornsfoIn v. Inrkor oc. 29, 2008.
?4
IoIrIor, MIcroorformnncos of IdonfIfy, surn nofo ?2,
nf ?6.
3?
qunIIfIod for fho Croon Acros fnx oxomfIon
nccordod fo roorfIos mndo nvnIInbIo for
nondIscrImInnfory ubIIc uso.
?5
o church`s fnx
oxomf sfnfus wns rovokod, or ovon quosfIonod.
Ionrs fhnf snmosox couIos` mnrrIngos oso
grnvo fhronfs fo roIIgIous IIborfy nro nof groundod
In ronIIfy.
COC!!SIO
ConsIsfonf wIfh rIncIIos of roIIgIous IIborfy
rocognIzod In Ioroz nnd Turnor, nnd wIfh oqunI
rofocfIon of fho Inws for nII CnIIfornInns, fho
judgmonf of fho Infh CIrcuIf shouId bo nffIrmod.
!osocffuIIy submIffod,
I!IC A!A ISAACSO
CounsoI of !ocord
655 Wosf Irondwny, #l900
Snn Iogo, CA 92l0l
ToIohono 6l923ll058
ImnII oIsnncsonrgrdInw.com
STACIY MA!II KAI!A
KossIor Tonz MoIfzor &
Chock, !!I
Ono Snnsomo Sfroof, #l850
Snn IrnncIsco, CA 94l04
ToIohono 4l54003000
Affornoys for AmIcI CurIno
CnIIfornIn CouncII of
Churchos CnIIfornIn InIfh for
IqunIIfy !nIfnrInn
!nIvorsnIIsf !ogIsInfIvo
MInIsfry CnIIfornIn orfhorn
CnIIfornIn ovndn Conforonco,

?5
Soo Isnncson, surn nofo ?, nf l505l.
38
!nIfod Church of ChrIsf
Soufhorn CnIIfornIn ovndn
Conforonco, !nIfod Church of
ChrIsf CnIIfornIn ofwork of
MofrooIIfnn CommunIfy
Churchos
ATI Iobrunry 28, 20l3

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